Science.gov

Sample records for ultrasound tissue typing

  1. Tissue identification by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroissette, D. H.; Heyser, R. C.; Gammell, P. M.; Wilson, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic properties of animal and human soft tissue were measured over the frequency range of 1.5 to 10.0 MHz. The method employed a swept-frequency, coherent technique known as time delay spectrometry. Measurements of attenuation versus frequency on liver, backfat, kidney, pancreas, spleen, breast, and other tissue were made. Considerable attention was paid to tissue handling and in determining the effects of fixing on the attenuation of ultrasound in the tissue.

  2. Ultrasound-triggered Release of Recombinant Tissue-type Plasminogen Activator from Echogenic Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Denise A.B.; Vaidya, Sampada S.; Kopechek, Jonathan A.; Huang, Shao-Ling; Klegerman, Melvin E.; McPherson, David D.; Holland, Christy K.

    2009-01-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP) were developed as ultrasound-triggered targeted drug or gene delivery vehicles (Lanza et al., 1997; Huang et al., 2001). Recombinant tissue-type Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA), a thrombolytic, has been loaded into ELIP (Tiukinhoy-Laing et al., 2007). These vesicles have the potential to be used for ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, deep vein thrombosis, or pulmonary embolus. A clinical diagnostic ultrasound scanner (Philips HDI 5000) equipped with a linear array transducer (L12-5) was employed for in vitro studies using rt-PA-loaded ELIP (T-ELIP). The goal of this study was to quantify ultrasound-triggered drug release from rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes. T-ELIP samples were exposed to 6.9-MHz B-mode pulses at a low pressure amplitude (600 kPa) to track the echogenicity over time under four experimental conditions: 1) flow alone to monitor gas diffusion from the T-ELIP, 2) pulsed 6.0-MHz color Doppler exposure above the acoustically driven threshold (0.8 MPa) to force gas out of the liposome gently, 3) pulsed 6.0-MHz color Doppler above the rapid fragmentation threshold (2.6 MPa), or 4) Triton X-100 to rupture the T-ELIP chemically as a positive control. Release of rt-PA for each ultrasound exposure protocol was assayed spectrophotometrically. T-ELIP were echogenic in the flow model (5 ml/min) for thirty minutes. The thrombolytic drug remained associated with the liposome when exposed to low-amplitude B-mode pulses over 60 min and was released when exposed to color Doppler pulses or Triton X-100. The rt-PA released from the liposomes had similar enzymatic activity as the free drug. These T-ELIP are robust and echogenic during continuous fundamental 6.9-MHz B-mode imaging at a low exposure output level (600 kPa). Furthermore, a therapeutic concentration of rt-PA can be released by fragmenting the T-ELIP with pulsed 6.0-MHz color Doppler ultrasound above the rapid fragmentation threshold (1.59 MPa). PMID:19900755

  3. How does performance of ultrasound tissue typing affect design of prostate IMRT dose-painting protocols?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Pengpeng . E-mail: pz2010@columbia.edu; Osterman, K. Sunshine; Liu Tian; Li Xiang; Kessel, Jack; Wu, Leester; Schiff, Peter; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate how the performance characteristics of ultrasound tissue typing (UTT) affect the design of a population-based prostate dose-painting protocol. Methods and Materials: The performance of UTT is evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic curve. As the imager's sensitivity increases, more tumors are detected, but the specificity worsens, causing more false-positive results. The UTT tumor map, obtained with a specific sensitivity and specificity setup, was used with the patient's CT image to guide intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning. The optimal escalation dose to the UTT positive region, as well as the safe dose to the negative background, was obtained by maximizing the uncomplicated control (i.e., a combination of tumor control probability and weighted normal tissue complication probability). For high- and low-risk tumors, IMRT plans guided by conventional ultrasound or UTT with a one-dimensional or two-dimensional spectrum analysis technique were compared with an IMRT plan in which the whole prostate was dose escalated. Results: For all imaging modalities, the specificity of 0.9 was chosen to reduce complications resulting from high false-positive results. If the primary tumors were low risk, the IMRT plans guided by all imaging modalities achieved high tumor control probability and reduced the normal tissue complication probability significantly compared with the plan with whole gland dose escalation. However, if the primary tumors were high risk, the accuracy of the imaging modality was critical to maintain the tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability at acceptable levels. Conclusion: The performance characteristics of an imager have important implications in dose painting and should be considered in the design of dose-painting protocols.

  4. Ultrasound tissue analysis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufhold, John; Chan, Ray C.; Karl, William C.; Castanon, David A.

    1999-07-01

    On the battlefield of the future, it may become feasible for medics to perform, via application of new biomedical technologies, more sophisticated diagnoses and surgery than is currently practiced. Emerging biomedical technology may enable the medic to perform laparoscopic surgical procedures to remove, for example, shrapnel from injured soldiers. Battlefield conditions constrain the types of medical image acquisition and interpretation which can be performed. Ultrasound is the only viable biomedical imaging modality appropriate for deployment on the battlefield -- which leads to image interpretation issues because of the poor quality of ultrasound imagery. To help overcome these issues, we develop and implement a method of image enhancement which could aid non-experts in the rapid interpretation and use of ultrasound imagery. We describe an energy minimization approach to finding boundaries in medical images and show how prior information on edge orientation can be incorporated into this framework to detect tissue boundaries oriented at a known angle.

  5. Tissue velocity imaging of coronary artery by rotating-type intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Akira; Owada, Naoki; Akino, Yoshihisa; Nitta, Shinichi

    2004-04-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides not only the dimensions of coronary artery but the information of tissue components. In catheterization laboratory, soft and hard plaques are classified by visual inspection of echo intensity. So-called soft plaque contains lipid core or thrombus and it is believed to be more vulnerable than a hard plaque. However, it is not simple to analyze the echo signals quantitatively. When we look at a reflection signal, the intensity is affected by the distance of the object, the medium between transducer and objects and the fluctuation caused by rotation of IVUS probe. The time of flight is also affected by the sound speed of the medium and Doppler shift caused by tissue motion but usually those can be neglected. Thus, the analysis of RF signal in time domain can be more quantitative than intensity of RF signal. In the present study, a novel imaging technique called "intravascular tissue velocity imaging" was developed for searching a vulnerable plaque. Radio-frequency (RF) signal from a clinically used IVUS apparatus was digitized at 500 MSa/s and stored in a workstation. First, non-uniform rotation was corrected by maximizing the correlation coefficient of circumferential RF signal distribution in two consecutive frames. Then, the correlation and displacement were calculated by analyzing the radial difference of RF signal. Tissue velocity was determined by the displacement and the frame rate. The correlation image of normal and atherosclerotic coronary arteries clearly showed the internal and external borders of arterial wall. Soft plaque with low echo area in the intima showed high velocity while the calcified lesion showed the very low tissue velocity. This technique provides important information on tissue character of coronary artery. PMID:15047378

  6. Whole breast tissue characterization with ultrasound tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Schmidt, Steve; Seamans, John; Wallen, Andrea; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    A number of clinical trials have shown that screening ultrasound, supplemental to mammography, detects additional cancers in women with dense breasts. However, labor intensity, operator dependence and high recall rates have limited adoption. This paper describes the use of ultrasound tomography for whole-breast tissue stiffness measurements as a first step toward addressing the issue of high recall rates. The validation of the technique using an anthropomorphic phantom is described. In-vivo applications are demonstrated on 13 breast masses, indicating that lesion stiffness correlates with lesion type as expected. Comparison of lesion stiffness measurements with standard elastography was available for 11 masses and showed a strong correlation between the 2 measures. It is concluded that ultrasound tomography can map out the 3 dimensional distribution of tissue stiffness over the whole breast. Such a capability is well suited for screening where additional characterization may improve the specificity of screening ultrasound, thereby lowering barriers to acceptance.

  7. Tissue types (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue ...

  8. Tissue mimicking materials for dental ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Brown, Elliott R.; White, Shane N.

    2008-01-01

    While acoustic tissue mimicking materials have been explored for a variety of soft and hard biological tissues, no dental hard tissue mimicking materials have been characterized. Tooth phantoms are necessary to better understand acoustic phenomenology within the tooth environment and to accelerate the advancement of dental ultrasound imaging systems. In this study, soda lime glass and dental composite were explored as surrogates for human enamel and dentin, respectively, in terms of compressional velocity, attenuation, and acoustic impedance. The results suggest that a tooth phantom consisting of glass and composite can effectively mimic the acoustic behavior of a natural human tooth. PMID:18396919

  9. Ultrasound tissue characterization of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Picano, Eugenio; Paterni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A thrombotic occlusion of the vessel fed by ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaque may result in unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death, whereas embolization from a plaque in carotid arteries may result in transient ischemic attack or stroke. The atherosclerotic plaque prone to such clinical events is termed high-risk or vulnerable plaque, and its identification in humans before it becomes symptomatic has been elusive to date. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque is possible with different techniques--such as vascular, transesophageal, and intravascular ultrasound--on a variety of arterial segments, including carotid, aorta, and coronary districts. The image analysis can be based on visual, video-densitometric or radiofrequency methods and identifies three distinct textural patterns: hypo-echoic (corresponding to lipid- and hemorrhage-rich plaque), iso- or moderately hyper-echoic (fibrotic or fibro-fatty plaque), and markedly hyperechoic with shadowing (calcific plaque). Hypoechoic or dishomogeneous plaques, with spotty microcalcification and large plaque burden, with plaque neovascularization and surface irregularities by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, are more prone to clinical complications than hyperechoic, extensively calcified, homogeneous plaques with limited plaque burden, smooth luminal plaque surface and absence of neovascularization. Plaque ultrasound morphology is important, along with plaque geometry, in determining the atherosclerotic prognostic burden in the individual patient. New quantitative methods beyond backscatter (to include speed of sound, attenuation, strain, temperature, and high order statistics) are under development to evaluate vascular tissues. Although not yet ready for widespread clinical use, tissue characterization is listed by the American Society of Echocardiography roadmap to 2020 as one of the most promising fields of application in cardiovascular ultrasound imaging, offering unique opportunities for the early detection and treatment of atherosclerotic disease. PMID:25950760

  10. Guiding tissue regeneration with ultrasound in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalecki, Diane; Comeau, Eric S.; Raeman, Carol H.; Child, Sally Z.; Hobbs, Laura; Hocking, Denise C.

    2015-05-01

    Developing new technologies that enable the repair or replacement of injured or diseased tissues is a major focus of regenerative medicine. This paper will discuss three ultrasound technologies under development in our laboratories to guide tissue regeneration both in vitro and in vivo. A critical obstacle in tissue engineering is the need for rapid and effective tissue vascularization strategies. To address this challenge, we are developing acoustic patterning techniques for microvascular tissue engineering. Acoustic radiation forces associated with ultrasound standing wave fields provide a rapid, non-invasive approach to spatially pattern cells in three dimensions without affecting cell viability. Acoustic patterning of endothelial cells leads to the rapid formation of microvascular networks throughout the volumes of three-dimensional hydrogels, and the morphology of the resultant microvessel networks can be controlled by design of the ultrasound field. A second technology under development uses ultrasound to noninvasively control the microstructure of collagen fibers within engineered tissues. The microstructure of extracellular matrix proteins provides signals that direct cell functions critical to tissue regeneration. Thus, controlling collagen microfiber structure with ultrasound provides a noninvasive approach to regulate the mechanical properties of biomaterials and control cellular responses. The third technology employs therapeutic ultrasound to enhance the healing of chronic wounds. Recent studies demonstrate increased granulation tissue thickness and collagen deposition in murine dermal wounds exposed to pulsed ultrasound. In summary, ultrasound technologies offer noninvasive approaches to control cell behaviors and extracellular matrix organization and thus hold great promise to advance tissue regeneration in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Multimodal classification of prostate tissue: a feasibility study on combining multiparametric MRI and ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashab, Hussam Al-Deen; Haq, Nandinee Fariah; Nir, Guy; Kozlowski, Piotr; Black, Peter; Jones, Edward C.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Salcudean, Septimiu E.; Moradi, Mehdi

    2015-03-01

    The common practice for biopsy guidance is through transrectal ultrasound, with the fusion of ultrasound and MRI-based targets when available. However, ultrasound is only used as a guidance modality in MR-targeted ultrasound-guided biopsy, even though previous work has shown the potential utility of ultrasound, particularly ultrasound vibro-elastography, as a tissue typing approach. We argue that multiparametric ultrasound, which includes B-mode and vibro-elastography images, could contain information that is not captured using multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and therefore play a role in refining the biopsy and treatment strategies. In this work, we combine mpMRI with multiparametric ultrasound features from registered tissue areas to examine the potential improvement in cancer detection. All the images were acquired prior to radical prostatectomy and cancer detection was validated based on 36 whole mount histology slides. We calculated a set of 24 texture features from vibro-elastography and B-mode images, and five features from mpMRI. Then we used recursive feature elimination (RFE) and sparse regression through LASSO to find an optimal set of features to be used for tissue classification. We show that the set of these selected features increases the area under ROC curve from 0.87 with mpMRI alone to 0.94 with the selected mpMRI and multiparametric ultrasound features, when used with support vector machine classification on features extracted from peripheral zone. For features extracted from the whole-gland, the area under the curve was 0.75 and 0.82 for mpMRI and mpMRI along with ultrasound, respectively. These preliminary results provide evidence that ultrasound and ultrasound vibro-elastography could be used as modalities for improved cancer detection in combination with MRI.

  12. Classification of kidney and liver tissue using ultrasound backscatter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalamifar, Fereshteh; Rivaz, Hassan; Cerrolaza, Juan J.; Jago, James; Safdar, Nabile; Boctor, Emad M.; Linguraru, Marius G.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) tissue characterization provides valuable information for the initialization of automatic segmentation algorithms, and can further provide complementary information for diagnosis of pathologies. US tissue characterization is challenging due to the presence of various types of image artifacts and dependence on the sonographer's skills. One way of overcoming this challenge is by characterizing images based on the distribution of the backscatter data derived from the interaction between US waves and tissue. The goal of this work is to classify liver versus kidney tissue in 3D volumetric US data using the distribution of backscatter US data recovered from end-user displayed Bmode image available in clinical systems. To this end, we first propose the computation of a large set of features based on the homodyned-K distribution of the speckle as well as the correlation coefficients between small patches in 3D images. We then utilize the random forests framework to select the most important features for classification. Experiments on in-vivo 3D US data from nine pediatric patients with hydronephrosis showed an average accuracy of 94% for the classification of liver and kidney tissues showing a good potential of this work to assist in the classification and segmentation of abdominal soft tissue.

  13. Tissue Bioeffects during Ultrasound-mediated Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Jonathan

    Ultrasound has been developed as both a valuable diagnostic tool and a potent promoter of beneficial tissue bioeffects for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Vascular effects can be mediated by mechanical oscillations of circulating microbubbles, or ultrasound contrast agents, which may also encapsulate and shield a therapeutic agent in the bloodstream. Oscillating microbubbles can create stresses directly on nearby tissue or induce fluid effects that effect drug penetration into vascular tissue, lyse thrombi, or direct drugs to optimal locations for delivery. These investigations have spurred continued research into alternative therapeutic applications, such as bioactive gas delivery. This dissertation addresses a fundamental hypothesis in biomedical ultrasound: ultrasound-mediated drug delivery is capable of increasing the penetration of drugs across different physiologic barriers within the cardiovascular system, such as the vascular endothelium, blood clots, and smooth muscle cells.

  14. A Temporal View of Soft Tissue Quantitative Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, William D.

    The objective of soft tissue quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is to improve diagnostic ultrasound imaging capabilities via quantitative outcomes. Over the past three or so decades, there have been an increasing number of QUS successes. A temporal view moves us back in history almost six decades when techniques and theoretical developments were in their earliest stages that impacted modern QUS successes. The earliest theoretical developments and techniques some six decades ago can be attributed to Lev Chernov, Philip Morse, Herman Feshbach, Uno Ingard, John Wild and Jack Reid. Later, Floyd Dunn developed important views as to how connective tissue affected the interaction between ultrasound and soft tissue. Then, as the theory of wave propagation in soft tissues with random inhomogeneities was extended and applied by Fred Lizzi, Jim Zagzebski and Mike Insana (and their colleagues), contemporary QUS successes started to emerge.

  15. Ultrasound strain imaging for quantification of tissue function: cardiovascular applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Korte, Chris L.; Lopata, Richard G. P.; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.

    2013-03-01

    With ultrasound imaging, the motion and deformation of tissue can be measured. Tissue can be deformed by applying a force on it and the resulting deformation is a function of its mechanical properties. Quantification of this resulting tissue deformation to assess the mechanical properties of tissue is called elastography. If the tissue under interrogation is actively deforming, the deformation is directly related to its function and quantification of this deformation is normally referred as `strain imaging'. Elastography can be used for atherosclerotic plaques characterization, while the contractility of the heart or skeletal muscles can be assessed with strain imaging. We developed radio frequency (RF) based ultrasound methods to assess the deformation at higher resolution and with higher accuracy than commercial methods using conventional image data (Tissue Doppler Imaging and 2D speckle tracking methods). However, the improvement in accuracy is mainly achieved when measuring strain along the ultrasound beam direction, so 1D. We further extended this method to multiple directions and further improved precision by using compounding of data acquired at multiple beam steered angles. In arteries, the presence of vulnerable plaques may lead to acute events like stroke and myocardial infarction. Consequently, timely detection of these plaques is of great diagnostic value. Non-invasive ultrasound strain compounding is currently being evaluated as a diagnostic tool to identify the vulnerability of plaques. In the heart, we determined the strain locally and at high resolution resulting in a local assessment in contrary to conventional global functional parameters like cardiac output or shortening fraction.

  16. The thresholds and mechanisms of tissue injury by focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Julianna

    Therapeutic ultrasound is used in clinics around the world to treat ailments such as uterine fibroids, kidney stones, and plantar fasciitis. While many of the therapeutic effects of ultrasound are elicited by hyperthermia, bubbles can also interact with tissue to produce beneficial effects. For example, bubbles are used in boiling histotripsy to de-bulk tissue and are used in shock wave lithotripsy to break kidney stones. However, the same bubbles that break the kidney stones also damage the kidney, which is why bubble damage is a concern in every ultrasound application including fetal imaging. Whether the aim is to emulsify a tumor or image a fetus, understanding the thresholds and mechanisms of tissue injury by bubbles in an ultrasound field is important for all ultrasound applications and was the goal of this dissertation. One specific application of therapeutic ultrasound, known as boiling histotripsy, uses shock wave heating to explosively expand a millimeter-size boiling bubble at the transducer focus and fractionate bulk tissue. Yet it was unclear how the millimeter-size boiling or vapor bubble broke down the tissue into its submicron components. In this dissertation, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that ultrasonic atomization, or the emission of fine droplets from an acoustically excited liquid film, is the mechanism by which the millimeter-size boiling bubble in boiling histotripsy fractionates tissue into its submicron components. Using high speed photography, we showed that tissue can behave as a liquid such that a miniature acoustic fountain forms and atomization occurs within a millimeter-size cavity that approximates the boiling or vapor bubble produced by boiling histotripsy. The end result of tissue atomization was a hole in the tissue surface. After showing that tissue can be eroded by atomization, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the tissue properties that influence atomization. The results indicated that highly collagenous tissues such as the liver capsule were difficult to atomize; however it was also shown that surface wetting could be used to enhance atomization by changing the focus of the inverted and reflected ultrasound wave. Finally, the role of bubbles in tissue atomization was investigated using a high static pressure chamber, where it was determined that bubbles are necessary for tissue fractionation. While the investigation into the mechanism of boiling histotripsy was the primary focus of this dissertation, we also established thermal and mechanical injury thresholds for renal tissue injury. This work was driven by the need to determine the safety of a specific therapeutic ultrasound application - renal stone repositioning by ultrasonic propulsion - for FDA approval to begin clinical trials. The end result of this dissertation was an increased understanding of how and at what levels bubbles in an ultrasound field can damage tissue, which is important for developing safe and reliable therapies.

  17. Therapeutic Ultrasound Enhancement of Drug Delivery to Soft Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, George; Wang, Peng; Lewis, George; Olbricht, William

    2009-04-01

    Effects of exposure to 1.58 MHz focused ultrasound on transport of Evans Blue Dye (EBD) in soft tissues are investigated when an external pressure gradient is applied to induce convective flow through the tissue. The magnitude of the external pressure gradient is chosen to simulate conditions in brain parenchyma during convection-enhanced drug delivery (CED) to the brain. EBD uptake and transport are measured in equine brain, avian muscle and agarose brain-mimicking phantoms. Results show that ultrasound enhances EBD uptake and transport, and the greatest enhancement occurs when the external pressure gradient is applied. The results suggest that exposure of the brain parenchyma to ultrasound could enhance penetration of material infused into the brain during CED therapy.

  18. Ultrasound

    Cancer.gov

    Ultrasound uses sound waves with frequencies above those humans can hear. A transducer sends sound waves traveling into the body which are reflected back from organs and tissues, allowing a picture to be made of the internal organs. Ultrasound can show

  19. Slow light for deep tissue imaging with ultrasound modulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huiliang; Sabooni, Mahmood; Rippe, Lars; Kim, Chulhong; Kröll, Stefan; Wang, Lihong V.; Hemmer, Philip R.

    2012-01-01

    Slow light has been extensively studied for applications ranging from optical delay lines to single photon quantum storage. Here, we show that the time delay of slow-light significantly improves the performance of the narrowband spectral filters needed to optically detect ultrasound from deep inside highly scattering tissue. We demonstrate this capability with a 9?cm thick tissue phantom, having 10?cm?1 reduced scattering coefficient, and achieve an unprecedented background-free signal. Based on the data, we project real time imaging at video rates in even thicker phantoms and possibly deep enough into real tissue for clinical applications like early cancer detection. PMID:22509069

  20. Nakagami imaging for detecting thermal lesions induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound in tissue.

    PubMed

    Rangraz, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound induces focalized tissue coagulation by increasing the tissue temperature in a tight focal region. Several methods have been proposed to monitor high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions. Currently, ultrasound imaging techniques that are clinically used for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment are standard pulse-echo B-mode ultrasound imaging, ultrasound temperature estimation, and elastography-based methods. On the contrary, the efficacy of two-dimensional Nakagami parametric imaging based on the distribution of the ultrasound backscattered signals to quantify properties of soft tissue has recently been evaluated. In this study, ultrasound radio frequency echo signals from ex vivo tissue samples were acquired before and after high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures and then their Nakagami parameter and scaling parameter of Nakagami distribution were estimated. These parameters were used to detect high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions. Also, the effects of changing the acoustic power of the high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer on the Nakagami parameters were studied. The results obtained suggest that the Nakagami distribution's scaling and Nakagami parameters can effectively be used to detect high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in tissue ex vivo. These parameters can also be used to understand the degree of change in tissue caused by high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures, which could be interpreted as a measure of degree of variability in scatterer concentration in various parts of the high-intensity focused ultrasound lesion. PMID:24264647

  1. Incorporating tissue absorption and scattering in rapid ultrasound beam modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Douglas; Almquist, Scott

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a new approach for modeling the propagation of an ultrasound beam in inhomogeneous tissues such as encountered with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for treatment of various diseases. This method, called the hybrid angular spectrum (HAS) approach, alternates propagation steps between the space and the spatial frequency domains throughout the inhomogeneous regions of the body; the use of spatial Fourier transforms makes this technique considerably faster than other modeling approaches (about 10 sec for a 141 x 141 x 121 model). In HIFU thermal treatments, the acoustic absorption property of the tissues is of prime importance since it leads to temperature rise and the achievement of desired thermal dose at the treatment site. We have recently added to the HAS method the capability of independently modeling tissue absorption and scattering, the two components of acoustic attenuation. These additions improve the predictive value of the beam modeling and more accurately describes the thermal conditions expected during a therapeutic ultrasound exposure. Two approaches to explicitly model scattering were developed: one for scattering sizes smaller than a voxel, and one when the scattering scale is several voxels wide. Some anatomically realistic examples that demonstrate the importance of independently modeling absorption and scattering are given, including propagation through the human skull for noninvasive brain therapy and in the human breast for treatment of breast lesions.

  2. Ultrasound therapy applicators for controlled thermal modification of tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Lichtenstiger, Carol; Rund, Laurie; Keralapura, Mallika; Gossett, Chad; Stahlhut, Randy; Neubauer, Paul; Komadina, Bruce; Williams, Emery; Alix, Chris; Jensen, Tor; Schook, Lawrence; Diederich, Chris J.

    2011-03-01

    Heat therapy has long been used for treatments in dermatology and sports medicine. The use of laser, RF, microwave, and more recently, ultrasound treatment, for psoriasis, collagen reformation, and skin tightening has gained considerable interest over the past several years. Numerous studies and commercial devices have demonstrated the efficacy of these methods for treatment of skin disorders. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot effectively treat effectively because there is little or no control of the size, shape, and depth of the target zone. These limitations make it extremely difficult to obtain consistent treatment results. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility for using acoustic energy for controlled dose delivery sufficient to produce collagen modification for the treatment of skin tissue in the dermal and sub-dermal layers. We designed and evaluated a curvilinear focused ultrasound device for treating skin disorders such as psoriasis, stimulation of wound healing, tightening of skin through shrinkage of existing collagen and stimulation of new collagen formation, and skin cancer. Design parameters were examined using acoustic pattern simulations and thermal modeling. Acute studies were performed in 201 freshly-excised samples of young porcine underbelly skin tissue and 56 in-vivo treatment areas in 60- 80 kg pigs. These were treated with ultrasound (9-11MHz) focused in the deep dermis. Dose distribution was analyzed and gross pathology assessed. Tissue shrinkage was measured based on fiducial markers and video image registration and analyzed using NIH Image-J software. Comparisons were made between RF and focused ultrasound for five energy ranges. In each experimental series, therapeutic dose levels (60degC) were attained at 2-5mm depth. Localized collagen changes ranged from 1-3% for RF versus 8-15% for focused ultrasound. Therapeutic ultrasound applied at high frequencies can achieve temperatures and dose distributions which concentrate in a depth profile that coincides with the location of maximum structural collagen content in skin tissues. Using an appropriate transducer configuration produces coverage of significant lateral area, thus making this a practical approach for treatment of skin disorders.

  3. Ultrasonic atomization of tissue and its role in tissue fractionation by high intensity focused ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Julianna C.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Wang, Yak-Nam; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Atomization and fountain formation is a well-known phenomenon that occurs when a focused ultrasound wave in liquid encounters an air interface. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to fractionate tissue into submicron-size fragments in a process termed boiling histotripsy, wherein the focused ultrasound wave superheats the tissue at the focus, producing a millimetre-size boiling or vapour bubble in several milliseconds. Yet the question of how this millimetre-size boiling bubble creates submicron-size tissue fragments remains. The hypothesis of this work is that tissue can behave as a liquid such that it forms a fountain and atomization within the vapour bubble produced in boiling histotripsy. We describe an experiment, in which a 2-MHz HIFU transducer (maximum in situ intensity of 24,000 W/cm2) was aligned with an air-tissue interface meant to simulate the boiling bubble. Atomization and fountain formation were observed with high-speed photography and resulted in tissue erosion. Histological examination of the atomized tissue showed whole and fragmented cells and nuclei. Air-liquid interfaces were also filmed. Our conclusion was that HIFU can fountain and atomize tissue. Although this process does not entirely mimic what was observed in liquids, it does explain many aspects of tissue fractionation in boiling histotripsy. PMID:23159812

  4. Characterizing Tissue with Acoustic Parameters Derived from Ultrasound Data

    SciTech Connect

    Littrup, P; Duric, N; Leach, R R; Azevedo, S G; Candy, J V; Moore, T; Chambers, D H; Mast, J E; Johnson, S A; Holsapple, E

    2002-01-23

    In contrast to standard reflection ultrasound (US), transmission US holds the promise of more thorough tissue characterization by generating quantitative acoustic parameters. We compare results from a conventional US scanner with data acquired using an experimental circular scanner operating at frequencies of 0.3 - 1.5 MHz. Data were obtained on phantoms and a normal, formalin-fixed, excised breast. Both reflection and transmission-based algorithms were used to generate images of reflectivity, sound speed and attenuation.. Images of the phantoms demonstrate the ability to detect sub-mm features and quantify acoustic properties such as sound speed and attenuation. The human breast specimen showed full field evaluation, improved penetration and tissue definition. Comparison with conventional US indicates the potential for better margin definition and acoustic characterization of masses, particularly in the complex scattering environments of human breast tissue. The use of morphology, in the context of reflectivity, sound speed and attenuation, for characterizing tissue, is discussed.

  5. Diffraction tomography applied to simulated ultrasound through breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, David H.

    2002-11-01

    Diffraction tomography is used to obtain images of sound speed and attenuation of a slice of breast tissue obtained from the Visible Woman data set. Simulated ultrasound data was generated using an acoustic propagation code run on the ASCI Blue Pacific computer at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Data was generated for a slice of healthy tissue, and a slice with simulated lesions to determine the ability of the imaging method to detect various abnormalities in the breast. In addition, the time reversal operator for the slice was constructed from the data and the eigenfunctions backpropagated into the slice as first suggested by Mast [Mast, Nachman, and Waag, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102(2)] to identify structures associated with each time reversal mode for both the healthy tissue and tissue with lesions.

  6. Ultrasound of soft tissue masses of the hand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Most soft tissue mass lesions of the hand are benign. Ganglia are the commonest lesions encountered, followed by giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath. Malignant tumors are rare. Often a specific diagnosis can be achieved on imaging by considering the location and anatomical relations of the lesion within the hand or wrist, and assessing its morphology. Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent modality for evaluating soft tissue tumors with its multiplanar capability and ability to characterize tissue. Ultrasound plays a complementary role to MRI. It is often the initial modality used for assessing masses as it is cheap and available, and allows reliable differentiation of cystic from solid lesions, along with a real time assessment of vascularity. This review describes the US appearances of the most frequently encountered soft tissue masses of the wrist and hand, correlating the findings with MRI where appropriate.

  7. Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Soft Tissue with Ultrasound Vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadich, I.; Bernal, M.; Greenleaf, J. F.

    The cardiovascular diseases atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension and heart failure have been related to stiffening of vessels and myocardium. Noninvasive measurements of mechanical properties of cardiovascular tissue would facilitate detection and treatment of disease in early stages, thus reducing mortality and possibly reducing cost of treatment. While techniques capable of measuring tissue elasticity have been reported, the knowledge of both elasticity and viscosity is necessary to fully characterize mechanical properties of soft tissues. In this article, we summarize the Shearwave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV) method developed by our group and report on advances made in characterizing stiffness of large vessels and myocardium. The method uses radiation forceFadiation force to excite shear waves in soft tissue and pulse echo ultrasound to measure the motion. The speed of propagation of shear waves at different frequencies is used to generate dispersions curves for excised porcine left-ventricular free-wall myocardium and carotid arteries. An antisymmetric Lamb wave model was fitted to the LV myocardium dispersion curves to obtain elasticity and viscosity moduli. The results suggest that the speed of shear wave propagation in four orthogonal directions on the surface of the excised myocardium is similar. These studies show that the SDUV method has potential for clinical application in noninvasive quantification of elasticity and viscosity of vessels and myocardium.

  8. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment of tissue properties for Achilles tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yung-Fu; Chen, Pei-Jarn; Lin, Yu-Ching; Chen, Tainsong; Lin, Chii-Jeng

    2007-09-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques have recently been widely applied for the characterization of tissues. For example, they can be used for the quantification of Achilles tendon properties based on the broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and the speed of sound (SOS) when the ultrasound wave passes through the tissues. This study is to develop an integrated system to investigate the properties of Achilles tendons using QUS images from UBIS 5000 (DMS, Montpellier, France) and B-mode ultrasound images from HDI 5000 (ATL, Ultramark, USA). Subjects including young (32 females and 17 males; mean age: 23.7 ± 2.0) and middle-aged groups (8 female and 8 males; mean age: 47.3 ± 8.5 s) were recruited and tested for this study. Only subjects who did not exercise regularly and had no record of tendon injury were studied. The results show that the BUA is significantly higher for the young group (45.2 ± 1.6 dB MHz-1) than the middle-age group (40.5 ± 1.9 dB MHz-1), while the SOS is significantly lower for the young (1601.9 ± 11.2 ms-1) compared to the middle-aged (1624.1 ± 8.7 m s-1). On the other hand, the thicknesses of Achilles tendons for both groups (young: 4.31 ± 0.23 mm; middle age: 4.24 ± 0.23 mm) are very similar. For one patient who had an Achilles tendon lengthening (ATL) surgery, the thickness of the Achilles tendon increased from 4 mm to 4.33 mm after the surgery. In addition, the BUA increased by about 7.2% while the SOS decreased by about 0.6%. In conclusion, noninvasive ultrasonic assessment of Achilles tendons is useful for assisting clinical diagnosis and for the evaluation of a therapeutic regimen.

  9. Types of muscle tissue (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The 3 types of muscle tissue are cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. Cardiac muscle cells are located in ... heart, appear striated, and are under involuntary control. Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow ...

  10. HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND IN THE TREATMENT OF PROSTATIC TISSUE*

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    -intensity focused ultrasound was inves- tigated in the canine model to determine the feasibility of destroyingHIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND IN THE TREATMENT OF PROSTATIC TISSUE* RICHARD BIHRLE, M prostate tissue. After demonstrating the ability to ablate prostate tissue reliably in a canine model, a 1

  11. Measuring tissue blood flow using ultrasound modulated diffused light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ron, A.; Racheli, N.; Breskin, I.; Metzger, Y.; Silman, Z.; Kamar, M.; Nini, A.; Shechter, R.; Balberg, M.

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate the ability of a novel device employing ultrasound modulation of near infrared light (referred as "Ultrasound tagged light" or UTL) to perform non-invasive monitoring of blood flow in the microvascular level in tissue. Monitoring microcirculatory blood flow is critical in clinical situations affecting flow to different organs, such as the brain or the limbs. . However, currently there are no non-invasive devices that measure microcirculatory blood flow in deep tissue continuously. Our prototype device (Ornim Medical, Israel) was used to monitor tissue blood flow on anesthetized swine during controlled manipulations of increased and decreased blood flow. Measurements were done on the calf muscle and forehead of the animal and compared with Laser Doppler (LD). ROC analysis of the sensitivity and specificity for detecting an increase in blood flow on the calf muscle, demonstrated AUC = 0.951 for 23 systemic manipulations of cardiac output by Epinephrine injection, which is comparable to AUC = 0.943 using laser Doppler. Some examples of cerebral blood flow monitoring are presented, along with their individual ROC curves. UTL flowmetry is shown to be effective in detecting changes in cerebral and muscle blood flow in swine, and has merit in clinical applications.

  12. The study of cells and tissues Tissues 4 basic types

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    Histology The study of cells and tissues #12;Tissues ­ 4 basic types epithelial connective muscular, alveolar, simple, complex #12;Connective Tissues Non-binding Connective Tissue blood/lymph Binding Connective Tissue loose connective tissue dense connective tissue cartilage bone #12;Non-binding Connective

  13. Ultrasound-guided tissue fractionation by high intensity focused ultrasound in an in vivo porcine liver model

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Wang, Yak-Nam; Simon, Julianna C.; Cunitz, Bryan W.; Starr, Frank; Paun, Marla; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Khokhlova, Vera A.

    2014-01-01

    The clinical use of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy for noninvasive tissue ablation has been recently gaining momentum. In HIFU, ultrasound energy from an extracorporeal source is focused within the body to ablate tissue at the focus while leaving the surrounding organs and tissues unaffected. Most HIFU therapies are designed to use heating effects resulting from the absorption of ultrasound by tissue to create a thermally coagulated treatment volume. Although this approach is often successful, it has its limitations, such as the heat sink effect caused by the presence of a large blood vessel near the treatment area or heating of the ribs in the transcostal applications. HIFU-induced bubbles provide an alternative means to destroy the target tissue by mechanical disruption or, at its extreme, local fractionation of tissue within the focal region. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a recently developed approach to HIFU-induced ultrasound-guided tissue fractionation in an in vivo pig model. In this approach, termed boiling histotripsy, a millimeter-sized boiling bubble is generated by ultrasound and further interacts with the ultrasound field to fractionate porcine liver tissue into subcellular debris without inducing further thermal effects. Tissue selectivity, demonstrated by boiling histotripsy, allows for the treatment of tissue immediately adjacent to major blood vessels and other connective tissue structures. Furthermore, boiling histotripsy would benefit the clinical applications, in which it is important to accelerate resorption or passage of the ablated tissue volume, diminish pressure on the surrounding organs that causes discomfort, or insert openings between tissues. PMID:24843132

  14. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL MONITORING OF TEMPERATURE-RELATED TISSUE CHANGES USING FOCUSED ULTRASOUND PHASED ARRAYS

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL MONITORING OF TEMPERATURE-RELATED TISSUE CHANGES USING FOCUSED ULTRASOUND Focused Ultrasound Laboratory, Department of Radiology ­ MR research, Brigham and Women's Hospital during the application of thermal treatment, such as in the case of Focused Ultrasound Surgery (FUS

  15. Real-Time Monitoring Of Regional Tissue Elasticity During FUS Focused Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    Real-Time Monitoring Of Regional Tissue Elasticity During FUS Focused Ultrasound Therapy Using) technique for simultaneous monitoring and generation of focused ultrasound therapy using two separate focused ultrasound transducer elements has previously been shown. In this study, a new HMI technique

  16. Ultrasound-guided joint and soft tissue interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Minor procedures with an injection needle are frequently performed in orthopedic clinics. They may be of a diagnostic, diagnostic and therapeutic or purely therapeutic nature. Ultrasound guidance while inserting the needle allows for a safe medicine administration and evacuation of fluid contents. It improves the efficacy of such procedures by ensuring accurate needle insertion in the target site. Ultrasound-guided procedures reduce the duration of treatment (e.g. medicines reach the target site directly; all fluid collections are removed, even multilocular ones) and minimize pain (by the selection of optimal access sites omitting tendons, vessels and peripheral nerves). This paper presents the principles of performing ultrasound-guided interventions. A detailed description of such a technique is provided and the most commonly injected medicines as well as their adverse reactions and contraindications are discussed. Attention is also paid to image optimization and the role of procedure site selection with the exclusion of other pathologies in the puncture site (such as tumors, foreign bodies and vascular or nerve pathologies). What is more, the author also discusses the principles of needle length and thickness selection as well as the manners of its insertion in relation to the transducer. Moreover, the principles of aseptics that are mandatory during such interventions are also presented and the way to protect transducers from the effects of chemical disinfectants is discussed. Furthermore, the paper contains numerous photographs of performed interventions. It is addressed to clinical practitioners and its aim is to facilitate and improve the efficacy of the procedures which are commonly performed in orthopedics. Ultrasound guidance of joint and soft tissue interventions should become a gold standard in all orthopedic clinics.

  17. Optimal conditions for tissue perforation using high intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kihara, Taizo; Ogawa, Kouji; Tanabe, Ryoko; Yosizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Kakimoto, Takashi; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Chiba, Toshio

    2012-10-01

    To perforate tissue lying deep part in body, a large size transducer was assembled by combining four spherical-shaped transducers, and the optimal conditions for tissue perforation have studied using ventricle muscle of chicken as a target. The ex vivo experiments showed that ventricle muscle was successfully perforated both when it was exposed to High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) directly and when it was exposed to HIFU through atrial muscle layer. Moreover, it was shown that calculated acoustic power distributions are well similar to the perforation patterns, and that the acoustic energy distributes very complexly near the focus. Lastly, perforation on the living rabbit bladder wall was demonstrated as a preliminary in vivo experiment.

  18. Evaluation of tissue mimicking quality of tofu for biomedical ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Tae; Kim, Ho Chul; Inada-Kim, Matthew; Jung, Sung Soo; Yun, Yong Hyeon; Jho, Moon Jae; Sandstrom, Kurt

    2009-03-01

    The tissue mimicking quality of tofu has been evaluated in terms of acoustic properties and acousto/thermal conversion as functions of frequency and diffraction corrected intensity over the 2 MHz to 18 MHz range using three unfocussed transducers with center frequencies of 5 MHz, 10 MHz and 15 MHz. The density and acoustic velocity were close to the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) recommended values for the soft tissue, however, the attenuation increases nonlinearly with frequency as alpha = 0.56 x f(1.3). As a result, the temperature rise in tofu due to ultrasound absorption is expressed by the product of the acousto/thermal conversion factor and the attenuation/diffraction corrected acoustic intensity. The decrease of temperature rise with depth measured by embedded thermocouples agrees with the theoretical exponential decrease of the attenuation/diffraction corrected acoustic intensity. The heat capacity per unit mass of tofu is 0.76 cal/g degrees C (equivalent to 3.18 J/g degrees C) of which about 76% is water. The nonlinear frequency dependence of attenuation in tofu as f(1.3) correctly describes the frequency dependence of temperature rise. The present results suggest that tofu may only be used in a limited low MHz range in view of the estimation of temperature rise and penetration depth due to nonlinear frequency dependence of attenuation. PMID:19101073

  19. Medical ultrasound: imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Peter N. T.; Liang, Hai-Dong

    2011-01-01

    After X-radiography, ultrasound is now the most common of all the medical imaging technologies. For millennia, manual palpation has been used to assist in diagnosis, but it is subjective and restricted to larger and more superficial structures. Following an introduction to the subject of elasticity, the elasticity of biological soft tissues is discussed and published data are presented. The basic physical principles of pulse-echo and Doppler ultrasonic techniques are explained. The history of ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is summarized, together with a brief critique of previously published reviews. The relevant techniques—low-frequency vibration, step, freehand and physiological displacement, and radiation force (displacement, impulse, shear wave and acoustic emission)—are described. Tissue-mimicking materials are indispensible for the assessment of these techniques and their characteristics are reported. Emerging clinical applications in breast disease, cardiology, dermatology, gastroenterology, gynaecology, minimally invasive surgery, musculoskeletal studies, radiotherapy, tissue engineering, urology and vascular disease are critically discussed. It is concluded that ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is now sufficiently well developed to have clinical utility. The potential for further research is examined and it is anticipated that the technology will become a powerful mainstream investigative tool. PMID:21680780

  20. Probability of cavitation for single ultrasound pulses applied to tissues and tissue-mimicking materials

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Adam D.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Xu, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the negative pressure values at which inertial cavitation consistently occurs in response to a single, 2-cycle, focused ultrasound pulse were measured in several media relevant to cavitation-based ultrasound therapy. The pulse was focused into a chamber containing one of the media, which included liquids, tissue-mimicking materials, and ex-vivo canine tissue. Focal waveforms were measured by two separate techniques using a fiber-optic hydrophone. Inertial cavitation was identified by high-speed photography in optically transparent media and an acoustic passive cavitation detector. The probability of cavitation (Pcav) for a single pulse as a function of peak negative pressure (p?) followed a sigmoid curve, with the probability approaching 1 when the pressure amplitude was sufficient. The statistical threshold (defined as Pcav = 0.5) was between p? = 26.0–30.0 MPa in all samples with a high water content, but varied between p? = 13.7 to > 36 MPa for other media. A model for radial cavitation bubble dynamics was employed to evaluate the behavior of cavitation nuclei at these pressure levels. A single bubble nucleus with an inertial cavitation threshold of p? = 28.2 MPa was estimated to have a 2.5 nm radius in distilled water. These data may be valuable for cavitation-based ultrasound therapy to predict the likelihood of cavitation at different pressure levels and dimensions of cavitation-induced lesions in tissue. PMID:23380152

  1. Probability of cavitation for single ultrasound pulses applied to tissues and tissue-mimicking materials.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Adam D; Cain, Charles A; Hall, Timothy L; Fowlkes, J Brian; Xu, Zhen

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the negative pressure values at which inertial cavitation consistently occurs in response to a single, two-cycle, focused ultrasound pulse were measured in several media relevant to cavitation-based ultrasound therapy. The pulse was focused into a chamber containing one of the media, which included liquids, tissue-mimicking materials, and ex vivo canine tissue. Focal waveforms were measured by two separate techniques using a fiber-optic hydrophone. Inertial cavitation was identified by high-speed photography in optically transparent media and an acoustic passive cavitation detector. The probability of cavitation (P(cav)) for a single pulse as a function of peak negative pressure (p(-)) followed a sigmoid curve, with the probability approaching one when the pressure amplitude was sufficient. The statistical threshold (defined as P(cav) = 0.5) was between p(-) = 26 and 30 MPa in all samples with high water content but varied between p(-) = 13.7 and >36 MPa in other media. A model for radial cavitation bubble dynamics was employed to evaluate the behavior of cavitation nuclei at these pressure levels. A single bubble nucleus with an inertial cavitation threshold of p(-) = 28.2 megapascals was estimated to have a 2.5 nm radius in distilled water. These data may be valuable for cavitation-based ultrasound therapy to predict the likelihood of cavitation at various pressure levels and dimensions of cavitation-induced lesions in tissue. PMID:23380152

  2. Reusable tissue-mimicking hydrogel phantoms for focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Kuan; Shieh, Jay; Lo, Chia-Wen; Chen, Chuin-Shan; Chen, Ben-Ting; Huang, Chang-Wei; Chen, Wen-Shiang

    2015-03-01

    The ability of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)-based hydrogel phantoms to mimic tissues with different acoustic and thermal properties under high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation was investigated. These phantoms were designed to model the formation of thermal lesions in tissues above the threshold temperature of protein denaturation. By adjusting the concentration of acrylic acid (AAc) in the NIPAM-based hydrogel phantoms, the cloud point (i.e., lower critical solution temperature) of the phantoms could be tailored to produce HIFU thermal lesions similar to those formed in different swine tissues in terms of size and shape. Additionally, energy thresholds for inducing transient or permanent bubbles in the phantoms during HIFU ablation were also identified to shed light on the onset of cavitation or material damage. The NIPAM-based hydrogel phantoms developed in this study possess major advantages such as transparent, reusable and tailorable properties, and are practical tools for characterizing an ablative device (or treatment) to determine its efficacy and safety. PMID:25453217

  3. Viscoelastic Property Measurement in Thin Tissue Constructs Using Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a dual-element concave ultrasound transducer system for generating and tracking of localized tissue displacements in thin tissue constructs on rigid substrates. The system is comprised of a highly focused PZT-4 5-MHz acoustic radiation force (ARF) transducer and a confocal 25-MHz polyvinylidene fluoride imaging transducer. This allows for the generation of measurable displacements in tissue samples on rigid substrates with thickness values down to 500 µm. Impulse-like and longer duration sine-modulated ARF pulses are possible with intermittent M-mode data acquisition for displacement tracking. The operations of the ARF and imaging transducers are strictly synchronized using an integrated system for arbitrary waveform generation and data capture with a shared timebase. This allows for virtually jitter-free pulse-echo data well suited for correlation-based speckle tracking. With this technique we could faithfully capture the entire dynamics of the tissue axial deformation at pulse-repetition frequency values up to 10 kHz. Spatio-temporal maps of tissue displacements in response to a variety of modulated ARF beams were produced in tissue-mimicking elastography phantoms on rigid substrates. The frequency response was measured for phantoms with different modulus and thickness values. The frequency response exhibited resonant behavior with the resonance frequency being inversely proportional to the sample thickness. This resonant behavior can be used in obtaining high-contrast imaging using magnitude and phase response to sinusoidally modulated ARF beams. Furthermore, a second order forced harmonic oscillator (FHO) model was shown to capture this resonant behavior. Based on the FHO model, we used the extended Kalman filter (EKF) for tracking the apparent modulus and viscosity of samples subjected to dc and sinusoidally modulated ARF. The results show that the stiffness (apparent modulus) term in the FHO is largely time-invariant and can be estimated robustly using the EKF. On the other hand, the damping (apparent viscosity) is time varying. These findings were confirmed by comparing the magnitude response of the FHO (with parameters obtained using the EKF) with the measured ones for different thin tissue constructs. PMID:18334343

  4. Tissue-mimicking materials assessment through ultrasound velocity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, Jean-Jacques; Donoso Galaz, Belfor A.; Martinez, Fernando H.

    2003-05-01

    Ultrasound characterization of biological tissues is facing the challenge of accurate sound velocity determination in soft materials of poorly controlled shape. In this work, an original method based on a through-transmission configuration is proposed to accurately determine the sound velocity cs in non-parallel bio-mimetic specimens. To account for the possible lack of parallelism of the specimen, a set of 8 geometrical parameters is introduced. In a three-step process, the transducer spacing and mis-orientation are deduced from a pair of reference echoes with no specimen in the burst path. Then, main and intermediate echoes in presence of the specimen are processed to yield the characteristic distances of the through-transmission configuration. Finally, the orientations of the specimen faces are determined through a minimization algorithm. Once the system geometry is fully determined, the specimen sound velocity is obtained. A scan of the specimen along the acoustic path (Z-scan) provides the necessary information to completely determine the equation set. The proposed method has been applied to determine the sound velocity in oil-in-gel emulsions as well as in their pure constituents. It is expected that the above method could provide accurate sound velocity data for a better understanding of complex material acoustic response to achieve a more efficient biological tissues characterization.

  5. Developing High-Frequency Quantitative Ultrasound Techniques to Characterize Three-Dimensional Engineered Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Karla Patricia E.

    Tissue engineering holds great promise for the repair or replacement of native tissues and organs. Further advancements in the fabrication of functional engineered tissues are partly dependent on developing new and improved technologies to monitor the properties of engineered tissues volumetrically, quantitatively, noninvasively, and nondestructively over time. Currently, engineered tissues are evaluated during fabrication using histology, biochemical assays, and direct mechanical tests. However, these techniques destroy tissue samples and, therefore, lack the capability for real-time, longitudinal monitoring. The research reported in this thesis developed nondestructive, noninvasive approaches to characterize the structural, biological, and mechanical properties of 3-D engineered tissues using high-frequency quantitative ultrasound and elastography technologies. A quantitative ultrasound technique, using a system-independent parameter known as the integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC), was employed to visualize and quantify structural properties of engineered tissues. Specifically, the IBC was demonstrated to estimate cell concentration and quantitatively detect differences in the microstructure of 3-D collagen hydrogels. Additionally, the feasibility of an ultrasound elastography technique called Single Tracking Location Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (STL-ARFI) imaging was demonstrated for estimating the shear moduli of 3-D engineered tissues. High-frequency ultrasound techniques can be easily integrated into sterile environments necessary for tissue engineering. Furthermore, these high-frequency quantitative ultrasound techniques can enable noninvasive, volumetric characterization of the structural, biological, and mechanical properties of engineered tissues during fabrication and post-implantation.

  6. Broadband miniature optical ultrasound probe for high resolution vascular tissue imaging

    PubMed Central

    Colchester, Richard J.; Zhang, Edward Z.; Mosse, Charles A.; Beard, Paul C.; Papakonstantinou, Ioannis; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2015-01-01

    An all-optical ultrasound probe for vascular tissue imaging was developed. Ultrasound was generated by pulsed laser illumination of a functionalized carbon nanotube composite coating on the end face of an optical fiber. Ultrasound was detected with a Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity on the end face of an adjacent optical fiber. The probe diameter was < 0.84 mm and had an ultrasound bandwidth of ~20 MHz. The probe was translated across the tissue sample to create a virtual linear array of ultrasound transmit/receive elements. At a depth of 3.5 mm, the axial resolution was 64 µm and the lateral resolution was 88 µm, as measured with a carbon fiber target. Vascular tissues from swine were imaged ex vivo and good correspondence to histology was observed. PMID:25909031

  7. Effect of Acoustic Nonlinearity on Heating of Biological Tissue by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonenko, E. A.; Khokhlova, V. A.

    2001-07-01

    Effect of strong acoustic nonlinearity on the efficiency of heating of a biological tissue by high-intensity focused ultrasound in the modes of operation used in real clinical setups is studied. The spatial distributions of thermal sources and the corresponding temperature increments caused by ultrasonic absorption are analyzed. Numerical algorithms are developed for simulating the nonlinear focusing of ultrasound in the calculations of both the heat sources on the basis of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov-type equations and the temperature field in a tissue on the basis of an inhomogeneous thermal conduction equation with a relaxation term. It is demonstrated that in the mode of operation typical of acoustic surgery, the nonlinearity improves the locality of heating and leads to an increase in the power of thermal sources in the focus by approximately an order of magnitude. The diffusion phenomena in the tissue lead to a smoothing of the spatial temperature distributions, as compared to the distributions of thermal sources. In the case of one-second exposure in the nonlinear mode of focusing, the maximal temperature in the focus exceeds the values obtained in the approximation of linear wave propagation by a factor of three.

  8. Detection of Multiple Electrical Sources in Tissue Using Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging

    E-print Network

    Witte, Russell S.

    Detection of Multiple Electrical Sources in Tissue Using Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging disorders. Ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI) is a new technique that maps electrical current electrical current and pressure as acoustic waves propagate through a conducting material. In [4] and [5

  9. Optical and acoustic monitoring of bubble cloud dynamics at a tissue-fluid interface in ultrasound tissue erosion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Hall, Timothy L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Short, high-intensity ultrasound pulses have the ability to achieve localized, clearly demarcated erosion in soft tissue at a tissue-fluid interface. The primary mechanism for ultrasound tissue erosion is believed to be acoustic cavitation. To monitor the cavitating bubble cloud generated at a tissue-fluid interface, an optical attenuation method was used to record the intensity loss of transmitted light through bubbles. Optical attenuation was only detected when a bubble cloud was seen using high speed imaging. The light attenuation signals correlated well with a temporally changing acoustic backscatter which is an excellent indicator for tissue erosion. This correlation provides additional evidence that the cavitating bubble cloud is essential for ultrasound tissue erosion. The bubble cloud collapse cycle and bubble dissolution time were studied using the optical attenuation signals. The collapse cycle of the bubble cloud generated by a high intensity ultrasound pulse of 4–14 ?s was ~40–300 ?s depending on the acoustic parameters. The dissolution time of the residual bubbles was tens of ms long. This study of bubble dynamics may provide further insight into previous ultrasound tissue erosion results. PMID:17471753

  10. Ultrasound Stimulation of Type I Collagen and Type III Collagen Expression of Tendon Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huang-Chung; Tsai, Wen-Chung; Tang, Chu-Wen; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.

    2005-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of ultrasound on tendon cells intrinsic to rat Achilles tendon plated on collagen-coated dishes. Furthermore, the in vitro effect of ultrasound on type I collagen and type III collage expression of tendon cells was investigated. Cultured tendon cells were treated with ultrasound at a frequency of 1.0 MHz, either pulsed (duty factor: 20%) or continuous mode with the intensity of 1.0 W/cm2 for 5 minutes. The expression of type I collagen and type III collagen of tendon cells was evaluated by immunocytochemistry 24 hours after ultrasound treatment. The results revealed that tendon cells cultured on dishes without collagen coating would lyse and detach from the dish after ultrasound exposure. However, cells cultured on collagen-coated dishes proliferate actively. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that ultrasound treated tendon cells stained more strongly for type I collagen and type III collagen than control cells. In conclusion, a collagen-coated dish is essential to prevent cell lysis and detachment from the dish after ultrasound exposure. Furthermore, either continuous or pulsed ultrasound could stimulate the expression of type I collagen and type III collagen by tendon cells.

  11. Photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging of cancellous bone tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lifeng; Lashkari, Bahman; Tan, Joel W. Y.; Mandelis, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    We used ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging modalities to characterize cattle trabecular bones. The PA signals were generated with an 805-nm continuous wave laser used for optimally deep optical penetration depth. The detector for both modalities was a 2.25-MHz US transducer with a lateral resolution of ˜1 mm at its focal point. Using a lateral pixel size much larger than the size of the trabeculae, raster scanning generated PA images related to the averaged values of the optical and thermoelastic properties, as well as density measurements in the focal volume. US backscatter yielded images related to mechanical properties and density in the focal volume. The depth of interest was selected by time-gating the signals for both modalities. The raster scanned PA and US images were compared with microcomputed tomography (?CT) images averaged over the same volume to generate similar spatial resolution as US and PA. The comparison revealed correlations between PA and US modalities with the mineral volume fraction of the bone tissue. Various features and properties of these modalities such as detectable depth, resolution, and sensitivity are discussed.

  12. Classification Algorithms for Quantitative Tissue Characterization of Diffuse Liver Disease from Ultrasound Images

    E-print Network

    Louisville, University of

    Classification Algorithms for Quantitative Tissue Characterization of Diffuse Liver Disease from diffused liver diseases from ultrasound images can be assisted by computerized tissue classification structures as they are composed of soft tissues and blood vessels [1]. Liver diseases are taken seriously

  13. Investigation of Post-mortem Tissue Effects Using Long-time Decorrelation Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csány, Gergely; Balogh, Lajos; Gyöngy, Miklós

    Decorrelation ultrasound is being increasingly used to investigate long-term biological phenomena. In the current work, ultrasound image sequences of mice who did not survive anesthesia (in a separate investigation) were analyzed and post-mortem tissue effects were observed via decorrelation calculation. A method was developed to obtain a quantitative parameter characterizing the rate of decorrelation. The results show that ultrasound decorrelation imaging is an effective method of observing post-mortem tissue effects and point to further studies elucidating the mechanism behind these effects.

  14. Modeling transversely isotropic, viscoelastic, incompressible tissue-like materials with application in ultrasound shear wave elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Bo; Brigham, John C.; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Urban, Matthew W.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to model the shear wave propagation in transversely isotropic, viscoelastic and incompressible media. The targeted application is ultrasound-based shear wave elastography for viscoelasticity measurements in anisotropic tissues such as the kidney and skeletal muscles. The proposed model predicts that if the viscoelastic parameters both across and along fiber directions can be characterized as a Voigt material, then the spatial phase velocity at any angle is also governed by a Voigt material model. Further, with the aid of Taylor expansions, it is shown that the spatial group velocity at any angle is close to a Voigt type for weakly attenuative materials within a certain bandwidth. The model is implemented in a finite element code by a time domain explicit integration scheme and shear wave simulations are conducted. The results of the simulations are analyzed to extract the shear wave elasticity and viscosity for both the spatial phase and group velocities. The estimated values match well with theoretical predictions. The proposed theory is further verified by an ex vivo tissue experiment measured in a porcine skeletal muscle by an ultrasound shear wave elastography method. The applicability of the Taylor expansion to analyze the spatial velocities is also discussed. We demonstrate that the approximations from the Taylor expansions are subject to errors when the viscosities across or along the fiber directions are large or the maximum frequency considered is beyond the bandwidth defined by radii of convergence of the Taylor expansions.

  15. Tissue classification using depth-dependent ultrasound time series analysis: in-vitro animal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani, Farhad; Daoud, Mohammad; Moradi, Mehdi; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Mousavi, Parvin

    2011-03-01

    Time series analysis of ultrasound radio-frequency (RF) signals has been shown to be an effective tissue classification method. Previous studies of this method for tissue differentiation at high and clinical-frequencies have been reported. In this paper, analysis of RF time series is extended to improve tissue classification at the clinical frequencies by including novel features extracted from the time series spectrum. The primary feature examined is the Mean Central Frequency (MCF) computed for regions of interest (ROIs) in the tissue extending along the axial axis of the transducer. In addition, the intercept and slope of a line fitted to the MCF-values of the RF time series as a function of depth have been included. To evaluate the accuracy of the new features, an in vitro animal study is performed using three tissue types: bovine muscle, bovine liver, and chicken breast, where perfect two-way classification is achieved. The results show statistically significant improvements over the classification accuracies with previously reported features.

  16. Effects of two ultrasound devices and angles of application on the temperature of tissue phantom.

    PubMed

    Kimura, I F; Gulick, D T; Shelly, J; Ziskin, M C

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasound is a commonly used therapeutic modality for which there is little research on the effect of treatment dosage on the extent of tissue heating. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two different ultrasound devices, angle of ultrasound application, and treatment time on the temperature of a tissue phantom. Four trials were performed at four ultrasound application angles (90 degrees, 80 degrees, 70 degrees, and 60 degrees) with both an Excel UltraMax and a Mettler Sonicator 720. A continuous 1-MHz frequency at 2.0 W/cm2 was administered for 5 minutes, with tissue phantom temperature recorded at 1-minute intervals. The analysis of the data revealed significant main effects between ultrasound devices, angle of application, and treatment times. Interactions were identified between ultrasound device and treatment times and angle of application and treatment times. Analysis of simple effects revealed significant differences between ultrasound devices after 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes of treatment and between treatment times and 80 degrees and 60 degrees angles of application. Maximal temperature increase after a 5-minute treatment was 2.025 degrees C. This level of tissue heating falls below expected values and may not yield therapeutic results. The thermal effects were noted to be greatest at 80 degrees and 90 degrees angles of application. Despite appropriate calibration and identical treatment protocols, the two ultrasound devices yielded significantly different tissue phantom temperatures, which were notably lower than expected values. We concluded that direct monitoring of ultrasound device output and calculation of treatment dosage should occur on a routine basis, as treatment outcome will certainly be affected by the actual dosage of ultrasonic energy. PMID:9440038

  17. Histological and Ultrastructural Effects of Ultrasound-induced Cavitation on Human Skin Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Li, Alessandro Quattrini; Freschi, Giancarlo; Russo, Giulia Lo

    2013-01-01

    Background: In aesthetic medicine, the most promising techniques for noninvasive body sculpturing purposes are based on ultrasound-induced fat cavitation. Liporeductive ultrasound devices afford clinically relevant subcutaneous fat pad reduction without significant adverse reactions. This study aims at evaluating the histological and ultrastructural changes induced by ultrasound cavitation on the different cell components of human skin. Methods: Control and ultrasound-treated ex vivo abdominal full-thickness skin samples and skin biopsies from patients pretreated with or without ultrasound cavitation were studied histologically, morphometrically, and ultrastructurally to evaluate possible changes in adipocyte size and morphology. Adipocyte apoptosis and triglyceride release were also assayed. Clinical evaluation of the effects of 4 weekly ultrasound vs sham treatments was performed by plicometry. Results: Compared with the sham-treated control samples, ultrasound cavitation induced a statistically significant reduction in the size of the adipocytes (P < 0.001), the appearance of micropores and triglyceride leakage and release in the conditioned medium (P < 0.05 at 15 min), or adipose tissue interstitium, without appreciable changes in microvascular, stromal, and epidermal components and in the number of apoptotic adipocytes. Clinically, the ultrasound treatment caused a significant reduction of abdominal fat. Conclusions: This study further strengthens the current notion that noninvasive transcutaneous ultrasound cavitation is a promising and safe technology for localized reduction of fat and provides experimental evidence for its specific mechanism of action on the adipocytes. PMID:25289235

  18. Tissue characterisation from intravascular ultrasound using texture analysis 

    E-print Network

    Nailon, William H

    Intravascular ultrasound has, over the past decade, significantly changed the clinical diagnosis and therapeutic strategy of coronary and vascular disease assessment, as it not only allows visualisation of the vessel ...

  19. Modeling and Predicting Tissue Movement and Deformation for High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xiangyun; Yuan, Zhiyong; Lai, Qianfeng; Guo, Jiaxiang; Zheng, Qi; Yu, Sijiao; Tong, Qianqian; Si, Weixin; Sun, Mingui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In ultrasound-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, the target tissue (such as a tumor) often moves and/or deforms in response to an external force. This problem creates difficulties in treating patients and can lead to the destruction of normal tissue. In order to solve this problem, we present a novel method to model and predict the movement and deformation of the target tissue during ultrasound-guided HIFU therapy. Methods Our method computationally predicts the position of the target tissue under external force. This prediction allows appropriate adjustments in the focal region during the application of HIFU so that the treatment head is kept aligned with the diseased tissue through the course of therapy. To accomplish this goal, we utilize the cow tissue as the experimental target tissue to collect spatial sequences of ultrasound images using the HIFU equipment. A Geodesic Localized Chan-Vese (GLCV) model is developed to segment the target tissue images. A 3D target tissue model is built based on the segmented results. A versatile particle framework is constructed based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to model the movement and deformation of the target tissue. Further, an iterative parameter estimation algorithm is utilized to determine the essential parameters of the versatile particle framework. Finally, the versatile particle framework with the determined parameters is used to estimate the movement and deformation of the target tissue. Results To validate our method, we compare the predicted contours with the ground truth contours. We found that the lowest, highest and average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) values between predicted and ground truth contours were, respectively, 0.9615, 0.9770 and 0.9697. Conclusion Our experimental result indicates that the proposed method can effectively predict the dynamic contours of the moving and deforming tissue during ultrasound-guided HIFU therapy. PMID:25993644

  20. Registration of 3D ultrasound computer tomography and MRI for evaluation of tissue correspondences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, T.; Dapp, R.; Zapf, M.; Kretzek, E.; Gemmeke, H.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2015-03-01

    3D Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) is a new imaging method for breast cancer diagnosis. In the current state of development it is essential to correlate USCT with a known imaging modality like MRI to evaluate how different tissue types are depicted. Due to different imaging conditions, e.g. with the breast subject to buoyancy in USCT, a direct correlation is demanding. We present a 3D image registration method to reduce positioning differences and allow direct side-by-side comparison of USCT and MRI volumes. It is based on a two-step approach including a buoyancy simulation with a biomechanical model and free form deformations using cubic B-Splines for a surface refinement. Simulation parameters are optimized patient-specifically in a simulated annealing scheme. The method was evaluated with in-vivo datasets resulting in an average registration error below 5mm. Correlating tissue structures can thereby be located in the same or nearby slices in both modalities and three-dimensional non-linear deformations due to the buoyancy are reduced. Image fusion of MRI volumes and USCT sound speed volumes was performed for intuitive display. By applying the registration to data of our first in-vivo study with the KIT 3D USCT, we could correlate several tissue structures in MRI and USCT images and learn how connective tissue, carcinomas and breast implants observed in the MRI are depicted in the USCT imaging modes.

  1. Imaging of high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced lesions in soft biological tissue using thermoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xing; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V; Fang, Yuncai R; Zanelli, Claudio I; Howard, Samuel M

    2005-01-01

    An imaging technology, thermoacoustic tomograpy (TAT), was applied to the visualization of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-induced lesions. A single, spherically focused ultrasonic transducer, operating at a central frequency of approximately 4 MHz, was used to generate a HIFU field in fresh porcine muscle. Microwave pulses from a 3-GHz microwave generator were then employed to generate thermoacoustic sources in this tissue sample. The thermoacoustic signals were detected by an unfocused ultrasonic transducer that was scanned around the sample. To emphasize the boundaries between the lesion and its surrounding tissue, a local-tomography-type reconstruction method was applied to reconstruct the TAT images of the lesions. Good contrast was obtained between the lesion and the tissue surrounding it. Gross pathologic photographs of the tissue samples confirmed the TAT images. This work demonstrates that TAT may potentially be used to image HIFU-induced lesions in biological tissues. PMID:15719948

  2. Transient temperature rise due to ultrasound absorption at a bone/soft-tissue interface.

    PubMed

    Myers, Matthew R

    2004-06-01

    Thermal effects due to high ultrasound absorption in bone pose an ongoing safety issue. Of considerable concern is the heating of the soft tissue adjacent to the bone surface. Mathematical models can be useful in predicting the transient temperature near the interface during insonation. This paper develops a model that provides the temperature field in terms of simple expressions that convey the functional dependence of the material properties, and are easily incorporated into standards and ultrasound machine software, yet are able to incorporate the material properties of both bone and soft tissue. The model contains an asymptotic theory based upon a "high-attenuation" assumption: the distance diffused by heat over the time of interest is large compared to the ultrasound attenuation length. Model predictions of temperature rise and location of maximum temperature were in close agreement with finite-element calculations, using parameters appropriate for radiation-force imaging and focused-ultrasound surgery. PMID:15237812

  3. Non-invasive estimation of thermal tissue properties by high-intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appanaboyina, Sunil; Partanen, Ari; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic Resonance guided High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) can be used to locally heat tissue while non-invasively monitoring tissue temperature via MR-based thermometry. The goal of this study was to investigate the use of a computational technique based on inverse heat-transfer modeling for the non-invasive measurement of thermal tissue properties from data collected using an MR-HIFU system.

  4. A tissue phantom for visualization and measurement of ultrasound-induced cavitation damage

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Adam D.; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Yuan, Lingqian; Duryea, Alexander P.; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Many ultrasound studies involve the use of tissue-mimicking materials to research phenomena in-vitro and predict in-vivo bioeffects. We have developed a tissue phantom to study cavitation-induced damage to tissue. The phantom consists of red blood cells suspended in an agarose hydrogel. The acoustic and mechanical properties of the gel phantom were found to be similar to soft tissue properties. The phantom’s response to cavitation was evaluated using histotripsy. Histotripsy causes breakdown of tissue structures by generation of controlled cavitation using short, focused, high-intensity ultrasound pulses. Histotripsy lesions were generated in the phantom and kidney tissue using a spherically focused 1-MHz transducer generating 15 cycle pulses at a pulse repetition frequency of 100 Hz with a peak negative pressure of 14 MPa. Damage appeared clearly as increased optical transparency of the phantom due to rupture of individual red blood cells. The morphology of lesions generated in the phantom was very similar to that generated in kidney tissue, at both macroscopic and cellular levels. Additionally, lesions in the phantom could be visualized as hypoechoic regions on a B-Mode ultrasound image, similar to histotripsy lesions in tissue. High speed imaging of the optically-transparent phantom was used to show that damage coincides with the presence of cavitation. These results indicate that the phantom can accurately mimic the response of soft tissue to cavitation and provide a useful tool for studying damage induced by acoustic cavitation. PMID:21030142

  5. The role of tissue harmonic imaging ultrasound combined with power Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of childhood febrile urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    ?larslan, Nisa Eda Çullas; Fitöz, Ömer Suat; Öztuna, Derya Gökmen; Küçük, Nuriye Özlem; Yalç?nkaya, Fatma Fato?

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study assessed the ability of tissue harmonic imaging ultrasound combined with power Doppler ultrasound in the detection of childhood febrile urinary tract infections in comparison with the gold standard reference method: Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinicacid renal cortical scintigraphy. Material and Methods: This prospective study included 60 patients who were hospitalized with a first episode of febrile urinary tract infections. All children were examined with dimercaptosuccinicacid scan and tissue harmonic imaging ultrasound combined with power Doppler ultrasound within the first 3 days of admission. Results: Signs indicative of acute infection were observed in 29 patients according to the results of tissue harmonic imaging ultrasound combined with power Doppler ultrasound while dimercaptosuccinicacid scan revealed abnormal findings in 33 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of tissue harmonic imaging combined with power Doppler ultrasound using dimercaptosuccinicacid scintigraphy as the reference method in patients diagnosed with first episode febrile urinary tract infections were calculated as 57.58% (95% confidence interval: 40.81%–72.76%); 62.96% (95% confidence interval: 44.23%–78.47%); 65.52% (95% confidence interval: 52.04%–77%); 54.84% (95% confidence interval: 41.54%–67.52%); respectively. Conclusions: Although current results exhibit inadequate success of power Doppler ultrasound, this practical and radiation-free method may soon be comprise a part of the routine ultrasonographic evaluation of febrile urinary tract infections of childhood if patients are evaluated early and under appropriate sedation. PMID:26265892

  6. Acoustically accessible window determination for ultrasound mediated treatment of glycogen storage disease type Ia patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shutao; Raju, Balasundar I.; Leyvi, Evgeniy; Weinstein, David A.; Seip, Ralf

    2012-10-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa) is caused by an inherited single-gene defect resulting in an impaired glycogen to glucose conversion pathway. Targeted ultrasound mediated delivery (USMD) of plasmid DNA (pDNA) to liver in conjunction with microbubbles may provide a potential treatment for GSDIa patients. As the success of USMD treatments is largely dependent on the accessibility of the targeted tissue by the focused ultrasound beam, this study presents a quantitative approach to determine the acoustically accessible liver volume in GSDIa patients. Models of focused ultrasound beam profiles for transducers of varying aperture and focal lengths were applied to abdomen models reconstructed from suitable CT and MRI images. Transducer manipulations (simulating USMD treatment procedures) were implemented via transducer translations and rotations with the intent of targeting and exposing the entire liver to ultrasound. Results indicate that acoustically accessible liver volumes can be as large as 50% of the entire liver volume for GSDIa patients and on average 3 times larger compared to a healthy adult group due to GSDIa patients' increased liver size. Detailed descriptions of the evaluation algorithm, transducer-and abdomen models are presented, together with implications for USMD treatments of GSDIa patients and transducer designs for USMD applications.

  7. Ultrasound Technologies for the Spatial Patterning of Cells and Extracellular Matrix Proteins and the Vascularization of Engineered Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, Kelley A.

    Technological advancements in the field of tissue engineering could save the lives of thousands of organ transplant patients who die each year while waiting for donor organs. Currently, two of the primary challenges preventing tissue engineers from developing functional replacement tissues and organs are the need to recreate complex cell and extracellular microenvironments and to vascularize the tissue to maintain cell viability and function. Ultrasound is a form of mechanical energy that can noninvasively and nondestructively interact with tissues at the cell and protein level. In this thesis, novel ultrasound-based technologies were developed for the spatial patterning of cells and extracellular matrix proteins and the vascularization of three-dimensional engineered tissue constructs. Acoustic radiation forces associated with ultrasound standing wave fields were utilized to noninvasively control the spatial organization of cells and cell-bound extracellular matrix proteins within collagen-based engineered tissue. Additionally, ultrasound induced thermal mechanisms were exploited to site-specifically pattern various extracellular matrix collagen microstructures within a single engineered tissue construct. Finally, ultrasound standing wave field technology was used to promote the rapid and extensive vascularization of three-dimensional tissue constructs. As such, the ultrasound technologies developed in these studies have the potential to provide the field of tissue engineering with novel strategies to spatially pattern cells and extracellular matrix components and to vascularize engineered tissue, and thus, could advance the fabrication of functional replacement tissues and organs in the field of tissue engineering.

  8. Enhanced Mechanical Characterization of Tissue Response Using Full-Field Deformation Data from 3D Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Ultrasound Petr Jordan, Simona Socrate, Todd E. Zickler, Robert D. Howe Computational models of tissue. Socrate, Experimental Mechanics, DOI 10.1007/s11340- 007-9087-z, (on-line) 2007. [2] P. Jordan, T.E. Zickler, S. Socrate, and R.D. Howe. 11th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer

  9. Estimating Cell Concentration in Three-Dimensional Engineered Tissues using High Frequency Quantitative Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Karla P.; Helguera, Mar?a; Hocking, Denise C.; Dalecki, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Histology and biochemical assays are standard techniques for estimating cell concentration in engineered tissues. However, these techniques are destructive and cannot be used for longitudinal monitoring of engineered tissues during fabrication processes. The goal of this study was to develop high-frequency quantitative ultrasound techniques to nondestructively estimate cell concentration in three-dimensional (3-D) engineered tissue constructs. High-frequency ultrasound backscatter measurements were obtained from cell-embedded, 3-D agarose hydrogels. Two broadband single-element transducers (center frequencies of 30 and 38 MHz) were employed over the frequency range of 13 to 47 MHz. Agarose gels with cell concentrations ranging from 1×104 to 1×106 cells mL?1 were investigated. The integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC), a quantitative ultrasound spectral parameter, was calculated and used to estimate cell concentration. Accuracy and precision of this technique were analyzed by calculating the percent error and coefficient of variation of cell concentration estimates. The IBC increased linearly with increasing cell concentration. Axial and lateral dimensions of regions of interest that resulted in errors of less than 20% were determined. Images of cell concentration estimates were employed to visualize quantitatively regional differences in cell concentrations. This ultrasound technique provides the capability to rapidly quantify cell concentration within 3-D tissue constructs noninvasively and nondestructively. PMID:24627179

  10. Percutaneous needle biopsy of soft tissue tumors guided by ultrasound and computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zornoza, J.; Bernardino, M.E.; Thomas, J.L.; Cohen, M.A.; Ordonez, N.G.

    1982-11-01

    Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) guided percutaneous needle biopsy of soft tissue lesions was performed in 39 patients. A correct diagnosis was obtained in 35 of 42 biopsies, with an overall accuracy rate of 83%. No false-positive diagnosis were obtained, and no complications related to the procedure were encountered. The value of this technique in the management of selected patients with soft tissue masses is detailed.

  11. Can pulsed ultrasound increase tissue damage during ischemia? A study of the effects of ultrasound on infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium in anesthetized pigs

    PubMed Central

    Olivecrona, Göran K; Härdig, Bjarne Madsen; Roijer, Anders; Block, Mattias; Grins, Edgars; Persson, Hans W; Johansson, Leif; Olsson, Bertil

    2005-01-01

    Background The same mechanisms by which ultrasound enhances thrombolysis are described in connection with non-beneficial effects of ultrasound. The present safety study was therefore designed to explore effects of beneficial ultrasound characteristics on the infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium. Methods In an open chest porcine model (n = 17), myocardial infarction was induced by ligating a coronary diagonal branch. Pulsed ultrasound of frequency 1 MHz and intensity 0.1 W/cm2 (ISATA) was applied during one hour to both infarcted and non-infarcted myocardial tissue. These ultrasound characteristics are similar to those used in studies of ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis. Using blinded assessment technique, myocardial damage was rated according to histopathological criteria. Results Infarcted myocardium exhibited a significant increase in damage score compared to non-infarcted myocardium: 6.2 ± 2.0 vs. 4.3 ± 1.5 (mean ± standard deviation), (p = 0.004). In the infarcted myocardium, ultrasound exposure yielded a further significant increase of damage scores: 8.1 ± 1.7 vs. 6.2 ± 2.0 (p = 0.027). Conclusion Our results suggest an instantaneous additive effect on the ischemic damage in myocardial tissue when exposed to ultrasound of stated characteristics. The ultimate damage degree remains to be clarified. PMID:15831106

  12. Localized Ablation of Thyroid Tissue by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound: an Alternative to Surgery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esnault, Olivier; Franc, Brigitte; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lacoste, Francois

    2006-05-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device to obtain a localised destruction of the thyroid with no damage to adjacent tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ewe model was used because its thyroid gland is easily accessible with ultrasound. The animals were anaesthetised with 10 mg / kg IV injection of Penthothal. The HIFU pulses were generated by a 3-MHz spherical transducer under ultrasound guidance. Macroscopic and microscopic tissue lesions were identified after formalin fixation of the anterior part of the ewe's neck. RESULTS: After determining the optimal instrument settings to obtain localized thyroid ablation, the repeatability of the method was evaluated using a HIFU prototype designed specifically for human use: in 13 ewes (26 treated lobes), an average of 20 (range: 14-27) ultrasound pulses (pulse duration: 3 s) per lobe covering a mean volume of 0.5 cm3 (range: 0.3-0.7 cm3) were delivered. The ewes were sacrificed 2-5 weeks after treatment delivery. No damage to the nerves, trachea, esophagus or muscle was observed. Only 3 ewes suffered superficial skin burns. The desired thyroid lesions were obtained in 25/26 treated lobes, as demonstrated by fibrotic tissues, which replaced necrotic areas. CONCLUSION: These results obtained in the ewe model show that thyroid lesions of defined volume can be induced safely and suggest that the HIFU device is now ready for human trials.

  13. Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography in soft biological tissues 

    E-print Network

    Sakadzic, Sava

    2007-09-17

    Optical imaging of soft biological tissues is highly desirable since it is nonionizing and provides sensitive contrast information which enables detection of physiological functions and abnormalities, including potentially early cancer detection...

  14. Mechanical Model Analysis for Quantitative Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis Based on Ultrasound Tissue Elasticity Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Maki, Tomonori; Yamakawa, Makoto; Mitake, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Kenji

    2012-07-01

    Precise evaluation of the stage of chronic hepatitis C with respect to fibrosis has become an important issue to prevent the occurrence of cirrhosis and to initiate appropriate therapeutic intervention such as viral eradication using interferon. Ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, i.e., elastography can visualize tissue hardness/softness, and its clinical usefulness has been studied to detect and evaluate tumors. We have recently reported that the texture of elasticity image changes as fibrosis progresses. To evaluate fibrosis progression quantitatively on the basis of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, we introduced a mechanical model of fibrosis progression and simulated the process by which hepatic fibrosis affects elasticity images and compared the results with those clinical data analysis. As a result, it was confirmed that even in diffuse diseases like chronic hepatitis, the patterns of elasticity images are related to fibrous structural changes caused by hepatic disease and can be used to derive features for quantitative evaluation of fibrosis stage.

  15. Mathematical modeling of ultrasound in tissue engineering: From bioreactors to the cellular scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louw, Tobias M.

    Tissue engineering seeks to provide a means to treat injuries that are beyond the body's natural ability to repair without the issues associated with allografts. Autologous cells are cultured in a bioreactor which controls the cellular environment (including mechanical stimulation) for optimal tissue growth. We investigate ultrasound as an effective means of mechanical stimulation by predicting the ultrasonic field in a bioreactor, as well as ultrasonic bioeffects at the cellular level. The Transfer Matrix Angular Spectrum Approach was found to be the most accurate and computationally efficient bioreactor model. Three critical factors influence experimental results: (1) the diameter of the tissue engineering scaffold greatly affects the ultrasonic field; (2) the position of the ultrasonic transducer and liquid level in the tissue culture well determines the maximum pressure amplitude in the bioreactor, but the pressure can be controlled by measuring the transducer input electrical impedance and manipulating the applied voltage; and (3) the position of pressure nodes are influenced by ultrasonic frequency and liquid level; this will affect the response of cells to applied ultrasound. On the cellular level, it was shown that chondrocytes respond to ultrasound with frequency dependence. A predicted resonance frequency near 5MHz matched experimental results showing maximum expression of load inducible genes at 5MHz. Mechanical stresses are concentrated near the nucleus at resonance, alluding to the possibility that the nucleus may directly sense ultrasonic stimulation. We postulate that ultrasound influences the transport of p-ERK to the nucleus or causes minor chromatin reorganization, leading to the observed frequency dependent gene expression. We linked in vitro ultrasonic stimulation to in vivo mechanical stimulation generated by natural movement. The chondrocyte's response to impact is under-damped, and the cell oscillates with a frequency close to the model predicted resonance. It appears that ultrasound applied close to the cell's resonant frequency effectively recreates the mechanical stimulation experienced by cells during natural movement. Ultrasonic bioreactors may therefore reproduce physiological conditions just as well as more complex bioreactors.

  16. Influence of overlying soft tissues on trabecular bone acoustic measurement at various ultrasound frequencies.

    PubMed

    Riekkinen, Ossi; Hakulinen, Mikko A; Timonen, Matti; Töyräs, Juha; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2006-07-01

    Ultrasound (US) has been introduced as a promising tool for osteoporosis diagnostics. However, soft tissues overlying the bones affect reliability of the ultrasound (US) techniques. In this in vitro study, the effect of soft tissues on bone US measurements was investigated numerically and experimentally. Particularly, the dependence of the error induced by soft tissues on the applied US frequency (0.3 to 6.7 MHz) was addressed. For these aims, human trabecular bone samples (n = 25) were measured using acoustic, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and mechanical techniques. US attenuation, speed, reflection and backscattering were determined from the through-transmission and pulse-echo measurements. Numerical correction, based on the inclusion of acoustic characteristics of specific soft tissue components, i.e., adipose and lean tissues, was derived for the analysis of experimental measurements. Values of US parameters, interrelationships between the US parameters and mechanical properties, as well as the errors induced by the soft tissues, were significantly dependent on the US frequency. The errors induced by the soft tissues on the US measurement were typically reduced by approximately 50% after introduction of the numerical correction technique. Thereby, the acoustic prediction of mechanical properties of trabecular bone was also improved. We conclude that the numerical correction of the contribution of overlying soft tissues on acoustic measurements can reduce uncertainties related to in vivo US measurements. PMID:16829321

  17. Ultrasound elastography assessment of bone/soft tissue interface.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Biren J; Yang, Xu; Chaudhry, Anuj; Shajudeen, Peer Shafeeq; Nair, Sanjay P; Weiner, Bradley K; Tasciotti, Ennio; Krouskop, Thomas A; Righetti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    We report on the use of elastographic imaging techniques to assess the bone/soft tissue interface, a region that has not been previously investigated but may provide important information about fracture and bone healing. The performance of axial strain elastograms and axial shear strain elastograms at the bone/soft tissue interface was studied ex vivo on intact and fractured canine and ovine tibias. Selected ex vivo results were corroborated on intact sheep tibias in vivo. The elastography results were statistically analyzed using elastographic image quality tools. The results of this study demonstrate distinct patterns in the distribution of the normalized local axial strains and axial shear strains at the bone/soft tissue interface with respect to the background soft tissue. They also show that the relative strength and distribution of the elastographic parameters change in the presence of a fracture and depend on the degree of misalignment between the fracture fragments. Thus, elastographic imaging modalities might be used in the future to obtain information regarding the integrity of bones and to assess the severity of fractures, alignment of bone fragments as well as to follow bone healing. PMID:26611328

  18. Ultrasound elastography assessment of bone/soft tissue interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Biren J.; Yang, Xu; Chaudhry, Anuj; Shafeeq Shajudeen, Peer; Nair, Sanjay P.; Weiner, Bradley K.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Krouskop, Thomas A.; Righetti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    We report on the use of elastographic imaging techniques to assess the bone/soft tissue interface, a region that has not been previously investigated but may provide important information about fracture and bone healing. The performance of axial strain elastograms and axial shear strain elastograms at the bone/soft tissue interface was studied ex vivo on intact and fractured canine and ovine tibias. Selected ex vivo results were corroborated on intact sheep tibias in vivo. The elastography results were statistically analyzed using elastographic image quality tools. The results of this study demonstrate distinct patterns in the distribution of the normalized local axial strains and axial shear strains at the bone/soft tissue interface with respect to the background soft tissue. They also show that the relative strength and distribution of the elastographic parameters change in the presence of a fracture and depend on the degree of misalignment between the fracture fragments. Thus, elastographic imaging modalities might be used in the future to obtain information regarding the integrity of bones and to assess the severity of fractures, alignment of bone fragments as well as to follow bone healing.

  19. Mechanical high-intensity focused ultrasound destruction of soft tissue: working mechanisms and physiologic effects.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Martijn; Eikelenboom, Dylan; den Brok, Martijn H; Heerschap, Arend; Fütterer, Jurgen J; Adema, Gosse J

    2015-06-01

    The best known method of high-intensity focused ultrasound is thermal ablation, but interest in non-thermal, mechanical destruction is increasing. The advantages of mechanical ablation are that thermal protein denaturation remains limited and less damage is created to the surrounding tissue by thermal diffusion. The two main techniques for mechanical fragmentation of tissue are histotripsy and boiling histotripsy. These techniques can be used for complete liquefaction of tumor tissue into submicron fragments, after which the fragmented tissue can be easily removed by natural (immunologic) responses. Interestingly it seems that there is a correlation between the degree of destruction and tissue specific characteristics based on the treatment settings used. In this review article, the technical aspects of these two techniques are described, and an overview of the in vivo pathologic and immunologic responses is provided. PMID:25813532

  20. Nonlinearity parameter B/A of biological tissue ultrasound imaging in echo mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulemonde, M.; Varray, F.; Bernard, A.; Basset, O.; Cachard, C.

    2015-10-01

    The nonlinearity B/A parameter influences the distortion of ultrasound waves during their propagation in tissue. Normal and pathological media have different B/A values and this parameter may be used to characterize them. In this paper the multitaper coherent plane wave compounding (MCPWC) is combined with the extended comparative method (ECM) to estimate the B/A parameter in simulation and acquisition. Using plane wave transmission and orthogonal apodization during beam forming improves the B/A estimation and delineation.

  1. Why Are Short Pulses More Efficient in Tissue Erosion Using Pulsed Cavitational Ultrasound Therapy (Histotripsy)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tzu-Yin; Maxwell, Adam D.; Park, Simone; Xu, Zhen; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.

    2010-03-01

    Histotripsy produces mechanical tissue fractionation through controlled cavitation. The histotripsy induced tissue erosion is more efficient with shorter (i.e., 3-6 cycles) rather than longer (i.e. 24 cycles) pulses. In this study, we investigated the reasons behind this observation by studying dynamics of the cavitating bubble clouds and individual bubbles during and after a therapy pulse. Bubble clouds were generated at a gel-water interface using 5 to 30-cycle 1 MHz pulses at P-/P+>19/125-MPa pressure and 1-kHz pulse repetition frequency. The evolution of the overall bubble cloud and individual bubbles were studied using high speed photography. Results show that: 1) within the first 10-15 cycles, the overall cloud grew to its maximum size; the individual bubbles underwent violent expansion and collapse, and grew in size with each cycle of ultrasound; 2) between the 15th cycle and the end of the pulse, the overall cloud size did not change even if further cycles of ultrasound were delivered; the individual bubbles no longer underwent violent collapse; 3) after the pulse, the overall cloud gradually dissolved; the individual bubbles may coalesce into larger bubbles for 0-40 ?s, and then gradually dissolved. These observations suggest that violent growth and collapse of individual bubbles occur within the first few cycles of ultrasound pulse most often. This may explain why extremely short pulses are more energy efficient in histotripsy-induced tissue erosion.

  2. Novel tissue mimicking materials for high frequency breast ultrasound phantoms.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Louise M; Fagan, Andrew J; Browne, Jacinta E

    2011-01-01

    The development and acoustical characterisation of a range of novel agar-based tissue mimicking material (TMMs) for use in clinically relevant, quality assurance (QA) and anthropomorphic breast phantoms are presented. The novel agar-based TMMs described in this study are based on a comprehensive, systematic variation of the ingredients in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) TMM. A novel, solid fat-mimicking material was also developed and acoustically characterised. Acoustical characterisation was carried out using an in-house scanning acoustic macroscope at low (7.5 MHz) and high frequencies (20 MHz), using the pulse-echo insertion technique. The speeds of sound range from 1490 to 1570 m. s(-1), attenuation coefficients range from 0.1 to 0.9 dB. cm(?1). MHz(-1) and relative backscatter ranges from 0 to -20 dB. It was determined that tissues can be mimicked in terms of independently controllable speeds of sound and attenuation coefficients. These properties make these novel TMMs suitable for use in clinically relevant QA and anthropomorphic phantoms and would potentially be useful for other high frequency applications such as intravascular and small animal imaging. PMID:21084158

  3. Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... findings that might indicate an increased risk for Down syndrome A pregnancy ultrasound may also be done in ... weeks of pregnancy to look for signs of Down syndrome or other problems in the developing baby. This ...

  4. Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... baby’s development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to produce a two-dimensional image of the baby while inside the mother’s uterus. The sound waves bounce off solid structures in the body ...

  5. Ultrasound Applied to Subcutaneous Fat Tissue Measurements in International Elite Canoeists.

    PubMed

    Kopinski, S; Engel, T; Cassel, M; Fröhlich, K; Mayer, F; Carlsohn, A

    2015-12-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) measurements with ultrasound have recently been introduced to assess body fat in elite athletes. However, appropriate protocols and data on various groups of athletes are missing. We investigated intra-rater reliability of SAT measurements using ultrasound in elite canoe athletes. 25 international level canoeists (18 male, 7 female; 23±4?years; 81±11?kg; 1.83±0.09?m; 20±3 training h/wk) were measured on 2 consecutive days. SAT was assessed with B-mode ultrasound at 8 sites (ISAK): triceps, subscapular, biceps, iliac crest, supraspinal, abdominal, front thigh, medial calf, and quantified using image analysis software. Data was analyzed descriptively (mean±SD, [range]). Coefficient of variation (CV%), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, 2.1) and absolute (LoA) and ratio limits of agreement (RLoA) were calculated for day-to-day reliability. Mean sum of SAT thickness was 30.0±19.4?mm [8.0, 80.1?mm], with 3.9±1.8?mm [1.2?mm subscapular, 8.0?mm abdominal] for individual sites. CV for the sum of sites was 4.7%, ICC 0.99, LoA 1.7±3.6?mm, RLoA 0.940 (?*? /÷1.155). Measuring SAT with ultrasound has proved to have excellent day-to-day reliability in elite canoe athletes. Recommendations for standardization of the method will further increase accuracy and reproducibility. PMID:26332903

  6. Coregistered three-dimensional ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Andres; Guo, Puyun; Gamelin, John; Yan, Shikui; Sanders, Mary M.; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecologic cancers, with a five-year survival rate of only 30% or less. Current imaging techniques are limited in sensitivity and specificity in detecting early stage ovarian cancer prior to its widespread metastasis. New imaging techniques that can provide functional and molecular contrasts are needed to reduce the high mortality of this disease. One such promising technique is photoacoustic imaging. We develop a 1280-element coregistered 3-D ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system based on a 1.75-D acoustic array. Volumetric images over a scan range of 80 deg in azimuth and 20 deg in elevation can be achieved in minutes. The system has been used to image normal porcine ovarian tissue. This is an important step toward better understanding of ovarian cancer optical properties obtained with photoacoustic techniques. To the best of our knowledge, such data are not available in the literature. We present characterization measurements of the system and compare coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images of ovarian tissue to histological images. The results show excellent coregistration of ultrasound and photoacoustic images. Strong optical absorption from vasculature, especially highly vascularized corpora lutea and low absorption from follicles, is demonstrated. PMID:19895116

  7. Ultrasound-guided three-dimensional needle steering in biological tissue with curved surfaces.

    PubMed

    Abayazid, Momen; Moreira, Pedro; Shahriari, Navid; Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a system capable of automatically steering a bevel-tipped flexible needle under ultrasound guidance toward a physical target while avoiding a physical obstacle embedded in gelatin phantoms and biological tissue with curved surfaces. An ultrasound pre-operative scan is performed for three-dimensional (3D) target localization and shape reconstruction. A controller based on implicit force control is developed to align the transducer with curved surfaces to assure the maximum contact area, and thus obtain an image of sufficient quality. We experimentally investigate the effect of needle insertion system parameters such as insertion speed, needle diameter and bevel angle on target motion to adjust the parameters that minimize the target motion during insertion. A fast sampling-based path planner is used to compute and periodically update a feasible path to the target that avoids obstacles. We present experimental results for target reconstruction and needle insertion procedures in gelatin-based phantoms and biological tissue. Mean targeting errors of 1.46±0.37 mm, 1.29±0.29 mm and 1.82±0.58 mm are obtained for phantoms with inclined, curved and combined (inclined and curved) surfaces, respectively, for insertion distance of 86-103 mm. The achieved targeting errors suggest that our approach is sufficient for targeting lesions of 3mm radius that can be detected using clinical ultrasound imaging systems. PMID:25455165

  8. Towards the Development of a Thyroid Ultrasound Biometric Scheme Based on Tissue Echo-morphological Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabra, Josè C. R.; Fred, Ana L. N.

    This paper proposes a biometric system based on features extracted from the thyroid tissue accessed through 2D ultrasound. Tissue echo-morphology, which accounts for the intensity (echogenicity), texture and structure has started to be used as a relevant parameter in a clinical setting. In this paper, features related to texture, morphology and tissue reflectivity are extracted from the ultrasound images and the most discriminant ones are selected as an input for a prototype biometric identification system. Several classifiers were tested, with the best results being achieved by a combination of classifiers (k-Nearest Neighbors, MAP and entropy distance). Using leave-one-out cross-validation method the identification rate was up to 94%. Features related to texture and echogenicity were tested individually with high identification rates up to 78% and 70%, respectively. This suggests that the acoustic impedance (reflectivity or echogenicity) of the tissue as well as texture are feasible parameters to discriminate between distinct subjects. This paper shows the effectiveness of the proposed classification, which can be used not only as a new biometric modality but also as a diagnostic tool.

  9. NOTE: Acoustical properties of selected tissue phantom materials for ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, K.; Sperl, J. I.; Vogel, M. W.; Niessner, R.; Haisch, C.

    2007-10-01

    This note summarizes the characterization of the acoustic properties of four materials intended for the development of tissue, and especially breast tissue, phantoms for the use in photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. The materials are agar, silicone, polyvinyl alcohol gel (PVA) and polyacrylamide gel (PAA). The acoustical properties, i.e., the speed of sound, impedance and acoustic attenuation, are determined by transmission measurements of sound waves at room temperature under controlled conditions. Although the materials are tested for application such as photoacoustic phantoms, we focus here on the acoustic properties, while the optical properties will be discussed elsewhere. To obtain the acoustic attenuation in a frequency range from 4 MHz to 14 MHz, two ultrasound sources of 5 MHz and 10 MHz core frequencies are used. For preparation, each sample is cast into blocks of three different thicknesses. Agar, PVA and PAA show similar acoustic properties as water. Within silicone polymer, a significantly lower speed of sound and higher acoustical attenuation than in water and human tissue were found. All materials can be cast into arbitrary shapes and are suitable for tissue-mimicking phantoms. Due to its lower speed of sound, silicone is generally less suitable than the other presented materials.

  10. Quantitative assessment of photoacoustic tomography systems integrating clinical ultrasound transducers using novel tissue-simulating phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, William C.; Jia, Congxian; Wear, Keith A.; Garra, Brian S.; Pfefer, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT) systems based on commercial ultrasound instruments have the benefit of dualmodality imaging, which increases their appeal from a clinical standpoint. However, factors that influence PAT system performance have not been thoroughly investigated and standardized test methods have not been established for image quality evaluation. To address these issues we have adapted phantom-based approaches from ultrasound imaging standards and implemented them to assess a PAT system developed for vascular imaging. Our system comprises a tunable near-infrared pulsed laser and a commercial ultrasound imaging system, including four interchangeable linear array clinical ultrasound transducers with varying center frequencies, acoustic bandwidths and geometries. Phantoms consisted of a customized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisol gel that simulates both optical and acoustic properties of breast tissue. One phantom incorporates a sub-resolution filament array suitable for bimodal ultrasound-photoacoustic imaging, while another contains an array of hemoglobin-filled cylindrical inclusions at various depths. Key performance characteristics were evaluated, including spatial resolution, signal uniformity, contrast, and penetration depth. These characteristics were evaluated at 750 nm at radiant exposures below ANSI safety limits. Effects of transducer properties on imaging performance were evaluated. Axial and lateral resolution ranged from 0.27-0.83 mm and 0.28-1.8 mm, respectively, and penetration depths from 1.9-4.2 cm were achieved. These results demonstrate variation in PAT system performance based on clinical transducer selection, as well as the utility of realistic phantom-based test methods in performing benchtop evaluations of system performance.

  11. Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying Min; Judkewitz, Benjamin; DiMarzio, Charles A.; Yang, Changhuei

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging is one of the most important research tools in biomedical sciences. However, scattering of light severely impedes imaging of thick biological samples beyond the ballistic regime. Here we directly show focusing and high-resolution fluorescence imaging deep inside biological tissues by digitally time-reversing ultrasound-tagged light with high optical gain (~5×105). We confirm the presence of a time-reversed optical focus along with a diffuse background—a corollary of partial phase conjugation—and develop an approach for dynamic background cancellation. To illustrate the potential of our method, we image complex fluorescent objects and tumour microtissues at an unprecedented depth of 2.5 mm in biological tissues at a lateral resolution of 36 ?m×52 ?m and an axial resolution of 657 ?m. Our results set the stage for a range of deep-tissue imaging applications in biomedical research and medical diagnostics. PMID:22735456

  12. Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying Min; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Dimarzio, Charles A; Yang, Changhuei

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging is one of the most important research tools in biomedical sciences. However, scattering of light severely impedes imaging of thick biological samples beyond the ballistic regime. Here we directly show focusing and high-resolution fluorescence imaging deep inside biological tissues by digitally time-reversing ultrasound-tagged light with high optical gain (~5×10(5)). We confirm the presence of a time-reversed optical focus along with a diffuse background-a corollary of partial phase conjugation-and develop an approach for dynamic background cancellation. To illustrate the potential of our method, we image complex fluorescent objects and tumour microtissues at an unprecedented depth of 2.5 mm in biological tissues at a lateral resolution of 36 ?m×52 ?m and an axial resolution of 657 ?m. Our results set the stage for a range of deep-tissue imaging applications in biomedical research and medical diagnostics. PMID:22735456

  13. Synergistic ablation of liver tissue and liver cancer cells with high-intensity focused ultrasound and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Nguyen H; Murad, Hakm Y; Ratnayaka, Sithira H; Chen, Chong; Khismatullin, Damir B

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the combined effect of ethanol and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), first, on heating and cavitation bubble activity in tissue-mimicking phantoms and porcine liver tissues and, second, on the viability of HepG2 liver cancer cells. Phantoms or porcine tissues were injected with ethanol and then subjected to HIFU at acoustic power ranging from 1.2 to 20.5 W (HIFU levels 1-7). Cavitation events and the temperature around the focal zone were measured with a passive cavitation detector and embedded type K thermocouples, respectively. HepG2 cells were subjected to 4% ethanol solution in growth medium (v/v) just before the cells were exposed to HIFU at 2.7, 8.7 or 12.0 W for 30 s. Cell viability was measured 2, 24 and 72 h post-treatment. The results indicate that ethanol and HIFU have a synergistic effect on liver cancer ablation as manifested by greater temperature rise and lesion volume in liver tissues and reduced viability of liver cancer cells. This effect is likely caused by reduction of the cavitation threshold in the presence of ethanol and the increased rate of ethanol diffusion through the cell membrane caused by HIFU-induced streaming, sonoporation and heating. PMID:24798386

  14. Experimental high-intensity focused ultrasound lesion formation in cardiac tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratore, Robert; Kalisz, Andrew; Lee, Paul; Lizzi, Frederic; Fujikura, Kana; Otsuka, Ryo; Homma, Shunichi

    2001-05-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) (4.5-7.5 MHz) was used to form lesions in cardiac tissue, with an ultimate objective of treating conditions such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and ventricular tachycardia. Ultrasound attenuation coefficients were experimentally determined in vitro for calf myocardial tissue, both muscle and pericardial fat. These coefficients were employed in computational models of linear beam propagation, tissue heating profiles and thermal lesion formation for a variety of focused transducers. Modeling was performed for continuous and pulsed exposures. These models suggested initial power levels and exposure durations for in vitro experiments on calf ventricles and septa and ex vivo experiments on canine whole hearts. Repeatability of lesion size and placement was studied as power and exposure parameters varied around the initial values. With these experimental results, power and exposure parameters were selected to create lesions in vivo in canine ventricles and septa in open-chest, anesthetized dogs. Pulsed exposures were synchronized to cardiac and respiration cycles to ensure accurate placement of the lesions. These initial in vivo experiments showed that HIFU treatments in the beating heart are feasible; they also identified refinements that are now being implemented for better control of lesion size and placement. [Work supported by NCI and NHLBI Grant 5R01 CA84588.

  15. Ultrasound Elastography for Estimation of Regional Strain of Multilayered Hydrogels and Tissue-Engineered Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chen-Yuan; Heebner, Joseph; Baskaran, Harihara; Welter, Jean F; Mansour, Joseph M

    2015-12-01

    Tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage constructs tend to develop inhomogeneously, thus, to predict the mechanical performance of the tissue, conventional biomechanical testing, which yields average material properties, is of limited value. Rather, techniques for evaluating regional and depth-dependent properties of TE cartilage, preferably non-destructively, are required. The purpose of this study was to build upon our previous results and to investigate the feasibility of using ultrasound elastography to non-destructively assess the depth-dependent biomechanical characteristics of TE cartilage while in a sterile bioreactor. As a proof-of-concept, and to standardize an assessment protocol, a well-characterized three-layered hydrogel construct was used as a surrogate for TE cartilage, and was studied under controlled incremental compressions. The strain field of the construct predicted by elastography was then validated by comparison with a poroelastic finite-element analysis (FEA). On average, the differences between the strains predicted by elastography and the FEA were within 10%. Subsequently engineered cartilage tissue was evaluated in the same test fixture. Results from these examinations showed internal regions where the local strain was 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than that near the surface. These studies document the feasibility of using ultrasound to evaluate the mechanical behaviors of maturing TE constructs in a sterile environment. PMID:26077987

  16. Consistency check of diagnostic ultrasound transducer arrays using tissue-equivalent phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Steffen; Kopp, Andreas; Liebscher, Eckhard; Rosenfeld, Eike

    2012-05-01

    Measurements at two different types of Phantoms - a classic thread phantom and a 3D cyst phantom - were carried out to assess the technical quality of ultrasound B-scan systems. Using statistical methods we examined whether the phantoms are suitable for a consistency test of the transducer arrays. Based on simulated transducer failures it was found that in particular the detection of local of element failures in arrays turned out to be problematic.

  17. Effects of acoustic parameters on bubble cloud dynamics in ultrasound tissue erosion (histotripsy)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Hall, Timothy L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    High intensity pulsed ultrasound can produce significant mechanical tissue fractionation with sharp boundaries (“histotripsy”). At a tissue-fluid interface, histotripsy produces clearly demarcated tissue erosion and the erosion efficiency depends on pulse parameters. Acoustic cavitation is believed to be the primary mechanism for the histotripsy process. To investigate the physical basis of the dependence of tissue erosion on pulse parameters, an optical method was used to monitor the effects of pulse parameters on the cavitating bubble cloud generated by histotripsy pulses at a tissue-water interface. The pulse parameters studied include pulse duration, peak rarefactional pressure, and pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Results show that the duration of growth and collapse (collapse cycle) of the bubble cloud increased with increasing pulse duration, peak rarefactional pressure, and PRF when the next pulse arrived after the collapse of the previous bubble cloud. When the PRF was too high such that the next pulse arrived before the collapse of the previous bubble cloud, only a portion of histotripsy pulses could effectively create and collapse the bubble cloud. The collapse cycle of the bubble cloud also increased with increasing gas concentration. These results may explain previous in vitro results on effects of pulse parameters on tissue erosion. PMID:17614482

  18. Ultrasound assessment of ex vivo lung tissue properties using a fluid-filled negative pressure bath.

    PubMed

    Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Bates, Melissa L; Cortes, Sonia Y; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Vanderby, Ray

    2014-07-01

    A relationship between tendon stress and strain and ultrasonic echo intensity has previously been defined in tendons, demonstrating a correlation between tissue stiffness and echo intensity. An analogous relationship between volume-dependent pressure changes and echo intensity changes in inflating lungs would indicate a correlation between lung compliance and echo intensity. Lung compliance is an important metric to diagnose pathologies which affect lung tissue mechanics, such as emphysema and cystic fibrosis. The goal of this study is to demonstrate a correlation between ultrasound echo intensity and lung tissue mechanics in an ex vivo model using a fluid-filled negative pressure bath design which provides a controlled environment for ultrasonic and mechanical measurements. Lungs from 4 male Sprague-Dawley rats were removed and mechanically tested via inflation and deflation in a negative pressure chamber filled with hetastarch. Specific volumes (1, 2, 3, and 4 mL) were removed from the chamber using a syringe to create negative pressure, which resulted in lung inflation. A pressure transducer recorded the pressure around the lungs. From these data, lung compliance was calculated. Ultrasound images were captured through the chamber wall to determine echo intensity (grayscale brightness in the ultrasound image), which was then related to mechanical parameters. Ultrasound images of the lung were successfully captured through the chamber wall with sufficient resolution to deduce echo intensity changes in the lung tissue. Echo intensity (0-255 scale) increased with volumetric changes (18.4 ± 5.5, 22.6 ± 5.1, 26.1 ± 7.5, and 42.9 ± 19.5 for volumetric changes of 1, 2, 3, and 4 mL) in a pattern similar to pressure (-6.8 ± 1.7, -6.8 ± 1.4, -9.4 ± 0.7, and -16.9 ± 6.8 cm H2O for 1, 2, 3, and 4 mL), reflecting changes in lung compliance. Measured rat lung tissue compliance was comparable to reported values from ex vivo lungs (0.178 ± 0.067, 0.378 ± 0.051, 0.427 ± 0.062, and 0.350 ± 0.160 mL/cm H20 for 1, 2, 3, and 4 mL), supporting proof of concept for the experimental method. Changes in echo intensity reflected changes in lung compliance in this ex vivo model, thus, supporting our hypothesis that the stiffness-related changes in echo intensity originally seen in tendon can be similarly detected in lung tissue. The presented ultrasound-based methods allowed measurement of local lung tissue compliance in a controlled environment, however, the methods could be expanded to facilitate both ex vivo and in vivo studies. PMID:24805068

  19. Harmonic Band Spectrum Analysis of Backscattered Ultrasound from Lesioned and Normal Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratore, Robert; Lizzi, Frederic L.; Silverman, Ronald H.

    2006-05-01

    HIFU dose curves (lesion size vs. exposure parameters) exhibit scatter because of local variations in the acoustic properties of tissue. Therefore, clinical applications of HIFU, such as cardiac and cancer ablation, will benefit from the ability to distinguish treated from normal tissue, which can provide the surgeon with lesion monitoring. However, HIFU lesions, especially protein-denaturing lesions (PDLs), may be difficult to visualize with conventional B-mode ultrasound. In this study, spectrum analysis of backscattered radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound was successful in imaging lesions. HIFU lesions were formed at 5 MHz for various intensities and durations in model tissues including degassed chicken breast in vitro, fresh rabbit liver ex vivo, and canine cardiac left ventricle in vivo. The tissues were scanned pre- and post-exposure using confocal array and single-element diagnostic probes incorporated into the HIFU transducer assembly. The diagnostic probes were excited with a monocycle pulse under conditions previously shown to generate a second harmonic comparable in amplitude to the fundamental, and RF echo-signal data were recorded. In an alternate set, the therapy and diagnostic transducers were operated pitch-catch, with the therapy transducer sending out a series of 0.4 ms pulses and the diagnostic transducer in passive receive mode. Spectrum analysis of the RF data was performed separately on first (fundamental) and second harmonic frequency bands. Linear regression fits to spectra computed for sliding regions-of-interest yielded 3 parameters: midband fit (integrated backscatter), y-intercept and slope; grayscale images were produced for each parameter. Differences among the B-mode and parameter images, and between the lesion site and adjacent untreated tissues, were characterized statistically. The results indicate that midband fit images of both the fundamental and harmonic offer improved contrast and lateral resolution compared to conventional images. PDLs and bubbly lesions that are not clearly visible in B-mode images can be imaged with harmonic band spectrum analysis.

  20. A Feed-forward Neural Network Algorithm to Detect Thermal Lesions Induced by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound in Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Rangraz, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Shakhssalim, Naser; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive ultrasound surgeries such as high intensity focused ultrasound have been developed to treat tumors or to stop bleeding. In this technique, incorporation of a suitable imaging modality to monitor and control the treatments is essential so several imaging methods such as X-ray, Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound imaging have been proposed to monitor the induced thermal lesions. Currently, the only ultrasound imaging technique that is clinically used for monitoring this treatment is standard pulse-echo B-mode ultrasound imaging. This paper describes a novel method for detecting high intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions using a feed forward neural-network. This study was carried on in vitro animal tissue samples. Backscattered radio frequency signals were acquired in real-time during treatment in order to detect induced thermal lesions. Changes in various tissue properties including tissue's attenuation coefficient, integrated backscatter, scaling parameter of Nakagami distribution, frequency dependent scatterer amplitudes and tissue vibration derived from the backscattered radio frequency data acquired 10 minutes after treatment regarding to before treatment were used in this study. These estimated parameters were used as features of the neural network. Estimated parameters of two sample tissues including two thermal lesions and their segmented B-mode images were used along with the pathological results as training data for the neural network. The results of the study shows that the trained feed forward neural network could effectively detect thermal lesions in vitro. Comparing the estimated size of the thermal lesion (9.6 mm × 8.5 mm) using neural network with the actual size of that from physical examination (10.1 mm × 9 mm) shows that we could detect high intensity focused ultrasound thermal lesions with the difference of 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm. PMID:23724369

  1. Lesions in Porcine Liver Tissues Created by Continuous High Intensity Ultrasound Exposures in Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Dong

    2013-02-01

    Lesions in porcine liver tissues created by continuous high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposures in vitro are theoretically and experimentally investigated, with the transmitter moving along a linear path at a fixed speed. Numerical simulations of the lesion formation are performed based on the Khokhlov—Zabolotskaya—Kuznetov equation and the bio-heat equation. In order to verify the theoretical predictions, experiments are performed in the one-dimensional scanning mode to measure the cross-sectional area of lesions created in the in vitro porcine liver exposed to 1.01-MHz HIFU pulses with the acoustic power of 70 W. The results indicate that, compared to the traditional discrete treatment protocol, the application of a continuous scanning model can create more uniform lesions in tissues and significantly reduces the total treatment time from 47s to 30s.

  2. Interlaced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system with real-time coregistration for ovarian tissue characterization

    PubMed Central

    Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Yuan, Guangqian; Kumavor, Patrick; Zanganeh, Saeid; Zhu, Quing

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Coregistered ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic imaging are emerging techniques for mapping the echogenic anatomical structure of tissue and its corresponding optical absorption. We report a 128-channel imaging system with real-time coregistration of the two modalities, which provides up to 15 coregistered frames per second limited by the laser pulse repetition rate. In addition, the system integrates a compact transvaginal imaging probe with a custom-designed fiber optic assembly for in vivo detection and characterization of human ovarian tissue. We present the coregistered US and photoacoustic imaging system structure, the optimal design of the PC interfacing software, and the reconfigurable field programmable gate array operation and optimization. Phantom experiments of system lateral resolution and axial sensitivity evaluation, examples of the real-time scanning of a tumor-bearing mouse, and ex vivo human ovaries studies are demonstrated. PMID:25069009

  3. Temperature Increase Dependence on Ultrasound Attenuation Coefficient in Innovative Tissue-mimicking Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccaro, R.; Magnetto, C.; Albo, P. A. Giuliano; Troia, A.; Lago, S.

    Although high intensity focused ultrasound beams (HIFU) have found rapid agreement in clinical environment as a tool for non invasive surgical ablation and controlled destruction of cancer cells, some aspects related to the interaction of ultrasonic waves with tissues, such as the conversion of acoustic energy into heat, are not thoroughly understood. In this work, innovative tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs), based on Agar and zinc acetate, have been used to conduct investigations in order to determine a relation between the sample attenuation coefficient and its temperature increase measured in the focus region when exposed to an HIFU beam. An empirical relation has been deduced establishing useful basis for further processes of validations of numerical models to be adopted for customizing therapeutic treatments.

  4. Modulation of the Effect of Transforming Growth Factor-?3 by Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Scaffold-Free Dedifferentiated Articular Bovine Chondrocyte Tissues.

    PubMed

    Ting, Stephanie Yin Wai; Montagne, Kevin; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Ushida, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsuko S

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) modulates the effect of transforming growth factor-?3 (TGF-?3) on the differentiation of scaffold-free dedifferentiated bovine articular chondrocyte tissues toward a cartilage-like phenotype. Specifically, the effect of these stimuli on the expression of hypertrophic markers collagen type I, collagen type X, and cartilage-degrading collagenase gene expression for a scaffold-free model was analyzed. A bioreactor that applied LIPUS directly from the transducer through a silicone gel to a six-well plate containing the tissues allowed simple, sterile, and large-scale experiments. Tissues were subjected to LIPUS of 55?mW/cm(2) in a 200??s burst sine wave of 1?MHz over a 10-day period with or without TGF-?3 (10?ng/mL). Tissues exposed to TGF-?3 had significantly increased glycosaminoglycan and total collagen protein production along with upregulated cartilage-specific gene expression, resulting in tissues with a higher Young's Modulus. However, these tissues had also upregulated gene expression for hypertrophic markers collagen type I, collagen type X, MMP-1, MMP-13, MMP-2, and also an increase in the phosphorylation of p38. The expression of these matrix-degrading enzymes was remediated by hypertrophic development and differentiate dedifferentiated bovine articular chondrocytes towards a chondrogenic lineage allowing it to be a valuable tool in cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25915185

  5. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Modeling of Nonlinear Propagation in Multi-layer Biological Tissues for Strong Focused Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ting-Bo; Liu, Zhen-Bo; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Dong; Gong, Xiu-Fen

    2009-08-01

    A theoretical model of the nonlinear propagation in multi-layered tissues for strong focused ultrasound is proposed. In this model, the spheroidal beam equation (SBE) is utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation in each layer tissue, and generalized oblique incidence theory is used to deal with the sound transmission between two layer tissues. Computer simulation is performed on a fat-muscle-liver tissue model under the irradiation of a 1 MHz focused transducer with a large aperture angle of 35°. The results demonstrate that the tissue layer would change the amplitude of sound pressure at the focal region and cause the increase of side petals.

  6. Ex Vivo Characterization of Canine Liver Tissue Viscoelasticity Following High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Shahmirzadi, Danial; Hou, Gary Y.; Chen, Jiangang; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Elasticity imaging has shown great promise in detecting High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) lesions based on their distinct biomechanical properties. However, quantitative mechanical properties of the tissue and the optimal intensity for obtaining the best contrast parameters remain scarce. In this study, fresh canine livers were ablated using combinations of ISPTA intensities of 5.55, 7.16 and 9.07 kW/cm2 and time durations of 10 and 30 s ex vivo; leading to six groups of ablated tissues. Biopsy samples were then interrogated using dynamic shear mechanical testing within the range of 0.1-10 Hz to characterize the post-ablation tissue viscoelastic properties. All mechanical parameters were found to be frequency dependent. Compared to the unablated cases, all six groups of ablated tissues showed statistically-significant higher complex shear modulus and shear viscosity. However, among the ablated groups, both complex shear modulus and shear viscosity were found to monotonically increase in groups 1-4 (5.55 kW/cm2 for 10 s, 7.16 kW/cm2 for 10 s, 9.07 kW/cm2 & 10 s, and 5.55 kW/cm2 & 30 s, respectively), but decrease in groups 5 and 6 (7.16 kW/cm2 for 30 s, and 9.07 kW/cm2 for 30 s, respectively). For groups 5 and 6, the temperature was expected to exceed the boiling point, and therefore, the decreased stiffening could be due to the compromised integrity of the tissue microstructure. Future studies are needed to estimate the tissue mechanical properties in vivo and perform real-time monitoring of tissue alterations during ablation. PMID:24315395

  7. Multiparametric MRI Analysis for the Identification of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Treated Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this study endogenous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers for accurate segmentation of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)-treated tumor tissue and residual or recurring non-treated tumor tissue were identified. Methods Multiparametric MRI, consisting of quantitative T1, T2, Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) and Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR) mapping, was performed in tumor-bearing mice before (n?=?14), 1 h after (n?=?14) and 72 h (n?=?7) after HIFU treatment. A non-treated control group was included (n?=?7). Cluster analysis using the Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis (ISODATA) technique was performed on subsets of MRI parameters (feature vectors). The clusters resulting from the ISODATA segmentation were divided into a viable and non-viable class based on the fraction of pixels assigned to the clusters at the different experimental time points. ISODATA-derived non-viable tumor fractions were quantitatively compared to histology-derived non-viable tumor volume fractions. Results The highest agreement between the ISODATA-derived and histology-derived non-viable tumor fractions was observed for feature vector {T1, T2, ADC}. R1 (1/T1), R2 (1/T2), ADC and MTR each were significantly increased in the ISODATA-defined non-viable tumor tissue at 1 h after HIFU treatment compared to viable, non-treated tumor tissue. R1, ADC and MTR were also significantly increased at 72 h after HIFU. Conclusions This study demonstrates that non-viable, HIFU-treated tumor tissue can be distinguished from viable, non-treated tumor tissue using multiparametric MRI analysis. Clinical application of the presented methodology may allow for automated, accurate and objective evaluation of HIFU treatment. PMID:24927280

  8. Imaging monitored loosening of dense fibrous tissues using high-intensity pulsed ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chia-Lun; Li, Pai-Chi; Shih, Wen-Pin; Huang, Pei-Shin; Kuo, Po-Ling

    2013-10-01

    Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is proposed as a new alternative treatment for contracture of dense fibrous tissue. It is hypothesized that the pulsed-HIFU can release the contracted tissues by attenuating tensile stiffness along the fiber axis, and that the stiffness reduction can be quantitatively monitored by change of B-mode images. Fresh porcine tendons and ligaments were adapted to an ex vivo model and insonated with pulsed-HIFU for durations ranging from 5 to 30 min. The pulse length was 91 µs with a repetition frequency of 500 Hz, and the peak rarefactional pressure was 6.36 MPa. The corresponding average intensities were kept around 1606 W cm-2 for ISPPA and 72.3 W cm-2 for ISPTA. B-mode images of the tissues were acquired before and after pulsed-HIFU exposure, and the changes in speckle intensity and organization were analyzed. The tensile stiffness of the HIFU-exposed tissues along the longitudinal axis was examined using a stretching machine. Histology examinations were performed by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Pulsed-HIFU exposure significantly decreased the tensile stiffness of the ligaments and tendons. The intensity and organization of tissue speckles in the exposed region were also decreased. The speckle changes correlated well with the degree of stiffness alteration. Histology examinations revealed that pulsed-HIFU exposure probably damages tissues via a cavitation-mediated mechanism. Our results suggest that pulsed-HIFU with a low duty factor is a promising tool for developing new treatment strategies for orthopedic disorders.

  9. Interrogating the viscoelastic properties of tissue using viscoelastic response (VISR) ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzo, Mallory Renee

    Affecting approximately 1 in 3,500 newborn males, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common lethal genetic disorders in humans. Boys with DMD suffer progressive loss of muscle strength and function, leading to wheelchair dependence, cardiac and respiratory compromise, and death during young adulthood. There are currently no treatments that can halt or reverse the disease progression, and translating prospective treatments into clinical trials has been delayed by inadequate outcome measures. Current outcome measures, such as functional and muscle strength assessments, lack sensitivity to individual muscles, require subjective effort of the child, and are impacted by normal childhood growth and development. The goal of this research is to develop Viscoelastic Response (VisR) ultrasound which can be used to delineate compositional changes in muscle associated with DMD. In VisR, acoustic radiation force (ARF) is used to produce small, localized displacements within the muscle. Using conventional ultrasound to track the motion, the displacement response of the tissue can be evaluated against a mechanical model. In order to develop signal processing techniques and assess mechanical models, finite element method simulations are used to model the response of a viscoelastic material to ARF excitations. Results are then presented demonstrating VisR differentiation of viscoelastic changes with progressive dystrophic degeneration in a dog model of DMD. Finally, clinical feasibility of VisR imaging is demonstrated in two boys with DMD.

  10. High resolution imaging beyond the acoustic diffraction limit in deep tissue via ultrasound-switchable NIR fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yanbo; Wei, Ming-Yuan; Cheng, Bingbing; Liu, Yuan; Xie, Zhiwei; Nguyen, Kytai; Yuan, Baohong

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging in deep tissue with high spatial resolution is highly desirable because it can provide details about tissue's structural, functional, and molecular information. Unfortunately, current fluorescence imaging techniques are limited either in penetration depth (microscopy) or spatial resolution (diffuse light based imaging) as a result of strong light scattering in deep tissue. To overcome this limitation, we developed an ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (USF) imaging technique whereby ultrasound was used to switch on/off the emission of near infrared (NIR) fluorophores. We synthesized and characterized unique NIR USF contrast agents. The excellent switching properties of these agents, combined with the sensitive USF imaging system developed in this study, enabled us to image fluorescent targets in deep tissue with spatial resolution beyond the acoustic diffraction limit. PMID:24732947

  11. Dynamic near infrared imaging with ultrasound guidance (dNIRUS): analytical model and benchtop validation on multilayer tissue simulating phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ronald X.; Rana, Abdul; Lee, Robert; Qiang, Bo

    2006-02-01

    We proposed a dynamic near infrared/ultrasound dual modal imaging system (dNIRUS) for characterizing suspicious breast lesions non-invasively. dNIRUS measures the change of tissue mechanical and physiologic parameters in response to dynamic stimuli such as cyclic mechanical compression. It integrates near infrared imaging of tumor physiologic properties, ultrasound imaging of tumor deformation/displacement, and real time pressure monitoring under a designated cyclic compression load. The concept of dNIRUS was quantitatively verified on multi-layer tissue simulating phantoms under cyclic compression. A lumped visco-elastic model was used to characterize the phantom mechanical properties and to simulate the tissue deformation. The diffusion equations were solved analytically in Fourier domain with the moving boundary. The theoretical models were verified by a series of bench top tests where a sensor head integrating an ultrasound probe and a near infrared probe was installed on a load frame. A cyclic compression force was applied to a two-layer tissue simulating phantom. Phantom displacement, compressive pressure and diffuse optical reflectance were recorded simultaneously. Deformation of each layer of the phantom was reconstructed from ultrasound images and was consistent with the load frame measurements as well as the theoretical predictions. Diffuse reflectance amplitude showed corresponding fluctuation during compression, while the phase did not change significantly at the oscillation frequency of 0.5Hz. Further work is necessary to develop forward and inverse algorithms for dynamic characterization of suspicious breast lesions.

  12. Analysis of cooling effect by blood vessel on temperature rise due to ultrasound radiation in tissue phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Kazuma; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Fukasawa, Kota; Hatano, Yuichi; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasound diagnostic equipment using ultrasound pulse-echo techniques is considered minimally invasive and highly versatile. However, one of the causes of damage due to ultrasound radiation is temperature rise caused by the absorption of sound energy. Therefore, it is very important to estimate the temperature rise caused by the radiation of ultrasound. Sound intensity in a medium is analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and the temperature distribution caused by sound is estimated by the heat conduction equation (HCE) method in this study. Because blood vessels keep the temperature constant in tissues, the cooling effect of blood flow has to be taken into account for the precise estimation of temperature rise in human tissues. In general, it is well known that capillary vessels are mainly responsible for the cooling effect in tissues and their effect can be estimated as a function of bloodstream ratio. In this paper, a preliminary study on the cooling effect by a large vessel is described for the precise estimation of temperature rise. Blood flow in blood vessels is analyzed using the Navier-Stokes equation. To confirm the precision of the numerical analysis, the results of the numerical analysis are compared with the experimental results using a soft tissue phantom.

  13. Hybrid optoacoustic and ultrasound biomicroscopy monitors’ laser-induced tissue modifications and magnetite nanoparticle impregnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Héctor; Sobol, Emil; Baum, Olga; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Tissue modification under laser radiation is emerging as one of the advanced applications of lasers in medicine, with treatments ranging from reshaping and regeneration of cartilage to normalization of the intraocular pressure. Laser-induced structural alterations can be studied using conventional microscopic techniques applied to thin specimen. Yet, development of non-invasive imaging methods for deep tissue monitoring of structural alterations under laser radiation is of great importance, especially for attaining efficient feedback during the procedures. We developed a fast scanning biomicroscopy system that can simultaneously deliver both optoacoustic and pulse-echo ultrasound contrast from intact tissues and show that both modalities allow manifesting the laser-induced changes in cartilage and sclera. Furthermore, images of the sclera samples reveal a crater developing around the center of the laser-irradiated spot as well as a certain degree of thickening within the treated zone, presumably due to pore formation. Finally, we were able to observe selective impregnation of magnetite nanoparticles into the cartilage, thus demonstrating a possible contrast enhancement approach for studying specific treatment effects. Overall, the new imaging approach holds promise for development of noninvasive feedback control systems that could guarantee efficacy and safety of laser-based medical procedures.

  14. Ultrasound characterization of red blood cell aggregation with intervening attenuating tissue-mimicking phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Franceschini, Emilie; Yu, François T.H.; Destrempes, François; Cloutier, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the ultrasonic frequency-dependent backscatter coefficient of aggregating red blood cells reveals information about blood structural properties. The difficulty in applying this technique in vivo is due to the frequency-dependent attenuation caused by intervening tissue layers that distorts the spectral content of signals backscattered by blood. An optimization method is proposed to simultaneously estimate tissue attenuation and blood structure properties, and was termed the structure factor size and attenuation estimator (SFSAE). An ultrasound scanner equipped with a wide-band 25 MHz probe was used to insonify porcine blood sheared in both Couette and tubular flow devices. Since skin is one of the most attenuating tissue layers during in vivo scanning, four skin-mimicking phantoms with different attenuation coefficients were introduced between the transducer and the blood flow. The SFSAE gave estimates with relative errors below 25% for attenuations between 0.115 and 0.411 dB?MHz and kR<2.08 (k being the wave number and R the aggregate radius). The SFSAE can be useful to examine in vivo and in situ abnormal blood conditions suspected to promote pathophysiological cardiovascular consequences. PMID:20136231

  15. Pulsed ultrasound enhances the delivery of nitric oxide from bubble liposomes to ex vivo porcine carotid tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, JT; Raymond, JL; Verleye, MC; Pyne-Geithman, GJ; Holland, CK

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery is a novel technique for enhancing the penetration of drugs into diseased tissue beds noninvasively. By encapsulating drugs into microsized and nanosized liposomes, the therapeutic can be shielded from degradation within the vasculature until delivery to a target site by ultrasound exposure. Traditional in vitro or ex vivo techniques to quantify this delivery profile include optical approaches, cell culture, and electrophysiology. Here, we demonstrate an approach to characterize the degree of nitric oxide (NO) delivery to porcine carotid tissue by direct measurement of ex vivo vascular tone. An ex vivo perfusion model was adapted to assess ultrasound-mediated delivery of NO. This potent vasodilator was coencapsulated with inert octafluoropropane gas to produce acoustically active bubble liposomes. Porcine carotid arteries were excised post mortem and mounted in a physiologic buffer solution. Vascular tone was assessed in real time by coupling the artery to an isometric force transducer. NO-loaded bubble liposomes were infused into the lumen of the artery, which was exposed to 1 MHz pulsed ultrasound at a peak-to-peak acoustic pressure amplitude of 0.34 MPa. Acoustic cavitation emissions were monitored passively. Changes in vascular tone were measured and compared with control and sham NO bubble liposome exposures. Our results demonstrate that ultrasound-triggered NO release from bubble liposomes induces potent vasorelaxation within porcine carotid arteries (maximal relaxation 31%±8%), which was significantly stronger than vasorelaxation due to NO release from bubble liposomes in the absence of ultrasound (maximal relaxation 7%±3%), and comparable with relaxation due to 12 ?M sodium nitroprusside infusions (maximal relaxation 32%±3%). This approach is a valuable mechanistic tool for assessing the extent of drug release and delivery to the vasculature caused by ultrasound. PMID:25336947

  16. Comparative study of temperature measurements in ex vivo swine muscle and a tissue-mimicking material during high intensity focused ultrasound exposures.

    PubMed

    Maruvada, S; Liu, Y; Pritchard, W F; Herman, B A; Harris, G R

    2012-01-01

    Tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs) can provide a convenient, stable, and reproducible means for testing high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) devices. When TMMs containing thermal sensors are used to measure ultrasound-induced temperature rise, it is important that measurement results reasonably represent those that occur in biological tissue. Therefore the aim of this paper is to compare the thermal behavior of the TMM under HIFU exposure to that of ex vivo tissue. This was accomplished using both a previously developed TMM and fresh ex vivo swine muscle that were instrumented with bare 50 µm thin wire thermocouples. HIFU at 825 kHz was focused at the thermocouple junction. 30 s exposures of increasing peak negative pressure (1 to 5 MPa) were applied and the temperature profile during and after sonication was recorded. B-mode imaging was used to monitor bubble activity during sonication. If bubble formation was noted during the sonication, the sonication was repeated at the same pressure levels two more times at 20 min intervals. Temperature traces obtained at various pressure levels demonstrated similar types of heating profiles in both the tissue and TMM, the exact nature of which depended on whether bubbles formed during the HIFU exposure. The onset of bubble activity occurred at lower ultrasonic pressures in the TMM, but the basic temperature rise features due to HIFU exposure were essentially the same for both materials. PMID:22127191

  17. Implementation of a Rotational Ultrasound Biomicroscopy System Equipped with a High-Frequency Angled Needle Transducer — Ex Vivo Ultrasound Imaging of Porcine Ocular Posterior Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Juho; Bae, Jinho; Lee, Chong Hyun; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical scanning of a single element transducer has been mostly utilized for high-frequency ultrasound imaging. However, it requires space for the mechanical motion of the transducer. In this paper, a rotational scanning ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) system equipped with a high-frequency angled needle transducer is designed and implemented in order to minimize the space required. It was applied to ex vivo ultrasound imaging of porcine posterior ocular tissues through a minimal incision hole of 1 mm in diameter. The retina and sclera for the one eye were visualized in the relative rotating angle range of 270° ? 330° and at a distance range of 6 ? 7 mm, whereas the tissues of the other eye were observed in relative angle range of 160° ? 220° and at a distance range of 7.5 ? 9 mm. The layer between retina and sclera seemed to be bent because the distance between the transducer tip and the layer was varied while the transducer was rotated. Certin features of the rotation system such as the optimal scanning angle, step angle and data length need to be improved for ensure higher accuracy and precision. Moreover, the focal length should be considered for the image quality. This implementation represents the first report of a rotational scanning UBM system. PMID:25254305

  18. Determining temperature distribution in tissue in the focal plane of the high (>100W/cm(2)) intensity focused ultrasound beam using phase shift of ultrasound echoes.

    PubMed

    Karwat, Piotr; Kujawska, Tamara; Lewin, Peter A; Secomski, Wojciech; Gambin, Barbara; Litniewski, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    In therapeutic applications of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) the guidance of the HIFU beam and especially its focal plane is of crucial importance. This guidance is needed to appropriately target the focal plane and hence the whole focal volume inside the tumor tissue prior to thermo-ablative treatment and beginning of tissue necrosis. This is currently done using Magnetic Resonance Imaging that is relatively expensive. In this study an ultrasound method, which calculates the variations of speed of sound in the locally heated tissue volume by analyzing the phase shifts of echo-signals received by an ultrasound scanner from this very volume is presented. To improve spatial resolution of B-mode imaging and minimize the uncertainty of temperature estimation the acoustic signals were transmitted and received by 8MHz linear phased array employing Synthetic Transmit Aperture (STA) technique. Initially, the validity of the algorithm developed was verified experimentally in a tissue-mimicking phantom heated from 20.6 to 48.6°C. Subsequently, the method was tested using a pork loin sample heated locally by a 2MHz pulsed HIFU beam with focal intensity ISATA of 129W/cm(2). The temperature calibration of 2D maps of changes in the sound velocity induced by heating was performed by comparison of the algorithm-determined changes in the sound velocity with the temperatures measured by thermocouples located in the heated tissue volume. The method developed enabled ultrasound temperature imaging of the heated tissue volume from the very inception of heating with the contrast-to-noise ratio of 3.5-12dB in the temperature range 21-56°C. Concurrently performed, conventional B-mode imaging revealed CNR close to zero dB until the temperature reached 50°C causing necrosis. The data presented suggest that the proposed method could offer an alternative to MRI-guided temperature imaging for prediction of the location and extent of the thermal lesion prior to applying the final HIFU treatment. PMID:26498063

  19. Diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in ultrasound using tissue characterization and pixel classification.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U R; Vinitha Sree, S; Mookiah, M R K; Yantri, R; Molinari, F; Ziele?nik, W; Ma?yszek-Tumidajewicz, J; St?pie?, B; Bardales, R H; Witkowska, A; Suri, J S

    2013-07-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common type of inflammation of the thyroid gland, and accurate diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis would be helpful to better manage the disease process and predict thyroid failure. Most of the published computer-based techniques that use ultrasound thyroid images for Hashimoto's thyroiditis diagnosis are limited by lack of procedure standardization because individual investigators use various initial ultrasound settings. This article presents a computer-aided diagnostic technique that uses grayscale features and classifiers to provide a more objective and reproducible classification of normal and Hashimoto's thyroiditis-affected cases. In this paradigm, we extracted grayscale features based on entropy, Gabor wavelet, moments, image texture, and higher order spectra from the 100 normal and 100 Hashimoto's thyroiditis-affected ultrasound thyroid images. Significant features were selected using t-test. The resulting feature vectors were used to build the following three classifiers using tenfold stratified cross validation technique: support vector machine, k-nearest neighbor, and radial basis probabilistic neural network. Our results show that a combination of 12 features coupled with support vector machine classifier with the polynomial kernel of order 1 and linear kernel gives the highest accuracy of 80%, sensitivity of 76%, specificity of 84%, and positive predictive value of 83.3% for the detection of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The proposed computer-aided diagnostic system uses novel features that have not yet been explored for Hashimoto's thyroiditis diagnosis. Even though the accuracy is only 80%, the presented preliminary results are encouraging to warrant analysis of more such powerful features on larger databases. PMID:23636761

  20. Temporal analysis of tissue displacement induced by a transient ultrasound radiation force.

    PubMed

    Callé, Samuel; Remenieras, Jean-Pierre; Matar, Olivier Bou; Hachemi, Melouka Elkateb; Patat, Frédéric

    2005-11-01

    One of the stress sources that can be used in dynamic elastography imaging methods is the acoustic radiation force. However, displacements of the medium induced by this stress field are generally not fully understood in terms of spatial distribution and temporal evolution. A model has been developed based on the elastodynamic Green's function describing the different acoustic waves generated by focused ultrasound. The function is composed of three terms: two far-field terms, which correspond to a purely longitudinal compression wave and a purely transverse shear wave, and a coupling near-field term which has a longitudinal component and a transverse component. For propagation distances in the shear wavelength range, the predominant term is the near field term. The displacement duration corresponds to the propagation duration of the shear wave between the farthest source point and the observation point. This time therefore depends on the source size and the local shear modulus of the tissue. Evolution of the displacement/time curve profile, which is directly linked to spatial and temporal source profiles, is computed at different radial distances, for different durations of force applications and different shear elastic coefficients. Experimental results performed with an optical interferometric method in a homogeneous tissue-mimicking phantom agreed with the theoretical profiles. PMID:16334661

  1. High-frequency ultrasound M-mode monitoring of HIFU ablation in cardiac tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumon, R. E.; Gudur, M. S. R.; Zhou, Y.; Deng, C. X.

    2012-10-01

    Effective real-time HIFU lesion detection is important for expanded use of HIFU in interventional electrophysiology (e.g., epicardial ablation of cardiac arrhythmia). The goal of this study was to investigate rapid, high-frequency M-mode ultrasound imaging for monitoring spatiotemporal changes in tissue during HIFU application. The HIFU application (4.33 MHz, 1000 Hz PRF, 50% duty cycle, 1 s exposure, 6100 W/cm2) was perpendicularly applied to porcine cardiac tissue with a high-frequency imaging system (Visualsonics Vevo 770, 55 MHz, 4.5 mm focal distance) confocally aligned. Radiofrequency (RF) M-mode data (1 kHz PRF, 4 s × 7 mm) was acquired before, during, and after HIFU treatment. Gross lesions were compared with M-mode data to correlate lesion and cavity formation. Integrated backscatter, echo-decorrelation parameters, and their cumulative extrema over time were analyzed for automatically identifying lesion width and bubble formation. Cumulative maximum integrated backscatter showed the best results for identifying the final lesion width, and a criterion based on line-to-line decorrelation was proposed for identification of transient bubble activity.

  2. Learning to estimate out-of-plane motion in ultrasound imagery of real tissue.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Catherine; Arbel, Tal

    2011-04-01

    In freehand 3D ultrasound (US), the relative positions and orientations of the 2D US images are usually obtained from a position tracking device, at the expense of clinical convenience. As an alternative or complement to this approach, transducer motion can be inferred from image content, using image registration techniques to recover in-plane motion and speckle decorrelation to recover out-of-plane motion. One difficulty with the speckle decorrelation approach is that for real tissues, the rate of speckle decorrelation is not only transducer dependent, but also medium dependent. This paper proposes a novel method for estimating the elevational correlation length of US signals in such media by learning its relationship to in-plane image statistics from a pool of synthetic US imagery generated from virtual phantoms of varied micro-structure. Learning takes place within a sparse Gaussian process regression framework. In experiments with synthetic US imagery and real imagery of animal tissue, the approach is shown to generalise well across transducer and medium changes, with performance better than a method based on speckle classification and comparable to our implementation of the heuristic state-of-the-art method. The proposed approach better lends itself to improvement through the creation of more realistic training sets. PMID:21185224

  3. Synchronous heating of two local regions of a biological tissue phantom using automated targeting of phase conjugate ultrasound beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutyansky, L. M.; Brysev, A. P.; Klopotov, R. V.

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous heating of two local regions of an absorbing medium by phase conjugate ultrasound beams focused on them has been experimentally demonstrated. A polymeric biological tissue phantom with two small air cavities scattering sound has been used as the medium irradiated by a 5-MHz "probe" ultrasound beam. The scattered field is incident on a parametric device for ultrasonic wave phase conjugation. The conjugate and amplified field is self-adaptive focused on scatterers and heats the medium owing to the absorption of the ultrasonic energy. In this case, these regions are heated by about 5°C in 70 s. Only an insignificant increase in the temperature owing to the heat conduction effect is observed in the remaining volume of the phantom. The implemented effect can be used in medical applications of phase conjugate ultrasound beams.

  4. Ultrasound -Assisted Gene Transfer to Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem/Progenitor Cells (ASCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Ueno, Hitomi; Hokari, Rei; Yuan, Wenji; Kuno, Shuichi; Kakimoto, Takashi; Enosawa, Shin; Negishi, Yoichi; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Chiba, Toshio; Hayashi, Shuji

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, multilineage adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have become increasingly attractive as a promising source for cell transplantation and regenerative medicine. Particular interest has been expressed in the potential to make tissue stem cells, such as ASCs and marrow stromal cells (MSCs), differentiate by gene transfection. Gene transfection using highly efficient viral vectors such as adeno- and sendai viruses have been developed for this purpose. Sonoporation, or ultrasound (US)-assisted gene transfer, is an alternative gene manipulation technique which employs the creation of a jet stream by ultrasonic microbubble cavitation. Sonoporation using non-viral vectors is expected to be a much safer, although less efficient, tool for prospective clinical gene therapy. In this report, we assessed the efficacy of the sonoporation technique for gene transfer to ASCs. We isolated and cultured adipocyets from mouse adipose tissue. ASCs that have the potential to differentiate with transformation into adipocytes or osteoblasts were obtained. Using the US-assisted system, plasmid DNA containing beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes were transferred to the ASCs. For this purpose, a Sonopore 4000 (NEPAGENE Co.) and a Sonazoid (Daiichi Sankyo Co.) instrument were used in combination. ASCs were subjected to US (3.1 MHz, 50% duty cycle, burst rate 2.0 Hz, intensity 1.2 W/cm2, exposure time 30 sec). We observed that the gene was more efficiently transferred with increased concentrations of plasmid DNA (5-150 ?g/mL). However, further optimization of the US parameters is required, as the gene transfer efficiency was still relatively low. In conclusion, we herein demonstrate that a gene can be transferred to ASCs using our US-assisted system. In regenerative medicine, this system might resolve the current issues surrounding the use of viral vectors for gene transfer.

  5. Heating of tissues in vivo by pulsed focused ultrasound to stimulate enhanced HSP expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawska, Tamara; Wójcik, Janusz; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2011-09-01

    The main aim of this work was numerical modeling of temperature fields induced in soft tissues in vivo by pulsed focused ultrasound during neurodegenerative disease treatment and experimental verification of the proposed model for a rat liver. The new therapeutic approach to neurodegenerative diseases consists of stimulation of enhanced expression of the Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) which are responsible for immunity of cells to stress. During therapy the temperature rise in tissues in vivo should not exceed 6 °C above level of the thermal norm (37 °C). First, the 3D acoustic pressure field, and the rate of heat production per unit volume due to that field, were calculated using our 3D numerical solver capable of predicting nonlinear propagation of pulsed high intensity waves generated from circular focused acoustic sources in multilayer configuration of attenuating media. The two-layer configuration of media (water—rat liver) assumed in calculations fairly well approximated both the real anatomic dimensions of rat liver and the geometric scheme of our experimental set-up. A numerical solution of the Pennes bio-heat transfer equation which accounted for the effects of heat diffusion, blood perfusion and metabolism rates, was employed to calculate the temperature fields induced in the rat liver by the ultrasonic beam. The numerical simulation results were verified experimentally using a thermocouple inserted in the liver of a rat under anesthesia at the beam focus. The quantitative analysis of the obtained results enabled estimation of the effects of several acoustic and thermal parameters of the rat liver in vivo on the temperature rise, as well as determination of exposure time for ultrasonic beams with varied acoustic power generated by a 2-MHz circular transducer of 15-mm diameter and 25-mm focal length, in order to avoid the tissue overheating that leads to cells necrosis, which would be unacceptable in neurodegenerative disease treatment.

  6. Nonlinear ultrasound propagation through layered liquid and tissue-equivalent media: computational and experimental results at high frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ross; Cherin, Emmanuel; Lam, Toby Y. J.; Tavakkoli, Jahangir; Zemp, Roger J.; Foster, F. Stuart

    2006-11-01

    Nonlinear propagation has been demonstrated to have a significant impact on ultrasound imaging. An efficient computational algorithm is presented to simulate nonlinear ultrasound propagation through layered liquid and tissue-equivalent media. Results are compared with hydrophone measurements. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of nonlinear propagation in high frequency ultrasound micro-imaging. The acoustic field of a focused transducer (20 MHz centre frequency, f-number 2.5) was simulated for layered media consisting of water and tissue-mimicking phantom, for several wide-bandwidth source pulses. The simulation model accounted for the effects of diffraction, attenuation and nonlinearity, with transmission and refraction at layer boundaries. The parameter of nonlinearity, B/A, of the water and tissue-mimicking phantom were assumed to be 5.2 and 7.4, respectively. The experimentally measured phantom B/A value found using a finite-amplitude insert-substitution method was shown to be 7.4 ± 0.6. Relative amounts of measured second and third harmonic pressures as a function of the fundamental pressures at the focus were in good agreement with simulations. Agreement within 3% was found between measurements and simulations of the beam widths of the fundamental and second harmonic signals following propagation through the tissue phantom. The results demonstrate significant nonlinear propagation effects for high frequency imaging beams.

  7. Transrectal Ablation Of Prostate Tissue Using Focused Ultrasound N.T. Sanghvil.2, R.S. Foster3, R. Bihrle3, F.J. Fry', M. Phillips' and

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Transrectal Ablation Of Prostate Tissue Using Focused Ultrasound N.T. Sanghvil.2, R.S. Foster3, RFocal Surgery Inc., Milpitas, CA ABSTRACT Canine and human prostates were treated with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) using a transrectal probe. Near the beam focus, temperatures were shown

  8. Microscopic observation of glass bead movement in soft tissue-mimicking phantom under ultrasound PW mode scanning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Funamoto, Kenichi; Tanabe, Masayuki; Hayase, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that stones and calcification in soft tissue show special enhancement in response to color flow (CF) or pulse Doppler (PW) mode ultrasound scan. This phenomenon is known as the "twinkling sign (TS)". The authors conducted an in vitro experiment to investigate the mechanism of TS occurrence by observing a glass bead in a transparent PVA-H soft tissue-mimicking phantom. The TS in PW mode showed a low-power and slow-velocity spectrum. At the same time, analysis of images by high-speed camera showed that the glass bead in the phantom oscillated following the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of the PW mode ultrasound scan. The harmonic oscillations were confirmed, as well. The ultrasound radiation force-driven micro-oscillation possibly affects the ultrasound propagation around the scatterer and triggers random signals in the received echo signals. The results indicate that TS is a phenomenon based on complicated acoustic-mechanical interaction of multiple mechanisms. Further investigation is required for gaining a full understanding of the mechanism of TS occurrence and its clinical application. PMID:26578491

  9. Ex vivo viscoelastic characterization of head and neck tissue abnormalities using ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccabi, Ashkan; Garritano, James; Arshi, Armin; Saddik, George; Tajudeen, Bobby A.; St. John, Maie; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2014-03-01

    In the absence of an imaging technique that offers a highly dynamic range detection of malignant tissue intra-operatively, surgeons are often forced to excise excess healthy tissue to ensure clear margins of resection. Techniques that are currently used in the detection of tumor regions include palpation, optical coherence tomography (OCT) elastography, dye injections, and conventional ultrasound to pinpoint the affected area. However, these methods suffer from limitations such as minimal specificity, low contrast, and limited depth of penetration. Lack of specificity and low contrast result in the production of vague disease margins and fail to provide a reliable guidance tool for surgeons. The proposed work presents an alternative diagnostic technique, ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA), which may potentially provide surgeons with detailed intra-operative imagery characterized by enhanced structural boundaries and well-defined borders based on the viscoelastic properties of tissues. We demonstrate selective imaging using ex vivo tissue samples of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with the presence of both malignant and normal areas. Spatially resolved maps of varying acoustic properties were generated and show good contrast between the areas of interest. While the results are promising, determining the precision and sensitivity of the USVA imaging system in identifying boundary regions as well as intensities of ex vivo tissue targets may provide additional information to non-invasively assess confined regions of diseased tissues from healthy areas.

  10. Design of optimal light delivery system for co-registered transvaginal ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of ovarian tissue

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Hassan S.; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Li, Hai; Alqasemi, Umar; Wang, Tianheng; Xu, Chen; Zhu, Quing

    2015-01-01

    A hand-held transvaginal probe suitable for co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging of ovarian tissue was designed and evaluated. The imaging probe consists of an ultrasound transducer and four 1-mm-core multi-mode optical fibers both housed in a custom-made sheath. The probe was optimized for the highest light delivery output and best beam uniformity on tissue surface, by simulating the light fluence and power output for different design parameters. The laser fluence profiles were experimentally measured through chicken breast tissue and calibrated intralipid solution at various imaging depths. Polyethylene tubing filled with rat blood mimicking a blood vessel was successfully imaged up to ?30 mm depth through porcine vaginal tissue at 750 nm. This imaging depth was achieved with a laser fluence on the tissue surface of 20 mJ/cm2, which is below the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) of 25 mJ/cm2 recommended by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Furthermore, the probe imaging capability was verified with ex vivo imaging of benign and malignant human ovaries. The co-registered images clearly showed different vasculature distributions on the surface of the benign cyst and the malignant ovary. These results suggest that our imaging system has the clinical potential for in vivo imaging and characterization of ovarian tissues. PMID:26640774

  11. Towards the feasibility of using ultrasound to determine mechanical properties of tissues in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Joseph M; Gu, Di-Win Marine; Chung, Chen-Yuan; Heebner, Joseph; Althans, Jake; Abdalian, Sarah; Schluchter, Mark D; Liu, Yiying; Welter, Jean F

    2014-10-01

    Our ultimate goal is to non-destructively evaluate mechanical properties of tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage using ultrasound (US). We used agarose gels as surrogates for TE cartilage. Previously, we showed that mechanical properties measured using conventional methods were related to those measured using US, which suggested a way to non-destructively predict mechanical properties of samples with known volume fractions. In this study, we sought to determine whether the mechanical properties of samples, with unknown volume fractions could be predicted by US. Aggregate moduli were calculated for hydrogels as a function of SOS, based on concentration and density using a poroelastic model. The data were used to train a statistical model, which we then used to predict volume fractions and mechanical properties of unknown samples. Young's and storage moduli were measured mechanically. The statistical model generally predicted the Young's moduli in compression to within <10% of their mechanically measured value. We defined positive linear correlations between the aggregate modulus predicted from US and both the storage and Young's moduli determined from mechanical tests. Mechanical properties of hydrogels with unknown volume fractions can be predicted successfully from US measurements. This method has the potential to predict mechanical properties of TE cartilage non-destructively in a bioreactor. PMID:25092421

  12. Experiences Using a Special Purpose Robot for Focal Ultrasound Based Tissue Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, S.; Li, J. R.; Mishral, R.; Lim, W. K.; Hacker, A.; Michel, M. S.; Alken, P.; Köhrmann, K. U.

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes implementation, empirical set-up and ex vivo trial results of a non-invasive robotic surgery system, called FUSBOT-BS, to treat tumours/cancers by the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The desired surgical effects of ultrasonic irradiation are decided by a pre-planned delivered dosage and the temporal aspects of wave propagation. The temperature rise in the target site depends upon the exposure conditions. A multiple transducer approach is adopted in this research. Surgical planning and deployment of the probes in a given location and specified trajectory is accomplished using robotic techniques. The test results for ablation were conducted in biological phantoms and in various animal tissues, in vitro, such as fat, muscle, and kidney from lamb, beef and pork. The representative results obtained in these empirical studies are presented, which help to understand dependence of crucial HIFU parameters to decide the treatment planning and surgical protocols. The robotic system achieved an end-point accuracy of ±0.5mm. It is possible to precisely position target lesions and ablate remote target sites of varying shapes and sizes with flexible protocols.

  13. Spatial and temporal-controlled tissue heating on a modified clinical ultrasound scanner for generating mild hyperthermia in tumors.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Dustin E; Lai, Chun-Yen; Stephens, Douglas N; Sutcliffe, Patrick; Paoli, Eric E; Barnes, Stephen H; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2010-01-01

    A new system is presented for generating controlled tissue heating with a clinical ultrasound scanner, and initial in vitro and in vivo results are presented that demonstrate both transient and sustained heating in the mild-hyperthermia range of 37 ( degrees )C-42 ( degrees )C. The system consists of a Siemens Antares ultrasound scanner, a custom dual-frequency three-row transducer array and an external temperature feedback control system. The transducer has two outer rows that operate at 1.5 MHz for tissue heating and a center row that operates at 5 MHz for B-mode imaging to guide the therapy. We compare the field maps obtained using a hydrophone against calculations of the ultrasound beam based on monochromatic and linear assumptions. Using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we compare predicted time-dependent thermal profiles to measured profiles for soy tofu as a tissue-mimicking phantom. In vitro results show differential heating of 6 ( degrees )C for chicken breast and tofu. In vivo tests of the system were performed on three mice bearing Met-1 tumors, which is a model of aggressive, metastatic, and highly vascular breast cancer. In superficially implanted tumors, we demonstrate controlled heating to 42 ( degrees )C. We show that the system is able to maintain the temperature to within 0.1 ( degrees )C of the desired temperature both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20064754

  14. Spatial and Temporal Controlled Tissue Heating on a Modified Clinical Ultrasound Scanner for Generating Mild Hyperthermia in Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Dustin E.; Lai, Chun-Yen; Stephens, Douglas N.; Sutcliffe, Patrick; Paoli, Eric E.; Barnes, Stephen H.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2009-01-01

    A new system is presented for generating controlled tissue heating with a clinical ultrasound scanner, and initial in vitro and in vivo results are presented that demonstrate both transient and sustained heating in the mild-hyperthermia range of 37–42ºC. The system consists of a Siemens Antares™ ultrasound scanner, a custom dual-frequency 3-row transducer array and an external temperature feedback control system. The transducer has 2 outer rows that operate at 1.5 MHz for tissue heating and a center row that operates at 5 MHz for B-mode imaging to guide the therapy. We compare the field maps obtained using a hydrophone against calculations of the ultrasound beam based on monochromatic and linear assumptions. Using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we compare predicted time-dependent thermal profiles to measured profiles for soy tofu as a tissue-mimicking phantom. In vitro results show differential heating of 6ºC for chicken breast and tofu. In vivo tests of the system were performed on three mice bearing Met-1 tumors, which is a model of aggressive, metastatic and highly vascular breast cancer. In superficially implanted tumors, we demonstrate controlled heating to 42ºC. We show that the system is able to maintain the temperature to within 0.1ºC of the desired temperature both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20064754

  15. Prediction and validation of DXA-derived appendicular lean soft tissue mass by ultrasound in older adults.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Thiebaud, Robert S; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Young, Kaelin C

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop regression-based prediction equations for estimating dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived appendicular lean soft tissue mass (aLM) using ultrasound and to investigate the validity of these equations in 102 Caucasian adults aged 50 to 76 years. The subjects were randomly separated into two groups: 71 in the model-development group (41 men and 30 women) and 31 in the cross-validation group (18 men and 13 women). aLM was measured using a DXA, and muscle thickness (MT) was measured using ultrasound at 9 sites. Stepwise linear regression analysis was used to determine predictive models for DXA-derived aLM from MT variables, sex, and age. A number of ultrasound prediction equations for estimation of aLM were developed and then cross-validated in a subsample of older adults. The results indicated that ultrasound MT and MT × height can be used to accurately and reliably estimate DXA-derived aLM in older Caucasian adults. PMID:26552906

  16. The effect of the shape and size of gold seeds irradiated with ultrasound on the bio-heat transfer in tissue.

    PubMed

    Gkigkitzis, Ioannis; Austerlitz, Carlos; Haranas, Ioannis; Campos, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to propose a new methodology to treat prostate cancer with macro-rod-shaped gold seeds irradiated with ultrasound and develop a new computational method for temperature and thermal dose control of hyperthermia therapy induced by the proposed procedure. A computer code representation, based on the bio-heat diffusion equation, was developed to calculate the heat deposition and temperature elevation patterns in a gold rod and in the tissue surrounding it as a result of different therapy durations and ultrasound power simulations. The numerical results computed provide quantitative information on the interaction between high-energy ultrasound, gold seeds and biological tissues and can replicate the pattern observed in experimental studies. The effect of differences in shapes and sizes of gold rod targets irradiated with ultrasound is calculated and the heat enhancement and the bio-heat transfer in tissue are analyzed. PMID:25417020

  17. Ultrasound tissue characterization does not differentiate genotype, but indexes ejection fraction deterioration in becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Vincenzo; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Holland, Mark R; Camastra, Giovanni; Ansalone, Gerardo; Ricci, Enzo; Mela, Julia; Sciarra, Federico; Di Gennaro, Marco

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the study were, first, to assess whether myocardial ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) can be used to differentiate between patients with deletions and those without deletions; and second, to determine whether UTC is helpful in diagnosing the evolution of left ventricular dysfunction, a precursor of dilated cardiomyopathy. Both cyclic variation of integrated backscatter and calibrated integrated backscatter (cIBS) were assessed in 87 patients with BMD and 70 controls. The average follow-up in BMD patients was 48 ± 12 mo. UTC analysis was repeated only in a subgroup of 40 BMD patients randomly selected from the larger overall group (15 with and 25 without left ventricular dysfunction). Discrimination between BMD patients with and without dystrophin gene deletion was not possible on the basis of UTC data: average cvIBS was 5.2 ± 1.2 and 5.5 ± 1.4 dB, and average cIBS was 29.9 ± 4.7 and 29.6 ± 5.8, respectively, significantly different (p < 0.001) only from controls (8.6 ± 0.5 and 24.6 ± 1.2 dB). In patients developing left ventricular dysfunction during follow-up, cIBS increased to 31.3 ± 5.4 dB, but not significantly (p = 0.08). The highest cIBS values (34.6 ± 5.3 dB, p < 0.09 vs. baseline, p < 0.01 vs BMD patients without left ventricular dysfunction) were seen in the presence of severe left ventricular dysfunction. Multivariate statistics indicated that an absolute change of 6 dB in cIBS is associated with a high probability of left ventricular dysfunction. UTC analysis does not differentiate BMD patients with or without dystrophin gene deletion, but may be useful in indexing left ventricular dysfunction during follow-up. PMID:25308949

  18. Estimation and imaging of breast lesions using a two-layer tissue structure by ultrasound-guided optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Zhu, Quing

    2015-06-01

    A new two-step estimation and imaging method is developed for a two-layer breast tissue structure consisting of a breast tissue layer and a chest wall underneath. First, a smaller probe with shorter distance source-detector pairs was used to collect the reflected light mainly from the breast tissue layer. Then, a larger probe with 9×14 source-detector pairs and a centrally located ultrasound transducer was used to collect reflected light from the two-layer tissue structure. The data collected from the smaller probe were used to estimate breast tissue optical properties. With more accurate estimation of the average breast tissue properties, the second layer properties can be assessed from data obtained from the larger probe. Using this approach, the unknown variables have been reduced from four to two and the estimated bulk tissue optical properties are more accurate and robust. In addition, a two-step reconstruction using a genetic algorithm and conjugate gradient method is implemented to simultaneously reconstruct the absorption and reduced scattering maps of targets inside a two-layer tissue structure. Simulations and phantom experiments have been performed to validate the new reconstruction method, and a clinical example is given to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  19. Quantitative Imaging of Young's Modulus of Soft Tissues from Ultrasound Water Jet Indentation: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Min-Hua; Mao, Rui; Lu, Yin; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Tian-Fu; Chen, Si-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Indentation testing is a widely used approach to evaluate mechanical characteristics of soft tissues quantitatively. Young's modulus of soft tissue can be calculated from the force-deformation data with known tissue thickness and Poisson's ratio using Hayes' equation. Our group previously developed a noncontact indentation system using a water jet as a soft indenter as well as the coupling medium for the propagation of high-frequency ultrasound. The novel system has shown its ability to detect the early degeneration of articular cartilage. However, there is still lack of a quantitative method to extract the intrinsic mechanical properties of soft tissue from water jet indentation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the loading-unloading curves and the mechanical properties of soft tissues to provide an imaging technique of tissue mechanical properties. A 3D finite element model of water jet indentation was developed with consideration of finite deformation effect. An improved Hayes' equation has been derived by introducing a new scaling factor which is dependent on Poisson's ratios v, aspect ratio a/h (the radius of the indenter/the thickness of the test tissue), and deformation ratio d/h. With this model, the Young's modulus of soft tissue can be quantitatively evaluated and imaged with the error no more than 2%. PMID:22927890

  20. A Tissue-Mimicking Ultrasound Test Object Using Droplet Vaporization to Create Point Targets

    PubMed Central

    Carneal, Catherine M.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.; Krücker, Jochen; Carson, Paul L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound test objects containing reference point targets could be useful for evaluating ultrasound systems and phase aberration correction methods. Polyacrylamide gels containing albumin-stabilized droplets (3.6 µm mean diameter) of dodecafluoropentane (DDFP) are being developed for this purpose. Perturbation by ultrasound causes spontaneous vaporization of the superheated droplets to form gas bubbles, a process termed acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV). The resulting bubbles (20 to 160 µm diameter) are small compared with acoustic wavelengths in diagnostic ultrasound and are theoretically suitable for use as point targets (phase errors <20° for typical f-numbers). Bubbles distributed throughout the material are convenient for determining the point spread function in an imaging plane or volume. Cooling the gel causes condensation of the DDFP droplets, which may be useful for storage. Studying ADV in such viscoelastic media could provide insight into potential bioeffects from rapid bubble formation. PMID:21937339

  1. Integrated photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence platform for diagnostic medical imaging-proof of concept study with a tissue mimicking phantom

    PubMed Central

    James, Joseph; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham; Woh, Lye Sun

    2014-01-01

    The structural and molecular heterogeneities of biological tissues demand the interrogation of the samples with multiple energy sources and provide visualization capabilities at varying spatial resolution and depth scales for obtaining complementary diagnostic information. A novel multi-modal imaging approach that uses optical and acoustic energies to perform photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging at multiple resolution scales from the tissue surface and depth is proposed in this paper. The system comprises of two distinct forms of hardware level integration so as to have an integrated imaging system under a single instrumentation set-up. The experimental studies show that the system is capable of mapping high resolution fluorescence signatures from the surface, optical absorption and acoustic heterogeneities along the depth (>2cm) of the tissue at multi-scale resolution (<1µm to <0.5mm). PMID:25071954

  2. Non-contact, ultrasound-based indentation method for measuring elastic properties of biological tissues using harmonic motion imaging (HMI).

    PubMed

    Vappou, Jonathan; Hou, Gary Y; Marquet, Fabrice; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Grondin, Julien; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of biological tissues in vivo could play a significant role in improving the current understanding of tissue biomechanics. In this study, we propose a method for measuring elastic properties non-invasively by using internal indentation as generated by harmonic motion imaging (HMI). In HMI, an oscillating acoustic radiation force is produced by a focused ultrasound transducer at the focal region, and the resulting displacements are estimated by tracking radiofrequency signals acquired by an imaging transducer. In this study, the focal spot region was modeled as a rigid cylindrical piston that exerts an oscillatory, uniform internal force to the underlying tissue. The HMI elastic modulus EHMI was defined as the ratio of the applied force to the axial strain measured by 1D ultrasound imaging. The accuracy and the precision of the EHMI estimate were assessed both numerically and experimentally in polyacrylamide tissue-mimicking phantoms. Initial feasibility of this method in soft tissues was also shown in canine liver specimens in vitro. Very good correlation and agreement was found between the measured Young's modulus and the HMI modulus in the numerical study (r(2) > 0.99, relative error <10%) and on polyacrylamide gels (r(2) = 0.95, relative error <24%). The average HMI modulus on five liver samples was found to EHMI = 2.62? ± ?0.41?kPa, compared to EMechTesting = 4.2? ± ?2.58?kPa measured by rheometry. This study has demonstrated for the first time the initial feasibility of a non-invasive, model-independent method to estimate local elastic properties of biological tissues at a submillimeter scale using an internal indentation-like approach. Ongoing studies include in vitro experiments in a larger number of samples and feasibility testing in in vivo models as well as pathological human specimens. PMID:25776065

  3. Non-contact, ultrasound-based indentation method for measuring elastic properties of biological tissues using Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vappou, Jonathan; Hou, Gary Y.; Marquet, Fabrice; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Grondin, Julien; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of biological tissues in vivo could play a significant role in improving the current understanding of tissue biomechanics. In this study, we propose a method for measuring elastic properties non-invasively by using internal indentation as generated by harmonic motion imaging (HMI). In HMI, an oscillating acoustic radiation force is produced by a focused ultrasound transducer at the focal region, and the resulting displacements are estimated by tracking radiofrequency signals acquired by an imaging transducer. In this study, the focal spot region was modeled as a rigid cylindrical piston that exerts an oscillatory, uniform internal force to the underlying tissue. The HMI elastic modulus EHMI was defined as the ratio of the applied force to the axial strain measured by 1D ultrasound imaging. The accuracy and the precision of the EHMI estimate were assessed both numerically and experimentally in polyacrylamide tissue-mimicking phantoms. Initial feasibility of this method in soft tissues was also shown in canine liver specimens in vitro. Very good correlation and agreement was found between the measured Young’s modulus and the HMI modulus in the numerical study (r2 > 0.99, relative error <10%) and on polyacrylamide gels (r2 = 0.95, relative error <24%). The average HMI modulus on five liver samples was found to EHMI = 2.62? ± ?0.41?kPa, compared to EMechTesting = 4.2? ± ?2.58?kPa measured by rheometry. This study has demonstrated for the first time the initial feasibility of a non-invasive, model-independent method to estimate local elastic properties of biological tissues at a submillimeter scale using an internal indentation-like approach. Ongoing studies include in vitro experiments in a larger number of samples and feasibility testing in in vivo models as well as pathological human specimens.

  4. Development of a Tissue-Mimicking Phantom for Evaluating the Focusing Performance of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Zongyu; Li Faqi; Zou Jiangzhong; Wang Zhibiao

    2006-05-08

    Objectives: To develop a tissue mimicking phantom which can be used to evaluate the focusing performance of the HIFU transducer, and the phantom should has the same acoustic characteristic and thermotics characteristic as the biological tissue. Materials and methods: The tissue mimicking phantom was made from water, gelatin, fresh biologic tissue Its ultrasonic parameters (attenuation coefficient) of the phantom was measured by the method of radiation pressure, and thermotics parameters of the phantom, including thermal conductivity, specific heat/fusion point et al were tested under the Measurement meter. The HIFU biological effect of the phantom was evaluated under the Model JC focused ultrasound tumor therapeutic system, developed and produced by Chongqing HIFU Technology Co. Ltd (working frequency: 0.7MHz; acoustic power: 200W; focal distance: 135mm; Acoustic focal region: 3x3x25 cubic mm). Results: The self-made phantom is sable, has smooth and glossy appearance, well-distributed construction, and good elasticity. We measured the followed values for acoustic and thermal properties: density 1049{+-}2 kg/m3; attenuation 0.532{+-}0.017 dB/cm (0.8 MHz), 0.612{+-}0.021 dB/cm (1.0 MHz); thermal conductivity 0.76{+-}0.08 W/m/- deg. C; specific heat 3653{+-}143 J/kg- deg. C; fusion point154{+-}8 deg. C. The BFR induced in the phantom after HIFU exposure was stable in its size and appearance. Conclusion: We produced and improved one tissue mimicking phantom successfully which had semblable ultrasound and thermphysical properties like the soft tissue, and can replace the bovine liver to investigate the HIFU biological effect and to detect the focusing performance of the HIFU energy transducer. The research was supported by Chongqing University of Medical Science (CX200320)

  5. Non-invasive characterization of polyurethane-based tissue constructs in a rat abdominal repair model using high frequency ultrasound elasticity imaging.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiao; Takanari, Keisuke; Hong, Yi; Lee, Kee-Won; Amoroso, Nicholas J; Wang, Yadong; Wagner, William R; Kim, Kang

    2013-04-01

    The evaluation of candidate materials and designs for soft tissue scaffolds would benefit from the ability to monitor the mechanical remodeling of the implant site without the need for periodic animal sacrifice and explant analysis. Toward this end, the ability of non-invasive ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) to assess temporal mechanical property changes in three different types of porous, biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds was evaluated in a rat abdominal wall repair model. The polymers utilized were salt-leached scaffolds of poly(carbonate urethane) urea, poly(ester urethane) urea and poly(ether ester urethane) urea at 85% porosity. A total of 60 scaffolds (20 each type) were implanted in a full thickness muscle wall replacement in the abdomens of 30 rats. The constructs were ultrasonically scanned every 2 weeks and harvested at weeks 4, 8 and 12 for compression testing or histological analysis. UEI demonstrated different temporal stiffness trends among the different scaffold types, while the stiffness of the surrounding native tissue remained unchanged. The changes in average normalized strains developed in the constructs from UEI compared well with the changes of mean compliance from compression tests and histology. The average normalized strains and the compliance for the same sample exhibited a strong linear relationship. The ability of UEI to identify herniation and to characterize the distribution of local tissue in-growth with high resolution was also investigated. In summary, the reported data indicate that UEI may allow tissue engineers to sequentially evaluate the progress of tissue construct mechanical behavior in vivo and in some cases may reduce the need for interim time point animal sacrifice. PMID:23347836

  6. Non-invasive Characterization of Polyurethane-based Tissue Constructs in a Rat Abdominal Repair Model Using High Frequency Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiao; Takanari, Keisuke; Hong, Yi; Lee, Kee-Won; Amoroso, Nicholas J.; Wang, Yadong; Wagner, William R.; Kim, Kang

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of candidate materials and designs for soft tissue scaffolds would benefit from the ability to monitor the mechanical remodeling of the implant site without the need for periodic animal sacrifice and explant analysis. Toward this end, the ability of non-invasive ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) to assess temporal mechanical property changes in three different types of porous, biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds was evaluated in a rat abdominal wall repair model. The polymers utilized were salt-leached scaffolds of poly(carbonate urethane) urea, poly(ester urethane) urea and poly(ether ester urethane) urea at 85% porosity. A total of 60 scaffolds (20 each type) were implanted in a full thickness muscle wall replacement in the abdomens of 30 rats. The constructs were ultrasonically scanned every 2 weeks and harvested at weeks 4, 8 and 12 for compression testing or histological analysis. UEI demonstrated different temporal stiffness trends among the different scaffold types, while the stiffness of the surrounding native tissue remained unchanged. The changes in average normalized strains developed in the constructs from UEI compared well with the changes of mean compliance from compression tests and histology. The average normalized strains and the compliance for the same sample exhibited a strong linear relationship. The ability of UEI to identify herniation and to characterize the distribution of local tissue in-growth with high resolution was also investigated. In summary, the reported data indicate that UEI may allow tissue engineers to sequentially evaluate the progress of tissue construct mechanical behavior in vivo and in some cases may reduce the need for interim time point animal sacrifice. PMID:23347836

  7. The activation of tissue factor by high intensity focused ultrasound—a pathway to acoustic-biochemical hemostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinmai; Barber, Frank E.; Morrissey, James H.; Church, Charles C.

    2006-05-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is believed to have great potential for inducing hemostasis in severely bleeding trauma victims. The addition of HIFU-activated biomolecular substances to the blood during treatment could significantly reduce the time required to achieve hemostasis, but such substances must remain inactive everywhere except at the site of injury. The integral-membrane protein, tissue factor (TF), is by far the most potent known trigger for the blood clotting cascade. We propose to employ liposomes with the extracellular domain of TF facing the lumen ("encrypted TF") to allow the TF molecules to be introduced into the blood stream without causing systemic activation of coagulation. HIFU sonication at the site of injury will be used to break up the liposomes and thereby expose TF to the plasma, thus combining the hemostatic potential of HIFU along with an increase in the rate of clot formation triggered by TF. In our initial studies we have produced a range of concentrations of liposomes containing encrypted TF in a buffer solution and exposed them to ultrasound at a number of different intensity levels and duty cycles. Clotting assays were performed to determine the level of the desired effect of the ultrasound. The results suggest that HIFU can be effective in exposing active TF from the encrypted liposomes to accelerate blood clotting at the site of exposure.

  8. Use of shock-wave heating for faster and safer ablation of tissue volumes in high intensity focused ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, V.; Yuldashev, P.; Sinilshchikov, I.; Partanen, A.; Khokhlova, T.; Farr, N.; Kreider, W.; Maxwell, A.; Sapozhnikov, O.

    2015-10-01

    Simulation of enhanced heating of clinically relevant tissue volumes using nonlinear ultrasound waves generated by a multi-element HIFU phased array were conducted based on the combined Westervelt and bio-heat equations. A spatial spectral approach using the fast Fourier transform algorithm and a corresponding analytic solution to the bioheat equation were used to optimize temperature modeling in tissue. Localized shock-wave heating within a much larger treated tissue volume and short, single HIFU pulses within a much longer overall exposure time were accounted for in the algorithm. Separation of processes with different time and spatial scales made the calculations faster and more accurate. With the proposed method it was shown that for the same time-average power, the use of high peak power pulsing schemes that produce high-amplitude shocks at the focus result in faster tissue heating compared to harmonic, continuous-wave sonications. Nonlinear effects can significantly accelerate volumetric heating while also permitting greater spatial control to reduce the impact on surrounding tissues. Such studies can be further used to test and optimize various steering trajectories of shock-wave sonications for faster and more controlled treatment of tissue volumes.

  9. Real-time interlaced ultrasound and photoacoustic system for in vivo ovarian tissue imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Yuan, Guangqian; Kumavor, Patrick; Zanganeh, Saeid; Zhu, Quing

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we report an ultrafast co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system based on FPGA parallel processing. The system features 128-channel parallel acquisition and digitization, along with FPGA-based reconfigurable processing for real-time co-registered imaging of up to 15 frames per second that is only limited by the laser pulse repetition frequency of 15 Hz. We demonstrated the imaging capability of the system by live imaging of a mouse tumor model in vivo, and imaging of human ovaries ex vivo. A compact transvaginal probe that includes the PAT illumination using a fiber-optic assembly was used for this purpose. The system has the potential ability to assist a clinician to perform transvaginal ultrasound scanning and to localize the ovarian mass, while simultaneously mapping the light absorption of the ultrasound detected mass to reveal its vasculature using the co-registered PAT.

  10. Photoacoustic detection and optical spectroscopy of high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in biologic tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Alhamami, Mosa; Kolios, Michael C.; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The aims of this study are: (a) to investigate the capability of photoacoustic (PA) method in detecting high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments in muscle tissuesin vitro; and (b) to determine the optical properties of HIFU-treated and native tissues in order to assist in the interpretation of the observed contrast in PA detection of HIFU treatments. Methods: A single-element, spherically concaved HIFU transducer with a centre frequency of 1 MHz was utilized to create thermal lesions in chicken breast tissuesin vitro. To investigate the detectability of HIFU treatments photoacoustically, PA detection was performed at 720 and 845 nm on seven HIFU-treated tissue samples. Within each tissue sample, PA signals were acquired from 22 locations equally divided between two regions of interest within two volumes in tissue – a HIFU-treated volume and an untreated volume. Optical spectroscopy was then carried out on 10 HIFU-treated chicken breast specimens in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm, in 1-nm increments, using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere attachment. The authors’ optical spectroscopy raw data (total transmittance and diffuse reflectance) were used to obtain the optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of HIFU-induced thermal lesions and native tissues by employing the inverse adding-doubling method. The aforementioned interaction coefficients were subsequently used to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient and light penetration depth of HIFU-treated and native tissues in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm. Results: HIFU-treated tissues produced greater PA signals than native tissues at 720 and 845 nm. At 720 nm, the averaged ratio of the peak-to-peak PA signal amplitude of HIFU-treated tissue to that of native tissue was 3.68 ± 0.25 (mean ± standard error of the mean). At 845 nm, the averaged ratio of the peak-to-peak PA signal amplitude of HIFU-treated tissue to that of native tissue was 3.75 ± 0.26 (mean ± standard error of the mean). The authors’ spectroscopic investigation has shown that HIFU-treated tissues have a greater optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients than native tissues in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm. In fact, at 720 and 845 nm, the ratio of the optical absorption coefficient of HIFU-treated tissues to that of native tissues was 1.13 and 1.17, respectively; on the other hand, the ratio of the reduced scattering coefficient of HIFU-treated tissues to that of native tissues was 13.22 and 14.67 at 720 and 845 nm, respectively. Consequently, HIFU-treated tissues have a higher effective attenuation coefficient and a lower light penetration depth than native tissues in the wavelength range 500–900 nm. Conclusions: Using a PA approach, HIFU-treated tissues interrogated at 720 and 845 nm optical wavelengths can be differentiated from untreated tissues. Based on the authors’ spectroscopic investigation, the authors conclude that the observed PA contrast between HIFU-induced thermal lesions and untreated tissue is due, in part, to the increase in the optical absorption coefficient, the reduced scattering coefficient and, therefore, the deposited laser energy fluence in HIFU-treated tissues.

  11. Monitoring tissue response to photodynamic therapy: the potential of minimally invasive electrical impedance spectroscopy and high-frequency ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brian C.; Molckovsky, Andrea; Czarnota, G. J.; Sherar, Michael D.; Kolios, Mike C.; Lilge, Lothar D.; Dattani, R. S.; Osterman, Kendra S.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    1999-07-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and high-frequency ultrasound (HFU) have been evaluated in various in vivo and in vitro models as potential methods to monitor biological changes induced by photodynamic therapy (PDT). EIS was assessed in tumor-bearing rat leg in vivo, in multicell tumor spheroids in vitro, and in normal rat liver tissue in vivo. HFU measurements, both imaging and backscatter frequency scanning, were tested in normal rat brain and skin treated in vivo. Marked changes in the EIS spectra were seen in all 3 models following PDT, depending on the photosensitizer and treatment parameters. With HFU, significant increases in echogenicity of the PDT-treated tissues were observed, with evidence of dose dependency and correlation with apoptotic cell death in vivo. While the results are encouraging for both modalities, a number of technical problems remain, particularly in the case of EIS, before these methods can be used reliably in mechanistic and clinical PDT applications.

  12. Research of Ultrasound-Mediated Transdermal Drug Delivery System Using Cymbal-Type Piezoelectric Composite Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Huiting; Gao, Chunming; Liu, Lixian; Sun, Qiming; Zhao, Binxing; Yan, Laijun

    2015-06-01

    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) implemented by especially low-frequency ultrasound is generally known as sonophoresis or phonophoresis which has drawn considerable wide attention. However, TDD has not yet achieved its full potential as an alternative to conventional drug delivery methods due to its bulky instruments. In this paper, a cymbal-type piezoelectric composite transducer (CPCT) which has advantages over a traditional ultrasound generator in weight, flexibility, and power consumption, is used as a substitute ultrasonicator to realize TDD. First, theoretical research on a CPCT based on the finite element analysis was carried out according to which a series of applicable CPCTs with bandwidths of 20 kHz to 100 kHz were elaborated. Second, a TDD experimental setup was built with previously fabricated CPCTs aimed at the administration of glucose. Finally, the TDD performance of glucose molecule transport in porcine skin was measured in vitro by quantifying the concentration of glucose, and the time variation curves were subsequently obtained. During the experiment, the driving wave form, frequency, and power consumption of the transducers were selected as the main elements which determined the efficacy of glucose delivery. The results indicate that the effectiveness of the CPCT-based delivery is constrained more by the frequency and intensity of ultrasound rather than the driving waveform. The light-weight, flexibility, and low-power consumption of a CPCT can potentially achieve effective TDD.

  13. DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is not yet known whether DNA methylation levels can be used to accurately predict age across a broad spectrum of human tissues and cell types, nor whether the resulting age prediction is a biologically meaningful measure. Results I developed a multi-tissue predictor of age that allows one to estimate the DNA methylation age of most tissues and cell types. The predictor, which is freely available, was developed using 8,000 samples from 82 Illumina DNA methylation array datasets, encompassing 51 healthy tissues and cell types. I found that DNA methylation age has the following properties: first, it is close to zero for embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells; second, it correlates with cell passage number; third, it gives rise to a highly heritable measure of age acceleration; and, fourth, it is applicable to chimpanzee tissues. Analysis of 6,000 cancer samples from 32 datasets showed that all of the considered 20 cancer types exhibit significant age acceleration, with an average of 36 years. Low age-acceleration of cancer tissue is associated with a high number of somatic mutations and TP53 mutations, while mutations in steroid receptors greatly accelerate DNA methylation age in breast cancer. Finally, I characterize the 353 CpG sites that together form an aging clock in terms of chromatin states and tissue variance. Conclusions I propose that DNA methylation age measures the cumulative effect of an epigenetic maintenance system. This novel epigenetic clock can be used to address a host of questions in developmental biology, cancer and aging research. PMID:24138928

  14. ULTRASOUND CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE ANIMAL MAMMARY TUMORS FROM THREE-DIMENSIONAL ACOUSTIC TISSUE MODELS

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    received by an ultrasonic transducer used to image tissues arise from small spatial variations- crostructures responsible for ultrasonic scattering remain unidentified. Identification of these structures ultrasonic backscatter measurements. Three-dimensional (3D) acoustic models of tissue microstructure, termed

  15. Coagulation and ablation patterns of high-intensity focused ultrasound on a tissue-mimicking phantom and cadaveric skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Han Gu; Zheng, Zhenlong; Park, Hyoun Jun; Yoon, Jeung Hyun; Oh, Wook; Lee, Cheol Woo; Cho, Sung Bin

    2015-12-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can be applied noninvasively to create focused zones of tissue coagulation on various skin layers. We performed a comparative study of HIFU, evaluating patterns of focused tissue coagulation and ablation upon application thereof. A tissue-mimicking (TM) phantom was prepared with bovine serum albumin and polyacrylamide hydrogel to evaluate the geometric patterns of HIFU-induced thermal injury zones (TIZs) for five different HIFU devices. Additionally, for each device, we investigated histologic patterns of HIFU-induced coagulation and ablation in serial sections of cadaveric skin of the face and neck. All HIFU devices generated remarkable TIZs in the TM phantom, with different geometric values of coagulation for each device. Most of the TIZs seemed to be separated into two or more tiny parts. In cadaveric skin, characteristic patterns of HIFU-induced ablation and coagulation were noted along the mid to lower dermis at the focal penetration depth of 3 mm and along subcutaneous fat to the superficial musculoaponeurotic system or the platysma muscle of the neck at 4.5 mm. Additionally, remarkable pre-focal areas of tissue coagulation were observed in the upper and mid dermis at the focal penetration depth of 3 mm and mid to lower dermis at 4.5 mm. For five HIFU devices, we outlined various patterns of HIFU-induced TIZ formation along pre-focal, focal, and post-focal areas of TM phantom and cadaveric skin of the face and neck. PMID:26341380

  16. SOUND-SPEED AND ATTENUATION IMAGING OF BREAST TISSUE USING WAVEFORM TOMOGRAPHY OF TRANSMISSION ULTRASOUND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG, LIANJIE; PRATT, R. GERHARD; DURIC, NEB; LITTRUP, PETER

    2007-01-25

    Waveform tomography results are presented from 800 kHz ultrasound transmission scans of a breast phantom, and from an in vivo ultrasound breast scan: significant improvements are demonstrated in resolution over time-of-flight reconstructions. Quantitative reconstructions of both sound-speed and inelastic attenuation are recovered. The data were acquired in the Computed Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system, comprising a 20 cm diameter solid-state ultrasound ring array with 256 active, non-beamforming transducers. Waveform tomography is capable of resolving variations in acoustic properties at sub-wavelength scales. This was verified through comparison of the breast phantom reconstructions with x-ray CT results: the final images resolve variations in sound speed with a spatial resolution close to 2 mm. Waveform tomography overcomes the resolution limit of time-of-flight methods caused by finite frequency (diffraction) effects. The method is a combination of time-of-flight tomography, and 2-D acoustic waveform inversion of the transmission arrivals in ultrasonic data. For selected frequency components of the waveforms, a finite-difference simulation of the visco-acoustic wave equation is used to compute synthetic data in the current model, and the data residuals are formed by subtraction. The residuals are used in an iterative, gradient-based scheme to update the sound-speed and attenuation model to produce a reduced misfit to the data. Computational efficiency is achieved through the use of time-reversal of the data residuals to construct the model updates. Lower frequencies are used first, to establish the long wavelength components of the image, and higher frequencies are introduced later to provide increased resolution.

  17. Sound-speed and attenuation imaging of breast tissue using waveform tomography of transmission ultrasound data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, R. Gerhard; Huang, Lianjie; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Waveform tomography results are presented from 800 kHz ultrasound transmission scans of a breast phantom, and from an in vivo ultrasound breast scan: significant improvements are demonstrated in resolution over time-of-flight reconstructions. Quantitative reconstructions of both sound-speed and inelastic attenuation are recovered. The data were acquired in the Computed Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system, comprising a 20 cm diameter solid-state ultrasound ring array with 256 active, non-beamforming transducers. Waveform tomography is capable of resolving variations in acoustic properties at sub-wavelength scales. This was verified through comparison of the breast phantom reconstructions with x-ray CT results: the final images resolve variations in sound speed with a spatial resolution close to 2 mm. Waveform tomography overcomes the resolution limit of time-of-flight methods caused by finite frequency (diffraction) effects. The method is a combination of time-of-flight tomography, and 2-D acoustic waveform inversion of the transmission arrivals in ultrasonic data. For selected frequency components of the waveforms, a finite-difference simulation of the visco-acoustic wave equation is used to compute synthetic data in the current model, and the data residuals are formed by subtraction. The residuals are used in an iterative, gradient-based scheme to update the sound-speed and attenuation model to produce a reduced misfit to the data. Computational efficiency is achieved through the use of time-reversal of the data residuals to construct the model updates. Lower frequencies are used first, to establish the long wavelength components of the image, and higher frequencies are introduced later to provide increased resolution.

  18. Method of and Apparatus for Histological Human Tissue Characterization Using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); Taler, George A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining important histological characteristics of tissue, including a determination of the tissue's health is discussed. Electrical pulses are converted into meaningful numerical representations through the use of Fourier Transforms. These numerical representations are then used to determine important histological characteristics of tissue. This novel invention does not require rectification and thus provides for detailed information from the ultrasonic scan.

  19. Method of and Apparatus for Histological Human Tissue Characterization Using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); TalEr, George A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining important histological characteristics of tissue, including a determination of the tissue's health. Electrical pulses are converted into meaningful numerical representations through the use of Fourier Transforms. These numerical representations are then used to determine important histological characteristics of tissue. This novel invention does not require rectification and thus provides for detailed information from the ultrasonic scan.

  20. Needle Steering in Biological Tissue using Ultrasound-based Online Curvature Estimation

    E-print Network

    Alterovitz, Ron

    in a homogenous gelatin phantom, a two-layer gelatin phantom, and a biological tissue phantom composed of a gelatin layer and in vitro chicken tissue. In all experiments, virtual obstacles and targets move in order phantom composed of gelatin and biological tissue. Steerable needles have been introduced to enable

  1. High-frequency ultrasound for monitoring changes in liver tissue during preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, Roxana M.; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Giles, Anoja; Sherar, Michael D.; Hunt, John W.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    Currently the only method to assess liver preservation injury is based on liver appearance and donor medical history. Previous work has shown that high-frequency ultrasound could detect ischemic cell death due to changes in cell morphology. In this study, we use high-frequency ultrasound integrated backscatter to assess liver damage in experimental models of liver ischemia. Ultimately, our goal is to predict organ suitability for transplantation using high-frequency imaging and spectral analysis techniques. To examine the effects of liver ischemia at different temperatures, livers from Wistar rats were surgically excised, immersed in phosphate buffer saline and stored at 4 and 20 °C for 24 h. To mimic organ preservation, livers were excised, flushed with University of Wisconsin (UW) solution and stored at 4 °C for 24 h. Preservation injury was simulated by either not flushing livers with UW solution or, before scanning, allowing livers to reach room temperature. Ultrasound images and corresponding radiofrequency data were collected over the ischemic period. No significant increase in integrated backscatter (~2.5 dBr) was measured for the livers prepared using standard preservation conditions. For all other ischemia models, the integrated backscatter increased by 4-9 dBr demonstrating kinetics dependent on storage conditions. The results provide a possible framework for using high-frequency imaging to non-invasively assess liver preservation injury.

  2. Combined ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging to noninvasively assess burn injury and selectively monitor a regenerative tissue-engineered construct.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung Yun; Chung, Eunna; Suggs, Laura J; Emelianov, Stanislav Y

    2015-06-01

    Current biomedical imaging tools have limitations in accurate assessment of the severity of open and deep burn wounds involving excess bleeding and severe tissue damage. Furthermore, sophisticated imaging techniques are needed for advanced therapeutic approaches such as noninvasive monitoring of stem cells seeded and applied in a biomedical 3D scaffold to enhance wound repair. This work introduces a novel application of combined ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging to assess both burn injury and skin tissue regeneration. Tissue structural damage and bleeding throughout the epidermis and dermis till the subcutaneous skin layer were imaged noninvasively by US/PA imaging. Gold nanoparticle-labeled adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) within a PEGylated fibrin 3D gel were implanted in a rat model of cutaneous burn injury. ASCs were successfully tracked till 2 weeks and were distinguished from host tissue components (e.g., epidermis, fat, and blood vessels) through spectroscopic PA imaging. The structure and function of blood vessels (vessel density and perfusion) in the wound bed undergoing skin tissue regeneration were monitored both qualitatively and semi-quantitatively by the developed imaging approach. Imaging-based analysis demonstrated ASC localization in the top layer of skin and a higher density of regenerating blood vessels in the treated groups. This was corroborated with histological analysis showing localization of fluorescently labeled ASCs and smooth muscle alpha actin-positive blood vessels. Overall, the US/PA imaging-based strategy coupled with gold nanoparticles has a great potential for stem cell therapies and tissue engineering due to its noninvasiveness, safety, selectivity, and ability to provide long-term monitoring. PMID:25384558

  3. Post-processing of polymer foam tissue scaffolds with high power ultrasound: a route to increased pore interconnectivity, pore size and fluid transport

    E-print Network

    N J Watson; R K Johal; Y Reinwald; L J White; A M Ghaemmaghami; S P Morgan; F R A J Rose; M J W Povey; N G Parker

    2013-02-18

    We expose thick polymer foam tissue scaffolds to high power ultrasound and study its effect on the openness of the pore architecture and fluid transport through the scaffold. Our analysis is supported by measurements of fluid uptake during insonification and imaging of the scaffold microstructure via x-ray computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and acoustic microscopy. The ultrasonic treatment is found to increase the mean pore size by over 10%. More striking is the improvement in fluid uptake: for scaffolds with only 40% water uptake via standard immersion techniques, we can routinely achieve full saturation of the scaffold over approximately one hour of exposure. These desirable modifications occur with no loss of scaffold integrity and negligible mass loss, and are optimized when the ultrasound treatment is coupled to a pre-wetting stage with ethanol. Our findings suggest that high power ultrasound is a highly targetted and efficient means to promote pore interconnectivity and fluid transport in thick foam tissue scaffolds.

  4. Enhancement of photoacoustic tomography in the tissue with speed-of-sound variance using ultrasound computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ren-Xiang; Chao, Tao; Xiao-Jun, Liu

    2015-11-01

    The speed-of-sound variance will decrease the imaging quality of photoacoustic tomography in acoustically inhomogeneous tissue. In this study, ultrasound computed tomography is combined with photoacoustic tomography to enhance the photoacoustic tomography in this situation. The speed-of-sound information is recovered by ultrasound computed tomography. Then, an improved delay-and-sum method is used to reconstruct the image from the photoacoustic signals. The simulation results validate that the proposed method can obtain a better photoacoustic tomography than the conventional method when the speed-of-sound variance is increased. In addition, the influences of the speed-of-sound variance and the fan-angle on the image quality are quantitatively explored to optimize the image scheme. The proposed method has a good performance even when the speed-of-sound variance reaches 14.2%. Furthermore, an optimized fan angle is revealed, which can keep the good image quality with a low cost of hardware. This study has a potential value in extending the biomedical application of photoacoustic tomography. Projection supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921504), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11422439, 11274167, and 11274171), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20120091110001).

  5. Analysis of Temperature Rise Induced by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound in Tissue-Mimicking Gel Considering Cavitation Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Ayumu; Okano, Hiroki; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2013-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) causes a selective temperature rise in tissue and is used as a noninvasive method for tumor treatment. However, there is a problem in that it typically takes several hours to treat a large tumor. The development of a highly efficient method is required to shorten the treatment time. It is known that cavitation bubbles generated by HIFU enhance HIFU heating. In this study, the enhancement of the heating effect by cavitation was estimated in a numerical simulation solving a bio-heat transfer equation (BHTE) by increasing the absorption coefficients in and out of the volume of cavitation bubbles. The absorption coefficients were obtained by a curve fitting the temperature rise near the focal point between experiment and simulation. The results show that cavitation bubbles caused the increase in ultrasonic absorption not only in but also near the volume of cavitation bubbles.

  6. Listening to speech recruits specific tongue motor synergies as revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation and tissue-Doppler ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    D'Ausilio, A.; Maffongelli, L.; Bartoli, E.; Campanella, M.; Ferrari, E.; Berry, J.; Fadiga, L.

    2014-01-01

    The activation of listener's motor system during speech processing was first demonstrated by the enhancement of electromyographic tongue potentials as evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over tongue motor cortex. This technique is, however, technically challenging and enables only a rather coarse measurement of this motor mirroring. Here, we applied TMS to listeners’ tongue motor area in association with ultrasound tissue Doppler imaging to describe fine-grained tongue kinematic synergies evoked by passive listening to speech. Subjects listened to syllables requiring different patterns of dorso-ventral and antero-posterior movements (/ki/, /ko/, /ti/, /to/). Results show that passive listening to speech sounds evokes a pattern of motor synergies mirroring those occurring during speech production. Moreover, mirror motor synergies were more evident in those subjects showing good performances in discriminating speech in noise demonstrating a role of the speech-related mirror system in feed-forward processing the speaker's ongoing motor plan. PMID:24778384

  7. Feasibility of optoacoustic visualization of high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in live tissue.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Parag V; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Oraevsky, Alexander A

    2010-01-01

    A 3-D optoacoustic imaging system was used to visualize thermal lesions produced in vivo using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). A 7.5-MHz, surgical, focused transducer with a radius of curvature of 35 mm and an aperture diameter of 23 mm was used to generate HIFU. A pulsed laser, which could operate at 755 nm and 1064 nm, was used to illuminate excised tissue and mice using a bifurcated fiber bundle resulting in two wide beams of light. Tomographic images were obtained while the specimens were rotated within a sphere outlined by a concave arc-shaped array of 64 piezo-composite transducers. These images were then combined to reconstruct 3-D volume images (voxel resolution 0.5 mm), which were acquired before and after HIFU exposure. In vivo optoacoustic images acquired at 1064 nm provided visualization of HIFU lesions. The lesion was indicated by a negative optoacoustic contrast. The molecular nature of such contrast may possibly be associated with reduction of the optical absorption due to reduced concentration of blood, tissue dehydration, denaturation of proteins and porphyrins, and reduction of thermoacoustic efficiency in the thermally treated tissue. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of optoacoustic imaging to assess and monitor the progress of HIFU therapy. PMID:20459235

  8. Feasibility of optoacoustic visualization of high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in live tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chitnis, Parag V.; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-D optoacoustic imaging system was used to visualize thermal lesions produced in vivo using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). A 7.5-MHz, surgical, focused transducer with a radius of curvature of 35 mm and an aperture diameter of 23 mm was used to generate HIFU. A pulsed laser, which could operate at 755 nm and 1064 nm, was used to illuminate excised tissue and mice using a bifurcated fiber bundle resulting in two wide beams of light. Tomographic images were obtained while the specimens were rotated within a sphere outlined by a concave arc-shaped array of 64 piezo-composite transducers. These images were then combined to reconstruct 3-D volume images (voxel resolution 0.5 mm), which were acquired before and after HIFU exposure. In vivo optoacoustic images acquired at 1064 nm provided visualization of HIFU lesions. The lesion was indicated by a negative optoacoustic contrast. The molecular nature of such contrast may possibly be associated with reduction of the optical absorption due to reduced concentration of blood, tissue dehydration, denaturation of proteins and porphyrins, and reduction of thermoacoustic efficiency in the thermally treated tissue. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of optoacoustic imaging to assess and monitor the progress of HIFU therapy. PMID:20459235

  9. Study of Tissue Phantoms, Tissues, and Contrast Agent with the Biophotoacoustic Radar and Comparison to Ultrasound Imaging for Deep Subsurface Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwi, R.; Telenkov, S.; Mandelis, A.; Gu, F.

    2012-11-01

    In this study, the imaging capability of our wide-spectrum frequency-domain photoacoustic (FD-PA) imaging alias "photoacoustic radar" methodology for imaging of soft tissues is explored. A practical application of the mathematical correlation processing method with relatively long (1 ms) frequency-modulated optical excitation is demonstrated for reconstruction of the spatial location of the PA sources. Image comparison with ultrasound (US) modality was investigated to see the complementarity between the two techniques. The obtained results with a phased array probe on tissue phantoms and their comparison to US images demonstrated that the FD-PA technique has strong potential for deep subsurface imaging with excellent contrast and high signal-to-noise ratio. FD-PA images of blood vessels in a human wrist and an in vivo subcutaneous tumor in a rat model are presented. As in other imaging modalities, the employment of contrast agents is desirable to improve the capability of medical diagnostics. Therefore, this study also evaluated and characterized the use of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) as PA contrast agents.

  10. Analysis of the potential for coded excitation to improve the detection of tissue and blood motion in medical ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Lamboul, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound imaging modalities arguably represent one of the most complex task performed (usually in real time) by ultrasound scanners. At the heart of these techniques lies the ability to detect and estimate soft ...

  11. Novel Nonlinear Optics and Quantum Optics Approaches for Ultrasound-Modulated Optical Tomography in Soft Biological Tissue 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Huiliang

    2012-02-14

    . The intensity of the sideband, or ultrasound ?tagged‘ photons depends on the optical absorption in the region of interest where the ultrasound is focused. Demodulation of the optical speckle pattern yields the intensity of tagged photons for each location...

  12. Scale Space Texture Classification Using Combined Classifiers with Application to Ultrasound Tissue Characterization

    E-print Network

    Duin, Robert P.W.

    tissue characterization for discrimination of normal liver from cirrhosis yields prom- ising results or at least one lobe is completely affected. In diffused liver diseases like cirrhosis, the texture of liver

  13. Tracking of the advance of the coagulation front in a laser irradiated tissue using ultrasound imaging 

    E-print Network

    Jagathesan, Shoban Srikrishna

    1993-01-01

    Lasers are playing an ever increasing role in the field of medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Considerable study has been done so far in the development of several theoretical models to predict the advancement of coagulation front in a tissue...

  14. Ultrasound Thermometry for Optimizing heat Supply During a Hyperthermia Therapy of Cancer Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Mario; Rath, Katharina; Ruiz, Andrés Eduardo Ramos; Kühnicke, Elfgard

    Monitoring the temperature during a hyperthermia therapy allows optimizing the heat supply to destroy the cancer whereby the damage in the surrounding tissue is minimized. This contribution presents the fundamental research and current work to realize a locally resolved, noninvasive and intra-surgically applicable temperature measurement in tissue. This is realized by measuring the sound velocity locally resolved by an annular array, which allows noninvasive measurements although the observed tissue is not accessible from all directions. The method had been already qualified for fluids and analyses the echoes of moving scattering particles to obtain the time of flight to the focus of the transducer. As the parameters of the transducer are known the focus position (and thus the time of flight) can be calculated as a function of the sound velocity distribution of the propagation medium. Hence the measured time of flight allows determining the focus position and mean sound velocity simultaneously by means of this function. Varying the time lags of the signals for each element allows moving the focus and so measuring locally resolved. This contribution presents first ex-vivo measurements in tissue and thus proves the adaptability of this technique for tissue.

  15. Influence of temperature-dependent thermal parameters on temperature elevation of tissue exposed to high-intensity focused ultrasound: numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Guntur, Sitaramanjaneya Reddy; Choi, Min Joo

    2015-03-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been used successfully as a non-invasive modality in treating solid tumors. The temperature rise HIFU irradiation causes in a tissue depends on the thermal properties of the tissue. This study was motivated by our observation that the thermal properties of a tissue vary significantly with temperature (Guntur SR, Lee KI, Paeng DG, Coleman AJ, Choi MJ. Ultrasound Med Biol 2013;39:1771-1784). This research investigated how significantly the alteration of tissue thermal parameters, in the ranges of values measured at 25°C-90°C, affects prediction of the temperature elevation of tissue under the same HIFU exposure. The numerical simulation was performed by coupling a non-linear Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation with a bio-heat transfer function. In the conventional method of prediction, the thermal parameters were set as constants measured at room temperature (25°C). This study compared the conventional prediction with those predicted with different thermal parameters measured at the various temperatures up to 90°C. The results indicated that the conventional method significantly overestimated the rise in focal temperature in the liver tissue exposed to a clinical HIFU field, compared with the prediction made using thermal parameters measured at temperatures that cause thermal denaturation. This finding suggests that temperature-dependent thermal parameters should be considered in predicting the temperature rise in a tissue to avoid use of an insufficient thermal dose in treatment planning for HIFU surgery. PMID:25638316

  16. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting. PMID:24267423

  17. Study on the refractive index matching effect of ultrasound on optical clearing of bio-tissues based on the derivative total reflection method

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Huanhuan; Wang, Jin; Ye, Qing; Deng, Zhichao; Mei, Jianchun; Zhou, Wenyuan; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the tissue optical clearing (OC) technique in the biomedicine field has drawn lots of attention. Various physical and chemical methods have been introduced to improve the efficacy of OC. In this study, the effect of the combination of glycerol and ultrasound treatment on OC of in vitro porcine muscle tissues has been investigated. The refractive index (RI) matching mechanism of OC was directly observed based on the derivative total reflection method. A theoretical model was used to simulate the proportion of tissue fluid in the illuminated area. Moreover, the total transmittance spectra have been obtained by a spectrometer over the range from 450 nm to 700 nm. The administration of glycerol and ultrasound has led to an increase of the RI of background medium and a more RI matching environment was achieved. The experimental results support the validity of the ultrasound treatment for OC. The RI matching mechanism has been firstly quantitatively analyzed based on the derivative total reflection method. PMID:25360366

  18. TU-F-12A-09: GLCM Texture Analysis for Normal-Tissue Toxicity: A Prospective Ultrasound Study of Acute Toxicity in Breast-Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, T; Yang, X; Curran, W; Torres, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the morphologic and structural integrity of the breast glands using sonographic textural analysis, and identify potential early imaging signatures for radiation toxicity following breast-cancer radiotherapy (RT). Methods: Thirty-eight patients receiving breast RT participated in a prospective ultrasound imaging study. Each participant received 3 ultrasound scans: 1 week before RT (baseline), and at 6-week and 3-month follow-ups. Patients were imaged with a 10-MHz ultrasound on the four quadrant of the breast. A second order statistical method of texture analysis, called gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), was employed to assess RT-induced breast-tissue toxicity. The region of interest (ROI) was 28 mm × 10 mm in size at a 10 mm depth under the skin. Twenty GLCM sonographic features, ratios of the irradiated breast and the contralateral breast, were used to quantify breast-tissue toxicity. Clinical assessment of acute toxicity was conducted using the RTOG toxicity scheme. Results: Ninety-seven ultrasound studies (776 images) were analyzed; and 5 out of 20 sonographic features showed significant differences (p < 0.05) among the baseline scans, the acute toxicity grade 1 and 2 groups. These sonographic features quantified the degree of tissue damage through homogeneity, heterogeneity, randomness, and symmetry. Energy ratio value decreased from 108±0.05 (normal) to 0.99±0.05 (Grade 1) and 0.84±0.04 (Grade 2); Entropy ratio value increased from 1.01±0.01 to 1.02±0.01 and 1.04±0.01; Contrast ratio value increased from 1.03±0.03 to 1.07±0.06 and 1.21±0.09; Variance ratio value increased from 1.06±0.03 to 1.20±0.04 and 1.42±0.10; Cluster Prominence ratio value increased from 0.98±0.02 to 1.01±0.04 and 1.25±0.07. Conclusion: This work has demonstrated that the sonographic features may serve as imaging signatures to assess radiation-induced normal tissue damage. While these findings need to be validated in a larger cohort, they suggest that ultrasound imaging may be used to improve early detection of normal-tissue toxicity in breast-cancer RT.

  19. The Speed of Sound and Attenuation of an IEC Agar-Based Tissue-Mimicking Material for High Frequency Ultrasound Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chao; Pye, Stephen D.; Browne, Jacinta E.; Janeczko, Anna; Ellis, Bill; Butler, Mairead B.; Sboros, Vassilis; Thomson, Adrian J.W.; Brewin, Mark P.; Earnshaw, Charles H.; Moran, Carmel M.

    2012-01-01

    This study characterized the acoustic properties of an International Electromechanical Commission (IEC) agar-based tissue mimicking material (TMM) at ultrasound frequencies in the range 10–47 MHz. A broadband reflection substitution technique was employed using two independent systems at 21°C ± 1°C. Using a commercially available preclinical ultrasound scanner and a scanning acoustic macroscope, the measured speeds of sound were 1547.4 ± 1.4 m?s?1 and 1548.0 ± 6.1 m?s?1, respectively, and were approximately constant over the frequency range. The measured attenuation (dB?cm?1) was found to vary with frequency f (MHz) as 0.40f + 0.0076f2. Using this polynomial equation and extrapolating to lower frequencies give values comparable to those published at lower frequencies and can estimate the attenuation of this TMM in the frequency range up to 47 MHz. This characterisation enhances understanding in the use of this TMM as a tissue equivalent material for high frequency ultrasound applications. PMID:22502881

  20. Post-processing of polymer foam tissue scaffolds with high power ultrasound: a route to increased pore interconnectivity, pore size and fluid transport.

    PubMed

    Watson, N J; Johal, R K; Glover, Z; Reinwald, Y; White, L J; Ghaemmaghami, A M; Morgan, S P; Rose, F R A J; Povey, M J W; Parker, N G

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate that the structural and fluidic properties of polymer foam tissue scaffolds, post-fabrication but prior to the introduction of cells, can be engineered via exposure to high power ultrasound. Our analysis is supported by measurements of fluid uptake during insonification and imaging of the scaffold microstructure via X-ray computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and acoustic microscopy. The ultrasonic treatment is performed with a frequency of 30 kHz, average intensities up to 80,000 Wm(-2) and exposure times up to 20 h. The treatment is found to increase the mean pore size by over 10%. More striking is the improvement in fluid uptake: for scaffolds with only 40% water uptake via standard immersion techniques, we can routinely achieve full saturation of the scaffold over approximately one hour of exposure. These desirable modifications occur with negligible loss of scaffold integrity and mass, and are optimized when the ultrasound treatment is coupled to a pre-wetting stage with ethanol. Our findings suggest that high power ultrasound is highly targeted towards flow obstructions in the scaffold architecture, thereby providing an efficient means to promote pore interconnectivity and fluid transport in thick foam tissue scaffolds. PMID:24094193

  1. Automated 3D ultrasound image segmentation to aid breast cancer image interpretation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L

    2016-02-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer. PMID:26547117

  2. Opto-acoustic diagnostics of the thermal action of high-intensity focused ultrasound on biological tissues: the possibility of its applications and model experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhlova, Tanya D; Pelivanov, Ivan M; Solomatin, Vladimir S; Karabutov, Aleksander A; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A

    2006-12-31

    The possibility of using the opto-acoustic (OA) method for monitoring high-intensity ultrasonic therapy is studied. The optical properties of raw and boiled liver samples used as the undamaged model tissue and tissue destroyed by ultrasound, respectively, are measured. Experiments are performed with samples consisting of several alternating layers of raw and boiled liver of different thickness. The position and transverse size of the thermal lesion were determined from the temporal shape of the OA signals. The results of measurements are compared with the real size and position of the thermal lesion determined from the subsequent cuts of the sample. It is shown that the OA method permits the diagnostics of variations in biological tissues upon ultrasonic therapy. (special issue devoted to multiple radiation scattering in random media)

  3. Development of non-deterioration-type skin tissue phantom using silicone material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iva, Saidatul; Tanabe, Akihiro; Maeda, Takaaki; Funamizu, Hideki; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2014-05-01

    We developed a new type of three-layered skin tissue phantom using silicone material. This phantom maintains its optical properties in a certain period of time, typically about three months, which is much longer than about 30 min with our previous agar-type phantom. Experiments on spectral reflectance measurements and color analysis indicate the possibility of silicone-type skin tissue phantom.

  4. Influence of different sized nanoparticles combined with ultrasound on the optical properties of in vitro normal and cancerous human lung tissue studied with OCT and diffuse reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L. P.; Wu, G. Y.; Wei, H. J.; Guo, Z. Y.; Yang, H. Q.; He, Y. H.; Xie, S. S.; Liu, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The present study is concerned with the in vitro study of different sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles’ (NPs) penetration and accumulation in human normal lung (NL) tissue and lung adenocarcinoma tumor (LAT) tissue by the methods of continuous optical coherence tomography (OCT) monitoring and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra measurement, and their evaluating the effects of TiO2 NPs in two sizes (60?nm and 100?nm) and their combination with ultrasound (US) on the optical properties of human NL and LAT tissue. Spectral measurements indicate that TiO2 NPs penetrate and accumulate into the tissues and thus induce enhancement of DR. The averaged and normalized OCT signal intensity suggests that light penetration depth is significantly enlarged by ultrasound. The average attenuation coefficient of NL tissue changes from 5.10? ± ?0.26?mm-1 to 3.12? ± ?0.43?mm-1 and 2.15? ± ?0.54?mm-1 at 120?min for 60?nm TiO2 NPs and 60?nm TiO2NPs/US treatment, respectively, and from 5.54? ± ?0.46?mm-1 to 3.24? ± ?0.73?mm-1 and 2.69? ± ?0.34?mm-1 at 150?min for 100?nm TiO2 NPs and 100?nm TiO2NPs/US, respectively. The average attenuation coefficient of LAT tissue changes from 9.12? ± ?0.54?mm-1 to 4.54? ± ?0.39?mm-1 and 3.61? ± ?0.38?mm-1 at 120?min for 60?nm TiO2 NPs and 60?nm TiO2NPs/US treatment, respectively, and from 9.79? ± ?0.32?mm-1 to 5.12? ± ?0.47?mm-1 and 4.89? ± ?0.59?mm-1 at 150?min for 100?nm TiO2 NPs and 100?nm TiO2NPs/US, respectively. The results suggest that the optical properties of NL and LAT tissues are greatly influenced by TiO2 NPs and their combination with ultrasound.

  5. Automated classification of tissue by type using real-time spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaron, David A.; Cheong, Wai-Fung; Duckworth, Joshua L.; Noles, Kenneth; Nezhat, Camran; Seidman, Daniel; Hintz, Susan R.; Levinson, Carl J.; Murphy, Aileen L.; Price, John W., Jr.; Liu, Frank W.; Stevenson, David K.; Kermit, Eben L.

    1997-12-01

    Each tissue type has a unique spectral signature (e.g. liver looks distinct from bowel due to differences in both absorbance and in the way the tissue scatters light). While differentiation between normal tissues and tumors is not trivial, automated discrimination among normal tissue types (e.g. nerve, artery, vein, muscle) is feasible and clinically important, as many medical errors in medicine involve the misidentification of normal tissues. In this study, we have found that spectroscopic differentiation of tissues can be successfully applied to tissue samples (kidney and uterus) and model systems (fruit). Such optical techniques may usher in use of optical tissue diagnosis, leading to automated and portable diagnostic devices which can identify tissues, and guide use of medical instruments, such as during ablation or biopsy.

  6. Doppler Ultrasound Detection of Preclinical Changes in Foot Arteries in Early Stage of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Leoniuk, Jolanta; ?ukasiewicz, Adam; Szorc, Ma?gorzata; Sackiewicz, Izabela; Janica, Jacek; ?ebkowska, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background There are few reports regarding the changes within the vessels in the initial stage of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate the hemodynamic and morphological parameters in foot arteries in type 2 diabetes subjects and to compare these parameters to those obtained in a control group of healthy volunteers. Material/Methods Ultrasound B-mode, color Doppler and pulse wave Doppler imaging of foot arteries was conducted in 37 diabetic patients and 36 non-diabetic subjects to determine their morphological (total vascular diameter and flow lumen diameter) and functional parameters (spectral analysis). Results In diabetic patients, the overall vascular diameter and wall thickness were statistically significantly larger when compared to the control group in the right dorsalis pedis artery (P=0.01; P=0.001), left dorsalis pedis artery (P=0.007; P=0.006), right posterior tibial artery (P=0.005; P=0.0005), and left posterior tibial artery (P=0.007; P=0.0002). No significant differences were observed in both groups in flow lumen diameters and blood flow parameters (PSV, EDV, PI, RI). In the diabetic group, the level of HbA1c positively correlated with flow resistance index in the right dorsalis pedis artery (r=0.38; P=0.02), right posterior tibial artery (r=0.38; P=0.02) and left posterior tibial artery (r=0.42; P=0.009). The pulsatility index within the dorsalis pedis artery decreased with increased trophic skin changes (r=–0.431, P=0.009). Conclusions In the diabetic group, overall artery diameters larger than and flow lumina comparable to the control group suggest vessel wall thickening occurring in the early stage of diabetes. Doppler flow parameters are comparable in both groups. In the diabetic group, the level of HbA1c positively correlated with flow resistance index and negative correlation was observed between the intensity of trophic skin changes and the pulsatility index. PMID:25202434

  7. Deformation correction in ultrasound imaging in an elastography framework

    E-print Network

    Sun, Shih-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Tissue deformation in ultrasound imaging is an inevitable phenomenon and poses challenges to the development of many techniques related to ultrasound image registration, including multimodal image fusion, freehand ...

  8. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and ethanol induced tissue ablation: Thermal lesion volume and temperature ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Nguyen Hai

    HIFU is the upcoming technology for noninvasive or minimally invasive tumor ablation via the localized acoustic energy deposition at the focal region within the tumor target. The presence of cavitation bubbles had been shown to improve the therapeutic effect of HIFU. In this study, we have investigated the effect of HIFU on temperature rise and cavitation bubble activity in ethanol-treated porcine liver and kidney tissues. We have also explored changes in the viability and proliferation rate of HepG2, SW1376, and FB1 cancer cells with their exposure to ethanol and HIFU. Tissues were submerged in 95% ethanol for five hours and then exposed to HIFU generated by a 1.1 MHz transducer or injected into focal spot before HIFU exposure. Cavitation events were measured by a passive cavitation detection technique for a range of acoustic power from 1.17 W to 20.52 W. The temperature around the focal zone was measured by type K or type E thermocouples embedded in the samples. In experiments with cancer cells, 2.7 millions cells were treated with concentration of ethanol at concentration 2%, 4%, 10%, 25%, and 50% and the cell were exposed to HIFU with power of 2.73 W, 8.72 W, and 12.0 W for 30 seconds. Our data show that the treatment of tissues with ethanol reduces the threshold power for inertial cavitation and increases the temperature rise. The exposure of cancer cells to various HIFU power only showed a higher number of viable cells 24 to 72 hours after HIFU exposure. On the other hand, both the viability and proliferation rate were significantly decreased in cells treated with ethanol and then HIFU at 8.7 W and 12.0 W even at ethanol concentration of 2 and 4 percent. In conclusion, the results of our study indicate that percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and HIFU have a synergistic effect on cancer cells ablation.

  9. Tissue type characterization using photoacoustic power spectrum, a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Goldstein, Seth D.; Kang, Jin U.; Choti, Michaal; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-03-01

    The development of technologies capable of non-invasive characterization of tissue has the potential to significantly improve diagnostic and therapeutic medical interventions. In this study we investigated the feasibility of a noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) approach for characterizing biological tissues. The measurement was performed in the transmission mode with a wideband hydrophone while a tunable Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser was used for illumination. The power spectrum of photoacoustic signal induced by a pulsed laser light from tissue was analyzed and features were extracted to study their correlation with tissue biomechanical properties. For a controlled study, tissue mimicking gelatin phantoms with different densities and equivalent optical absorptions were used as targets. The correlation between gelatin concentration of such phantoms and their mechanical properties were validated independently with a dynamic mechanical analyzer capable of calculating complex loss and storage moduli between two compression plates. It was shown that PA spectrums were shifted towards higher frequencies by increasing gelatin concentration. In order to quantify this effect, signal energy in two intervals of low and high frequency ranges were calculated. Gelatin concentration was correlated with PA energy in high frequency range with R2=0.94. Subsequently, PA signals generated from freshly resected human thyroid specimens were measured and analyzed in a similar fashion. We found that in aggregate, malignant thyroid tissue contains approximately 1.6 times lower energy in the high frequency range in comparison to normal thyroid tissue (p<0.01). This ratio increased with increasing illumination wavelength from 700 nm to 900nm. In summary, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using photoacoustic technique for characterizing tissue on the basis of viscoelastic properties of the tissue.

  10. Duplex ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ultrasound with Doppler ultrasound . Traditional ultrasound uses sound waves that bounce off blood vessels to create pictures. Doppler ultrasound records sound waves reflecting off moving objects, such as blood, to ...

  11. Temperature estimation with ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Matthew

    Hepatocelluar carcinoma is the fastest growing type of cancer in the United States. In addition, the survival rate after one year is approximately zero without treatment. In many instances, patients with hepatocelluar carcinoma may not be suitable candidates for the primary treatment options, i.e. surgical resection or liver transplantation. This has led to the development of minimally invasive therapies focused on destroying hepatocelluar by thermal or chemical methods. The focus of this dissertation is on the development of ultrasound-based image-guided monitoring options for minimally invasive therapies such as radiofrequency ablation. Ultrasound-based temperature imaging relies on relating the gradient of locally estimated tissue displacements to a temperature change. First, a realistic Finite Element Analysis/ultrasound simulation of ablation was developed. This allowed evaluation of the ability of ultrasound-based temperature estimation algorithms to track temperatures for three different ablation scenarios in the liver. It was found that 2-Dimensional block matching and a 6 second time step was able to accurately track the temperature over a 12 minute ablation procedure. Next, a tissue-mimicking phantom was constructed to determine the accuracy of the temperature estimation method by comparing estimated temperatures to that measured using invasive fiber-optic temperature probes. The 2-Dimensional block matching was able to track the temperature accurately over the entire 8 minute heating procedure in the tissue-mimicking phantom. Finally, two separate in-vivo experiments were performed. The first experiment examined the ability of our algorithm to track frame-to-frame displacements when external motion due to respiration and the cardiac cycle were considered. It was determined that a frame rate between 13 frames per second and 33 frames per second was sufficient to track frame-to-frame displacements between respiratory cycles. The second experiment examined the ability of a novel dynamic frame selection based temperature algorithm to track temperatures during ablation of porcine kidney tissue. Here a novel multi-level 2-Dimensional cross-correlation algorithm was required to accurately track the temperature over an 8 minute ablation procedure.

  12. CT-Based Assessment of Relative Soft-Tissue Alteration in Different Types of Ancient Mummies.

    PubMed

    Sydler, Christina; Öhrström, Lena; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Woitek, Ulrich; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Mummification leads to alteration of soft-tissue morphology. No research has focused specifically on differences in soft-tissue shrinkage depending on mummification type. This study evaluated whether soft-tissue alteration is dependent on type of mummification. A total of 17 human mummies have been investigated by computed tomography (CT). Samples included artificially embalmed ancient Egyptian mummies, naturally mummified South American corpses, ice mummies (including the Iceman, South Tyrol Museum of Archeology, Bolzano, Italy, ca. 3,300 BC), bog bodies and a desiccated mummy of possibly Asian provenance. The acquired data were compared to four contemporary bodies. The extent of soft-tissue shrinkage was evaluated using CT data. Shrinkage was defined as soft-tissue relative to area of bone (in number of voxels). Measurements were taken at 13 anatomically defined locations. Ice mummies show the highest degree of preservation. This finding is most likely explained due to frozen water within tissues. All other types of mummies show significantly (at P < 0.05) smaller relative area of preserved soft-tissue. Variation between different anatomical structures (e.g., upper lip vs. mid-femur) is significant, unlike variation within one compartment (e.g., proximal vs. distal humerus). Mummification type strongly affects the degree of soft-tissue alteration, surprisingly mostly independent of overall historical age. These results highlight the unique morphological impact of taphonomy on soft-tissue preservation and are of particular interest in tissue research as well as in forensics. PMID:25998649

  13. Topographical control of ocular cell types for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Kevin J; Saint-Geniez, Magali; Tao, Sarah L

    2013-11-01

    Visual impairment affects over 285 million people worldwide and has a major impact on an individual's quality of life. Tissue engineering has the potential to increase the quality of life for many of these patients by preventing vision loss or restoring vision using cell-based therapies. However, these strategies will require an understanding of the microenvironmental factors that influence cell behavior. The eye is a well-organized organ whose structural complexity is essential for proper function. Interactions between ocular cells and their highly ordered extracellular matrix are necessary for maintaining key tissue properties including corneal transparency and retinal lamination. Therefore, it is not surprising that culturing these cells in vitro on traditional flat substrates result in irregular morphology. Instead, topographically patterned biomaterials better mimic native extracellular matrix and have been shown to elicit in vivo-like morphology and gene expression which is essential for tissue engineering. Herein we review multiple methods for producing well-controlled topography and discuss optimal biomaterial scaffold design for cells of the cornea, retina, and lens. PMID:23744715

  14. Topographical Control of Ocular Cell Types for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Kevin J.; Saint-Geniez, Magali; Tao, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Visual impairment affects over 285 million people worldwide and has a major impact on an individual’s quality of life. Tissue engineering has the potential to increase quality of life for many of these patients by preventing vision loss or restoring vision using cell-based therapies. However, these strategies will require an understanding of the microenvironmental factors that influence cell behavior. The eye is a well-organized organ whose structural complexity is essential for proper function. Interactions between ocular cells and their highly ordered extracellular matrix are necessary for maintaining key tissue properties including corneal transparency and retinal lamination. Therefore, it is not surprising that culturing these cells in vitro on traditional flat substrates result in irregular morphology. Instead, topographically patterned biomaterials better mimic native extracellular matrix and have been shown to elicit in vivo-like morphology and gene expression which is essential for tissue engineering. Herein we review multiple methods for producing well-controlled topography and discuss optimal biomaterial scaffold design for cells of the cornea, retina, and lens. PMID:23744715

  15. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and Infrared Fiber Optic Probe Spectroscopy Identify Collagen Type in Connective Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hanifi, Arash; McCarthy, Helen; Roberts, Sally; Pleshko, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types) to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in connective tissues, using both imaging and fiber optic methodology. This has great potential for clinical in situ applications for monitoring tissue repair. PMID:23717662

  16. [Ultrasound elastography].

    PubMed

    Goertz, R S

    2015-11-01

    Noninvasive, ultrasound-based methods for visualizing and measuring tissue elasticity are becoming more and more common in routine practice. Using hepatic shear wave elastography, cut-off levels can help to detect the degree of relevant fibrosis (F ? 2) with a diagnostic accuracy using the area under the reader operating characteristic (AUROC) of 87?% and cirrhosis (F = 4, AUROC 93?%). Normal values virtually exclude liver cirrhosis (negative predictive value up to 97?%) and high shear wave velocities predict complications in the course of primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B or C. Elastography is of no relevant help in the differentiation of the dignity of hepatic lesions. Concerning thyroid or breast lesions, low shear wave velocities are indicative of benign lesions and in contrast, high velocities of malignant lesions. A differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid nodules is performed by elastography with a sensitivity of 89?% and a specificity of 82?%. In breast lesions a differentiation of nodes can be improved with elastography compared to B-mode ultrasound alone with a sensitivity of 97?% and a specificity of 83?%. Invasive biopsy punctures can therefore be specifically performed or can be omitted. Due to several influencing factors, in particular during liver elastography, the measurements need to be interpreted in the clinical context. In summary, ultrasound-based elastography provides helpful information for the detection of hepatic fibrosis and for further characterization of thyroid or breast lesions in addition to classical techniques, such as B-mode imaging and color Doppler. PMID:26438090

  17. The characteristic ultrasound features of specific types of ovarian pathology (Review)

    PubMed Central

    SAYASNEH, AHMAD; EKECHI, CHRISTINE; FERRARA, LAURA; KAIJSER, JEROEN; STALDER, CATRIONA; SUR, SHYAMALY; TIMMERMAN, DIRK; BOURNE, TOM

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing ovarian masses enables patients with malignancy to be appropriately triaged for treatment by subspecialist gynecological oncologists, which has been shown to optimize care and improve survival. Furthermore, correctly classifying benign masses facilitates the selection of patients with ovarian pathology that may either not require intervention, or be suitable for minimal access surgery if intervention is required. However, predicting whether a mass is benign or malignant is not the only clinically relevant information that we need to know before deciding on appropriate treatment. Knowing the specific histology of a mass is becoming of increasing importance as management options become more tailored to the individual patient. For example predicting a mucinous borderline tumor gives the opportunity for fertility sparing surgery, and will highlight the need for further gastrointestinal assessment. For benign disease, predicting the presence of an endometrioma and possible deeply infiltrating endometriosis is important when considering both who should perform and the extent of surgery. An examiner’s subjective assessment of the morphological and vascular features of a mass using ultrasonography has been shown to be highly effective for predicting whether a mass is benign or malignant. Many masses also have features that enable a reliable diagnosis of the specific pathology of a particular mass to be made. In this narrative review we aim to describe the typical morphological features seen on ultrasound of different adnexal masses and illustrate these by showing representative ultrasound images. PMID:25406094

  18. Type of MRI contrast, tissue gadolinium, and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Do, Catherine; Barnes, Jeffrey L.; Tan, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    It has been presupposed that the thermodynamic stability constant (Ktherm) of gadolinium-based MRI chelates relate to the risk of precipitating nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The present study compared low-Ktherm gadodiamide with high-Ktherm gadoteridol in cultured fibroblasts and rats with uninephrectomies. Gadolinium content was assessed using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in paraffin-embedded tissues. In vitro, fibroblasts demonstrated dose-dependent fibronectin generation, transforming growth factor-? production, and expression of activated myofibroblast stress fiber protein ?-smooth muscle actin. There were negligible differences with respect to toxicity or proliferation between the two contrast agents. In the rodent model, gadodiamide treatment led to greater skin fibrosis and dermal cellularity than gadoteridol. In the kidney, both contrast agents led to proximal tubule vacuolization and increased fibronectin accumulation. Despite large detectable gadolinium signals in the spleen, skin, muscle, and liver from the gadodiamide-treated group, contrast-induced fibrosis appeared to be limited to the skin and kidney. These findings support the hypothesis that low-Ktherm chelates have a greater propensity to elicit nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and demonstrate that certain tissues are resistant to these effects. PMID:25100280

  19. 21 CFR 1271.85 - What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? 1271.85 Section 1271...THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? (a) All donors....

  20. 21 CFR 1271.85 - What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? 1271.85 Section 1271...THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? (a) All donors...

  1. 21 CFR 1271.85 - What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? 1271.85 Section 1271...THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? (a) All donors...

  2. 21 CFR 1271.85 - What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? 1271.85 Section 1271...THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? (a) All donors...

  3. 21 CFR 1271.85 - What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? 1271.85 Section 1271...THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? (a) All donors...

  4. A new indolopyridoquinazoline-type alkaloid from phellodendron amurense callus tissues

    PubMed

    Ikuta; Urabe; Nakamura

    1998-08-01

    Callus tissue from the stems of Phellodendron amurense (Rutaceae) produced a new indolopyridoquinazoline-type alkaloid, 7, 8-dihydroxyrutaecarpine (2), together with known 7-hydroxyrutaecarpine (1). Their structures were established using spectroscopic methods. PMID:9722486

  5. The role of acoustic nonlinearity in tissue heating behind a rib cage using a high-intensity focused ultrasound phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuldashev, Petr V.; Shmeleva, Svetlana M.; Ilyin, Sergey A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Gavrilov, Leonid R.; Khokhlova, Vera A.

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate theoretically the effects of nonlinear propagation in a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field produced by a therapeutic phased array and the resultant heating of tissue behind a rib cage. Three configurations of focusing were simulated: in water, in water with ribs in the beam path and in water with ribs backed by a layer of soft tissue. The Westervelt equation was used to model the nonlinear HIFU field, and a 1 MHz phased array consisting of 254 circular elements was used as a boundary condition to the model. The temperature rise in tissue was modelled using the bioheat equation, and thermally necrosed volumes were calculated using the thermal dose formulation. The shapes of lesions predicted by the modelling were compared with those previously obtained in in vitro experiments at low-power sonications. Intensity levels at the face of the array elements that corresponded to the formation of high-amplitude shock fronts in the focal region were determined as 10 W cm-2 in the free field in water and 40 W cm-2 in the presence of ribs. It was shown that exposures with shocks provided a substantial increase in tissue heating, and its better spatial localization in the main focal region only. The relative effects of overheating ribs and splitting of the focus due to the periodic structure of the ribs were therefore reduced. These results suggest that utilizing nonlinear propagation and shock formation effects can be beneficial for inducing confined HIFU lesions when irradiating through obstructions such as ribs. Design of compact therapeutic arrays to provide maximum power outputs with lower intensity levels at the elements is necessary to achieve shock wave regimes for clinically relevant sonication depths in tissue.

  6. Genetic Parameters of Pre-adjusted Body Weight Growth and Ultrasound Measures of Body Tissue Development in Three Seedstock Pig Breed Populations in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Yun Ho; Mahboob, Alam; Cho, Chung Il; Choi, Jae Gwan; Choi, Im Soo; Choi, Tae Jeong; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Byoung Ho

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of body weight growth adjustment methods on genetic parameters of body growth and tissue among three pig breeds. Data collected on 101,820 Landrace, 281,411 Yorkshire, and 78,068 Duroc pigs, born in Korean swine breeder farms since 2000, were analyzed. Records included body weights on test day and amplitude (A)-mode ultrasound carcass measures of backfat thickness (BF), eye muscle area (EMA), and retail cut percentage (RCP). Days to 90 kg body weight (DAYS90), through an adjustment of the age based on the body weight at the test day, were obtained. Ultrasound measures were also pre-adjusted (ABF, EMA, AEMA, ARCP) based on their test day measures. The (co)variance components were obtained with 3 multi-trait animal models using the REMLF90 software package. Model I included DAYS90 and ultrasound traits, whereas model II and III accounted DAYS90 and pre-adjusted ultrasound traits. Fixed factors were sex (sex) and contemporary groups (herd-year-month of birth) for all traits among the models. Additionally, model I and II considered a linear covariate of final weight on the ultrasound measure traits. Heritability (h2) estimates for DAYS90, BF, EMA, and RCP ranged from 0.36 to 0.42, 0.34 to 0.43, 0.20 to 0.22, and 0.39 to 0.45, respectively, among the models. The h2 estimates of DAYS90 from model II and III were also somewhat similar. The h2 for ABF, AEMA, and ARCP were 0.35 to 0.44, 0.20 to 0.25, and 0.41 to 0.46, respectively. Our heritability estimates varied mostly among the breeds. The genetic correlations (rG) were moderately negative between DAYS90 and BF (?0.29 to ?0.38), and between DAYS90 and EMA (?0.16 to ?0.26). BF had strong rG with RCP (?0.87 to ?0.93). Moderately positive rG existed between DAYS90 and RCP (0.20 to 0.28) and between EMA and RCP (0.35 to 0.44) among the breeds. For DAYS90, model II and III, its correlations with ABF, AEMA, and ARCP were mostly low or negligible except the rG between DAYS90 and AEMA from model III (0.27 to 0.30). The rG between AEMA and ABF and between AEMA and ARCP were moderate but with negative and positive signs, respectively; also reflected influence of pre-adjustments. However, the rG between BF and RCP remained non-influential to trait pre-adjustments or covariable fits. Therefore, we conclude that ultrasound measures taken at a body weight of about 90 kg as the test final should be adjusted for body weight growth. Our adjustment formulas, particularly those for BF and EMA, should be revised further to accommodate the added variation due to different performance testing endpoints with regard to differential growth in body composition. PMID:26580436

  7. Towards enabling ultrasound guidance in cervical cancer high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Adrian; Sojoudia, Samira; Gaudet, Marc; Yap, Wan Wan; Chang, Silvia D.; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Aquino-Parsons, Christina; Moradi, Mehdi

    2014-03-01

    MRI and Computed Tomography (CT) are used in image-based solutions for guiding High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment of cervical cancer. MRI is costly and CT exposes the patients to ionizing radiation. Ultrasound, on the other hand, is affordable and safe. The long-term goal of our work is to enable the use of multiparametric ultrasound imaging in image-guided HDR for cervical cancer. In this paper, we report the development of enabling technology for ultrasound guidance and tissue typing. We report a system to obtain the 3D freehand transabdominal ultrasound RF signals and B-mode images of the uterus, and a method for registration of ultrasound to MRI. MRI and 3D ultrasound images of the female pelvis were registered by contouring the uterus in the two modalities, creating a surface model, followed by rigid and B-spline deformable registration. The resulting transformation was used to map the location of the tumor from the T2-weighted MRI to ultrasound images and to determine cancerous and normal areas in ultrasound. B-mode images show a contrast for cancer vs. normal tissue. Our study shows the potential and the challenges of ultrasound imaging in guiding cervical cancer treatments.

  8. Ultrasound—biophysics mechanisms†

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasonic biophysics is the study of mechanisms responsible for how ultrasound and biological materials interact. Ultrasound-induced bioeffect or risk studies focus on issues related to the effects of ultrasound on biological materials. On the other hand, when biological materials affect the ultrasonic wave, this can be viewed as the basis for diagnostic ultrasound. Thus, an understanding of the interaction of ultrasound with tissue provides the scientific basis for image production and risk assessment. Relative to the bioeffect or risk studies, that is, the biophysical mechanisms by which ultrasound affects biological materials, ultrasound-induced bioeffects are generally separated into thermal and nonthermal mechanisms. Ultrasonic dosimetry is concerned with the quantitative determination of ultrasonic energy interaction with biological materials. Whenever ultrasonic energy is propagated into an attenuating material such as tissue, the amplitude of the wave decreases with distance. This attenuation is due to either absorption or scattering. Absorption is a mechanism that represents that portion of ultrasonic wave that is converted into heat, and scattering can be thought of as that portion of the wave, which changes direction. Because the medium can absorb energy to produce heat, a temperature rise may occur as long as the rate of heat production is greater than the rate of heat removal. Current interest with thermally mediated ultrasound-induced bioeffects has focused on the thermal isoeffect concept. The non-thermal mechanism that has received the most attention is acoustically generated cavitation wherein ultrasonic energy by cavitation bubbles is concentrated. Acoustic cavitation, in a broad sense, refers to ultrasonically induced bubble activity occurring in a biological material that contains pre-existing gaseous inclusions. Cavitation-related mechanisms include radiation force, microstreaming, shock waves, free radicals, microjets and strain. It is more challenging to deduce the causes of mechanical effects in tissues that do not contain gas bodies. These ultrasonic biophysics mechanisms will be discussed in the context of diagnostic ultrasound exposure risk concerns. PMID:16934858

  9. Optimal tissue types in the thoracic electrical impedance model for thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) studies.

    PubMed

    Akhand, M; Trakic, A; Terril, P; Liu, F; Wilson, S; Crozier, S

    2009-01-01

    In this study we have identified the tissues required to be included in the thoracic electrical impedance model for studies relating to impedance cardiography. This is a useful finding, as it expedites and simplifies the segmentation process when employed to construct digital human models from a set of magnetic resonance or computed tomography images. Laplace equations with inhomogeneous boundary conditions were solved within an anatomically accurate thorax model. When the number of tissue types in the model was reduced to only 7 (i.e. blood, fat, liver, lung, muscle, skin and bone) the calculations indicated a 3.6% error in the result. Addition of internal air reduced the error to as small as 1.3%. Further reductions in the number of tissue types introduced larger errors in the measurement. It was therefore concluded that 8 tissue types are essential to acceptably preserve the computational accuracy while facilitating a simplification of the segmentation process. PMID:19964319

  10. [Ultrasound in urogynecology].

    PubMed

    Peschers, U; Jundt, K

    2004-11-01

    Radiologic procedures such as lateral cystography have been substituted by ultrasound in urogynecology. The techniques are standardized and reproducible. Ultrasound is also useful for evaluating the bladder neck (funneling), the urethra (diverticula) and the paraurethral tissues (vaginal cysts, vaginal fibroids). The technique is limited in patients with genital prolapse beyond the hymenal ring. Advantages include the avoidance of x-rays and catherization. PMID:15502910

  11. Intravascular ultrasound chirp imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maresca, D.; Jansen, K.; Renaud, G.; van Soest, G.; Li, X.; Zhou, Q.; de Jong, N.; Shung, K. K.; van der Steen, A. F. W.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) chirp imaging as well as chirp reversal ultrasound contrast imaging at intravascular ultrasound frequency. Chirp excitations were emitted with a 34 MHz single crystal intravascular transducer and compared to conventional Gaussian-shaped pulses of equal acoustic pressure. The signal to noise ratio of the chirp images was increased by up to 9 dB relative to the conventional images. Imaging of contrast microbubbles was implemented by chirp reversal, achieving a contrast to tissue ratio of 12 dB. The method shows potential for intravascular imaging of structures in and beyond coronary atherosclerotic plaques including vasa vasorum.

  12. Muscle Ultrasound in Patients with Glycogen Storage Disease Types I and III.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Renate J; Sentner, Christiaan P; Smit, G Peter A; Maurits, Natasha M; Derks, Terry G J; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Sival, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    In glycogen storage diseases (GSDs), improved longevity has resulted in the need for neuromuscular surveillance. In 12 children and 14 adults with the "hepatic" (GSD-I) and "myopathic" (GSD-III) phenotypes, we cross-sectionally assessed muscle ultrasound density (MUD) and muscle force. Children with both "hepatic" and "myopathic" GSD phenotypes had elevated MUD values (MUD Z-scores: GSD-I > 2.5 SD vs. GSD-III > 1 SD, p < 0.05) and muscle weakness (GSD-I muscle force; p < 0.05) of myopathic distribution. In "hepatic" GSD-I adults, MUD stabilized (GSD-I adults vs. GSD-I children, not significant), concurring with moderate muscle weakness (GSD-I adults vs. healthy matched pairs, p < 0.05). In "myopathic" GSD-III adults, MUD increased with age (MUD-GSD III vs. age: r = 0.71-0.83, GSD-III adults > GSD-III children, p < 0.05), concurring with pronounced muscle weakness (GSD-III adults vs. GSD-I adults, p < 0.05) of myopathic distribution. Children with "hepatic" and "myopathic" GSD phenotypes were both found to have myopathy. Myopathy stabilizes in "hepatic" GSD-I adults, whereas it progresses in "myopathic" GSD-III adults. Muscle ultrasonography provides an excellent, non-invasive tool for neuromuscular surveillance per GSD phenotype. PMID:26437929

  13. Ultrasound mediated delivery of drugs and genes to solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Victor

    2008-01-01

    It has long been shown that therapeutic ultrasound can be used effectively to ablate solid tumors, and a variety of cancers are presently being treated in the clinic using these types of ultrasound exposures. There is, however, an ever-increasing body of preclinical literature that demonstrates how ultrasound energy can also be used non-destructively for increasing the efficacy of drugs and genes for improving cancer treatment. In this review, a summary of the most important ultrasound mechanisms will be given with a detailed description of how each one can be employed for a variety of applications. This includes the manner by which acoustic energy deposition can be used to create changes in tissue permeability for enhancing the delivery of conventional agents, as well as for deploying and activating drugs and genes via specially tailored vehicles and formulations. PMID:18474406

  14. Recent advances in medical ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Lawrence

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound has become one of the most widely used imaging modalities in medicine; yet, before ultrasound-imaging systems became available, high intensity ultrasound was used as early as the 1950s to ablate regions in the brains of human patients. Recently, a variety of novel applications of ultrasound have been developed that include site-specific and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, histotripsy, tissue regeneration, and bloodless surgery, among many others. This lecture will review several new applications of therapeutic ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors.

  15. Adaptive Thermal Therapy using Planar Ultrasound Transducers with Real-time MR Temperature Feedback: Demonstration in Gel Phantoms and Ex-vivo Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kee; Choy, Vanessa; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2007-05-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy offers a minimally invasive approach for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. The main goal of this study was to evaluate active temperature feedback on a clinical 1.5T MR imager to control conformal thermal therapy. MR thermometry was performed during heating in both thermal gel phantoms and ex-vivo tissue with a single-element transurethral heating applicator. The applicator rotation rate and power were controlled based on MRI-temperature measurements. The influence of a cooling gradient (to simulate cooling of the rectum or urethra) was also investigated in gel phantoms. The 55°C isotherm generated during heating closely matched the targeted prostate shape, with an average distance error of 0.9 mm ± 0.4 mm in turkey breasts, 1.3 mm ± 0.5 mm in gel phantoms without rectal cooling and 1.4 mm ± 0.6 mm in gel phantoms with rectal cooling. Accurate, MRI-guided, active feedback has been successfully demonstrated experimentally and has the capability to adjust for unpredictable and varying tissue properties during the treatment.

  16. [Numerical modeling of ultrasound thermotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ginter, S; Liebler, M; Dreyer, T; Riedlinger, R E

    2002-01-01

    In ultrasound thermotherapy (USTT) high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is used for noninvasive thermal treatment of human tissue deep inside the body. In this paper a FDTD-model is presented to simulate USTT. It combines nonlinear ultrasound propagation and broadband tissue attenuation together with the bio-heat transfer equation for calculation of temperature distribution in tissue. The temperature dependence of parameters is integrated in the complete model. Simulation results demonstrate the potentialities of this simulation tool to analyze and optimize thermotherapy. PMID:12451833

  17. Ultrasound elastography in liver.

    PubMed

    Frulio, N; Trillaud, H

    2013-05-01

    Conventional imaging techniques cannot provide information about tissue mechanical properties. Many injuries can cause changes in tissue stiffness, especially tumors and fibrosis. In recent years, various non-invasive ultrasound methods have been developed to study tissue elasticity for a large number of applications (breast, thyroid, prostate, kidneys, blood vessels, liver…). For non-invasive assessment of liver diseases, several ultrasound elastography techniques have been investigated: Transient elastography (the most extensively used), Real Time Elastography (RTE), Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI) and more recently Shear Wave Elastography (SWE). Even if evaluation of liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease remains the principal application, there are many others applications for liver: predicting cirrhosis-related complications; monitoring antiviral treatments in chronic viral liver disease; characterizing liver tumors; monitoring local treatments, etc. The aim of this article is to report on the different hepatic ultrasound elastography techniques, their advantages and disadvantages, their diagnostic accuracy, their applications in clinical practice. PMID:23623211

  18. 21 CFR 1271.85 - What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of cells and tissues? 1271.85 Section 1271.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.85 What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? (a) All...

  19. 21 CFR 1271.85 - What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of cells and tissues? 1271.85 Section 1271.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.85 What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? (a) All...

  20. 21 CFR 1271.85 - What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of cells and tissues? 1271.85 Section 1271.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.85 What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? (a) All...

  1. 21 CFR 1271.85 - What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of cells and tissues? 1271.85 Section 1271.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.85 What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? (a) All...

  2. 21 CFR 1271.85 - What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of cells and tissues? 1271.85 Section 1271.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.85 What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? (a) All...

  3. Ultrasound-image-based Texture Variability along the Carotid Artery Wall in Asymptomatic Subjects with Low and High Stenosis Degrees: Unveiling Morphological Phenomena of the Vulnerable Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golemati, Spyretta; Lehareas, Symeon; Tsiaparas, Nikolaos N.; Nikita, Konstantina S.; Chatziioannou, Achilles; Perrea, Despina N.

    Valid identification of the vulnerable asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis remains a crucial clinical issue. In this study, texture differences were estimated along the atherosclerotic arterial wall, namely at the plaque, the wall adjacent to it and the plaque shoulder, i.e. the boundary between wall and plaque, in an attempt to reveal morphological phenomena, representative of the high stenosis (considered vulnerable) cases. A total of 25 arteries were interrogated, 11 with low (50-69%) and 14 with high (70-100%) degrees of stenosis. The two groups had similar ages. Texture features were estimated from B-mode ultrasound images, and included four second-order statistical parameters (contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity), each calculated at four different image directions (00, 450, 900, 1350), yielding a total of 16 features. Texture differences between (a) wall and plaque and (b) wall and plaque shoulder were quantified as the differences in texture feature values for each tissue area normalised by the texture feature value of the wall, which was considered as reference, as illustrated in the following equation: dTFi = (TFi,W - TFi,P/S)/TFi,W, where dTFi the estimated texture difference, TFi,W the texture of the wall, and TFi,P/S the texture of the plaque (P) or the shoulder (S). Significant differences in texture variability of wall vs. shoulder were observed between high and low stenosis cases for 3 features at diastole and 7 features at systole. No differences were observed for wall vs plaque, although wall texture was significantly different than plaque texture, in absolute values. These findings suggest that texture variability along the atherosclerotic wall, which is indicative of tissue discontinuities, and proneness to rupture, can be quantitatively described with texture indices and reveal valuable morphological phenomena of the vulnerable tissue.

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of ...

  5. Abstract -A new methodology has been described using ultra-sound to possibly quantify the soft tissue artifact introduced in

    E-print Network

    Lee, WonSook

    - sate these errors in order to make use of this method in finding center of rotation of hip joint (with and without bent knee) and Abduction, used for function- al hip joint center location using in human motion analysis. Keywords: Human motion analysis, Hip joint center, Soft tissue. I. INTRODUCTION

  6. Atherosclerotic plaque tissue characterization in 2D ultrasound longitudinal carotid scans for automated classification: a paradigm for stroke risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Vinitha Sree, S; Afonso, David; Sanches, Joao; Shafique, Shoaib; Nicolaides, Andrew; Pedro, L M; Fernandes E Fernandes, J; Suri, Jasjit S

    2013-05-01

    In the case of carotid atherosclerosis, to avoid unnecessary surgeries in asymptomatic patients, it is necessary to develop a technique to effectively differentiate symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. In this paper, we have presented a data mining framework that characterizes the textural differences in these two classes using several grayscale features based on a novel combination of trace transform and fuzzy texture. The features extracted from the delineated plaque regions in B-mode ultrasound images were used to train several classifiers in order to prepare them for classification of new test plaques. Our CAD system was evaluated using two different databases consisting of 146 (44 symptomatic to 102 asymptomatic) and 346 (196 symptomatic and 150 asymptomatic) images. Both these databases differ in the way the ground truth was determined. We obtained classification accuracies of 93.1 and 85.3 %, respectively. The techniques are low cost, easily implementable, objective, and non-invasive. For more objective analysis, we have also developed novel integrated indices using a combination of significant features. PMID:23292291

  7. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous delivery of tissue-engineered endothelial cells to the adventitia of stented arteries controls the response to vascular injury in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Helen M.; Ng, Yin-Shan; White, Desmond; Groothius, Adam; Kanner, Glenn; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective High restenosis rates are a limitation of peripheral vascular interventions. Previous studies have shown that surgical implantation of a tissue-engineered endothelium onto the adventitia surface of injured vessels regulates vascular repair. In the present study, we developed a particulate formulation of tissue-engineered endothelium and a method to deliver the formulation perivascular to injured blood vessels using a percutaneous, minimally invasive technique. Methods Stainless steel stents were implanted in 18 balloon-injured femoral arteries of nine domestic swine, followed by ultrasound-guided percutaneous perivascular injection of gelatin particles containing cultured allogeneic porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAE). Controls received injections of empty particles (matrix) or no perivascular injection (sham) after stent deployment. Animals were sacrificed after 90 days. Results Angiographic analysis revealed a significantly greater lumen diameter in the stented segments of arteries treated with PAE/matrix (4.72 ± 0.12 mm) compared with matrix (4.01 ± 0.20 mm) or sham (4.03 ± 0.16 mm) controls (P< .05). Similarly, histologic analysis revealed that PAE/matrix-treated arteries had the greatest lumen area(20.4 ± 0.7 mm2; P< .05) compared with controls (16.1 ± 0.9 mm2 and 17.1 ±1.0 mm2 for sham and matrix controls, respectively) and the smallest intimal area (3.3 ± 0.4 mm2; P < .05) compared with controls (6.2 ±0.5 mm2 and 4.4 ±0.5 mm2 for sham and matrix controls, respectively). Overall, PAE-treated arteries had a 33% to 50% decrease in percent occlusion (P < .05) compared with controls. Histopathological analysis revealed fewer leukocytes present in the intima in the PAE/matrix group compared with control groups, suggesting that the biological effects were in part due to inhibition of the inflammatory phase of the vascular response to injury. Conclusions Minimally invasive, perivascular delivery of PAE/matrix to stented arteries was performed safely using ultrasound-guided percutaneous injections and significantly decreased stenosis. Application at the time of or subsequent to peripheral interventions may decrease clinical restenosis rates. PMID:22796118

  8. Conformal thermal therapy using planar ultrasound transducers and adaptive closed-loop MR temperature control: demonstration in gel phantoms and ex vivo tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, K.; Choy, V.; Chopra, R.; Bronskill, M. J.

    2007-05-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy offers a minimally invasive approach for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Integrating a multi-element planar transducer with active MR temperature feedback can enable three-dimensional conformal thermal therapy of a target region within the prostate gland while sparing surrounding normal tissues. Continuous measurement of the temperature distribution in tissue enables dynamic compensation for unknown changes in blood flow and tissue properties during treatment. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using active temperature feedback on a clinical 1.5 T MR imager for conformal thermal therapy. MR thermometry was performed during heating in both gel phantoms and excised tissue with a transurethral heating applicator, and the rotation rate and power were varied based on the thermal measurements. The capability to produce a region of thermal damage that matched a target boundary was evaluated. The influence of a cooling gradient (to simulate cooling of the rectum or urethra) on the desired pattern of thermal damage was also investigated in gel phantoms. Results showed high correlation between the desired target boundary and the 55 °C isotherm generated during heating with an average distance error of 0.9 mm ± 0.4 mm (n = 6) in turkey breasts, 1.4 mm ± 0.6 mm (n = 4) in gel phantoms without rectal cooling and 1.4 mm ± 0.6 mm (n = 3) in gel phantoms with rectal cooling. The results were obtained using a temporal update rate of 5 s, a spatial resolution of 3 × 3 × 10 mm for the control point, and a temperature uncertainty of approximately 1 °C. The performance of the control algorithm under these conditions was comparable to that of simulations conducted previously by our group. Overall, the feasibility of generating targeted regions of thermal damage with a transurethral heating applicator and active MR temperature feedback has been demonstrated experimentally. This method of treatment appears capable of accounting for unpredictable and varying tissue properties during the treatment.

  9. Feasibility of tissue characterization of coronary plaques using 320-detector row computed tomography: comparison with integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigekiyo; Kawasaki, Masanori; Miyata, Shusaku; Suzuki, Keita; Yamaura, Makoto; Ido, Takahisa; Aoyama, Takuma; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2014-09-13

    Recently, a new generation of multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) with 320-detector rows (DR) has become available in the clinical settings. The purpose of the present study was to determine the cutoff values of Hounsfield unit (HU) for discrimination of plaque components by comparing HU of coronary plaques with integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound (IB-IVUS) serving as a gold standard. Seventy-seven coronary atherosclerotic lesions in 77 patients with angina were visualized by both 320-DR CT (Aquilion One, Toshiba, Japan) and IB-IVUS at the same site. To determine the thresholds for discrimination of plaque components, we compared HU with IB values as a gold standard. Optimal thresholds were determined from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis. The HU values of lipid pool (n = 115), fibrosis (n = 93), vessel lumen and calcification (n = 73) were 28 ± 19 HU (range -18 to 69 HU), 98 ± 31 HU (44 to 195 HU), 357 ± 65 HU (227 to 534 HU) and 998 ± 236 HU (366 to 1,489 HU), respectively. The thresholds of 56 HU, 210 HU and 490 HU were the most reliable predictors of lipid pool, fibrosis, vessel lumen and calcification, respectively. Lipid volume measured by 320-DR CT was correlated with that measured by IB-IVUS (r = 0.63, p < 0.05), whereas fibrous volume measured by 320-DR CT was not. Lipid volume measured by 320-DR CT was correlated with that measured by IB-IVUS, whereas fibrous volume was not correlated with that measured by IB-IVUS because manual exclusion of the outside of vessel hindered rigorous discrimination between fibrosis and extravascular components. PMID:25217036

  10. Assessment of ultrasound-assisted extraction as sample pre-treatment for the measurement of lead isotope ratios in marine biological tissues by multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costas-Rodríguez, M.; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    In this work, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was evaluated as a sample preparation procedure for lead isotope ratio measurements in marine biological tissues by multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 20 mg of marine biological tissue and 1 mL of acid extractant were sonicated for 3 min at 60% ultrasound amplitude. Matrix separation was performed in the supernatant using a chromatographic exchange resin (Sr-Spec™). Total elimination of organic matter was achieved during the separation step. Microwave-assisted digestion and dry-ashing were used for comparative purposes. No significant differences were found in lead isotope ratios at 95% of confidence level. UAE emerges as an advantageous alternative to classical methods for sample preparation owing to its simplicity and rapidity ( i.e. operation steps were reduced), low reagent consumption and low contamination risks.

  11. X-ray scattering for classifying tissue types associated with breast disease

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, Sabeena; Siu, Karen K. W.; Falzon, Gregory; Nazaretian, Simon; Hart, Stewart A.; Fox, Jane G.; Susil, Beatrice J.; Lewis, Robert A.

    2008-10-15

    Collagen types I and III can be characterized at the molecular level (at the tens to hundreds of nanometers scale) using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Although collagen fibril structural parameters at this length scale have shown differences between diseased and nondiseased breast tissues, a comprehensive analysis involving a multitude of features with a large (>50) patient cohort has not previously been investigated. Breast tissue samples were excised from 80 patients presenting with either a breast lump or reduction mammoplasty. From these, invasive carcinoma, benign tissue, and normal parenchyma were analyzed. Parameters related to collagen structure, including longitudinal (axial) and lateral (equatorial) features, polar angle features, total scattering intensity, and tissue heterogeneity effects, were extracted from the SAXS patterns and examined. The amplitude of the third-order axial peak and the total scattering intensity (amorphous scatter) showed the most separation between tissue groups and a classification model using these two parameters demonstrated an accuracy of over 95% between invasive carcinoma and mammoplasty patients. Normal tissue taken from disease-free patients (mammoplasty) and normal tissue taken from patients with presence of disease showed significant differences, suggesting that SAXS may provide different diagnostic information from that of conventional histopathology.

  12. Enhanced Homing of CXCR-4 Modified Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Acute Kidney Injury Tissues by Micro-Bubble-Mediated Ultrasound Exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong; Zhang, Qian; Zhuo, Zhongxiong; Wu, Shengzheng; Xu, Yali; Zou, Linru; Gan, Ling; Tan, Kaibin; Xia, Hongmei; Liu, Zheng; Gao, Yunhua

    2016-02-01

    Although the curative effects of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for acute kidney injury (AKI) have been recognized, their in vivo reparative capability is limited by the low levels of targeted homing and retention of intravenous injected cells. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) plays an important role in stem cell homing and retention through interaction with its specific functional receptor, CXCR4, which is presumably related to the poor homing in AKI therapy. However, most of the functional CXCR4 chemokine receptors are lost upon in vitro culturing. Ultrasound-targeted micro-bubble destruction (UTMD) has become one of the most promising strategies for the targeted delivery of drugs and genes. To improve BMSC homing to AKI kidneys, we isolated and cultured rat BMSCs to third passage and enhanced CXCR-4 transfection efficiency in vitro by applying UTMD and polyethylenimine. Transwell migration assay showed that the migration ability of CXCR4-modified BMSCs was nine-fold higher than controls. Then, mercuric chloride-induced AKI rats were injected with transfected BMSCs through their tail veins. We showed that enhanced homing and retention of BMSCs were observed in the CXCR-4 modified group compared with other groups at 1, 2 and 3 d post-treatment. Collectively, our data indicated that UTMD was an effective method to increase BMSCs' engraftment to AKI kidney tissues by increasing CXCR-4 expression. PMID:26610714

  13. Ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by disposable pipette purification for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in small-size biological tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Pena-Abaurrea, M; García de la Torre, V S; Ramos, L

    2013-11-22

    The use of solid-phase extraction pipette tip (also called disposable pipette extraction, DPX) has been evaluated for the purification of environmentally relevant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fatty extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction with a sonication probe from small-size biological tissues. Complete sample treatment involved only 50 mg of sample and was completed in ca. 15 min with minimal sample manipulation and reagents consumption (i.e., 1.5 mL of n-hexane and 0.8 g of acidic silica). The performance of the proposed methodology for the intended determination was firstly evaluated by determination of the endogenous PCB levels in a naturally contaminated internal reference material. The determined concentrations showed a good agreement with those obtained using a more conventional sample preparation procedure previously validated in our laboratory (recoveries, as compared to levels determined using the latter method, were in the 85-123% range for a large majority of the studied congeners, and the relative standard deviations were in general lower than 14%). Results obtained for the analysis of reference food samples and certified reference materials NIST 1945 and 1947 demonstrated that, when combined with gas chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry working in the tandem mode, GC-ITD(MS/MS), the proposed methodology allowed accurate determination of most of the investigated PCBs and that 50 mg of sample sufficed for the screening of less abundant toxic congeners. PMID:23885664

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Disease Stratified Human Pancreas Tissue Indicates Unique Signature of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Pugliese, Alberto; Nadler, Jerry L.; Nyalwidhe, Julius O.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with functional beta cell loss due to ongoing inflammation. Despite shared similarities, T1D is an autoimmune disease with evidence of autoantibody production, as well as a role for exocrine pancreas involvement. Our hypothesis is that differential protein expression occurs in disease stratified pancreas tissues and regulated proteins from endocrine and exocrine tissues are potential markers of disease and potential therapeutic targets. The study objective was to identify novel proteins that distinguish the pancreas from donors with T1D from the pancreas from patients with T2D, or autoantibody positive non-diabetic donors. Detailed quantitative comprehensive proteomic analysis was applied to snap frozen human pancreatic tissue lysates from organ donors without diabetes, with T1D-associated autoantibodies in the absence of diabetes, with T1D, or with T2D. These disease-stratified human pancreas tissues contain exocrine and endocrine tissues (with dysfunctional islets) in the same microenvironment. The expression profiles of several of the proteins were further verified by western blot. We identified protein panels that are significantly and uniquely upregulated in the three disease-stratified pancreas tissues compared to non-disease control tissues. These proteins are involved in inflammation, metabolic regulation, and autoimmunity, all of which are pathways linked to, and likely involved in, T1 and T2 diabetes pathogenesis. Several new proteins were differentially upregulated in prediabetic, T1D, and T2D pancreas. The results identify proteins that could serve as novel prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic tools to preserve functional islet mass in Type 1 Diabetes. PMID:26302420

  15. Controlling collagen fiber microstructure in three-dimensional hydrogels using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Kelley A; VanderBurgh, Jacob; Hocking, Denise C; Dalecki, Diane

    2013-08-01

    Type I collagen is the primary fibrillar component of the extracellular matrix, and functional properties of collagen arise from variations in fiber structure. This study investigated the ability of ultrasound to control collagen microstructure during hydrogel fabrication. Under appropriate conditions, ultrasound exposure of type I collagen during polymerization altered fiber microstructure. Scanning electron microscopy and second-harmonic generation microscopy revealed decreased collagen fiber diameters in response to ultrasound compared to sham-exposed samples. Results of mechanistic investigations were consistent with a thermal mechanism for the effects of ultrasound on collagen fiber structure. To control collagen microstructure site-specifically, a high frequency, 8.3-MHz, ultrasound beam was directed within the center of a large collagen sample producing dense networks of short, thin collagen fibrils within the central core of the gel and longer, thicker fibers outside the beam area. Fibroblasts seeded onto these gels migrated rapidly into small, circularly arranged aggregates only within the beam area, and clustered fibroblasts remodeled the central, ultrasound-exposed collagen fibrils into dense sheets. These investigations demonstrate the capability of ultrasound to spatially pattern various collagen microstructures within an engineered tissue noninvasively, thus enhancing the level of complexity of extracellular matrix microenvironments and cellular functions achievable within three-dimensional engineered tissues. PMID:23927189

  16. The future perspectives in transrectal prostate ultrasound guided biopsy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ii; Lee, Hak Jong

    2014-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common neoplasms in men. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided systematic biopsy has a crucial role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, it shows limited value with gray-scale ultrasound alone because only a small number of malignancies are visible on TRUS. Recently, new emerging technologies in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were introduced and showed high potential in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. High echogenicity of ultrasound contrast agent reflect the increased status of angiogenesis in tumor. Molecular imaging for targeting specific biomarker can be also used using ultrasound contrast agent for detecting angiogenesis or surface biomarker of prostate cancer. The combination of TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and ultrasound contrast agents can increase the accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis. Elastography is an emerging ultrasound technique that can provide the information regarding tissue elasticity and stiffness. Tumors are usually stiffer than the surrounding soft tissue. In two types of elastography techniques, shearwave elastography has many potential in that it can provide quantitative information on tissue elasticity. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from high resolution morphologic and functional magnetic resonance (MR) technique enables to detect more prostate cancers. The combination of functional techniques including apparent diffusion coefficient map from diffusion weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced MR and MR spectroscopy are helpful in the localization of the prostate cancer. MR-ultrasound (US) fusion image can enhance the advantages of both two modalities. With MR-US fusion image, targeted biopsy of suspicious areas on MRI is possible and fusion image guided biopsy can provide improved detection rate. In conclusion, with recent advances in multiparametric-MRI, and introduction of new US techniques such as contrast-enhanced US and elastography, TRUS-guided biopsy may evolve toward targeted biopsies rather than systematic biopsy for getting information reflecting the exact status of the prostate. PMID:25599070

  17. DIRECT INJURY, MYIASIS, FORENSICS Effects of Temperature and Tissue Type on the Development of

    E-print Network

    Tomberlin, Jeff

    DIRECT INJURY, MYIASIS, FORENSICS Effects of Temperature and Tissue Type on the Development studies examining the growth of larvae-fed beef liver (Clark et al. 2006). However, it has been. For example, development of L. sericata- fed lung, liver, and heart, from both cows and swine, was compared

  18. Ultrasound -- Vascular

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ultrasound uses sound waves to evaluate the body’s circulatory system and help identify blockages and detect blood clots. ... is a useful way of evaluating the body's circulatory system. Vascular ultrasound is performed to: help monitor the ...

  19. Therapeutic potential of ultrasound microbubbles in gastrointestinal oncology: recent advances and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Haider, Yasser; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2015-01-01

    Microbubbles were initially invented as contrast agents for ultrasound imaging. However, lately more and more therapeutic applications of microbubbles are emerging, mostly related to drug and gene delivery. Ultrasound is a safe and noninvasive therapeutic modality which has the unique ability to interact with microbubbles and release their payload in situ in addition to permeabilizing the target tissues. The combination of drug-loaded microbubbles and ultrasound has been used in preclinical studies on blood–brain barrier opening, drug and gene delivery to solid tumors, and ablation of blood vessels. This review covers the basic principles of ultrasound–microbubble interaction, the types of microbubbles and the effect they have on tissue, and the preclinical and clinical experience with this approach to date in the field of gastrointestinal oncology. PMID:26557894

  20. Thyroid ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasonography has established itself as a popular and useful tool in the evaluation and management of thyroid disorders. Advanced ultrasound techniques in thyroid imaging have not only fascinated the radiologists but also attracted the surgeons and endocrinologists who are using these techniques in their daily clinical and operative practice. This review provides an overview of indications for ultrasound in various thyroid diseases, describes characteristic ultrasound findings in these diseases, and illustrates major diagnostic pitfalls of thyroid ultrasound. PMID:23776892

  1. Analysis of type II diabetes mellitus adipose-derived stem cells for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle Marie; Young, Matthew T; Lin, Yen-Chih; Over, Patrick J; Rubin, J Peter; Gerlach, Jorg C

    2015-01-01

    To address the functionality of diabetic adipose-derived stem cells in tissue engineering applications, adipose-derived stem cells isolated from patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus were cultured in bioreactor culture systems. The adipose-derived stem cells were differentiated into adipocytes and maintained as functional adipocytes. The bioreactor system utilizes a hollow fiber–based technology for three-dimensional perfusion of tissues in vitro, creating a model in which long-term culture of adipocytes is feasible, and providing a potential tool useful for drug discovery. Daily metabolic activity of the adipose-derived stem cells was analyzed within the medium recirculating throughout the bioreactor system. At experiment termination, tissues were extracted from bioreactors for immunohistological analyses in addition to gene and protein expression. Type II diabetic adipose-derived stem cells did not exhibit significantly different glucose consumption compared to adipose-derived stem cells from patients without type II diabetes (p?>?0.05, N?=?3). Expression of mature adipocyte genes was not significantly different between diabetic/non-diabetic groups (p?>?0.05, N?=?3). Protein expression of adipose tissue grown within all bioreactors was verified by Western blotting.The results from this small-scale study reveal adipose-derived stem cells from patients with type II diabetes when removed from diabetic environments behave metabolically similar to the same cells of non-diabetic patients when cultured in a three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor, suggesting that glucose transport across the adipocyte cell membrane, the hindrance of which being characteristic of type II diabetes, is dependent on environment. The presented observation describes a tissue-engineered tool for long-term cell culture and, following future adjustments to the culture environment and increased sample sizes, potentially for anti-diabetic drug testing. PMID:26090087

  2. Combined ultrasound and MR imaging to guide focused ultrasound therapies in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvanitis, Costas D.; Livingstone, Margaret S.; McDannold, Nathan

    2013-07-01

    Several emerging therapies with potential for use in the brain, harness effects produced by acoustic cavitation—the interaction between ultrasound and microbubbles either generated during sonication or introduced into the vasculature. Systems developed for transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thermal ablation can enable their clinical translation, but methods for real-time monitoring and control are currently lacking. Acoustic emissions produced during sonication can provide information about the location, strength and type of the microbubble oscillations within the ultrasound field, and they can be mapped in real-time using passive imaging approaches. Here, we tested whether such mapping can be achieved transcranially within a clinical brain MRgFUS system. We integrated an ultrasound imaging array into the hemisphere transducer of the MRgFUS device. Passive cavitation maps were obtained during sonications combined with a circulating microbubble agent at 20 targets in the cingulate cortex in three macaques. The maps were compared with MRI-evident tissue effects. The system successfully mapped microbubble activity during both stable and inertial cavitation, which was correlated with MRI-evident transient blood-brain barrier disruption and vascular damage, respectively. The location of this activity was coincident with the resulting tissue changes within the expected resolution limits of the system. While preliminary, these data clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that it is possible to construct maps of stable and inertial cavitation transcranially, in a large animal model, and under clinically relevant conditions. Further, these results suggest that this hybrid ultrasound/MRI approach can provide comprehensive guidance for targeted drug delivery via blood-brain barrier disruption and other emerging ultrasound treatments, facilitating their clinical translation. We anticipate that it will also prove to be an important research tool that will further the development of a broad range of microbubble-enhanced therapies.

  3. Biomarker-based ovarian carcinoma typing: a histological investigation in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium

    PubMed Central

    Köbel, Martin; Kalloger, Steve E.; Lee, Sandra; Duggan, Máire A.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Prentice, Leah; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Visscher, Daniel W.; Keeney, Gary L.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Chow, Christine; Ness, Roberta B.; Moysich, Kirsten; Edwards, Robert; Modugno, Francesmary; Bunker, Clareann; Wozniak, Eva L.; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Gilks, C. Blake; Huntsman, David G.; Ramus, Susan J.; Goode, Ellen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian carcinoma is composed of five major histological types which associate with outcome and predict therapeutic response. Our aim was to evaluate histological type assessments across centres participating in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis (OTTA) consortium using an immunohistochemical (IHC) prediction model. Methods Tissue microarrays (TMAs) and clinical data were available for 524 pathologically confirmed ovarian carcinomas. Centralized IHC was performed for ARID1A, CDKN2A, DKK1, HNF1B, MDM2, PGR, TP53, TFF3, VIM, and WT1, and three histological type assessments were compared: the original pathologic type, an IHC-based calculated type (termed TB_COSPv2), and a WT1-assisted TMA core review. Results The concordance between TB_COSPv2 type and original type was 73%. Applying WT1-assisted core review, the remaining 27% discordant cases subdivided into unclassifiable (6%), TB_COSPv2 error (6%), and original type error (15%). The largest discordant subgroup was classified as endometrioid carcinoma (EC) by original type and as high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) by TB_COSPv2. When TB_COSPv2 classification was used, the difference in overall survival of EC compared to HGSC became significant (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37–0.93, p=0.021), consistent with previous reports. In addition, 71 cases with unclear original type could be histologically classified by TB_COSPv2. Conclusions Research cohorts, particularly those across different centres within consortia, show significant variability in original histological type diagnosis. Our IHC-based reclassification produced more homogeneous types with respect to outcome than original type. Impact Biomarker-based classification of ovarian carcinomas is feasible, improves comparability of results across research studies, and can reclassify cases which lack reliable original pathology. PMID:23880734

  4. Tracking of adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells using two magnetic nanoparticle types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasten, Annika; Siegmund, Birte J.; Grüttner, Cordula; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Frerich, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to be considered as an emerging detection technique for cell tracking experiments to evaluate the fate of transplanted progenitor cells and develop successful cell therapies for tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering using adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells has been advocated for the cure of soft tissue defects or for persistent soft tissue augmentation. Adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells were differentiated into the adipogenic lineage and labeled with two different types of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in varying concentrations which resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction of gene expression of adipogenic differentiation markers, adiponectin and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), whereas the metabolic activity was not altered. As a result, only low nanoparticle concentrations for labeling were used for in vivo experiments. Cells were seeded onto collagen scaffolds and subcutaneously implanted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. At 24 h as well as 28 days after implantation, MRI analyses were performed visualizing nanoparticle-labeled cells using T2-weighted sequences. The quantification of absolute volume of the scaffolds revealed a decrease of volume over time in all experimental groups. The distribution of nanoparticle-labeled cells within the scaffolds varied likewise over time.

  5. Electrical breakdown in tissue electroporation

    E-print Network

    Guenther, E; Klein, N; Mikus, P; Stehling, MK; Rubinsky, B

    2015-01-01

    ultrasound image and sound pressure in both clinical and gelfor both tissue and gel. The ultrasound appearance duringultrasound signature exhibit a qualitatively similar dependence on pulse number in the gel

  6. Role of bone-type tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase and PHOSPO1 in vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N; Sobenin, Igor; Chistiakov, Dimitry A

    2014-01-01

    Matrix vesicle (MV)-mediated mineralization is important for bone ossification. However, under certain circumstances such as atherosclerosis, mineralization may occur in the arterial wall. Bone-type tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) hydrolyzes inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and generates inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is essential for MV-mediated hydroxyapatite formation. MVs contain another phosphatase, PHOSPHO1, that serves as an additional supplier of Pi. Activation of bone-type tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in vascular smooth muscle cells precedes vascular calcification. By degrading PPi, TNAP plays a procalcific role changing the Pi/PPi ratio toward mineralization. A pathologic role of bone-type TNAP and PHOSPHO1 make them to be attractive targets for cardiovascular therapy. PMID:24533943

  7. Comparison of the effects of pitavastatin versus pravastatin on coronary artery plaque phenotype assessed by tissue characterization using serial virtual histology intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Tohyama, Shinichi; Fukui, Kazuki; Umezawa, Shigeo; Onishi, Yuko; Kunishima, Tomoyuki; Sato, Akira; Nozato, Toshihiro; Miyake, Shogo; Takeyama, Youichi; Morino, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Takao; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Michishita, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) is the most common type of vulnerable plaque and is the precursor of plaque rupture. However, rupture of a TCFA is not the only mechanism underlying thrombus formation or acute coronary syndrome. Although statin therapy changes the composition of coronary artery plaques, the effects of statins, particularly different types of statins, on plaque phenotype have not been fully examined. This study compared the effects of pitavastatin versus pravastatin on coronary artery plaque phenotype assessed by virtual histology (VH) intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with angina pectoris (AP). Coronary atherosclerosis in nonculprit lesions was evaluated using VH-IVUS at baseline and 8 months after statin therapy; analyzable IVUS data were obtained from 83 patients with stable AP (39 patients treated with pitavastatin and 44 with pravastatin) and 36 patients with unstable AP (19 patients treated with pitavastatin and 17 with pravastatin). Pitavastatin had a strong effect on reducing pathologic intimal thickening (PIT), especially in patients with unstable AP, but had no impact on VH-TCFA or fibroatheroma (FA). By contrast, pravastatin had weak effects on reducing PIT, VH-TCFA, or FA. Increases in the number of calcified plaques were observed for both statins. In conclusion, pitavastatin and pravastatin changed coronary artery plaque phenotype as assessed by VH-IVUS in patients with AP. However, the effects of these statins on coronary artery plaque phenotype were different. PMID:24337500

  8. Multiplatform analysis of 12 cancer types reveals molecular classification within and across tissues of origin.

    PubMed

    Hoadley, Katherine A; Yau, Christina; Wolf, Denise M; Cherniack, Andrew D; Tamborero, David; Ng, Sam; Leiserson, Max D M; Niu, Beifang; McLellan, Michael D; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Zhang, Jiashan; Kandoth, Cyriac; Akbani, Rehan; Shen, Hui; Omberg, Larsson; Chu, Andy; Margolin, Adam A; Van't Veer, Laura J; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Laird, Peter W; Raphael, Benjamin J; Ding, Li; Robertson, A Gordon; Byers, Lauren A; Mills, Gordon B; Weinstein, John N; Van Waes, Carter; Chen, Zhong; Collisson, Eric A; Benz, Christopher C; Perou, Charles M; Stuart, Joshua M

    2014-08-14

    Recent genomic analyses of pathologically defined tumor types identify "within-a-tissue" disease subtypes. However, the extent to which genomic signatures are shared across tissues is still unclear. We performed an integrative analysis using five genome-wide platforms and one proteomic platform on 3,527 specimens from 12 cancer types, revealing a unified classification into 11 major subtypes. Five subtypes were nearly identical to their tissue-of-origin counterparts, but several distinct cancer types were found to converge into common subtypes. Lung squamous, head and neck, and a subset of bladder cancers coalesced into one subtype typified by TP53 alterations, TP63 amplifications, and high expression of immune and proliferation pathway genes. Of note, bladder cancers split into three pan-cancer subtypes. The multiplatform classification, while correlated with tissue-of-origin, provides independent information for predicting clinical outcomes. All data sets are available for data-mining from a unified resource to support further biological discoveries and insights into novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25109877

  9. Metformin Ameliorates Podocyte Damage by Restoring Renal Tissue Podocalyxin Expression in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Limin; Gu, Junfei; Yang, Di; Wang, Wei; Ye, Shandong

    2015-01-01

    Podocalyxin (PCX) is a signature molecule of the glomerular podocyte and of maintaining integrity of filtration function of glomerulus. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of different doses of metformin on renal tissue PCX expression in type 2 diabetic rats and clarify its protection on glomerular podocytes. Type 2 diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in which diabetes was induced by high-fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) were treated with different doses of metformin (150, 300, and 500?mg/kg per day, resp.) for 8 weeks. Various biochemical parameters, kidney histopathology, and renal tissue PCX expression levels were examined. In type 2 diabetic rats, severe hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia were developed. Urinary albumin and PCX were markedly increased. Diabetes induced significant alterations in renal glomerular structure. In addition, protein and mRNA expression of renal tissue PCX were highly decreased. However, treatment of rats with different doses of metformin restored all these changes to a varying degree. These results suggested that metformin can ameliorate glomerular podocyte damage in type 2 diabetic rats, which may be partly associated with its role in restoring PCX expression and inhibiting urinary excretion of PCX with dose dependence. PMID:26075281

  10. Biventricular function and glycemic load in type 1 diabetic children: Doppler tissue-imaging study.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Ahmed Anwer; Soliman, Mahmoud Ali

    2015-02-01

    To assess right- and left-ventricular function in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) as well as correlate cardiac function with diabetes duration and state of metabolic control. The present study included 30 patients with type 1 DM (group 1) and 20 apparently normal children with comparable age and sex as controls (group 2). All children were subjected to detailed history, clinical examination, and routine laboratory investigations, including glycated hemoglobin, as well as conventional echocardiographic and tissue Doppler examination. Children with type 1 DM have impaired diastolic function in both left and right ventricles before the development of systolic dysfunction when assessed with either conventional or tissue Doppler echocardiography. Resting heart rate in diabetic patients showed a significant positive correlation with mitral A flow velocity and a significant negative correlation with mitral and tricuspid E/A ratio. Regarding morphological parameters of the left ventricle, all dimensions and volumes were comparable between diabetic patients and controls; however, a significant positive correlation was found between interventricular septal thickness at diastole (IVSd), interventricular septal thickness at systole (IVSs), and left ventricular posterior wall at systole (LVPWs) and the duration of diabetes. Children with type 1 DM have impaired diastolic function in both left and right ventricles with normal systolic function when assessed with either conventional or tissue Doppler echocardiography. PMID:25304244

  11. Broadband miniature fiber optic ultrasound generator.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Wang, Xingwei

    2014-07-28

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a broadband miniature fiber optic ultrasound generator based on photoacoustic (PA) ultrasound generation principle for biomedical ultrasound imaging and ultrasound non-destructive test (NDT) applications. A novel PA generation material, gold nanocomposite, was synthesized by directly reducing gold nanoparticles within polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a one-pot protocol. The fiber optic ultrasound generator was fabricated by coating the gold nanocomposite on the tip of the optical fiber. The efficiency of the PA generation using gold nanocomposite was increased 10(5) compared to using aluminum thin film and 10(3) compared to using graphite mixed within epoxy. The ultrasound profile and the acoustic distribution have been characterized. The amplitude of the generated ultrasound signal was as high as 0.64 MPa and the bandwidth was more than 20 MHz. This paper also demonstrated its capability for ultrasound imaging of a tissue specimen. PMID:25089431

  12. Contourlet Transform for Texture Representation of Ultrasound Thyroid Images

    E-print Network

    Athens, University of

    Contourlet Transform for Texture Representation of Ultrasound Thyroid Images Stamos Katsigiannis analysis. This paper investigates the texture representation of thyroid tissue via features based ultrasound thyroid textures have been utilized. The maximum classification accuracy was 93%, showing that CT

  13. Application of ultrasound as pretreatment for extraction of podophyllotoxin from rhizomes of Podophyllum peltatum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuna; Baik, Oon Doo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of high-power ultrasound pretreatment on the extraction of podophyllotoxin from Podophyllum peltatum was investigated. Direct sonication by an ultrasound probe horn was applied at 24 kHz and a number of factors were investigated: particle size (0.18-0.6 mm), type of solvent (0-100% aqueous ethanol), ultrasonic treatment time (2-40 min), and power of ultrasound (0-100% power intensity, maximum power: 78 W). The optimal condition of ultrasound was achieved with 0.425-0.6 mm particle size, 10 min sonication time, 35 W ultrasound power, and water as the medium. There was no obvious degradation of podophyllotoxin with ultrasound under the applied conditions, and an improvement in extractability was observed. The SEM microscopic structure change of treated samples disclosed the effect of ultrasound on the tissue cells. The increased pore volume and surface area after ultrasonic treatment also confirmed the positive effect of ultrasound pretreatment on the extraction yield of podophyllotoxin from the plant cells. PMID:21664168

  14. Validation of four-dimensional ultrasound for targeting in minimally-invasive beating-heart surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Danielle F.; Wiles, Andrew D.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Chris; Gobbi, David G.; Peters, Terry M.

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasound is garnering significant interest as an imaging modality for surgical guidance, due to its affordability, real-time temporal resolution and ease of integration into the operating room. Minimally-invasive intracardiac surgery performed on the beating-heart prevents direct vision of the surgical target, and procedures such as mitral valve replacement and atrial septal defect closure would benefit from intraoperative ultrasound imaging. We propose that placing 4D ultrasound within an augmented reality environment, along with a patient-specific cardiac model and virtual representations of tracked surgical tools, will create a visually intuitive platform with sufficient image information to safely and accurately repair tissue within the beating heart. However, the quality of the imaging parameters, spatial calibration, temporal calibration and ECG-gating must be well characterized before any 4D ultrasound system can be used clinically to guide the treatment of moving structures. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive accuracy assessment framework that can be used to evaluate the performance of 4D ultrasound systems while imaging moving targets. We image a dynamic phantom that is comprised of a simple robot and a tracked phantom to which point-source, distance and spherical objects of known construction can be attached. We also follow our protocol to evaluate 4D ultrasound images generated in real-time by reconstructing ECG-gated 2D ultrasound images acquired from a tracked multiplanar transesophageal probe. Likewise, our evaluation framework allows any type of 4D ultrasound to be quantitatively assessed.

  15. Totally anomalous pulmonary venous drainage – supracardiac type: ultrasound assessment of anatomically determined stenosis of the vertical vein collecting pulmonary venous return

    PubMed Central

    Karolczak, Maciej A.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of the congenital heart defects, among others totally anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, is based on echocardiography. While the visualization of intracardiac structures rarely causes significant difficulties, the vessels positioned outside the heart, e.g. the pulmonary veins, are often hidden behind tissues impermeable to ultrasounds, which may necessitate the use of other imaging methods, such as computer tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance or angiocardiography. The serious limitation of these techniques, especially in pediatric age, is the necessity to administer general anesthesia and contrast media. In order to obtain clear images, the appropriate concentration of a contrast agent in the vessels is necessary, which is not always possible in a patient with severe circulatory failure. Therefore, every effort should be made to obtain as much information necessary for treatment determination as possible from echocardiography, in spite of its limitations. A significant morphological factor of totally anomalous pulmonary venous drainage is the connection between the pulmonary and systemic veins, which in the supracardiac type is the vertical vein draining into the left brachiocephalic vein. The narrowing of this connection impedes the return of the blood from the lungs, which leads to the secondary edema and severe, abrupt cardiorespiratory insufficiency. Such a narrowing should be sought for in every case of totally anomalous pulmonary venous drainage since it constitutes an indication for an urgent surgery. On the basis of own experience and information obtained from the pertinent literature, the authors describe the rules and criteria of the diagnosis of this rare supracardiac form of the heart defect with the presence of the vertical vein which may undergo stenosis due to a phenomenon called the anatomical or bronchoarterial vise. It is formed when the vessel “pushes through” a narrow opening bordered by the left pulmonary artery from the inferior side as well as the left main bronchus and the arterial duct or ligament from the superior side. This article describes a technique of echocardiographic test enabling the precise visualization of the vessel's course and the differentiation from a more common variant of the defect – without external stenosis.

  16. Interventional ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, H.H.; Kristensen, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses: Introduction to interventional ultrasound/handling of aspirated material/general principles of fine needle aspiration cytology/procedure and principles in ultrasonically guided puncture/puncture of focal liver lesions/intraoperative puncture of the liver guided by ultrasound/Interventional ultrasound in cancer therapy/Interventional echocardiography/Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Are there any risks./Puncture of renal mass lesions/Intrauterine needle diagnosis/Percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  17. Renal ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    Grenier, N; Gennisson, J-L; Cornelis, F; Le Bras, Y; Couzi, L

    2013-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence and prevalence are increasing in Western countries, due particularly to diabetes mellitus and hypertension-related nephropathies. CKD may lead to end-stage renal failure, with extensive morbidity, mortality and increasing health costs. Primary and secondary prevention requires a better knowledge of mechanisms underlying renal scarring, the development of specific therapies to slow down the progression of the disease and the development of non-invasive diagnostic tools to characterize the process. Ultrasound elastography is a new imaging technique under development that provides information about renal stiffness. Kidney elasticity measurements with ultrasound should be performed with a quantitative technique, such as Shearwave techniques. However kidney stiffness is not only related to fibrosis, as it also sensitive to mechanical and functional parameters such as anisotropy, vascularization, hydronephrosis and external pressure. This paper reviews the existing ultrasound elastography techniques. Elastography is a new tool under development for renal tissue characterization and needs further validation in clinical practice. PMID:23567180

  18. Cumulative phase delay imaging for contrast-enhanced ultrasound tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demi, Libertario; van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Standard dynamic-contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) imaging detects and estimates ultrasound-contrast-agent (UCA) concentration based on the amplitude of the nonlinear (harmonic) components generated during ultrasound (US) propagation through UCAs. However, harmonic components generation is not specific to UCAs, as it also occurs for US propagating through tissue. Moreover, nonlinear artifacts affect standard DCE-US imaging, causing contrast to tissue ratio reduction, and resulting in possible misclassification of tissue and misinterpretation of UCA concentration. Furthermore, no contrast-specific modality exists for DCE-US tomography; in particular speed-of-sound changes due to UCAs are well within those caused by different tissue types. Recently, a new marker for UCAs has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental component is in fact observable for US propagating through UCAs, and is absent in tissue. In this paper, tomographic US images based on CPD are for the first time presented and compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Results show the applicability of this marker for contrast specific US imaging, with cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI) showing superior capabilities in detecting and localizing UCA, as compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Cavities (filled with UCA) which were down to 1?mm in diameter were clearly detectable. Moreover, CPDI is free of the above mentioned nonlinear artifacts. These results open important possibilities to DCE-US tomography, with potential applications to breast imaging for cancer localization.

  19. Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin underlies obesity-induced adipose tissue fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miyako; Ikeda, Kenji; Suganami, Takayoshi; Komiya, Chikara; Ochi, Kozue; Shirakawa, Ibuki; Hamaguchi, Miho; Nishimura, Satoshi; Manabe, Ichiro; Matsuda, Takahisa; Kimura, Kumi; Inoue, Hiroshi; Inagaki, Yutaka; Aoe, Seiichiro; Yamasaki, Sho; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    In obesity, a paracrine loop between adipocytes and macrophages augments chronic inflammation of adipose tissue, thereby inducing systemic insulin resistance and ectopic lipid accumulation. Obese adipose tissue contains a unique histological structure termed crown-like structure (CLS), where adipocyte-macrophage crosstalk is known to occur in close proximity. Here we show that Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle), a pathogen sensor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is localized to macrophages in CLS, the number of which correlates with the extent of interstitial fibrosis. Mincle induces obesity-induced adipose tissue fibrosis, thereby leading to steatosis and insulin resistance in liver. We further show that Mincle in macrophages is crucial for CLS formation, expression of fibrosis-related genes and myofibroblast activation. This study indicates that Mincle, when activated by an endogenous ligand released from dying adipocytes, is involved in adipose tissue remodelling, thereby suggesting that sustained interactions between adipocytes and macrophages within CLS could be a therapeutic target for obesity-induced ectopic lipid accumulation. PMID:25236782

  20. A novel approach in personal identification from tissue samples undergone different processes through STR typing.

    PubMed

    Staiti, N; Di Martino, D; Saravo, L

    2004-12-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) or microsatellites have been recognized worldwide as a powerful tool for human identification. They have become widely used in human identification especially in criminal cases and mass disasters. Police departments are often interested in cases where tissues are already decomposed and only do bones remain to let them perform laboratory analyses. Bone is the most resistant tissue in animal body to time depending degradation and putrefaction, but it is often hard to extract DNA from it because of its highly mineralized structure, which makes DNA extraction and/or amplification hard to carry out. We have performed human nuclear DNA extraction and STR typing in three different cases, on bones and bone fragments from long time dead persons found buried, in the sea, almost completely burnt and whose tissues were already decomposed. We report these caseworks as we would like to show how forensic scientists are improving their skill in identifying people whose corps have undergone several kinds of processes, even independently on the time passed and the level of putrefaction of their tissues. PMID:15639570

  1. Ultrasound techniques in the evaluation of the mediastinum, part I: endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and transcutaneous mediastinal ultrasound (TMUS), introduction into ultrasound techniques

    PubMed Central

    Annema, Jouke Tabe; Clementsen, Paul; Cui, Xin Wu; Borst, Mathias Maximilian; Jenssen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging has gained importance in pulmonary medicine over the last decades including conventional transcutaneous ultrasound (TUS), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS). Mediastinal lymph node staging affects the management of patients with both operable and inoperable lung cancer (e.g., surgery vs. combined chemoradiation therapy). Tissue sampling is often indicated for accurate nodal staging. Recent international lung cancer staging guidelines clearly state that endosonography (EUS and EBUS) should be the initial tissue sampling test over surgical staging. Mediastinal nodes can be sampled from the airways [EBUS combined with transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA)] or the esophagus [EUS fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA)]. EBUS and EUS have a complementary diagnostic yield and in combination virtually all mediastinal lymph nodes can be biopsied. Additionally endosonography has an excellent yield in assessing granulomas in patients suspected of sarcoidosis. The aim of this review, in two integrative parts, is to discuss the current role and future perspectives of all ultrasound techniques available for the evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy and mediastinal staging of lung cancer. A specific emphasis will be on learning mediastinal endosonography. Part I is dealing with an introduction into ultrasound techniques, mediastinal lymph node anatomy and diagnostic reach of ultrasound techniques and part II with the clinical work up of neoplastic and inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathy using ultrasound techniques and how to learn mediastinal endosonography. PMID:26543620

  2. [Perianal ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Barreiros, A P; Nuernberg, D; Schreiber-Dietrich, D G; Ignee, A

    2008-06-01

    Perianal and perineal ultrasound is an effective but rarely applied diagnostic modality. Transmural inflammation, fistula and abscesses in patients with inflammatory bowel disease can be delineated and perirectal tumours can be staged. The method is complementary to endorectal ultrasound. Also oblique transsphincteric fistula can be displayed in detail. PMID:18537090

  3. Effects of fluoride on the ultrastructure and expression of Type I collagen in rat hard tissue.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyan; Hao, Xianhui; Nie, Qingli; Feng, Cuiping; Wang, Hongwei; Sun, Zilong; Niu, Ruiyan; Wang, Jundong

    2015-06-01

    Long-term excessive fluoride (F) intake disrupts the balance of bone deposition and remodeling activities and is linked to skeletal fluorosis. Type I collagen, which is responsible for bone stability and cell biological functions, can be damaged by excessive F ingestion. In this study, Sodium fluoride (NaF) was orally administrated to rat at 150 mg L(-1) for 60 and 120 d. We examined the effects of excessive F ingestion on the ultrastructure and collagen morphology of bone in rats by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, we investigated the effect of F consumption on the expression levels of COL1A1 and COL1A2 in the bone tissues of rats by using quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of F-induced collagen protein damage. Our results showed that F affected collagen I arrangement and produced ultrastructural changes in bone tissue. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 were reduced and the COL I protein levels decreased in the fluorosis group. We concluded that excessive F ingestion adversely affected collagen I arrangement and caused ultrastructural changes in bone tissue. Reduced COL1A1 mRNA expression and altered COL I protein levels may contribute to the skeletal damage resulting from F exposure. PMID:25655816

  4. Insulin action in muscle and adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes: The significance of blood flow.

    PubMed

    Lambadiari, Vaia; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Dimitriadis, George D

    2015-05-15

    Under normal metabolic conditions insulin stimulates microvascular perfusion (capillary recruitment) of skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue and thus increases blood flow mainly after meal ingestion or physical exercise. This helps the delivery of insulin itself but also that of substrates and of other signalling molecules to multiple tissues beds and facilitates glucose disposal and lipid kinetics. This effect is impaired in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes early in the development of metabolic dysregulation and reflects early-onset endothelial dysfunction. Failure of insulin to increase muscle and adipose tissue blood flow results in decreased glucose handling. In fat depots, a blunted postprandial blood flow response will result in an insufficient suppression of lipolysis and an increased spill over of fatty acids in the circulation, leading to a more pronounced insulin resistant state in skeletal muscle. This defect in blood flow response is apparent even in the prediabetic state, implying that it is a facet of insulin resistance and exists long before overt hyperglycaemia develops. The following review intends to summarize the contribution of blood flow impairment to the development of the atherogenic dysglycemia and dyslipidaemia. PMID:25987960

  5. Resveratrol attenuates visfatin and vaspin genes expression in adipose tissue of rats with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Soheila; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Saidijam, Massoud; Karimi, Jamshid; Azari, Reza Yadgar; Farimani, Azam Rezaei; Salehi, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Visfatin and vaspin are secreted by adipose tissue and play key roles in glucose homeostasis and subsequently are potential targets for diabetes treatment. Resveratrol (RVS) corrects insulin secretion and improves insulin sensitivity. We investigated the RVS effects on serum antioxidants, insulin and glucose levels, also visfatin and vaspin genes expression in adipose tissue of streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats (n=32) using STZ (60 mg/kg body weight) and NA (120 mg/kg body weight); rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8). Eight untreated normal rats were used as control group; four diabetic rat groups (2–5) were treated with 0, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight of RVS, respectively for 30 days. After treatment blood and adipose tissue were prepared from all animals. Serum glucose, insulin, HOMA index, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Visfatin and vaspin genes expression in adipose tissue were evaluated using real-time PCR. Results: RVS reduced blood glucose significantly and increased insulin level, resulting in insulin sensitivity improvement. Furthermore RVS increased weight and TAC, while reducing serum MDA in the diabetic groups. Visfatin gene expression increased in the diabetic group, and RVS treatment reduced it. Vaspin gene expression was reduced in RVS receiving diabetic groups. Conclusion: The results indicated that RVS has potential hypoglycemic effect, probably by increasing insulin level and changing gene expression of visfatin and vaspin. Moreover RVS showed antioxidant effects through reduction in peroxidiation products and augmented antioxidant capacity. PMID:26221476

  6. A genotyping protocol for multiple tissue types from the polyploid tree species Sequoia sempervirens (Cupressaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Lakshmi; Dodd, Richard S.; O’Hara, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Identifying clonal lineages in asexually reproducing plants using microsatellite markers is complicated by the possibility of nonidentical genotypes from the same clonal lineage due to somatic mutations, null alleles, and scoring errors. We developed and tested a clonal identification protocol that is robust to these issues for the asexually reproducing hexaploid tree species coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). Methods: Microsatellite data from four previously published and two newly developed primers were scored using a modified protocol, and clones were identified using Bruvo genetic distances. The effectiveness of this clonal identification protocol was assessed using simulations and by genotyping a test set of paired samples of different tissue types from the same trees. Results: Data from simulations showed that our protocol allowed us to accurately identify clonal lineages. Multiple test samples from the same trees were identified correctly, although certain tissue type pairs had larger genetic distances on average. Discussion: The methods described in this paper will allow for the accurate identification of coast redwood clones, facilitating future studies of the reproductive ecology of this species. The techniques used in this paper can be applied to studies of other clonal organisms as well. PMID:25798341

  7. Bacillus anthracis oedema toxin as a cause of tissue necrosis and cell type-specific cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Voth, Daniel E; Hamm, Elaine E; Nguyen, Lan G; Tucker, Amy E; Salles, Isabelle I; Ortiz-Leduc, William; Ballard, Jimmy D

    2005-08-01

    Oedema factor (OF) and protective antigen (PA) are secreted by Bacillus anthracis, and their binary combination yields oedema toxin (OT). Following PA-mediated delivery to the cytosol, OF functions as an adenylate cyclase generating high levels of cAMP. To assess OT as a possible cause of tissue damage and cell death, a novel approach was developed, which utilized a developing zebrafish embryo model to study toxin activity. Zebrafish embryos incubated with OT exhibited marked necrosis of the liver, cranium and gastrointestinal tract, as well as reduced swim bladder inflation. The OT-treated embryos survived after all stages of development but succumbed to the toxin within 7 days. Additional analysis of specific cell lines, including macrophage and non-macrophage, showed OT-induced cell death is cell type-specific. There was no discernible correlation between levels of OF-generated cAMP and cell death. Depending on the type of cell analysed, cell death could be detected in low levels of cAMP, and, conversely, cell survival was observed in one cell line in which high levels of cAMP were found following treatment with OT. Collectively, these data suggest OT is cytotoxic in a cell-dependent manner and may contribute to disease through direct cell killing leading to tissue necrosis. PMID:16008581

  8. Hybrid use of combined and sequential delivery of growth factors and ultrasound stimulation in porous multilayer composite scaffolds to promote both vascularization and bone formation in bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Haoran; Liu, Xia; Zhu, Minghua; Luo, Guilin; Sun, Tao; Peng, Qiang; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Taijun; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Keliang; Feng, Bo; Weng, Jie; Wang, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a multilayer coating technology would be adopted to prepare a porous composite scaffold and the growth factor release and ultrasound techniques were introduced into bone tissue engineering to finally solve the problems of vascularization and bone formation in the scaffold whilst the designed multilayer composite with gradient degradation characteristics in the space was used to match the new bone growth process better. The results of animal experiments showed that the use of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) combined with growth factors demonstrated excellent capabilities and advantages in both vascularization and new bone formation in bone tissue engineering. The degradation of the used scaffold materials could match new bone formation very well. The results also showed that only RGD-promoted cell adhesion was insufficient to satisfy the needs of new bone formation while growth factors and LIPUS stimulation were the key factors in new bone formation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 195-208, 2016. PMID:26282063

  9. Increased Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Do Kyeong; Lee, Hyejin; Oh, Jee-Young; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Yookyung

    2015-01-01

    Background Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is suggested to play an important role in the progression of metabolic syndrome. We aimed to establish a simple method to measure EAT and examine the differences in EAT thickness according to the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus or obesity. Methods A total of 94 patients (42.6% type 2 diabetes mellitus, 53.2% obese, mean age 61±13) who underwent multidetector computed tomography were enrolled. Thickness of EAT was measured on the parasternal short and horizontal long axis view. Epicardial fat area (EFA) was measured at the level of left main coronary artery (LMCA). Results All EAT thicknesses were correlated with EFA at the LMCA level (r=0.235 to 0.613, all Ps<0.05), and EAT thickness in the left atrioventricular groove (LAVG) had the highest correlation coefficient (r=0.613). EFA, and EAT thicknesses in the LAVG and the left ventricular apex were higher in the group with type 2 diabetes mellitus than in the group without type 2 diabetes mellitus when adjusted only for body mass index. When adjusted only for type 2 diabetes mellitus, EFA, and EAT thicknesses in the LAVG and the right atrioventricular groove were higher in obese group than in nonobese group. Conclusion In conclusion, EAT thickness can be easily measured and represent EFA. EAT thickness, especially in LAVG, was higher in groups with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity independently. These findings implicate that EAT thickness may be a useful indicator for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. PMID:26566498

  10. Ultrasound microscope: the new field in ultrasound diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novyc'kyy, Victor V.; Lushchyk, Ulyana B.

    2001-06-01

    A device which is a new stage in the development of medical equipment has been developed. The device works as an ultrasound microscope in vivo and provides 4 up to 32 colored histological image. It gives possibility to estimate tissue acoustic density with the help of 4 up to 32 gradation coloring different tissues and enables tissue microcirculation visualization. With the help of the device a doctor can objectify fatty hepatitis and cirrhosis, edema of different organs and tissues as well as microcirculation in organs and tissues (e.g. muscles, myocard and bone system). New promising applications of ultrasound systems in diagnostics and for choosing individual treatment tactics, with pathogenesis being taken into account, may be developed with the help of the device.

  11. An atlas of active enhancers across human cell types and tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Robin; Gebhard, Claudia; Miguel-Escalada, Irene; Hoof, Ilka; Bornholdt, Jette; Boyd, Mette; Chen, Yun; Zhao, Xiaobei; Schmidl, Christian; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ntini, Evgenia; Arner, Erik; Valen, Eivind; Li, Kang; Schwarzfischer, Lucia; Glatz, Dagmar; Raithel, Johanna; Lilje, Berit; Rapin, Nicolas; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Jørgensen, Mette; Andersen, Peter Refsing; Bertin, Nicolas; Rackham, Owen; Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Ishizu, Yuri; Shimizu, Yuri; Furuhata, Erina; Maeda, Shiori; Negishi, Yutaka; Mungall, Christopher J.; Meehan, Terrence F.; Lassmann, Timo; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Kondo, Naoto; Kawai, Jun; Lennartsson, Andreas; Daub, Carsten O.; Heutink, Peter; Hume, David A.; Jensen, Torben Heick; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Müller, Ferenc; Consortium, The Fantom; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Carninci, Piero; Rehli, Michael; Sandelin, Albin

    2014-03-01

    Enhancers control the correct temporal and cell-type-specific activation of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. Knowing their properties, regulatory activity and targets is crucial to understand the regulation of differentiation and homeostasis. Here we use the FANTOM5 panel of samples, covering the majority of human tissues and cell types, to produce an atlas of active, in vivo-transcribed enhancers. We show that enhancers share properties with CpG-poor messenger RNA promoters but produce bidirectional, exosome-sensitive, relatively short unspliced RNAs, the generation of which is strongly related to enhancer activity. The atlas is used to compare regulatory programs between different cells at unprecedented depth, to identify disease-associated regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms, and to classify cell-type-specific and ubiquitous enhancers. We further explore the utility of enhancer redundancy, which explains gene expression strength rather than expression patterns. The online FANTOM5 enhancer atlas represents a unique resource for studies on cell-type-specific enhancers and gene regulation.

  12. Ultrasound Imaging and Its Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Jorgen A.

    Modern medical ultrasound scanners are used to image nearly all soft tissue structures in the body. The anatomy can be studied from gray-scale B-mode images, where the reflectivity and scattering strength of the tissues are displayed. The imaging is performed in real time with 20 to 100 images per second. The technique is widely used, since it does not use ionizing radiation and is safe and painless for the patient. This chapter gives a short introduction to modern ultrasound imaging using array transducers. It includes a description of the different imaging methods, the beam-forming strategies used, and the resulting fields and their modeling.

  13. Ultrasound characterization of the infertile male testis with rf power spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Jonathan A.; Silverman, Ronald H.; Rondeau, Mark; Coleman, D. J.; Schlegel, Peter

    2002-04-01

    Objective: To investigate and diagnose testicular pathology in patients with testicular dysfunction using the technique of ultrasound power spectrum analysis. Methods: Testicular ultrasound studies with power spectrum tissue characterization analysis were performed on men with testicular abnormalities as well as normal controls. Semen analysis, biopsy data, microscopic intra-operative findings and data pertaining to testicular function were collected for each surgically evaluated subject. Ultrasound data were analyzed for power spectrum characteristics of microscopic scatterer size and concentration within discrete areas of testicular tissue. Results: Patients with varicoceles and greater than 2x106 sperm/ml on semen analysis had larger average scatterer size (107.7 micrometers ) and lower scatterer concentration (-15.02 dB) than non-obstructed, azoospermic patients with varicoceles (92.4 micrometers and -11.41 dB, respectively). Subjects with obstructed azoospermia had slightly larger average tissue scatterer size (108.1 micrometers ) and lower concentration (-15.73 dB) while normal control data revealed intermediate values of size (102.3 micrometers ) and concentration (-13.1 dB) of scatterers. Spectral data from pure testicular seminoma lesions had the lowest average scatterer size (82.3 micrometers ) with low relative concentration (-14.7 dB). Summary: Ultrasound tissue characterization based on RF spectrum analysis may distinguish different types of testicular pathology including obstructed and non-obstructed azoospermia and tissue changes due to varicocele and tumor.

  14. Connective tissue reflex massage for type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A; Feriche-Fernández-Castanys, Belen; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva; Quesada-Rubio, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of connective tissue massage to improve blood circulation and intermittent claudication symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken. Ninety-eight type 2 diabetes patients with stage I or II-a peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (Leriche-Fontaine classification) were randomly assigned to a massage group or to a placebo group treated using disconnected magnetotherapy equipment. Peripheral arterial circulation was determined by measuring differential segmental arterial pressure, heart rate, skin temperature, oxygen saturation and skin blood flow. Measurements were taken before and at 30?min, 6 months and 1 year after the 15-week treatment. After the 15-week program, the groups differed (P < .05) in differential segmental arterial pressure in right lower limb (lower one-third of thigh, upper and lower one-third of leg) and left lower limb (lower one-third of thigh and upper and lower one-third of leg). A significant difference (P < .05) was also observed in skin blood flow in digits 1 and 4 of right foot and digits 2, 4 and 5 of left foot. ANOVA results were significant (P < .05) for right and left foot oxygen saturation but not for heart rate and temperature. At 6 months and 1 year, the groups differed in differential segmental arterial pressure in upper third of left and right legs. Connective tissue massage improves blood circulation in the lower limbs of type 2 diabetic patients at stage I or II-a and may be useful to slow the progression of PAD. PMID:19933770

  15. Connective Tissue Reflex Massage for Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A.; Feriche-Fernández-Castanys, Belen; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva; Quesada-Rubio, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of connective tissue massage to improve blood circulation and intermittent claudication symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken. Ninety-eight type 2 diabetes patients with stage I or II-a peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (Leriche-Fontaine classification) were randomly assigned to a massage group or to a placebo group treated using disconnected magnetotherapy equipment. Peripheral arterial circulation was determined by measuring differential segmental arterial pressure, heart rate, skin temperature, oxygen saturation and skin blood flow. Measurements were taken before and at 30?min, 6 months and 1 year after the 15-week treatment. After the 15-week program, the groups differed (P < .05) in differential segmental arterial pressure in right lower limb (lower one-third of thigh, upper and lower one-third of leg) and left lower limb (lower one-third of thigh and upper and lower one-third of leg). A significant difference (P < .05) was also observed in skin blood flow in digits 1 and 4 of right foot and digits 2, 4 and 5 of left foot. ANOVA results were significant (P < .05) for right and left foot oxygen saturation but not for heart rate and temperature. At 6 months and 1 year, the groups differed in differential segmental arterial pressure in upper third of left and right legs. Connective tissue massage improves blood circulation in the lower limbs of type 2 diabetic patients at stage I or II-a and may be useful to slow the progression of PAD. PMID:19933770

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is safe, noninvasive and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  17. Using real-time ultrasound and carcass measurements to estimate total internal fat in beef cattle over different breed types and managements.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, F R B; Tedeschi, L O

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to re-evaluate our previously published technique of estimating total physically separable internal fat (IFAT) in beef cattle using real-time ultrasound (RTU) and carcass measurements from live animals by including more breed types and genders under different management scenarios. We expanded the original database and performed additional analyses. The database was gathered from 4 studies and contained 110 animals (16 bulls, 16 heifers, and 78 steers), being Angus (n = 56), Angus× 5/8 Angus × 3/8 Nellore (n = 18), and Angus crossbreds (n = 36). Ultrasound measurements were obtained 7 d before slaughter, including the 12th to 13th rib fat thickness (uBF) and ultrasound kidney fat depth (uKFd). The uKFd was measured in a cross-sectional image collected between the first lumbar and 13th rib as previously published. Carcass data were collected 48 h post-mortem and consisted of backfat thickness (cBF), kidney fat depth (cKFd) and KPH weight, live BW, and HCW. Whole gastrointestinal tracts were removed and dissected to obtain IFAT weights. Weight of IFAT was highly correlated with KPH weight (0.88) and cKFd (0.81) and moderately correlated with uKFd (0.71). Prediction equations were developed for estimating IFAT, KPH weight, and cKFd with the PROC REG of SAS using the stepwise statement. The best predictors of IFAT were KPH weight or cKFd and cBF (r(2) = 0.84 and 0.83 and root mean square errors (RMSE) of 4.23 and 4.33 kg, respectively). Ultrasound measurements of uKFd and uBF had an r(2) of 0.65 and RMSE of 6.07 kg when both were used to predict IFAT. The results of cross-validation analyses indicated that equations developed either with KPH weight or cKFd weight and cBF had greater precision than the equation developed with uKFd and uBF. Most of the errors associated with the mean square error of prediction were due to random, uncontrolled variation. These results were consistent with previously published evaluation of this technique. These findings confirm that this RTU technique allows the measurement of IFAT in a non-invasive way that may improve our ability to estimate IFAT in beef cattle, be used to more accurately formulate rations, and be applied in sorting cattle at feedyard. PMID:22585821

  18. Intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Emelianov, Stanislav; Wang, Bo; Su, Jimmy; Karpiouk, Andrei; Yantsen, Evgeniya; Sokolov, Konstantin; Amirian, James; Smalling, Richard; Sethuraman, Shriram

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for an imaging technique that can reliably identify and characterize the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. Catheter-based intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is one of the imaging tools of the clinical evaluation of atherosclerosis. However, histopathological information obtained with IVUS imaging is limited. We present and discuss the applicability of a combined intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging approach to assess both vessel structure and tissue composition thus identifying rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques. Photoacoustic (or optoacoustic and, generally, thermoacoustic) imaging relies on the absorption of electromagnetic energy, such as light, and the subsequent emission of an acoustic wave. Therefore, the amplitude and temporal characteristics of the photoacoustic signal is primarily determined by optical absorption properties of different types of tissues and can be used to differentiate the lipid, fibrous and fibro-cellular components of an inflammatory lesion. Simultaneous IVUS and IVPA imaging studies were conducted using 40 MHz clinical IVUS imaging catheter interfaced with a pulsed laser system. The performance of the IVPA/IVUS imaging was assessed using phantoms with point targets and vessel-mimicking phantoms. To detect the lipids in the plaque, ex-vivo IVPA imaging studies of a normal and an atherosclerotic rabbit aorta were performed at a 532 nm wavelength. To assess plaque composition, multi-wavelength (680-950 nm) spectroscopic IVPA imaging studies were carried out. Finally, molecular and cellular IVPA imaging was demonstrated using plasmonic nanoparticles. Overall, our studies suggest that plaque detection and characterization can be improved using the combined IVPA/IVUS imaging. PMID:19162578

  19. Ultrasound-Guided Injection of Botulinum Toxin Type A for Piriformis Muscle Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Santamato, Andrea; Micello, Maria Francesca; Valeno, Giovanni; Beatrice, Raffaele; Cinone, Nicoletta; Baricich, Alessio; Picelli, Alessandro; Panza, Francesco; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Fiore, Pietro; Ranieri, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS) is caused by prolonged or excessive contraction of the piriformis muscle associated with pain in the buttocks, hips, and lower limbs because of the close proximity to the sciatic nerve. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) reduces muscle hypertonia as well as muscle contracture and pain inhibiting substance P release and other inflammatory factors. BoNT-A injection technique is important considering the difficult access of the needle for deep location, the small size of the muscle, and the proximity to neurovascular structures. Ultrasound guidance is easy to use and painless and several studies describe its use during BoNT-A administration in PMS. In the present review article, we briefly updated current knowledge regarding the BoNT therapy of PMS, describing also a case report in which this syndrome was treated with an ultrasound-guided injection of incobotulinumtoxin A. Pain reduction with an increase of hip articular range of motion in this patient with PMS confirmed the effectiveness of BoNT-A injection for the management of this syndrome. PMID:26266421

  20. Ultrasonic detection of photothermal interaction of lasers with tissue using a pulsed Doppler system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Hao; Azeemi, Aamer; Hartley, Craig J.; Motamedi, Massoud; Bell, Brent A.; Rastegar, Sohi; Sheppard, L. C.

    1995-05-01

    Thermal therapy using various heating sources such as lasers or microwaves to destroy benign and malignant lesions has recently gained widespread acceptance. However, the accurate prediction of thermal damage in tissue according to theoretical or computer modeling is difficult and unreliable due to target variability with respect to physical properties, geometry, and blood perfusion. Thus, one of the major obstacles to application of thermal therapies has been the lack of a noninvasive, real-time method that could determine the extent and geometry of treated tissue. To evaluate the effects of laser heating on tissue, we have developed an analog-digital hybrid Doppler ultrasound system to measure the phase and amplitude of ultrasonic echoes returned from the heated tissue. The system consists of an eight-gate pulsed Doppler detector, a 16-channel 12-bit A/D converter, and a signal analysis and visualization software package. In vitro studies using canine liver showed two distinct types of modulation of the echoes along the ultrasound beam path during laser irradiation using an 810 nm diode laser. Type 1 signals showed a small and slow variation in amplitude and phase, and were attributed to tissue coagulation. Type 1 signals showed a small and slow variation in amplitude and phase, and were attributed to tissue coagulation. Type 2 signals showed large and rapid variations in amplitude and phase which usually appeared after tissue surface explosion and were indicative of tissue ablation. We hypothesize that the observed phase changes in type 1 signals are due to thermal effects within the tissue consistent with tissue expansion and contraction while the phase changes in type 2 signals are likely due to formation and motion of gas bubbles in the tissue. A further development of the Doppler ultrasound technique could lead to the generation of feedback information needed for monitoring and automatic control of thermal treatment using various heating modalities such as laser, high intensity focused ultrasound, microwaves, or radio frequency waves.

  1. Distribution of a macaque immunosuppressive type D retrovirus in neural, lymphoid, and salivary tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, A.A.; Rodriguez, M.H.; Bush, C.E.; Munn, R.J.; Kwang, Hweising; Moore, P.F.; Osborn, K.G.; Marx, P.A.; Gardner, M.B.; Lowenstine, L.J. )

    1988-06-01

    Simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome (SAIDS) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the California Primate Research Center is caused by a type D retrovirus designated SAIDS retrovirus serotype 1 (SRV-1). This syndrome is characterized by profound immunosuppression and death associated with opportunistic infections. Neurologic signs and lesions have not been described as part of this syndrome. The distribution of SRV-1 in the salivary glands, lymph nodes, spleens, thymuses, and brains of eight virus-infected rhesus macaques was examined by immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy, in situ RNA hybridization, and Southern blot hybridization were also performed on selected tissues to detect viral particles, RNA, and DNA, respectively. In seven of eight SRV-1-infected animals, the transmembrane envelope glycoprotein (gp20) of SRV-1 was present in three or more tissues, but never in the brain. In the remaining animal, no viral antigen was detected in any tissue. In this same group of animals, viral nucleic acid was detected in the lymph nodes of six of six animals by Southern blot hybridization, in the salivary glands of two of five animals by both Southern blot and in situ hybridizations, and, surprisingly, in the brains of three of three animals by Southern blot and of three of five animals by in situ hybridization, including the one animal in which viral gp20 was undetectable. None of these animals had neurologic signs or lesions. The detection of viral nucleic acid in the absence of viral antigen in the brain suggests latent SRV-1 infection of the central nervous system.

  2. Two-dimensional acoustic attenuation mapping of high-temperature interstitial ultrasound lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyréus, Per Daniel; Diederich, Chris

    2004-02-01

    Acoustic attenuation change in biological tissues with temperature and time is a critical parameter for interstitial ultrasound thermal therapy treatment planning and applicator design. Earlier studies have not fully explored the effects on attenuation of temperatures (75-95 °C) and times (5-15 min) common in interstitial ultrasound treatments. A scanning transmission ultrasound attenuation measurement system was devised and used to measure attenuation changes due to these types of thermal exposures. To validate the approach and to loosely define expected values, attenuation changes in degassed ex vivo bovine liver, bovine brain and chicken muscle were measured after 10 min exposures in a water bath to temperatures up to 90 °C. Maximum attenuation increases of approximately seven, four and two times the values at 37 °C were measured for the three tissue models at 5 MHz. By using the system to scan over lesions produced using interstitial ultrasound applicators, 2D contour maps of attenuation were produced. Attenuation profiles measured through the centrelines of lesions showed that attenuation was highest close to the applicator and decreased with radial distance, as expected with decreasing thermal exposure. Attenuation values measured in profiles through lesions were also shown to decrease with reduced power to the applicator. Attenuation increases in 2D maps of interstitial ultrasound lesions in ex vivo chicken breast, bovine liver and bovine brain were correlated with visible tissue coagulation. While regions of visible coagulation corresponded well to contours of attenuation increase in liver and chicken, no lesion was visible under the same experimental conditions in brain, due primarily to the heterogeneity of the tissue. Acoustic and biothermal simulations were employed to show that attenuation models taking into account these attenuation changes at higher temperatures and longer times were better able to fit experimental data than previous models. These simulations also indicated that the characterization of tissue acoustic and thermal properties over a large range of temperatures is critical for accurate treatment planning or design studies involving high-temperature interstitial ultrasound.

  3. Simulation of ultrasound backscatter images from fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, An Hoai; Stage, Bjarne; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lundgren, Bo; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pedersen, Tina Bock; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate ultrasound (US) backscatter in the MHz range from fish to develop a realistic and reliable simulation model. The long term objective of the work is to develop the needed signal processing for fish species differentiation using US. In in-vitro experiments, a cod (Gadus morhua) was scanned with both a BK Medical ProFocus 2202 ultrasound scanner and a Toshiba Aquilion ONE computed tomography (CT) scanner. The US images of the fish were compared with US images created using the ultrasound simulation program Field II. The center frequency of the transducer is 10 MHz and the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) at the focus point is 0.54 mm in the lateral direction. The transducer model in Field II was calibrated using a wire phantom to validate the simulated point spread function. The inputs to the simulation were the CT image data of the fish converted to simulated scatter maps. The positions of the point scatterers were assumed to be uniformly distributed. The scatter amplitudes were generated with a new method based on the segmented CT data in Hounsfield Units and backscatter data for the different types of tissues from the literature. The simulated US images reproduce most of the important characteristics of the measured US image.

  4. MERAV: a tool for comparing gene expression across human tissues and cell types.

    PubMed

    Shaul, Yoav D; Yuan, Bingbing; Thiru, Prathapan; Nutter-Upham, Andy; McCallum, Scott; Lanzkron, Carolyn; Bell, George W; Sabatini, David M

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic transformation of normal cells into malignant, rapidly proliferating cells requires major alterations in cell physiology. For example, the transformed cells remodel their metabolic processes to supply the additional demand for cellular building blocks. We have recently demonstrated essential metabolic processes in tumor progression through the development of a methodological analysis of gene expression. Here, we present the Metabolic gEne RApid Visualizer (MERAV, http://merav.wi.mit.edu), a web-based tool that can query a database comprising ?4300 microarrays, representing human gene expression in normal tissues, cancer cell lines and primary tumors. MERAV has been designed as a powerful tool for whole genome analysis which offers multiple advantages: one can search many genes in parallel; compare gene expression among different tissue types as well as between normal and cancer cells; download raw data; and generate heatmaps; and finally, use its internal statistical tool. Most importantly, MERAV has been designed as a unique tool for analyzing metabolic processes as it includes matrixes specifically focused on metabolic genes and is linked to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway search. PMID:26626150

  5. Tissue sorbitol concentration can be altered by changing the type of dietary carbohydrate or copper status

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Fields, M. )

    1989-02-09

    This study was designed to determine whether rehabilitation of tissue sorbitol concentration occurs when rats consuming a high-fructose, low-copper diet are changed to diets containing starch or copper. Weanling male rats were provided with a diet which contained 62.7% fructose and 0.6 or 6.0 {mu}g Cu/g (F-Cu) for 4 weeks and then changed to either a fructose diet which contained 6.0 {mu}g Cu/g or a starch diet which contained either 0.6 or 6.0 {mu}g Cu/g for 2 weeks. Hepatic copper concentration of rats eating copper-deficient diets was about 30% of copper adequate rats regardless of the type of dietary carbohydrate. Pancreatic fructose, glucose and sorbitol concentrations were significantly lowered in rats changed to a starch diet. Kidney fructose and sorbitol concentrations were significantly lowered in rats changed to a starch diet. For all dietary groups, pancreatic and kidney sorbitol concentrations returned to normal after removal of rats from the F-Cu diet. In general, changing rats from a high-fructose, low-copper diet to a fructose diet with copper or a starch diet with or without copper improved the copper deficiency symptoms which changed in concert with tissue sorbitol levels.

  6. MERAV: a tool for comparing gene expression across human tissues and cell types

    PubMed Central

    Shaul, Yoav D.; Yuan, Bingbing; Thiru, Prathapan; Nutter-Upham, Andy; McCallum, Scott; Lanzkron, Carolyn; Bell, George W.; Sabatini, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic transformation of normal cells into malignant, rapidly proliferating cells requires major alterations in cell physiology. For example, the transformed cells remodel their metabolic processes to supply the additional demand for cellular building blocks. We have recently demonstrated essential metabolic processes in tumor progression through the development of a methodological analysis of gene expression. Here, we present the Metabolic gEne RApid Visualizer (MERAV, http://merav.wi.mit.edu), a web-based tool that can query a database comprising ?4300 microarrays, representing human gene expression in normal tissues, cancer cell lines and primary tumors. MERAV has been designed as a powerful tool for whole genome analysis which offers multiple advantages: one can search many genes in parallel; compare gene expression among different tissue types as well as between normal and cancer cells; download raw data; and generate heatmaps; and finally, use its internal statistical tool. Most importantly, MERAV has been designed as a unique tool for analyzing metabolic processes as it includes matrixes specifically focused on metabolic genes and is linked to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway search. PMID:26626150

  7. Measurement of human tissue-type plasminogen activator by a two-site immunoradiometric assay

    SciTech Connect

    Rijken, D.C.; Juhan-Vague, I.; De Cock, F.; Collen, D.

    1983-02-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for human extrinsic (tissue-type) plasminogen activator was developed by using rabbit antibodies raised against plasminogen activator purified from human melanoma cell culture fluid. Samples of 100 ..mu..l containing 1 to 100 ng/ml plasminogen activator were incubated in the wells of polyvinyl chloride microtiter plates coated with antibody. The amount of bound extrinsic plasminogen activator was quantitated by the subsequent binding of /sup 125/I-labeled affinospecific antibody. The mean level of plasma samples taken at rest was 6.6 +/- 2.9 ng/ml (n = 54). This level increased approximately threefold by exhaustive physical exercise, venous occlusion, or infusion of DDAVP. Extrinsic plasminogen activator in plasma is composed of a fibrin-adsorbable and active component (1.9 +/- 1.1 ng/ml, n = 54, in resting conditions) and an inactive component that does not bind to a fibrin clot (probably extrinsic plasminogen activator-proteinase inhibitor complexes). The fibrin-adsorbable fraction increased approximately fivefold to eightfold after physical exercise, venous occlusion, or DDAVP injections. Potential applications of the immunoradiometric assay are illustrated by the measurement of extrinsic plasminogen activator in different tissue extracts, body fluids, and cell culture fluids and in oocyte translation products after injection with mRNA for plasminogen activator.

  8. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a New C-type Lysozyme Gene from Yak Mammary Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming Feng; Hu, Ming Jun; Ren, Hong Hui; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Milk lysozyme is the ubiquitous enzyme in milk of mammals. In this study, the cDNA sequence of a new chicken-type (c-type) milk lysozyme gene (YML), was cloned from yak mammary gland tissue. A 444 bp open reading frames, which encodes 148 amino acids (16.54 kDa) with a signal peptide of 18 amino acids, was sequenced. Further analysis indicated that the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences identities between yak and cow milk lysozyme were 89.04% and 80.41%, respectively. Recombinant yak milk lysozyme (rYML) was produced by Escherichia coli BL21 and Pichia pastoris X33. The highest lysozyme activity was detected for heterologous protein rYML5 (M = 1,864.24 U/mg, SD = 25.75) which was expressed in P. pastoris with expression vector pPICZ?A and it clearly inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Result of the YML gene expression using quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the YML gene was up-regulated to maximum at 30 day postpartum, that is, comparatively high YML can be found in initial milk production. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the amino acid sequence was similar to cow kidney lysozyme, which implied that the YML may have diverged from a different ancestor gene such as cow mammary glands. In our study, we suggest that YML be a new c-type lysozyme expressed in yak mammary glands that plays a role as host immunity. PMID:26580446

  9. An update on the constitutive relation of ligament tissues with the effects of collagen types.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chao; Hao, Zhixiu; Tong, Lingying; Lin, Jianhao; Li, Zhichang; Wen, Shizhu

    2015-10-01

    The musculoskeletal ligament is a kind of multiscale composite material with collagen fibers embedded in a ground matrix. As the major constituent in ligaments to bear external loads, collagens are composed mainly of two collagen contents with different mechanical properties, i.e., types I and III collagen. The constitutive relation of ligaments plays a critical role in the stability and normal function of human joints. However, collagen types have not been distinguished in the previous constitutive relations. In this paper a constitutive relation for ligament tissues was modified based on the previous constitutive relation by considering the effects of collagen types. Both the collagen contents and the mechanical properties of sixteen ligament specimens from four cadaveric human knee joints were measured for determining their material coefficients in the constitutive relation. The mechanical behaviors of ligaments were obtained from both the uniaxial tensile and simple shear tests. A linear regression between joint kinematic results from in vitro and in silico experiments was made to validate the accuracy of this constitutive relation. The high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.93) and significance (P<0.0001) of the regression equation revealed that this modified constitutive relation of ligaments was accurate to be used in studying joint biomechanics. Another finite element analysis with collagen contents changing demonstrated that the effect of variations in collagen ratios on both joint kinematics and ligament biomechanics could be simulated by this constitutive relation. PMID:26164216

  10. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a New C-type Lysozyme Gene from Yak Mammary Tissue.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming Feng; Hu, Ming Jun; Ren, Hong Hui; Wang, Li

    2015-12-01

    Milk lysozyme is the ubiquitous enzyme in milk of mammals. In this study, the cDNA sequence of a new chicken-type (c-type) milk lysozyme gene (YML), was cloned from yak mammary gland tissue. A 444 bp open reading frames, which encodes 148 amino acids (16.54 kDa) with a signal peptide of 18 amino acids, was sequenced. Further analysis indicated that the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences identities between yak and cow milk lysozyme were 89.04% and 80.41%, respectively. Recombinant yak milk lysozyme (rYML) was produced by Escherichia coli BL21 and Pichia pastoris X33. The highest lysozyme activity was detected for heterologous protein rYML5 (M = 1,864.24 U/mg, SD = 25.75) which was expressed in P. pastoris with expression vector pPICZ?A and it clearly inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Result of the YML gene expression using quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the YML gene was up-regulated to maximum at 30 day postpartum, that is, comparatively high YML can be found in initial milk production. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the amino acid sequence was similar to cow kidney lysozyme, which implied that the YML may have diverged from a different ancestor gene such as cow mammary glands. In our study, we suggest that YML be a new c-type lysozyme expressed in yak mammary glands that plays a role as host immunity. PMID:26580446

  11. Systematic chromatin state comparison of epigenomes associated with diverse properties including sex and tissue type

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Angela; Kellis, Manolis

    2015-01-01

    Epigenomic data sets provide critical information about the dynamic role of chromatin states in gene regulation, but a key question of how chromatin state segmentations vary under different conditions across the genome has remained unaddressed. Here we present ChromDiff, a group-wise chromatin state comparison method that generates an information-theoretic representation of epigenomes and corrects for external covariate factors to better isolate relevant chromatin state changes. By applying ChromDiff to the 127 epigenomes from the Roadmap Epigenomics and ENCODE projects, we provide novel group-wise comparative analyses across sex, tissue type, state and developmental age. Remarkably, we find that distinct sets of epigenomic features are maximally discriminative for different group-wise comparisons, in each case revealing distinct enriched pathways, many of which do not show gene expression differences. Our methodology should be broadly applicable for epigenomic comparisons and provides a powerful new tool for studying chromatin state differences at the genome scale. PMID:26282110

  12. Systematic chromatin state comparison of epigenomes associated with diverse properties including sex and tissue type.

    PubMed

    Yen, Angela; Kellis, Manolis

    2015-01-01

    Epigenomic data sets provide critical information about the dynamic role of chromatin states in gene regulation, but a key question of how chromatin state segmentations vary under different conditions across the genome has remained unaddressed. Here we present ChromDiff, a group-wise chromatin state comparison method that generates an information-theoretic representation of epigenomes and corrects for external covariate factors to better isolate relevant chromatin state changes. By applying ChromDiff to the 127 epigenomes from the Roadmap Epigenomics and ENCODE projects, we provide novel group-wise comparative analyses across sex, tissue type, state and developmental age. Remarkably, we find that distinct sets of epigenomic features are maximally discriminative for different group-wise comparisons, in each case revealing distinct enriched pathways, many of which do not show gene expression differences. Our methodology should be broadly applicable for epigenomic comparisons and provides a powerful new tool for studying chromatin state differences at the genome scale. PMID:26282110

  13. Corrosion and Adverse Local Tissue Reaction in One Type of Modular Neck Stem.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Elie; Ward, Daniel M; Robbins, Claire E; Nandi, Sumon; Bono, James V; Talmo, Carl T

    2015-10-01

    Modular neck stems allow for optimization of joint biomechanics by restoring anteversion, offset, and limb length. A potential disadvantage is the generation of metal ions from fretting and crevice corrosion. We identified 118 total hip arthroplasty implanted with one type of dual-modular femoral component. Thirty-six required revision due to adverse local tissue reaction. Multivariate analysis isolated females and low offset necks as risk factors for failure. Kaplan-Meir analysis revealed small stem sizes failed at a higher rate during early follow-up period. Although the cobalt/chrome levels were higher in the failed group, these tests had low diagnostic accuracy for ALTR, while MRI scan was more sensitive. We conclude that the complications related to the use of dual modular stems of this design outweigh the potential benefits. PMID:26027523

  14. Athlete's nodules: sports-related connective tissue nevi of the collagen type (collagenomas).

    PubMed

    Cohen, P R; Eliezri, Y D; Silvers, D N

    1992-08-01

    Sports-related connective tissue nevi of the collagen type (collagenomas) have been referred to as athlete's nodules. Surfers, boxers, marbles players, and football players are some of the athletes in whom these lesions have been observed. The nodules can be found on the dorsal aspect of the feet, knees, or knuckles and can readily be differentiated from other conditions by either clinical history or microscopic features or both. Treatment options include conservative measures or surgical intervention. Recurrent trauma and friction to the involved location are likely causative factors. Although the ultrastructural pathogenesis remains to be established, changes in the molecular metabolism of collagen resulting in enhanced synthesis and/or accumulation of collagen may have a contributory role. PMID:1511619

  15. Distribution and characterization of rhogocyte cell types in the mantle tissue of Haliotis laevigata.

    PubMed

    Sairi, Fareed; Valtchev, Peter; Gomes, Vincent G; Dehghani, Fariba

    2015-04-01

    Molluscan rhogocytes are known to be the only cells able to synthesize hemocyanin that is one of the largest respiratory proteins in nature. However, investigation of rhogocyte cells in vitro is limited due to difficulty in isolating and establishing marine cell culture. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature and distribution of rhogocyte cells of Haliotis laevigata in the mantle tissue with respect to the expression of the two known isoforms of hemocyanin. Rhogocyte cells were identified using immunofluorescence-fluorescence in situ hybridization (IF-FISH) that involved simultaneous staining of localized hemocyanin by a polyclonal antibody while the mRNA was hybridized with FISH probes. The distribution of rhogocyte cells was demonstrated using flow cytometry, followed by cell sorting with fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) and confocal microscope imaging for further characterization. Our results suggested that the mantle tissue is dominated by two distinct populations of rhogocyte cells that synthesize hemocyanin type 1. Observation with confocal microscopy of both populations revealed hemocyanin localization in the periphery of the cell membrane. Cell population with higher antibody signal had irregular and elongated cell morphology with punctate mRNA probe signals. The second population with lower antibody signal had ovoid morphology and wide distribution of mRNA probe signals. We suggest that these populations represent two distinct phases of hemocyanin biosynthesis of a single isoform, which is closely related to Haliotis tuberculata type 1 hemocyanin (HtH1). The knowledge acquired in this study enhances the understanding of the biology of rhogocyte cells and biosynthesis of hemocyanin. PMID:25382219

  16. Model studies of thermal effects in ultrasound pregnancy investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orel, D.; Rozman, J.

    2004-01-01

    Certain scientific works published recently showed that harmful tissue heating could occur when applying Doppler diagnostic ultrasound on pregnant animals. Limited possibilities, which would verify the results of the animal experiments in clinical conditions, have led to computer modelling and simulations of such events. The presented embryonic models of ultrasound thermal effects are based on a modelling of ultrasound fields in a homogeneous medium and on a modelling of ultrasound fields in a simple biological system.

  17. A Study of Similarity Measures for In Vivo 3D Ultrasound Volume Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijaz, U. Z.; Prager, R. W.; Gee, A. H.; Treece, G. M.

    Most of the conventional ultrasound machines in hospitals work in two dimensions. However, there are some applications where doctors would like to be able to gather ultrasound data as a three-dimensional (3D) block rather than a two-dimensional (2D) slice. Two different types of 3D ultrasound have been developed to meet this requirement. One type involves a special probe that can record a fixed block of data, either by having an internal sweeping mechanism or by using electronic steering. The other type of 3D ultrasound uses a conventional 2D ultrasound probe together with a position sensor and is called freehand 3D ultrasound. A natural progression of the mechanically-swept 3D ultrasound system is to combine it with the free hand sensor. This results in an extended field of view. There are two major problems with using a position sensor. Firstly, line-of-sight needs to be maintained between the sensor and the reference point. Secondly, the multiple volumes rarely register because of tissue displacement and deformation. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to get rid of the inconvenient position sensor and to use an automatic image-based registration technique. We provide an experimental study of several intensity-based similarity measures for the registration of 3D ultrasound volumes. Rather than choosing a conventional voxel array to represent the 3D blocks, we use corresponding vertical and horizontal image slices from the blocks to be matched. This limits the amount of data thus making the calculation of the similarity measure less computationally expensive.

  18. Biomaterials/scaffolds. Design of bioactive, multiphasic PCL/collagen type I and type II-PCL-TCP/collagen composite scaffolds for functional tissue engineering of osteochondral repair tissue by using electrospinning and FDM techniques.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Detlef; Ekaputra, Andrew K; Lam, Christopher X F; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2007-01-01

    Current clinical therapies for traumatic or chronic injuries involving osteochondral tissue result in temporary pain reduction and filling of the defect but with biomechanically inferior repair tissue. Tissue engineering of osteochondral repair tissue using autologous cells and bioactive biomaterials has the potential to overcome the current limitations and results in native-like repair tissue with good integration capabilities. For this reason, we applied two modem biomaterial design techniques, namely, electrospinning and fused deposition modeling (FDM), to produce bioactive poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/collagen (PCL/Col) type I and type II-PCL-tri-calcium phosphate (TCP)/Col composites for precursor cell-based osteochondral repair. The application of these two design techniques (electrospinning and FDM) allowed us to specifically produce the a suitable three-dimensional (3D) environment for the cells to grow into a particular tissue (cartilage and bone) in vitro prior to in vivo implantation. We hypothesize that our new designed biomaterials, seeded with autologous bone marrow-derived precursor cells, in combination with bioreactor-stimulated cell-culture techniques can be used to produce clinically relevant osteochondral repair tissue. PMID:18085205

  19. Selenium and Vitamin E: Cell Type– and Intervention-Specific Tissue Effects in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsavachidou, Dimitra; McDonnell, Timothy J.; Wen, Sijin; Wang, Xuemei; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Pisters, Louis L.; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Wood, Christopher G.; Do, Kim-Anh; Thall, Peter F.; Stephens, Clifton; Efstathiou, Eleni; Taylor, Robert; Menter, David G.; Troncoso, Patricia; Lippman, Scott M.; Logothetis, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Secondary analyses of two randomized, controlled phase III trials demonstrated that selenium and vitamin E could reduce prostate cancer incidence. To characterize pharmacodynamic and gene expression effects associated with use of selenium and vitamin E, we undertook a randomized, placebo-controlled phase IIA study of prostate cancer patients before prostatectomy and created a preoperative model for prostatectomy tissue interrogation. Methods Thirty-nine men with prostate cancer were randomly assigned to treatment with 200 ?g of selenium, 400 IU of vitamin E, both, or placebo. Laser capture microdissection of prostatectomy biopsy specimens was used to isolate normal, stromal, and tumor cells. Gene expression in each cell type was studied with microarray analysis and validated with a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. An analysis of variance model was fit to identify genes differentially expressed between treatments and cell types. A beta-uniform mixture model was used to analyze differential expression of genes and to assess the false discovery rate. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The highest numbers of differentially expressed genes by treatment were 1329 (63%) of 2109 genes in normal epithelial cells after selenium treatment, 1354 (66%) of 2051 genes in stromal cells after vitamin E treatment, and 329 (56%) of 587 genes in tumor cells after combination treatment (false discovery rate = 2%). Validation of 21 representative genes across all treatments and all cell types yielded Spearman correlation coefficients between the microarray analysis and the PCR validation ranging from 0.64 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.31 to 0.79) for the vitamin E group to 0.87 (95% CI = 0.53 to 0.99) for the selenium group. The increase in the mean percentage of p53-positive tumor cells in the selenium-treated group (26.3%), compared with that in the placebo-treated group (5%), showed borderline statistical significance (difference = 21.3%; 95% CI = 0.7 to 41.8; P = .051). Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the preoperative model and its power as a hypothesis-generating engine. We have also identified cell type– and zone-specific tissue effects of interventions with selenium and vitamin E that may have clinical implications. PMID:19244175

  20. Ultrasound Based Method and Apparatus for Stone Detection and to Facilitate Clearance Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Michael (Inventor); Kucewicz, John (Inventor); Lu, Wei (Inventor); Sapozhnikov, Oleg (Inventor); Illian, Paul (Inventor); Shah, Anup (Inventor); Dunmire, Barbrina (Inventor); Owen, Neil (Inventor); Cunitz, Bryan (Inventor); Kaczkowski, Peter (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Described herein are methods and apparatus for detecting stones by ultrasound, in which the ultrasound reflections from a stone are preferentially selected and accentuated relative to the ultrasound reflections from blood or tissue. Also described herein are methods and apparatus for applying pushing ultrasound to in vivo stones or other objects, to facilitate the removal of such in vivo objects.

  1. Ontology-aware classification of tissue and cell-type signals in gene expression profiles across platforms and technologies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-suk; Krishnan, Arjun; Zhu, Qian; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Leveraging gene expression data through large-scale integrative analyses for multicellular organisms is challenging because most samples are not fully annotated to their tissue/cell-type of origin. A computational method to classify samples using their entire gene expression profiles is needed. Such a method must be applicable across thousands of independent studies, hundreds of gene expression technologies and hundreds of diverse human tissues and cell-types. Results: We present Unveiling RNA Sample Annotation (URSA) that leverages the complex tissue/cell-type relationships and simultaneously estimates the probabilities associated with hundreds of tissues/cell-types for any given gene expression profile. URSA provides accurate and intuitive probability values for expression profiles across independent studies and outperforms other methods, irrespective of data preprocessing techniques. Moreover, without re-training, URSA can be used to classify samples from diverse microarray platforms and even from next-generation sequencing technology. Finally, we provide a molecular interpretation for the tissue and cell-type models as the biological basis for URSA’s classifications. Availability and implementation: An interactive web interface for using URSA for gene expression analysis is available at: ursa.princeton.edu. The source code is available at https://bitbucket.org/youngl/ursa_backend. Contact: ogt@cs.princeton.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24037214

  2. Beneficial Autoimmunity at Body Surfaces – Immune Surveillance and Rapid Type 2 Immunity Regulate Tissue Homeostasis and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalessandri, Tim; Strid, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells (ECs) line body surface tissues and provide a physicochemical barrier to the external environment. Frequent microbial and non-microbial challenges such as those imposed by mechanical disruption, injury or exposure to noxious environmental substances including chemicals, carcinogens, ultraviolet-irradiation, or toxins cause activation of ECs with release of cytokines and chemokines as well as alterations in the expression of cell-surface ligands. Such display of epithelial stress is rapidly sensed by tissue-resident immunocytes, which can directly interact with self-moieties on ECs and initiate both local and systemic immune responses. ECs are thus key drivers of immune surveillance at body surface tissues. However, ECs have a propensity to drive type 2 immunity (rather than type 1) upon non-invasive challenge or stress – a type of immunity whose regulation and function still remain enigmatic. Here, we review the induction and possible role of type 2 immunity in epithelial tissues and propose that rapid immune surveillance and type 2 immunity are key regulators of tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis. PMID:25101088

  3. Low-frequency quantitative ultrasound imaging of cell death in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Falou, Omar; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5; Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5; Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 ; Papanicolau, Naum; Tadayyon, Hadi; Lee, Justin; Zubovits, Judit; Sadeghian, Alireza; Karshafian, Raffi; Al-Mahrouki, Azza; Giles, Anoja; Kolios, Michael C.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Currently, no clinical imaging modality is used routinely to assess tumor response to cancer therapies within hours to days of the delivery of treatment. Here, the authors demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasound at a clinically relevant frequency to quantitatively detect changes in tumors in response to cancer therapies using preclinical mouse models.Methods: Conventional low-frequency and corresponding high-frequency ultrasound (ranging from 4 to 28 MHz) were used along with quantitative spectroscopic and signal envelope statistical analyses on data obtained from xenograft tumors treated with chemotherapy, x-ray radiation, as well as a novel vascular targeting microbubble therapy.Results: Ultrasound-based spectroscopic biomarkers indicated significant changes in cell-death associated parameters in responsive tumors. Specifically changes in the midband fit, spectral slope, and 0-MHz intercept biomarkers were investigated for different types of treatment and demonstrated cell-death related changes. The midband fit and 0-MHz intercept biomarker derived from low-frequency data demonstrated increases ranging approximately from 0 to 6 dBr and 0 to 8 dBr, respectively, depending on treatments administrated. These data paralleled results observed for high-frequency ultrasound data. Statistical analysis of ultrasound signal envelope was performed as an alternative method to obtain histogram-based biomarkers and provided confirmatory results. Histological analysis of tumor specimens indicated up to 61% cell death present in the tumors depending on treatments administered, consistent with quantitative ultrasound findings indicating cell death. Ultrasound-based spectroscopic biomarkers demonstrated a good correlation with histological morphological findings indicative of cell death (r{sup 2}= 0.71, 0.82; p < 0.001).Conclusions: In summary, the results provide preclinical evidence, for the first time, that quantitative ultrasound used at a clinically relevant frequency, in addition to high-frequency ultrasound, can detect tissue changes associated with cell death in vivo in response to cancer treatments.

  4. Tissue-type plasminogen activator is a multiligand cross-beta structure receptor.

    PubMed

    Kranenburg, Onno; Bouma, Barend; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M J; Reijerkerk, Arie; Wu, Ya-Ping; Voest, Emile E; Gebbink, Martijn F B G

    2002-10-29

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) regulates fibrin clot lysis by stimulating the conversion of plasminogen into the active protease plasmin. Fibrin is required for efficient tPA-mediated plasmin generation and thereby stimulates its own proteolysis. Several fibrin regions can bind to tPA, but the structural basis for this interaction is unknown. Amyloid beta (Abeta) is a peptide aggregate that is associated with neurotoxicity in brains afflicted with Alzheimer's disease. Like fibrin, it stimulates tPA-mediated plasmin formation. Intermolecular stacking of peptide backbones in beta sheet conformation underlies cross-beta structure in amyloid peptides. We show here that fibrin-derived peptides adopt cross-beta structure and form amyloid fibers. This correlates with tPA binding and stimulation of tPA-mediated plasminogen activation. Prototype amyloid peptides, including Abeta and islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) (associated with pancreatic beta cell toxicity in type II diabetes), have no sequence similarity to the fibrin peptides but also bind to tPA and can substitute for fibrin in plasminogen activation by tPA. Moreover, the induction of cross-beta structure in an otherwise globular protein (endostatin) endows it with tPA-activating potential. Our results classify tPA as a multiligand receptor and show that cross-beta structure is the common denominator in tPA binding ligands. PMID:12419183

  5. Tissue Engineering Approaches to Cell-Based Type 1 Diabetes Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Luke D.; Mahoney, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease resulting from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic ?-cells. Cell-based therapies, involving the transplantation of functional ?-cells into diabetic patients, have been explored as a potential long-term treatment for this condition; however, success is limited. A tissue engineering approach of culturing insulin-producing cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in three-dimensional (3D) constructs has the potential to enhance the efficacy of cell-based therapies for diabetes. When cultured in 3D environments, insulin-producing cells are often more viable and secrete more insulin than those in two dimensions. The addition of ECM molecules to the culture environments, depending on the specific type of molecule, can further enhance the viability and insulin secretion. This review addresses the different cell sources that can be utilized as ?-cell replacements, the essential ECM molecules for the survival of these cells, and the 3D culture techniques that have been used to benefit cell function. PMID:24417705

  6. Cell type specific gene expression analysis of prostate needle biopsies resolves tumor tissue heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Krönig, Malte; Walter, Max; Drendel, Vanessa; Werner, Martin; Jilg, Cordula A.; Richter, Andreas S.; Backofen, Rolf; McGarry, David; Follo, Marie; Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Schüle, Roland

    2015-01-01

    A lack of cell surface markers for the specific identification, isolation and subsequent analysis of living prostate tumor cells hampers progress in the field. Specific characterization of tumor cells and their microenvironment in a multi-parameter molecular assay could significantly improve prognostic accuracy for the heterogeneous prostate tumor tissue. Novel functionalized gold-nano particles allow fluorescence-based detection of absolute mRNA expression levels in living cells by fluorescent activated flow cytometry (FACS). We use of this technique to separate prostate tumor and benign cells in human prostate needle biopsies based on the expression levels of the tumor marker alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR). We combined RNA and protein detection of living cells by FACS to gate for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) positive tumor and benign cells, EPCAM/CD45 double negative mesenchymal cells and CD45 positive infiltrating lymphocytes. EPCAM positive epithelial cells were further sub-gated into AMACR high and low expressing cells. Two hundred cells from each population and several biopsies from the same patient were analyzed using a multiplexed gene expression profile to generate a cell type resolved profile of the specimen. This technique provides the basis for the clinical evaluation of cell type resolved gene expression profiles as pre-therapeutic prognostic markers for prostate cancer. PMID:25514598

  7. Cell type specific gene expression analysis of prostate needle biopsies resolves tumor tissue heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Krönig, Malte; Walter, Max; Drendel, Vanessa; Werner, Martin; Jilg, Cordula A; Richter, Andreas S; Backofen, Rolf; McGarry, David; Follo, Marie; Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Schüle, Roland

    2015-01-20

    A lack of cell surface markers for the specific identification, isolation and subsequent analysis of living prostate tumor cells hampers progress in the field. Specific characterization of tumor cells and their microenvironment in a multi-parameter molecular assay could significantly improve prognostic accuracy for the heterogeneous prostate tumor tissue. Novel functionalized gold-nano particles allow fluorescence-based detection of absolute mRNA expression levels in living cells by fluorescent activated flow cytometry (FACS). We use of this technique to separate prostate tumor and benign cells in human prostate needle biopsies based on the expression levels of the tumor marker alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR). We combined RNA and protein detection of living cells by FACS to gate for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) positive tumor and benign cells, EPCAM/CD45 double negative mesenchymal cells and CD45 positive infiltrating lymphocytes. EPCAM positive epithelial cells were further sub-gated into AMACR high and low expressing cells. Two hundred cells from each population and several biopsies from the same patient were analyzed using a multiplexed gene expression profile to generate a cell type resolved profile of the specimen. This technique provides the basis for the clinical evaluation of cell type resolved gene expression profiles as pre-therapeutic prognostic markers for prostate cancer. PMID:25514598

  8. Impacts of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) on neuronal survival

    PubMed Central

    Chevilley, Arnaud; Lesept, Flavie; Lenoir, Sophie; Ali, Carine; Parcq, Jérôme; Vivien, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) a serine protease is constituted of five functional domains through which it interacts with different substrates, binding proteins, and receptors. In the last years, great interest has been given to the clinical relevance of targeting tPA in different diseases of the central nervous system, in particular stroke. Among its reported functions in the central nervous system, tPA displays both neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects. How can the protease mediate such opposite functions remain unclear but several hypotheses have been proposed. These include an influence of the degree of maturity and/or the type of neurons, of the level of tPA, of its origin (endogenous or exogenous) or of its form (single chain tPA versus two chain tPA). In this review, we will provide a synthetic snapshot of our current knowledge regarding the natural history of tPA and discuss how it sustains its pleiotropic functions with focus on excitotoxic/ischemic neuronal death and neuronal survival. PMID:26528141

  9. Evaluation of DNA typing as a positive identification method for soft and hard tissues immersed in strong acids.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Pazzi, M; Di Vella, G; Martinelli, D; Mazzola, L; Ricci, U; Testi, R; Vincenti, M

    2015-11-01

    Identification of human remains can be hindered by several factors (e.g., traumatic mutilation, carbonization or decomposition). Moreover, in some criminal cases, offenders may purposely adopt various expedients to thwart the victim's identification, including the dissolution of body tissues by the use of corrosive reagents, as repeatedly reported in the past for mafia-related murders. By means of an animal model, namely porcine samples, we evaluated standard DNA typing as a method for identifying soft (muscle) and hard (bone and teeth) tissues immersed in strong acids (hydrochloric, nitric and sulfuric acid) or in mixtures of acids (aqua regia). Samples were tested at different time intervals, ranging between 2 and 6h (soft tissues) and 2-28days (hard tissues). It was shown that, in every type of acid, complete degradation of the DNA extracted from soft tissues preceded tissue dissolution and could be observed within 4h of immersion. Conversely, high molecular weight DNA amenable to STR analysis could be isolated from hard tissues as long as cortical bone fragments were still present (28days for sulfuric acid, 7days for nitric acid, 2days for hydrochloric acid and aqua regia), or the integrity of the dental pulp chamber was preserved (7days, in sulfuric acid only). The results indicate that DNA profiling of acid-treated body parts (in particular, cortical bone) is still feasible at advanced stages of corrosion, even when the morphological methods used in forensic anthropology and odontology can no longer be applied for identification purposes. PMID:26195111

  10. Stimulation of Bone Repair with Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Frédéric; Puts, Regina; Vico, Laurence; Guignandon, Alain; Raum, Kay

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews the different options available for the use of ultrasound in the enhancement of fracture healing or in the reactivation of a failed healing process: LIPUS, shock waves and ultrasound-mediated delivery of bioactive molecules, such as growth factors or plasmids. The main emphasis is on LIPUS, or Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound, the most widespread and studied technique. LIPUS has pronounced bioeffects on tissue regeneration, while employing intensities within a diagnostic range. The biological response to LIPUS is complex as the response of numerous cell types to this stimulus involves several pathways. Known to-date mechanotransduction pathways involved in cell responses include MAPK and other kinases signaling pathways, gap-junctional intercellular communication, up-regulation and clustering of integrins, involvement of the COX-2/PGE2 and iNOS/NO pathways, and activation of the ATI mechanoreceptor. Mechanisms at the origin of LIPUS biological effects remain intriguing, and analysis is hampered by the diversity of experimental systems used in-vitro. Data point to clear evidence that bioeffects can be modulated by direct and indirect mechanical effects, like acoustic radiation force, acoustic streaming, propagation of surface waves, heat, fluid-flow induced circulation and redistribution of nutrients, oxygen and signaling molecules. One of the future engineering challenge is therefore the design of dedicated experimental set-ups allowing control of these different mechanical phenomena, and to relate them to biological responses. Then, the derivation of an 'acoustic dose' and the cross-calibration of the different experimental systems will be possible. Despite this imperfect knowledge of LIPUS biophysics, the clinical evidence, although most often of low quality, speaks in favor of the clinical use of LIPUS, when the economics of nonunion and the absence of toxicity of this ultrasound technology are taken into account. PMID:26486349

  11. Diagnostic ultrasound exposure in man.

    PubMed

    Gramiak, R

    1975-09-01

    In his review of the AAPM statement on ultrasound, the author feels that allowing "some" research or demonstration on normal persons in the face of cautionary statements on as yet unknown side effects is an inconsistent position. The use of videotapes and the development of simulators hacked by data banks are offered in place of tissue phantoms. PMID:1153790

  12. Application of Ultrasound in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Carovac, Aladin; Smajlovic, Fahrudin; Junuzovic, Dzelaludin

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound device, essentially, consists of a transducer, transmitter pulse generator, compensating amplifiers, the control unit for focusing, digital processors and systems for display. It is used in cases of: abdominal, cardiac, maternity, gynecological, urological and cerebrovascular examination, breast examination, and small pieces of tissue as well as in pediatric and operational review. PMID:23408755

  13. Assessment of STR Typing Success Rate in Soft Tissues from Putrefied Bodies Based on a Quantitative Grading System for Putrefaction.

    PubMed

    Courts, Cornelius; Sauer, Eva; Hofmann, Yaiza; Madea, Burkhard; Schyma, Christian

    2015-07-01

    To date, there is no systematic investigation of the association of short tandem repeat (STR) typing success rate in soft tissues with different signs of putrefaction. Herein, putrefaction was rated using a newly developed 19-parameter system in soft tissues from a collective of 68 decaying bodies, and DNA yield was determined in 408 samples. DNA integrity was rated using a self-devised pentaplex PCR generating an "integrity score" (Si). STR typing success rate was then assessed for selected cases. DNA yield and Si differed significantly between tissues with kidney on average exhibiting the highest Si values. Statistical analysis revealed that nine parameters were significantly and positively correlated with Si . The observed values for each of these nine parameters were summed up to generate a putrefaction score (Sp) for each sample. Our results show that STR typing success rate can be predicted based on Sp before expensive multiplex STR profiling is performed. PMID:25808732

  14. Tissue distribution of human and avian type sialic acid influenza virus receptors in domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Wu, Xintao; Cheng, Yanfen; An, Yufu; Ning, Zhangyong

    2013-12-01

    Infection of host cells with the influenza virus is mediated by specific interactions between the viral haemagglutinin (HA) and cell oligosaccharides containing sialic acid (SA) residues. Avian and human influenza viruses bind to alpha-2, 3 and alpha-2, 6 sialic acid-linked receptors, respectively. To date, there have been no detailed tissue distribution data on alpha-2, 3 and alpha-2, 6 sialic acid-linked receptors in the domestic cat, a relatively new mammalian host for influenza virus infections. In this study, the tissue distribution of human and avian type sialic acid influenza receptors was determined in various organs (respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, brain, cerebellum, spleen, kidney, heart and pancreas) of domestic cat by binding with the lectins Maackia amurensis agglutinin II (MAA II) and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), respectively. The results revealed that both alpha-2, 3 and alpha-2, 6 sialic acid-linked receptors were extensively detected in the trachea, bronchus, lung, kidney, spleen, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. Endothelial cells of gastrointestinal tract organs were negative for alpha-2, 3 sialic acid-linked receptors in cats. The presence of alpha-2, 3 and alpha-2, 6 sialic acid-linked receptors in the major organs examined in the present study suggests that each major organ may be affected by influenza virus infection. Because of receptor distribution in the gastrointestinal tract, the experimental infection of cats with human influenza virus may be relatively easy while their infection with avian influenza virus may be difficult. These data can explain the involvement of multiple organs in influenza virus infection and should help investigators interpret the results obtained when cats are infected with influenza virus and estimate the risk of infection between cats and humans. PMID:23974928

  15. Tracking of deformable target in 2D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Lucas; Marchal, Maud; Le Bras, Anthony; Dardenne, Guillaume; Krupa, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for automatically tracking deformable target within 2D ultrasound images. Our approach uses only dense information combined with a physically-based model and has therefore the advantage of not using any fiducial marker nor a priori knowledge on the anatomical environment. The physical model is represented by a mass-spring damper system driven by different types of forces where the external forces are obtained by maximizing image similarity metric between a reference target and a deformed target across the time. This deformation is represented by a parametric warping model where the optimal parameters are estimated from the intensity variation. This warping function is well-suited to represent localized deformations in the ultrasound images because it directly links the forces applied on each mass with the motion of all the pixels in its vicinity. The internal forces constrain the deformation to physically plausible motions, and reduce the sensitivity to the speckle noise. The approach was validated on simulated and real data, both for rigid and free-form motions of soft tissues. The results are very promising since the deformable target could be tracked with a good accuracy for both types of motion. Our approach opens novel possibilities for computer-assisted interventions where deformable organs are involved and could be used as a new tool for interactive tracking of soft tissues in ultrasound images.

  16. Associations between Ultrasound Measures of Abdominal Fat Distribution and Indices of Glucose Metabolism in a Population at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The ADDITION-PRO Study

    PubMed Central

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Vistisen, Dorte; Sandbaek, Annelli; Almdal, Thomas P.; Christiansen, Jens S.; Lauritzen, Torsten; Witte, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Visceral adipose tissue measured by CT or MRI is strongly associated with an adverse metabolic risk profile. We assessed whether similar associations can be found with ultrasonography, by quantifying the strength of the relationship between different measures of obesity and indices of glucose metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 1342 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. We measured visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue with ultrasonography, anthropometrics and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance. Indices of glucose metabolism were derived from a three point oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression of obesity measures on indices of glucose metabolism was performed. Results Mean age was 66.2 years, BMI 26.9kg/m2, subcutaneous adipose tissue 2.5cm and visceral adipose tissue 8.0cm. All measures of obesity were positively associated with indicators of glycaemia and inversely associated with indicators of insulin sensitivity. Associations were of equivalent magnitude except for subcutaneous adipose tissue and the visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio, which showed weaker associations. One standard deviation difference in BMI, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, waist/height ratio and body fat percentage corresponded approximately to 0.2mmol/l higher fasting glucose, 0.7mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose, 0.06-0.1% higher HbA1c, 30 % lower HOMA index of insulin sensitivity, 20% lower Gutt’s index of insulin sensitivity, and 100 unit higher Stumvoll’s index of beta-cell function. After adjustment for waist circumference visceral adipose tissue was still significantly associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend towards inverse or no associations with subcutaneous adipose tissue. After adjustment, a 1cm increase in visceral adipose tissue was associated with ~5% lower insulin sensitivity (p?0.0004) and ~0.18mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose (p?0.001). Conclusion Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue assessed by ultrasonography are significantly associated with glucose metabolism, even after adjustment for other measures of obesity. PMID:25849815

  17. A Prototype Ultrasound Instrument To Size Stone Fragments During Ureteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Mathew D.; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2008-09-01

    An intraoperative tool to measure the size of kidney stones or stone fragments during ureteroscopy would help urologists assess if a fragment is small enough to be removed through the ureter or ureteral access sheath. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of a prototype ultrasound device used to measure in vitro stone fragments compared to caliper measurements. A 10-MHz, 10-french ultrasound transducer probe was used to send an ultrasound pulse and receive ultrasound reflections from the stone using two methods. In Method 1 the instrument was aligned over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through the stone. The time between reflections from the proximal and the distal surface of the stone were used along with the sound speed to calculate the stone size. Although the sound speed varied between stones, it was unlikely to be known during surgery and thus was estimated at 3000 m/s for calculations. In Method 2 the instrument was aligned partially over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through water with a sound speed of 1481 m/s. Time was determined between the reflection from the proximal stone surface and the reflection from the tissue phantom on which the stone rested. Methods 1 and 2 were compared by linear regression to caliper measurements of the size of 19 human stones of 3 different stone types. Accuracy was measured by the difference of the mean ultrasound and mean caliper measurement and precision was measured as the standard deviation in the ultrasound measurements. For Method 1, the correlation between caliper-determined stone size and ultrasound-determined stone size was r2 = 0.71 (p<0.0001). In all but two stones accuracy and precision were less than 1 mm. For Method 2, the correlation was r2 = 0.99 (p<0.0001) and measurements were accurate and precise to within 0.25 mm. We conclude that the prototype device and either method measure stone size with good accuracy.

  18. Nonlinear effects in ultrasound fields of diagnostic-type transducers used for kidney stone propulsion: Characterization in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karzova, M.; Cunitz, B.; Yuldashev, P.; Andriyakhina, Y.; Kreider, W.; Sapozhnikov, O.; Bailey, M.; Khokhlova, V.

    2015-10-01

    Newer imaging and therapeutic ultrasound technologies require higher in situ pressure levels compared to conventional diagnostic values. One example is the recently developed use of focused ultrasonic radiation force to move kidney stones and residual fragments out of the urinary collecting system. A commercial diagnostic 2.3 MHz C5-2 array probe is used to deliver the acoustic pushing pulses. The probe comprises 128 elements equally spaced at the 55 mm long convex cylindrical surface with 38 mm radius of curvature. The efficacy of the treatment can be increased by using higher intensity at the focus to provide stronger pushing force; however, nonlinear acoustic saturation can be a limiting factor. In this work nonlinear propagation effects were analyzed for the C5-2 transducer using a combined measurement and modeling approach. Simulations were based on the 3D Westervelt equation; the boundary condition was set to match the focal geometry of the beam as measured at a low power output. Focal waveforms simulated for increased output power levels were compared with the fiber-optic hydrophone measurements and were found in good agreement. It was shown that saturation effects do limit the acoustic pressure in the focal region of the transducer. This work has application to standard diagnostic probes and imaging.

  19. Individual-specific muscle maximum force estimation using ultrasound for ankle joint torque prediction using an EMG-driven Hill-type model.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes; Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini

    2010-10-19

    EMG-driven models can be used to estimate muscle force in biomechanical systems. Collected and processed EMG readings are used as the input of a dynamic system, which is integrated numerically. This approach requires the definition of a reasonably large set of parameters. Some of these vary widely among subjects, and slight inaccuracies in such parameters can lead to large model output errors. One of these parameters is the maximum voluntary contraction force (F(om)). This paper proposes an approach to find F(om) by estimating muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) using ultrasound (US), which is multiplied by a realistic value of maximum muscle specific tension. Ultrasound is used to measure muscle thickness, which allows for the determination of muscle volume through regression equations. Soleus, gastrocnemius medialis and gastrocnemius lateralis PCSAs are estimated using published volume proportions among leg muscles, which also requires measurements of muscle fiber length and pennation angle by US. F(om) obtained by this approach and from data widely cited in the literature was used to comparatively test a Hill-type EMG-driven model of the ankle joint. The model uses 3 EMGs (Soleus, gastrocnemius medialis and gastrocnemius lateralis) as inputs with joint torque as the output. The EMG signals were obtained in a series of experiments carried out with 8 adult male subjects, who performed an isometric contraction protocol consisting of 10s step contractions at 20% and 60% of the maximum voluntary contraction level. Isometric torque was simultaneously collected using a dynamometer. A statistically significant reduction in the root mean square error was observed when US-obtained F(om) was used, as compared to F(om) from the literature. PMID:20541763

  20. Host protective roles of type 2 immunity: parasite killing and tissue repair, flip sides of the same coin.

    PubMed

    Allen, Judith E; Sutherland, Tara E

    2014-08-01

    Metazoan parasites typically induce a type 2 immune response, characterized by T helper 2 (Th2) cells that produce the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 among others. The type 2 response is host protective, reducing the number of parasites either through direct killing in the tissues, or expulsion from the intestine. Type 2 immunity also protects the host against damage mediated by these large extracellular parasites as they migrate through the body. At the center of both the innate and adaptive type 2 immune response, is the IL-4R? that mediates many of the key effector functions. Here we highlight the striking overlap between the molecules, cells and pathways that mediate both parasite control and tissue repair. We have proposed that adaptive Th2 immunity evolved out of our innate repair pathways to mediate both accelerated repair and parasite control in the face of continual assault from multicellular pathogens. Type 2 cytokines are involved in many aspects of mammalian physiology independent of helminth infection. Therefore understanding the evolutionary relationship between helminth killing and tissue repair should provide new insight into immune mechanisms of tissue protection in the face of physical injury. PMID:25028340

  1. Development of an in vivo tissue-engineered valved conduit (type S biovalve) using a slitted mold.

    PubMed

    Funayama, Marina; Furukoshi, Maya; Moriwaki, Takeshi; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2015-12-01

    In autologous valved conduits (biovalves) using in-body tissue architecture, the limited area available for leaflet formation is a concern. In this study, we designed a novel biovalve mold with slits to enhance in vivo cell migration, regardless of size. As a control, the original mold without slits was used. When both types of molds were embedded into subcutaneous pouches in beagle dogs for 8 weeks, the outer surfaces of all molds were completely covered with connective tissue to form conduit tissue. In the molds without slits, the leaflet size was limited to half of the design. In contrast, in the mold with slits, the complete leaflet area was formed. Upon trimming excess peripheral tissues, removing the mold, and cutting the connective tissue formed at the slits, completely autologous connective tissue biovalves with the designed leaflet area were obtained as type S (diameter, 6-28 mm) biovalves. The slit structure customized to the mold was effective for allowing cells to enter, thereby facilitating cell migration and contributing to the successful preparation of reliable biovalves of various physiological sizes suitable for all clinical uses. PMID:26233653

  2. Tissue-type plasminogen activator is an extracellular mediator of Purkinje cell damage and altered gait.

    PubMed

    Cops, Elisa J; Sashindranath, Maithili; Daglas, Maria; Short, Kieran M; da Fonseca Pereira, Candida; Pang, Terence Y; Lijnen, Roger H; Smyth, Ian M; Hannan, Anthony J; Samson, Andre L; Medcalf, Robert L

    2013-11-01

    Purkinje neurons are a sensitive and specialised cell type important for fine motor movement and coordination. Purkinje cell damage manifests as motor incoordination and ataxia - a prominent feature of many human disorders including spinocerebellar ataxia and Huntington's disease. A correlation between Purkinje degeneration and excess cerebellar levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) has been observed in multiple genetically-distinct models of ataxia. Here we show that Purkinje loss in a mouse model of Huntington's disease also correlates with a 200% increase in cerebellar tPA activity. That elevated tPA levels arise in a variety of ataxia models suggests that tPA is a common mediator of Purkinje damage. To address the specific contribution of tPA to cerebellar dysfunction we studied the T4 mice line that overexpresses murine tPA in postnatal neurons through the Thy1.2 gene promoter, which directs preferential expression to Purkinje cells within the cerebellum. Here we show that T4 mice develop signs of cerebellar damage within 10 weeks of birth including atrophy of Purkinje cell soma and dendrites, astrogliosis, reduced molecular layer volume and altered gait. In contrast, T4 mice displayed no evidence of microgliosis, nor any changes in interneuron density, nor alteration in the cerebellar granular neuron layer. Thus, excess tPA levels may be sufficient to cause targeted Purkinje cell degeneration and ataxia. We propose that elevated cerebellar tPA levels exert a common pathway of Purkinje cell damage. Therapeutically lowering cerebellar tPA levels may represent a novel means of preserving Purkinje cell integrity and motor coordination across a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23939410

  3. Tissue-type plasminogen activator is a regulator of monocyte diapedesis through the brain endothelial barrier.

    PubMed

    Reijerkerk, Arie; Kooij, Gijs; van der Pol, Susanne M A; Leyen, Thomas; van Het Hof, Bert; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Vivien, Denis; Dijkstra, Christine D; de Vries, Helga E

    2008-09-01

    Inflammatory cell trafficking into the brain complicates several neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis. Normally, reliable brain functioning is maintained and controlled by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is essential to restrict the entry of potentially harmful molecules and cells from the blood into the brain. The BBB is a selective barrier formed by dedicated brain endothelial cells and dependent on the presence of intracellular tight junctions. In multiple sclerosis, a severe dysfunction of the BBB is observed, which is key to monocyte infiltration and inflammation in the brain. Proteolytic activity has been associated with these inflammatory processes in the brain. Our studies in plasma of rats indicated that the extracellular protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) correlates with the clinical signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, a rat model of multiple sclerosis. In this study, we studied the function of the tPA during diapedesis of monocytes through a rat and human brain endothelial barrier. Monocyte-brain endothelial cell coculture experiments showed that monocytes induce the release of tPA by brain endothelial cells, which subsequently activates the signal transduction protein extracellular signal related kinase (ERK1/2), both involved in monocyte diapedesis. Importantly, live imaging and immunoblot analyses of rat brain endothelial cells revealed that tPA and ERK1/2 control the breakdown of the tight junction protein occludin. These studies identify tPA as a novel and relevant pathological mediator of neuroinflammation and provide a potential mechanism for this. PMID:18714030

  4. Soft tissue perineurioma and other unusual tumors in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Inga-Marie; Ströbel, Philipp; Thiha, Aung; Sohns, Jan Martin; Mühlfeld, Christian; Küffer, Stefan; Felmerer, Gunther; Stepniewski, Adam; Pauli, Silke; Agaimy, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Perineurioma is a rare benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor featuring perineurial differentiation. Perineurioma occurs sporadically with only one reported case in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). We present a 6.7-cm soft tissue perineurioma of the lower leg in a 51-year-old man with proven NF-1. The tumor displayed whorled and fascicular pattern with infiltrative margins and expressed EMA, GLUT-1, claudin-1, and CD34. Electron microscopy confirmed diagnosis. Furthermore, lipomatosis, cutaneous angiomatous nodules, vasculopathy, and iliac spine lesion consistent with non-ossifying fibroma were observed. Tumor DNA revealed no NF2 mutations or chromosomal aberrations but a germline NF1-deletion (c.449_502delTGTT) was detected in his blood sample. His brother displayed neurofibromas, duodenal ganglioneuroma and colonic juvenile polyp, and his mother a neurofibroma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, and jejunal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST); both were affected by NF-1. In conclusion, perineurioma may rarely be NF-1 related and should be included in the spectrum of neoplasms occurring in this disorder. PMID:24294391

  5. Annexin A2 in primary afferents contributes to neuropathic pain associated with tissue type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, H; Kobayashi, K; Okubo, M; Noguchi, K

    2016-02-01

    Annexin A2 (ANX2) is a calcium (Ca(2+))-binding protein that binds to acidic phospholipids and is known to play a crucial role in many cellular regulatory processes. In particular, ANX2 has been described as a crucial receptor for thrombolysis by the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasmin system. In the nervous system, tPA is involved in processes of neuronal plasticity such as hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and in the dorsal horn pain in several pain models. We investigated detailed changes in expression of ANX2 after nerve injury and evaluated the interaction with tPA using the rat spared nerve injury (SNI) model. SNI-induced the expression of ANX2 in L4/5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. In the spinal cord, constitutive ANX2-immunoreactivity was expressed in laminae I-II. Peripheral nerve injury increased the ANX2 immunoreactive terminals mainly in laminae I-V of the dorsal horn on the side ipsilateral to the nerve injury. Double-labeling analysis revealed the co-localization of ANX2 with tPA in the axons of primary afferents in the dorsal horn. Experimental inhibition of ANX2 and tPA interaction by intrathecal administration of homocysteine significantly prevented and reversed SNI-induced mechanical allodynia. Thus, alterations of ANX2 may be involved in tPA-dependent plasticity after peripheral nerve injury and have an important role in neuropathic pain. PMID:26642807

  6. Tissue-type plasminogen activator is a neuroprotectant in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Yepes, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine proteinase found not only in the intravascular space but also in a well-defined sub-set of neurons in the brain. tPA is rapidly released from neurons after either exposure to hypoxia or hypoglycemia in vitro, or the induction of cerebral ischemia in vivo. It has been proposed that tPA has a neurotoxic effect in the ischemic brain. However, recent evidence indicate that once released into the synaptic cleft tPA activates specific cell signaling pathways that promote the detection and adaptation to metabolic stress. More specifically, the non-proteolytic interaction of tPA with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family in dendritic spines activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway that adapts cellular processes to the availability of energy and metabolic resources. TPA-induced mTOR activation in neurons leads to hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) accumulation, HIF-1?-induced expression and membrane recruitment of the neuronal transporter of glucose GLUT3, and GLUT3-mediated uptake of glucose. These and other data discussed in this Review suggest that the postulated neurotoxic effect of tPA needs to be reconsidered and instead indicate the emergence of a new paradigm: that tPA is an endogenous neuroprotectant in the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:26347605

  7. Dynamic Enhancer Methylation - A Previously Unrecognized Switch for Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Expression

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Mia; Lu, Emma Xuchun; Larsson, Pia; Ulfhammer, Erik; Bergh, Niklas; Carén, Helena; Jern, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), which is synthesized in the endothelial cells lining the blood vessel walls, is a key player in the fibrinolytic system protecting the circulation against occluding thrombus formation. Although classical gene regulation has been quite extensively studied in order to understand the mechanisms behind t-PA regulation, epigenetics, including DNA methylation, still is a largely unexplored field. The aim of this study was to establish the methylation pattern in the t-PA promoter and enhancer in non-cultured compared to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and to simultaneously examine the level of t-PA gene expression. Bisulphite sequencing was used to evaluate the methylation status, and real-time RT-PCR to determine the gene expression level. While the t-PA promoter was stably unmethylated, we surprisingly observed a rapid reduction in the amount of methylation in the enhancer during cell culturing. This demethylation was in strong negative correlation with a pronounced (by a factor of approximately 25) increase in t-PA gene expression levels. In this study, we show that the methylation level in the t-PA enhancer appears to act as a previously unrecognized switch controlling t-PA expression. Our findings, which suggest that DNA methylation is quite dynamic, have implications also for the interpretation of cell culture experiments in general, as well as in a wider biological context. PMID:26509603

  8. Tissue-type plasminogen activator triggers the synaptic vesicle cycle in cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Torre, Enrique; Cuellar-Giraldo, David; Cheng, Lihong; Yi, Hong; Bichler, Edyta K; García, Paul S; Yepes, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The active zone (AZ) is a thickening of the presynaptic membrane where exocytosis takes place. Chemical synapses contain neurotransmitter-loaded synaptic vesicles (SVs) that at rest are tethered away from the synaptic release site, but after the presynaptic inflow of Ca(+2) elicited by an action potential translocate to the AZ to release their neurotransmitter load. We report that tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is stored outside the AZ of cerebral cortical neurons, either intermixed with small clear-core vesicles or in direct contact with the presynaptic membrane. We found that cerebral ischemia-induced release of neuronal tPA, or treatment with recombinant tPA, recruits the cytoskeletal protein ?II-spectrin to the AZ and promotes the binding of SVs to ?II-spectrin, enlarging the population of SVs in proximity to the synaptic release site. This effect does not require the generation of plasmin and is followed by the recruitment of voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC) to the presynaptic terminal that leads to Ca(+2)-dependent synapsin I phosphorylation, freeing SVs to translocate to the AZ to deliver their neurotransmitter load. Our studies indicate that tPA activates the SV cycle and induces the structural and functional changes in the synapse that are required for successful neurotransmission. PMID:26126868

  9. Temperature changes during therapeutic ultrasound in the precooled human gastrocnemius muscle.

    PubMed

    Rimington, S J; Draper, D O; Durrant, E; Fellingham, G

    1994-12-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound is frequently employed as a deep heating rehabilitation modality. It is administered in one of three ways: a) ultrasound with no preceding treatment, b) ultrasound on preheated tissues, or c) ultrasound on precooled tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultrasound treatments on the tissue temperature rise of precooled human gastrocnemius muscle. Sixteen male subjects had a 23-gauge hypodermic needle microprobe inserted 3 cm deep into the medial aspect of their anesthetized gastrocnemius muscles. Data were gathered on each subject for one of two randomly assigned treatments: a) ultrasound treatment on precooled tissue, or b) ultrasound with no preceding treatment. Each treatment consisted of ultrasound delivered topically at 1.5 watts/cm(2) in a continuous mode for 10 minutes. Ultrasound was applied in an overlapping longitudinal motion at 4 cm/s, with temperature readings recorded at 30-second intervals. We discovered a difference between the two treatment methods [t(14) = 16.26, p < .0001]. Ultrasound alone increased tissue temperature an average of 2 degrees C, whereas ultrasound preceded by 15 minutes of ice did not increase tissue temperature even to the original baseline level. We concluded that, at a depth of 3 cm, ultrasound alone provided a greater heating effect than ultrasound preceded by an ice treatment. PMID:16558295

  10. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit(+)IL-7R?(+) (CD117(+)CD127(+)) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (?63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (?63%), IL-22 (?36%), and TNF-? (?72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4(+) T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P < 0.001). Notably, ILC3 could be induced to undergo apoptosis by microbial products through the TLR2 (lipoteichoic acid) and/or TLR4 (LPS) pathway. These findings indicated that persistent microbial translocation may result in loss of ILC3 in lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues.-Xu, H., Wang, X., Lackner, A. A., Veazey, R. S. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques. PMID:26283536

  11. Focused Ultrasound and Lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Teiichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy has generally been a first choice for kidney stone removal. The shock wave lithotripter uses an order of microsecond pulse durations and up to a 100 MPa pressure spike triggered at approximately 0.5-2 Hz to fragment kidney stones through mechanical mechanisms. One important mechanism is cavitation. We proposed an alternative type of lithotripsy method that maximizes cavitation activity to disintegrate kidney stones using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Here we outline the method according to the previously published literature (Matsumoto et al., Dynamics of bubble cloud in focused ultrasound. Proceedings of the second international symposium on therapeutic ultrasound, pp 290-299, 2002; Ikeda et al., Ultrasound Med Biol 32:1383-1397, 2006; Yoshizawa et al., Med Biol Eng Comput 47:851-860, 2009; Koizumi et al., A control framework for the non-invasive ultrasound the ragnostic system. Proceedings of 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems (IROS), pp 4511-4516, 2009; Koizumi et al., IEEE Trans Robot 25:522-538, 2009). Cavitation activity is highly unpredictable; thus, a precise control system is needed. The proposed method comprises three steps of control in kidney stone treatment. The first step is control of localized high pressure fluctuation on the stone. The second step is monitoring of cavitation activity and giving feedback on the optimized ultrasound conditions. The third step is stone tracking and precise ultrasound focusing on the stone. For the high pressure control we designed a two-frequency wave (cavitation control (C-C) waveform); a high frequency ultrasound pulse (1-4 MHz) to create a cavitation cloud, and a low frequency trailing pulse (0.5 MHz) following the high frequency pulse to force the cloud into collapse. High speed photography showed cavitation collapse on a kidney stone and shock wave emission from the cloud. We also conducted in-vitro erosion tests of model and natural kidney stones. For the model stones, the erosion rate of the C-C waveform showed a distinct advantage with the combined high and low frequency waves over either wave alone. For optimization of the high frequency ultrasound intensity, we investigated the relationship between subharmonic emission from cavitation bubbles and stone erosion volume. For stone tracking we have also developed a non-invasive ultrasound theragnostic system (NIUTS) that compensates for kidney motion. Natural stones were eroded and most of the resulting fragments were less than 1 mm in diameter. The small fragments were small enough to pass through the urethra. The results demonstrate that, with the precise control of cavitation activity, focused ultrasound has the potential to be used to develop a less invasive and more controllable lithotripsy system. PMID:26486335

  12. Mechanical and histological characterization of trachea tissue subjected to blast-type pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, B. J.; Bo, C.; Tucker, A. W.; Jardine, A. P.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

    2014-05-01

    Injuries to the respiratory system can be a component of polytrauma in blast-loading injuries. Tissues located at air-liquid interfaces, including such tissues in the respiratory system, are particularly vulnerable to damage by blast overpressures. There is a lack of information about the mechanical and cellular responses that contribute to the damage of this class of tissues subjected to the high strain rates associated with blast loading. Here, we describe the results of dynamic blast-like pressure loading tests at high strain rates on freshly harvested ex vivo trachea tissue specimens.

  13. Ultrasound Annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The 1984 edition of Ultrasound Annual explores new applications of ultrasound in speech and swallowing and offers guidelines on the use of ultrasound and nuclear medicine in thyroid and biliary tract disease. Other areas covered include Doppler sonography of the abdomen, intraoperative abdominal ultrasound, sonography of the placenta, ultrasound of the neonatal head and abdomen, and sonographic echo patterns created by fat.

  14. Ultrasound of the athletic groin.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rob

    2013-02-01

    Athletic groin pain may be the result of a wide variety of different pathologic processes. Clinical diagnosis may be difficult, and imaging can play a vital role in diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is frequently used as the primary imaging modality. However, ultrasound is the best image modality for dynamic assessment of soft tissue abnormality and for guided intervention. Ultrasound (US) is often used as a problem-solving tool. This article briefly reviews the specific roles for US in management of groin pain in the athlete. PMID:23487332

  15. Predictors of epicardial adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), visceral fat depot of the heart, was found to be associated with coronary artery disease in cardiac and non-cardiac patients. Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were introduced as potential markers to determine inflammation in various disorders. Recently, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) was found to be closely associated with atherosclerosis in general population. Waist circumference is commonly used to assess the risk factors in various metabolic disorders. There has been a well known relation between inflammation and peripheral adipose tissue in diabetes mellitus. However, the data regarding EAT and inflammation is scant in this population. Hence, we aimed to determine the relationship between PLR, NLR, AIP, waist circumference and EAT in diabetic patients. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 156 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (87 females, 69 males; mean age, 53.62?±?9.33 years) and 50 control subjects (35 females, 15 males; mean age, 51.06?±?8.74 years). EAT was measured by using a trans-thoracic echocardiogram. Atherogenic index of plasma was calculated as the logarithmically transformed ratio of the serum triglyceride to high density lipoprotein (HDL)cholesterol. NLR and PLR were calculated as the ratio of the neutrophils and platelets to lymphocytes, respectively. Results Waist circumference, PLR, NLR, AIP and EAT measurements were significantly higher in diabetic patients when compared to control subjects. When diabetic patients were separated into two groups according to their median value of EAT (Group 1, EAT?

  16. An essential role for TH2-type response in limiting acute tissue damage during experimental helminth infection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helminths induce potent Th2-type immune responses that can lead to worm expulsion, but it remains undetermined whether components of this response can enhance the wound healing responses elicited as these large multi-cellular parasites traffic thru vital tissues. We used a model of helminth infecti...

  17. Electromechanical systems to enhance the usability and diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound imaging

    E-print Network

    Gilbertson, Matthew Wright

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is used extensively in medicine to non-invasively examine soft tissues. Compared to computed-tomography (CT) scanning or X-ray imaging, ultrasound is lower-cost, more portable, real time, and subjects neither ...

  18. Nonlinear acoustics in biomedical ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, Robin O.

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound is widely used to image inside the body; it is also used therapeutically to treat certain medical conditions. In both imaging and therapy applications the amplitudes employed in biomedical ultrasound are often high enough that nonlinear acoustic effects are present in the propagation: the effects have the potential to be advantageous in some scenarios but a hindrance in others. In the case of ultrasound imaging the nonlinearity produces higher harmonics that result in images of greater quality. However, nonlinear effects interfere with the imaging of ultrasound contrast agents (typically micron sized bubbles with a strong nonlinear response of their own) and nonlinear effects also result in complications when derating of pressure measurements in water to in situ values in tissue. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a non-invasive therapeutic modality which can result in thermal ablation of tissue. For thermal ablation, the extra effective attenuation resulting from nonlinear effects can result in enhanced heating of tissue if shock formation occurs in the target region for ablation - a highly desirable effect. However, if nonlinearity is too strong it can also result in undesired near-field heating and reduced ablation in the target region. The disruption of tissue (histotripsy) and fragmentation of kidney stones (lithotripsy) exploits shock waves to produce mechanically based effects, with minimal heating present. In these scenarios it is necessary for the waves to be of sufficient amplitude that a shock exists when the waveform reaches the target region. This talk will discuss how underlying nonlinear phenomenon act in all the diagnostic and therapeutic applications described above.

  19. High definition ultrasound imaging for battlefield medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, K.S.; Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Krumm, J.C.; Dickey, F.M.; Rogers, B; Walsh, N.

    1996-06-23

    A team has developed an improved resolution ultrasound system for low cost diagnostics. This paper describes the development of an ultrasound based imaging system capable of generating 3D images showing surface and subsurface tissue and bone structures. We include results of a comparative study between images obtained from X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) and ultrasound. We found that the quality of ultrasound images compares favorably with those from CT. Volumetric and surface data extracted from these images were within 7% of the range between ultrasound and CT scans. We also include images of porcine abdominal scans from two different sets of animal trials.

  20. Emerging Non-Cancer Applications of Therapeutic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Meaghan A.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound therapy has been investigated for over half a century. Ultrasound can act on tissue through a variety of mechanisms, including thermal, shockwave and cavitation mechanisms, and through these can elicit different responses. Ultrasound therapy can provide a non-invasive or minimally invasive treatment option, and ultrasound technology has advanced to the point where devices can be developed to investigate a wide range of applications. This review focuses on non-cancer, clinical applications of therapeutic ultrasound, with an emphasis on treatments that have recently reached clinical investigations, and preclinical research programs that have great potential to impact patient care. PMID:25792225

  1. Effects of Three Different Types of Antifreeze Proteins on Mouse Ovarian Tissue Cryopreservation and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Hye Won; Kim, Hak Jun; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovarian tissue (OT) cryopreservation is effective in preserving fertility in cancer patients who have concerns about fertility loss due to cancer treatment. However, the damage incurred at different steps during the cryopreservation procedure may cause follicular depletion; hence, preventing chilling injury would help maintain ovarian function. Objective This study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of different antifreeze proteins (AFPs) on mouse ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation. Methodology Ovaries were obtained from 5-week-old B6D2F1 mice, and each ovary was cryopreserved using two-step vitrification and four-step warming procedures. In Experiment I, ovaries were randomly allocated into fresh, vitrification control, and nine experimental groups according to the AFP type (FfIBP, LeIBP, type III) and concentration (0.1, 1, 10 mg/mL) used. After vitrification and warming, 5,790 ovarian follicles were evaluated using histology and TUNEL assays, and immunofluorescence for ?H2AX and Rad51 was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and repair (DDR), respectively. In Experiment II, 20 mice were randomly divided into two groups: one where the vitrification and warming media were supplemented with 10 mg/mL LeIBP, and the other where media alone were used (control). Ovaries were then autotransplanted under both kidney capsules 7 days after vitrification together with the addition of 10 mg/mL LeIBP in the vitrification-warming media. After transplantation, the ovarian follicles, the percentage of apoptotic follicles, the extent of the CD31-positive area, and the serum FSH levels of the transplanted groups were compared. Principal Findings In Experiment I, the percentage of total grade 1 follicles was significantly higher in the 10 mg/mL LeIBP group than in the vitrification control, while all AFP-treated groups had significantly improved grade 1 primordial follicle numbers compared with those of the vitrification control. The number of apoptotic (TUNEL-positive) follicles was significantly decreased in the groups treated with 1 and 10 mg/mL LeIBP. The proportion of ?H2AX-positive follicles was significantly reduced in all AFP-treated groups, while the proportion of Rad51-positive follicles was significantly decreased in only the FfIBP- and LeIBP-treated groups. In Experiment II, after autotransplantation of OT vitrified with 10 mg/mL of LeIBP, the percentage of total grade 1 and primordial grade 1 follicles, and the extent of the CD31-positive area, were increased significantly. Moreover, the levels of serum FSH and the percentage of TUNEL-positive follicles were significantly lower in the LeIBP-treated than in the control group. Conclusion A supplementation with high concentrations of AFPs had protective effects on follicle preservation during OT vitrification-warming procedures. The group treated with LeIBP was protected most effectively. The beneficial effects of LeIBP were also observed after autotransplantation of vitrified-warmed OT. Further studies are necessary to determine the exact mechanism of these protective effects. PMID:25938445

  2. Treating Cancer with Strong Magnetic Fields and Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Dr. Friedwardt Winterberg

    2009-06-03

    It is proposed to treat cancer by the combination of a strong magnetic field with intense ultrasound. At the low electrical conductivity of tissue the magnetic field is not frozen into the tissue, and oscillates against the tissue which is brought into rapid oscillation by the ultrasound. As a result, a rapidly oscillating electric field is induced in the tissue, strong enough to disrupt cancer cell replication. Unlike radio frequency waves, which have been proposed for this purpose, ultrasound can be easily focused onto the regions to be treated. This method has the potential for the complete eradication of the tumor.

  3. Analysis of Artificial Radiocarbon in Different Skeletal and Dental Tissue Types to Evaluate Date of Death

    SciTech Connect

    Ubelaker, D H; Buchholz, B A; Stewart, J

    2005-07-19

    Radiocarbon dating, with special reference to the modern bomb-curve, can provide useful information to elucidate the date of death of skeletonized human remains. Interpretation can be enhanced with analysis of different types of tissues within a single skeleton because of the known variability of formation times and remodeling rates. Analysis of radiocarbon content of teeth, especially the enamel in tooth crowns provides information about the date of formation in the childhood years and in consideration of the known timing of tooth formation can be used to estimate the birth date after 1950 A.D. Radiocarbon analysis of modern cortical and trabecular bone samples from the same skeleton may allow proper placement on the pre-1963 or post-1963 sides of the bomb-curve since most trabecular bone generally undergoes more rapid remodeling than does most cortical bone. Pre-1963 bone formation would produce higher radiocarbon values for most trabecular bone than for most cortical bone. This relationship is reversed for formation after 1963. Radiocarbon analysis was conducted in this study on dental, cortical and trabecular bone samples from two adult individuals of known birth (1925 and 1926) and death dates (1995 and 1959). As expected, the dental results correspond to pre-bomb bomb-curve values reflecting conditions during the childhoods of the individuals. The curve radiocarbon content of most bone samples reflected the higher modern bomb-curve values. Within the bone sample analyses, the values of the trabecular bone were higher than those of cortical bone and supported the known placement on the pre-1963 side of the bomb-curve.

  4. Lead in tissues of mallard ducks dosed with two types of lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were sacrificed one month after ingesting one number 4 all-lead shot or one number 4 lead-iron shot. Livers, kidneys, blood, wingbones, and eggs were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption. Necropsy of sacrificed ducks failed to reveal any of the tissue lesions usually associated with lead poisoning in waterfowl. Lead levels in ducks given all-lead shot averaged about twice those in ducks given lead-iron shot, reflecting the amount of lead in the two types of shot. Lead in the blood of ducks dosed with all-lead shot averaged 0.64 ppm, and 0.28 ppm in ducks given lead-iron shot. Lead residues in livers and kidneys of females given all-lead shot were significantly higher than in males. In both dosed groups, lead levels in wingbones of females were about 10 times those in males, and were significantly correlated with the number of eggs laid after dosage. Lead levels in contents and shells of eggs laid by hens dosed with all-lead shot were about twice those in eggs laid by hens dosed with lead-iron shot. Eggshells were found to best reflect levels of lead in the blood. Our results indicate that mallards maintained on a balanced diet and dosed with one lead shot may not accumulate extremely high lead levels in the liver and kidney. However, extremely high lead deposition may result in the bone of laying hens after ingesting sublethal amounts of lead shot as a result of mobilization of calcium from the bone during eggshell formation.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and thrombolytic effects of the recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in horses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To test the efficacy of the recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) alteplase in horses, the thrombolytic effect was tested in in vitro generated equine thrombi. The extent of lysis was determined by measuring the decrease in thrombi weight over a period of 4 hours. In vivo pharmacokinetics of alteplase were determined in 6 healthy horses. A single dose (1 mg/kg) was applied via intravenous infusion over a period of 30 minutes Coagulation-related variables, blood count and clinical parameters were taken before the treatment and until 48 h after treatment. In addition, plasma rt-PA concentration was measured until 300 min after commencing the infusion. Results In vitro, a dose dependent decrease of thrombus weight ranging from a 56 (± 6.5) % decrease for 0.5 ?g/ml to 92 (± 2.1) % decrease for 5 ?g/ml rt-PA was noted. The D-dimer concentration in the lysis medium correspondingly increased from 0.10 up to 10.8 mg/l. In vivo, none of the horses showed an adverse reaction to the alteplase infusion. In some horses blood parameters were slightly altered. The 1 mg/kg dose yielded the following pharmacokinetic parameters: Cmax = 1.25?±?0.27 ?g/ml; CL = 21.46?±?5.67 ml/min/kg; dominant half life (t1/2?) = 6.81?±?1.48 minutes; median elimination half life (t1/2?) = 171 min (range: 85–1061); AUC = 50.33?±?17.62 ?g?·?min /ml. Conclusion These findings indicate that a single dose of 1 mg/kg alteplase results in rt-PA plasma concentrations comparable to those in humans and might be sufficient for a thrombolytic therapy in horses. Further studies must be performed to determine the alteplase effectiveness in horses with jugular vein thrombosis. PMID:23938183

  6. L-type amino acid transporter-1 and CD98 expression in bone and soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Koshi, Hiromi; Sano, Takaaki; Handa, Tadashi; Yanagawa, Takashi; Saitou, Kenichi; Nagamori, Shushi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Takagishi, Kenji; Oyama, Tetsunari

    2015-09-01

    L-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1) is expressed in many cancers. We examined LAT1 and CD98 expression immunohistochemically in surgically resected specimens of various bone and soft tissue tumors. Out of 226 cases, 79 (35%) were LAT1(+) and 95 (42%) were CD98(+) . In bone tumors, LAT1 was highly expressed in osteoblastoma (89%), chondrosarcoma (50%), and osteosarcoma (60%); in soft tissue tumors, LAT1 was highly expressed in rhabdomyosarcoma (80%), synovial sarcoma (63%), Ewing's sarcoma (60%), epithelioid sarcoma (100%) and angiosarcoma (100%). In malignant soft tissue tumors, LAT1 expression was associated with higher histological grade. High CD98 expression was seen in many bone tumors of intermediate and high malignancy. Among soft tissue tumors, CD98 was expressed in tendon sheath giant cell tumor and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (57%), Ewing's sarcoma (50%) and undifferentiated sarcoma (64%). Some of the malignant soft tissue tumors expressed both LAT1 and CD98. This study showed that LAT1 and CD98 was expressed in many malignant and intermediate bone tumors, and some malignant soft tissue tumors. PMID:26134029

  7. Ultrasound-mediated gastrointestinal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Schoellhammer, Carl M; Schroeder, Avi; Maa, Ruby; Lauwers, Gregory Yves; Swiston, Albert; Zervas, Michael; Barman, Ross; DiCiccio, Angela M; Brugge, William R; Anderson, Daniel G; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2015-10-21

    There is a significant clinical need for rapid and efficient delivery of drugs directly to the site of diseased tissues for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies, in particular, Crohn's and ulcerative colitis. However, complex therapeutic molecules cannot easily be delivered through the GI tract because of physiologic and structural barriers. We report the use of ultrasound as a modality for enhanced drug delivery to the GI tract, with an emphasis on rectal delivery. Ultrasound increased the absorption of model therapeutics inulin, hydrocortisone, and mesalamine two- to tenfold in ex vivo tissue, depending on location in the GI tract. In pigs, ultrasound induced transient cavitation with negligible heating, leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the delivery of mesalamine, as well as successful systemic delivery of a macromolecule, insulin, with the expected hypoglycemic response. In a rodent model of chemically induced acute colitis, the addition of ultrasound to a daily mesalamine enema (compared to enema alone) resulted in superior clinical and histological scores of disease activity. In both animal models, ultrasound treatment was well tolerated and resulted in minimal tissue disruption, and in mice, there was no significant effect on histology, fecal score, or tissue inflammatory cytokine levels. The use of ultrasound to enhance GI drug delivery is safe in animals and could augment the efficacy of GI therapies and broaden the scope of agents that could be delivered locally and systemically through the GI tract for chronic conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26491078

  8. Detection of Curved Robots using 3D Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongliang; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound can be an effective imaging modality for image-guided interventions since it enables visualization of both the instruments and the tissue. For robotic applications, its realtime frame rates create the potential for image-based instrument tracking and servoing. These capabilities can enable improved instrument visualization, compensation for tissue motion as well as surgical task automation. Continuum robots, whose shape comprises a smooth curve along their length, are well suited for minimally invasive procedures. Existing techniques for ultrasound tracking, however, are limited to straight, laparoscopic-type instruments and thus are not applicable to continuum robot tracking. Toward the goal of developing tracking algorithms for continuum robots, this paper presents a method for detecting a robot comprised of a single constant curvature in a 3D ultrasound volume. Computational efficiency is achieved by decomposing the six-dimensional circle estimation problem into two sequential three-dimensional estimation problems. Simulation and experiment are used to evaluate the proposed method. PMID:22229110

  9. Multi-platform analysis of 12 cancer types reveals molecular classification within and across tissues-of-origin

    PubMed Central

    Hoadley, Katherine A.; Yau, Christina; Wolf, Denise M.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Tamborero, David; Ng, Sam; Leiserson, Max D.M.; Niu, Beifang; McLellan, Michael D.; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Zhang, Jiashan; Kandoth, Cyriac; Akbani, Rehan; Shen, Hui; Omberg, Larsson; Chu, Andy; Margolin, Adam A.; van’t Veer, Laura J.; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Laird, Peter W.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Ding, Li; Robertson, A. Gordon; Byers, Lauren A.; Mills, Gordon B.; Weinstein, John N.; Van Waes, Carter; Chen, Zhong; Collisson, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent genomic analyses of pathologically-defined tumor types identify “within-a-tissue” disease subtypes. However, the extent to which genomic signatures are shared across tissues is still unclear. We performed an integrative analysis using five genome-wide platforms and one proteomic platform on 3,527 specimens from 12 cancer types, revealing a unified classification into 11 major subtypes. Five subtypes were nearly identical to their tissue-of-origin counterparts, but several distinct cancer types were found to converge into common subtypes. Lung squamous, head & neck, and a subset of bladder cancers coalesced into one subtype typified by TP53 alterations, TP63 amplifications, and high expression of immune and proliferation pathway genes. Of note, bladder cancers split into three pan-cancer subtypes. The multi-platform classification, while correlated with tissue-of-origin, provides independent information for predicting clinical outcomes. All datasets are available for data-mining from a unified resource to support further biological discoveries and insights into novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25109877

  10. Ultrasound studies in ectopic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Goes, E; Breucq, C; Osteaux, M

    1998-02-01

    Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy reduces the mortality and morbidity associated with the disease, and the morbidity associated with the therapy. When diagnosis was limited to the cases presenting with tubal rupture, salpingectomy was the only possible treatment. If ectopic pregnancy can be diagnosed earlier, clinicians are able to use new therapies such as laparoscopic microsurgery or medical therapy with methrotrexate, which are less invasive and less tissue destructive. Transvaginal ultrasound has proven to be an essential tool in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. Colour Doppler capacities further enhance the diagnostic sensitivity of transvaginal ultrasound for the early recognition of abnormal and normal intrauterine pregnancy, and small extrauterine masses. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the major sonographic signs and pitfalls in the ultrasound diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9563270

  11. Establishment of the culture model system that reflects the process of terminal differentiation of connective tissue-type mast cells.

    PubMed

    Takano, Hirotsugu; Nakazawa, Shunsuke; Okuno, Yasushi; Shirata, Naritoshi; Tsuchiya, Sohken; Kainoh, Takayuki; Takamatsu, Seigoh; Furuta, Kazuyuki; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Naito, Yuko; Takematsu, Hiromu; Kozutsumi, Yasunori; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Murakami, Makoto; Kudo, Ichiro; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2008-04-30

    To understand physiological roles of tissue mast cells, we established a culture system where bone marrow-derived immature mast cells differentiate into the connective tissue-type mast cell (CTMC)-like cells through modifying the previous co-culture system with Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. Our system was found to reproducibly mimic the differentiation of CTMCs on the basis of several criteria, such as granule maturation and sensitivity to cationic secretagogues. The gene expression profile obtained by the microarray analyses was found to reflect many aspects of the differentiation. Our system is thus helpful to gain deeper insights into terminal differentiation of CTMCs. PMID:18381075

  12. Towards automatic interpretation of sheep ultrasound scans

    E-print Network

    Glasbey, Chris

    Towards automatic interpretation of sheep ultrasound scans C.A. Glasbey Scottish Agricultural sheep. A computer algorithm is proposed for identifying tissue boundaries. Estimates of tissue depth are shown to be comparable with those obtained by manual interpretation, for imagesof seventytwo sheep

  13. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  14. Structural characterization of rat ventricular tissue exposed to the smoke of two types of waterpipe

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Najjar, Hossam; Shraideh, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): this study focused on the effect of waterpipe smoke exposure toxicity on the structure of albino rat’s ventricular tissue and their recovery. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups: control, flavored, and unflavored. The control group was exposed to normal air while the flavored and unflavored groups were exposed to waterpipe smoke for a period of 90 days. Each group was followed by a period of 90 days of fresh air exposure. Following each period, the ventricular tissue was removed for biochemical and histopathological studies. Results: The ventricular tissues of waterpipe exposed rats showed some degree of separation between cardiac muscle fibers, infiltration of lymphocytes, and congestion of blood vessel. Also, thin cross sections of ventricular cells revealed pleomorphic mitochondria with partially disrupted cristae, partial disruption of the myofibrils, and deposited toxic materials. The unflavored waterpipe has more deleterious effects on heart ventricular tissues than the flavored one. Waterpipe smoke didn’t induce apoptosis in the ventricular tissue. We also found very high levels of plasma thiocyanate after exposure to smoke in the flavored and unflavored groups, while the control group showed no increase. After the recovery period, those tissues showed partial recovery. Conclusion: Waterpipe smoke induces structural changes in the heart ventricle tissues, causing a negative impact on the capacity of the cardiac muscle for pumping blood and may lead to heart attack due to accumulation of free radicals and tissue inflammation. Cessation of smoking is important in returning most of these changes to their normal structure.

  15. Application of ultrasound in periodontics: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Vivek K.; Mohan, Ranjana; Bains, Rhythm

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound offers great potential in development of a noninvasive periodontal assessment tool that would offer great yield real time information, regarding clinical features such as pocket depth, attachment level, tissue thickness, histological change, calculus, bone morphology, as well as evaluation of tooth structure for fracture cracks. In therapeutics, ultrasonic instrumentation is proven effective and efficient in treating periodontal disease. When used properly, ultrasound-based instrument is kind to the soft tissues, require less healing time, and are less tiring for the operator. Microultrasonic instruments have been developed with the aim of improving root-surface debridement. The dye/paper method of mapping ultrasound fields demonstrated cavitational activity in an ultrasonic cleaning bath. Piezosurgery resulted in more favorable osseous repair and remodeling in comparison with carbide and diamond burs. The effect of ultrasound is not limited to fracture healing, but that bone healing after osteotomy or osteodistraction could be stimulated as well. PMID:20142946

  16. Hippocampal culture stimulus with 4-megahertz ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratore, Robert; LaManna, Justine K.; Lamprecht, Michael R.; Morrison, Barclay, III

    2012-10-01

    Among current modalities, ultrasound uniquely offers both millisecond and millimeter accuracy in noninvasively stimulating brain tissue. In addition, by sweeping the ultrasound beam within the refractory period of the neuronal tissue, ultrasonic neuromodulation can be adapted to target extended or multiply connected regions with quasi-simultaneity. Towards the development of this safe brain stimulus technique, the response of rat hippocampal cultures to ultrasound was investigated. Hippocampal slices, 0.4-mm thick, were obtained from 8-day old Sprague Dawley rats and cultured for 6 days. The in vitro cultures were exposed to multiple 100-ms 4.04-MHz ultrasound pulses from a 42-mm diameter, 90-mm spherical cap transducer. Peak pressure ranged from 0 through about 77 kPa. Responses in the form of electrical potentials from a sixty channel electrode array were digitized and recorded. The DG and CA1 regions of the hippocampus exhibited similar ultrasonically-evoked field potentials.

  17. Ultrasound Echoes as Biometric Navigators

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Benjamin M.; McDannold, Nathan J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a new method of using ultrasound data to achieve prospective motion compensation in MRI, especially for respiratory motion during interventional MRI procedures in moving organs such as the liver. The method relies on fingerprint-like biometrically distinct ultra-sound echo patterns produced by different locations in tissue, which are collated with geometrical information from MRI during a training stage to form a mapping table that relates ultrasound measurements to positions. During prospective correction, the system makes frequent ultrasound measurements and uses the map to determine the corresponding position. Results in motorized linear motion phantoms and freely breathing animals indicate that the system performs well. Apparent motion is reduced by up to 97.8%, and motion artifacts are reduced or eliminated in 2D Spoiled Gradient-Echo images. The motion compensation is sufficient to permit MRI thermometry of focused ultrasound heating during respiratory-like motion, with results similar to those obtained in the absence of motion. This new technique may have applications for MRI thermometry and other dynamic imaging in the abdomen during free breathing. PMID:22648783

  18. Ultrasound echoes as biometric navigators.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Benjamin M; McDannold, Nathan J

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate a new method of using ultrasound data to achieve prospective motion compensation in MRI, especially for respiratory motion during interventional MRI procedures in moving organs such as the liver. The method relies on fingerprint-like biometrically distinct ultrasound echo patterns produced by different locations in tissue, which are collated with geometrical information from MRI during a training stage to form a mapping table that relates ultrasound measurements to positions. During prospective correction, the system makes frequent ultrasound measurements and uses the map to determine the corresponding position. Results in motorized linear motion phantoms and freely breathing animals indicate that the system performs well. Apparent motion is reduced by up to 97.8%, and motion artifacts are reduced or eliminated in two-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo images. The motion compensation is sufficient to permit MRI thermometry of focused ultrasound heating during respiratory-like motion, with results similar to those obtained in the absence of motion. This new technique may have applications for MRI thermometry and other dynamic imaging in the abdomen during free breathing. PMID:22648783

  19. Detection and estimation of liquid flow through a pipe in a tissue-like object with ultrasound-assisted diffuse correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sriram Chandran, R; Devaraj, G; Kanhirodan, Rajan; Roy, Debasish; Vasu, Ram Mohan

    2015-10-01

    Using coherent light interrogating a turbid object perturbed by a focused ultrasound (US) beam, we demonstrate localized measurement of dynamics in the focal region, termed the region-of-interest (ROI), from the decay of the modulation in intensity autocorrelation of light. When the ROI contains a pipe flow, the decay is shown to be sensitive to the average flow velocity from which the mean-squared displacement (MSD) of the scattering centers in the flow can be estimated. While the MSD estimated is seen to be an order of magnitude higher than that obtainable through the usual diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) without the US, it is seen to be more accurate as verified by the volume flow estimated from it. It is further observed that, whereas the MSD from the localized measurement grows with time as ?? with ??1.65, without using the US, ? is seen to be much less. Moreover, with the local measurement, this super-diffusive nature of the pipe flow is seen to persist longer, i.e., over a wider range of initial ?, than with the unassisted DWS. The reason for the super-diffusivity of flow, i.e., ?<2, in the ROI is the presence of a fluctuating (thermodynamically nonequilibrium) component in the dynamics induced by the US forcing. Beyond this initial range, both methods measure MSDs that rise linearly with time, indicating that ballistic and near-ballistic photons hardly capture anything beyond the background Brownian motion. PMID:26479942

  20. 39-kD protein inhibits tissue-type plasminogen activator clearance in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Warshawsky, I; Bu, G; Schwartz, A L

    1993-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is a plasma serine protease that catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in the fibrinolytic cascade. t-PA is widely used as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. However, its use has been impaired by its rapid hepatic clearance from the circulation following intravenous administration. Studies with both rat hepatoma MH1C1 cells (G. Bu, S. Williams, D. K. Strickland, and A. L. Schwartz, 1992. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 89:7427-7431) and human hepatoma HepG2 cells (G. Bu, E. A. Maksymovitch, and A. L. Schwartz. 1993. J. Biol. Chem. 28:13002-13009) have shown that binding of t-PA to its clearance receptor, the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor, is inhibited by a 39-kD protein that copurifies with this receptor. Herein we investigated whether administration of purified recombinant 39-kD protein would alter t-PA clearance in vivo. We found that intravenous administration of purified 39-kD protein to rats prolonged the plasma half-life of 125I-t-PA from 1 min to approximately 5-6 min. The plasma half-life of t-PA enzymatic activity was similarly prolonged following intravenous administration of purified 39-kD protein. In addition we found that the 39-kD protein itself was rapidly cleared from the circulation in vivo. Clearance of 125I-39-kD protein was a biphasic process with half-lives of 30 s and 9 min and the liver was the primary organ of clearance. Preadministration of excess unlabeled 39-kD protein slowed 125I-39-kD protein clearance in rats in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that specific clearance receptors were responsible for this process. Administration of increasing doses of unlabeled 39-kD protein along with labeled 39-kD protein resulted in a decrease in the amount of labeled 39-kD protein associating with the liver and a concomitant increase in the amount of labeled 39-kD protein associating with the kidneys, indicating two clearance mechanisms exist for the 39-kD protein. Images PMID:8349826

  1. Pulmonary embolus diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Segraves, Justin M.; Daniels, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) imaging is commonly used to evaluate and aid in biopsy of mediastinal lymph nodes. Pulmonary arteries are readily viewable with this type of imaging modality. We present a case report of a pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosed by EBUS. Our patient had no smoking history and presented with respiratory and constitutional symptoms, urinary retention, and leg weakness suspicious for malignancy with metastasis to spine. Chest computed tomography (CT) was suggestive of lung carcinoma and specifically showed no PE. EBUS with TBNA was requested for tissue diagnosis. A mobile filling defect consistent with a PE was observed and reported to primary team. Follow-up chest CT showed an acute PE which confirmed the diagnosis originally made by EBUS. Bronchoscopists should be aware of potential to diagnose a PE while performing EBUS. Additionally, there may be a role in using EBUS specifically to diagnose a PE in the right patient population.

  2. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome type VIII is clinically heterogeneous disorder associated primarily with periodontal disease, and variable connective tissue features

    PubMed Central

    Reinstein, Eyal; DeLozier, Celia Dawn; Simon, Ziv; Bannykh, Serguei; Rimoin, David L; Curry, Cynthia J

    2013-01-01

    Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS) type VIII (periodontitis type) is a distinct form of EDS characterized by periodontal disease leading to precocious dental loss and a spectrum of joint and skin manifestations. EDS type VIII is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern; however, the mutated gene has not been identified. There are insufficient data on the spectrum of clinical manifestations and natural history of the disorder, and only a limited number of patients and pedigrees with this condition have been reported. We present a four-generation EDS type VIII kindred and show that EDS VIII is clinically variable and although some cases lack the associated skin and joint manifestations, microscopic evidence of collagen disorganization is detectable. We further propose that the diagnosis of EDS type VIII should be considered in familial forms of periodontitis, even when the associated skin and joint manifestations are unconvincing for the diagnosis of a connective tissue disorder. This novel observation highlights the uncertainty of using connective tissue signs in clinical practice to diagnose EDS type VIII. PMID:22739343

  3. Selection of cell-type specific antibodies on tissue-sections using phage display

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Simon Asbjørn; Meldgaard, Theresa; Lykkemark, Simon; Mandrup, Ole Aalund; Kristensen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of modern technologies enabling single cell analysis, it has become clear that small sub-populations of cells or even single cells can drive the phenotypic appearance of tissue, both diseased and normal. Nucleic acid based technologies allowing single cell analysis has been faster to mature, while technologies aimed at analysing the proteome at a single cell level is still lacking behind, especially technologies which allow single cell analysis in tissue. Introducing methods, that allows such analysis, will pave the way for discovering new biomarkers with more clinical relevance, as these may be unique for microenvironments only present in tissue and will avoid artifacts introduced by in vitro studies. Here, we introduce a technology enabling biomarker identification on small sub-populations of cells within a tissue section. Phage antibody libraries are applied to the tissue sections, followed by washing to remove non-bound phage particles. To eliminate phage antibodies binding to antigens ubiquitously expressed and retrieve phage antibodies binding specifically to antigens expressed by the sub-population of cells, the area of interest is protected by a ‘shadow stick’. The phage antibodies on the remaining areas on the slide are exposed to UV light, which introduces cross-links in the phage genome, thus rendering them non-replicable. In this work we applied the technology, guided by CD31 expressing endothelial cells, to isolate recombinant antibodies specifically binding biomarkers expressed either by the cell or in the microenvironment surrounding the endothelial cell. PMID:25808085

  4. Role of structural anisotropy of biological tissues in poroelastic wave propagation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Luis; Cowin, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound waves have a broad range of clinical applications as a non-destructive testing approach in imaging and in the diagnoses of medical conditions. Generally, biological tissues are modeled as an homogenized equivalent medium with an apparent density through which a single wave propagates. Only the first wave arriving at the ultrasound probe is used for the measurement of the speed of sound. However, the existence of a second wave in tissues such as cancellous bone has been reported and its existence is an unequivocal signature of Biot type poroelastic media. To account for the fact that ultrasound is sensitive to microarchitecture as well as density, a fabric-dependent anisotropic poroelastic ultrasound (PEU) propagation theory was recently developed. Key to this development was the inclusion of the fabric tensor - a quantitative stereological measure of the degree of structural anisotropy of bone - into the linear poroelasticity theory. In the present study, this framework is extended to the propagation of waves in several soft and hard tissues. It was found that collagen fibers in soft tissues and the mineralized matrix in hard tissues are responsible for the anisotropy of the solid tissue constituent through the fabric tensor in the model. PMID:22162897

  5. Tissue characteristics of non-culprit plaque in patients with acute coronary syndrome vs. stable angina: a color-coded intravascular ultrasound study.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Mitsumasa; Hiro, Takafumi; Takayama, Tadateru; Iida, Korehito; Nishida, Toshihiko; Fukamachi, Daisuke; Kawano, Taro; Higuchi, Yoshiharu; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are thought to have multiple vulnerable coronary plaques. We analyzed non-culprit plaques in patients with ACS vs. stable angina pectoris (SAP) by means of color-coded intravascular ultrasound (iMap-IVUS). Patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention were divided into an ACS group (n = 39) and an SAP group (n = 35). Non-culprit lesions were imaged by 40-MHz iMap-IVUS, and the plaque characteristics were compared between the two groups. Plaque volume was similar between the two groups. The fibrotic volume (%FV) was less in the ACS group than in the SAP group (70.2 ± 10.4 vs. 76.5 ± 7.2 %, respectively, P < 0.01), whereas the lipidic volume and necrotic volume (%NV) were greater in the ACS group (8.2 ± 0.4 vs. 6.3 ± 0.4 %, P < 0.01; 15.1 ± 7.9 vs. 9.9 ± 4.8 %, P < 0.01). An inverse correlation was found between %FV and total plaque volume (ACS group: r = -0.52, P < 0.01; SAP group: r = -0.31, P = 0.01), and a positive correlation was found between %NV and total plaque volume (ACS group: r = 0.56, P < 0.01; SAP group: r = 0.41, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the slope of the regression line showing the relation between plaque volume and necrotic volume was significantly steeper for the ACS group than for the SAP group (P < 0.05). Non-culprit lesions are particularly vulnerable in ACS patients. Non-culprit lesions are particularly vulnerable in ACS patients. Furthermore, the stronger correlation between plaque volume and %NV was observed in ACS patients than in SAP patients. PMID:26188645

  6. [Non-linear ultrasound imaging].

    PubMed

    Tranquart, F; Grenier, N

    2000-12-01

    The recent introduction of non-linear imaging in ultrasound diagnosis could improve image quality by resolving some problems in technically difficult patients allowing a better conspicuity in identification of subtle lesions. Tissue harmonics are generated while the transmitted pulse propagates through tissue. The formation of image by utilising the harmonic signals implies the suppression of fundamental frequency in the received signal. This is achieved by two major processes filtering and pulse inversion imaging. The non-linear properties of contrast agents reinforce the intensity of harmonic signals which could be detected in precise conditions of acoustic power for a non-destructive or destructive imaging. The introduction of this new imaging modality opens new way in ultrasound imaging with precise protocols of acquisition or sequences and possibly in therapy in the near future. PMID:11173769

  7. Ultrasonic Tissue Characterization Using Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Schouten, Theo

    Ultrasonic Tissue Characterization Using Neural Networks Maurice S. klein Gebbinck November 4, 1992 #12; #12; Abstract Ultrasonic tissue characterization is a technique where on the basis of pa : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2 Ultrasound imaging 5 2.1 The transducer

  8. [Ultrasound in emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Lapostolle, F; Deltour, S; Petrovic, T

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound has revolutionized the practice of emergency medicine, particularly in prehospital setting. About a patient with dyspnea, we present the role of ultrasound in the diagnosis and emergency treatment. Echocardiography, but also hemodynamic ultrasound (vena cava) and lung exam are valuable tools. Achieving lung ultrasound and diagnostic value of B lines B are detailed. PMID:26574136

  9. Ultrasound annual, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an analyses of developments in the field of diagnostic ultrasound. Endoscopic ultrasound and ultrasound-guided aspiration of ovarian follicles for in vitro fertilization are addressed. The use of Doppler ultrasound to measure blood flow in obstetrics is also examined.

  10. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the KATP channel Complex in Different Tissue Types

    PubMed Central

    Kefaloyianni, Eirini; Lyssand, John S.; Moreno, Cesar; Delaroche, Diane; Hong, Miyoun; Fenyö, David; Mobbs, Charles V.; Neubert, Thomas A.; Coetzee, William A.

    2013-01-01

    ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels are expressed ubiquitously, but have diverse roles in various organs and cells. Their diversity can partly be explained by distinct tissue-specific compositions of four copies of the pore-forming inward rectifier potassium channel subunits (Kir6.1 and/or Kir6.2) and four regulatory sulfonylurea receptor subunits (SUR1 and/or SUR2). Channel function and/or subcellular localization also can be modified by the proteins with which they transiently or permanently interact to generate even more diversity. We performed a quantitative proteomic analysis of KATP channel complexes in the heart, endothelium, insulin-secreting min6 cells (pancreatic ?-cell like) and the hypothalamus to identify proteins with which they interact in different tissues. Glycolysis is an over-represented pathway in identified proteins of the heart, min6 cells and the endothelium. Proteins with other energy metabolic functions were identified in the hypothalamic samples. These data suggest that the metabolo-electrical coupling conferred by KATP channels is conferred partly by proteins with which they interact. A large number of identified cytoskeletal and trafficking proteins suggests endocytic recycling may help control KATP channel surface density and/or subcellular localization. Overall, our data demonstrate that KATP channels in different tissues may assemble with proteins having common functions, but that tissue-specific complex organization also occurs. PMID:23197389

  11. Analysisi of Tall Fescue Ests Representing Abiotic Stresses, Tissue Types and Developmental Stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a major cool season forage and turf grass species in the temperate regions of the world. A total of 44,516 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from nine cDNA libraries of tall fescue representing tissues from different plant organs,...

  12. Bruising profile of fresh apples associated with tissue type and structure. Applied Engineering in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important to understand how apples bruise in order to prevent or reduce bruising. Tissue from ‘Golden Delicious’ apples was analyzed to determine the bruising mechanism at different maturity levels. Bruising was induced by an artificial finger attached to an Instron machine applying an exter...

  13. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joshua A; Cherry, Julia A; Mckee, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 ?L L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 ?L L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2 %). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise through vertical accretion.

  14. Evaluation of ultrasound-assisted extraction as sample pre-treatment for quantitative determination of rare earth elements in marine biological tissues by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Costas, M; Lavilla, I; Gil, S; Pena, F; de la Calle, I; Cabaleiro, N; Bendicho, C

    2010-10-29

    In this work, the determination of rare earth elements (REEs), i.e. Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in marine biological tissues by inductively coupled-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after a sample preparation method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is described. The suitability of the extracts for ICP-MS measurements was evaluated. For that, studies were focused on the following issues: (i) use of clean up of extracts with a C18 cartridge for non-polar solid phase extraction; (ii) use of different internal standards; (iii) signal drift caused by changes in the nebulization efficiency and salt deposition on the cones during the analysis. The signal drift produced by direct introduction of biological extracts in the instrument was evaluated using a calibration verification standard for bracketing (standard-sample bracketing, SSB) and cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts. Parameters influencing extraction such as extractant composition, mass-to-volume ratio, particle size, sonication time and sonication amplitude were optimized. Diluted single acids (HNO(3) and HCl) and mixtures (HNO(3)+HCl) were evaluated for improving the extraction efficiency. Quantitative recoveries for REEs were achieved using 5 mL of 3% (v/v) HNO(3)+2% (v/v) HCl, particle size <200 ?m, 3 min of sonication time and 50% of sonication amplitude. Precision, expressed as relative standard deviation from three independent extractions, ranged from 0.1 to 8%. In general, LODs were improved by a factor of 5 in comparison with those obtained after microwave-assisted digestion (MAD). The accuracy of the method was evaluated using the CRM BCR-668 (mussel tissue). Different seafood samples of common consumption were analyzed by ICP-MS after UAE and MAD. PMID:20951856

  15. Ultrasound in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in microgravity environments. The goals of research in ultrasound usage in space environments are: (1) Determine accuracy of ultrasound in novel clinical conditions. (2) Determine optimal training methodologies, (3) Determine microgravity associated changes and (4) Develop intuitive ultrasound catalog to enhance autonomous medical care. Also uses of Ultrasound technology in terrestrial applications are reviewed.

  16. Molecular characterization, tissue expression, and polymorphism analysis of liver-type fatty acid binding protein in Landes geese.

    PubMed

    Song, Z; Shao, D; Sun, X X; Niu, J W; Gong, D Q

    2015-01-01

    Liver weight is an important economic trait in the fatty goose liver industry. Liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is involved in the formation and metabolism of fatty acids. Thus, we hypothesized that sequence polymorphisms in L-FABP were associated with fatty liver weight in goose. We first isolated, sequenced, and characterized the goose L-FABP gene, which had not been previously reported. The goose L-FABP gene was 2490 bp and included 4 exons coding for a 126-amino acid protein. Analysis of expression levels of the goose L-FABP gene in different tissues showed that the expression level in the liver tissue was higher than in other tissues, and was significantly higher in the liver tissue of overfed geese than in control geese. Moreover, a single nucleotide polymorphism located at 774 bp in the gene was identified in a Landes goose population. To test whether this single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with fatty liver production, liver weight and the ratio of liver to carcass weights were determined for the 3 genotypes with this single nucleotide polymorphism (TT, TG, GG) in overfed Landes geese. Our data indicate that individuals with the GG genotype had higher values for the variables measured than those with the other 2 genotypes, suggesting that L-FABP can be a selection marker for the trait of fatty liver production in goose. PMID:25729971

  17. Effect of the type of dietary triacylglycerol fatty acids on ?-tocopherol concentration in plasma and tissues of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Prévéraud, D P; Devillard, E; Rouffineau, F; Borel, P

    2014-11-01

    A study was performed in growing pigs to evaluate the efficacy of ?-tocopherol (Tol) concentration in plasma, muscle, liver, and adipose tissue following dietary supplementation with vitamin E (VE) and various sources of fat. The trial involved 96 piglets weaned at an average of 28 d of age. Piglets were fed for 2 wk a semipurified diet not supplemented with VE. Piglets were then randomly assigned to 5 isoenergetic semipurified diets with 100 IU/kg VE as dl-?-tocopheryl acetate: a control (CTRL) diet (with no added fat) and 4 other diets containing either 3% linseed oil (LIN), 3% hydrogenated coconut oil (COC), 3% olive oil (OLI), or 3% safflower oil (SAF) representing diets rich in n-3 PUFA, SFA, MUFA, and n-6 PUFA, respectively. After 49 d of treatment, pigs were killed and blood, muscle (longissimus dorsi), adipose tissue, and whole liver (without gallbladder) were collected and analyzed for their Tol concentrations. For all tissues, LIN and SAF diets led to lower (P < 0.02) Tol concentrations as compared to the CTRL diet: -63 and -67%, respectively. ?-Tocopherol concentrations in plasma, liver, and adipose tissue were greater (P < 0.001) in the COC group as compared to the CTRL group. The OLI diet led to greater (P < 0.01) liver Tol concentration (+92%) as compared to the CTRL diet but had no significant effect on plasma, muscle, and adipose tissue Tol concentrations. There were significant correlations (P < 0.001) between plasma, muscle, and liver Tol concentrations (r > 0.78). These results show that supplementation with PUFA markedly decreases Tol concentration in blood and tissues of growing pigs, whereas SFA increase Tol content in blood, liver, and adipose tissue. Monounsaturated fatty acids only increase liver Tol concentrations. Therefore, increasing the amount of fat in the diet (from <0.1 to approximately 3.5%) and the type of dietary fatty acids supplemented with VE are key factors with regards to VE concentration in plasma and tissue. The Tol:PUFA needs to be carefully considered to meet the VE pigs requirement and to ensure an optimal Tol meat enrichment. PMID:25349346

  18. Analysis of tall fescue ESTs representing different abiotic stresses, tissue types and developmental stages

    PubMed Central

    Mian, MA Rouf; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Zhang, Ji-Yi; Cheng, Xiaofei; Chen, Lei; Chekhovskiy, Konstantin; Dai, Xinbin; Mao, Chunhong; Cheung, Foo; Zhao, Xuechun; He, Ji; Scott, Angela D; Town, Christopher D; May, Gregory D

    2008-01-01

    Background Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a major cool season forage and turf grass species grown in the temperate regions of the world. In this paper we report the generation of a tall fescue expressed sequence tag (EST) database developed from nine cDNA libraries representing tissues from different plant organs, developmental stages, and abiotic stress factors. The results of inter-library and library-specific in silico expression analyses of these ESTs are also reported. Results A total of 41,516 ESTs were generated from nine cDNA libraries of tall fescue representing tissues from different plant organs, developmental stages, and abiotic stress conditions. The Festuca Gene Index (FaGI) has been established. To date, this represents the first publicly available tall fescue EST database. In silico gene expression studies using these ESTs were performed to understand stress responses in tall fescue. A large number of ESTs of known stress response gene were identified from stressed tissue libraries. These ESTs represent gene homologues of heat-shock and oxidative stress proteins, and various transcription factor protein families. Highly expressed ESTs representing genes of unknown functions were also identified in the stressed tissue libraries. Conclusion FaGI provides a useful resource for genomics studies of tall fescue and other closely related forage and turf grass species. Comparative genomic analyses between tall fescue and other grass species, including ryegrasses (Lolium sp.), meadow fescue (F. pratensis) and tetraploid fescue (F. arundinacea var glaucescens) will benefit from this database. These ESTs are an excellent resource for the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) PCR-based molecular markers. PMID:18318913

  19. CT and Ultrasound Guided Stereotactic High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Bradford J.; Frenkel, V.; Viswanathan, A.; Dromi, S.; Oh, K.; Kam, A.; Li, K. C. P.; Yanof, J.; Bauer, C.; Kruecker, J.; Seip, R.

    2006-05-08

    To demonstrate the feasibility of CT and B-mode Ultrasound (US) targeted HIFU, a prototype coaxial focused ultrasound transducer was registered and integrated to a CT scanner. CT and diagnostic ultrasound were used for HIFU targeting and monitoring, with the goals of both thermal ablation and non-thermal enhanced drug delivery. A 1 megahertz coaxial ultrasound transducer was custom fabricated and attached to a passive position-sensing arm and an active six degree-of-freedom robotic arm via a CT stereotactic frame. The outer therapeutic transducer with a 10 cm fixed focal zone was coaxially mounted to an inner diagnostic US transducer (2-4 megahertz, Philips Medical Systems). This coaxial US transducer was connected to a modified commercial focused ultrasound generator (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, IN) with a maximum total acoustic power of 100 watts. This pre-clinical paradigm was tested for ability to heat tissue in phantoms with monitoring and navigation from CT and live US. The feasibility of navigation via image fusion of CT with other modalities such as PET and MRI was demonstrated. Heated water phantoms were tested for correlation between CT numbers and temperature (for ablation monitoring). The prototype transducer and integrated CT/US imaging system enabled simultaneous multimodality imaging and therapy. Pre-clinical phantom models validated the treatment paradigm and demonstrated integrated multimodality guidance and treatment monitoring. Temperature changes during phantom cooling corresponded to CT number changes. Contrast enhanced or non-enhanced CT numbers may potentially be used to monitor thermal ablation with HIFU. Integrated CT, diagnostic US, and therapeutic focused ultrasound bridges a gap between diagnosis and therapy. Preliminary results show that the multimodality system may represent a relatively inexpensive, accessible, and simple method of both targeting and monitoring HIFU effects. Small animal pre-clinical models may be translated to large animals and humans for HIFU-induced ablation and drug delivery. Integrated CT-guided focused ultrasound holds promise for tissue ablation, enhancing local drug delivery, and CT thermometry for monitoring ablation in near real-time.

  20. Flux analysis of cholesterol biosynthesis in vivo reveals multiple tissue and cell-type specific pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mitsche, Matthew A; McDonald, Jeffrey G; Hobbs, Helen H; Cohen, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Two parallel pathways produce cholesterol: the Bloch and Kandutsch-Russell pathways. Here we used stable isotope labeling and isotopomer analysis to trace sterol flux through the two pathways in mice. Surprisingly, no tissue used the canonical K–R pathway. Rather, a hybrid pathway was identified that we call the modified K–R (MK–R) pathway. Proportional flux through the Bloch pathway varied from 8% in preputial gland to 97% in testes, and the tissue-specificity observed in vivo was retained in cultured cells. The distribution of sterol isotopomers in plasma mirrored that of liver. Sterol depletion in cultured cells increased flux through the Bloch pathway, whereas overexpression of 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24) enhanced usage of the MK–R pathway. Thus, relative use of the Bloch and MK–R pathways is highly variable, tissue-specific, flux dependent, and epigenetically fixed. Maintenance of two interdigitated pathways permits production of diverse bioactive sterols that can be regulated independently of cholesterol. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07999.001 PMID:26114596

  1. Tissue specific regulation of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor density after chemical sympathectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A.S.; Skolnick, P.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding to peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues were examined after chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). One week after the intracisternal administration of 6-OHDA, the number of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding sites (Bmax) in the hypothalamus and striatum increased 41 and 50% respectively, concurrent with significant reductions in catecholamine content. An increase (34%) in the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 to cardiac ventricle was observed one week after parenteral 6-OHDA administration. In contrast, the B/sub max/ of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4684 to pineal gland decreased 48% after 6-OHDA induced reduction in norepinephrine content. The Bmax values for (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding to other tissues (including lung, kidney, spleen, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus and olfactory bulbs) were unaffected by 6-OHDA administration. The density of pineal, but not cardiac PBR was also reduced after reserpine treatment, an effect reversed by isoproterenol administration. These findings demonstrate that alterations in sympathetic input may regulate the density of PBR in both the central nervous system and periphery in a tissue specific fashion. 33 references, 4 tables.

  2. Aesthetic ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthe, Peter G.; Slayton, Michael H.

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound provides key benefits in aesthetic surgery compared to laser and RF based energy sources. We present results of research, development, pre-clinical and clinical studies, regulatory clearance and commercialization of a revolutionary non-invasive aesthetic ultrasound imaging and therapy system. Clinical applications for this platform include non-invasive face-lifts, brow-lifts, and neck-lifts achieved through fractionated treatment of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and subcutaneous tissue. Treatment consists of placing a grid of micro-coagulative lesions on the order of 1 mm3 at depths in skin of 1 to 6 mm, source energy levels of 0.1 to 3 J, and spacing on the order of 1.5 mm, from 4 to 10 MHz dual-mode image/treat transducers. System details are described, as well as a regulatory pathway consisting of acoustic and bioheat simulations, source characterization (hydrophone, radiation force, and Schlieren), pre-clinical studies (porcine skin ex vivo, in vivo, and human cadaver), human safety studies (treat and resect) and efficacy trials which culminated in FDA clearance (2009) under a new device classification and world-wide usage. Clinical before and after photographs are presented which validate the clinical approach.

  3. Interventional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Otto, R

    2002-02-01

    Modern cross-sectional imaging methods of computed tomography, sonography and lately MRI have contributed greatly to non-invasive studies of different parenchymal organs and permit the evaluation of pathological changes in different areas of the body. Although these techniques have reached a very high level of refinement, it is often not possible to define whether a focal lesion is benign or malignant. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) or core-needle biopsy (including high-speed- and vacuum-assisted techniques) are essential to find out the character of the disease in these cases. Experience of more than 10,000 interventions of different organs are presented. Technique, results, problems, as well as risks are discussed. Moreover, it is shown how the results of percutaneous biopsies often change the treatment of a patient. This is especially of interest in those suffering from lymphomas, pancreatic carcinomas, and breast cancers, as well as relapsing tumors. PMID:11870423

  4. Medical ultrasound - From inner space to outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    During the last decade, medical ultrasound has rapidly become a widely accepted imaging modality used in many medical specialties. It has the advantages that it is noninvasive, does not use ionizing radiation, is relatively inexpensive and is easy to use. Future trends in ultrasound include expanded areas of use, advanced signal processing and digital image analysis including tissue characterization and three-dimensional reconstructions.

  5. Adult soft tissue sarcoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Soft tissue sarcoma is cancer that forms in the soft tissue of the body. Soft tissue connects, supports, or surrounds other body parts. In adults, soft tissue sarcoma is rare. There are many different types of ...

  6. Use of Ultrasound Imaging to Map Propagating Action Potential Waves in the

    E-print Network

    Otani, Niels F.

    Use of Ultrasound Imaging to Map Propagating Action Potential Waves in the Heart NF Otani1 , R understanding of cardiac dynamics remains elusive. Here we present a technique using ultrasound, including VF. In this paper, we describe the ability of ultrasound to see wave-induced tissue deformation

  7. In Vivo Treatment of Rabbit VX2 Tumor by Miniaturized Image-Ablate Ultrasound Arrays

    E-print Network

    Mast, T. Douglas

    ]­[6]. Recent work on minimally-invasive ultrasound ablation technology has included development and testing ultrasound power delivery suitable for rapid volume ablation, as well as high-quality imaging [4], [6 capable of both B-scan imaging and intense ultrasound ablation is inserted into soft tissue using

  8. Gene Expression and Correlation of Pten and Fabp4 in Liver, Muscle, and Adipose Tissues of Type 2 Diabetes Rats

    PubMed Central

    Su, Di; Zhang, Chuan-ling; Gao, Ying-chun; Liu, Xiao-ying; Li, Cai-ping; Huangfu, Jian; Xiao, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this work was to study the Fabp4 and Pten gene expression and correlation in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. Material/Methods Male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=12/group): a control group fed a normal diet for 8 weeks and an experimental group fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet for 8 weeks and that received 25 mg/kg streptozotocin by intraperitoneal injection to induce T2DM. The random blood glucose, fasting blood glucose, and fasting insulin levels were measured. The expression of Pten and Fabp4 in the liver, muscle, and epididymal adipose tissues was estimated by real-time quantitative PCR. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was used to investigate the expression correlation between Pten and Fabp4 in T2DM rats. Results The gene expressions of Pten and Fabp4 in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of T2DM rats were all significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). Pten was highly expressed in the muscles and Fabp4 was highly expressed in muscle and adipose tissues. Furthermore, expressions of Fabp4 and Pten in the muscle and adipose tissues of T2DM rats were positively correlated (P<0.05), but not in the liver. Conclusions The increased expression of PTEN and FABP4 in the adipose and muscles of T2DM rats may play an important role in the insulin resistance of T2DM. However, the mechanism by which these 2 genes function in T2DM needs further study. PMID:26591002

  9. Gene Expression and Correlation of Pten and Fabp4 in Liver, Muscle, and Adipose Tissues of Type 2 Diabetes Rats.

    PubMed

    Su, Di; Zhang, Chuan-Ling; Gao, Ying-Chun; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Li, Cai-Ping; Huangfu, Jian; Xiao, Rui

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this work was to study the Fabp4 and Pten gene expression and correlation in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=12/group): a control group fed a normal diet for 8 weeks and an experimental group fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet for 8 weeks and that received 25 mg/kg streptozotocin by intraperitoneal injection to induce T2DM. The random blood glucose, fasting blood glucose, and fasting insulin levels were measured. The expression of Pten and Fabp4 in the liver, muscle, and epididymal adipose tissues was estimated by real-time quantitative PCR. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was used to investigate the expression correlation between Pten and Fabp4 in T2DM rats. RESULTS The gene expressions of Pten and Fabp4 in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of T2DM rats were all significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). Pten was highly expressed in the muscles and Fabp4 was highly expressed in muscle and adipose tissues. Furthermore, expressions of Fabp4 and Pten in the muscle and adipose tissues of T2DM rats were positively correlated (P<0.05), but not in the liver. CONCLUSIONS The increased expression of PTEN and FABP4 in the adipose and muscles of T2DM rats may play an important role in the insulin resistance of T2DM. However, the mechanism by which these 2 genes function in T2DM needs further study. PMID:26591002

  10. Framework of Collagen Type I – Vasoactive Vessels Structuring Invariant Geometric Attractor in Cancer Tissues: Insight into Biological Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Jairo A.; Murillo, Mauricio F.; Jaramillo, Natalia A.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous research, we have described and documented self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complex organizations (GTCHC) in human pathological tissues. This article documents and gathers insights into the magnetic field in cancer tissues and also how it generates an invariant functional geometric attractor constituted for collider partners in their entangled environment. The need to identify this hierarquic attractor was born out of the concern to understand how the vascular net of these complexes are organized, and to determine if the spiral vascular subpatterns observed adjacent to GTCHC complexes and their assembly are interrelational. The study focuses on cancer tissues and all the macroscopic and microscopic material in which GTCHC complexes are identified, which have been overlooked so far, and are rigorously revised. This revision follows the same parameters that were established in the initial phase of the investigation, but with a new item: the visualization and documentation of external dorsal serous vascular bed areas in spatial correlation with the localization of GTCHC complexes inside the tumors. Following the standard of the electro-optical collision model, we were able to reproduce and replicate collider patterns, that is, pairs of left and right hand spin-spiraled subpatterns, associated with the orientation of the spinning process that can be an expansion or contraction disposition of light particles. Agreement between this model and tumor data is surprisingly close; electromagnetic spiral patterns generated were identical at the spiral vascular arrangement in connection with GTCHC complexes in malignant tumors. These findings suggest that the framework of collagen type 1 – vasoactive vessels that structure geometric attractors in cancer tissues with invariant morphology sets generate collider partners in their magnetic domain with opposite biological behavior. If these principles are incorporated into nanomaterial, biomedical devices, and engineered tissues, new therapeutic strategies could be developed for cancer treatment. PMID:19223987

  11. Serotonin effects in the crab Neohelice granulata: Possible involvement of two types of receptors in peripheral tissues.

    PubMed

    Inohara, Elen Thegla Sander; Pinto, Charles Budazewsky; Model, Jorge Felipe Argenta; Trapp, Márcia; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Da Silva, Roselis Silveira Martins; Vinagre, Anapaula Sommer

    2015-07-01

    In crustaceans, serotonin (5-HT) controls various physiological processes, such as hormonal secretion, color changes, reproduction, and metabolism. Since 5-HT injections cause hyperglycemia, this study was designed to further investigate this action of 5-HT in the crab Neohelice granulate, fed with a high-carbohydrate (HC) or a high-protein (HP) diet. The effects of pre-treatment with mammalian 5-HT receptor antagonists, cyproheptadine and methiothepin, were also investigated. A series of in vivo experiments with (3)H-5-HT was carried out in order to investigate the presence of putative receptors in peripheral tissues. Since gills were the tissue with the highest labeling in in vivo experiments, in vitro studies with isolated anterior and posterior gills were also conducted. Cyproheptadine blocked the hyperglycemic effect of 5-HT in HP-fed crabs. Methiothepin reduced glycogen levels in the anterior gills of HP crabs and partially blocked the 5-HT-like posture. The injection of (3)H-5-HT identified specific binding sites in all the tissues studied and revealed that the binding can be influenced by the type of diet administered to the crabs. Incubation of the anterior and posterior gills with (3)H-5-HT and 5-HT confirmed the specificity of the binding sites. Both antagonists inhibited (3)H-5-HT binding. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of serotonin in the control of glucose homeostasis in crustaceans and provides evidences of at least two types of 5-HT binding sites in peripheral tissues. Further studies are necessary to identify the structure of these receptors and their signaling pathways. PMID:25810362

  12. Development of Ultrasound Tomography for Breast Imaging: Technical Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Duric, N; Littrup, P; Babkin, A; Chambers, D; Azevedo, S; Arkady, K; Pevzner, R; Tokarev, M; Holsapple, E

    2004-09-30

    Ultrasound imaging is widely used in medicine because of its benign characteristics and real-time capabilities. Physics theory suggests that the application of tomographic techniques may allow ultrasound imaging to reach its full potential as a diagnostic tool allowing it to compete with other tomographic modalities such as X-ray CT and MRI. This paper describes the construction and use of a prototype tomographic scanner and reports on the feasibility of implementing tomographic theory in practice and the potential of US tomography in diagnostic imaging. Data were collected with the prototype by scanning two types of phantoms and a cadaveric breast. A specialized suite of algorithms was developed and utilized to construct images of reflectivity and sound speed from the phantom data. The basic results can be summarized as follows: (1) A fast, clinically relevant US tomography scanner can be built using existing technology. (2) The spatial resolution, deduced from images of reflectivity, is 0.4 mm. The demonstrated 10 cm depth-of-field is superior to that of conventional ultrasound and the image contrast is improved through the reduction of speckle noise and overall lowering of the noise floor. (3) Images of acoustic properties such as sound speed suggest that it is possible to measure variations in the sound speed of 5 m/s. An apparent correlation with X-ray attenuation suggests that the sound speed can be used to discriminate between various types of soft tissue. (4) Ultrasound tomography has the potential to improve diagnostic imaging in relation to breast cancer detection.

  13. Microbubble-mediated ultrasound therapy: a review of its potential in cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ibsen, Stuart; Schutt, Carolyn E; Esener, Sadik

    2013-01-01

    The inherently toxic nature of chemotherapy drugs is essential for them to kill cancer cells but is also the source of the detrimental side effects experienced by patients. One strategy to reduce these side effects is to limit the healthy tissue exposure by encapsulating the drugs in a vehicle that demonstrates a very low leak rate in circulation while simultaneously having the potential for rapid release once inside the tumor. Designing a vehicle with these two opposing properties is the major challenge in the field of drug delivery. A triggering event is required to change the vehicle from its stable circulating state to its unstable release state. A unique mechanical actuation type trigger is possible by harnessing the size changes that occur when microbubbles interact with ultrasound. These mechanical actuations can burst liposomes and cell membranes alike allowing for rapid drug release and facilitating delivery into nearby cells. The tight focusing ability of the ultrasound to just a few cubic millimeters allows for precise control over the tissue location where the microbubbles destabilize the vehicles. This allows the ultrasound to highlight the tumor tissue and cause rapid drug release from any carrier present. Different vehicle designs have been demonstrated from carrying drug on just the surface of the microbubble itself to encapsulating the microbubble along with the drug within a liposome. In the future, nanoparticles may extend the circulation half-life of these ultrasound triggerable drug-delivery vehicles by acting as nucleation sites of ultrasound-induced mechanical actuation. In addition to the drug delivery capability, the microbubble size changes can also be used to create imaging contrast agents that could allow the internal chemical environment of a tumor to be studied to help improve the diagnosis and detection of cancer. The ability to attain truly tumor-specific release from circulating drug-delivery vehicles is an exciting future prospect to reduce chemotherapy side effects while increasing drug effectiveness. PMID:23667309

  14. Ultrasound elastography for imaging tendons and muscles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is a recently developed ultrasound-based method which allows the qualitative or quantitative evaluation of the mechanical properties of tissue. Strain (compression) ultrasound elastography is the commonest technique performed by applying mild compression with the hand-held transducer to create real-time strain distribution maps, which are color-coded and superimposed on the B-mode images. There is increasing evidence that ultrasound elastography can be used in the investigation of muscle, tendon and soft tissue disease in the clinical practice, as a supplementary tool to conventional ultrasound examination. Based on preliminary data, potential clinical applications include early diagnosis, staging, and guiding interventions musculotendinous and neuromuscular disease as well as monitoring disease during rehabilitation. Ultrasound elastography could also be used for research into the biomechanics and pathophysiology of musculotendinous disease. Despite the great interest in the technique, there is still limited evidence in the literature and there are several technical issues which limit the reproducibility of the method, including differences in quantification methods, artefacts, limitations and variation in the application of the technique by different users. This review presents the published evidence on musculoskeletal applications of strain elastography, discusses the technical issues and future perspectives of this method and emphasizes the need for standardization and further research.

  15. Nucleic acid delivery with microbubbles and ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Rychak, Joshua J.; Klibanov, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based therapy is a growing field of drug delivery research. Although ultrasound has been suggested to enhance transfection decades ago, it took a combination of ultrasound with nucleic acid carrier systems (microbubbles, liposomes, polyplexes, viral carriers) to achieve reasonable nucleic acid delivery efficacy. Microbubbles serve as foci for local deposition of ultrasound energy near the target cell, and greatly enhance sonoporation. Major advantage of this approach is in the minimal transfection in the non-insonated non-target tissues. Microbubbles can be simply co-administered with the nucleic acid carrier or can be modified to carry nucleic acid themselves. Liposomes with embedded gas or gas precursor particles can also be used to carry nucleic acid, release and deliver it by the ultrasound trigger. Successful testing in a wide variety of animal models (myocardium, solid tumors, skeletal muscle, pancreas) proves the potential usefulness of this technique for nucleic acid drug delivery. PMID:24486388

  16. MR-Guided Transcranial Focused Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Aubry, Jean-François; Tanter, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    Previous chapters introduced the ability of using focused ultrasound to ablate tissues. It has led to various clinical applications in the treatment of uterine fibroid, prostate or liver cancers. Nevertheless, treating the brain non-invasively with focused ultrasound has been considered beyond reach for almost a century: The skull bone protects the brain from mechanical injuries, but it also reflects and refracts ultrasound, making it difficult to target the brain with focused ultrasound. Fortunately, aberration correction techniques have been developed recently and thermal lesioning in the thalamus has been achieved clinically. This chapter introduces the aberration effect of the skull bone and how it can be corrected non-invasively. It also presents the latest clinical results obtained with thermal ablation and introduces novel non-thermal approaches that could revolutionize brain therapy in the future. PMID:26486334

  17. Automated whole breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Stuart S

    2014-05-01

    Bilateral whole breast (screening) ultrasound has been well established in multiple single- and multi-institution published studies as a valuable adjunct to mammography screening for early detection of breast cancer. However, implementation of screening breast ultrasound programs has been limited and has met with resistance because of the number of potential false positives generated by ultrasound screening, and the lack of available personnel to perform the examination. Automated breast ultrasound, which has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in whole-breast ultrasound screening, is a potential option for providing breast ultrasound screening on a widespread basis. PMID:24792655

  18. Ultrasound Annual, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 edition of Ultrasound Annual features a state-of-the-art assessment of real-time ultrasound technology and a look at improvements in real-time equipment. Chapters discuss important new obstetric applications of ultrasound in measuring fetal umbilical vein blood flow and monitoring ovarian follicular development in vivo and in vitro fertilization. Other topics covered include transrectal prostate ultrasound using a linear array system; ultrasound of the common bile duct; ultrasound in tropical diseases; prenatal diagnosis of craniospinal anomalies; scrotal ultrasonography; opthalmic ultrasonography; and sonography of the upper abdominal venous system.

  19. Cavitation methods in therapeutic ultrasound : techniques, mechanisms, and system design

    E-print Network

    Sokka, Shunmugavelu D. (Shunmugavelu Doraivelu), 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Focused ultrasound is currently being developed as a non-invasive thermal ablation technique for benign and cancerous tumors in several organ systems. Although these therapies are designed to ablate tissue purely by thermal ...

  20. A Review of Shearwave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV) and its Applications

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Matthew W.; Chen, Shigao; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of tissue elasticity has emerged as an important advance in medical imaging and tissue characterization. However, soft tissue is inherently a viscoelastic material. One way to characterize the viscoelastic material properties of a material is to measure shear wave propagation velocities within the material at different frequencies and use the dispersion of the velocities, or variation with frequency, to solve for the material properties. Shearwave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV) is an ultrasound-based technique that uses this feature to characterize the viscoelastic nature of soft tissue. This method has been used to measure the shear elasticity and viscosity in various types of soft tissues including skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, liver, kidney, prostate, and arterial vessels. This versatile technique provides measurements of viscoelastic material properties with high spatial and temporal resolution, which can be used for assessing these properties in normal and pathologic tissues. The goals of this paper are to 1) give an overview of viscoelasticity and shear wave velocity dispersion, 2) provide a history of the development of the SDUV method, and 3) survey applications for SDUV that have been previously reported. PMID:22866026

  1. Calibration and Evaluation of Ultrasound Thermography Using Infrared Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Deng, Cheri X

    2016-02-01

    Real-time monitoring of the spatiotemporal evolution of tissue temperature is important to ensure safe and effective treatment in thermal therapies including hyperthermia and thermal ablation. Ultrasound thermography has been proposed as a non-invasive technique for temperature measurement, and accurate calibration of the temperature-dependent ultrasound signal changes against temperature is required. Here we report a method that uses infrared thermography for calibration and validation of ultrasound thermography. Using phantoms and cardiac tissue specimens subjected to high-intensity focused ultrasound heating, we simultaneously acquired ultrasound and infrared imaging data from the same surface plane of a sample. The commonly used echo time shift-based method was chosen to compute ultrasound thermometry. We first correlated the ultrasound echo time shifts with infrared-measured temperatures for material-dependent calibration and found that the calibration coefficient was positive for fat-mimicking phantom (1.49 ± 0.27) but negative for tissue-mimicking phantom (-0.59 ± 0.08) and cardiac tissue (-0.69 ± 0.18°C-mm/ns). We then obtained the estimation error of the ultrasound thermometry by comparing against the infrared-measured temperature and revealed that the error increased with decreased size of the heated region. Consistent with previous findings, the echo time shifts were no longer linearly dependent on temperature beyond 45°C-50°C in cardiac tissues. Unlike previous studies in which thermocouples or water bath techniques were used to evaluate the performance of ultrasound thermography, our results indicate that high-resolution infrared thermography is a useful tool that can be applied to evaluate and understand the limitations of ultrasound thermography methods. PMID:26547634

  2. Monitoring Radiofrequency Ablation Using Real-Time Ultrasound Nakagami Imaging Combined with Frequency and Temporal Compounding Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Shuicai; Wang, Chiao-Yin; Ma, Hsiang-Yang; Lin, Chung-Chih; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Gas bubbles induced during the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of tissues can affect the detection of ablation zones (necrosis zone or thermal lesion) during ultrasound elastography. To resolve this problem, our previous study proposed ultrasound Nakagami imaging for detecting thermal-induced bubble formation to evaluate ablation zones. To prepare for future applications, this study (i) created a novel algorithmic scheme based on the frequency and temporal compounding of Nakagami imaging for enhanced ablation zone visualization, (ii) integrated the proposed algorithm into a clinical scanner to develop a real-time Nakagami imaging system for monitoring RFA, and (iii) investigated the applicability of Nakagami imaging to various types of tissues. The performance of the real-time Nakagami imaging system in visualizing RFA-induced ablation zones was validated by measuring porcine liver (n = 18) and muscle tissues (n = 6). The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm can operate on a standard clinical ultrasound scanner to monitor RFA in real time. The Nakagami imaging system effectively monitors RFA-induced ablation zones in liver tissues. However, because tissue properties differ, the system cannot visualize ablation zones in muscle fibers. In the future, real-time Nakagami imaging should be focused on the RFA of the liver and is suggested as an alternative monitoring tool when advanced elastography is unavailable or substantial bubbles exist in the ablation zone. PMID:25658424

  3. Phenylalanine derived cyanogenic diglucosides from Eucalyptus camphora and their abundances in relation to ontogeny and tissue type.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Elizabeth H; Goodger, Jason Q D; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Frisch, Tina; Olsen, Carl Erik; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Woodrow, Ian E

    2011-12-01

    The cyanogenic glucoside profile of Eucalyptus camphora was investigated in the course of plant ontogeny. In addition to amygdalin, three phenylalanine-derived cyanogenic diglucosides characterized by unique linkage positions between the two glucose moieties were identified in E. camphora tissues. This is the first time that multiple cyanogenic diglucosides have been shown to co-occur in any plant species. Two of these cyanogenic glucosides have not previously been reported and are named eucalyptosin B and eucalyptosin C. Quantitative and qualitative differences in total cyanogenic glucoside content were observed across different stages of whole plant and tissue ontogeny, as well as within different tissue types. Seedlings of E. camphora produce only the cyanogenic monoglucoside prunasin, and genetically based variation was observed in the age at which seedlings initiate prunasin biosynthesis. Once initiated, total cyanogenic glucoside concentration increased throughout plant ontogeny with cyanogenic diglucoside production initiated in saplings and reaching a maximum in flower buds of adult trees. The role of multiple cyanogenic glucosides in E. camphora is unknown, but may include enhanced plant defense and/or a primary role in nitrogen storage and transport. PMID:21945721

  4. Basis of ultrasound imaging and the main artifacts in bovine medicine.

    PubMed

    Blond, Laurent; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2009-11-01

    Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive and readily available diagnostic modality that meets increasing applications in bovine medicine. This article presents the basis of physical principles of this imaging modality based on the interaction of ultrasound with the tissues, different modes of examination, and ways to obtain good quality images. The main artifacts that may be encountered during ultrasound imaging are also described. Finally, Doppler ultrasound is briefly explained. This article aims to help practitioners perform an optimal ultrasonographic examination. PMID:19825433

  5. Use of Discriminatory Probes for Strain Typing of Formalin-Fixed, Rabies Virus-Infected Tissues by In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Nadin-Davis, Susan A.; Sheen, Mary; Wandeler, Alexander I.

    2003-01-01

    An in situ hybridization (ISH) method has been developed to overcome difficulties encountered in the viral typing of formalin-fixed rabies virus-infected brain tissue. Rabies viruses representative of all strains normally encountered in diagnostic submissions throughout Canada, including 3 strains of terrestrial hosts (arctic fox, western skunk, mid-Atlantic raccoon), 10 strains circulating in several bat reservoirs (BBCAN1 to BBCAN7, LACAN, SHCAN, and MYCAN), and the Evelyn-Rokitniki-Abelseth (ERA) strain, used as an oral vaccine for fox rabies control in Ontario, were targeted. Partial phosphoprotein gene fragments generated from reverse transcription (RT)-PCR products of specimens of each viral type were molecularly cloned and used to produce negative-sense digoxigenin-labeled RNA transcripts. Conditions permitting the use of these transcripts as strain-specific probes were optimized by blotting analyses with RT-PCR amplicons generated with representative rabies viruses and by ISH applied to mouse brains inoculated with these strains. The successful application of this methodology to two rabies virus-positive specimens that were also identified by traditional methods and the retrospective typing of two archival rabies virus-positive equine specimens is described. This technique provides a typing regimen for rabies virus isolates submitted in a form that is normally recalcitrant to alternate typing strategies. PMID:12958267

  6. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Downey, E D; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

    2013-11-01

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits in Angus beef cattle. Final antibody level and response to vaccination were based on neutralizing serum antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2). Calves were followed through development and the feedlot phase, with collection of yearling ultrasound (n=957), preharvest (n=762), and carcass (n=673) data. In this study, 48% of the animals were observed to have positively responded to the vaccine, as evidenced by higher final antibody levels compared to prevaccination antibody levels. Increased final antibody levels were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increased yearling weight and increased subcutaneous fat over the rump. An interaction between final antibody level and weaning time also was associated (P<0.05) with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and meat pH, with a favorable, negative relationship between final antibody and WBSF in calves weaned at initial vaccination. Overall antibody response by wean time interaction had a significant (P<0.05) association with ADG and meat pH, with calves weaned at initial vaccination having a favorable, positive relationship between overall antibody response and ADG. Under both the final antibody and overall antibody response models, animals weaned at initial vaccination had significantly (P<0.05) lower intramuscular fat at yearling time and conversely higher harvest weight than animals weaned at the booster vaccination. When antibody response was grouped (none, low, high), a significant interaction (P<0.05) between antibody response group and weaning time was identified for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW. Animals weaned at the initial vaccination in the high antibody response group had the advantage for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW compared to animals in the high-response group that were weaned at booster vaccination. Linear increases in antibody response generally did not have negative effects on performance or carcass quality traits in finished cattle (P>0.05). Therefore, producers should not be concerned about decreased production or quality attributes as a result of developing a robust antibody response to vaccination for BVDV2 in beef cattle. PMID:24045477

  7. Acoustic Radiation Force Elasticity Imaging in Diagnostic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Joshua R.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.; Palmeri, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    The development of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods has been the focus of intense research activity since the mid-1990s. In characterizing the mechanical properties of soft tissues, these techniques image an entirely new subset of tissue properties that cannot be derived with conventional ultrasound techniques. Clinically, tissue elasticity is known to be associated with pathological condition and with the ability to image these features in vivo, elasticity imaging methods may prove to be invaluable tools for the diagnosis and/or monitoring of disease. This review focuses on ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods that generate an acoustic radiation force to induce tissue displacements. These methods can be performed non-invasively during routine exams to provide either qualitative or quantitative metrics of tissue elasticity. A brief overview of soft tissue mechanics relevant to elasticity imaging is provided, including a derivation of acoustic radiation force, and an overview of the various acoustic radiation force elasticity imaging methods. PMID:23549529

  8. List of gene variants developed for cancer cells from nine tissue types

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists have developed a comprehensive list of genetic variants for each of the types of cells that comprise what is known as the NCI-60 cell line collection. This new list adds depth to the most frequently studied human tumor cell lines in cancer

  9. Medical Ultrasound Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Explains the basic principles of ultrasound using everyday physics. Topics include the generation of ultrasound, basic interactions with material, and the measurement of blood flow using the Doppler effect. (Author/MM)

  10. Characterization of vascular strain during in-vitro angioplasty with high-resolution ultrasound speckle tracking

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ultrasound elasticity imaging provides biomechanical and elastic properties of vascular tissue, with the potential to distinguish between tissue motion and tissue strain. To validate the ability of ultrasound elasticity imaging to predict structurally defined physical changes in tissue, strain measurement patterns during angioplasty in four bovine carotid artery pathology samples were compared to the measured physical characteristics of the tissue specimens. Methods Using computational image-processing techniques, the circumferences of each bovine artery specimen were obtained from ultrasound and pathologic data. Results Ultrasound-strain-based and pathology-based arterial circumference measurements were correlated with an R2 value of 0.94 (p = 0.03). The experimental elasticity imaging results confirmed the onset of deformation of an angioplasty procedure by indicating a consistent inflection point where vessel fibers were fully unfolded and vessel wall strain initiated. Conclusion These results validate the ability of ultrasound elasticity imaging to measure localized mechanical changes in vascular tissue. PMID:20727172

  11. Role of inflammatory factors and adipose tissue in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Part I: Rheumatoid adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kontny, Ewa; Zaniewicz-Kaniewska, Katarzyna; Prohorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Saied, Fadhil; Ma?li?ski, W?odzimierz

    2013-01-01

    For many years, it was thought that synovial cells and chondrocytes are the only sources of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors found in the synovial fluid in patients suffering from osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Currently, it is more and more frequently indicated that adipose tissue plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of these diseases as well as that a range of pathological processes that take place in the adipose tissue, synovial membrane and cartilage are interconnected. The adipose tissue is considered a specialized form of the connective tissue containing various types of cells which produce numerous biologically active factors. The latest studies reveal that, similarly to the synovial membrane, articular adipose tissue may take part in the local inflammatory response and affect the metabolism of the cartilage and subchondral osseous tissue. In in vitro conditions, the explants of this tissue obtained from patients suffering from osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis produce similar pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines to the explants of the synovial membrane. At this stage already, knowledge translates into imaging diagnostics. In radiological images, the shadowing of the periarticular soft tissues may not only reflect synovial membrane pathologies or joint effusion, but may also suggest inflammatory edema of the adipose tissue. On ultrasound examinations, abnormal presentation of the adipose tissue, i.e. increased echogenicity and hyperemia, may indicate its inflammation. Such images have frequently been obtained during ultrasound scanning and have been interpreted as inflammation, edema, hypertrophy or fibrosis of the adipose tissue. At present, when the knowledge concerning pathogenic mechanisms is taken into account, abnormal echogenicity and hyperemia of the adipose tissue may be considered as a proof of its inflammation. In the authors’ own practice, the inflammation of the adipose tissue usually accompanies synovitis. However, we also diagnose cases in which the inflammatory process in the joint is no longer active, but abnormal vascularity still persists in the adipose tissue. There are also cases where abnormal adipose tissue is the only sign of inflammation. Therefore, ultrasound examination confirms the existence of the additional site of inflammation, i.e. the adipose tissue which should be evaluated at the stage of initial diagnosis and during follow-up, also in terms of remission. PMID:26674614

  12. Cardiovascular applications of therapeutic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Nazer, Babak; Gerstenfeld, Edward P; Hata, Akiko; Crum, Lawrence A; Matula, Thomas J

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasound (US) has gained widespread use in diagnostic cardiovascular applications. At amplitudes and frequencies typical of diagnostic use, its biomechanical effects on tissue are largely negligible. However, these parameters can be altered to harness US's thermal and non-thermal effects for therapeutic indications. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ECWT) are two therapeutic US modalities which have been investigated for treating cardiac arrhythmias and ischemic heart disease, respectively. Here, we review the biomechanical effects of HIFU and ECWT, their potential therapeutic mechanisms, and pre-clinical and clinical studies demonstrating their efficacy and safety limitations. Furthermore, we discuss other potential clinical applications of therapeutic US and areas in which future research is needed. PMID:24297498

  13. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional tissue-type imaging of the prostate based on ultrasonic spectrum analysis and neural network classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feleppa, Ernest J.; Fair, William R.; Liu, Tian; Kalisz, Andrew; Gnadt, William; Lizzi, Frederick L.; Balaji, K. C.; Porter, Christopher R.; Tsai, Harold

    2000-04-01

    Spectrum analysis of ultrasonic radio-frequency echo signals has proven to be an effective means of characterizing tissues of the eye and liver, thrombi, plaque, etc. Such characterization can be of value in detecting, differentiating, and monitoring disease. In some clinical applications, linear methods of tissue classification cannot adequately differentiate among the various manifestations of cancerous and non-cancerous tissue; in these cases, non-linear methods, such as neural-networks, are required for tissue typing. Combining spectrum-analysis methods for quantitatively characterizing tissue properties with neural-network methods for classifying tissue, a powerful new means of guiding biopsies, targeting therapy, and monitoring treatment may be available. Current studies are investigating potential applications of these methods that use novel tissue-typing images presented in two and three dimensions. Results to date show significant sensitivity improvements of possible benefit in cancer detection and effective tissue-type imaging that promise improved means of planning and monitoring treatment of prostate cancer.

  14. Elastofibroma dorsi: ultrasound pattern in three patients.

    PubMed

    Solivetti, F M; Bacaro, D; Di Luca Sidozzi, A; Cecconi, P

    2003-12-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare benign tumor with a prevalence in the female population. The tumor is composed of adipose and fibrous tissue. It is typically localized at the tip of the scapular and is more frequently bilateral. Even if there are only very few reports on this topic, the incidence of the tumor seems to be less rare than expected. Elastofibroma dorsi was identified in 1961 and the first study using diagnostic ultrasound technique was published in 1996, however, since then no other major work has been produced. The purpose of the paper is to present three cases of elastofibroma dorsi, all studied by ultrasound imaging, including color and power Doppler, and by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Furthermore, in one case i.v. contrast media (Levovist) was used, and in two cases a CT and MRI evaluation was also made. Surgical excision was not performed in any of the cases. The relevant follow up was performed by clinical and ultrasound tests. In all the cases the ultrasound pattern of the elastofibroma dorsi was very similar to the surrounding muscular tissue, and neither a clear cleavage surface nor a specific vascular pattern could be evidenced. The tumor was very difficult to define from the surrounding tissue, except for a more evident coarse pattern and the same happened for the CT and MR, where a layered pattern of fatty tissue was noted. In this small cohort the tumor was mainly monolateral. The ultrasound investigation, integrated with color and power Doppler permitted a correct diagnosis, which was confirmed by the fine needle biopsy. Therefore, the less expensive ultrasound diagnosis, as a major method of screening for elastofibroma dorsi, would seem to be a reasonable proposal. PMID:15053298

  15. Integrating Proteomics and Enzyme Kinetics Reveals Tissue-Specific Types of the Glycolytic and Gluconeogenic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Wi?niewski, Jacek R; Gizak, Agnieszka; Rakus, Dariusz

    2015-08-01

    Glycolysis is the core metabolic pathway supplying energy to cells. Whereas the vast majority of studies focus on specific aspects of the process, global analyses characterizing simultaneously all enzymes involved in the process are scarce. Here, we demonstrate that quantitative label- and standard-free proteomics allows accurate determination of titers of metabolic enzymes and enables simultaneous measurements of titers and maximal enzymatic activities (Amax) of all glycolytic enzymes and the gluconeogenic fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase in mouse brain, liver and muscle. Despite occurrence of tissue-specific isoenzymes bearing different kinetic properties, the enzyme titers often correlated well with the Amax values. To provide a more general picture of energy metabolism, we analyzed titers of the enzymes in additional 7 mouse organs and in human cells. Across the analyzed samples, we identified two basic profiles: a "fast glucose uptake" one in brain and heart, and a "gluconeogenic rich" one occurring in liver. In skeletal muscles and other organs, we found intermediate profiles. Obtained data highlighted the glucose-flux-limiting role of hexokinase which activity was always 10- to 100-fold lower than the average activity of all other glycolytic enzymes. A parallel determination of enzyme titers and maximal enzymatic activities allowed determination of kcat values without enzyme purification. Results of our in-depth proteomic analysis of the mouse organs did not support the concepts of regulation of glycolysis by lysine acetylation. PMID:26080680

  16. Characterization of Tissue Tropism Determinants of Adeno-Associated Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Bernd; Xiao, Weidong

    2003-01-01

    Muscle is an attractive target for gene delivery because of its mass and because vectors can be delivered in a noninvasive fashion. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been shown to be effective for muscle-targeted gene transfer. Recent progress in characterization of AAV serotype 1 (AAV1) and AAV6 demonstrated that these two AAV serotypes are far more efficient in transducing muscle than is the traditionally used AAV2. Since all cis elements are identical in these vectors, the potential determinants for their differences in transducing muscle appear to be located within the AAV capsid proteins. In the present study, a series of AAV capsid mutants were generated to identify the major regions affecting AAV transduction efficiency in muscle. Replacement of amino acids 350 to 736 of AAV2 VP1 with the corresponding amino acids from VP1 of AAV1 resulted in a hybrid vector that behaved very similarly to AAV1 in vitro and in vivo in muscle. Characterization of additional mutants carrying smaller regions of the AAV1 VP1 amino acid sequence in the AAV2 capsid protein suggested that amino acids 350 to 430 of VP1 function as a major tissue tropism determinant. Further analysis showed that the heparin binding domain and the major antigenic determinants in the AAV capsid region were not necessary for the efficiency of AAV1 transduction of muscle. PMID:12552020

  17. In-vitro quantification of rat liver viscoelasticity with shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-rong; Chen, Xin; Lin, Haoming; Zhang, Xinyu

    2013-01-01

    As a new imaging method for tissue mechanical properties, ultrasound elastography has always been the research focus in the field of medical ultrasound imaging ever since it has been proposed. This paper developed an ultrasound viscoelasticity measurement system based on shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV). This system applied acoustic radiation force to excite harmonic vibration in soft tissue. The propagation of the shear wave induced by the vibration was detected and the tissue viscoelasticity properties were calculated. Based on this system, rat livers were measured in vitro. The results shows that the system can measure the viscoelasticity reliably, offering a potential alternative to diagnosis of liver fibrosis. PMID:24110087

  18. Ultrasound for molecular imaging and therapy in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Osamu F.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, molecularly-targeted contrast enhanced ultrasound (ultrasound molecular imaging) has attracted significant attention in preclinical research of cancer diagnostic and therapy. Potential applications for ultrasound molecular imaging run the gamut from early detection and characterization of malignancies to monitoring treatment responses and guiding therapies. There may also be a role for ultrasound contrast agents for improved delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and gene therapies across biological barriers. Currently, a first Phase 0 clinical trial in patients with prostate cancer assesses toxicity and feasibility of ultrasound molecular imaging using contrast agents targeted at the angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2). This mini-review highlights recent advances and potential applications of ultrasound molecular imaging and ultrasound-guided therapy in cancer. PMID:23061039

  19. Composite ultrasound imaging apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Morimoto, Alan K. (Albuquerque, NM); Bow, Jr., Wallace J. (Albuquerque, NM); Strong, David Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An imaging apparatus and method for use in presenting composite two dimensional and three dimensional images from individual ultrasonic frames. A cross-sectional reconstruction is applied by using digital ultrasound frames, transducer orientation and a known center. Motion compensation, rank value filtering, noise suppression and tissue classification are utilized to optimize the composite image.

  20. Composite ultrasound imaging apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J. Jr.; Strong, D.S.; Dickey, F.M.

    1998-09-15

    An imaging apparatus and method for use in presenting composite two dimensional and three dimensional images from individual ultrasonic frames. A cross-sectional reconstruction is applied by using digital ultrasound frames, transducer orientation and a known center. Motion compensation, rank value filtering, noise suppression and tissue classification are utilized to optimize the composite image. 37 figs.

  1. Ultrasound mediated nanoparticle drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullin, Lee B.

    Ultrasound is not only a powerful diagnostic tool, but also a promising therapeutic technology that can be used to improve localized drug delivery. Microbubble contrast agents are micron sized encapsulated gas filled bubbles that are administered intravenously. Originally developed to enhance ultrasound images, microbubbles are highly echogenic due to the gas core that provides a detectable impedance difference from the surrounding medium. The core also allows for controlled response of the microbubbles to ultrasound pulses. Microbubbles can be pushed using acoustic radiation force and ruptured using high pressures. Destruction of microbubbles can increase permeability at the cellular and vascular level, which can be advantageous for drug delivery. Advances in drug delivery methods have been seen with the introduction of nanoparticles, nanometer sized objects often carrying a drug payload. In chemotherapy, nanoparticles can deliver drugs to tumors while limiting systemic exposure due to abnormalities in tumor vasculature such large gaps between endothelial cells that allow nanoparticles to enter into the interstitial space; this is referred to as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, this effect may be overestimated in many tumors. Additionally, only a small percentage of the injected dose accumulates in the tumor, which most the nanoparticles accumulating in the liver and spleen. It is hypothesized that combining the acoustic activity of an ultrasound contrast agent with the high payload and extravasation ability of a nanoparticle, localized delivery to the tumor with reduced systemic toxicity can be achieved. This method can be accomplished by either loading nanoparticles onto the shell of the microbubble or through a coadministration method of both nanoparticles and microbubbles. The work presented in this dissertation utilizes novel and commercial nanoparticle formulations, combined with microbubbles and a variety of ultrasound systems. Ultrasound parameters are optimized to achieve maximum cell internalization of molecules and increased nanoparticle delivery to a cell layer on a coverslip. In-vivo studies demonstrate the possibility of using a lower dose of paclitaxel to slow tumor growth rates, increase doxorubicin concentration in tumor tissue, and enhance tumor delivery of fluorescent molecules through treatments that combine nanoparticles with ultrasound and microbubbles.

  2. A murine model of neurofibromatosis type 1 tibial pseudarthrosis featuring proliferative fibrous tissue and osteoclast-like cells.

    PubMed

    El-Hoss, Jad; Sullivan, Kate; Cheng, Tegan; Yu, Nicole Y C; Bobyn, Justin D; Peacock, Lauren; Mikulec, Kathy; Baldock, Paul; Alexander, Ian E; Schindeler, Aaron; Little, David G

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common genetic condition caused by mutations in the NF1 gene. Patients often suffer from tissue-specific lesions associated with local double-inactivation of NF1. In this study, we generated a novel fracture model to investigate the mechanism underlying congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) associated with NF1. We used a Cre-expressing adenovirus (AdCre) to inactivate Nf1 in vitro in cultured osteoprogenitors and osteoblasts, and in vivo in the fracture callus of Nf1(flox/flox) and Nf1(flox/-) mice. The effects of the presence of Nf1(null) cells were extensively examined. Cultured Nf1(null)-committed osteoprogenitors from neonatal calvaria failed to differentiate and express mature osteoblastic markers, even with recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) treatment. Similarly, Nf1(null)-inducible osteoprogenitors obtained from Nf1?MyoDnull mouse muscle were also unresponsive to rhBMP-2. In both closed and open fracture models in Nf1(flox/flox) and Nf1(flox/-) mice, local AdCre injection significantly impaired bone healing, with fracture union being <50% that of wild type controls. No significant difference was seen between Nf1(flox/flox) and Nf1(flox/-) mice. Histological analyses showed invasion of the Nf1(null) fractures by fibrous and highly proliferative tissue. Mean amounts of fibrous tissue were increased upward of 10-fold in Nf1(null) fractures and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) staining in closed fractures showed increased numbers of proliferating cells. In Nf1(null) fractures, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) cells were frequently observed within the fibrous tissue, not lining a bone surface. In summary, we report that local Nf1 deletion in a fracture callus is sufficient to impair bony union and recapitulate histological features of clinical CPT. Cell culture findings support the concept that Nf1 double inactivation impairs early osteoblastic differentiation. This model provides valuable insight into the pathobiology of the disease, and will be helpful for trialing therapeutic compounds. PMID:21956219

  3. Artifacts in ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Kremkau, F W; Taylor, K J

    1986-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging artifacts of acoustic origin relating to resolution, propagation path, and attenuation are reviewed. Lateral and axial resolution limitations are artifactual in nature since a failure to resolve means a loss of detail and two adjacent structures may be visualized as one. Apparent resolution close to the transducer (speckle) is not directly related to tissue texture but is a result of interference effects from the distribution of scatterers in the tissue. Reverberation produces a set of equally spaced artifactual echoes distal to the real reflectors. The mirror image artifact is the presentation of objects that are present on one side of a strong reflector, appearing on the other side as well. Shadowing and enhancement are useful artifacts for determining the nature of masses. Enhancement results from low attenuation objects in the sound path while shadowing results from strongly reflecting or strongly attenuating objects. Additional artifacts include section thickness, refraction, multipath, side lobe, grating lobe, focal enhancement, comet tail, ring down, speed error, and range ambiguity. PMID:3514956

  4. Lymph Explorer: A new GUI using 3D high-frequency quantitative ultrasound methods to

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    . Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) permits characterization of tissue microstructure using system-probability estimates and classification performance was assessed using ROC methods. For gastrointestinal nodes tissue microstructure using user- and system-independent estimates. In our studies, freshly-excised lymph

  5. Role of tissue transglutaminase type 2 in calbindin-D28k interaction with ataxin-1

    PubMed Central

    Vig, P.J.S.; Wei, J.; Shao, Q.; Hebert, M.D.; Subramony, S.H.; Sutton, L.T.

    2007-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia-1 (SCA1) is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine repeats within the disease protein, ataxin-1. The mutant ataxin-1 precipitates as large intranuclear aggregates in the affected neurons. These aggregates may protect neurons from mutant protein and/or trigger neuronal degeneration by encouraging recruitment of other essential proteins. Our previous studies have shown that calcium binding protein calbindin-D28k (CaB) associated with SCA1 pathogenesis is recruited to ataxin-1 aggregates in Purkinje cells of SCA1 mice. Since our recent findings suggest that tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) may be involved in cross-linking and aggregation of ataxin-1, the present study was initiated to determine if TG2 has any role in CaB-ataxin-1 interaction. The guinea pig TG2 covalently cross-linked purified rat brain CaB. Time dependent progressive increase in aggregation produced large multimers, which stayed on top of the gel. CaB interaction with ataxin-1 was studied using HeLa cell lysates expressing GFP and GFP tagged ataxin-1 with normal and expanded polyglutamine repeats (Q2, Q30 and Q82). The reaction products were analyzed by Western blots using anti- polyglutamine, CaB or GFP antibodies. CaB interacted with ataxin-1 independent of TG2 as the protein-protein cross-linker DSS stabilized CaB-ataxin-1 complex. TG2 cross-linked CaB preferentially with Q82 ataxin-1. The cross-linking was inhibited with EGTA or TG2 inhibitor cystamine. The present data indicate that CaB may be a TG2 substrate. In addition, aggregates of mutant ataxin-1 may recruit CaB via TG2 mediated covalent cross-linking, further supporting the argument that ataxin-1 aggregates may be toxic to neurons. PMID:17442486

  6. [Ultrasound diagnosis (sonography). Historical development--physical principles--clinical use].

    PubMed

    Thür, L

    1991-06-01

    Ultrasound generation is known now since about 150 years. Echo sounding has been used in first world war to fix the position of submarines, now we apply the echo sounding method in medical imaging to representate and to distinguish organs and tissue structures. This requires good knowledge about physical and technological properties in ultrasonics and about tissue interaction with ultrasound waves. PMID:1927008

  7. Isolation, in vitro culture and identification of a new type of mesenchymal stem cell derived from fetal bovine lung tissues

    PubMed Central

    HU, PENGFEI; PU, YABIN; LI, XIAYUN; ZHU, ZHIQIANG; ZHAO, YUHUA; GUAN, WEIJUN; MA, YUEHUI

    2015-01-01

    Lung-derived mesenchymal stem cells (LMSCs) are considered to be important in lung tissue repair and regenerative processes. However, the biological characteristics and differentiation potential of LMSCs remain to be elucidated. In the present study, fetal lung-derived mesenchymal stem cells (FLMSCs) were isolated from fetal bovine lung tissues by collagenase digestion. The in vitro culture conditions were optimized and stabilized and the self-renewal ability and differentiation potential were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the FLMSCs were morphologically consistent with fibroblasts, were able to be cultured and passaged for at least 33 passages and the cell morphology and proliferative ability were stable during the first 10 passages. In addition, FLMSCs were found to express CD29, CD44, CD73 and CD166, however, they did not express hematopoietic cell specific markers, including CD34, CD45 and BOLA-DR?. The growth kinetics of FLMSCs consisted of a lag phase, a logarithmic phase and a plateau phase, and as the passages increased, the proliferative ability of cells gradually decreased. The majority of FLMSCs were in G0/G1 phase. Following osteogenic induction, FLMSCs were positive for the expression of osteopontin and collagen type I ?2. Following neurogenic differentiation, the cells were morphologically consistent with neuronal cells and positive for microtubule-associated protein 2 and nestin expression. It was concluded that the isolated FLMSCs exhibited typical characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells and that the culture conditions were suitable for their proliferation and the maintenance of stemness. The present study illustrated the potential application of lung tissue as an adult stem cell source for regenerative therapies. PMID:26016556

  8. Insulin-independent reversal of type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice with brown adipose tissue transplant.

    PubMed

    Gunawardana, Subhadra C; Piston, David W

    2015-06-15

    Traditional therapies for type 1 diabetes (T1D) involve insulin replacement or islet/pancreas transplantation and have numerous limitations. Our previous work demonstrated the ability of embryonic brown adipose tissue (BAT) transplants to establish normoglycemia without insulin in chemically induced models of insulin-deficient diabetes. The current study sought to extend the technique to an autoimmune-mediated T1D model and document the underlying mechanisms. In nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, BAT transplants result in complete reversal of T1D associated with rapid and long-lasting euglycemia. In addition, BAT transplants placed prior to the onset of diabetes on NOD mice can prevent or significantly delay the onset of diabetes. As with streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic models, euglycemia is independent of insulin and strongly correlates with decrease of inflammation and increase of adipokines. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is the first hormone to increase following BAT transplants. Adipose tissue of transplant recipients consistently express IGF-I compared with little or no expression in controls, and plasma IGF-I levels show a direct negative correlation with glucose, glucagon, and inflammatory cytokines. Adipogenic and anti-inflammatory properties of IGF-I may stimulate regeneration of new healthy white adipose tissue, which in turn secretes hypoglycemic adipokines that substitute for insulin. IGF-I can also directly decrease blood glucose through activating insulin receptor. These data demonstrate the potential for insulin-independent reversal of autoimmune-induced T1D with BAT transplants and implicate IGF-I as a likely mediator in the resulting equilibrium. PMID:25898954

  9. Quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging: a review of sources of variability

    PubMed Central

    Tang, M.-X.; Mulvana, H.; Gauthier, T.; Lim, A. K. P.; Cosgrove, D. O.; Eckersley, R. J.; Stride, E.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound provides a valuable tool for medical diagnosis offering real-time imaging with excellent spatial resolution and low cost. The advent of microbubble contrast agents has provided the additional ability to obtain essential quantitative information relating to tissue vascularity, tissue perfusion and even endothelial wall function. This technique has shown great promise for diagnosis and monitoring in a wide range of clinical conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer, with considerable potential benefits in terms of patient care. A key challenge of this technique, however, is the existence of significant variations in the imaging results, and the lack of understanding regarding their origin. The aim of this paper is to review the potential sources of variability in the quantification of tissue perfusion based on microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound images. These are divided into the following three categories: (i) factors relating to the scanner setting, which include transmission power, transmission focal depth, dynamic range, signal gain and transmission frequency, (ii) factors relating to the patient, which include body physical differences, physiological interaction of body with bubbles, propagation and attenuation through tissue, and tissue motion, and (iii) factors relating to the microbubbles, which include the type of bubbles and their stability, preparation and injection and dosage. It has been shown that the factors in all the three categories can significantly affect the imaging results and contribute to the variations observed. How these factors influence quantitative imaging is explained and possible methods for reducing such variations are discussed. PMID:22866229

  10. Delayed-type Necrosis after Soft-tissue Augmentation with Hyaluronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Klotz De Almeida Balassiano, Laila; Roos Mariano Da Rocha, Camila; Barbosa De Sousa Padilha, Carolina; Martinezt Torrado, Carolina; Teixeira Da Silva, Roberta; Carlos Regazzi Avelleira, João

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of dermal fillers, specifically the use of hyaluronic acid, can be explained by their effectiveness and versatility as well as their favorable safety profiles. Nevertheless, early and late complications with varying levels of severity may occur. The incidence of complications is low and the majority of adverse events are mild (edema, erythema, and local ecchymosis) and of limited duration. However, more severe events, such as ischemia and necrosis, may occur. The symptoms of ischemia can occur immediately after the injection or several hours after the procedure. Here, the authors report three cases of necrosis after hyaluronic acid injection with the first symptoms presenting only several hours after the procedure. The patients were treated immediately after the diagnosis. The aim of this review is to communicate the possibility of the delayed-type presentation of necrosis, present the signs and symptoms that lead to early diagnosis, and review the treatment possibilities of this severe complication. PMID:26705447

  11. Microbubbles in Ultrasound-Triggered Drug and Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hernot, Sophie; Klibanov, Alexander L.

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents, in the form of gas-filled microbubbles, are becoming popular in perfusion monitoring; they are employed as molecular imaging agents. Microbubbles are manufactured from biocompatible materials, they can be injected intravenously, and some are approved for clinical use. Microbubbles can be destroyed by ultrasound irradiation. This destruction phenomenon can be applied to targeted drug delivery and enhancement of drug action. The ultrasonic field can be focused at the target tissues and organs; thus, selectivity of the treatment can be improved, reducing undesirable side effects. Microbubbles enhance ultrasound energy deposition in the tissues and serve as cavitation nuclei, increasing intracellular drug delivery. DNA delivery and successful tissue transfection is observed in the areas of the body where ultrasound is applied after intravascular administration of microbubbles and plasmid DNA. Accelerated blood clot dissolution in the areas of insonation by cooperative action of thrombolytic agents and microbubbles is demonstrated in several clinical trials. PMID:18486268

  12. d Original Contribution MODEL-BASED CORRECTION OF TISSUE COMPRESSION FOR TRACKED

    E-print Network

    Miga, Michael I.

    d Original Contribution MODEL-BASED CORRECTION OF TISSUE COMPRESSION FOR TRACKED ULTRASOUND IN SOFT) Abstract--Acquisition of ultrasound data negatively affects image registration accuracy during image. The ultrasound probe geometry is used to provide boundary conditions to a biomechanical model of the tissue

  13. Type II Keratins Are Phosphorylated on a Unique Motif during Stress and Mitosis in Tissues and Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Toivola, Diana M.; Zhou, Qin; English, Luc S.; Omary, M. Bishr

    2002-01-01

    Epithelial cell keratins make up the type I (K9–K20) and type II (K1–K8) intermediate filament proteins. In glandular epithelia, K8 becomes phosphorylated on S73 (71LLpSPL) in human cultured cells and tissues during stress, apoptosis, and mitosis. Of all known proteins, the context of the K8 S73 motif (LLS/TPL) is unique to type II keratins and is conserved in epidermal K5/K6, esophageal K4, and type II hair keratins, except that serine is replaced by threonine. Because knowledge regarding epidermal and esophageal keratin regulation is limited, we tested whether K4–K6 are phosphorylated on the LLTPL motif. K5 and K6 become phosphorylated in vitro on threonine by the stress-activated kinase p38. Site-specific anti-phosphokeratin antibodies to LLpTPL were generated, which demonstrated negligible basal K4–K6 phosphorylation. In contrast, treatment of primary keratinocytes and other cultured cells, and ex vivo skin and esophagus cultures, with serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors causes a dramatic increase in K4–K6 LLpTPL phosphorylation. This phosphorylation is accompanied by keratin solubilization, filament reorganization, and collapse. K5/K6 LLTPL phosphorylation occurs in vivo during mitosis and apoptosis induced by UV light or anisomycin, and in human psoriatic skin and squamous cell carcinoma. In conclusion, type II keratins of proliferating epithelia undergo phosphorylation at a unique and conserved motif as part of physiological mitotic and stress-related signals. PMID:12058054

  14. Concordance of human papillomavirus types detected on the surface and in the tissue of genital lesions in men.

    PubMed

    Anic, Gabriella M; Messina, Jane L; Stoler, Mark H; Rollison, Dana E; Stockwell, Heather; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Gage, Christine; Silva, Roberto Jose C; Baggio, Maria L; Salmerón, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R

    2013-09-01

    Swabbing the surface of a genital lesion to obtain a sample for HPV DNA testing is less invasive than a biopsy, but may not represent HPV types present in the lesion tissue. The objective of this study was to examine the concordance of HPV types detected in swab and biopsy samples from 165 genital lesions from men ages 18-70. Lesions included 90 condyloma, 10 penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), 23 non-condyloma with a known histology, and 42 lesions with an undetermined histology. All lesions were sampled by swabbing the surface of the lesion with a pre-wetted Dacron swab and taking a shave biopsy. HPV genotyping was performed using Linear Array for swab samples and INNO-LiPA for biopsy samples. The kappa and McNemar statistics were used to compare the concordance of detecting HPV types in swab and biopsy samples. Both sampling methods had high agreement for detection of HPV DNA in condyloma (87.8% agreement) and PeIN (100% agreement). There was also high concordance for detection of HPV16 (kappa?=?1.00) and HPV18 (kappa?=?1.00) in PeIN, however, agreement was low to moderate for detecting HPV6 (kappa?=?0.31) and HPV11 (kappa?=?0.56) in condyloma. Low to moderate agreement was also observed between sampling methods for detecting individual HPV types in the non-condyloma and lesions with an indefinite histology. The results suggest that obtaining a biopsy in addition to swabbing the surface of a lesion may provide additional information about specific HVP types associated with male genital lesions. PMID:23852680

  15. Concordance of human papillomavirus types detected on the surface and in the tissue of genital lesions in men

    PubMed Central

    Anic, Gabriella M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Rollison, Dana E.; Stockwell, Heather; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Gage, Christine; Silva, Roberto Jose C.; Baggio, Maria L.; Salmerón, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Swabbing the surface of a genital lesion to obtain a sample for HPV DNA testing is less invasive than a biopsy, but may not represent HPV types present in the lesion tissue. The objective of this study was to examine the concordance of HPV types detected in swab and biopsy samples from 165 genital lesions from men ages 18-70. Lesions included 90 condyloma, 10 penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), 23 non-condyloma with a known histology, and 42 lesions with an undetermined histology. All lesions were sampled by swabbing the surface of the lesion with a pre-wetted Dacron swab and taking a shave biopsy. HPV genotyping was performed using Linear Array for swab samples and INNO-LiPA for biopsy samples. The kappa and McNemar statistics were used to compare the concordance of detecting HPV types in swab and biopsy samples. Both sampling methods had high agreement for detection of HPV DNA in condyloma (87.8% agreement) and PeIN (100% agreement). There was also high concordance for detection of HPV16 (kappa = 1.00) and HPV18 (kappa = 1.00) in PeIN, however, agreement was low to moderate for detecting HPV6 (kappa = 0.31) and HPV11 (kappa = 0.56) in condyloma. Low to moderate agreement was also observed between sampling methods for detecting individual HPV types in the non-condyloma and lesions with an indefinite histology. The results suggest that obtaining a biopsy in addition to swabbing the surface of a lesion may provide additional information about specific HVP types associated with male genital lesions. PMID:23852680

  16. Autophosphorylation and dephosphorylation of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase in intact tissue and cells

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were used to quantitate changes in the extent of autophosphorylation of the type II regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in intact bovine tracheal smooth muscle and rat hepatocytes. The autophosphorylated and dephosphorylated forms of the regulatory subunit (RII) were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and identified by immunoblot analysis. Incubating smooth muscle strips with agents which stimulate cAMP production caused a rapid and reversible dephosphorylation of phospho RII. In contrast, phospho RII levels in rat hepatocytes were unaffected by elevations in cAMP concentration. Insulin was capable of inhibiting cAMP-dependent protein kinase in hepatocytes. Tissue extracts were tested to identify the basis for the lack of RII dephosphorylation in intact hepatocytes. Rat liver extract contained 4 fold less RII and had an 80 fold slower rate of dephosphorylation of endogenous RII compared to bovine smooth muscle extract. The different rates were not observed using purified, /sup 32/P-labelled RII and tissue extracts suggesting the decreased RII dephosphorylation rate in liver was due to a difference in the availability of endogenous RII rather than a difference in measurable phosphatase activity.

  17. In-body tissue-engineered aortic valve (Biovalve type VII) architecture based on 3D printer molding.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yasuhide; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Sumikura, Hirohito; Yamanami, Masashi; Matsui, Yuichi; Oie, Tomonori; Kishimoto, Yuichiro; Arakawa, Mamoru; Ohmuma, Kentaro; Tajikawa, Tsutomu; Kanda, Keiichi; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-01-01

    In-body tissue architecture--a novel and practical regeneration medicine technology--can be used to prepare a completely autologous heart valve, based on the shape of a mold. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to produce the molds. A 3D printer can easily reproduce the 3D-shape and size of native heart valves within several processing hours. For a tri-leaflet, valved conduit with a sinus of Valsalva (Biovalve type VII), the mold was assembled using two conduit parts and three sinus parts produced by the 3D printer. Biovalves were generated from completely autologous connective tissue, containing collagen and fibroblasts, within 2 months following the subcutaneous embedding of the molds (success rate, 27/30). In vitro evaluation, using a pulsatile circulation circuit, showed excellent valvular function with a durability of at least 10 days. Interposed between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, the Biovalves (N?=?3) were implanted in goats through an apico-aortic bypass procedure. Postoperative echocardiography showed smooth movement of the leaflets with minimal regurgitation under systemic circulation. After 1 month of implantation, smooth white leaflets were observed with minimal thrombus formation. Functional, autologous, 3D-shaped heart valves with clinical application potential were formed following in-body embedding of specially designed molds that were created within several hours by 3D printer. PMID:24764308

  18. Differences in irradiation susceptibility and turnover between mucosal and connective tissue-type mast cells of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuzumi, T.; Waki, N.; Kanakura, Y.; Nagoshi, J.; Hirota, S.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kitamura, Y. )

    1990-08-01

    Although precursors of mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, phenotypes of mast cells are influenced by the tissues in which final differentiation occurs. Connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMC) and mucosal mast cells (MMC) are different in morphological, biochemical, immunological, and functional criteria. The purpose of the present study was to obtain information about the differentiation process of MMC. First, we compared changes in irradiation susceptibility in mice during the differentiation process of CTMC and MMC. The decrease in irradiation susceptibility was remarkable in the CTMC differentiation process, but it was moderate in that of MMC. Some morphologically identifiable CTMC in the peritoneal cavity had proliferative potential and were highly radioresistant, whereas such a radioresistant population of MMC was not detectable in the gastric mucosa. Second, we estimated the turnover of CTMC and MMC by determining the proportion of mast cells that were labeled with continuously administered bromodeoxyuridine. The turnover of MMC was significantly faster than that of CTMC. The absence of the radioresistant mast cell population in the gastric mucosa appeared to be related to the short life span of MMC.

  19. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate metabolism of insulin-sensitive tissues: implication for the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pinel, Alexandre; Morio-Liondore, Béatrice; Capel, Frédéric

    2014-06-01

    Obesity is frequently associated with the development of type 2 diabetes which is firstly characterized by a defect in the response of key metabolic tissues to insulin (insulin resistance). The imbalance in fatty composition of the diet, a low-grade inflammatory state have been described to be involved in the initiation or the amplification of the molecular events involved in this process. The concept of a specific nutritional intervention has emerged as a promising tool against metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In this context, many investigations were conducted to evaluate the potential beneficial impacts of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). The aim of the present review was to summarize the current knowledge about the role of docosahexanoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) on key metabolic organs. Only studies aiming to understand the mechanism of actions were selected. The analysis of randomized clinical trial about n-3 PUFA was not considered here. The effects of n-3 PUFA were analyzed in the adipose tissue, the liver, skeletal muscle and the pancreas in the context of obesity and lipid oversupply. Furthermore, in line with recent findings about the role of the modulation of gut microbiota in obesity-related disorders, we summarized the recent findings about the possible link between n-3 PUFA and change in microbiota composition. PMID:24371037

  20. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type: An Underdiagnosed Hereditary Connective Tissue Disorder with Mucocutaneous, Articular, and Systemic Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Castori, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type, constituting a phenotypic continuum with or, perhaps, corresponding to the joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS/EDS-HT), is likely the most common, though the least recognized, heritable connective tissue disorder. Known for decades as a hereditary condition with predominant rheumatologic manifestations, it is now emerging as a multisystemic disorder with widespread manifestations. Nevertheless, the practitioners' awareness of this condition is generally poor and most patients await years or, perhaps, decades before reaching the correct diagnosis. Among the various sites of disease manifestations, skin and mucosae represent a neglected organ where the dermatologist can easily spot diagnostic clues, which consistently integrate joint hypermobility and other orthopedic/neurologic manifestations at physical examination. In this paper, actual knowledge on JHS/EDS-HT is summarized in various sections. Particular attention has been posed on overlooked manifestations, including cutaneous, mucosal, and oropharyngeal features, and early diagnosis techniques, as a major point of interest for the practicing dermatologist. Actual research progresses on JH/EDS-HT envisage an unexpected link between heritable dysfunctions of the connective tissue and a wide range of functional somatic syndromes, most of them commonly diagnosed in the office of various specialists, comprising dermatologists. PMID:23227356

  1. The Relationship between Intramuscular Adipose Tissue, Functional Mobility, and Strength in Postmenopausal Women with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Janet M.; Beattie, Karen A.; Giangregorio, Lora M.; Ioannidis, George; Atkinson, Stephanie A.; Thabane, Lehana; Gerstein, Hertzel; Punthakee, Zubin; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To determine (1) whether intramuscular adipose tissue (IntraMAT) differs between women with and without type 2 diabetes and (2) the association between IntraMAT and mobility and strength. Methods. 59 women ? 65 years with and without type 2 diabetes were included. A 1-Tesla MRI was used to acquire images of the leg. Timed-up-and-go (TUG) and grip strength were measured. Regression was used to determine associations between the following: (1) type 2 diabetes and IntraMAT (covariates: age, ethnicity, BMI, waist?:?hip ratio, and energy expenditure), (2) IntraMAT and TUG (covariates: diabetes, age, BMI, and energy expenditure), and (3) IntraMAT and grip strength (covariates: diabetes, age, height, and lean mass). Results. Women with diabetes had more IntraMAT. After adjustment, IntraMAT was similar between groups (diabetes mean [SD] = 13.2 [1.4]%, controls 11.8 [1.3]%, P = 0.515). IntraMAT was related to TUG and grip strength, but the relationships became nonsignificant after adjustment for covariates (difference/percent IntraMAT [95% CI]: TUG = 0.041 seconds [?0.079–0.161], P = 0.498, grip strength = ?0.144?kg [?0.335–0.066], P = 0.175). Conclusions. IntraMAT alone may not be a clinically important predictor of functional mobility and strength; however, whether losses in functional mobility and strength are promoted by IntraMAT accumulation should be explored. PMID:25692042

  2. Microfocused ultrasound for skin tightening.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Jennifer L; Tanzi, Elizabeth L

    2013-03-01

    The demand for noninvasive skin tightening procedures is increasing as patients seek safe and effective alternatives to aesthetic surgical procedures of the face, neck, and body. Over the past decade, radiofrequency and infrared laser devices have been popularized owing to their ability to deliver controlled heat to the dermis, stimulate neocollagenesis, and effect modest tissue tightening with minimal recovery. However, these less invasive approaches are historically associated with inferior efficacy so that surgery still remains the treatment of choice to address moderate to severe tissue laxity. Microfocused ultrasound was recently introduced as a novel energy modality for transcutaneous heat delivery that reaches the deeper subdermal connective tissue in tightly focused zones at consistent programmed depths. The goal is to produce a deeper wound healing response at multiple levels with robust collagen remodeling and a more durable clinical response. The Ulthera device (Ulthera, Inc, Meza, AZ), with refined microfocused ultrasound technology, has been adapted specifically for skin tightening and lifting with little recovery or risk of complications since its introduction in 2009. As clinical parameters are studied and optimized, enhanced efficacy and consistency of clinical improvement is expected. PMID:24049925

  3. Similarities and differences in 13C and 15N stable isotope ratios in two non-lethal tissue types from shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (Rafinesque, 1820)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeVries, R. J.; Schramm, Harold L., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that ?13C and ?15N signatures of pectoral spines would provide measures of ?13C and ?15N similar to those obtained from fin clips for adult shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus. Thirty-two shovelnose sturgeon (fork length [FL] = 500–724 mm) were sampled from the lower Mississippi River, USA on 23 February 2013. Isotopic relationships between the two tissue types were analyzed using mixed model analysis of covariance. Tissue types differed significantly for both ?13C (P < 0.01; spine: mean = ?23.83, SD = 0.62; fin clip: mean = ?25.74, SD = 0.97) and ?15N (P = 0.01; spine: mean = 17.01, SD = 0.51; fin clip: mean = 17.19, SD = 0.62). Neither FL nor the FL × tissue type interaction had significant (P > 0.05) effects on ?13C. Fin clip ?13C values were highly variable and weakly correlated (r = 0.16, P = 0.40) with those from pectoral spines. We found a significant FL-tissue type interaction for ?15N, reflecting increasing ?15N with FL for spines and decreasing ?15N with FL for fin clips. These results indicate that spines are not a substitute for fin clip tissue for measuring ?13C and ?15N for shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Mississippi River, but the two tissues have different turnover rates they may provide complementary information for assessing trophic position at different time scales.

  4. Proliferation of multiple cell types in the skeletal muscle tissue elicited by acute p21 suppression

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Germana; Puggioni, Eleonora MR; Passaro, Nunzia; Mazzola, Alessia; Pajalunga, Deborah; Zaccagnini, Germana; Rizzuto, Emanuele; Auricchio, Alberto; Zentilin, Lorena; De Luca, Gabriele; Giacca, Mauro; Martelli, Fabio; Musio, Antonio; Musarò, Antonio; Crescenzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Although in the last decades the molecular underpinnings of the cell cycle have been unraveled, the acquired knowledge has been rarely translated into practical applications. Here, we investigate the feasibility and safety of triggering proliferation in vivo by temporary suppression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. AAV-mediated, acute knockdown of p21 in intact skeletal muscles elicited proliferation of multiple, otherwise quiescent cell types, notably including satellite cells. Compared with controls, p21-suppressed muscles exhibited a striking two-threefold expansion in cellularity and increased fiber numbers by 10 days posttransduction, with no detectable inflammation. These changes partially persisted for at least 60 days, indicating that the muscles had undergone lasting modifications. Furthermore, morphological hyperplasia was accompanied by 20% increases in maximum strength and resistance to fatigue. To assess the safety of transiently suppressing p21, cells subjected to p21 knockdown in vitro were analyzed for ?-H2AX accumulation, DNA fragmentation, cytogenetic abnormalities, ploidy, and mutations. Moreover, the differentiation competence of p21-suppressed myoblasts was investigated. These assays confirmed that transient suppression of p21 causes no genetic damage and does not impair differentiation. Our results establish the basis for further exploring the manipulation of the cell cycle as a strategy in regenerative medicine. PMID:25669433

  5. Effects of ketamine exposure on dopamine concentrations and dopamine type 2 receptor mRNA expression in rat brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Liu, Mei-Li; Wu, Xiu-Ping; Jia, Juan; Cao, Jie; Wei, Zhi-Wen; Wang, Yu-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of ketamine abuse on the concentration of dopamine (DA), a monoamine neurotransmitter, and the mRNA expression of dopamine type 2 (D2) receptors in brain tissue, we used male Wistar rats to model ketamine abuse through chronic intraperitoneal infusion of ketamine across different doses. Methods: The rats were sacrificed 45 minutes and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after initiating the administration of ketamine or normal saline, as well as 3 days following discontinuation. Brain tissue was harvested to examine the concentration of 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, the primary metabolites of DA, as well as the expression of D2 receptor mRNA. In addition, behavioral changes were observed within 30 minutes of administration, and withdrawal symptoms were also documented. A factorial experimental design was used to investigate variations and correlations in the primary outcome measures across the four doses and five time points. Brain DA concentrations were significantly higher in the ketamine-treated groups compared with the saline-treated group, with 30 mg/kg > 10 mg/kg > 60 mg/kg > saline (P < 0.05). The D2 receptor mRNA expression exhibited an inverse downregulation pattern, with 30 mg/kg < 10 mg/kg < 60 mg/kg < saline (P < 0.05). In the 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg ketamine-treated groups, the DA concentration and D2 receptor mRNA level in the brain tissue correlated with the dose of ketamine (r = 0.752, r = -0.806), but no significant correlation was found in the 60 mg/kg group. Result: These findings indicated that chronic dosing with ketamine increased the concentration of DA in rat brain tissue by increasing DA release or interrupting DA degradation. D2 receptor mRNA expression likely decreased because of stimulation with excessive DA. Conclusion: High-dose (60 mg/kg) ketamine had potent paralyzing effects on the central nervous system of rats and weakened the excitatory effects of the limbic system. Brain DA and D2 receptor mRNA may be associated with ketamine abuse. PMID:26379921

  6. Fast and Automatic Ultrasound Simulation from CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is currently widely used in clinical diagnosis because of its fast and safe imaging principles. As the anatomical structures present in an ultrasound image are not as clear as CT or MRI. Physicians usually need advance clinical knowledge and experience to distinguish diseased tissues. Fast simulation of ultrasound provides a cost-effective way for the training and correlation of ultrasound and the anatomic structures. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for fast simulation of ultrasound from a CT image. A multiscale method is developed to enhance tubular structures so as to simulate the blood flow. The acoustic response of common tissues is generated by weighted integration of adjacent regions on the ultrasound propagation path in the CT image, from which parameters, including attenuation, reflection, scattering, and noise, are estimated simultaneously. The thin-plate spline interpolation method is employed to transform the simulation image between polar and rectangular coordinate systems. The Kaiser window function is utilized to produce integration and radial blurring effects of multiple transducer elements. Experimental results show that the developed method is very fast and effective, allowing realistic ultrasound to be fast generated. Given that the developed method is fully automatic, it can be utilized for ultrasound guided navigation in clinical practice and for training purpose. PMID:24348736

  7. [Contrast ultrasound imaging in focal liver lesions: diagnostic value and guidelines].

    PubMed

    Tranquart, F; Bleuzen, A; Tchuenbou, J

    2004-05-01

    The recent introduction of high quality scanners and contrast agents for ultrasound deeply modifies diagnosis strategy in focal liver lesions by using validated criteria. Non-linear imaging methods using low mechanical index (MI<0.2) and second generation contrast agents allow real-time continuous imaging with concomitant limitation in background tIssue signal and also in agent collapse for a high quality contrast imaging giving dramatic improvement in detection and characterization of lesions. Interpretation is based on the presence of contrast agent within the lesion or not (hyper-, hypo- or isosignal) and the delay after injection (arterial, portal or parenchymal or late phase) as previously used by non-ultrasound methods. This allows an easy differentiation of benign from malignant lesions. Moreover, this allows complete characterization in 85 to 95% of all focal liver lesions and 75% in hepatocellular carcinomas. Those results markedly improve ultrasound accuracy compared to conventional sonography and so put contrast-enhanced sonography among recommended non-invasive imaging methods for focal liver lesions with changes in diagnostic strategy according to the lesion type and actual place of US methods. It is recommended to use contrast ultrasound methods in cancer staging for an optimal detection of liver metastases as well as in characterization of lesions detected during conventional sonography with a consecutive decrease of cost-diagnosis ratio. PMID:15238869

  8. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasatkin, A. A.; Urakov, A. L.; Nigmatullina, A. R.

    2015-11-01

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient's exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.

  9. Calculations of stopping powers and inelastic mean free paths for 20 eV-20 keV electrons in 11 types of human tissue.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhenyu; Liu, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Systematic calculations are performed for determining the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for 20 eV-20 keV electrons in 11 types of human tissue. The calculations are based on a dielectric model, including the Born-Ochkur exchange correction. The optical energy loss functions (OELF) are empirically evaluated, because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the 11 tissues under consideration. The evaluated OELFs are examined by the f-sum rule expected from the dielectric response theory, and by calculation of the mean excitation energy. The calculated SPs are compared with those for PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate, a tissue equivalent material) and liquid water. The SP and IMFP data presented here are the results for the 11 human tissues over the energy range of 20 eV-20 keV, and are of importance in radiotherapy planning and for studies of various radiation effects on human tissues. PMID:24144616

  10. Detection of breast microcalcifications using synthetic-aperture ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Labyed, Yassin; Lin, Youzuo; Zhang, Zhigang; Pohl, Jennifer; Sandoval, Daniel; Williamson, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Ultrasound could be an attractive imaging modality for detecting breast microcalcifications, but it requires significant improvement in image resolution and quality. Recently, we have used tissue-equivalent phantoms to demonstrate that synthetic-aperture ultrasound has the potential to detect small targets. In this paper, we study the in vivo imaging capability of a real-time synthetic-aperture ultrasound system for detecting breast microcalcifications. This LANL's (Los Alamos National Laboratory's) custom built synthetic-aperture ultrasound system has a maximum frame rate of 25 Hz, and is one of the very first medical devices capable of acquiring synthetic-aperture ultrasound data and forming ultrasound images in real time, making the synthetic-aperture ultrasound feasible for clinical applications. We recruit patients whose screening mammograms show breast microcalcifications, and use LANL's synthetic-aperture ultrasound system to scan the regions with microcalcifications. Our preliminary in vivo patient imaging results demonstrate that synthetic-aperture ultrasound is a promising imaging modality for detecting breast microcalcifications.

  11. Ultrasound goes GPU: real-time simulation using CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Tobias; Passenger, Josh; Acosta, Oscar; Salvado, Olivier

    2009-02-01

    Despite the increasing adoption of other imaging modalities, ultrasound guidance is widely used for surgical procedures and clinical imaging due to its low cost, non-invasiveness, and real-time visual feedback. Many ultrasound-guided procedures require extensive training and where possible training on simulations should be preferred over patients. Computational resources for existing approaches to ultrasound simulation are usually limited by real-time requirements. Unlike previous approaches we simulate freehand ultrasound images from CT data on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). We build upon the method proposed by Wein et al. for estimating ultrasound reflection properties of tissue and modify it to a computationally more efficient form. In addition to previous approaches, we also estimate ultrasound absorption properties from CT data. Using NVIDIA's "Compute Unified Device Architecture" (CUDA), we provide a physically plausible simulation of ultrasound reflection, shadowing artifacts, speckle noise and radial blurring. The same algorithm can be used for simulating either linear or radial imaging, and all parameters of the simulated probe are interactively configurable at runtime, including ultrasound frequency and intensity as well as field geometry. With current hardware we are able to achieve an image width of up to 1023 pixels from raw CT data in real-time, without any pre-processing and without any loss of information from the CT image other than from interpolation of the input data. Visual comparison to real ultrasound images indicates satisfactory results.

  12. Infection of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces development of mucosal-type but not connective tissue-type mast cells in genetically mast cell-deficient Ws/Ws rats.

    PubMed

    Arizono, N; Kasugai, T; Yamada, M; Okada, M; Morimoto, M; Tei, H; Newlands, G F; Miller, H R; Kitamura, Y

    1993-05-15

    Ws/Ws rats have a small deletion at the tyrosine kinase domain of the c-kit gene and are deficient in both mucosal mast cells (MMC) and connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMC). The role of the c-kit receptor in the development of MMC and CTMC was investigated by infecting Ws/Ws and control +/+ rats with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (NB), which induces T-cell-dependent mast cell proliferation. Although mast cells did not develop in the skin of Ws/Ws rats, a significant number of mast cells developed in the jejunum after NB infection. These mast cells had the MMC protease phenotype (rat mast cell protease [RMCP] I-/II+) and lacked heparin because they were not stained with berberine sulfate. Globule leukocytes were also detected in the mucosal epithelium of these rats. However, the number of MMC and the serum concentration of RMCP II in NB-infected Ws/Ws rats were only 13% and 7% of those of NB-infected +/+ rats, respectively. A small number of mast cells also developed in the lung, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes of Ws/Ws rats after NB infection. Although mast cells in these tissues had the MMC phenotype throughout the observation period, the increased mast cells in the lung and liver of +/+ rats acquired a CTMC-like phenotype and were RMCP I+/II+, berberine sulfate+, and formalin resistant. These results indicate that the need for the stimulus through the c-kit receptor appears to be greater in the development of CTMC in the skin as well as for CTMC-like mast cells in the lung and liver than for the development of MMC. PMID:7683922

  13. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    MedlinePLUS

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... Many different types of bacteria can cause this infection. A very ... of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to Streptococcus ...

  14. Stressed neurons protect themselves by a tissue-type plasminogen activator-mediated EGFR-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lemarchand, E; Maubert, E; Haelewyn, B; Ali, C; Rubio, M; Vivien, D

    2016-01-01

    In the central nervous system, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) has been associated with both pro-death and prosurvival actions on neurons. In most cases, this has been related to exogenous tPA. In the present study, we addressed the influence of endogenous tPA. We first observed an increased transcription of tPA following either in vivo global brain ischemia in rats or in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) on mice and rats hippocampal slices. Hippocampal slices from tPA-deficient mice were more sensitive to OGD than wild-type slices. Pharmacological approaches targeting the known receptors of tPA revealed that only the inhibition of phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) prevented the neuroprotective effect of endogenous tPA. This study shows that ischemic hippocampal neurons overproduce endogenous tPA as an intend to protect themselves from ischemic death, by a mechanism involving an activation of EGFRs. Thus, strategies contributing to promote either endogenous production of tPA or its associated EGFR-linked signaling pathway may have beneficial effects following brain injuries such as stroke. PMID:26068590

  15. Trans-Stent B-Mode Ultrasound and Passive Cavitation Imaging.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Kevin J; Raymond, Jason L; Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Moody, Melanie R; Huang, Shao-Ling; Peng, Tao; Shekhar, Himanshu; Klegerman, Melvin E; Kim, Hyunggun; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2016-02-01

    Angioplasty and stenting of a stenosed artery enable acute restoration of blood flow. However, restenosis or a lack of re-endothelization can subsequently occur depending on the stent type. Cavitation-mediated drug delivery is a potential therapy for these conditions, but requires that particular types of cavitation be induced by ultrasound insonation. Because of the heterogeneity of tissue and stochastic nature of cavitation, feedback mechanisms are needed to determine whether the sustained bubble activity is induced. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of passive cavitation imaging through a metal stent in a flow phantom and an animal model. In this study, an endovascular stent was deployed in a flow phantom and in porcine femoral arteries. Fluorophore-labeled echogenic liposomes, a theragnostic ultrasound contrast agent, were injected proximal to the stent. Cavitation images were obtained by passively recording and beamforming the acoustic emissions from echogenic liposomes insonified with a low-frequency (500 kHz) transducer. In vitro experiments revealed that the signal-to-noise ratio for detecting stable cavitation activity through the stent was greater than 8 dB. The stent did not significantly reduce the signal-to-noise ratio. Trans-stent cavitation activity was also detected in vivo via passive cavitation imaging when echogenic liposomes were insonified by the 500-kHz transducer. When stable cavitation was detected, delivery of the fluorophore into the arterial wall was observed. Increased echogenicity within the stent was also observed when echogenic liposomes were administered. Thus, both B-mode ultrasound imaging and cavitation imaging are feasible in the presence of an endovascular stent in vivo. Demonstration of this capability supports future studies to monitor restenosis with contrast-enhanced ultrasound and pursue image-guided ultrasound-mediated drug delivery to inhibit restenosis. PMID:26547633

  16. Symptomatic vs. asymptomatic plaque classification in carotid ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Rajendra U; Faust, Oliver; Alvin, A P C; Sree, S Vinitha; Molinari, Filippo; Saba, Luca; Nicolaides, Andrew; Suri, Jasjit S

    2012-06-01

    Quantitative characterization of carotid atherosclerosis and classification into symptomatic or asymptomatic type is crucial in both diagnosis and treatment planning. This paper describes a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system which analyzes ultrasound images and classifies them into symptomatic and asymptomatic based on the textural features. The proposed CAD system consists of three modules. The first module is preprocessing, which conditions the images for the subsequent feature extraction. The feature extraction stage uses image texture analysis to calculate Standard deviation, Entropy, Symmetry, and Run Percentage. Finally, classification is performed using AdaBoost and Support Vector Machine for automated decision making. For Adaboost, we compared the performance of five distinct configurations (Least Squares, Maximum- Likelihood, Normal Density Discriminant Function, Pocket, and Stumps) of this algorithm. For Support Vector Machine, we compared the performance using five different configurations (linear kernel, polynomial kernel configurations of different orders and radial basis function kernels). SVM with radial basis function kernel for support vector machine presented the best classification result: classification accuracy of 82.4%, sensitivity of 82.9%, and specificity of 82.1%. We feel that texture features coupled with the Support Vector Machine classifier can be used to identify the plaque tissue type. An Integrated Index, called symptomatic asymptomatic carotid index (SACI), is proposed using texture features to discriminate symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid ultrasound images using just one index or number. We hope this SACI can be used as an adjunct tool by the vascular surgeons for daily screening. PMID:21243411

  17. Sustained acoustic medicine: a novel long duration approach to biomodulation utilizing low intensity therapeutic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Matthew D.; Lewis, George K.

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound is an established technique for biomodulation used by physical therapists. Typically it is used to deliver energy locally for the purpose of altering tissue plasticity and increasing local circulation. Access to ultrasound therapy has been limited by equipment and logistic requirements, which has reduced the overall efficacy of the therapy. Ultrasound miniaturization allows for development of portable, wearable, self-applied ultrasound devices that sidestep these limitations. Additionally, research has shown that the timescale of acoustic stimulation matters, and directly affects the quality of result. This paper describes a novel, long duration approach to therapeutic ultrasound and reviews the current data available for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions.

  18. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta}

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhencheng; Liu Daoyan; Zhang Lili; Shen Chenyi; Ma Qunli; Cao Tingbing; Wang Lijuan; Nie Hai; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin; Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzm@yahoo.com

    2007-03-09

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta} (PPAR-{delta})-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p < 0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p < 0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-{delta}. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-{delta} by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3) to 1.91 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-{delta} significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39 {+-} 0.03 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Both CB1 and PPAR-{delta} are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor.

  19. Guidelines and recommendations for safe use of Doppler ultrasound in perinatal applications.

    PubMed

    Barnett, S B; Maulik, D

    2001-04-01

    Technological development has led to significant improvements in ultrasonographic capabilities in recent years, and this has been accompanied by increases in acoustic output. Meanwhile, there is a developing trend to use ultrasound at early stages of pregnancy when the developing embryo is known to be highly sensitive to damage by physical agents. The advent of pulsed spectral Doppler and color flow imaging has revolutionized perinatal applications. Doppler ultrasound has become widely accepted as a valuable diagnostic tool in obstetric medicine, where it has particular benefits for high-risk pregnancies. The benefits of Doppler screening are less well established. United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations now provide an option whereby equipment that provides a form of output display can be used to apply substantially higher acoustic output to the embryo or fetus than equipment approved for use under application-specific intensity limits. The Output Display Standard recently adopted by the FDA, in the USA, encourages self-regulation of acoustic exposure by the ultrasound user, on the basis of assumed knowledge of the implications of biophysical interactions. When modern sophisticated equipment is used at maximum operating settings for Doppler examinations, the acoustic outputs are sufficient to produce obvious biological effects, e.g. significant temperature increase in tissue or visible motion of particles due to radiation pressure streaming effects. The risk of inducing thermal effects is greater in the second and third trimesters, when fetal bone is intercepted by the ultrasound beam and significant temperature increase can occur in the fetal brain. Non-thermal bioeffects may be more significant in early gestation, when the relatively loosely tethered embryonic tissues are exposed to an ultrasound beam in a liquid path. The likelihood of producing cavitation-type non-thermal effects is enhanced by the presence in the sound-field of gas-encapsulated echo-contrast media. To ensure the continued safe use of ultrasound in obstetrics, it is important that international ultrasound organizations, such as the International Perinatal Doppler Society, issue advice to members to allow sensible assessment of risk: benefit and the practical implementation of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. PMID:11392597

  20. Towards intraoperative monitoring of ablation using tracked 3D ultrasound elastography and internal palpation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Pezhman; Burgner, Jessica; Choti, Michael A.; Webster, Robert J., III; Hager, Gregory D.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2012-03-01

    B-mode ultrasound is widely used in liver ablation. However, the necrosis zone is typically not visible under b-mode ultrasound, since ablation does not necessarily change the acoustic properties of the tissue. In contrast, the change in tissue stiffness makes elastography ideal for monitoring ablation. Tissue palpation for elastography is typically applied at the imaging probe, by indenting it slightly into the tissue surface. However, in this paper we propose an alternate approach, where palpation is applied by a surgical instrument located inside the tissue. In our approach, the ablation needle is placed inside a steerable device called an active cannula and inserted into the tissue. A controlled motion is applied to the center of the ablation zone via the active cannula. Since the type and direction of motion is known, displacement can then be computed from two frames with the desired motion. The elastography results show the ablated region around the needle. While internal palpation provides excellent local contrast, freehand palpation from outside of the tissue via the transducer can provide a more global view of the region of the interest. For this purpose, we used a tracked 3D transducer to generate volumetric elastography images covering the ablated region. The tracking information is employed to improve the elastography results by selecting volume pairs suitable for elastography. This is an extension of our 2D frame selection technique which can cope with uncertainties associated with intra-operative elastography. In our experiments with phantom and ex-vivo tissue, we were able to generate high-quality images depicting the boundaries of the hard lesions.

  1. Finding the dispersion relations for lamb-type waves in a concave piezoelectric plate by optical visualization of the ultrasound field radiated into a fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, O. A.; Smagin, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method for measuring the phase velocities of Lamb waves in concave piezoelectric plates submerged in a fluid. The method is based on the optical shadowgraphy method of visualizing the ultrasound field that occurs in a fluid when Lamb modes are excited in the plate under study. According to the condition of wave resonance, the propagation direction of the waves radiated into the fluid is determined by the phase velocity of a Lamb wave in the plate, which makes it possible to measure the indicated velocity. Proceeding from this, we demonstrate that when spherical concave piezoelectric plates are used, the phase velocities of Lamb waves can be determined by the position of the caustics—areas of acoustic wave focusing in the fluid. We have experimentally measured the dispersion curves of several Lamb modes for a concave piezoelectric plate with a diameter of 100 mm and thickness of around 2 mm, which was submerged in water. Ultrasound waves were optically visualized in the fluid by the schlieren method on a specially designed setup, in which off-axis parabolic mirrors were used to implement the dark-field method. We demonstrated that the measured dispersion curves for low-order Lamb modes are well described by the theoretical dependences calculated using the Rayleigh-Lamb equation.

  2. Experimental investigation of the penetration of ultrasound nanobubbles in a gastric cancer xenograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaozhou; Wang, Luofu; Guo, Yanli; Tong, Haipeng; Li, Lang; Ding, Jun; Huang, Haiyun

    2013-08-01

    Nanobubbles as a type of ultrasound contrast agent have attracted much interest in recent years due to their many advantages, such as strong penetrating power and high stability. However, there is still insufficient morphological evidence concerning gas-filled nanobubbles in tumor tissue spaces and tumor angiogenesis. We used a gastric cancer xenograft as an example to study this question. Nanobubbles with a particle size of 435.2 ± 60.53 nm were prepared and compared with SonoVue® microbubbles in vitro and in vivo, and they exhibited a superior contrast imaging effect. After excluding the impact of the nanobubbles in blood vessels through saline flush, we used an ultrasound burst and frozen sectioning to investigate the distribution of nanobubbles in the gastric cancer xenografts and confirmed this by transmission electron microscopy. Preliminary results showed that the nanobubbles were able to pass through the gaps between the endothelial cells in the tumor vascular system to enter the tissue space. These findings could provide morphological evidence for extravascular ultrasound imaging of tumors and serve as a foundation for the application of nanobubbles in extravascular tumor-targeted ultrasonic diagnostics and therapy.

  3. Ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging to monitor mesenchymal stem cells labeled with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Seung Yun; Ricles, Laura M.; Sokolov, Konstantin; Suggs, Laura J.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2011-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are versatile in many tissue engineering applications and have the potential to be used for cellular therapies because they can differentiate into many cell types. Specifically, the use of MSCs for the treatment of ischemic disease is promising because MSCs can express characteristics of vascular cells. MSCs can promote vascular growth at the site of injury after delivery using a PEGylated fibrin gel. In order to quantitatively assess in vivo delivery and differentiation of MSCs, a non-invasive and high-resolution imaging technique is required. In this study, the combined ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging was demonstrated to monitor MSCs labeled with citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). It was observed that uptake of nanoparticles did not have a significant effect on cell viability and proliferation over a two-week period. Four different cell concentrations of either the non-labeled MSCs or the Au NP labeled MSCs were embedded in the tissue mimicking gelatin phantom. The ultrasound and photoacoustic signals were acquired and quantitatively analyzed to assess sensitivity and accuracy of the developed imaging approach. Furthermore, based on the results, the feasibility of in vivo ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of MSCs was discussed.

  4. Ultrasound techniques in the evaluation of the mediastinum, part 2: mediastinal lymph node anatomy and diagnostic reach of ultrasound techniques, clinical work up of neoplastic and inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathy using ultrasound techniques and how to learn mediastinal endosonography

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Christian; Annema, Jouke Tabe; Clementsen, Paul; Cui, Xin-Wu; Borst, Mathias Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging has gained importance in pulmonary medicine over the last decades including conventional transcutaneous ultrasound (TUS), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS). Mediastinal lymph node (MLN) staging affects the management of patients with both operable and inoperable lung cancer (e.g., surgery vs. combined chemoradiation therapy). Tissue sampling is often indicated for accurate nodal staging. Recent international lung cancer staging guidelines clearly state that endosonography should be the initial tissue sampling test over surgical staging. Mediastinal nodes can be sampled from the airways [endobronchial ultrasound combined with transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA)] or the esophagus [endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA)]. EBUS and EUS have a complementary diagnostic yield and in combination virtually all MLNs can be biopsied. Additionally endosonography has an excellent yield in assessing granulomas in patients suspected of sarcoidosis. The aim of this review in two integrative parts is to discuss the current role and future perspectives of all ultrasound techniques available for the evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy and mediastinal staging of lung cancer. A specific emphasis will be on learning mediastinal endosonography. Part 1 deals with an introduction into ultrasound techniques, MLN anatomy and diagnostic reach of ultrasound techniques and part 2 with the clinical work up of neoplastic and inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathy using ultrasound techniques and how to learn mediastinal endosonography. PMID:26623120

  5. Ultrasound techniques in the evaluation of the mediastinum, part 2: mediastinal lymph node anatomy and diagnostic reach of ultrasound techniques, clinical work up of neoplastic and inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathy using ultrasound techniques and how to learn mediastinal endosonography.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Christian; Annema, Jouke Tabe; Clementsen, Paul; Cui, Xin-Wu; Borst, Mathias Maximilian; Dietrich, Christoph Frank

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound imaging has gained importance in pulmonary medicine over the last decades including conventional transcutaneous ultrasound (TUS), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS). Mediastinal lymph node (MLN) staging affects the management of patients with both operable and inoperable lung cancer (e.g., surgery vs. combined chemoradiation therapy). Tissue sampling is often indicated for accurate nodal staging. Recent international lung cancer staging guidelines clearly state that endosonography should be the initial tissue sampling test over surgical staging. Mediastinal nodes can be sampled from the airways [endobronchial ultrasound combined with transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA)] or the esophagus [endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA)]. EBUS and EUS have a complementary diagnostic yield and in combination virtually all MLNs can be biopsied. Additionally endosonography has an excellent yield in assessing granulomas in patients suspected of sarcoidosis. The aim of this review in two integrative parts is to discuss the current role and future perspectives of all ultrasound techniques available for the evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy and mediastinal staging of lung cancer. A specific emphasis will be on learning mediastinal endosonography. Part 1 deals with an introduction into ultrasound techniques, MLN anatomy and diagnostic reach of ultrasound techniques and part 2 with the clinical work up of neoplastic and inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathy using ultrasound techniques and how to learn mediastinal endosonography. PMID:26623120

  6. Effect of shear stress on intrinsic CHO culture state and glycosylation of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator protein.

    PubMed

    Senger, Ryan S; Karim, M Nazmul

    2003-01-01

    Shear stress in suspension culture was investigated as a possible manipulative parameter for the control of glycosylation of the recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator protein (r-tPA) produced by recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture, grown in protein-free media. Resulting fractions of partially glycosylated, Type II, and fully glycosylated, Type I, r-tPA protein were monitored as a direct function of the shear characteristics of the culture environment. The shear-induced response of CHO culture to levels of low shear stress, where exponential growth was not obtained, and to higher levels of shear stress, which resulted in extensive cell death, were examined through manipulation of the bioreactor stirring velocity. Both apparent and intrinsic cell growth, metabolite consumption, byproduct and r-tPA production, and r-tPA glycosylation, from a variable site-occupancy standpoint, were monitored throughout. Kinetic analyses revealed a shear-stress-induced alteration of cellular homeostasis resulting in a nonlinear dependency of metabolic yield coefficients and an intrinsic cell lysis kinetic constant on shear stress. Damaging levels of shear stress were used to investigate the shear dependence of cell death and lysis, as well as the effects on the intrinsic growth rate of the culture. Kinetic models were also developed on the basis of the intrinsic state of the culture and compared to traditional models. Total r-tPA production was maximized under moderate shear conditions, as was the viable CHO cell density of the culture. However, Type II r-tPA production and the fraction of Type II glycoform production ratio was maximized under damaging levels of shear stress. Analyses of biomass production yield coefficients coupled with a plug-flow reactor model of glycan addition in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were used to propose an overall mechanism of decreased r-tPA protein site-occupancy glycosylation with increasing shear stress. Decreased residence time of r-tPA in the ER as a result of increased protein synthesis related to shear protection mechanisms is proposed to limit contact of site Asn184 with the membrane-bound oligosaccharyltransferase enzyme in the ER. PMID:12892482

  7. A Targeting Microbubble for Ultrasound Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, James Shue-Min; Sennoga, Charles A.; McConnell, Ellen; Eckersley, Robert; Tang, Meng-Xing; Nourshargh, Sussan; Seddon, John M.; Haskard, Dorian O.; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Microbubbles conjugated with targeting ligands are used as contrast agents for ultrasound molecular imaging. However, they often contain immunogenic (strept)avidin, which impedes application in humans. Although targeting bubbles not employing the biotin-(strept)avidin conjugation chemistry have been explored, only a few reached the stage of ultrasound imaging in vivo, none were reported/evaluated to show all three of the following properties desired for clinical applications: (i) low degree of non-specific bubble retention in more than one non-reticuloendothelial tissue; (ii) effective for real-time imaging; and (iii) effective for acoustic quantification of molecular targets to a high degree of quantification. Furthermore, disclosures of the compositions and methodologies enabling reproduction of the bubbles are often withheld. Objective To develop and evaluate a targeting microbubble based on maleimide-thiol conjugation chemistry for ultrasound molecular imaging. Methods and Results Microbubbles with a previously unreported generic (non-targeting components) composition were grafted with anti-E-selectin F(ab’)2 using maleimide-thiol conjugation, to produce E-selectin targeting microbubbles. The resulting targeting bubbles showed high specificity to E-selectin in vitro and in vivo. Non-specific bubble retention was minimal in at least three non-reticuloendothelial tissues with inflammation (mouse heart, kidneys, cremaster). The bubbles were effective for real-time ultrasound imaging of E-selectin expression in the inflamed mouse heart and kidneys, using a clinical ultrasound scanner. The acoustic signal intensity of the targeted bubbles retained in the heart correlated strongly with the level of E-selectin expression (|r|?0.8), demonstrating a high degree of non-invasive molecular quantification. Conclusions Targeting microbubbles for ultrasound molecular imaging, based on maleimide-thiol conjugation chemistry and the generic composition described, may possess properties (i)–(iii) desired for clinical applications. PMID:26161541

  8. The effects of sex, tissue type, and dietary components on stable isotope discrimination factors (?13C and ?15N) in mammalian omnivores.

    PubMed

    Kurle, Carolyn M; Koch, Paul L; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    We tested the effects of sex, tissue, and diet on stable isotope discrimination factors (?(13)C and ?(15)N) for six tissues from rats fed four diets with varied C and N sources, but comparable protein quality and quantity. The ?(13)C and ?(15)N values ranged from 1.7-4.1‰ and 0.4-4.3‰, respectively. Females had higher ?(15)N values than males because males grew larger, whereas ?(13)C values did not differ between sexes. Differences in ?(13)C values among tissue types increased with increasing variability in dietary carbon sources. The ?(15)N values increased with increasing dietary ?(15)N values for all tissues except liver and serum, which have fast stable isotope turnover times, and differences in ?(15)N values among tissue types decreased with increasing dietary animal protein. Our results demonstrate that variability in dietary sources can affect ?(13)C values, protein source affects ?(15)N values even when protein quality and quantity are controlled, and the isotope turnover rate of a tissue can influence the degree to which diet affects ?(15)N values. PMID:24787278

  9. Ultrasound-based servoing of manipulators for telesurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Jeff; Dupont, Pierre; Howe, Robert D.

    2002-02-01

    Certain minimally invasive surgical procedures involve the treatment of highly precise target locations within deformable tissues. While preoperative MRI and CT models can be used for surgical planning, they provide only coarse guidance during surgery due to their limited resolution and owing to tissue deformation. Ultrasound imaging is a promising means of obtaining real-time intraoperative data for target localization that is particularly well suited to minimally invasive surgery due to its portability, speed, and safety. This paper presents a system, in which ultrasound images are used to guide a manipulator to a surgical site. Electromagnetic tracking of the ultrasound probe is used to orient the images. These are then segmented in real time to determine target locations. Finally, target coordinates are used to produce control inputs to drive the manipulator to the target site. The potential of the approach is demonstrated experimentally using a manipulator arm, phantom target, and commercial ultrasound machine.

  10. Intravascular ultrasound imaging: development and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Cavaye, D M; White, R A

    1993-09-01

    Intravascular ultrasound is an exciting, new catheter based technique for imaging blood vessels. It provides accurate, real-time information about the types and distribution of vascular disease and displays both the macro- and micro-structure of blood vessels utilizating transducer frequencies of 10 MHz to 50 MHz. This paper discusses the development and current clinical applications of intravascular ultrasound technology, based on early intracardiac devices in the 1950s and resulting in very small diameter (1.3 mm), flexible probes in the 1990s for use in coronary and small peripheral vessels. Preliminary studies have established the dimensional accuracy of intravascular ultrasound, and more recent techniques such as three-dimensional image reconstruction have produced a very powerful research and clinical tool. The value of intravascular ultrasound in the diagnosis and therapy of vascular disease is based on its ability to define the transmural distribution of disease within the vessel, characterize plaque and intimal lesions, and provide accurate cross-sectional information regarding luminal and vessel wall morphology before and after intervention. Major priorities in the ongoing development of intravascular ultrasound are the need for further miniaturization and cost-effective manufacturing. Future angioplasty guidance devices may combine the benefits of angioscopy and intravascular ultrasound in a single delivery system suitable for incorporation into any ablative (mechanical or laser) catheter. PMID:8151166

  11. Tissue-type plasminogen activator suppresses activated stellate cells through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1.

    PubMed

    Kang, Liang-I; Isse, Kumiko; Koral, Kelly; Bowen, William C; Muratoglu, Selen; Strickland, Dudley K; Michalopoulos, George K; Mars, Wendy M

    2015-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and trans-differentiation into myofibroblast (MFB)-like cells is key for fibrogenesis after liver injury and a potential therapeutic target. Recent studies demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1)-dependent signaling by tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is a pro-fibrotic regulator of the MFB phenotype in kidney. This study investigated whether LRP1 signaling by t-PA is also relevant to HSC activation following injury. Primary and immortalized rat HSCs were treated with t-PA and assayed by western blot, MTT, and TUNEL. In vitro results were then verified using an in vivo, acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injury model that examined the phenotype and recovery kinetics of MFBs from wild-type animals vs mice with a global (t-PA) or HSC-targeted (LRP1) deletion. In vitro, in contrast to kidney MFBs, exogenous, proteolytically inactive t-PA suppressed, rather than induced, activation markers in HSCs following phosphorylation of LRP1. This process was mediated by LRP1 as inhibition of t-PA binding to LRP1 blocked the effects of t-PA. In vivo, following acute injury, phosphorylation of LRP1 on activated HSCs occurred immediately prior to their disappearance. Mice lacking t-PA or LRP1 retained higher densities of activated HSCs for a longer time period compared with control mice after injury cessation. Hence, t-PA, an FDA-approved drug, contributes to the suppression of activated HSCs following injury repair via signaling through LRP1. This renders t-PA a potential target for exploitation in treating patients with fibrosis. PMID:26237273

  12. Myeloid-derived tissue-type plasminogen activator promotes macrophage motility through FAK, Rac1, and NF-?B pathways.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling; Jin, Yang; Mars, Wendy M; Reeves, W Brian; Hu, Kebin

    2014-10-01

    Macrophage accumulation is one of the hallmarks of progressive kidney disease. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is known to promote macrophage infiltration and renal inflammation during chronic kidney injury. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. We examined the role of tPA in macrophage motility in vivo by tracking fluorescence-labeled bone marrow-derived macrophages, and found that tPA-deficient mice had markedly fewer infiltrating fluorescence-labeled macrophages than the wild-type (WT) mice. Experiments in bone marrow chimeric mice further demonstrated that myeloid cells are the main source of endogenous tPA that promotes macrophage migration. In vitro studies showed that tPA promoted macrophage motility through its CD11b-mediated protease-independent function; and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Rac-1, and NF-?B were indispensable to tPA-induced macrophage migration as either infection of FAK dominant-negative adenovirus or treatment with a Rac-1-specific inhibitor or NF-?B inhibitor abolished the effect of tPA. Moreover, ectopic FAK mimicked tPA and induced macrophage motility. tPA also activated migratory signaling in vivo. The accumulation of phospho-FAK-positive CD11b macrophages in the obstructed kidneys from WT mice was clearly attenuated in tPA knockout mice, which also displayed lower Rac-1 activity than their WT counterparts. Therefore, our results indicate that myeloid-derived tPA promotes macrophage migration through a novel signaling cascade involving FAK, Rac-1, and NF-?B. PMID:25131752

  13. Differentiating fatty and non-fatty tissue using photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Leo; Rohling, Robert; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Salcudean, Septimiu; Tang, Shuo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a temporal-domain intensity-based photoacoustic imaging method that can differentiate between fatty and non-fatty tissues. PA pressure intensity is partly dependent on the tissue's speed of sound, which increases as temperature increases in non-fatty tissue and decreases in fatty tissue. Therefore, by introducing a temperature change in the tissue and subsequently monitoring the change of the PA intensity, it is possible to distinguish between the two types of tissue. A commercial ultrasound system with a 128-element 5-14 MHz linear array transducer and a tunable ND:YAG laser were used to produce PA images. Ex-vivo bovine fat and porcine liver tissues were precooled to below 10°C and then warmed to room-temperature over ~1 hour period. A thermocouple monitored the temperature rise while PA images were acquired at 0.5°C intervals. The averaged intensity of the illuminated tissue region at each temperature interval was plotted and linearly fitted. Liver samples showed a mean increase of 2.82 %/°C, whereas bovine fat had a mean decrease of 6.24 %/°C. These results demonstrate that this method has the potential to perform tissue differentiation in the temporal-domain.

  14. Ultrasound as a Tool to Assess Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound has been used effectively to assess body fat for nearly 5 decades, yet this method is not known as well as many other body composition techniques. The purpose of this review is to explain the technical principles of the ultrasound method, explain the procedures for taking a measurement and interpreting the results, evaluate the reliability and validity of this method for measuring subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, highlight the advantages and limitations of ultrasound relative to other body composition methods, consider its utility to clinical populations, and introduce new body composition-specific ultrasound technology. The focus of this review is adipose, although various tissue thicknesses (e.g., muscle and bone) can be measured with ultrasound. Being a portable imaging device that is capable of making fast regional estimates of body composition, ultrasound is an attractive assessment tool in instances when other methods are limited. Furthermore, much of the research suggests that it is reliable, reproducible, and accurate. The biggest limitations appear to be a lack of standardization for the measurement technique and results that are highly dependent on operator proficiency. New ultrasound devices and accompanying software designed specifically for the purpose of body composition assessment might help to minimize these limitations. PMID:24062944

  15. Ultrasound-modulated fluorescence based on fluorescent microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Feshitan, Jameel A.; Wei, Ming-Yuan; Borden, Mark A.; Yuan, Baohong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Ultrasound-modulated fluorescence (UMF) imaging has been proposed to provide fluorescent contrast while maintaining ultrasound resolution in an optical-scattering medium (such as biological tissue). The major challenge is to extract the weakly modulated fluorescent signal from a bright and unmodulated background. UMF was experimentally demonstrated based on fluorophore-labeled microbubble contrast agents. These contrast agents were produced by conjugating N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-ester-attached fluorophores on the surface of amine-functionalized microbubbles. The fluorophore surface concentration was controlled so that a significant self-quenching effect occurred when no ultrasound was applied. The intensity of the fluorescent emission was modulated when microbubbles were oscillated by ultrasound pulses, presented as UMF signal. Our results demonstrated that the UMF signals were highly dependent on the microbubbles’ oscillation amplitude and the initial surface fluorophore-quenching status. A maximum of ?42% UMF modulation depth was achieved with a single microbubble under an ultrasound peak-to-peak pressure of 675 kPa. Further, UMF was detected from a 500-?m tube filled with contrast agents in water and scattering media with ultrasound resolution. These results indicate that ultrasound-modulated fluorescent microbubble contrast agents can potentially be used for fluorescence-based molecular imaging with ultrasound resolution in the future. PMID:25104407

  16. Ultrasound-modulated fluorescence based on fluorescent microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Feshitan, Jameel A; Wei, Ming-Yuan; Borden, Mark A; Yuan, Baohong

    2014-08-01

    Ultrasound-modulated fluorescence (UMF) imaging has been proposed to provide fluorescent contrast while maintaining ultrasound resolution in an optical-scattering medium (such as biological tissue). The major challenge is to extract the weakly modulated fluorescent signal from a bright and unmodulated background. UMF was experimentally demonstrated based on fluorophore-labeled microbubble contrast agents. These contrast agents were produced by conjugating N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-ester-attached fluorophores on the surface of amine-functionalized microbubbles. The fluorophore surface concentration was controlled so that a significant self-quenching effect occurred when no ultrasound was applied. The intensity of the fluorescent emission was modulated when microbubbles were oscillated by ultrasound pulses, presented as UMF signal. Our results demonstrated that the UMF signals were highly dependent on the microbubbles' oscillation amplitude and the initial surface fluorophore-quenching status. A maximum of ?42% UMF modulation depth was achieved with a single microbubble under an ultrasound peak-to-peak pressure of 675 kPa. Further, UMF was detected from a 500-?m tube filled with contrast agents in water and scattering media with ultrasound resolution. These results indicate that ultrasound-modulated fluorescent microbubble contrast agents can potentially be used for fluorescence-based molecular imaging with ultrasound resolution in the future. PMID:25104407

  17. Harmonic motion imaging for abdominal tumor detection and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation monitoring: an in vivo feasibility study in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Hou, Gary Y; Han, Yang; Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F; Olive, Kenneth P; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-09-01

    Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) is a radiationforce- based elasticity imaging technique that tracks oscillatory tissue displacements induced by sinusoidal ultrasonic radiation force to assess the resulting oscillatory displacement denoting the underlying tissue stiffness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI in pancreatic tumor detection and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring. The HMI system consisted of a focused ultrasound transducer, which generated sinusoidal radiation force to induce oscillatory tissue motion at 50 Hz, and a diagnostic ultrasound transducer, which detected the axial tissue displacements based on acquired radio-frequency signals using a 1-D cross-correlation algorithm. For pancreatic tumor detection, HMI images were generated for pancreatic tumors in transgenic mice and normal pancreases in wild-type mice. The obtained HMI images showed a high contrast between normal and malignant pancreases with an average peak-to-peak HMI displacement ratio of 3.2. Histological analysis showed that no tissue damage was associated with HMI when it was used for the sole purpose of elasticity imaging. For pancreatic tumor ablation monitoring, the focused ultrasound transducer was operated at a higher acoustic power and longer pulse length than that used in tumor detection to simultaneously induce HIFU thermal ablation and oscillatory tissue displacements, allowing HMI monitoring without interrupting tumor ablation. HMI monitoring of HIFU ablation found significant decreases in the peak-to-peak HMI displacements before and after HIFU ablation with a reduction rate ranging from 15.8% to 57.0%. The formation of thermal lesions after HIFU exposure was confirmed by histological analysis. This study demonstrated the feasibility of HMI in abdominal tumor detection and HIFU ablation monitoring. PMID:26415128

  18. Ultrasonic signal processing and tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Zhiping

    Ultrasound imaging has become one of the most widely used diagnostic tools in medicine. While it has advantages, compared with other modalities, in terms of safety, low-cost, accessibility, portability and capability of real-time imaging, it has limitations. One of the major disadvantages of ultrasound imaging is the relatively low image quality, especially the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the low spatial resolution. Part of this dissertation is dedicated to the development of digital ultrasound signal and image processing methods to improve ultrasound image quality. Conventional B-mode ultrasound systems display the demodulated signals, i.e., the envelopes, in the images. In this dissertation, I introduce the envelope matched quadrature filtering (EMQF) technique, which is a novel demodulation technique generating optimal performance in envelope detection. In ultrasonography, the echo signals are the results of the convolution of the pulses and the medium responses, and the finite pulse length is a major source of the degradation of the image resolution. Based on the more appropriate complex-valued medium response assumption rather than the real-valued assumption used by many researchers, a nonparametric iterative deconvolution method, the Least Squares method with Point Count regularization (LSPC), is proposed. This method was tested using simulated and experimental data, and has produced excellent results showing significant improvements in resolution. During the past two decades, ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) has emerged as an active research field and shown potentials of applications in a variety of clinical areas. Particularly interesting to me is a group of methods characterizing the scatterer spatial distribution. For resolvable regular structures, a deconvolution based method is proposed to estimate parameters characterizing such structures, including mean scatterer spacing, and has demonstrated superior performance when compared to conventional methods in situations of small data segments and highly randomized scatterer distribution. For non-resolvable structures, based on the idea of analyzing the distribution of large-valued signal points, several features, referred to as the DLP features, are extracted from the signals and used to characterize the scatterer number density (SND) of the tissues. The idea is further extended to characterize inhomogeneous tissues that are better represented by composite scatterer models and found successful as well. A variety of physiological, histo-chemical, and morphological changes take place in skeletal muscles while aging. To apply the UTC techniques to study aging effects in skeletal muscles, in vitro experiments were made using extensor digitorum longus (primarily type II fibers), soleus (primarily type I), and quadriceps (mixed) muscles dissected from rats of three age groups (young, middle-aged, and old). Ultrasound RF signals were collected, and the attenuation coefficients and the DLP features were computed. Statistical analysis finds some significant differences between the features of different muscles in the same age group and between the features of the same muscles in different age groups. These findings are presented in chapter 5 and are consistent with the age-related changes previously observed and the behavior of the UTC features, showing the potential to develop UTC techniques as economical, easily accessible, and noninvasive tools for muscle condition evaluation.

  19. Ultrasound imaging during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gold, R B

    1984-01-01

    Review by a panel of experts convened by the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) resulted in a recommendation for diagnostic ultrasound imaging in about 1/3 of pregnancies only when medically indicated but not routinely. Ultrasound technology, 1st developed for use in submarine warfare sonar devices, is widely used by physicians because of its clinical significance and because it allows seeing intrauterine structures without exposing the fetus to dangerous radiation. Its most important uses include estimating the gestational age for patients with uncertain clinical dates, evaluating fetal growth, determining the cause of vaginal bleeding, determining fetal presentation, identifying multiple gestation, supplementing amniocentesis or other special procedures, diagnosing, confirming fetal death and locating intrauterine devices. Recently, many physicians have been advocating routine ultrasound screening of all pregnancies but this is an issue of concern among leading physicians and the NIH. The panel stressed the urgent need for additional research on the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Many studies that found adverse reactions associated with ultrasound use in humans suffer from sever methodological flaws. The panel recommended ultrasound not to be used for routine screening. Some studies indicate that no clear benefit from routine screening results. The panel's recommendations were criticized for unnecessarily restricting ultrasound use and for inappropriately sanctioning widespread use of the technology. Human Life International, an anti-abortion organization, opposed using ultrasound to detect fetal abnormalities, contending that this would promote abortion. Some abortion opponents, however, believe ultrasound would cause bonding between the mother and the fetus and discourage abortion. The panel underscored the importance of the skill and training of ultrasound examiners. In regard to informed consent, the panel recommended that it be obtained. Further intensive research on the use of ultrasound was highly recommended. PMID:6389174

  20. Characterization and differentiation of three solid tumors using quantitative ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelze, Michael L.; O'Brien, William D.; Zachary, James F.

    2001-05-01

    Three kinds of solid tumors were acquired and scanned in vivo ultrasonically. The first tumor series (fibroadenoma) was acquired from tumors that had spontaneously developed in rats. The second tumor series was acquired by culturing a carcinoma cell line (4T1-MMT) in culture media and injecting the cells into Balb/c mice. The third tumor was acquired by transplanting a soft-tissue sarcoma cell line (EHS) into C57BL mice. The tumors were allowed to grow to 1 cm in size and then scanned ultrasonically. The scatterer properties of average scatterer diameter and acoustic concentration were estimated using a Gaussian form factor from the backscattered ultrasound measured from the tumors. Parametric images of the tumors were constructed utilizing estimated scatterer properties for regions of interest inside the tumors. The parametric images showed distinct differences between the various tumor types. Quantitatively, the tumors could be distinguished through feature analysis plots of average scatterer size versus acoustic concentration. Comparison with photomicrographs of the tumors showed structures similar in size to the ultrasound estimates. [Work supported by NIH Grant F32 CA96419 to MLO and by the University of Illinois Research Board.

  1. Nanoparticle-targeted photoacoustic cavitation for tissue imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlan, James R.; Roy, Ronald A.; Ju, Hengyi; Murray, Todd W.

    2010-02-01

    Photoacoustic tomography is a non-invasive imaging technique based on the detection of broadband acoustic emissions generated by the absorption of light in tissue. This technique utilises the high contrast of optical imaging with high resolution from ultrasound imaging. However, the ability to detect these emissions above the noise level ultimately limits the depth to which imaging can be performed. Introduction of light-absorbing gold nanoparticles can improve the signal-to-noise ratio in tissue, through greater optical absorption and targeting specific cell populations, thereby enhancing contrast and the ability to delineate tissue types. For sufficiently high laser fluence incident on a nanoparticle, a transient vapour cavity is formed and undergoes inertial collapse, generating a broadband emission and possibly additional contrast. However, the laser fluence required to achieve this typically exceeds the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) for tissue. Through the combination of ultrasonic and optical pulses, the light and sound thresholds required to repeatedly generate inertial cavitation were reduced to 11.1 mJ/cm2 and 1.5 MPa respectively. Experiments employed a transparent acrylamide gel possessing a small (<600 ?m) spherical region doped with 80 nm diameter gold nanoparticles and simultaneously exposed to pulsed laser light (532 nm) and pulsed ultrasound (1.1 MHz). The amplitude of broadband emissions induced by both light and sound exceeded that produced by light alone by almost two orders of magnitude, thereby facilitating imaging a deeper depth within tissue. 2D images of doped regions generated from conventional photoacoustic and ultrasound-enhanced emissions are presented and compared.

  2. Effects of addition of tissue-type plasminogen activator in in vitro fertilization medium on bovine embryo development and quality.

    PubMed

    Krania, F; Dovolou, E; Rekkas, C A; Theodosiadou, E K; Pappas, I; Amiridis, G S

    2015-02-01

    Plasminogen activators/Plasmin system plays pivotal role in regulating reproductive functions of mammals. Here, we examined the effects of modification of in vitro fertilization medium (IVF medium) with the addition of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), on bovine embryo development and quality, assessed by quantification of expression of various genes related to metabolism, oxidation, implantation and apoptosis. In addition, plasminogen activator activity (PAA) and plasminogen activator inhibition (PAI) were measured in the spent media. After conventional IVM, 2016 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were divided into four groups with modified composition of the IVF medium containing t-PA and/or its inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (control, t-PA, t-PA+?-ACA, ?-ACA). Presumptive zygotes were cultured for 8 days in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) medium; gene expression studies were carried out on morulae and blastocysts. t-PA alone significant