Sample records for ultrasound tissue typing

  1. Tissue identification by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroissette, D. H.; Heyser, R. C.; Gammell, P. M.; Wilson, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic properties of animal and human soft tissue were measured over the frequency range of 1.5 to 10.0 MHz. The method employed a swept-frequency, coherent technique known as time delay spectrometry. Measurements of attenuation versus frequency on liver, backfat, kidney, pancreas, spleen, breast, and other tissue were made. Considerable attention was paid to tissue handling and in determining the effects of fixing on the attenuation of ultrasound in the tissue.

  2. How does performance of ultrasound tissue typing affect design of prostate IMRT dose-painting protocols?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Pengpeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail: pz2010@columbia.edu; Osterman, K. Sunshine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Liu Tian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Li Xiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Kessel, Jack [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Wu, Leester [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Schiff, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Kutcher, Gerald J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate how the performance characteristics of ultrasound tissue typing (UTT) affect the design of a population-based prostate dose-painting protocol. Methods and Materials: The performance of UTT is evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic curve. As the imager's sensitivity increases, more tumors are detected, but the specificity worsens, causing more false-positive results. The UTT tumor map, obtained with a specific sensitivity and specificity setup, was used with the patient's CT image to guide intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning. The optimal escalation dose to the UTT positive region, as well as the safe dose to the negative background, was obtained by maximizing the uncomplicated control (i.e., a combination of tumor control probability and weighted normal tissue complication probability). For high- and low-risk tumors, IMRT plans guided by conventional ultrasound or UTT with a one-dimensional or two-dimensional spectrum analysis technique were compared with an IMRT plan in which the whole prostate was dose escalated. Results: For all imaging modalities, the specificity of 0.9 was chosen to reduce complications resulting from high false-positive results. If the primary tumors were low risk, the IMRT plans guided by all imaging modalities achieved high tumor control probability and reduced the normal tissue complication probability significantly compared with the plan with whole gland dose escalation. However, if the primary tumors were high risk, the accuracy of the imaging modality was critical to maintain the tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability at acceptable levels. Conclusion: The performance characteristics of an imager have important implications in dose painting and should be considered in the design of dose-painting protocols.

  3. Ultrasound tissue analysis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufhold, John; Chan, Ray C.; Karl, William C.; Castanon, David A.

    1999-07-01

    On the battlefield of the future, it may become feasible for medics to perform, via application of new biomedical technologies, more sophisticated diagnoses and surgery than is currently practiced. Emerging biomedical technology may enable the medic to perform laparoscopic surgical procedures to remove, for example, shrapnel from injured soldiers. Battlefield conditions constrain the types of medical image acquisition and interpretation which can be performed. Ultrasound is the only viable biomedical imaging modality appropriate for deployment on the battlefield -- which leads to image interpretation issues because of the poor quality of ultrasound imagery. To help overcome these issues, we develop and implement a method of image enhancement which could aid non-experts in the rapid interpretation and use of ultrasound imagery. We describe an energy minimization approach to finding boundaries in medical images and show how prior information on edge orientation can be incorporated into this framework to detect tissue boundaries oriented at a known angle.

  4. Controlled Ultrasound Tissue Erosion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Ludomirsky, Achiau; Eun, Lucy Y.; Hall, Timothy L.; Tran, Binh C.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of ultrasound to produce highly controlled tissue erosion was investigated. This study is motivated by the need to develop a noninvasive procedure to perforate the neonatal atrial septum as the first step in treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. A total of 232 holes were generated in 40 pieces of excised porcine atrial wall by a 788 kHz single-element transducer. The effects of various parameters [e.g., pulse repetition frequency (PRF), pulse duration (PD), and gas content of liquid] on the erosion rate and energy efficiency were explored. An Isppa of 9000 W/cm2, PDs of 3, 6, 12, and 24 cycles; PRFs between 1.34 kHz and 66.7 kHz; and gas saturation of 40–55% and 79–85% were used. The results show that very short pulses delivered at certain PRFs could maximize the erosion rate and energy efficiency. We show that well-defined perforations can be precisely located in the atrial wall through the controlled ultrasound tissue erosion (CUTE) process. A preliminary in vivo experiment was conducted on a canine subject, and the atrial septum was perforated using CUTE. PMID:15244286

  5. Ultrasound-responsive thrombus treatment with zinc-stabilized gelatin nano-complexes of tissue-type plasminogen activator

    E-print Network

    Takada, Shoji

    #12;Ultrasound-responsive thrombus treatment with zinc-stabilized gelatin nano-complexes of tissue 75 751 4646; E-mail: yasuhiko@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp Short title: Ultrasound-responsive t-PA nano complexes Key words: t-PA, thrombolytic therapy, gelatin, metal ions, ultrasound #12;1 ABSTRACT This study

  6. Tissue types (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue ...

  7. Stimulation of Tissue Healing by Ultrasound: Physical Mechanisms of Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, O.; Chong, J.; Monreal, R.

    2004-09-01

    Even though the use of ultrasound in medicine is better known by its results in diagnostic procedures, the employ of this type of mechanical energy with therapeutic purposes is been used in new and impressive applications. To obtain or to improve tissue healing in many ailments it is used a lot of approaches, from the employ of antibiotics when it is considered by the presence of an infection in the wound, to several types of physical stimulation. One of them is ultrasound. This paper consider some of the most important mechanisms of action of ultrasound in tissue that can be related whit the repair processes and specifies levels of activation of many paths of action. Especial emphasis has received the stimulation of bone repair by ultrasound.

  8. Effects of ultrasound and ultrasound contrast agent on vascular tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ultrasound (US) imaging can be enhanced using gas-filled microbubble contrast agents. Strong echo signals are induced at the tissue-gas interface following microbubble collapse. Applications include assessment of ventricular function and virtual histology. Aim While ultrasound and US contrast agents are widely used, their impact on the physiological response of vascular tissue to vasoactive agents has not been investigated in detail. Methods and results In the present study, rat dorsal aortas were treated with US via a clinical imaging transducer in the presence or absence of the US contrast agent, Optison. Aortas treated with both US and Optison were unable to contract in response to phenylephrine or to relax in the presence of acetylcholine. Histology of the arteries was unremarkable. When the treated aortas were stained for endothelial markers, a distinct loss of endothelium was observed. Importantly, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) staining of treated aortas demonstrated incipient apoptosis in the endothelium. Conclusions Taken together, these ex vivo results suggest that the combination of US and Optison may alter arterial integrity and promote vascular injury; however, the in vivo interaction of Optison and ultrasound remains an open question. PMID:22805356

  9. Tissue mimicking materials for dental ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Brown, Elliott R.; White, Shane N.

    2008-01-01

    While acoustic tissue mimicking materials have been explored for a variety of soft and hard biological tissues, no dental hard tissue mimicking materials have been characterized. Tooth phantoms are necessary to better understand acoustic phenomenology within the tooth environment and to accelerate the advancement of dental ultrasound imaging systems. In this study, soda lime glass and dental composite were explored as surrogates for human enamel and dentin, respectively, in terms of compressional velocity, attenuation, and acoustic impedance. The results suggest that a tooth phantom consisting of glass and composite can effectively mimic the acoustic behavior of a natural human tooth. PMID:18396919

  10. Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and ... liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound ...

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of Atherosclerotic Plaque Using Ultrasound Tissue Characterization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigiter, Ersin

    Evaluation of therapeutic methods directed toward interrupting and/or delaying atherogenesis is impeded by the lack of a reliable, non-invasive means for monitoring progression or regression of disease. The ability to characterize the predominant component of plaque may be very valuable in the study of this disease's natural history. The earlier the lesion, the more likely is lipid to be the predominant component. Progression of plaque is usually by way of overgrowth of fibrous tissues around the fatty pool. Calcification is usually a feature of the older or complicated lesion. To explore the feasibility of using ultrasound to characterize plaque we have conducted measurements of the acoustical properties of various atherosclerotic lesions found in freshly excised samples of human abdominal aorta. Our objective has been to determine whether or not the acoustical properties of plaque correlate with the type and/or chemical composition of plaque and, if so, to define a measurement scheme which could be done in-vivo and non-invasively. Our current data base consists of individual tissue samples from some 200 different aortas. Since each aorta yields between 10 to 30 tissue samples for study, we have data on some 4,468 different lesions or samples. Measurements of the acoustical properties of plaque were found to correlate well with the chemical composition of plaque. In short, measurements of impedance and attenuation seem sufficient to classify plaque as to type and to composition. Based on the in-vitro studies, the parameter of attenuation was selected as a means of classifying the plaque. For these measurements, an intravascular ultrasound scanner was modified according to our specifications. Signal processing algorithms were developed which would analyze the complex ultrasound waveforms and estimate tissue properties such as attenuation. Various methods were tried to estimate the attenuation from the pulse-echo backscattered signal. Best results were obtained by comparing averaged power spectra in small time windows at different depths for a series of A-lines. Comparisons between consequent averaged spectra at different depths provided the magnitude and frequency dependence of attenuation. Non-invasive characterization of the physical state of the tissue with quantitative ultrasound holds great promise for the extension of the diagnostic power of conventional B-mode imaging.

  12. Tissue Bioeffects during Ultrasound-mediated Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Jonathan

    Ultrasound has been developed as both a valuable diagnostic tool and a potent promoter of beneficial tissue bioeffects for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Vascular effects can be mediated by mechanical oscillations of circulating microbubbles, or ultrasound contrast agents, which may also encapsulate and shield a therapeutic agent in the bloodstream. Oscillating microbubbles can create stresses directly on nearby tissue or induce fluid effects that effect drug penetration into vascular tissue, lyse thrombi, or direct drugs to optimal locations for delivery. These investigations have spurred continued research into alternative therapeutic applications, such as bioactive gas delivery. This dissertation addresses a fundamental hypothesis in biomedical ultrasound: ultrasound-mediated drug delivery is capable of increasing the penetration of drugs across different physiologic barriers within the cardiovascular system, such as the vascular endothelium, blood clots, and smooth muscle cells.

  13. Ultrasound Accelerated Bone Tissue Engineering Monitored with Magnetic Resonance Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessy J. Moinnes; Neelima Vidula; Nadia Halim; Shadi F. Othman

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering has the potential to treat bone loss, but current bone restoration methods, including osteogenesis from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), require three to four weeks for bone formation to occur. In this study, we stimulated the formation of engineered bone tissue with low-intensity ultrasound, which has been proven to accelerate bone healing in vivo. One group of engineered bone

  14. Ultrasound strain imaging for quantification of tissue function: cardiovascular applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Korte, Chris L.; Lopata, Richard G. P.; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.

    2013-03-01

    With ultrasound imaging, the motion and deformation of tissue can be measured. Tissue can be deformed by applying a force on it and the resulting deformation is a function of its mechanical properties. Quantification of this resulting tissue deformation to assess the mechanical properties of tissue is called elastography. If the tissue under interrogation is actively deforming, the deformation is directly related to its function and quantification of this deformation is normally referred as `strain imaging'. Elastography can be used for atherosclerotic plaques characterization, while the contractility of the heart or skeletal muscles can be assessed with strain imaging. We developed radio frequency (RF) based ultrasound methods to assess the deformation at higher resolution and with higher accuracy than commercial methods using conventional image data (Tissue Doppler Imaging and 2D speckle tracking methods). However, the improvement in accuracy is mainly achieved when measuring strain along the ultrasound beam direction, so 1D. We further extended this method to multiple directions and further improved precision by using compounding of data acquired at multiple beam steered angles. In arteries, the presence of vulnerable plaques may lead to acute events like stroke and myocardial infarction. Consequently, timely detection of these plaques is of great diagnostic value. Non-invasive ultrasound strain compounding is currently being evaluated as a diagnostic tool to identify the vulnerability of plaques. In the heart, we determined the strain locally and at high resolution resulting in a local assessment in contrary to conventional global functional parameters like cardiac output or shortening fraction.

  15. Pressure and temperature distribution in biological tissues by focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal, Ajit K.; Feng, Feng; Kabo, Michael; Wang, Jeffrey; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2003-07-01

    The interaction between ultrasound and biological tissues has been the subject of a number of investigators for nearly half a century and the number of applications of high intensity, focused ultrasound for therapeutic purposes continues to grow. This paper is motivated by possible medical applications of focused ultrasound in minimally invasive treatment of a variety of musculoskeletal disorders that are responsive to thermal treatment. The mechanical and thermal effects in a subject"s body induced by high-frequency ultrasound are simulated using PZFlex, a finite element based program. The FEM model described in this report is of a transverse section of the body at the level of the second lumbar vertebra (L2) extracted from a CT image. In order to protect the nerves inside the spinal canal as well as to obtain an effective heating result at the focal region within the intervertebral disk, a suitable orientation of axis of the focused ultrasound lens have to be determined in advance. The pressure, energy loss distribution and temperature distribution are investigated in this paper with the different orientations of the axis and different transverse diameter of the spherical ultrasound lens. Since nonlinear effects are expected to be important in the therapeutic application in some literatures, this paper also demonstrates the effects of nonlinearities on the pressure and temperature distribution induced by focused ultrasound in a two dimensional model. Finally, a comparison of the results between linear and nonlinear cases is reported.

  16. The thresholds and mechanisms of tissue injury by focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Julianna

    Therapeutic ultrasound is used in clinics around the world to treat ailments such as uterine fibroids, kidney stones, and plantar fasciitis. While many of the therapeutic effects of ultrasound are elicited by hyperthermia, bubbles can also interact with tissue to produce beneficial effects. For example, bubbles are used in boiling histotripsy to de-bulk tissue and are used in shock wave lithotripsy to break kidney stones. However, the same bubbles that break the kidney stones also damage the kidney, which is why bubble damage is a concern in every ultrasound application including fetal imaging. Whether the aim is to emulsify a tumor or image a fetus, understanding the thresholds and mechanisms of tissue injury by bubbles in an ultrasound field is important for all ultrasound applications and was the goal of this dissertation. One specific application of therapeutic ultrasound, known as boiling histotripsy, uses shock wave heating to explosively expand a millimeter-size boiling bubble at the transducer focus and fractionate bulk tissue. Yet it was unclear how the millimeter-size boiling or vapor bubble broke down the tissue into its submicron components. In this dissertation, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that ultrasonic atomization, or the emission of fine droplets from an acoustically excited liquid film, is the mechanism by which the millimeter-size boiling bubble in boiling histotripsy fractionates tissue into its submicron components. Using high speed photography, we showed that tissue can behave as a liquid such that a miniature acoustic fountain forms and atomization occurs within a millimeter-size cavity that approximates the boiling or vapor bubble produced by boiling histotripsy. The end result of tissue atomization was a hole in the tissue surface. After showing that tissue can be eroded by atomization, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the tissue properties that influence atomization. The results indicated that highly collagenous tissues such as the liver capsule were difficult to atomize; however it was also shown that surface wetting could be used to enhance atomization by changing the focus of the inverted and reflected ultrasound wave. Finally, the role of bubbles in tissue atomization was investigated using a high static pressure chamber, where it was determined that bubbles are necessary for tissue fractionation. While the investigation into the mechanism of boiling histotripsy was the primary focus of this dissertation, we also established thermal and mechanical injury thresholds for renal tissue injury. This work was driven by the need to determine the safety of a specific therapeutic ultrasound application - renal stone repositioning by ultrasonic propulsion - for FDA approval to begin clinical trials. The end result of this dissertation was an increased understanding of how and at what levels bubbles in an ultrasound field can damage tissue, which is important for developing safe and reliable therapies.

  17. Ultrasound

    Cancer.gov

    Ultrasound uses sound waves with frequencies above those humans can hear. A transducer sends sound waves traveling into the body which are reflected back from organs and tissues, allowing a picture to be made of the internal organs. Ultrasound can show

  18. Slow light for deep tissue imaging with ultrasound modulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huiliang; Sabooni, Mahmood; Rippe, Lars; Kim, Chulhong; Kröll, Stefan; Wang, Lihong V.; Hemmer, Philip R.

    2012-01-01

    Slow light has been extensively studied for applications ranging from optical delay lines to single photon quantum storage. Here, we show that the time delay of slow-light significantly improves the performance of the narrowband spectral filters needed to optically detect ultrasound from deep inside highly scattering tissue. We demonstrate this capability with a 9?cm thick tissue phantom, having 10?cm?1 reduced scattering coefficient, and achieve an unprecedented background-free signal. Based on the data, we project real time imaging at video rates in even thicker phantoms and possibly deep enough into real tissue for clinical applications like early cancer detection. PMID:22509069

  19. A 120-MHz ultrasound probe for tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Yokosawa, K; Shinomura, R; Sano, S; Ito, Y; Ishikawa, S; Sato, Y

    1996-10-01

    Ultrasound transducers with center frequency above 100 MHz are expected to be used for future diagnostic tissue characterization because of their high lateral resolution. We have fabricated a 120-MHz transducer that consists of a ZnO piezoelectric film on a sapphire substrate that has a concave acoustic lens. The lateral resolution was calculated as 13 microns. The insertion loss of the transducer, defined as the difference between the received voltage and the transmitted one, was -45 dB. The 6-dB handwidth of the received signal was approximately 40 MHz. The transducer was mounted in a rod-shaped probe to ensure contact with in vivo tissue, because of the low penetration of ultrasound in the high frequency region. While the probe is rotated and moved along its axis mechanically, the transducer receives backscattered ultrasound from the surrounding tissue on a cylindrical plane that is kept a constant distance from the probe surface. The feasibility of this high-frequency tissue imaging probe has been demonstrated by obtaining preliminary images of an in vitro bovine kidney. PMID:9101645

  20. Nakagami imaging for detecting thermal lesions induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound in tissue.

    PubMed

    Rangraz, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound induces focalized tissue coagulation by increasing the tissue temperature in a tight focal region. Several methods have been proposed to monitor high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions. Currently, ultrasound imaging techniques that are clinically used for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment are standard pulse-echo B-mode ultrasound imaging, ultrasound temperature estimation, and elastography-based methods. On the contrary, the efficacy of two-dimensional Nakagami parametric imaging based on the distribution of the ultrasound backscattered signals to quantify properties of soft tissue has recently been evaluated. In this study, ultrasound radio frequency echo signals from ex vivo tissue samples were acquired before and after high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures and then their Nakagami parameter and scaling parameter of Nakagami distribution were estimated. These parameters were used to detect high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions. Also, the effects of changing the acoustic power of the high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer on the Nakagami parameters were studied. The results obtained suggest that the Nakagami distribution's scaling and Nakagami parameters can effectively be used to detect high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in tissue ex vivo. These parameters can also be used to understand the degree of change in tissue caused by high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures, which could be interpreted as a measure of degree of variability in scatterer concentration in various parts of the high-intensity focused ultrasound lesion. PMID:24264647

  1. Ultrasound therapy applicators for controlled thermal modification of tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Lichtenstiger, Carol; Rund, Laurie; Keralapura, Mallika; Gossett, Chad; Stahlhut, Randy; Neubauer, Paul; Komadina, Bruce; Williams, Emery; Alix, Chris; Jensen, Tor; Schook, Lawrence; Diederich, Chris J.

    2011-03-01

    Heat therapy has long been used for treatments in dermatology and sports medicine. The use of laser, RF, microwave, and more recently, ultrasound treatment, for psoriasis, collagen reformation, and skin tightening has gained considerable interest over the past several years. Numerous studies and commercial devices have demonstrated the efficacy of these methods for treatment of skin disorders. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot effectively treat effectively because there is little or no control of the size, shape, and depth of the target zone. These limitations make it extremely difficult to obtain consistent treatment results. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility for using acoustic energy for controlled dose delivery sufficient to produce collagen modification for the treatment of skin tissue in the dermal and sub-dermal layers. We designed and evaluated a curvilinear focused ultrasound device for treating skin disorders such as psoriasis, stimulation of wound healing, tightening of skin through shrinkage of existing collagen and stimulation of new collagen formation, and skin cancer. Design parameters were examined using acoustic pattern simulations and thermal modeling. Acute studies were performed in 201 freshly-excised samples of young porcine underbelly skin tissue and 56 in-vivo treatment areas in 60- 80 kg pigs. These were treated with ultrasound (9-11MHz) focused in the deep dermis. Dose distribution was analyzed and gross pathology assessed. Tissue shrinkage was measured based on fiducial markers and video image registration and analyzed using NIH Image-J software. Comparisons were made between RF and focused ultrasound for five energy ranges. In each experimental series, therapeutic dose levels (60degC) were attained at 2-5mm depth. Localized collagen changes ranged from 1-3% for RF versus 8-15% for focused ultrasound. Therapeutic ultrasound applied at high frequencies can achieve temperatures and dose distributions which concentrate in a depth profile that coincides with the location of maximum structural collagen content in skin tissues. Using an appropriate transducer configuration produces coverage of significant lateral area, thus making this a practical approach for treatment of skin disorders.

  2. "Sonoelasticity" images derived from ultrasound signals in mechanically vibrated tissues.

    PubMed

    Lerner, R M; Huang, S R; Parker, K J

    1990-01-01

    A method has been developed for detecting and imaging the relative "stiffness," or elasticity of tissues. Externally applied vibration at low frequencies (10-1000 Hz) is used to induce oscillations within soft tissues, and the motion is detected by Doppler ultrasound. The results are displayed in a format resembling conventional Doppler color flow mapping, and are termed "sonoelasticity images." Preliminary experiments indicate that these novel images may be useful for detecting hard tumors in the prostate, liver, breast, and other organs. PMID:1694603

  3. Ultrasonic atomization of tissue and its role in tissue fractionation by high intensity focused ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Julianna C.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Wang, Yak-Nam; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Atomization and fountain formation is a well-known phenomenon that occurs when a focused ultrasound wave in liquid encounters an air interface. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to fractionate tissue into submicron-size fragments in a process termed boiling histotripsy, wherein the focused ultrasound wave superheats the tissue at the focus, producing a millimetre-size boiling or vapour bubble in several milliseconds. Yet the question of how this millimetre-size boiling bubble creates submicron-size tissue fragments remains. The hypothesis of this work is that tissue can behave as a liquid such that it forms a fountain and atomization within the vapour bubble produced in boiling histotripsy. We describe an experiment, in which a 2-MHz HIFU transducer (maximum in situ intensity of 24,000 W/cm2) was aligned with an air-tissue interface meant to simulate the boiling bubble. Atomization and fountain formation were observed with high-speed photography and resulted in tissue erosion. Histological examination of the atomized tissue showed whole and fragmented cells and nuclei. Air-liquid interfaces were also filmed. Our conclusion was that HIFU can fountain and atomize tissue. Although this process does not entirely mimic what was observed in liquids, it does explain many aspects of tissue fractionation in boiling histotripsy. PMID:23159812

  4. Characterizing Tissue with Acoustic Parameters Derived from Ultrasound Data

    SciTech Connect

    Littrup, P; Duric, N; Leach, R R; Azevedo, S G; Candy, J V; Moore, T; Chambers, D H; Mast, J E; Johnson, S A; Holsapple, E

    2002-01-23

    In contrast to standard reflection ultrasound (US), transmission US holds the promise of more thorough tissue characterization by generating quantitative acoustic parameters. We compare results from a conventional US scanner with data acquired using an experimental circular scanner operating at frequencies of 0.3 - 1.5 MHz. Data were obtained on phantoms and a normal, formalin-fixed, excised breast. Both reflection and transmission-based algorithms were used to generate images of reflectivity, sound speed and attenuation.. Images of the phantoms demonstrate the ability to detect sub-mm features and quantify acoustic properties such as sound speed and attenuation. The human breast specimen showed full field evaluation, improved penetration and tissue definition. Comparison with conventional US indicates the potential for better margin definition and acoustic characterization of masses, particularly in the complex scattering environments of human breast tissue. The use of morphology, in the context of reflectivity, sound speed and attenuation, for characterizing tissue, is discussed.

  5. Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Soft Tissue with Ultrasound Vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadich, I.; Bernal, M.; Greenleaf, J. F.

    The cardiovascular diseases atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension and heart failure have been related to stiffening of vessels and myocardium. Noninvasive measurements of mechanical properties of cardiovascular tissue would facilitate detection and treatment of disease in early stages, thus reducing mortality and possibly reducing cost of treatment. While techniques capable of measuring tissue elasticity have been reported, the knowledge of both elasticity and viscosity is necessary to fully characterize mechanical properties of soft tissues. In this article, we summarize the Shearwave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV) method developed by our group and report on advances made in characterizing stiffness of large vessels and myocardium. The method uses radiation forceFadiation force to excite shear waves in soft tissue and pulse echo ultrasound to measure the motion. The speed of propagation of shear waves at different frequencies is used to generate dispersions curves for excised porcine left-ventricular free-wall myocardium and carotid arteries. An antisymmetric Lamb wave model was fitted to the LV myocardium dispersion curves to obtain elasticity and viscosity moduli. The results suggest that the speed of shear wave propagation in four orthogonal directions on the surface of the excised myocardium is similar. These studies show that the SDUV method has potential for clinical application in noninvasive quantification of elasticity and viscosity of vessels and myocardium.

  6. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in dentofacial tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiji; Kuroda, Shingo; Horiuchi, Shinya; Tabata, Akira; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2015-04-01

    Oral and maxillofacial diseases affect millions of people worldwide and hence tissue engineering can be considered an interesting and clinically relevant approach to regenerate orofacial tissues after being affected by different diseases. Among several innovations for tissue regeneration, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used extensively in medicine as a therapeutic, operative, and diagnostic tool. LIPUS is accepted to promote bone fracture repair and regeneration. Furthermore, the effect of LIPUS on soft tissues regeneration has been paid much attention, and many studies have performed to evaluate the potential use of LIPUS to tissue engineering soft tissues. The present article provides an overview about the status of LIPUS stimulation as a tool to be used to enhance regeneration/tissue engineering. This review consists of five parts. Part 1 is a brief introduction of the acoustic description of LIPUS and mechanical action. In Part 2, biological problems in dentofacial tissue engineering are proposed. Part 3 explores biologic mechanisms of LIPUS to cells and tissues in living body. In Part 4, the effectiveness of LIPUS on cell metabolism and tissue regeneration in dentistry are summarized. Finally, Part 5 relates the possibility of clinical application of LIPUS in orthodontics. The present review brings out better understanding of the bioeffect of LIPUS therapy on orofacial tissues which is essential to the successful integration of management remedies for tissue regeneration/engineering. To develop an evidence-based approach to clinical management and treatment of orofacial degenerative diseases using LIPUS, we would like to be in full pursuit of LIPUS biotherapy. Still, there are many challenges for this relatively new strategy, but the up to date achievements using it promises to go far beyond the present possibilities. PMID:25672801

  7. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment of tissue properties for Achilles tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yung-Fu; Chen, Pei-Jarn; Lin, Yu-Ching; Chen, Tainsong; Lin, Chii-Jeng

    2007-09-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques have recently been widely applied for the characterization of tissues. For example, they can be used for the quantification of Achilles tendon properties based on the broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and the speed of sound (SOS) when the ultrasound wave passes through the tissues. This study is to develop an integrated system to investigate the properties of Achilles tendons using QUS images from UBIS 5000 (DMS, Montpellier, France) and B-mode ultrasound images from HDI 5000 (ATL, Ultramark, USA). Subjects including young (32 females and 17 males; mean age: 23.7 ± 2.0) and middle-aged groups (8 female and 8 males; mean age: 47.3 ± 8.5 s) were recruited and tested for this study. Only subjects who did not exercise regularly and had no record of tendon injury were studied. The results show that the BUA is significantly higher for the young group (45.2 ± 1.6 dB MHz-1) than the middle-age group (40.5 ± 1.9 dB MHz-1), while the SOS is significantly lower for the young (1601.9 ± 11.2 ms-1) compared to the middle-aged (1624.1 ± 8.7 m s-1). On the other hand, the thicknesses of Achilles tendons for both groups (young: 4.31 ± 0.23 mm; middle age: 4.24 ± 0.23 mm) are very similar. For one patient who had an Achilles tendon lengthening (ATL) surgery, the thickness of the Achilles tendon increased from 4 mm to 4.33 mm after the surgery. In addition, the BUA increased by about 7.2% while the SOS decreased by about 0.6%. In conclusion, noninvasive ultrasonic assessment of Achilles tendons is useful for assisting clinical diagnosis and for the evaluation of a therapeutic regimen.

  8. Measuring tissue blood flow using ultrasound modulated diffused light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ron, A.; Racheli, N.; Breskin, I.; Metzger, Y.; Silman, Z.; Kamar, M.; Nini, A.; Shechter, R.; Balberg, M.

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate the ability of a novel device employing ultrasound modulation of near infrared light (referred as "Ultrasound tagged light" or UTL) to perform non-invasive monitoring of blood flow in the microvascular level in tissue. Monitoring microcirculatory blood flow is critical in clinical situations affecting flow to different organs, such as the brain or the limbs. . However, currently there are no non-invasive devices that measure microcirculatory blood flow in deep tissue continuously. Our prototype device (Ornim Medical, Israel) was used to monitor tissue blood flow on anesthetized swine during controlled manipulations of increased and decreased blood flow. Measurements were done on the calf muscle and forehead of the animal and compared with Laser Doppler (LD). ROC analysis of the sensitivity and specificity for detecting an increase in blood flow on the calf muscle, demonstrated AUC = 0.951 for 23 systemic manipulations of cardiac output by Epinephrine injection, which is comparable to AUC = 0.943 using laser Doppler. Some examples of cerebral blood flow monitoring are presented, along with their individual ROC curves. UTL flowmetry is shown to be effective in detecting changes in cerebral and muscle blood flow in swine, and has merit in clinical applications.

  9. Quantification of freshly-excised human lymph node tissue using high-frequency ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Quantification of freshly-excised human lymph node tissue using high-frequency ultrasound J. Mamoua 2012 Nantes Conference 23-27 April 2012, Nantes, France 3887 #12;Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods Introduction Typical B-mode ultrasound images are mostly qualita- tive and simply display relative changes

  10. Optimal conditions for tissue perforation using high intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kihara, Taizo; Ogawa, Kouji; Tanabe, Ryoko; Yosizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Kakimoto, Takashi; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Chiba, Toshio

    2012-10-01

    To perforate tissue lying deep part in body, a large size transducer was assembled by combining four spherical-shaped transducers, and the optimal conditions for tissue perforation have studied using ventricle muscle of chicken as a target. The ex vivo experiments showed that ventricle muscle was successfully perforated both when it was exposed to High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) directly and when it was exposed to HIFU through atrial muscle layer. Moreover, it was shown that calculated acoustic power distributions are well similar to the perforation patterns, and that the acoustic energy distributes very complexly near the focus. Lastly, perforation on the living rabbit bladder wall was demonstrated as a preliminary in vivo experiment.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF INTENSITY THRESHOLDS FOR ULTRASOUND TISSUE EROSION

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Ludomirsky, Achi; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that short intense pulses delivered at certain pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) can achieve localized, clean erosion in soft tissue. In this paper, the intensity thresholds for ultrasound induced erosion and the effects of pulse intensity on erosion characterized by axial erosion rate, perforation area and volume erosion rate were investigated on in vitro porcine atrial wall tissue. Ultrasound pulses with a 3-cycle pulse duration and a 20-kHz PRF were delivered by a 788-kHz single element focused transducer. ISPPA values of 1000 to 9000 W/cm2 were tested. Results show the following: (1) the estimated intensity threshold for generating erosion was at ISPPA of 3220 W/cm2; (2) the axial erosion rate increased with higher intensity at ISPPA ? 5000 W/cm2, while decreased with higher intensity at ISPPA ? 5000 W/cm2; and (3) the perforation area and the volume erosion rate increased with higher intensity. PMID:16344129

  12. Medical ultrasound: imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Peter N. T.; Liang, Hai-Dong

    2011-01-01

    After X-radiography, ultrasound is now the most common of all the medical imaging technologies. For millennia, manual palpation has been used to assist in diagnosis, but it is subjective and restricted to larger and more superficial structures. Following an introduction to the subject of elasticity, the elasticity of biological soft tissues is discussed and published data are presented. The basic physical principles of pulse-echo and Doppler ultrasonic techniques are explained. The history of ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is summarized, together with a brief critique of previously published reviews. The relevant techniques—low-frequency vibration, step, freehand and physiological displacement, and radiation force (displacement, impulse, shear wave and acoustic emission)—are described. Tissue-mimicking materials are indispensible for the assessment of these techniques and their characteristics are reported. Emerging clinical applications in breast disease, cardiology, dermatology, gastroenterology, gynaecology, minimally invasive surgery, musculoskeletal studies, radiotherapy, tissue engineering, urology and vascular disease are critically discussed. It is concluded that ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is now sufficiently well developed to have clinical utility. The potential for further research is examined and it is anticipated that the technology will become a powerful mainstream investigative tool. PMID:21680780

  13. Characterization of tissue scaffolds using optics and ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, N. T.; Parker, N. G.; He, D.; Ruan, H.; Hayes-Gill, B. R.; Mather, M. L.; Crowe, J. A.; Rose, F. R. A. J.; Povey, M. J. W.; Morgan, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    Tissue scaffolds are an integral part of the tissue engineering process, assisting in the culturing of cells in three dimensions. It is important to understand both the properties of the scaffold and the growth of cells within the scaffold. This paper describes a system to characterise scaffolds using acoustic techniques alone and the development of an ultrasound modulated optical tomography system to study the growth of cells within the scaffolds. Our interest is in characterising the properties of gel-based and polymer foam-based scaffolds. Results from a purely acoustic system have been used to investigate the properties of foam scaffolds manufactured from synthetic polyesters poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) via a supercritical fluid process. As these are porous materials, they are particularly challenging acoustically as the pores scatter sound significantly. However, it is demonstrated that acoustic signals are detectable through a 6mm thick scaffold. Although acoustics alone can be used to characterize many properties of the scaffolds, useful information can also be obtained from optical techniques e.g. monitoring the growth of cells within the scaffold via optical absorption or fluorescence techniques. Light scattering is of course a significant problem for relatively thick engineered tissue (~5mm). The acoustic approach has been extended to include laser illumination and detection of the ultrasound modulated optical pulse. Images of optically-absorbing materials embedded in gel-based tissue phantoms will be presented demonstrating that a lateral resolution of 250?m and an axial resolution of ~90?m can be achieved in scattering samples.

  14. A Novel Method to Obtain Modulus Image of Soft Tissues Using Ultrasound Water Jet Indentation: A Phantom Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Hua Lu; Yong-Ping Zheng; Qing-Hua Huang

    2007-01-01

    The alteration of tissue stiffness is generally known to be associated with pathological changes. Ultrasound indentation is one of the methods that can be used to assess the mechanical properties of the soft tissues. It uses a flat-ended ultrasound transducer to directly contact the tissue to sense tissue deformation under an applied load. This paper introduced a novel noncontact ultrasound

  15. The role of acoustic cavitation in enhanced ultrasound- induced heating in a tissue-mimicking phantom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Lee Edson

    2001-01-01

    A complete understanding of high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced temperature changes in tissue requires insight into all potential mechanisms for heat deposition. Applications of therapeutic ultrasound often utilize acoustic pressures capable of producing cavitation activity. Recognizing the ability of bubbles to transfer acoustic energy into heat generation, a study of the role bubbles play in tissue hyperthermia becomes necessary. These bubbles are

  16. High intensity focused ultrasound and tissue heating: the effect of nonlinear sound propagation and vessel presence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco P. Curra; Pierre D. Mourad; Vera A. Khokhlova; Lawrence A. Crum

    1998-01-01

    The use of high initial pressures in high intensity focused ultrasound transducers combined with the physical characteristics of biological tissue are likely to induce shock formation during the propagation of an ultrasound wave. The induced shock directly affects the magnitude and spatial distribution of the energy being delivered as well as the rate at which heat is absorbed by tissue.

  17. Probability of cavitation for single ultrasound pulses applied to tissues and tissue-mimicking materials

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Adam D.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Xu, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the negative pressure values at which inertial cavitation consistently occurs in response to a single, 2-cycle, focused ultrasound pulse were measured in several media relevant to cavitation-based ultrasound therapy. The pulse was focused into a chamber containing one of the media, which included liquids, tissue-mimicking materials, and ex-vivo canine tissue. Focal waveforms were measured by two separate techniques using a fiber-optic hydrophone. Inertial cavitation was identified by high-speed photography in optically transparent media and an acoustic passive cavitation detector. The probability of cavitation (Pcav) for a single pulse as a function of peak negative pressure (p?) followed a sigmoid curve, with the probability approaching 1 when the pressure amplitude was sufficient. The statistical threshold (defined as Pcav = 0.5) was between p? = 26.0–30.0 MPa in all samples with a high water content, but varied between p? = 13.7 to > 36 MPa for other media. A model for radial cavitation bubble dynamics was employed to evaluate the behavior of cavitation nuclei at these pressure levels. A single bubble nucleus with an inertial cavitation threshold of p? = 28.2 MPa was estimated to have a 2.5 nm radius in distilled water. These data may be valuable for cavitation-based ultrasound therapy to predict the likelihood of cavitation at different pressure levels and dimensions of cavitation-induced lesions in tissue. PMID:23380152

  18. Reusable tissue-mimicking hydrogel phantoms for focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Kuan; Shieh, Jay; Lo, Chia-Wen; Chen, Chuin-Shan; Chen, Ben-Ting; Huang, Chang-Wei; Chen, Wen-Shiang

    2015-03-01

    The ability of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)-based hydrogel phantoms to mimic tissues with different acoustic and thermal properties under high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation was investigated. These phantoms were designed to model the formation of thermal lesions in tissues above the threshold temperature of protein denaturation. By adjusting the concentration of acrylic acid (AAc) in the NIPAM-based hydrogel phantoms, the cloud point (i.e., lower critical solution temperature) of the phantoms could be tailored to produce HIFU thermal lesions similar to those formed in different swine tissues in terms of size and shape. Additionally, energy thresholds for inducing transient or permanent bubbles in the phantoms during HIFU ablation were also identified to shed light on the onset of cavitation or material damage. The NIPAM-based hydrogel phantoms developed in this study possess major advantages such as transparent, reusable and tailorable properties, and are practical tools for characterizing an ablative device (or treatment) to determine its efficacy and safety. PMID:25453217

  19. Viscoelastic Property Measurement in Thin Tissue Constructs Using Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a dual-element concave ultrasound transducer system for generating and tracking of localized tissue displacements in thin tissue constructs on rigid substrates. The system is comprised of a highly focused PZT-4 5-MHz acoustic radiation force (ARF) transducer and a confocal 25-MHz polyvinylidene fluoride imaging transducer. This allows for the generation of measurable displacements in tissue samples on rigid substrates with thickness values down to 500 µm. Impulse-like and longer duration sine-modulated ARF pulses are possible with intermittent M-mode data acquisition for displacement tracking. The operations of the ARF and imaging transducers are strictly synchronized using an integrated system for arbitrary waveform generation and data capture with a shared timebase. This allows for virtually jitter-free pulse-echo data well suited for correlation-based speckle tracking. With this technique we could faithfully capture the entire dynamics of the tissue axial deformation at pulse-repetition frequency values up to 10 kHz. Spatio-temporal maps of tissue displacements in response to a variety of modulated ARF beams were produced in tissue-mimicking elastography phantoms on rigid substrates. The frequency response was measured for phantoms with different modulus and thickness values. The frequency response exhibited resonant behavior with the resonance frequency being inversely proportional to the sample thickness. This resonant behavior can be used in obtaining high-contrast imaging using magnitude and phase response to sinusoidally modulated ARF beams. Furthermore, a second order forced harmonic oscillator (FHO) model was shown to capture this resonant behavior. Based on the FHO model, we used the extended Kalman filter (EKF) for tracking the apparent modulus and viscosity of samples subjected to dc and sinusoidally modulated ARF. The results show that the stiffness (apparent modulus) term in the FHO is largely time-invariant and can be estimated robustly using the EKF. On the other hand, the damping (apparent viscosity) is time varying. These findings were confirmed by comparing the magnitude response of the FHO (with parameters obtained using the EKF) with the measured ones for different thin tissue constructs. PMID:18334343

  20. Intense focused ultrasound preferentially stimulates subcutaneous and focal neuropathic tissue: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    McClintic, Abbi M.; Dickey, Trevor C.; Gofeld, Michael; Kliot, Michel; Loeser, John D.; Richebe, Philippe; Mourad, Pierre D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Potential peripheral sources of pain from subcutaneous tissue can require invasive evocative tests for their localization and assessment. Here we describe studies whose ultimate goal is development of a non-invasive evocative test for subcutaneous, painful tissue. Design We used a rat model of a focal and subcutaneous neuroma to test the hypothesis that intense focused ultrasound can differentiate focal and subcutaneous neuropathic tissue from control tissue. To do so we first applied intense focused ultrasound (2 MHz, with individual pulses of 0.1 seconds in duration) to the rat’s neuroma while the rat was under light anesthesia. We started with low values of intensity which we increased until intense focused ultrasound stimulation caused the rat to reliably flick its paw. We then applied that same intense focused ultrasound protocol to control tissue away from the neuroma and assayed for the rat’s response to that stimulation. Results Intense focused ultrasound of sufficient strength (I_sata of 600 +/? 160 W/cm^2) applied to the neuroma caused the rat to flick its paw, while the same intense focused ultrasound applied millimeters to a centimeter away failed to induce a paw flick. Conclusion Successful stimulation of the neuroma by intense focused ultrasound required co-localization of the neuroma and intense focused ultrasound, supporting our hypothesis. PMID:23137045

  1. Semi-automated Ultrasound Facial Soft Tissue Depth Registration: Method and Validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven De Greef; Peter Claes; Wouter Mollemans; Miet Loubele; Dirk Vandermeulen; Paul Suetens; Guy Willems

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT: A mobile and fast, semi-automatic ultrasound (US) system was developed for facial soft tissue depth registration. The system consists of an A-Scan ultrasound device connected to a portable PC with interfacing and controlling software. For 52 cephalometric landmarks, the system was tested for repeatability and accuracy,by evaluating intra-observer agreement,and comparing,ultrasound and CT-scan results on 12 subjects planned for craniofacial

  2. Broadband miniature optical ultrasound probe for high resolution vascular tissue imaging

    PubMed Central

    Colchester, Richard J.; Zhang, Edward Z.; Mosse, Charles A.; Beard, Paul C.; Papakonstantinou, Ioannis; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2015-01-01

    An all-optical ultrasound probe for vascular tissue imaging was developed. Ultrasound was generated by pulsed laser illumination of a functionalized carbon nanotube composite coating on the end face of an optical fiber. Ultrasound was detected with a Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity on the end face of an adjacent optical fiber. The probe diameter was < 0.84 mm and had an ultrasound bandwidth of ~20 MHz. The probe was translated across the tissue sample to create a virtual linear array of ultrasound transmit/receive elements. At a depth of 3.5 mm, the axial resolution was 64 µm and the lateral resolution was 88 µm, as measured with a carbon fiber target. Vascular tissues from swine were imaged ex vivo and good correspondence to histology was observed.

  3. Effect of Acoustic Nonlinearity on Heating of Biological Tissue by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonenko, E. A.; Khokhlova, V. A.

    2001-07-01

    Effect of strong acoustic nonlinearity on the efficiency of heating of a biological tissue by high-intensity focused ultrasound in the modes of operation used in real clinical setups is studied. The spatial distributions of thermal sources and the corresponding temperature increments caused by ultrasonic absorption are analyzed. Numerical algorithms are developed for simulating the nonlinear focusing of ultrasound in the calculations of both the heat sources on the basis of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov-type equations and the temperature field in a tissue on the basis of an inhomogeneous thermal conduction equation with a relaxation term. It is demonstrated that in the mode of operation typical of acoustic surgery, the nonlinearity improves the locality of heating and leads to an increase in the power of thermal sources in the focus by approximately an order of magnitude. The diffusion phenomena in the tissue lead to a smoothing of the spatial temperature distributions, as compared to the distributions of thermal sources. In the case of one-second exposure in the nonlinear mode of focusing, the maximal temperature in the focus exceeds the values obtained in the approximation of linear wave propagation by a factor of three.

  4. Numerical simulation of ultrasound-thermotherapy combining nonlinear wave propagation with broadband soft-tissue absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Ginter

    2000-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) thermotherapy is used to treat tumours, located deep in human tissue, by heat. It features by the application of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), high local temperatures of about 90?C and short treating time of a few seconds. Dosage of the therapy remains a problem. To get it under control, one has to know the heat source, i.e.

  5. Detection of Multiple Electrical Sources in Tissue Using Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging

    E-print Network

    Witte, Russell S.

    Detection of Multiple Electrical Sources in Tissue Using Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging disorders. Ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI) is a new technique that maps electrical current electrical current and pressure as acoustic waves propagate through a conducting material. In [4] and [5

  6. Optical and acoustic monitoring of bubble cloud dynamics at a tissue-fluid interface in ultrasound tissue erosion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Hall, Timothy L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Short, high-intensity ultrasound pulses have the ability to achieve localized, clearly demarcated erosion in soft tissue at a tissue-fluid interface. The primary mechanism for ultrasound tissue erosion is believed to be acoustic cavitation. To monitor the cavitating bubble cloud generated at a tissue-fluid interface, an optical attenuation method was used to record the intensity loss of transmitted light through bubbles. Optical attenuation was only detected when a bubble cloud was seen using high speed imaging. The light attenuation signals correlated well with a temporally changing acoustic backscatter which is an excellent indicator for tissue erosion. This correlation provides additional evidence that the cavitating bubble cloud is essential for ultrasound tissue erosion. The bubble cloud collapse cycle and bubble dissolution time were studied using the optical attenuation signals. The collapse cycle of the bubble cloud generated by a high intensity ultrasound pulse of 4–14 ?s was ~40–300 ?s depending on the acoustic parameters. The dissolution time of the residual bubbles was tens of ms long. This study of bubble dynamics may provide further insight into previous ultrasound tissue erosion results. PMID:17471753

  7. Focused ultrasound to displace renal calculi: threshold for tissue injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The global prevalence and incidence of renal calculi is reported to be increasing. Of the patients that undergo surgical intervention, nearly half experience symptomatic complications associated with stone fragments that are not passed and require follow-up surgical intervention. In a clinical simulation using a clinical prototype, ultrasonic propulsion was proven effective at repositioning kidney stones in pigs. The use of ultrasound to reposition smaller stones or stone fragments to a location that facilitates spontaneous clearance could therefore improve stone-free rates. The goal of this study was to determine an injury threshold under which stones could be safely repositioned. Methods Kidneys of 28 domestic swine were treated with exposures that ranged in duty cycle from 0%–100% and spatial peak pulse average intensities up to 30 kW/cm2 for a total duration of 10 min. The kidneys were processed for morphological analysis and evaluated for injury by experts blinded to the exposure conditions. Results At a duty cycle of 3.3%, a spatial peak intensity threshold of 16,620 W/cm2 was needed before a statistically significant portion of the samples showed injury. This is nearly seven times the 2,400-W/cm2 maximum output of the clinical prototype used to move the stones effectively in pigs. Conclusions The data obtained from this study show that exposure of kidneys to ultrasonic propulsion for displacing renal calculi is well below the threshold for tissue injury. PMID:24921046

  8. Ultrasound Doppler tissue image analysis based on neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shukui; Li, Deyu; Yin, Lixue; Wang, Tianfu; Zheng, Changqiong; Zheng, Yi

    2001-09-01

    A new method for quantitative analysis of ultrasound Doppler tissue images (DTI) has been developed based on a neural network. The method aims to extract numerical data of velocity or acceleration from DTI images and analyze them quantitatively. A three-layered back propagation (BP) neural network is used to accomplish this task. The input of the network is the differences between the red, green and blue components of pixels and the output is the acceleration or velocity values. The network is trained with the color bars in the DTI images. The result of analyzing the movement of the left ventricle anterior free wall (LVAW) from DTA (DTI acceleration mode) image sequences is presented. The result of time-acceleration curve is highly correlated with the electrocardiogram (ECG) curve and gives us a quantitative and graphic description of the ventricle movement in cardiac cycles. It shows the movement characteristics of the left ventricle in cardiac cycles and also shows the excitation differences among the three layers of the myocardium. It is demonstrated that the method has great potential to characterize myocardial movement, which may provide a new way to characterize cardiac activities.

  9. Modeling transversely isotropic, viscoelastic, incompressible tissue-like materials with application in ultrasound shear wave elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Bo; Brigham, John C.; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Urban, Matthew W.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to model the shear wave propagation in transversely isotropic, viscoelastic and incompressible media. The targeted application is ultrasound-based shear wave elastography for viscoelasticity measurements in anisotropic tissues such as the kidney and skeletal muscles. The proposed model predicts that if the viscoelastic parameters both across and along fiber directions can be characterized as a Voigt material, then the spatial phase velocity at any angle is also governed by a Voigt material model. Further, with the aid of Taylor expansions, it is shown that the spatial group velocity at any angle is close to a Voigt type for weakly attenuative materials within a certain bandwidth. The model is implemented in a finite element code by a time domain explicit integration scheme and shear wave simulations are conducted. The results of the simulations are analyzed to extract the shear wave elasticity and viscosity for both the spatial phase and group velocities. The estimated values match well with theoretical predictions. The proposed theory is further verified by an ex vivo tissue experiment measured in a porcine skeletal muscle by an ultrasound shear wave elastography method. The applicability of the Taylor expansion to analyze the spatial velocities is also discussed. We demonstrate that the approximations from the Taylor expansions are subject to errors when the viscosities across or along the fiber directions are large or the maximum frequency considered is beyond the bandwidth defined by radii of convergence of the Taylor expansions.

  10. Modeling transversely isotropic, viscoelastic, incompressible tissue-like materials with application in ultrasound shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Bo; Brigham, John C; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F; Zhang, Xiaoming; Urban, Matthew W

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to model the shear wave propagation in transversely isotropic, viscoelastic and incompressible media. The targeted application is ultrasound-based shear wave elastography for viscoelasticity measurements in anisotropic tissues such as the kidney and skeletal muscles. The proposed model predicts that if the viscoelastic parameters both across and along fiber directions can be characterized as a Voigt material, then the spatial phase velocity at any angle is also governed by a Voigt material model. Further, with the aid of Taylor expansions, it is shown that the spatial group velocity at any angle is close to a Voigt type for weakly attenuative materials within a certain bandwidth. The model is implemented in a finite element code by a time domain explicit integration scheme and shear wave simulations are conducted. The results of the simulations are analyzed to extract the shear wave elasticity and viscosity for both the spatial phase and group velocities. The estimated values match well with theoretical predictions. The proposed theory is further verified by an ex vivo tissue experiment measured in a porcine skeletal muscle by an ultrasound shear wave elastography method. The applicability of the Taylor expansion to analyze the spatial velocities is also discussed. We demonstrate that the approximations from the Taylor expansions are subject to errors when the viscosities across or along the fiber directions are large or the maximum frequency considered is beyond the bandwidth defined by radii of convergence of the Taylor expansions. PMID:25591921

  11. Pulmonary ultrasound elastography: a feasibility study with phantoms and ex-vivo tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Man Minh; Xie, Hua; Paluch, Kamila; Stanton, Douglas; Ramachandran, Bharat

    2013-03-01

    Elastography has become widely used for minimally invasive diagnosis in many tumors as seen with breast, liver and prostate. Among different modalities, ultrasound-based elastography stands out due to its advantages including being safe, real-time, and relatively low-cost. While lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among both men and women, the use of ultrasound elastography for lung cancer diagnosis has hardly been investigated due to the limitations of ultrasound in air. In this work, we investigate the use of static-compression based endobronchial ultrasound elastography by a 3D trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TEE) transducer for lung cancer diagnosis. A water-filled balloon was designed to 1) improve the visualization of endobronchial ultrasound and 2) to induce compression via pumping motion inside the trachea and bronchiole. In a phantom study, we have successfully generated strain images indicating the stiffness difference between the gelatin background and agar inclusion. A similar strain ratio was confirmed with Philips ultrasound strain-based elastography product. For ex-vivo porcine lung study, different tissue ablation methods including chemical injection, Radio Frequency (RF) ablation, and direct heating were implemented to achieve tumor-mimicking tissue. Stiff ablated lung tissues were obtained and detected with our proposed method. These results suggest the feasibility of pulmonary elastography to differentiate stiff tumor tissue from normal tissue.

  12. Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography in soft biological tissues

    E-print Network

    Sakadzic, Sava

    2007-09-17

    . However, due to the diffusion of light, it is dificult to achieve simultaneously both good spatial resolution and good imaging depth with the pure optical imaging modalities. This work focuses on the ultrasound-modulated optical tomography - a hybrid...

  13. Histological and Ultrastructural Effects of Ultrasound-induced Cavitation on Human Skin Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Li, Alessandro Quattrini; Freschi, Giancarlo; Russo, Giulia Lo

    2013-01-01

    Background: In aesthetic medicine, the most promising techniques for noninvasive body sculpturing purposes are based on ultrasound-induced fat cavitation. Liporeductive ultrasound devices afford clinically relevant subcutaneous fat pad reduction without significant adverse reactions. This study aims at evaluating the histological and ultrastructural changes induced by ultrasound cavitation on the different cell components of human skin. Methods: Control and ultrasound-treated ex vivo abdominal full-thickness skin samples and skin biopsies from patients pretreated with or without ultrasound cavitation were studied histologically, morphometrically, and ultrastructurally to evaluate possible changes in adipocyte size and morphology. Adipocyte apoptosis and triglyceride release were also assayed. Clinical evaluation of the effects of 4 weekly ultrasound vs sham treatments was performed by plicometry. Results: Compared with the sham-treated control samples, ultrasound cavitation induced a statistically significant reduction in the size of the adipocytes (P < 0.001), the appearance of micropores and triglyceride leakage and release in the conditioned medium (P < 0.05 at 15 min), or adipose tissue interstitium, without appreciable changes in microvascular, stromal, and epidermal components and in the number of apoptotic adipocytes. Clinically, the ultrasound treatment caused a significant reduction of abdominal fat. Conclusions: This study further strengthens the current notion that noninvasive transcutaneous ultrasound cavitation is a promising and safe technology for localized reduction of fat and provides experimental evidence for its specific mechanism of action on the adipocytes. PMID:25289235

  14. A pilot study using Tissue Velocity Ultrasound Imaging (TVI) to assess muscle activity pattern in patients with chronic trapezius myalgia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Peolsson; Britt Larsson; Lars-Åke Brodin; Björn Gerdle

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different research techniques indicate alterations in muscle tissue and in neuromuscular control of aching muscles in patients with chronic localized pain. Ultrasound can be used for analysis of muscle tissue dynamics in clinical practice. AIM: This study introduces a new muscle tissue sensitive ultrasound technique in order to provide a new methodology for providing a description of local muscle

  15. The Effect of Soft-tissue Ultrasound on the Management of Cellulitis in the Emergency Department

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivek S. Tayal; Nael Hasan; H. James Norton; Christian A. Tomaszewski

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of diagnostic soft-tissue ultrasound (US) on management of emergency department (ED) patients with clinical cellulitis. Methods: This was a prospective observational study in an urban ED of adult patients with clinical soft- tissue infection without obvious abscess. The treating physician's pretest opinions regarding the need for further drainage procedures and the probability of subcutaneous fluid

  16. Signal Processing of Broadband Pulsed Ultrasound: Measurement of Attenuation of Soft Biological Tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avinash C. Kak; Kris A. Dines

    1978-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss the measurement of attenuation of soft tissues using broadband pulsed ultrasound. While all the methods presented here may be used for measuring the attenuation coefficient of single layers, some of the methods can also be used for measuring integrated attenuation of composite layers of soft tissue. These latter methods do not require knowledge of

  17. Real-Time Tissue Tracking with B-Mode Ultrasound Using Speckle and Visual Servoing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre Krupa; Gabor Fichtinger; Gregory D. Hager

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for real-time tracking of moving soft tissue with B-mode ultrasound (US). The method makes use of the speckle information contained in the US images to estimate the in-plane and out-of-plane motion of a xed target relative to the ultrasound scan plane. The motion information is then used as closed-loop feedback to a robot which corrects for

  18. In-vivo investigation of material quality of bone tissue by measuring apparent phalangeal ultrasound transmission velocity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kann; U. Schulz; D. Klaus; B. Piepkorn; J. Beyer

    1995-01-01

    Summary The square of ultrasound transmission velocity in a material is related to the modulus of elasticity, which is known to be an indicator of stability in bone. The aim of our study was to use ultrasound transmission velocity to obtain information about the material properties of bone tissue, keeping other factors possibly influencing ultrasound transmission as constant as possible.

  19. Multi-Push (MP) Acoustic Radiation Force (ARF) Ultrasound for Assessing Tissue Viscoelasticity, In Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Scola, Mallory R.; Baggesen, Leslie M.; Gallippi, Caterina M.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force (ARF) ultrasound is a method of elastographic imaging in which micron-scale tissue displacements, induced and tracked by ultrasound, reflect clinically relevant tissue mechanical properties. Our laboratory has recently shown that tissue viscoelasticity is assessed using the novel Multi-Push (MP) ARF method. MP ARF applies the Voigt model for viscoelastic materials and compares the displacements achieved by successive ARF excitations to qualitatively or quantitatively represent the relaxation time for constant stress, which is a direct descriptor of the viscoelastic response of the tissue. We have demonstrated MP ARF in custom viscoelastic tissue mimicking materials and implemented the method in vivo in canine muscle and human renal allografts, with strong spatial correlation between MP ARF findings and histochemical features and previously reported mechanical changes with renal disease. These data support that noninvasive MP ARF is capable of clinically relevant assessment of tissue viscoelastic properties. PMID:23366389

  20. Development of a Mechanical Scanning-type Intravascular Ultrasound System Using a Miniature Ultrasound Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Masayuki; Xie, Shangping; Tagawa, Norio; Moriya, Tadashi; Furukawa, Yuji

    2007-07-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) plays an important role for the detection of arteriosclerosis, which causes the ischemic heart disease. In mechanical scanning-type IVUS, it is necessary to rotate a transducer or a reflecting mirror. A method that involves rotating the transducer using a torque wire causes image distortion (NURD: non uniform rotation distortion). For a method that involves placing an electromagnetic motor on the tip of an IVUS probe is difficult to miniaturize the probe. Our objectives are to miniaturize the probe (1 mm in diameter, 5 mm in length) and to remove NURD. Therefore, we conducted a study to assess the feasibility of attaining these objectives by constructing a prototype IVUS system, in which an ultrasound motor using a stator in the form of a helical coil (abbreviated as CS-USM: coiled stator-ultrasonic motor) is incorporated, and to clarify problems that need to be solved in constructing the probe.

  1. Acoustically accessible window determination for ultrasound mediated treatment of glycogen storage disease type Ia patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shutao; Raju, Balasundar I.; Leyvi, Evgeniy; Weinstein, David A.; Seip, Ralf

    2012-10-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa) is caused by an inherited single-gene defect resulting in an impaired glycogen to glucose conversion pathway. Targeted ultrasound mediated delivery (USMD) of plasmid DNA (pDNA) to liver in conjunction with microbubbles may provide a potential treatment for GSDIa patients. As the success of USMD treatments is largely dependent on the accessibility of the targeted tissue by the focused ultrasound beam, this study presents a quantitative approach to determine the acoustically accessible liver volume in GSDIa patients. Models of focused ultrasound beam profiles for transducers of varying aperture and focal lengths were applied to abdomen models reconstructed from suitable CT and MRI images. Transducer manipulations (simulating USMD treatment procedures) were implemented via transducer translations and rotations with the intent of targeting and exposing the entire liver to ultrasound. Results indicate that acoustically accessible liver volumes can be as large as 50% of the entire liver volume for GSDIa patients and on average 3 times larger compared to a healthy adult group due to GSDIa patients' increased liver size. Detailed descriptions of the evaluation algorithm, transducer-and abdomen models are presented, together with implications for USMD treatments of GSDIa patients and transducer designs for USMD applications.

  2. Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to make images of organs and structures inside the body. ... An ultrasound machine creates makes images so that organs in the body to be examined. The machine sends out ...

  3. Fine-Needle Biopsy: Should This Be the First Choice in Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Tissue Acquisition?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition is an indispensable technique for the diagnosis of many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and adjacent structures. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is known for its high accuracy and low complication rate. However, the outcome of EUS-FNA highly depends on several factors such as the location and characteristics of the lesion, endosonographer's experience, technique of sampling and sample preparation, type and size of the needle used, and presence of a cytopathologist for rapid on-site examination. EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy is useful to obtain core tissue samples with relatively fewer passes. Aspiration of core tissue with preserved architecture is beneficial for the diagnosis of certain diseases and the performance of ancillary testing such as tumor molecular profiling. Issues related to needle size, type, and their acquired samples for cytologic and histologic evaluation are discussed here. PMID:25325002

  4. Fine-needle biopsy: should this be the first choice in endoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue acquisition?

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young

    2014-09-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition is an indispensable technique for the diagnosis of many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and adjacent structures. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is known for its high accuracy and low complication rate. However, the outcome of EUS-FNA highly depends on several factors such as the location and characteristics of the lesion, endosonographer's experience, technique of sampling and sample preparation, type and size of the needle used, and presence of a cytopathologist for rapid on-site examination. EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy is useful to obtain core tissue samples with relatively fewer passes. Aspiration of core tissue with preserved architecture is beneficial for the diagnosis of certain diseases and the performance of ancillary testing such as tumor molecular profiling. Issues related to needle size, type, and their acquired samples for cytologic and histologic evaluation are discussed here. PMID:25325002

  5. Ultrasound Technologies for the Spatial Patterning of Cells and Extracellular Matrix Proteins and the Vascularization of Engineered Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, Kelley A.

    Technological advancements in the field of tissue engineering could save the lives of thousands of organ transplant patients who die each year while waiting for donor organs. Currently, two of the primary challenges preventing tissue engineers from developing functional replacement tissues and organs are the need to recreate complex cell and extracellular microenvironments and to vascularize the tissue to maintain cell viability and function. Ultrasound is a form of mechanical energy that can noninvasively and nondestructively interact with tissues at the cell and protein level. In this thesis, novel ultrasound-based technologies were developed for the spatial patterning of cells and extracellular matrix proteins and the vascularization of three-dimensional engineered tissue constructs. Acoustic radiation forces associated with ultrasound standing wave fields were utilized to noninvasively control the spatial organization of cells and cell-bound extracellular matrix proteins within collagen-based engineered tissue. Additionally, ultrasound induced thermal mechanisms were exploited to site-specifically pattern various extracellular matrix collagen microstructures within a single engineered tissue construct. Finally, ultrasound standing wave field technology was used to promote the rapid and extensive vascularization of three-dimensional tissue constructs. As such, the ultrasound technologies developed in these studies have the potential to provide the field of tissue engineering with novel strategies to spatially pattern cells and extracellular matrix components and to vascularize engineered tissue, and thus, could advance the fabrication of functional replacement tissues and organs in the field of tissue engineering.

  6. Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Ultrasound is a useful procedure for monitoring the baby’s development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to produce a two- ... sound waves and appear dark or black. An ultrasound can supply vital information about a mother’s pregnancy ...

  7. MODEL-BASED CORRECTION OF TISSUE COMPRESSION FOR TRACKED ULTRASOUND IN SOFT TISSUE IMAGE-GUIDED SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Thompson, Reid C.; Rucker, Daniel C.; Simpson, Amber L.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of ultrasound data negatively affects image registration accuracy during image-guided therapy because of tissue compression by the probe. We present a novel compression correction method that models sub-surface tissue displacement resulting from application of a tracked probe to the tissue surface. Patient landmarks are first used to register the probe pose to pre-operative imaging. The ultrasound probe geometry is used to provide boundary conditions to a biomechanical model of the tissue. The deformation field solution of the model is inverted to non-rigidly transform the ultrasound images to an estimation of the tissue geometry before compression. Experimental results with gel phantoms indicated that the proposed method reduced the tumor margin modified Hausdorff distance (MHD) from 5.0 ± 1.6 to 1.9 ± 0.6 mm, and reduced tumor centroid alignment error from 7.6 ± 2.6 to 2.0 ± 0.9 mm. The method was applied to a clinical case and reduced the tumor margin MHD error from 5.4 ± 0.1 to 2.6 ± 0.1 mm and the centroid alignment error from 7.2 ± 0.2 to 3.5 ± 0.4 mm. PMID:24412172

  8. Ultrasound-facilitated thrombolysis using tissue-plasminogen activator-loaded echogenic liposomes†?

    PubMed Central

    Tiukinhoy-Laing, Susan D.; Huang, Shaoling; Klegerman, Melvin; Holland, Christy K.; McPherson, David D.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Targeted delivery of thrombolytics to the site of occlusion is an attractive concept, with implications for the treatment of many thrombo-occlusive diseases. Ultrasound enhances thrombolysis, which can be augmented by the addition of a contrast agent. We have previously reported development of echogenic liposomes (ELIP) for targeted highlighting of structures with potential for drug and gene delivery. This study evaluated the potential of ELIP for thrombolytic loading, and the effect of ultrasound exposure of thrombolytic-loaded ELIP on thrombolytic efficacy. Materials and methods Tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA) was loaded into ELIP. Echogenicity was assessed and reported as mean grayscale values. Whole porcine clots were treated with plasma, free tPA, tPA+Optison® (echocontrast agent), or tPA-loaded ELIP, with and without ultrasound (1 MHz, continuous wave, 2 W/cm2, for 2 min). Clots were weighed before and after a 30-min treatment period, and results reported as percent clot mass loss. Results tPA entrapment into ELIP was feasible with 50% entrapment, and retention of echogenicity. Treatment with tPA-loaded ELIP resulted in effective clot lysis with an effect similar to treatment with free tPA. Ultrasound exposure of tPA-loaded ELIP resulted in enhanced thrombolysis (49.5% relative improvement vs. no ultrasound). Much of the ultrasound effect appeared to be related to drug release from the tPA—ELIP complex. Conclusions We have demonstrated entrapment of tPA into ELIP with effective clot lysis and drug release using ultrasound. Our tPA-loaded ELIP has potential for specific highlighting of clots to confirm agent delivery and help focus ultrasound therapy for targeted ultrasound-facilitated thrombolysis. PMID:16887172

  9. Ultrasound and Doppler US in Evaluation of Superficial Soft-tissue Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Toprak, Huseyin; Kiliç, Erkan; Serter, Asli; Kocakoç, Ercan; Ozgocmen, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Improved developments in digital ultrasound technology and the use of high-frequency broadband transducers make ultrasound (US) imaging the first screening tool in investigating superficial tissue lesions. US is a safe (no ionizing radiation), portable, easily repeatable, and cheap form of imaging compared to other imaging modalities. US is an excellent imaging modality to determine the nature of a mass lesion (cystic or solid) and its anatomic relation to adjoining structures. Masses can be characterized in terms of their size, number, component, and vascularity with US and Doppler US especially with power Doppler US. US, however, is operator dependent and has a number of artifacts that can result in misinterpretation. In this review, we emphasize the role of ultrasound, particularly power Doppler, in superficial soft-tissue lesions. PMID:24744969

  10. A review on ultrasound-based thyroid cancer tissue characterization and automated classification.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U R; Swapna, G; Sree, S V; Molinari, F; Gupta, S; Bardales, R H; Witkowska, A; Suri, J S

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we review the different studies that developed Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) for automated classification of thyroid cancer into benign and malignant types. Specifically, we discuss the different types of features that are used to study and analyze the differences between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. These features can be broadly categorized into (a) the sonographic features from the ultrasound images, and (b) the non-clinical features extracted from the ultrasound images using statistical and data mining techniques. We also present a brief description of the commonly used classifiers in ultrasound based CAD systems. We then review the studies that used features based on the ultrasound images for thyroid nodule classification and highlight the limitations of such studies. We also discuss and review the techniques used in studies that used the non-clinical features for thyroid nodule classification and report the classification accuracies obtained in these studies. PMID:24206204

  11. A Study of Cavitation Activity in Ex vivo Tissue Exposed to High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James McLaughlan; Ian Rivens; Gail Ter Haar

    2007-01-01

    Cavitation is often avoided in Focused Ultrasound Surgery (FUS or HIFU) because it can render lesion formation unpredictable. However, cavitation is known to enhance heating. Emissions used as indicators for cavitation activity in ex vivo tissue are not fully understood. This study investigates a wide range of simultaneous acoustic emissions and other potential indicators of cavitation activity. A high frequency

  12. ROC Analysis of Ultrasound Tissue Characterization Classifiers for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smadar Gefen; Oleh J. Tretiak; Catherine W. Piccoli; Kevin D. Donohue; Athina P. Petropulu; P. Mohana Shankar; Vishruta A. Dumane; Lexun Huang; M. Alper Kutay; Vladimir Genis; Flemming Forsberg; John M. Reid; Barry B. Goldberg

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer diagnosis through ultrasound tissue characterization was studied using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of combinations of acoustic features, patient age, and radiological findings. A feature fusion method was devised that operates even if only partial diagnostic data are available. The ROC methodology uses ordinal dominance theory and bootstrap resampling to evaluate Az and confidence intervals in simple as

  13. The localization of parathyroid tissue by ultrasound scanning prior to surgery in patients with hyperparathyroidism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce H. Barraclough; Thomas S. Reeve; Peter J. Duffy; Richard H. Picker

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic localization of parathyroid tissue has been attempted in 24 patients with hyperparathyroidism prior to surgical exploration of the neck. All 24 patients had biochemically proven hyperparathyroidism. Standard contact diagnostic ultrasound equipment fitted with a 5 MHz transducer was used, and transverse and longitudinal scans of the region of the thyroid gland were performed at 5 mm intervals. The normal

  14. Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junghwan Oh; Marc D. Feldman; Jeehyun Kim; Chris Condit; Stanislav Emelianov; Thomas E. Milner

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the magneto-motive ultrasonic detection of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles as a marker of macrophage recruitment in tissue. The capability of ultrasound to detect SPIO nanoparticles (core diameter ~20 nm) taken up by murine liver macrophages was investigated. Eight mice were sacrificed two days after the intravenous administration of four SPIO doses

  15. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound for quantification of tissue perfusion.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Eckhart; Muller, Reinhold; Cui, Xin-Wu; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-02-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) imaging, a technique that uses microbubble contrast agents with diagnostic US, has recently been technically summarized and reviewed by a European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology position paper. However, the practical applications of this imaging technique were not included. This article reviews and discusses the published literature on the clinical use of dynamic contrast-enhanced US. This review finds that dynamic contrast-enhanced US imaging is the most sensitive cross-sectional real-time method for measuring the perfusion of parenchymatous organs noninvasively. It can measure parenchymal perfusion and therefore can differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. The most important routine clinical role of dynamic contrast-enhanced US is the prediction of tumor responses to chemotherapy within a very short time, shorter than using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria. Other applications found include quantifying the hepatic transit time, diabetic kidneys, transplant grafts, and Crohn disease. In addition, the problems involved in using dynamic contrast-enhanced US are discussed. PMID:25614391

  16. Controlled tissue emulsification produced by high intensity focused ultrasound shock waves and millisecond boiling.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Canney, Michael S; Khokhlova, Vera A; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications, tissue may be thermally necrosed by heating, emulsified by cavitation, or, as was recently discovered, emulsified using repetitive millisecond boiling caused by shock wave heating. Here, this last approach was further investigated. Experiments were performed in transparent gels and ex vivo bovine heart tissue using 1, 2, and 3 MHz focused transducers and different pulsing schemes in which the pressure, duty factor, and pulse duration were varied. A previously developed derating procedure to determine in situ shock amplitudes and the time-to-boil was refined. Treatments were monitored using B-mode ultrasound. Both inertial cavitation and boiling were observed during exposures, but emulsification occurred only when shocks and boiling were present. Emulsified lesions without thermal denaturation were produced with shock amplitudes sufficient to induce boiling in less than 20 ms, duty factors of less than 0.02, and pulse lengths shorter than 30 ms. Higher duty factors or longer pulses produced varying degrees of thermal denaturation combined with mechanical emulsification. Larger lesions were obtained using lower ultrasound frequencies. The results show that shock wave heating and millisecond boiling is an effective and reliable way to emulsify tissue while monitoring the treatment with ultrasound. PMID:22088025

  17. Controlled tissue emulsification produced by high intensity focused ultrasound shock waves and millisecond boiling

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Canney, Michael S.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications, tissue may be thermally necrosed by heating, emulsified by cavitation, or, as was recently discovered, emulsified using repetitive millisecond boiling caused by shock wave heating. Here, this last approach was further investigated. Experiments were performed in transparent gels and ex vivo bovine heart tissue using 1, 2, and 3 MHz focused transducers and different pulsing schemes in which the pressure, duty factor, and pulse duration were varied. A previously developed derating procedure to determine in situ shock amplitudes and the time-to-boil was refined. Treatments were monitored using B-mode ultrasound. Both inertial cavitation and boiling were observed during exposures, but emulsification occurred only when shocks and boiling were present. Emulsified lesions without thermal denaturation were produced with shock amplitudes sufficient to induce boiling in less than 20 ms, duty factors of less than 0.02, and pulse lengths shorter than 30 ms. Higher duty factors or longer pulses produced varying degrees of thermal denaturation combined with mechanical emulsification. Larger lesions were obtained using lower ultrasound frequencies. The results show that shock wave heating and millisecond boiling is an effective and reliable way to emulsify tissue while monitoring the treatment with ultrasound. PMID:22088025

  18. Localized Ablation of Thyroid Tissue by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound: an Alternative to Surgery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esnault, Olivier; Franc, Brigitte; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lacoste, Francois

    2006-05-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device to obtain a localised destruction of the thyroid with no damage to adjacent tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ewe model was used because its thyroid gland is easily accessible with ultrasound. The animals were anaesthetised with 10 mg / kg IV injection of Penthothal. The HIFU pulses were generated by a 3-MHz spherical transducer under ultrasound guidance. Macroscopic and microscopic tissue lesions were identified after formalin fixation of the anterior part of the ewe's neck. RESULTS: After determining the optimal instrument settings to obtain localized thyroid ablation, the repeatability of the method was evaluated using a HIFU prototype designed specifically for human use: in 13 ewes (26 treated lobes), an average of 20 (range: 14-27) ultrasound pulses (pulse duration: 3 s) per lobe covering a mean volume of 0.5 cm3 (range: 0.3-0.7 cm3) were delivered. The ewes were sacrificed 2-5 weeks after treatment delivery. No damage to the nerves, trachea, esophagus or muscle was observed. Only 3 ewes suffered superficial skin burns. The desired thyroid lesions were obtained in 25/26 treated lobes, as demonstrated by fibrotic tissues, which replaced necrotic areas. CONCLUSION: These results obtained in the ewe model show that thyroid lesions of defined volume can be induced safely and suggest that the HIFU device is now ready for human trials.

  19. Mechanical Model Analysis for Quantitative Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis Based on Ultrasound Tissue Elasticity Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Maki, Tomonori; Yamakawa, Makoto; Mitake, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Kenji

    2012-07-01

    Precise evaluation of the stage of chronic hepatitis C with respect to fibrosis has become an important issue to prevent the occurrence of cirrhosis and to initiate appropriate therapeutic intervention such as viral eradication using interferon. Ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, i.e., elastography can visualize tissue hardness/softness, and its clinical usefulness has been studied to detect and evaluate tumors. We have recently reported that the texture of elasticity image changes as fibrosis progresses. To evaluate fibrosis progression quantitatively on the basis of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, we introduced a mechanical model of fibrosis progression and simulated the process by which hepatic fibrosis affects elasticity images and compared the results with those clinical data analysis. As a result, it was confirmed that even in diffuse diseases like chronic hepatitis, the patterns of elasticity images are related to fibrous structural changes caused by hepatic disease and can be used to derive features for quantitative evaluation of fibrosis stage.

  20. Intense focused ultrasound stimulation can safely stimulate inflamed subcutaneous tissue and assess allodynia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Potential peripheral sources of deep pain can require invasive evocative tests for their assessment. Here we perform research whose ultimate goal is development of a non-invasive evocative test for deep painful tissue. Methods We used a rat model of inflammation to show that intense focused ultrasound (iFU) differentially stimulates inflamed versus control tissue and can identify allodynia. To do so we applied iFU to inflamed and normal tissue below the skin of rats’ hind paws and measured the amount of ultrasound necessary to induce paw withdrawal. Results iFU of sufficient strength (spatial and temporal average intensities ranged from 100–350 W/cm2) caused the rat to withdraw its inflamed paw, while the same iFU applied to the contralateral paw failed to induce withdrawal, with sensitivity and specificity generally greater than 90%. iFU stimulation of normal tissue required twice the amount of ultrasound to generate a withdrawal than did inflamed tissue, thereby assessing allodynia. Finally, we verified in a preliminary way the safety of iFU stimulation with acute histological studies coupled with mathematical simulations. Conclusions Given that there exist systems to guide iFU deep to the skin, image-guided iFU may one day allow assessment of patient’s deep, peripheral pain generators. PMID:25516804

  1. Analysis of tissue surrounding thyroid nodules by ultrasound digital images.

    PubMed

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Bini, Fabiano; Andrioli, Massimiliano; Giovanella, Luca; Thorel, Maria Francesca; Ceriani, Luca; Valabrega, Stefano; Lenzi, Andrea; Drudi, Francesco Maria; Marinozzi, Franco; Romanelli, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Since US is not easily reproducible, the digital image analysis (IA) has been proposed so that the image evaluation is not subjective. In fact, IA meets the criteria of objectivity, accurateness, and reproducibility by a matrix of pixels whose value is displayed in a gray level. This study aims at evaluating via IA the tissue surrounding a thyroid nodule (backyard tissue, BT) from goitres with benign (b-BT) and malignant (m-BT) lesions. Sixty-nine US images of thyroid nodules surrounded by adequate thyroid tissue was classified as normoechoic and homogeneous were enrolled as study group. Forty-three US images from normal thyroid (NT) glands were included as controls. Digital images of 800 × 652 pixels were acquired at a resolution of eight bits with a 256 gray levels depth. By one-way ANOVA, the 43 NT glands were not statistically different (P = 0.91). Mean gray level of normal glands was significantly higher than b-BT (P = 0.026), and m-BT (P = 0.0001), while no difference was found between b-BT and m-BT (P = 0.321). NT tissue boundary external to the nodule was found at 6.0 ± 0.5 mm in cancers and 4.0 ± 0.5 mm in benignancies (P = 0.001). These data should indicate that the tissue surrounding a thyroid nodule may be damaged even when assessed as normal by US. This is of interest to investigate the extranodular effects of thyroid tumors. PMID:24997646

  2. Noninvasive surgery of prostate tissue by high-intensity focused ultrasound: an updated report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanghvi, Narendra T.; Syrus, J.; Foster, Richard S.; Bihrle, Richard; Casey, Richard W.; Uchida, Toyoak

    2000-05-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has been clinically used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and it is experimentally applied for the treatment of localized prostate caner (PC). Recent advances in the transducer material and technology have permitted to combine the ultrasound visualization capability and HIFU on the same ceramic crystal. Also, the transducer efficiency has increased to a level that a smaller size intracavity probe can be made to produce sufficient acoustic power required for the focused ultrasound surgery of the prostate. Using this technology, 4 MHz mechanically scanning transrectal ultrasound probes has been designed. The transrectal probes are used with Sonablate (SB-200, manufactured by Focus Surgery, Inc., Indianapolis, IN) device. The SB-200 produces both transverse and longitudinal images of the prostate. The transverse and longitudinal images are used for selection of tissue volume, treatment planning and monitoring of tissue during the HIFU treatment cycle. The paper reviews the present operation of the device and recent clinical protocol that has improved efficiency, efficacy and safety of the device. The two years follow-up clinical results from the multi-site US Pilot Study (USPS) and The Male Health Centre are compared with the Kitasato-study (Kitasato School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Japan).

  3. Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Junghwan; Feldman, Marc D.; Kim, Jeehyun; Condit, Chris; Emelianov, Stanislav; Milner, Thomas E.

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the magneto-motive ultrasonic detection of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles as a marker of macrophage recruitment in tissue. The capability of ultrasound to detect SPIO nanoparticles (core diameter ~20 nm) taken up by murine liver macrophages was investigated. Eight mice were sacrificed two days after the intravenous administration of four SPIO doses (1.5, 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mmol Fe/kg body weight). In the iron-laden livers, ultrasound Doppler measurements showed a frequency shift in response to an applied time-varying magnetic field. M-mode scan and colour power Doppler images of the iron-laden livers also demonstrated nanoparticle movement under focused magnetic field excitation. In the livers of two saline injected control mice, no movement was observed using any ultrasound imaging modes. The results of our experiments indicate that ultrasound imaging of magneto-motive excitation is a candidate imaging modality to identify tissue-based macrophages containing SPIO nanoparticles.

  4. Effects of tissue stiffness, ultrasound frequency, and pressure on histotripsy-induced cavitation bubble behavior.

    PubMed

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Lin, Kuang-Wei; Warnez, Matthew T; Singh, Rahul; Mancia, Lauren; Putnam, Andrew J; Johnsen, Eric; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2015-03-21

    Histotripsy is an ultrasound ablation method that controls cavitation to fractionate soft tissue. In order to effectively fractionate tissue, histotripsy requires cavitation bubbles to rapidly expand from nanometer-sized initial nuclei into bubbles often larger than 50?µm. Using a negative pressure high enough to initiate a bubble cloud and expand bubbles to a sufficient size, histotripsy has been shown capable of completely fractionating soft tissue into acelluar debris resulting in effective tissue removal. Previous work has shown that the histotripsy process is affected by tissue mechanical properties with stiffer tissues showing increased resistance to histotripsy fractionation, which we hypothesize to be caused by impeded bubble expansion in stiffer tissues. In this study, the hypothesis that increases in tissue stiffness cause a reduction in bubble expansion was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. High speed optical imaging was used to capture a series of time delayed images of bubbles produced inside mechanically tunable agarose tissue phantoms using histotripsy pulses produced by 345?kHz, 500?kHz, 1.5?MHz, and 3?MHz histotripsy transducers. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in maximum bubble radius (Rmax) and collapse time (tc) with both increasing Young's modulus and increasing frequency. Furthermore, results showed that Rmax was not increased by raising the pressure above the intrinsic threshold. Finally, this work demonstrated the potential of using a dual-frequency strategy to modulate the expansion of histotripsy bubbles. Overall, the results of this study improve our understanding of how tissue stiffness and ultrasound parameters affect histotripsy-induced bubble behavior and provide a rational basis to tailor acoustic parameters for treatment of the specific tissues of interest. PMID:25715732

  5. Effects of tissue stiffness, ultrasound frequency, and pressure on histotripsy-induced cavitation bubble behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Lin, Kuang-Wei; Warnez, Matthew T.; Singh, Rahul; Mancia, Lauren; Putnam, Andrew J.; Johnsen, Eric; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2015-03-01

    Histotripsy is an ultrasound ablation method that controls cavitation to fractionate soft tissue. In order to effectively fractionate tissue, histotripsy requires cavitation bubbles to rapidly expand from nanometer-sized initial nuclei into bubbles often larger than 50?µm. Using a negative pressure high enough to initiate a bubble cloud and expand bubbles to a sufficient size, histotripsy has been shown capable of completely fractionating soft tissue into acelluar debris resulting in effective tissue removal. Previous work has shown that the histotripsy process is affected by tissue mechanical properties with stiffer tissues showing increased resistance to histotripsy fractionation, which we hypothesize to be caused by impeded bubble expansion in stiffer tissues. In this study, the hypothesis that increases in tissue stiffness cause a reduction in bubble expansion was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. High speed optical imaging was used to capture a series of time delayed images of bubbles produced inside mechanically tunable agarose tissue phantoms using histotripsy pulses produced by 345?kHz, 500?kHz, 1.5?MHz, and 3?MHz histotripsy transducers. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in maximum bubble radius (Rmax) and collapse time (tc) with both increasing Young’s modulus and increasing frequency. Furthermore, results showed that Rmax was not increased by raising the pressure above the intrinsic threshold. Finally, this work demonstrated the potential of using a dual-frequency strategy to modulate the expansion of histotripsy bubbles. Overall, the results of this study improve our understanding of how tissue stiffness and ultrasound parameters affect histotripsy-induced bubble behavior and provide a rational basis to tailor acoustic parameters for treatment of the specific tissues of interest.

  6. Intravascular Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging: From Tissue Characterization to Molecular Imaging to Image-Guided Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Wang; Jimmy Su; Andrei Karpiouk; Doug Yeager; Stanislav Emelianov

    \\u000a Successful diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis demands imaging modalities that can characterize the composition of\\u000a atherosclerotic plaques, stage the disease, and guide interventional therapy. In this chapter, combined intravascular photoacoustic\\u000a (IVPA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is used to address these issues. Based on the difference in optical absorption\\u000a spectra, lipid-rich tissues can be differentiated using spectroscopic IVPA imaging. Using

  7. Novel tissue mimicking materials for high frequency breast ultrasound phantoms.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Louise M; Fagan, Andrew J; Browne, Jacinta E

    2011-01-01

    The development and acoustical characterisation of a range of novel agar-based tissue mimicking material (TMMs) for use in clinically relevant, quality assurance (QA) and anthropomorphic breast phantoms are presented. The novel agar-based TMMs described in this study are based on a comprehensive, systematic variation of the ingredients in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) TMM. A novel, solid fat-mimicking material was also developed and acoustically characterised. Acoustical characterisation was carried out using an in-house scanning acoustic macroscope at low (7.5 MHz) and high frequencies (20 MHz), using the pulse-echo insertion technique. The speeds of sound range from 1490 to 1570 m. s(-1), attenuation coefficients range from 0.1 to 0.9 dB. cm(?1). MHz(-1) and relative backscatter ranges from 0 to -20 dB. It was determined that tissues can be mimicked in terms of independently controllable speeds of sound and attenuation coefficients. These properties make these novel TMMs suitable for use in clinically relevant QA and anthropomorphic phantoms and would potentially be useful for other high frequency applications such as intravascular and small animal imaging. PMID:21084158

  8. Methods for using 3-d ultrasound speckle tracking in biaxial mechanical testing of biological tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Yap, Choon Hwai; Park, Dae Woo; Dutta, Debaditya; Simon, Marc; Kim, Kang

    2015-04-01

    Being multilayered and anisotropic, biological tissues such as cardiac and arterial walls are structurally complex, making the full assessment and understanding of their mechanical behavior challenging. Current standard mechanical testing uses surface markers to track tissue deformations and does not provide deformation data below the surface. In the study described here, we found that combining mechanical testing with 3-D ultrasound speckle tracking could overcome this limitation. Rat myocardium was tested with a biaxial tester and was concurrently scanned with high-frequency ultrasound in three dimensions. The strain energy function was computed from stresses and strains using an iterative non-linear curve-fitting algorithm. Because the strain energy function consists of terms for the base matrix and for embedded fibers, spatially varying fiber orientation was also computed by curve fitting. Using finite-element simulations, we first validated the accuracy of the non-linear curve-fitting algorithm. Next, we compared experimentally measured rat myocardium strain energy function values with those in the literature and found a matching order of magnitude. Finally, we retained samples after the experiments for fiber orientation quantification using histology and found that the results satisfactorily matched those computed in the experiments. We conclude that 3-D ultrasound speckle tracking can be a useful addition to traditional mechanical testing of biological tissues and may provide the benefit of enabling fiber orientation computation. PMID:25616585

  9. Thermal contribution of compact bone to intervening tissue-like media exposed to planar ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moros, Eduardo G.; Novak, Petr; Straube, William L.; Kolluri, Prashant; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.; Myerson, Robert J.

    2004-03-01

    The presence of bone in the ultrasound beam path raises concerns, both in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, because significant temperature elevations may be induced at nearby soft tissue-bone interfaces due the facts that ultrasound is (i) highly absorbed in bone and (ii) reflected at soft tissue-bone interfaces in various degrees depending on angle of incidence. Consequently, in ultrasonic thermal therapy, the presence of bone in the ultrasound beam path is considered a major disadvantage and it is usually avoided. However, based on clinical experience and previous theoretical studies, we hypothesized that the presence of bone in superficial unfocused ultrasound hyperthermia can actually be exploited to induce more uniform and enhanced (with respect to the no-bone situation) temperature distributions in superficial target volumes. In particular, we hypothesize that the presence of underlying bone in superficial target volume enhances temperature elevation not only by additional direct power deposition from acoustic reflection, but also from thermal diffusion from the underlying bone. Here we report laboratory results that corroborate previous computational studies and strengthen the above-stated hypothesis. Three different temperature measurement techniques, namely, thermometric (using fibre-optic temperature probes), thermographic (using an infrared camera) and magnetic resonance imaging (using proton resonance frequency shifts), were used in high-power short-exposure, and in low-power extended-exposure, experiments using a 19 mm diameter planar transducer operating at 1.0 and 3.3 MHz (frequencies of clinical relevance). The measurements were performed on three technique-specific phantoms (with and without bone inclusions) and experimental set-ups that resembled possible superficial ultrasound hyperthermia clinical situations. Results from all three techniques were in general agreement and clearly showed that significantly higher heating rates (greater than fourfold) were induced in soft tissue-like phantom materials adjacent (within ~5 mm) to a bovine bone as compared to similar experiments without bone inclusions. For low-power long-exposure experiments, where thermal conduction effects are significant, the thermal impact of bone reached at distances >10 mm from the bone surface (upstream of the bone). Therefore, we hypothesize that underlying bone exposed to planar ultrasound hyperthermia creates a high-temperature thermal boundary at depth that compensates for beam attenuation, thus producing more uniform temperature distribution in the intervening tissue layers. With appropriate technology, this finding may lead to improved thermal doses in superficial treatment sites such as the chest wall and the head/neck.

  10. Thermal contribution of compact bone to intervening tissue-like media exposed to planar ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Moros, Eduardo G; Novak, Petr; Straube, William L; Kolluri, Prashant; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A; Myerson, Robert J

    2004-03-21

    The presence of bone in the ultrasound beam path raises concerns, both in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, because significant temperature elevations may be induced at nearby soft tissue-bone interfaces due the facts that ultrasound is (i) highly absorbed in bone and (ii) reflected at soft tissue-bone interfaces in various degrees depending on angle of incidence. Consequently, in ultrasonic thermal therapy, the presence of bone in the ultrasound beam path is considered a major disadvantage and it is usually avoided. However, based on clinical experience and previous theoretical studies, we hypothesized that the presence of bone in superficial unfocused ultrasound hyperthermia can actually be exploited to induce more uniform and enhanced (with respect to the no-bone situation) temperature distributions in superficial target volumes. In particular, we hypothesize that the presence of underlying bone in superficial target volume enhances temperature elevation not only by additional direct power deposition from acoustic reflection, but also from thermal diffusion from the underlying bone. Here we report laboratory results that corroborate previous computational studies and strengthen the above-stated hypothesis. Three different temperature measurement techniques, namely, thermometric (using fibre-optic temperature probes), thermographic (using an infrared camera) and magnetic resonance imaging (using proton resonance frequency shifts), were used in high-power short-exposure, and in low-power extended-exposure, experiments using a 19 mm diameter planar transducer operating at 1.0 and 3.3 MHz (frequencies of clinical relevance). The measurements were performed on three technique-specific phantoms (with and without bone inclusions) and experimental set-ups that resembled possible superficial ultrasound hyperthermia clinical situations. Results from all three techniques were in general agreement and clearly showed that significantly higher heating rates (greater than fourfold) were induced in soft tissue-like phantom materials adjacent (within approximately 5 mm) to a bovine bone as compared to similar experiments without bone inclusions. For low-power long-exposure experiments, where thermal conduction effects are significant, the thermal impact of bone reached at distances > 10 mm from the bone surface (upstream of the bone). Therefore, we hypothesize that underlying bone exposed to planar ultrasound hyperthermia creates a high-temperature thermal boundary at depth that compensates for beam attenuation, thus producing more uniform temperature distribution in the intervening tissue layers. With appropriate technology, this finding may lead to improved thermal doses in superficial treatment sites such as the chest wall and the head/neck. PMID:15104313

  11. TOMOGRAPHIC RECONSTRUCTION OF TISSUE PROPERTIES AND TEMPERATURE INCREASE FOR HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lu; Gudur, Madhu Sudhan Reddy; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Kumon, Ronald E.; Deng, Cheri X.; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-01-01

    The acoustic and thermal properties as well as the temperature change within a tissue volume during high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation are critically important for treatment planning and monitoring. Described in this article is a tomographic reconstruction method used to determine the tissue properties and increase in temperature in a 3-D volume. On the basis of the iterative finite-element solution to the bioheat equation coupled with Tikhonov regularization techniques, our reconstruction algorithm solves the inverse problem of bioheat transfer and uses the time-dependent temperature measured on a tissue surface to obtain the acoustic absorption coefficient, thermal diffusivity and temperature increase within the subsurface volume. Numerical simulations were performed to validate the reconstruction algorithm. The method was initially conducted in ex vivo experiments in which time-dependent temperature on a tissue surface was measured using high-resolution, non-invasive infrared thermography. PMID:23849388

  12. Tomographic reconstruction of tissue properties and temperature increase for high-intensity focused ultrasound applications.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lu; Gudur, Madhu Sudhan Reddy; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Kumon, Ronald E; Deng, Cheri X; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-10-01

    The acoustic and thermal properties as well as the temperature change within a tissue volume during high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation are critically important for treatment planning and monitoring. Described in this article is a tomographic reconstruction method used to determine the tissue properties and increase in temperature in a 3-D volume. On the basis of the iterative finite-element solution to the bioheat equation coupled with Tikhonov regularization techniques, our reconstruction algorithm solves the inverse problem of bioheat transfer and uses the time-dependent temperature measured on a tissue surface to obtain the acoustic absorption coefficient, thermal diffusivity and temperature increase within the subsurface volume. Numerical simulations were performed to validate the reconstruction algorithm. The method was initially conducted in ex vivo experiments in which time-dependent temperature on a tissue surface was measured using high-resolution, non-invasive infrared thermography. PMID:23849388

  13. Coregistered three-dimensional ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Andres; Guo, Puyun; Gamelin, John; Yan, Shikui; Sanders, Mary M.; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecologic cancers, with a five-year survival rate of only 30% or less. Current imaging techniques are limited in sensitivity and specificity in detecting early stage ovarian cancer prior to its widespread metastasis. New imaging techniques that can provide functional and molecular contrasts are needed to reduce the high mortality of this disease. One such promising technique is photoacoustic imaging. We develop a 1280-element coregistered 3-D ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system based on a 1.75-D acoustic array. Volumetric images over a scan range of 80 deg in azimuth and 20 deg in elevation can be achieved in minutes. The system has been used to image normal porcine ovarian tissue. This is an important step toward better understanding of ovarian cancer optical properties obtained with photoacoustic techniques. To the best of our knowledge, such data are not available in the literature. We present characterization measurements of the system and compare coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images of ovarian tissue to histological images. The results show excellent coregistration of ultrasound and photoacoustic images. Strong optical absorption from vasculature, especially highly vascularized corpora lutea and low absorption from follicles, is demonstrated. PMID:19895116

  14. Ultrasound-guided three-dimensional needle steering in biological tissue with curved surfaces.

    PubMed

    Abayazid, Momen; Moreira, Pedro; Shahriari, Navid; Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a system capable of automatically steering a bevel-tipped flexible needle under ultrasound guidance toward a physical target while avoiding a physical obstacle embedded in gelatin phantoms and biological tissue with curved surfaces. An ultrasound pre-operative scan is performed for three-dimensional (3D) target localization and shape reconstruction. A controller based on implicit force control is developed to align the transducer with curved surfaces to assure the maximum contact area, and thus obtain an image of sufficient quality. We experimentally investigate the effect of needle insertion system parameters such as insertion speed, needle diameter and bevel angle on target motion to adjust the parameters that minimize the target motion during insertion. A fast sampling-based path planner is used to compute and periodically update a feasible path to the target that avoids obstacles. We present experimental results for target reconstruction and needle insertion procedures in gelatin-based phantoms and biological tissue. Mean targeting errors of 1.46±0.37 mm, 1.29±0.29 mm and 1.82±0.58 mm are obtained for phantoms with inclined, curved and combined (inclined and curved) surfaces, respectively, for insertion distance of 86-103 mm. The achieved targeting errors suggest that our approach is sufficient for targeting lesions of 3mm radius that can be detected using clinical ultrasound imaging systems. PMID:25455165

  15. High frequency ultrasound measurements of the attenuation and backscatter from biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruvada, Subha

    There are now diagnostic ultrasonic imaging devices that operate at very high frequencies (VHF) of 20 MHz and beyond for clinical applications in ophthalmology, dermatology, and vascular surgery. To be able to better interpret these images and to further the development of these devices, knowledge of ultrasonic attenuation and scattering of biological tissues in this high frequency range is crucial. Though currently VHF ultrasound is applied mostly to the eye and skin tissue, in this thesis, VHF experiments were performed on porcine red blood cell suspensions and bovine myocardium, liver, and kidney because these tissues are easy to obtain, are similar in structure to their human counterparts and have been used in ultrasound experiments by many investigators but in a lower frequency range. Attenuation and backscatter coefficients of porcine blood and bovine tissues were measured, respectively, using substitution methods. Unfocused and focused transducers were employed in the experiments and corresponding results were compared. This dissertation presents the results of measurements of acoustic attenuation and backscatter from various biological materials (bovine myocardium, liver, and kidney, and porcine blood) in a wide frequency range (10 to 90 MHz) and compares them to previous lower frequency results. Based on the methods used to calculate the acoustic parameters, the frequency limits of the measurements are also defined.

  16. The effect of electronically steering a phased array ultrasound transducer on near-field tissue heating

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Allison; Vyas, Urvi; Todd, Nick; Bever, Joshua de; Christensen, Douglas A.; Parker, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents the results obtained from both simulation and experimental techniques that show the effect of mechanically or electronically steering a phased array transducer on proximal tissue heating. Methods: The thermal response of a nine-position raster and a 16-mm diameter circle scanning trajectory executed through both electronic and mechanical scanning was evaluated in computer simulations and experimentally in a homogeneous tissue-mimicking phantom. Simulations were performed using power deposition maps obtained from the hybrid angular spectrum (HAS) method and applying a finite-difference approximation of the Pennes’ bioheat transfer equation for the experimentally used transducer and also for a fully sampled transducer to demonstrate the effect of acoustic window, ultrasound beam overlap and grating lobe clutter on near-field heating. Results: Both simulation and experimental results show that electronically steering the ultrasound beam for the two trajectories using the 256-element phased array significantly increases the thermal dose deposited in the near-field tissues when compared with the same treatment executed through mechanical steering only. In addition, the individual contributions of both beam overlap and grating lobe clutter to the near-field thermal effects were determined through comparing the simulated ultrasound beam patterns and resulting temperature fields from mechanically and electronically steered trajectories using the 256-randomized element phased array transducer to an electronically steered trajectory using a fully sampled transducer with 40 401 phase-adjusted sample points. Conclusions: Three distinctly different three distinctly different transducers were simulated to analyze the tradeoffs of selected transducer design parameters on near-field heating. Careful consideration of design tradeoffs and accurate patient treatment planning combined with thorough monitoring of the near-field tissue temperature will help to ensure patient safety during an MRgHIFU treatment. PMID:21978041

  17. Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... couldn't see my baby at my 7 week ultrasound. Why? At the 7th week of pregnancy, your baby is about ½ an ... 1 in 120 pregnancies at 15 to 20 weeks gestation. Most disappear during pregnancy or within several ...

  18. Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying Min; Judkewitz, Benjamin; DiMarzio, Charles A.; Yang, Changhuei

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging is one of the most important research tools in biomedical sciences. However, scattering of light severely impedes imaging of thick biological samples beyond the ballistic regime. Here we directly show focusing and high-resolution fluorescence imaging deep inside biological tissues by digitally time-reversing ultrasound-tagged light with high optical gain (~5×105). We confirm the presence of a time-reversed optical focus along with a diffuse background—a corollary of partial phase conjugation—and develop an approach for dynamic background cancellation. To illustrate the potential of our method, we image complex fluorescent objects and tumour microtissues at an unprecedented depth of 2.5 mm in biological tissues at a lateral resolution of 36 ?m×52 ?m and an axial resolution of 657 ?m. Our results set the stage for a range of deep-tissue imaging applications in biomedical research and medical diagnostics. PMID:22735456

  19. Synergistic ablation of liver tissue and liver cancer cells with high-intensity focused ultrasound and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Nguyen H; Murad, Hakm Y; Ratnayaka, Sithira H; Chen, Chong; Khismatullin, Damir B

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the combined effect of ethanol and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), first, on heating and cavitation bubble activity in tissue-mimicking phantoms and porcine liver tissues and, second, on the viability of HepG2 liver cancer cells. Phantoms or porcine tissues were injected with ethanol and then subjected to HIFU at acoustic power ranging from 1.2 to 20.5 W (HIFU levels 1-7). Cavitation events and the temperature around the focal zone were measured with a passive cavitation detector and embedded type K thermocouples, respectively. HepG2 cells were subjected to 4% ethanol solution in growth medium (v/v) just before the cells were exposed to HIFU at 2.7, 8.7 or 12.0 W for 30 s. Cell viability was measured 2, 24 and 72 h post-treatment. The results indicate that ethanol and HIFU have a synergistic effect on liver cancer ablation as manifested by greater temperature rise and lesion volume in liver tissues and reduced viability of liver cancer cells. This effect is likely caused by reduction of the cavitation threshold in the presence of ethanol and the increased rate of ethanol diffusion through the cell membrane caused by HIFU-induced streaming, sonoporation and heating. PMID:24798386

  20. Localization of focused-ultrasound beams in a tissue phantom, using remote thermocouple arrays.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Prasanna; Dibaji, Seyed Ahmad Reza; Banerjee, Rupak K; Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Myers, Matthew R

    2014-12-01

    In focused-ultrasound procedures such as vessel cauterization or clot lysis, targeting accuracy is critical. To investigate the targeting accuracy of the focused-ultrasound systems, tissue phantoms embedded with thermocouples can be employed. This paper describes a method that utilizes an array of thermocouples to localize the focused ultrasound beam. All of the thermocouples are located away from the beam, so that thermocouple artifacts and sensor interference are minimized. Beam propagation and temperature rise in the phantom are simulated numerically, and an optimization routine calculates the beam location that produces the best agreement between the numerical temperature values and those measured with thermocouples. The accuracy of the method was examined as a function of the array characteristics, including the number of thermocouples in the array and their orientation. For exposures with a 3.3-MHz source, the remote-thermocouple technique was able to predict the focal position to within 0.06 mm. Once the focal location is determined using the localization method, temperatures at desired locations (including the focus) can be estimated from remote thermocouple measurements by curve fitting an analytical solution to the heat equation. Temperature increases in the focal plane were predicted to within 5% agreement with measured values using this method. PMID:25474777

  1. Validity of a portable computer-based ultrasound system for estimating adipose tissue in female gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Loenneke, Jeremy P; Barnes, Jeremy T; Wagganer, Jason D; Pujol, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the validity of a portable ultrasound instrument for estimating adipose tissue (AT%) compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in female collegiate gymnasts. Participants had their measurements taken in the following order: urine-specific gravity, body mass, height, ultrasound determined AT% (1-site and 3-site) and DXA determined AT%. The current pilot study found significant differences between estimates of AT% (P < 0·001). Pearson's correlations between DXA and 1-site and 3-site estimates were r = 0·786 and r = 0·753, respectively. The standard error of the estimate between DXA and 1-site and 3-site estimates was 3·6% and 3·9%, respectively. However, the average deviation of individual scores from the line of identity was 6·7% for the 1-site and 4·9% for the 3-site, when compared with the DXA estimate. The results of this preliminary study found that the portable ultrasound was not a valid estimate of AT% when compared with the DXA estimate in female collegiate gymnasts. PMID:24690403

  2. Effects of acoustic parameters on bubble cloud dynamics in ultrasound tissue erosion (histotripsy)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Hall, Timothy L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    High intensity pulsed ultrasound can produce significant mechanical tissue fractionation with sharp boundaries (“histotripsy”). At a tissue-fluid interface, histotripsy produces clearly demarcated tissue erosion and the erosion efficiency depends on pulse parameters. Acoustic cavitation is believed to be the primary mechanism for the histotripsy process. To investigate the physical basis of the dependence of tissue erosion on pulse parameters, an optical method was used to monitor the effects of pulse parameters on the cavitating bubble cloud generated by histotripsy pulses at a tissue-water interface. The pulse parameters studied include pulse duration, peak rarefactional pressure, and pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Results show that the duration of growth and collapse (collapse cycle) of the bubble cloud increased with increasing pulse duration, peak rarefactional pressure, and PRF when the next pulse arrived after the collapse of the previous bubble cloud. When the PRF was too high such that the next pulse arrived before the collapse of the previous bubble cloud, only a portion of histotripsy pulses could effectively create and collapse the bubble cloud. The collapse cycle of the bubble cloud also increased with increasing gas concentration. These results may explain previous in vitro results on effects of pulse parameters on tissue erosion. PMID:17614482

  3. Harmonic Band Spectrum Analysis of Backscattered Ultrasound from Lesioned and Normal Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratore, Robert; Lizzi, Frederic L.; Silverman, Ronald H.

    2006-05-01

    HIFU dose curves (lesion size vs. exposure parameters) exhibit scatter because of local variations in the acoustic properties of tissue. Therefore, clinical applications of HIFU, such as cardiac and cancer ablation, will benefit from the ability to distinguish treated from normal tissue, which can provide the surgeon with lesion monitoring. However, HIFU lesions, especially protein-denaturing lesions (PDLs), may be difficult to visualize with conventional B-mode ultrasound. In this study, spectrum analysis of backscattered radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound was successful in imaging lesions. HIFU lesions were formed at 5 MHz for various intensities and durations in model tissues including degassed chicken breast in vitro, fresh rabbit liver ex vivo, and canine cardiac left ventricle in vivo. The tissues were scanned pre- and post-exposure using confocal array and single-element diagnostic probes incorporated into the HIFU transducer assembly. The diagnostic probes were excited with a monocycle pulse under conditions previously shown to generate a second harmonic comparable in amplitude to the fundamental, and RF echo-signal data were recorded. In an alternate set, the therapy and diagnostic transducers were operated pitch-catch, with the therapy transducer sending out a series of 0.4 ms pulses and the diagnostic transducer in passive receive mode. Spectrum analysis of the RF data was performed separately on first (fundamental) and second harmonic frequency bands. Linear regression fits to spectra computed for sliding regions-of-interest yielded 3 parameters: midband fit (integrated backscatter), y-intercept and slope; grayscale images were produced for each parameter. Differences among the B-mode and parameter images, and between the lesion site and adjacent untreated tissues, were characterized statistically. The results indicate that midband fit images of both the fundamental and harmonic offer improved contrast and lateral resolution compared to conventional images. PDLs and bubbly lesions that are not clearly visible in B-mode images can be imaged with harmonic band spectrum analysis.

  4. A Feed-forward Neural Network Algorithm to Detect Thermal Lesions Induced by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound in Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Rangraz, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Shakhssalim, Naser; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive ultrasound surgeries such as high intensity focused ultrasound have been developed to treat tumors or to stop bleeding. In this technique, incorporation of a suitable imaging modality to monitor and control the treatments is essential so several imaging methods such as X-ray, Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound imaging have been proposed to monitor the induced thermal lesions. Currently, the only ultrasound imaging technique that is clinically used for monitoring this treatment is standard pulse-echo B-mode ultrasound imaging. This paper describes a novel method for detecting high intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions using a feed forward neural-network. This study was carried on in vitro animal tissue samples. Backscattered radio frequency signals were acquired in real-time during treatment in order to detect induced thermal lesions. Changes in various tissue properties including tissue's attenuation coefficient, integrated backscatter, scaling parameter of Nakagami distribution, frequency dependent scatterer amplitudes and tissue vibration derived from the backscattered radio frequency data acquired 10 minutes after treatment regarding to before treatment were used in this study. These estimated parameters were used as features of the neural network. Estimated parameters of two sample tissues including two thermal lesions and their segmented B-mode images were used along with the pathological results as training data for the neural network. The results of the study shows that the trained feed forward neural network could effectively detect thermal lesions in vitro. Comparing the estimated size of the thermal lesion (9.6 mm × 8.5 mm) using neural network with the actual size of that from physical examination (10.1 mm × 9 mm) shows that we could detect high intensity focused ultrasound thermal lesions with the difference of 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm. PMID:23724369

  5. Interlaced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system with real-time coregistration for ovarian tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Yuan, Guangqian; Kumavor, Patrick; Zanganeh, Saeid; Zhu, Quing

    2014-07-01

    Coregistered ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic imaging are emerging techniques for mapping the echogenic anatomical structure of tissue and its corresponding optical absorption. We report a 128-channel imaging system with real-time coregistration of the two modalities, which provides up to 15 coregistered frames per second limited by the laser pulse repetition rate. In addition, the system integrates a compact transvaginal imaging probe with a custom-designed fiber optic assembly for in vivo detection and characterization of human ovarian tissue. We present the coregistered US and photoacoustic imaging system structure, the optimal design of the PC interfacing software, and the reconfigurable field programmable gate array operation and optimization. Phantom experiments of system lateral resolution and axial sensitivity evaluation, examples of the real-time scanning of a tumor-bearing mouse, and ex vivo human ovaries studies are demonstrated.

  6. Accuracy of spectral Doppler flow and tissue velocity measurements in ultrasound systems.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrew; Olsson, Eva; Wranne, Bengt; Ringqvist, Ivar; Ask, Per

    2004-01-01

    Blood and tissue velocity are measured and analysed in cardiac, vascular and other applications of diagnostic ultrasound (US). An error in system calibration is a potential risk for misinterpretation of the measurements. To determine the accuracy in velocity calibration, we tested three common commercial US systems using a Doppler string phantom. We tested pulsed and continuous-wave Doppler modes for velocities relevant to both cardiac blood flow and tissue-velocity estimation. The US systems were tested with settings and transducers commonly used in cardiac applications. One system consistently overestimated velocity by about 5%, whereas the other two systems were quite accurate in velocity estimation. These findings emphasize the importance of continuous quality control of US equipment. PMID:14962617

  7. Lesions in Porcine Liver Tissues Created by Continuous High Intensity Ultrasound Exposures in Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Dong

    2013-02-01

    Lesions in porcine liver tissues created by continuous high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposures in vitro are theoretically and experimentally investigated, with the transmitter moving along a linear path at a fixed speed. Numerical simulations of the lesion formation are performed based on the Khokhlov—Zabolotskaya—Kuznetov equation and the bio-heat equation. In order to verify the theoretical predictions, experiments are performed in the one-dimensional scanning mode to measure the cross-sectional area of lesions created in the in vitro porcine liver exposed to 1.01-MHz HIFU pulses with the acoustic power of 70 W. The results indicate that, compared to the traditional discrete treatment protocol, the application of a continuous scanning model can create more uniform lesions in tissues and significantly reduces the total treatment time from 47s to 30s.

  8. Characterization of lamina propria and vocal muscle in human vocal fold tissue by ultrasound Nakagami imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Huang, Chih-Chung; Sun, Lei; Dailey, Seth H.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A number of ultrasound techniques have been applied to identify the biomechanical properties of the vocal folds. These conventional ultrasound methods, however, are not capable of visually mapping the concentration of collagen and elastic fibers in the vocal folds in the form of a parametric image. This study proposes to use a statistical parameter, the Nakagami factor estimated from the statistical distribution of the ultrasonic signals backscattered from tissues, as a means for parametric imaging of the biomechanical properties of the vocal folds. Methods: The ultrasonic backscattered signals were acquired from four larynges (eight vocal folds) obtained from individuals without vocal fold pathology for constructing the Nakagami images. The textures of the Nakagami image in the lamina propria (LP) and the vocal muscle (VM) were observed and compared. The average and standard deviation of the Nakagami parameter for the LP and the VM were also calculated. Results: The results showed that the Nakagami parameter of the LP is larger than that of the VM. Moreover, the LP and the VM have different shading features in the Nakagami images. It was found that the Nakagami parameter may depend on the concentration of collagen and elastic fibers, demonstrating that the Nakagami imaging may allow visual differentiation between the LP and the VM in the vocal folds. Conclusions: Current preliminary results suggested that the high-frequency Nakagami imaging may allow real-time visual characterization of the vocal fold tissues in clinical routine examinations. PMID:21626934

  9. Adaptive motion estimation of shear shock waves in soft solids and tissue with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Pinton, Gianmarco; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickaël; Coulouvrat, François

    2014-09-01

    Shear shock waves in soft solids, such as in tissue, have different regions of complex motion that can change rapidly across a single wave profile, especially at the shock front. Conventional tracking algorithms are not well adapted to the task of simultaneously tracking the discontinuous shock front and smooth regions away from the shock. An adaptive algorithm based on the normalized cross-correlation and a correlation-weighted median filter is presented. The proposed adaptive algorithm combines two features: first, it adapts the window size to optimize the correlation value based on the deformation, and second, it rejects inaccurate estimates with a median-weighted filter. For simulated ultrasound data, where the displacements are known, it is shown that the estimated velocity error for the adaptive algorithm is less than 1/3 of the error for non-adaptive normalized cross-correlation. The addition of the weighted median filter to the adaptive algorithm significantly improves the shock tracking performance. The shock position and rise-time error is almost an order of magnitude better with the median-weighted filter. This algorithm is then used to track shock wave propagation with data acquired by a high-frame-rate ultrasound scanner in a tissue-mimicking agar and gelatin phantom. The shock front is not resolved with conventional algorithms but it is clearly visible with the proposed adaptive median-weighted algorithm. PMID:25167149

  10. Considering Angle Selection When Using Ultrasound Electrode Displacement Elastography to Evaluate Radiofrequency Ablation of Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Chen, Pin-Yu; Wang, Chiao-Yin; Liu, Hao-Li; Teng, Jianfu

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive treatment to thermally destroy tumors. Ultrasound-based electrode-displacement elastography is an emerging technique for evaluating the region of RFA-induced lesions. The angle between the imaging probe and the RFA electrode can influence electrode-displacement elastography when visualizing the ablation zone. We explored the angle effect on electrode-displacement elastography to measure the ablation zone. Phantoms embedded with meatballs were fabricated and then ablated using an RFA system to simulate RFA-induced lesions. For each phantom, a commercial ultrasound scanner with a 7.5?MHz linear probe was used to acquire raw image data at different angles, ranging from 30° to 90° at increments of 10°, to construct electrode-displacement images and facilitate comparisons with tissue section images. The results revealed that the ablation regions detected using electrode-displacement elastography were highly correlated with those from tissue section images when the angle was between 30° and 60°. However, the boundaries of lesions were difficult to distinguish, when the angle was larger than 60°. The experimental findings suggest that angle selection should be considered to achieve reliable electrode-displacement elastography to describe ablation zones. PMID:24971347

  11. Determination of Tissue Thermal Conductivity by Measuring and Modeling Temperature Rise Induced in Tissue by Pulsed Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kujawska, Tamara; Secomski, Wojciech; Kruglenko, Eleonora; Krawczyk, Kazimierz; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    A tissue thermal conductivity (Ks) is an important parameter which knowledge is essential whenever thermal fields induced in selected organs are predicted. The main objective of this study was to develop an alternative ultrasonic method for determining Ks of tissues in vitro suitable for living tissues. First, the method involves measuring of temperature-time T(t) rises induced in a tested tissue sample by a pulsed focused ultrasound with measured acoustic properties using thermocouples located on the acoustic beam axis. Measurements were performed for 20-cycle tone bursts with a 2 MHz frequency, 0.2 duty-cycle and 3 different initial pressures corresponding to average acoustic powers equal to 0.7 W, 1.4 W and 2.1 W generated from a circular focused transducer with a diameter of 15 mm and f-number of 1.7 in a two-layer system of media: water/beef liver. Measurement results allowed to determine position of maximum heating located inside the beef liver. It was found that this position is at the same axial distance from the source as the maximum peak-peak pressure calculated for each nonlinear beam produced in the two-layer system of media. Then, the method involves modeling of T(t) at the point of maximum heating and fitting it to the experimental data by adjusting Ks. The averaged value of Ks determined by the proposed method was found to be 0.5±0.02 W/(m·°C) being in good agreement with values determined by other methods. The proposed method is suitable for determining Ks of some animal tissues in vivo (for example a rat liver). PMID:24743838

  12. Ex Vivo Characterization of Canine Liver Tissue Viscoelasticity Following High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Shahmirzadi, Danial; Hou, Gary Y.; Chen, Jiangang; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Elasticity imaging has shown great promise in detecting High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) lesions based on their distinct biomechanical properties. However, quantitative mechanical properties of the tissue and the optimal intensity for obtaining the best contrast parameters remain scarce. In this study, fresh canine livers were ablated using combinations of ISPTA intensities of 5.55, 7.16 and 9.07 kW/cm2 and time durations of 10 and 30 s ex vivo; leading to six groups of ablated tissues. Biopsy samples were then interrogated using dynamic shear mechanical testing within the range of 0.1-10 Hz to characterize the post-ablation tissue viscoelastic properties. All mechanical parameters were found to be frequency dependent. Compared to the unablated cases, all six groups of ablated tissues showed statistically-significant higher complex shear modulus and shear viscosity. However, among the ablated groups, both complex shear modulus and shear viscosity were found to monotonically increase in groups 1-4 (5.55 kW/cm2 for 10 s, 7.16 kW/cm2 for 10 s, 9.07 kW/cm2 & 10 s, and 5.55 kW/cm2 & 30 s, respectively), but decrease in groups 5 and 6 (7.16 kW/cm2 for 30 s, and 9.07 kW/cm2 for 30 s, respectively). For groups 5 and 6, the temperature was expected to exceed the boiling point, and therefore, the decreased stiffening could be due to the compromised integrity of the tissue microstructure. Future studies are needed to estimate the tissue mechanical properties in vivo and perform real-time monitoring of tissue alterations during ablation. PMID:24315395

  13. Ex Vivo characterization of canine liver tissue viscoelasticity after high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Shahmirzadi, Danial; Hou, Gary Y; Chen, Jiangang; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2014-02-01

    The potential of elasticity imaging to detect high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) lesions on the basis of their distinct biomechanical properties is promising. However, information on the quantitative mechanical properties of the tissue and the optimal intensity at which to determine the best contrast parameters is scarce. In this study, fresh canine livers were ablated using combinations of ISPTA intensities of 5.55, 7.16 and 9.07 kW/cm(2) and durations of 10 and 30 s ex vivo, resulting in six groups of ablated tissues. Biopsy samples were then interrogated using dynamic shear mechanical testing within the range of 0.1-10 Hz to characterize the tissue's post-ablation viscoelastic properties. All mechanical parameters were found to be frequency dependent. Compared with unablated cases, all six groups of ablated tissues had statistically significant higher complex shear modulus and shear viscosity. However, among the ablated groups, both complex shear modulus and shear viscosity were found to monotonically increase in groups 1-4 (5.55 kW/cm(2) for 10 s, 7.16 kW/cm(2) for 10 s, 9.07 kW/cm(2) for 10 s, and 5.55 kW/cm(2) for 30 s, respectively), but to decrease in groups 5 and 6 (7.16 kW/cm(2) for 30 s, and 9.07 kW/cm(2) for 30 s, respectively). For groups 5 and 6, the temperature was expected to exceed the boiling point, and therefore, the decreased stiffening could be due to the compromised integrity of the tissue microstructure. Future studies will entail estimation tissue mechanical properties in vivo and perform real-time monitoring of tissue alterations during ablation. PMID:24315395

  14. A motion estimation refinement framework for real-time tissue axial strain estimation with freehand ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongjin; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2010-09-01

    Ultrasound elastography has become a wellknown optional imaging method for the diagnosis of tissue abnormalities in various body parts. It images the elasticity of compliant tissues by estimating the local displacements and strains using pre- and post-compression RF echo signals. In this paper, taking the RF signal as image intensity and RF samples as pixels, we present a motion estimation framework to compute the axial tissue displacements and strains. This method takes advantage of both the block matching algorithm (BMA) and local optical flow techniques. For two frames of RF signals, coarse motion estimates are first computed using BMA. The motion estimates obtained are then used to warp the first frame toward the second one, thus making the warped frame more spatially correlated to the second one. Next, the Lucas-Kanade optical flow method is employed to compute the residual motion between the warped frame and the original second frame, with inherent sub-pixel precision. Finally, the displacements from the two steps are combined. The warp-and-refine procedure can be iterated if the residual motion is larger than a predefined empirical threshold. To test its feasibility, we first applied the method to simulated data. The results show that our method is robust to relatively large motions and is capable of generating accurate motion estimation with subsample spatial resolution. These methods have been deployed and are being tested on a commercialized ultrasound machine that previously did not have elastography functions. Quality real-time display of elastography along with freehand scanning has been accomplished. The proposed framework provides an alternative method for motion estimation with good performance, and it can potentially be improved using hardware to realize the BMA. PMID:20875984

  15. Therapeutic ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A Crum

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy,

  16. Imaging monitored loosening of dense fibrous tissues using high-intensity pulsed ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chia-Lun; Li, Pai-Chi; Shih, Wen-Pin; Huang, Pei-Shin; Kuo, Po-Ling

    2013-10-01

    Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is proposed as a new alternative treatment for contracture of dense fibrous tissue. It is hypothesized that the pulsed-HIFU can release the contracted tissues by attenuating tensile stiffness along the fiber axis, and that the stiffness reduction can be quantitatively monitored by change of B-mode images. Fresh porcine tendons and ligaments were adapted to an ex vivo model and insonated with pulsed-HIFU for durations ranging from 5 to 30 min. The pulse length was 91 µs with a repetition frequency of 500 Hz, and the peak rarefactional pressure was 6.36 MPa. The corresponding average intensities were kept around 1606 W cm-2 for ISPPA and 72.3 W cm-2 for ISPTA. B-mode images of the tissues were acquired before and after pulsed-HIFU exposure, and the changes in speckle intensity and organization were analyzed. The tensile stiffness of the HIFU-exposed tissues along the longitudinal axis was examined using a stretching machine. Histology examinations were performed by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Pulsed-HIFU exposure significantly decreased the tensile stiffness of the ligaments and tendons. The intensity and organization of tissue speckles in the exposed region were also decreased. The speckle changes correlated well with the degree of stiffness alteration. Histology examinations revealed that pulsed-HIFU exposure probably damages tissues via a cavitation-mediated mechanism. Our results suggest that pulsed-HIFU with a low duty factor is a promising tool for developing new treatment strategies for orthopedic disorders.

  17. Ultrasound backscatter measurements of intact human proximal femurs--relationships of ultrasound parameters with tissue structure and mineral density.

    PubMed

    Malo, M K H; Töyräs, J; Karjalainen, J P; Isaksson, H; Riekkinen, O; Jurvelin, J S

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasound reflection and backscatter parameters are related to the mechanical and structural properties of bone in vitro. However, the potential of ultrasound reflection and backscatter measurements has not been tested with intact human proximal femurs ex vivo. We hypothesize that ultrasound backscatter can be measured from intact femurs and that the measured backscattered signal is associated with cadaver age, bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone microstructure. In this study, human femoral bones of 16 male cadavers (47.0±16.1 years, range: 21-77 years) were investigated using pulse-echo ultrasound measurements at the femoral neck in the antero-posterior direction and at the trochanter major in the anteroposterior and lateromedial directions. Recently introduced ultrasound backscatter parameters, independent of cortical thickness, e.g., time slope of apparent integrated backscatter (TSAB) and mean of the backscatter difference technique (MBD) were obtained and compared with the structural properties of trabecular bone samples, extracted from the locations of ultrasound measurements. Moreover, more conventional backscatter parameters, e.g., apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) and frequency slope of apparent integrated backscatter (FSAB) were analyzed. Bone mineral density of the intact femurs was evaluated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). AIB and MDB measured from the femoral neck correlated significantly (p<0.01) with the neck BMD (R2=0.44 and 0.45), cadaver age (R2=0.61 and 0.41) and several structural parameters, e.g., bone volume fraction (R2=0.33 and 0.39, p<0.05 and p<0.01), respectively. To conclude, ultrasound backscatter parameters, measured from intact proximal femurs, are significantly related (p<0.05) to structural properties and mineral density of trabecular bone. PMID:24769331

  18. Ultrasound phase contrast thermal imaging with reflex transmission imaging methods in tissue phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Farny, Caleb H.; Clement, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal imaging measurements using ultrasound phase contrast have been performed in tissue phantoms heated with a focused ultrasound source. Back projection and reflex transmission imaging principles were employed to detect sound speed-induced changes in the phase caused by an increase in the temperature. The temperature was determined from an empirical relationship for the temperature dependence on sound speed. The phase contrast was determined from changes in the sound field measured with a hydrophone scan conducted before and during applied heating. The lengthy scanning routine used to mimic a large two-dimensional array required a steady-state temperature distribution within the phantom. The temperature distribution in the phantom was validated with magnetic resonance (MR) thermal imaging measurements. The peak temperature was found to agree within 1°C with MR and good agreement was found between the temperature profiles. The spatial resolution was 0.3 × 0.3 × 0.3 mm, comparing favorably with the 0.625 × 0.625 × 1.5 mm MR spatial resolution. PMID:19683380

  19. Estimating dynamic changes of tissue attenuation coefficient during high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the dynamic changes of tissue attenuation coefficients before, during, and after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment at different total acoustic powers (TAP) in ex vivo porcine muscle tissue. It further assessed the reliability of employing changes in tissue attenuation coefficient parameters as potential indicators of tissue thermal damage. Methods Two-dimensional pulse-echo radio frequency (RF) data were acquired before, during, and after HIFU exposure to estimate changes in least squares attenuation coefficient slope (??) and attenuation coefficient intercept (??0). Using the acquired RF data, ?? and ??0 images, along with conventional B-mode ultrasound images, were constructed. The dynamic changes of ?? and ??0, averaged in the region of interest, were correlated with B-mode images obtained during the HIFU treatment process. Results At a HIFU exposure duration of 40 s and various HIFU intensities (737–1,068 W/cm2), ?? and ??0 increased rapidly to values in the ranges 1.5–2.5 dB/(MHz.cm) and 4–5 dB/cm, respectively. This rapid increase was accompanied with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode images. Bubble activities appeared as strong hyperechoic regions in the B-mode images and caused fluctuations in the estimated ?? and ??0 values. After the treatment, ?? and ??0 values gradually decreased, accompanied by fade-out of hyperechoic spots in the B-mode images. At 10 min after the treatment, they reached values in ranges 0.75–1 dB/(MHz.cm) and 1–1.5 dB/cm, respectively, and remained stable within those ranges. At a long HIFU exposure duration of around 10 min and low HIFU intensity (117 W/cm2), ?? and ??0 gradually increased to values of 2.2 dB/(MHz.cm) and 2.2 dB/cm, respectively. This increase was not accompanied with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode images. After HIFU treatment, ?? and ??0 gradually decreased to values of 1.8 dB/(MHz.cm) and 1.5 dB/cm, respectively, and remained stable at those values. Conclusions ?? and ??0 estimations were both potentially reliable indicators of tissue thermal damage. In addition, ?? and ??0 images both had significantly higher contrast-to-speckle ratios compared to the conventional B-mode images and outperformed the B-mode images in detecting HIFU thermal lesions at all investigated TAPs and exposure durations. PMID:25516802

  20. High resolution imaging beyond the acoustic diffraction limit in deep tissue via ultrasound-switchable NIR fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yanbo; Wei, Ming-Yuan; Cheng, Bingbing; Liu, Yuan; Xie, Zhiwei; Nguyen, Kytai; Yuan, Baohong

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging in deep tissue with high spatial resolution is highly desirable because it can provide details about tissue's structural, functional, and molecular information. Unfortunately, current fluorescence imaging techniques are limited either in penetration depth (microscopy) or spatial resolution (diffuse light based imaging) as a result of strong light scattering in deep tissue. To overcome this limitation, we developed an ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (USF) imaging technique whereby ultrasound was used to switch on/off the emission of near infrared (NIR) fluorophores. We synthesized and characterized unique NIR USF contrast agents. The excellent switching properties of these agents, combined with the sensitive USF imaging system developed in this study, enabled us to image fluorescent targets in deep tissue with spatial resolution beyond the acoustic diffraction limit. PMID:24732947

  1. Hybrid optoacoustic and ultrasound biomicroscopy monitors’ laser-induced tissue modifications and magnetite nanoparticle impregnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Héctor; Sobol, Emil; Baum, Olga; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Tissue modification under laser radiation is emerging as one of the advanced applications of lasers in medicine, with treatments ranging from reshaping and regeneration of cartilage to normalization of the intraocular pressure. Laser-induced structural alterations can be studied using conventional microscopic techniques applied to thin specimen. Yet, development of non-invasive imaging methods for deep tissue monitoring of structural alterations under laser radiation is of great importance, especially for attaining efficient feedback during the procedures. We developed a fast scanning biomicroscopy system that can simultaneously deliver both optoacoustic and pulse-echo ultrasound contrast from intact tissues and show that both modalities allow manifesting the laser-induced changes in cartilage and sclera. Furthermore, images of the sclera samples reveal a crater developing around the center of the laser-irradiated spot as well as a certain degree of thickening within the treated zone, presumably due to pore formation. Finally, we were able to observe selective impregnation of magnetite nanoparticles into the cartilage, thus demonstrating a possible contrast enhancement approach for studying specific treatment effects. Overall, the new imaging approach holds promise for development of noninvasive feedback control systems that could guarantee efficacy and safety of laser-based medical procedures.

  2. Non-invasive assessment of negative pressure wound therapy using high frequency diagnostic ultrasound: oedema reduction and new tissue accumulation.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephen R; Hampton, Sylvie; Martin, Robin

    2013-08-01

    Tissue oedema plays an important role in the pathology of chronic and traumatic wounds. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is thought to contribute to active oedema reduction, yet few studies have showed this effect. In this study, high frequency diagnostic ultrasound at 20 MHz with an axial resolution of 60 µm was used to assess the effect of NPWT at - 80 mmHg on pressure ulcers and the surrounding tissue. Wounds were monitored in four patients over a 3-month period during which changes in oedema and wound bed thickness (granulation tissue) were measured non-invasively. The results showed a rapid reduction of periwound tissue oedema in all patients with levels falling by a mean of 43% after 4 days of therapy. A 20% increase in the thickness of the wound bed was observed after 7 days due to new granulation tissue formation. Ultrasound scans through the in situ gauze NPWT filler also revealed the existence of macrodeformation in the tissue produced by the negative pressure. These preliminary studies suggest that non-invasive assessment using high frequency diagnostic ultrasound could be a valuable tool in clinical studies of NPWT. PMID:22672782

  3. Pulsed ultrasound enhances the delivery of nitric oxide from bubble liposomes to ex vivo porcine carotid tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, JT; Raymond, JL; Verleye, MC; Pyne-Geithman, GJ; Holland, CK

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery is a novel technique for enhancing the penetration of drugs into diseased tissue beds noninvasively. By encapsulating drugs into microsized and nanosized liposomes, the therapeutic can be shielded from degradation within the vasculature until delivery to a target site by ultrasound exposure. Traditional in vitro or ex vivo techniques to quantify this delivery profile include optical approaches, cell culture, and electrophysiology. Here, we demonstrate an approach to characterize the degree of nitric oxide (NO) delivery to porcine carotid tissue by direct measurement of ex vivo vascular tone. An ex vivo perfusion model was adapted to assess ultrasound-mediated delivery of NO. This potent vasodilator was coencapsulated with inert octafluoropropane gas to produce acoustically active bubble liposomes. Porcine carotid arteries were excised post mortem and mounted in a physiologic buffer solution. Vascular tone was assessed in real time by coupling the artery to an isometric force transducer. NO-loaded bubble liposomes were infused into the lumen of the artery, which was exposed to 1 MHz pulsed ultrasound at a peak-to-peak acoustic pressure amplitude of 0.34 MPa. Acoustic cavitation emissions were monitored passively. Changes in vascular tone were measured and compared with control and sham NO bubble liposome exposures. Our results demonstrate that ultrasound-triggered NO release from bubble liposomes induces potent vasorelaxation within porcine carotid arteries (maximal relaxation 31%±8%), which was significantly stronger than vasorelaxation due to NO release from bubble liposomes in the absence of ultrasound (maximal relaxation 7%±3%), and comparable with relaxation due to 12 ?M sodium nitroprusside infusions (maximal relaxation 32%±3%). This approach is a valuable mechanistic tool for assessing the extent of drug release and delivery to the vasculature caused by ultrasound. PMID:25336947

  4. Implementation of a Rotational Ultrasound Biomicroscopy System Equipped with a High-Frequency Angled Needle Transducer — Ex Vivo Ultrasound Imaging of Porcine Ocular Posterior Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Juho; Bae, Jinho; Lee, Chong Hyun; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical scanning of a single element transducer has been mostly utilized for high-frequency ultrasound imaging. However, it requires space for the mechanical motion of the transducer. In this paper, a rotational scanning ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) system equipped with a high-frequency angled needle transducer is designed and implemented in order to minimize the space required. It was applied to ex vivo ultrasound imaging of porcine posterior ocular tissues through a minimal incision hole of 1 mm in diameter. The retina and sclera for the one eye were visualized in the relative rotating angle range of 270° ? 330° and at a distance range of 6 ? 7 mm, whereas the tissues of the other eye were observed in relative angle range of 160° ? 220° and at a distance range of 7.5 ? 9 mm. The layer between retina and sclera seemed to be bent because the distance between the transducer tip and the layer was varied while the transducer was rotated. Certin features of the rotation system such as the optimal scanning angle, step angle and data length need to be improved for ensure higher accuracy and precision. Moreover, the focal length should be considered for the image quality. This implementation represents the first report of a rotational scanning UBM system. PMID:25254305

  5. On the KZK-type equation for modulated ultrasound fields Egor Dontsov and Bojan Guzina

    E-print Network

    Guzina, Bojan

    On the KZK-type equation for modulated ultrasound fields Egor Dontsov and Bojan Guzina December 12, 2012 Abstract This study introduces a KZK-type model describing the nonlinear wave propagation due the quasi-static approximation and the full solution. Thus obtained modification of the KZK equation, which

  6. High-frequency ultrasound M-mode monitoring of HIFU ablation in cardiac tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumon, R. E.; Gudur, M. S. R.; Zhou, Y.; Deng, C. X.

    2012-10-01

    Effective real-time HIFU lesion detection is important for expanded use of HIFU in interventional electrophysiology (e.g., epicardial ablation of cardiac arrhythmia). The goal of this study was to investigate rapid, high-frequency M-mode ultrasound imaging for monitoring spatiotemporal changes in tissue during HIFU application. The HIFU application (4.33 MHz, 1000 Hz PRF, 50% duty cycle, 1 s exposure, 6100 W/cm2) was perpendicularly applied to porcine cardiac tissue with a high-frequency imaging system (Visualsonics Vevo 770, 55 MHz, 4.5 mm focal distance) confocally aligned. Radiofrequency (RF) M-mode data (1 kHz PRF, 4 s × 7 mm) was acquired before, during, and after HIFU treatment. Gross lesions were compared with M-mode data to correlate lesion and cavity formation. Integrated backscatter, echo-decorrelation parameters, and their cumulative extrema over time were analyzed for automatically identifying lesion width and bubble formation. Cumulative maximum integrated backscatter showed the best results for identifying the final lesion width, and a criterion based on line-to-line decorrelation was proposed for identification of transient bubble activity.

  7. A comparison of theoretical and experimental ultrasound field distributions in canine muscle tissue in vivo.

    PubMed

    Moros, E G; Hynynen, K

    1992-01-01

    Relative ultrasound field distributions were measured using thermal techniques in canine thighs in vivo and in water. The experimental results were compared with distributions obtained from a numerical model based on the one-dimensional integration of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral. The comparisons showed that the theoretical model is a good approximation to the distributions measured in water, with the agreement decreasing for regions in front of the acoustic focus. The main lobe profiles obtained in the muscle tissue also agreed well with both theoretical results and results measured in water (focussing was not lost). However, these in vivo distributions showed enlargement of the side lobes indicating scattering of the waves. It was also found that the interfaces between muscle groups produced considerable beam distortions as well as increased side lobe levels. Scattering of energy from the main lobe to the side lobes was verified by measurements of the peak intensity and the total acoustic power attenuation coefficients for passage of the beams through the thighs which showed that the former was about 40% higher than the latter. Also, absolute intensity values at the acoustic focus were measured in water using a hydrophone (0.5 mm active diameter) for 11 transducers ranging in frequency from 0.246 to 3.54 MHz. When these absolute values were compared with the model predictions, it was found that the model consistently overestimated the experimental data by a factor of less than 2. That is, the model can also be used to obtain upper bounds for absolute intensity values. Consequences of these results on ultrasound hyperthermia treatments are discussed. PMID:1566529

  8. 3-D visualization and non-linear tissue classification of breast tumors using ultrasound elastography in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Ahmed; Layne, Ginger; Abraham, Jame; Mukdadi, Osama M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the study described here was to introduce new methods for the classification and visualization of human breast tumors using 3-D ultrasound elastography. A tumor's type, shape and size are key features that can help the physician to decide the sort and extent of necessary treatment. In this work, tumor type, being either benign or malignant, was classified non-invasively for nine volunteer patients. The classification was based on estimating four parameters that reflect the tumor's non-linear biomechanical behavior, under multi-compression levels. Tumor prognosis using non-linear elastography was confirmed with biopsy as a gold standard. Three tissue classification parameters were found to be statistically significant with a p-value < 0.05, whereas the fourth non-linear parameter was highly significant, having a p-value < 0.001. Furthermore, each breast tumor's shape and size were estimated in vivo using 3-D elastography, and were enhanced using interactive segmentation. Segmentation with level sets was used to isolate the stiff tumor from the surrounding soft tissue. Segmentation also provided a reliable means to estimate tumors volumes. Four volumetric strains were investigated: the traditional normal axial strain, the first principal strain, von Mises strain and maximum shear strain. It was noted that these strains can provide varying degrees of boundary enhancement to the stiff tumor in the constructed elastograms. The enhanced boundary improved the performance of the segmentation process. In summary, the proposed methods can be employed as a 3-D non-invasive tool for characterization of breast tumors, and may provide early prognosis with minimal pain, as well as diminish the risk of late-stage breast cancer. PMID:24768484

  9. Ultrasound -Assisted Gene Transfer to Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem/Progenitor Cells (ASCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Ueno, Hitomi; Hokari, Rei; Yuan, Wenji; Kuno, Shuichi; Kakimoto, Takashi; Enosawa, Shin; Negishi, Yoichi; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Chiba, Toshio; Hayashi, Shuji

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, multilineage adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have become increasingly attractive as a promising source for cell transplantation and regenerative medicine. Particular interest has been expressed in the potential to make tissue stem cells, such as ASCs and marrow stromal cells (MSCs), differentiate by gene transfection. Gene transfection using highly efficient viral vectors such as adeno- and sendai viruses have been developed for this purpose. Sonoporation, or ultrasound (US)-assisted gene transfer, is an alternative gene manipulation technique which employs the creation of a jet stream by ultrasonic microbubble cavitation. Sonoporation using non-viral vectors is expected to be a much safer, although less efficient, tool for prospective clinical gene therapy. In this report, we assessed the efficacy of the sonoporation technique for gene transfer to ASCs. We isolated and cultured adipocyets from mouse adipose tissue. ASCs that have the potential to differentiate with transformation into adipocytes or osteoblasts were obtained. Using the US-assisted system, plasmid DNA containing beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes were transferred to the ASCs. For this purpose, a Sonopore 4000 (NEPAGENE Co.) and a Sonazoid (Daiichi Sankyo Co.) instrument were used in combination. ASCs were subjected to US (3.1 MHz, 50% duty cycle, burst rate 2.0 Hz, intensity 1.2 W/cm2, exposure time 30 sec). We observed that the gene was more efficiently transferred with increased concentrations of plasmid DNA (5-150 ?g/mL). However, further optimization of the US parameters is required, as the gene transfer efficiency was still relatively low. In conclusion, we herein demonstrate that a gene can be transferred to ASCs using our US-assisted system. In regenerative medicine, this system might resolve the current issues surrounding the use of viral vectors for gene transfer.

  10. Heating of tissues in vivo by pulsed focused ultrasound to stimulate enhanced HSP expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawska, Tamara; Wójcik, Janusz; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2011-09-01

    The main aim of this work was numerical modeling of temperature fields induced in soft tissues in vivo by pulsed focused ultrasound during neurodegenerative disease treatment and experimental verification of the proposed model for a rat liver. The new therapeutic approach to neurodegenerative diseases consists of stimulation of enhanced expression of the Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) which are responsible for immunity of cells to stress. During therapy the temperature rise in tissues in vivo should not exceed 6 °C above level of the thermal norm (37 °C). First, the 3D acoustic pressure field, and the rate of heat production per unit volume due to that field, were calculated using our 3D numerical solver capable of predicting nonlinear propagation of pulsed high intensity waves generated from circular focused acoustic sources in multilayer configuration of attenuating media. The two-layer configuration of media (water—rat liver) assumed in calculations fairly well approximated both the real anatomic dimensions of rat liver and the geometric scheme of our experimental set-up. A numerical solution of the Pennes bio-heat transfer equation which accounted for the effects of heat diffusion, blood perfusion and metabolism rates, was employed to calculate the temperature fields induced in the rat liver by the ultrasonic beam. The numerical simulation results were verified experimentally using a thermocouple inserted in the liver of a rat under anesthesia at the beam focus. The quantitative analysis of the obtained results enabled estimation of the effects of several acoustic and thermal parameters of the rat liver in vivo on the temperature rise, as well as determination of exposure time for ultrasonic beams with varied acoustic power generated by a 2-MHz circular transducer of 15-mm diameter and 25-mm focal length, in order to avoid the tissue overheating that leads to cells necrosis, which would be unacceptable in neurodegenerative disease treatment.

  11. The study of cells and tissues Tissues 4 basic types

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    common type elastic ­ elastin, e.g., skeletal system e.g., pinna of ear, epiglottis #12;Bone ­ highly #12;Skeletal Striated Muscle ­ giant multinucleate linear cells of voluntary skeletal muscular system ­ actin, troponin, meromyosin; thick filaments ­ myosin smooth muscle striated muscle skeletal striated

  12. Ex vivo viscoelastic characterization of head and neck tissue abnormalities using ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccabi, Ashkan; Garritano, James; Arshi, Armin; Saddik, George; Tajudeen, Bobby A.; St. John, Maie; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2014-03-01

    In the absence of an imaging technique that offers a highly dynamic range detection of malignant tissue intra-operatively, surgeons are often forced to excise excess healthy tissue to ensure clear margins of resection. Techniques that are currently used in the detection of tumor regions include palpation, optical coherence tomography (OCT) elastography, dye injections, and conventional ultrasound to pinpoint the affected area. However, these methods suffer from limitations such as minimal specificity, low contrast, and limited depth of penetration. Lack of specificity and low contrast result in the production of vague disease margins and fail to provide a reliable guidance tool for surgeons. The proposed work presents an alternative diagnostic technique, ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA), which may potentially provide surgeons with detailed intra-operative imagery characterized by enhanced structural boundaries and well-defined borders based on the viscoelastic properties of tissues. We demonstrate selective imaging using ex vivo tissue samples of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with the presence of both malignant and normal areas. Spatially resolved maps of varying acoustic properties were generated and show good contrast between the areas of interest. While the results are promising, determining the precision and sensitivity of the USVA imaging system in identifying boundary regions as well as intensities of ex vivo tissue targets may provide additional information to non-invasively assess confined regions of diseased tissues from healthy areas.

  13. Controlled ultrasound tissue erosion: The role of dynamic interaction between insonation and microbubble activity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Rothman, Edward D.; Levin, Albert M.; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies showed that ultrasound can mechanically remove tissue in a localized, controlled manner. Moreover, enhanced acoustic backscatter is highly correlated with the erosion process. “Initiation” and “extinction” of this highly backscattering environment were studied in this paper. The relationship between initiation and erosion, variability of initiation and extinction, and effects of pulse intensity and gas saturation on time to initiation (initiation delay time) were investigated. A 788-kHz single-element transducer was used. Multiple pulses at a 3-cycle pulse duration and a 20-kHz pulse repetition frequency were applied. ISPPA values between 1000 and 9000 W/cm2 and gas saturation ranges of 24%–28%, 39%–49%, and 77%–81% were tested. Results show the following: (1) without initiation, erosion was never observed; (2) initiation and extinction of the highly backscattering environment were stochastic in nature and dependent on acoustic parameters; (3) initiation delay times were shorter with higher intensity and higher gas saturation (e.g., the mean initiation delay time was 66.9 s at ISPPA of 4000 W/cm2 and 3.6 ms at ISPPA of 9000 W/cm2); and (4) once initiated by high-intensity pulses, the highly backscattering environment and erosion can be sustained using a significantly lower intensity than that required to initiate the process. PMID:15704435

  14. Towards the feasibility of using ultrasound to determine mechanical properties of tissues in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Joseph M; Gu, Di-Win Marine; Chung, Chen-Yuan; Heebner, Joseph; Althans, Jake; Abdalian, Sarah; Schluchter, Mark D; Liu, Yiying; Welter, Jean F

    2014-10-01

    Our ultimate goal is to non-destructively evaluate mechanical properties of tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage using ultrasound (US). We used agarose gels as surrogates for TE cartilage. Previously, we showed that mechanical properties measured using conventional methods were related to those measured using US, which suggested a way to non-destructively predict mechanical properties of samples with known volume fractions. In this study, we sought to determine whether the mechanical properties of samples, with unknown volume fractions could be predicted by US. Aggregate moduli were calculated for hydrogels as a function of SOS, based on concentration and density using a poroelastic model. The data were used to train a statistical model, which we then used to predict volume fractions and mechanical properties of unknown samples. Young's and storage moduli were measured mechanically. The statistical model generally predicted the Young's moduli in compression to within <10% of their mechanically measured value. We defined positive linear correlations between the aggregate modulus predicted from US and both the storage and Young's moduli determined from mechanical tests. Mechanical properties of hydrogels with unknown volume fractions can be predicted successfully from US measurements. This method has the potential to predict mechanical properties of TE cartilage non-destructively in a bioreactor. PMID:25092421

  15. Classification algorithm of ovarian tissue based on co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Alqasemi, Umar; Zhu, Quing

    2014-03-01

    Human ovarian tissue features extracted from photoacoustic spectra data, beam envelopes and co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images are used to characterize cancerous vs. normal processes using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The centers of suspicious tumor areas are estimated from the Gaussian fitting of the mean Radon transforms of the photoacoustic image along 0 and 90 degrees. Normalized power spectra are calculated using the Fourier transform of the photoacoustic beamformed data across these suspicious areas, where the spectral slope and 0-MHz intercepts are extracted. Image statistics, envelope histogram fitting and maximum output of 6 composite filters of cancerous or normal patterns along with other previously used features are calculated to compose a total of 17 features. These features are extracted from 169 datasets of 19 ex vivo ovaries. Half of the cancerous and normal datasets are randomly chosen to train a SVM classifier with polynomial kernel and the remainder is used for testing. With 50 times data resampling, the SVM classifier, for the training group, gives 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. For the testing group, it gives 89.68+/- 6.37% sensitivity and 93.16+/- 3.70% specificity. These results are superior to those obtained earlier by our group using features extracted from photoacoustic raw data or image statistics only.

  16. Experiences Using a Special Purpose Robot for Focal Ultrasound Based Tissue Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, S.; Li, J. R.; Mishral, R.; Lim, W. K.; Hacker, A.; Michel, M. S.; Alken, P.; Köhrmann, K. U.

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes implementation, empirical set-up and ex vivo trial results of a non-invasive robotic surgery system, called FUSBOT-BS, to treat tumours/cancers by the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The desired surgical effects of ultrasonic irradiation are decided by a pre-planned delivered dosage and the temporal aspects of wave propagation. The temperature rise in the target site depends upon the exposure conditions. A multiple transducer approach is adopted in this research. Surgical planning and deployment of the probes in a given location and specified trajectory is accomplished using robotic techniques. The test results for ablation were conducted in biological phantoms and in various animal tissues, in vitro, such as fat, muscle, and kidney from lamb, beef and pork. The representative results obtained in these empirical studies are presented, which help to understand dependence of crucial HIFU parameters to decide the treatment planning and surgical protocols. The robotic system achieved an end-point accuracy of ±0.5mm. It is possible to precisely position target lesions and ablate remote target sites of varying shapes and sizes with flexible protocols.

  17. Effect of ethanol injection on cavitation and heating of tissues exposed to high-intensity focused ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Chen; Y Liu; S Maruvada; M Myers; D Khismatullin

    2012-01-01

    Cavitation activity and temperature rise have been investigated in a tissue-mimicking material and excised bovine liver treated with ethanol and insonated with a 0.825 MHz focused acoustic transducer. The acoustic power was varied from 1.3 to 26.8 W to find the threshold leading to the onset of inertial cavitation. Cavitation events were quantified by three independent techniques: B-mode ultrasound imaging,

  18. Evaluation of an algorithm for semiautomated segmentation of thin tissue layers in high-frequency ultrasound images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Qiu; J. Dunmore-Buyze; D. R. Boughner; J. C. Lacofield

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm consisting of speckle reduction by median filtering, contrast enhancement using top- and bottom-hat morphological filters, and segmentation with a discrete dynamic contour (DDC) model was implemented for nondestructive measurements of soft tissue layer thickness. Algorithm performance was evaluated by segmenting simulated images of three-layer phantoms and high-frequency (40 MHz) ultrasound images of porcine aortic valve cusps in vitro.

  19. Delivery of Colloidal Particles and Red Blood Cells to Tissue Through Microvessel Ruptures Created by Targeted Microbubble Destruction With Ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Price; Danny M. Skyba; Sanjiv Kaul; Thomas C. Skalak

    2010-01-01

    Background—We have previously shown that the application of ultrasound to thin-shelled microbubbles flowing through small microvessels (,7 mm in diameter) produces vessel wall ruptures in vivo. Because many intravascular drug- and gene-delivery vehicles are limited by the endothelial barrier, we hypothesized that this phenomenon could be used to deliver drug-bearing vehicles to tissue. Methods and Results—An exteriorized rat spinotrapezius muscle

  20. Role of Anterior Neck Soft Tissue Quantifications by Ultrasound in Predicting Difficult Laryngoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinhong; Dong, Jing; Ding, Yingchun; Zheng, Jijian

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine if ultrasound (US) measurements of anterior neck soft tissue thickness at hyoid bone (DSHB), thyrohyoid membrane (DSEM), and anterior commissure (DSAC) levels can be used to predict difficult laryngoscopy. Material/Methods We included 203 patients age 20–65 years scheduled to undergo general anesthesia in this prospective observational study. Correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis were used to determine the roles of screening tests [interincisor gap (IIG), thyromental distance (TMD), modified Mallampati score (MMS)] and US measurements (DSHB, DSEM, DSAC) in predicting difficult laryngoscopy. Results There were 28 out of 203 patients categorized as difficult laryngoscopy. DSHB, DSEM, DSAC, and MMS were greater in the difficult laryngoscopy group (P<0.0001). There was a strong positive correlation between DSEM and DSHB (r=0.74); moderate positive correlations between DSEM and DSAC (r=0.60), DSHB and DSAC (r=0.69); small positive correlations between MMS and DSHB (r=0.32), MMS and DSEM (r=0.27), MMS and DSAC (r=0.32), all P values ?0.0001; very small positive correlation between TMD and IIG (r=0.18, P=0.0089); small negative correlation between IIG and MMS (r=?0.27, P=0.0001); and very small negative correlations between MMS and TMD (r=?0.20, P=0.004), IIG and DSAC (r=?0.18, P=0.011), IIG and DSHB (r=?0.15, P=0.034). The areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) of MMS, DSHB, DSEM, and DSAC were significantly larger compared with the reference line (P<0.0001). Conclusions Anterior neck soft tissue thicknesses measured by US at hyoid bone, thyrohyoid membrane, and anterior commissure levels are independent predictors of difficult laryngoscopy. Combinations of those screening tests or risk factors with US measurements might increase the ability to predict difficult laryngoscopy. PMID:25403231

  1. Fibroid-associated heavy menstrual bleeding: correlation between clinical features, Doppler ultrasound assessment of vasculature, and tissue gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Tsiligiannis, Sophia E; Zaitseva, Marina; Coombs, Peter R; Shekleton, Paul; Olshansky, Moshe; Hickey, Martha; Vollenhoven, Beverley; Rogers, Peter A W

    2013-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of uterine fibroids (Fs), few studies have investigated the links between clinical features and the cellular or molecular mechanisms that drive F growth and development. Such knowledge will ultimately help to differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic Fs and could result in the development of more effective and individualized treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ultrasound appearance, blood flow, and angiogenic gene expression in F, perifibroid (PM), and distant myometrial (DM) tissues. We hypothesized that angiogenic gene expression would be increased in tissues and participants that showed increased blood flow by Doppler ultrasound. The study was performed using Doppler ultrasound to measure blood flow prior to hysterectomy, with subsequent tissue samples from the F, PM, and DM being investigated for angiogenic gene expression. Overall, PM blood flow (measured as peak systolic velocity [PSV]) was higher than F blood flow, although significant heterogeneity was seen in vascularity and blood flow between different Fs and their surrounding myometrium. We did not find any correlation between PSV and any other clinical or molecular parameter in this study. We identified 19 angiogenesis pathway-related genes with significant differences in expression between F and DM, and 2 genes, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and Neuropilin 2 (NRP2), that were significantly different between F and PM. These results are consistent with subtle differences between PM and DM. Understanding the differences between symptomatic versus asymptomatic Fs may eventually lead to more effective treatments that directly target the source of heavy menstrual bleeding. PMID:22995988

  2. CREASIMUS: a fast simulator of ultrasound image sequences using 3D tissue motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Marion; J. Poree; D. Vray

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound simulated data are often used for validation of processing algorithms. Simulation methods in medical ultrasound are based on an acoustical approach or a system approach. In this article, we present a simulator derived from the well-known system approach because of its low complexity. The simulator was developed using VTK and ITK libraries and computes then displays 4 images\\/second. Besides,

  3. A model for the propagation and scattering of ultrasound in tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1991-01-01

    An inhomogeneous wave equation is derived describing propagation and scattering of ultrasound in an inhomogeneous medium. The scattering term is a function of density and propagation velocity perturbations. The integral solution to the wave equation is combined with a general description of the field from typical transducers used in clinical ultrasound to yield a model for the received pulse-echo pressure

  4. Intense acoustic burst ultrasound modulated optical tomography for elasticity mapping of soft biological tissue mimicking phantom: a laser speckle contrast analysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. Suheshkumar; Rajan, K.; Vasu, R. M.

    2014-03-01

    This report addresses the assessment of variation in elastic property of soft biological tissues non-invasively using laser speckle contrast measurement. The experimental as well as the numerical (Monte-Carlo simulation) studies are carried out. In this an intense acoustic burst of ultrasound (an acoustic pulse with high power within standard safety limits), instead of continuous wave, is employed to induce large modulation of the tissue materials in the ultrasound insonified region of interest (ROI) and it results to enhance the strength of the ultrasound modulated optical signal in ultrasound modulated optical tomography (UMOT) system. The intensity fluctuation of speckle patterns formed by interference of light scattered (while traversing through tissue medium) is characterized by the motion of scattering sites. The displacement of scattering particles is inversely related to the elastic property of the tissue. We study the feasibility of laser speckle contrast analysis (LSCA) technique to reconstruct a map of the elastic property of a soft tissue-mimicking phantom. We employ source synchronized parallel speckle detection scheme to (experimentally) measure the speckle contrast from the light traversing through ultrasound (US) insonified tissue-mimicking phantom. The measured relative image contrast (the ratio of the difference of the maximum and the minimum values to the maximum value) for intense acoustic burst is 86.44 % in comparison to 67.28 % for continuous wave excitation of ultrasound. We also present 1-D and 2-D image of speckle contrast which is the representative of elastic property distribution.

  5. Enhancing Tissue Attenuation Estimation from Backscattered Ultrasound Using Spatial Compounding and Synthetic Aperture Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimonda, Ziemowit; Litniewski, Jerzy; Nowicki, Andrzej

    Ultrasonic diagnosis is a well-established technique in modern medicine. The ultrasonic scanners visualize the acoustical impedance variation within the tissue, allowing for the noninvasive insight into the body interior. However, imaging of other physical parameters of the tissue could provide additional diagnostic information. Here we consider the estimates of the attenuation coefficient calculated along the interrogating beam. It differs for various tissue types and the change of the attenuation often accompanies the pathological processes, such as tumors. We intend to develop the attenuation estimation and visualization technique that could be used in vivo and would expand the diagnostic ability of standard ultrasonic scanners. The tissue attenuation estimation technique based on backscattered ultrasonic signals spectral shift is presented. The commercial scanner with dedicated RF research module and the customized beam former were used to acquire the empirical data from the tissue mimicking phantoms. The instantaneous mean frequency (MF) of echo signals were collected using the mean frequency correlation estimator. The Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) technique was used for the MF trends extraction, and finally the MF trends were converted into the distribution of attenuation coefficient and the attenuation image was formed. The spatial compounding techniques were used to enhance the attenuation estimation precision. Also, the application of the synthetic aperture technique to RF data collection, combined with the attenuation estimation and imaging techniques will be presented.

  6. Visualization of multimodal polymer-shelled contrast agents using ultrasound contrast sequences: an experimental study in a tissue mimicking flow phantom

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A multimodal polymer-shelled contrast agent (CA) with target specific potential was recently developed and tested for its acoustic properties in a single element transducer setup. Since the developed polymeric CA has different chemical composition than the commercially available CAs, there is an interest to study its acoustic response when using clinical ultrasound systems. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the acoustic response by studying the visualization capability and shadowing effect of three polymer-shelled CAs when using optimized sequences for contrast imaging. Methods The acoustic response of three types of the multimodal CA was evaluated in a tissue mimicking flow phantom setup by measuring contrast to tissue ratio (CTR) and acoustic shadowing using five image sequences optimized for contrast imaging. The measurements were performed over a mechanical index (MI) range of 0.2-1.2 at three CA concentrations (106, 105, 104 microbubbles/ml). Results The CTR-values were found to vary with the applied contrast sequence, MI and CA. The highest CTR-values were obtained when a contrast sequence optimized for higher MI imaging was used. At a CA concentration of 106 microbubbles/ml, acoustic shadowing was observed for all contrast sequences and CAs. Conclusions The CAs showed the potential to enhance ultrasound images generated by available contrast sequences. A CA concentration of 106 MBs/ml implies a non-linear relation between MB concentration and image intensity. PMID:23987142

  7. The design and characterization of an ultrasound phased array suitable for deep tissue hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Aitkenhead, Adam H; Mills, John A; Wilson, Adrian J

    2008-11-01

    In this paper we describe the design and evaluation of a planar phased-array ultrasound transducer suitable for producing localized hyperthermia in solid tumors deep within the body. Simulation using a customized version of Ultrasim has been used to determine the relationship between the size and position of the focus and parameters of the array. These parameters include the overall size of the array and the size, shape and distribution of the individual elements. A 15-element prototype array has been constructed using the results of the simulation. Beam profile measurements on this transducer made in an acoustic tank were compared with the beam profile predicted by simulation. The results showed good agreement in the shape of the focal region, but with the focus closer to the surface of the physical transducer when compared with the simulation and with small high-intensity areas between the surface of the transducer and the focus in the measured profile. A sensitivity analysis using a simulated factorial experiment indicated that the presence of a secondary vibrational mode within the elements of the array was the principal cause for both the shift in the position of the focus and for the unwanted maxima close to the surface of the array. The results also showed that the array was tolerant of a large variation in output intensity of the individual elements in the array in producing a focal region. Extrapolation of the results obtained in this study indicate that an array of 60 elements, based on the design described, driven by 550 V peak-to-peak pulses would be capable of producing a peak focal intensity of 50 Wcm(-2) at a depth of 60 mm in tissue, which would be appropriate for hyperthermia used as an adjunct to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. PMID:18571831

  8. Monitoring tissue inflammation and responses to drug treatments in early stages of mice bone fracture using 50 MHz ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Chu; Lin, Yi-Hsun; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Lin, Shih-Ping; Shung, K. Kirk; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Bone fracture induces moderate inflammatory responses that are regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) or 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) for initiating tissue repair and bone formation. Only a handful of non-invasive techniques focus on monitoring acute inflammation of injured bone currently exists. In the current study, we monitored in vivo inflammation levels during the initial 2 weeks of the inflammatory stage after mouse bone fracture utilizing 50 MHz ultrasound. The acquired ultrasonic images were correlated well with histological examinations. After the bone fracture in the tibia, dynamic changes in the soft tissue at the medial-posterior compartment near the fracture site were monitored by ultrasound on the days of 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14. The corresponding echogenicity increased on the 2nd, 4th, and 7th day, and subsequently declined to basal levels after the 14th day. An increase of cell death was identified by the positive staining of deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and was consistent with ultrasound measurements. The increases of both COX-2 and Leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1, 5- LO-relative receptor), which are regulators for tissue inflammation, in the immunohistochemistry staining revealed their involvement in bone fracture injury. Monitoring the inflammatory response to various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) treatments was investigated by treating injured mice with a daily oral intake of aspirin (Asp), indomethacin (IND), and a selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236). The Asp treatment significantly reduced fracture-increased echogenicity (hyperechogenicity, p < 0.05) in ultrasound images as well as inhibited cell death, and expression of COX-2 and BLT1. In contrast, treatment with IND or SC-236 did not reduce the hyperechogenicity, as confirmed by cell death (TUNEL) and expression levels of COX-2 or BLT1. Taken together, the current study reports the feasibility of a noninvasive ultrasound method capable of monitoring post-fracture tissue inflammation that positively correlates with histological findings. Results of this study also suggest that this approach may be further applied to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of inflammatory processes and to develop therapeutic strategies for facilitating fracture healing. PMID:23871514

  9. Monitoring tissue inflammation and responses to drug treatments in early stages of mice bone fracture using 50 MHz ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Chu; Lin, Yi-Hsun; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Lin, Shih-Ping; Shung, K Kirk; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Bone fracture induces moderate inflammatory responses that are regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) or 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) for initiating tissue repair and bone formation. Only a handful of non-invasive techniques focus on monitoring acute inflammation of injured bone currently exists. In the current study, we monitored in vivo inflammation levels during the initial 2 weeks of the inflammatory stage after mouse bone fracture utilizing 50 MHz ultrasound. The acquired ultrasonic images were correlated well with histological examinations. After the bone fracture in the tibia, dynamic changes in the soft tissue at the medial-posterior compartment near the fracture site were monitored by ultrasound on the days of 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14. The corresponding echogenicity increased on the 2nd, 4th, and 7th day, and subsequently declined to basal levels after the 14th day. An increase of cell death was identified by the positive staining of deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and was consistent with ultrasound measurements. The increases of both COX-2 and Leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1, 5-LO-relative receptor), which are regulators for tissue inflammation, in the immunohistochemistry staining revealed their involvement in bone fracture injury. Monitoring the inflammatory response to various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) treatments was investigated by treating injured mice with a daily oral intake of aspirin (Asp), indomethacin (IND), and a selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236). The Asp treatment significantly reduced fracture-increased echogenicity (hyperechogenicity, p<0.05) in ultrasound images as well as inhibited cell death, and expression of COX-2 and BLT1. In contrast, treatment with IND or SC-236 did not reduce the hyperechogenicity, as confirmed by cell death (TUNEL) and expression levels of COX-2 or BLT1. Taken together, the current study reports the feasibility of a non-invasive ultrasound method capable of monitoring post-fracture tissue inflammation that positively correlates with histological findings. Results of this study also suggest that this approach may be further applied to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of inflammatory processes and to develop therapeutic strategies for facilitating fracture healing. PMID:23871514

  10. A Tissue-Mimicking Ultrasound Test Object Using Droplet Vaporization to Create Point Targets

    PubMed Central

    Carneal, Catherine M.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.; Krücker, Jochen; Carson, Paul L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound test objects containing reference point targets could be useful for evaluating ultrasound systems and phase aberration correction methods. Polyacrylamide gels containing albumin-stabilized droplets (3.6 µm mean diameter) of dodecafluoropentane (DDFP) are being developed for this purpose. Perturbation by ultrasound causes spontaneous vaporization of the superheated droplets to form gas bubbles, a process termed acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV). The resulting bubbles (20 to 160 µm diameter) are small compared with acoustic wavelengths in diagnostic ultrasound and are theoretically suitable for use as point targets (phase errors <20° for typical f-numbers). Bubbles distributed throughout the material are convenient for determining the point spread function in an imaging plane or volume. Cooling the gel causes condensation of the DDFP droplets, which may be useful for storage. Studying ADV in such viscoelastic media could provide insight into potential bioeffects from rapid bubble formation. PMID:21937339

  11. HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND IN THE TREATMENT OF PROSTATIC TISSUE*

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    - nign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Despite the relative success and safety of transurethral resec- tion `beam. Dif- ferent from other forms of thermal energy being used to treat BPH, ultrasound has the unique

  12. [Pharmacokinetics of radiotracers in the ocular tissues exposed to infrasound and ultrasound phonophoreses].

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    The paper compares the efficiency of infrasound and ultrasound phonophoreses. The efficiency was evaluated on the basis of the rate of radiotracers within the eye after infrasound or ultrasound exposure of the eyeball. The exposure was made after preliminary putting the radiotracer-impregnated application into the bulbar conjunctiva of an animal. Radioactivity was recorded on a Siemens gamma camera in its lifetime. The time course of changes in the radioactivities measured 10, 30, and 60 minutes after termination of exposures strongly suggests its stable increase in the eye exposed to infrasound. At the same time 10 minutes after ultrasound exposure, the increased concentration of a radiotracer in the eye was less than that after infrasound exposure and then it progressively decreased. Thus, having a significant phoretic activity, infrasound, as ultrasound, creates more favorable conditions for long drug storage in the eye. PMID:16886741

  13. Quantitative ultrasound and vertebral fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru YamaguchiMasahiro; Masahiro Yamamoto; Ippei Kanazawa; Mika Yamauchi; Shozo Yano; Nobuko Tanaka; Eri Nitta; Asako Fukuma; Seiko Uno; Tomoko Sho-no; Toshitsugu Sugimoto

    Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to have increased risks of femoral neck and vertebral fractures, although their\\u000a bone mineral density (BMD) is normal or even slightly increased compared to non-DM controls. This observation suggests that\\u000a bone fragility not reflected by BMD, possibly deterioration of bone quality, may participate in their fracture risks. Quantitative\\u000a ultrasound (QUS), unlike BMD,

  14. Integrated photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence platform for diagnostic medical imaging-proof of concept study with a tissue mimicking phantom.

    PubMed

    James, Joseph; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham; Woh, Lye Sun

    2014-07-01

    The structural and molecular heterogeneities of biological tissues demand the interrogation of the samples with multiple energy sources and provide visualization capabilities at varying spatial resolution and depth scales for obtaining complementary diagnostic information. A novel multi-modal imaging approach that uses optical and acoustic energies to perform photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging at multiple resolution scales from the tissue surface and depth is proposed in this paper. The system comprises of two distinct forms of hardware level integration so as to have an integrated imaging system under a single instrumentation set-up. The experimental studies show that the system is capable of mapping high resolution fluorescence signatures from the surface, optical absorption and acoustic heterogeneities along the depth (>2cm) of the tissue at multi-scale resolution (<1µm to <0.5mm). PMID:25071954

  15. Integrated photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence platform for diagnostic medical imaging-proof of concept study with a tissue mimicking phantom

    PubMed Central

    James, Joseph; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham; Woh, Lye Sun

    2014-01-01

    The structural and molecular heterogeneities of biological tissues demand the interrogation of the samples with multiple energy sources and provide visualization capabilities at varying spatial resolution and depth scales for obtaining complementary diagnostic information. A novel multi-modal imaging approach that uses optical and acoustic energies to perform photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging at multiple resolution scales from the tissue surface and depth is proposed in this paper. The system comprises of two distinct forms of hardware level integration so as to have an integrated imaging system under a single instrumentation set-up. The experimental studies show that the system is capable of mapping high resolution fluorescence signatures from the surface, optical absorption and acoustic heterogeneities along the depth (>2cm) of the tissue at multi-scale resolution (<1µm to <0.5mm). PMID:25071954

  16. Development of a Tissue-Mimicking Phantom for Evaluating the Focusing Performance of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Zongyu; Li Faqi; Zou Jiangzhong; Wang Zhibiao [Institute of Ultrasound Engineering in Medicine, Biomedical Engineering Dept., Chongqing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2006-05-08

    Objectives: To develop a tissue mimicking phantom which can be used to evaluate the focusing performance of the HIFU transducer, and the phantom should has the same acoustic characteristic and thermotics characteristic as the biological tissue. Materials and methods: The tissue mimicking phantom was made from water, gelatin, fresh biologic tissue Its ultrasonic parameters (attenuation coefficient) of the phantom was measured by the method of radiation pressure, and thermotics parameters of the phantom, including thermal conductivity, specific heat/fusion point et al were tested under the Measurement meter. The HIFU biological effect of the phantom was evaluated under the Model JC focused ultrasound tumor therapeutic system, developed and produced by Chongqing HIFU Technology Co. Ltd (working frequency: 0.7MHz; acoustic power: 200W; focal distance: 135mm; Acoustic focal region: 3x3x25 cubic mm). Results: The self-made phantom is sable, has smooth and glossy appearance, well-distributed construction, and good elasticity. We measured the followed values for acoustic and thermal properties: density 1049{+-}2 kg/m3; attenuation 0.532{+-}0.017 dB/cm (0.8 MHz), 0.612{+-}0.021 dB/cm (1.0 MHz); thermal conductivity 0.76{+-}0.08 W/m/- deg. C; specific heat 3653{+-}143 J/kg- deg. C; fusion point154{+-}8 deg. C. The BFR induced in the phantom after HIFU exposure was stable in its size and appearance. Conclusion: We produced and improved one tissue mimicking phantom successfully which had semblable ultrasound and thermphysical properties like the soft tissue, and can replace the bovine liver to investigate the HIFU biological effect and to detect the focusing performance of the HIFU energy transducer. The research was supported by Chongqing University of Medical Science (CX200320)

  17. Non-contact, ultrasound-based indentation method for measuring elastic properties of biological tissues using Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI).

    PubMed

    Vappou, Jonathan; Hou, Gary Y; Marquet, Fabrice; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Grondin, Julien; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of biological tissues in vivo could play a significant role in improving the current understanding of tissue biomechanics. In this study, we propose a method for measuring elastic properties non-invasively by using internal indentation as generated by harmonic motion imaging (HMI). In HMI, an oscillating acoustic radiation force is produced by a focused ultrasound transducer at the focal region, and the resulting displacements are estimated by tracking radiofrequency signals acquired by an imaging transducer. In this study, the focal spot region was modeled as a rigid cylindrical piston that exerts an oscillatory, uniform internal force to the underlying tissue. The HMI elastic modulus EHMI was defined as the ratio of the applied force to the axial strain measured by 1D ultrasound imaging. The accuracy and the precision of the EHMI estimate were assessed both numerically and experimentally in polyacrylamide tissue-mimicking phantoms. Initial feasibility of this method in soft tissues was also shown in canine liver specimens in vitro. Very good correlation and agreement was found between the measured Young's modulus and the HMI modulus in the numerical study (r(2) > 0.99, relative error <10%) and on polyacrylamide gels (r(2) = 0.95, relative error <24%). The average HMI modulus on five liver samples was found to EHMI = 2.62? ± ?0.41?kPa, compared to EMechTesting = 4.2? ± ?2.58?kPa measured by rheometry. This study has demonstrated for the first time the initial feasibility of a non-invasive, model-independent method to estimate local elastic properties of biological tissues at a submillimeter scale using an internal indentation-like approach. Ongoing studies include in vitro experiments in a larger number of samples and feasibility testing in in vivo models as well as pathological human specimens. PMID:25776065

  18. Non-contact, ultrasound-based indentation method for measuring elastic properties of biological tissues using Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vappou, Jonathan; Hou, Gary Y.; Marquet, Fabrice; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Grondin, Julien; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of biological tissues in vivo could play a significant role in improving the current understanding of tissue biomechanics. In this study, we propose a method for measuring elastic properties non-invasively by using internal indentation as generated by harmonic motion imaging (HMI). In HMI, an oscillating acoustic radiation force is produced by a focused ultrasound transducer at the focal region, and the resulting displacements are estimated by tracking radiofrequency signals acquired by an imaging transducer. In this study, the focal spot region was modeled as a rigid cylindrical piston that exerts an oscillatory, uniform internal force to the underlying tissue. The HMI elastic modulus EHMI was defined as the ratio of the applied force to the axial strain measured by 1D ultrasound imaging. The accuracy and the precision of the EHMI estimate were assessed both numerically and experimentally in polyacrylamide tissue-mimicking phantoms. Initial feasibility of this method in soft tissues was also shown in canine liver specimens in vitro. Very good correlation and agreement was found between the measured Young’s modulus and the HMI modulus in the numerical study (r2 > 0.99, relative error <10%) and on polyacrylamide gels (r2 = 0.95, relative error <24%). The average HMI modulus on five liver samples was found to EHMI = 2.62? ± ?0.41?kPa, compared to EMechTesting = 4.2? ± ?2.58?kPa measured by rheometry. This study has demonstrated for the first time the initial feasibility of a non-invasive, model-independent method to estimate local elastic properties of biological tissues at a submillimeter scale using an internal indentation-like approach. Ongoing studies include in vitro experiments in a larger number of samples and feasibility testing in in vivo models as well as pathological human specimens.

  19. Duplex ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Vascular ultrasound; Peripheral vascular ultrasound ... A duplex ultrasound combines traditional ultrasound with Doppler ultrasound . Traditional ultrasound uses sound waves that bounce off blood vessels to create ...

  20. Microbubble type and distribution dependence of focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shutao; Samiotaki, Gesthimani; Olumolade, Oluyemi; Feshitan, Jameel A; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2014-01-01

    Focused ultrasound, in the presence of microbubbles, has been used non-invasively to induce reversible blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening in both rodents and non-human primates. This study was aimed at identifying the dependence of BBB opening properties on polydisperse microbubble (all clinically approved microbubbles are polydisperse) type and distribution by using a clinically approved ultrasound contrast agent (Definity microbubbles) and in-house prepared polydisperse (IHP) microbubbles in mice. A total of 18 C57 BL/6 mice (n = 3) were used in this study, and each mouse was injected with either Definity or IHP microbubbles via the tail vein. The concentration and size distribution of activated Definity and IHP microbubbles were measured, and the microbubbles were diluted to 6 × 10(8)/mL before injection. Immediately after microbubble administration, mice were subjected to focused ultrasound with the following parameters: frequency = 1.5 MHz, pulse repetition frequency = 10 Hz, 1000 cycles, in situ peak rarefactional acoustic pressures = 0.3, 0.45 and 0.6 MPa for a sonication duration of 60 s. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was used to confirm BBB opening and allowed for image-based analysis. Permeability of the treated region and volume of BBB opening did not significantly differ between the two types of microbubbles (p > 0.05) at peak rarefractional acoustic pressures of 0.45 and 0.6 MPa, whereas IHP microbubbles had significantly higher permeability and opening volume (p < 0.05) at the relatively lower pressure of 0.3 MPa. The results from this study indicate that microbubble type and distribution could have significant effects on focused ultrasound-induced BBB opening at lower pressures, but less important effects at higher pressures, possibly because of the stable cavitation that governs the former. This difference may have become less significant at higher pressures, where inertial cavitation typically occurs. PMID:24239362

  1. Detecting tissue optical and mechanical properties with an ultrasound modulated optical imaging system in reflection detection geometry

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yi; Li, Sinan; Eckersley, Robert J.; Elson, Daniel S.; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Tissue optical and mechanical properties are correlated to tissue pathologic changes. This manuscript describes a dual-mode ultrasound modulated optical imaging system capable of sensing local optical and mechanical properties in reflection geometry. The optical characterisation was achieved by the acoustic radiation force assisted ultrasound modulated optical tomography (ARF-UOT) with laser speckle contrast detection. Shear waves generated by the ARF were also tracked optically by the same system and the shear wave speed was used for the elasticity measurement. Tissue mimicking phantoms with multiple inclusions buried at 11 mm depth were experimentally scanned with the dual-mode system. The inclusions, with higher optical absorption and/or higher stiffness than background, were identified based on the dual results and their stiffnesses were quantified. The system characterises both optical and mechanical properties of the inclusions compared with the ARF-UOT or the elasticity measurement alone. Moreover, by detecting the backward scattered light in reflection detection geometry, the system is more suitable for clinical applications compared with transmission geometry. PMID:25657875

  2. Detecting tissue optical and mechanical properties with an ultrasound modulated optical imaging system in reflection detection geometry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi; Li, Sinan; Eckersley, Robert J; Elson, Daniel S; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Tissue optical and mechanical properties are correlated to tissue pathologic changes. This manuscript describes a dual-mode ultrasound modulated optical imaging system capable of sensing local optical and mechanical properties in reflection geometry. The optical characterisation was achieved by the acoustic radiation force assisted ultrasound modulated optical tomography (ARF-UOT) with laser speckle contrast detection. Shear waves generated by the ARF were also tracked optically by the same system and the shear wave speed was used for the elasticity measurement. Tissue mimicking phantoms with multiple inclusions buried at 11 mm depth were experimentally scanned with the dual-mode system. The inclusions, with higher optical absorption and/or higher stiffness than background, were identified based on the dual results and their stiffnesses were quantified. The system characterises both optical and mechanical properties of the inclusions compared with the ARF-UOT or the elasticity measurement alone. Moreover, by detecting the backward scattered light in reflection detection geometry, the system is more suitable for clinical applications compared with transmission geometry. PMID:25657875

  3. Nondestructive Evaluation of Tissue Engineered Articular Cartilage Using Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Ultrasound Backscatter Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Responte, Donald; Xie, Hongtao; Liu, Jing; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Hu, Jerry; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of a bimodal technique integrating time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and ultrasound backscatter microscopy (UBM) for nondestructive detection of changes in the biochemical, structural, and mechanical properties of self-assembled engineered articular cartilage constructs. The cartilage constructs were treated with three chemical agents (collagenase, chondroitinase-ABC, and ribose) to induce changes in biochemical content (collagen and glycosaminoglycan [GAG]) of matured constructs (4 weeks); and to subsequently alter the mechanical properties of the construct. The biochemical changes were evaluated using TRFS. The microstructure and the thickness of the engineered cartilage samples were characterized by UBM. The optical and ultrasound results were validated against those acquired via conventional techniques including collagen and GAG quantification and measurement of construct stiffness. Current results demonstrated that a set of optical parameters (e.g., average fluorescence lifetime and decay constants) showed significant correlation (p<0.05) with biochemical and mechanical data. The high-resolution ultrasound images provided complementary cross-section information of the cartilage samples morphology. Therefore, the technique was capable of nondestructively evaluating the composition of extracellular matrix and the microstructure of engineered tissue, demonstrating great potential as an alternative to traditional destructive assays. PMID:22010819

  4. Non-invasive monitoring of tissue scaffold degradation using ultrasound elasticity imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kang Kim; Claire G. Jeong; Scott J. Hollister

    2008-01-01

    Non-invasively monitoring the extent of cell growth, scaffold degradation and tissue development will greatly help tissue engineers to monitor in vivo regenerate tissue function and scaffold degradation. Currently available methods for tissue and scaffold degradation analysis, such as histology and direct mechanical measurements, are not suitable for continuous monitoring of the same sample in vivo as they destroy cells, tissue

  5. Lives to save lives--the ethics of tissue typing.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Stephen

    2005-03-01

    Should we allow tissue typing of in vitro embryos in order to implant those which could provide potentially life-saving cells to an existing serious ill sibling with that tissue type? A case is made that such tissue matching does not involve unacceptable instrumentality towards or commodification of children. The key distinction is that the parents' request for tissue typing is reactive in the face of serious medical need rather than being proactive in the sense of seeking the means to specify a child with chosen desirable characteristics. Nevertheless, as preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a relatively new technique, both long-term safety issues concerning effects on child development following embryo biopsy and the risks of misdiagnosis must be given due weight as must the avoidance of exploitation of couples desperate to save a sick child. The HFEA originally made a distinction, recently revoked, between allowing tissue typing after PGD to select against affected embryos and denying it when PGD is not required because the embryos are not at risk of inheriting the disease suffered by the existing sibling. If tissue typing is not inherently unethical and misdiagnosis poses a greater risk than biopsy damage, then this distinction is not ethically tenable. PMID:15823845

  6. Real-time interlaced ultrasound and photoacoustic system for in vivo ovarian tissue imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Yuan, Guangqian; Kumavor, Patrick; Zanganeh, Saeid; Zhu, Quing

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we report an ultrafast co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system based on FPGA parallel processing. The system features 128-channel parallel acquisition and digitization, along with FPGA-based reconfigurable processing for real-time co-registered imaging of up to 15 frames per second that is only limited by the laser pulse repetition frequency of 15 Hz. We demonstrated the imaging capability of the system by live imaging of a mouse tumor model in vivo, and imaging of human ovaries ex vivo. A compact transvaginal probe that includes the PAT illumination using a fiber-optic assembly was used for this purpose. The system has the potential ability to assist a clinician to perform transvaginal ultrasound scanning and to localize the ovarian mass, while simultaneously mapping the light absorption of the ultrasound detected mass to reveal its vasculature using the co-registered PAT.

  7. Real-Time Assessment of Tissue Hypoxia In Vivo with Combined Photoacoustics and High-Frequency Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Gerling, Marco; Zhao, Ying; Nania, Salvatore; Norberg, K. Jessica; Verbeke, Caroline S.; Englert, Benjamin; Kuiper, Raoul V.; Bergström, Åsa; Hassan, Moustapha; Neesse, Albrecht; Löhr, J. Matthias; Heuchel, Rainer L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In preclinical cancer studies, non-invasive functional imaging has become an important tool to assess tumor development and therapeutic effects. Tumor hypoxia is closely associated with tumor aggressiveness and is therefore a key parameter to be monitored. Recently, photoacoustic (PA) imaging with inherently co-registered high-frequency ultrasound (US) has reached preclinical applicability, allowing parallel collection of anatomical and functional information. Dual-wavelength PA imaging can be used to quantify tissue oxygen saturation based on the absorbance spectrum differences between hemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental Design: A new bi-modal PA/US system for small animal imaging was employed to test feasibility and reliability of dual-wavelength PA for measuring relative tissue oxygenation. Murine models of pancreatic and colon cancer were imaged, and differences in tissue oxygenation were compared to immunohistochemistry for hypoxia in the corresponding tissue regions. Results: Functional studies proved feasibility and reliability of oxygenation detection in murine tissue in vivo. Tumor models exhibited different levels of hypoxia in localized regions, which positively correlated with immunohistochemical staining for hypoxia. Contrast-enhanced imaging yielded complementary information on tissue perfusion using the same system. Conclusion: Bimodal PA/US imaging can be utilized to reliably detect hypoxic tumor regions in murine tumor models, thus providing the possibility to collect anatomical and functional information on tumor growth and treatment response live in longitudinal preclinical studies. PMID:24723982

  8. Photoacoustic detection and optical spectroscopy of high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in biologic tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Alhamami, Mosa; Kolios, Michael C.; Tavakkoli, Jahan, E-mail: jtavakkoli@ryerson.ca [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The aims of this study are: (a) to investigate the capability of photoacoustic (PA) method in detecting high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments in muscle tissuesin vitro; and (b) to determine the optical properties of HIFU-treated and native tissues in order to assist in the interpretation of the observed contrast in PA detection of HIFU treatments. Methods: A single-element, spherically concaved HIFU transducer with a centre frequency of 1 MHz was utilized to create thermal lesions in chicken breast tissuesin vitro. To investigate the detectability of HIFU treatments photoacoustically, PA detection was performed at 720 and 845 nm on seven HIFU-treated tissue samples. Within each tissue sample, PA signals were acquired from 22 locations equally divided between two regions of interest within two volumes in tissue – a HIFU-treated volume and an untreated volume. Optical spectroscopy was then carried out on 10 HIFU-treated chicken breast specimens in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm, in 1-nm increments, using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere attachment. The authors’ optical spectroscopy raw data (total transmittance and diffuse reflectance) were used to obtain the optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of HIFU-induced thermal lesions and native tissues by employing the inverse adding-doubling method. The aforementioned interaction coefficients were subsequently used to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient and light penetration depth of HIFU-treated and native tissues in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm. Results: HIFU-treated tissues produced greater PA signals than native tissues at 720 and 845 nm. At 720 nm, the averaged ratio of the peak-to-peak PA signal amplitude of HIFU-treated tissue to that of native tissue was 3.68 ± 0.25 (mean ± standard error of the mean). At 845 nm, the averaged ratio of the peak-to-peak PA signal amplitude of HIFU-treated tissue to that of native tissue was 3.75 ± 0.26 (mean ± standard error of the mean). The authors’ spectroscopic investigation has shown that HIFU-treated tissues have a greater optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients than native tissues in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm. In fact, at 720 and 845 nm, the ratio of the optical absorption coefficient of HIFU-treated tissues to that of native tissues was 1.13 and 1.17, respectively; on the other hand, the ratio of the reduced scattering coefficient of HIFU-treated tissues to that of native tissues was 13.22 and 14.67 at 720 and 845 nm, respectively. Consequently, HIFU-treated tissues have a higher effective attenuation coefficient and a lower light penetration depth than native tissues in the wavelength range 500–900 nm. Conclusions: Using a PA approach, HIFU-treated tissues interrogated at 720 and 845 nm optical wavelengths can be differentiated from untreated tissues. Based on the authors’ spectroscopic investigation, the authors conclude that the observed PA contrast between HIFU-induced thermal lesions and untreated tissue is due, in part, to the increase in the optical absorption coefficient, the reduced scattering coefficient and, therefore, the deposited laser energy fluence in HIFU-treated tissues.

  9. Noninvasive Quantification of In Vitro Osteoblastic Differentiation in 3D Engineered Tissue Constructs Using Spectral Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Alexis W.; Caldwell, David J.; Stegemann, Jan P.; Deng, Cheri X.

    2014-01-01

    Non-destructive monitoring of engineered tissues is needed for translation of these products from the lab to the clinic. In this study, non-invasive, high resolution spectral ultrasound imaging (SUSI) was used to monitor the differentiation of MC3T3 pre-osteoblasts seeded within collagen hydrogels. SUSI was used to measure the diameter, concentration and acoustic attenuation of scatterers within such constructs cultured in either control or osteogenic medium over 21 days. Conventional biochemical assays were used on parallel samples to determine DNA content and calcium deposition. Construct volume and morphology were accurately imaged using ultrasound. Cell diameter was estimated to be approximately 12.5–15.5 µm using SUSI, which corresponded well to measurements of fluorescently stained cells. The total number of cells per construct assessed by quantitation of DNA content decreased from 5.6±2.4×104 at day 1 to 0.9±0.2×104 at day 21. SUSI estimation of the equivalent number of acoustic scatters showed a similar decreasing trend, except at day 21 in the osteogenic samples, which showed a marked increase in both scatterer number and acoustic impedance, suggestive of mineral deposition by the differentiating MC3T3 cells. Estimation of calcium content by SUSI was 41.7±11.4 µg/ml, which agreed well with the biochemical measurement of 38.7±16.7 µg/ml. Color coded maps of parameter values were overlaid on B-mode images to show spatiotemporal changes in cell diameter and calcium deposition. This study demonstrates the use of non-destructive ultrasound imaging to provide quantitative information on the number and differentiated state of cells embedded within 3D engineered constructs, and therefore presents a valuable tool for longitudinal monitoring of engineered tissue development. PMID:24465680

  10. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL MONITORING OF TEMPERATURE-RELATED TISSUE CHANGES USING FOCUSED ULTRASOUND PHASED ARRAYS

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    PHASED ARRAYS Elisa E. Konofagou1 , Sham Sokka1,2 , Jonathan Thierman1,2 and Kullervo Hynynen1,2 1 the utilization of phased arrays for spatially mapping of the USAE response during temperature variation the principle of the recently introduced Ultrasound- Stimulated Acoustic Emission (USAE) as well as the phased

  11. Photorefractive detection of tissue optical and mechanical properties by ultrasound modulated

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lihong

    by a focus- ing ultrasonic transducer (Ultran Lab VHP 100-1- R38) with a central frequency of 1 MHz, focal; FG-1, FG-2, function generators; PA, power amplifier; DG, pulse-delay genera- tor; HV, high voltage Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography is a developing hybrid imaging modality that combines high op- tical

  12. PSF dedicated to estimation of displacement vectors for tissue elasticity imaging with ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herve Liebgott; J. E. Wilhjehm; Jørgen A. Jensen; Didier Vray; Philippe Delachartre

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates a new approach devoted to displacement vector estimation in ultrasound imaging. The main idea is to adapt the image formation to a given displacement estimation method to increase the precision of the estimation. The displacement is identified as the zero crossing of the phase of the complex cross-correlation between signals extracted from the lateral direction of the

  13. Effect of ethanol injection on cavitation and heating of tissues exposed to high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Liu, Y; Maruvada, S; Myers, M; Khismatullin, D

    2012-02-21

    Cavitation activity and temperature rise have been investigated in a tissue-mimicking material and excised bovine liver treated with ethanol and insonated with a 0.825 MHz focused acoustic transducer. The acoustic power was varied from 1.3 to 26.8 W to find the threshold leading to the onset of inertial cavitation. Cavitation events were quantified by three independent techniques: B-mode ultrasound imaging, needle hydrophone measurements and passive cavitation detection. Temperature in or near the focal zone was measured by thermocouples embedded in the samples. The results of this study indicate that the treatment of tissue phantoms and bovine liver samples with ethanol reduces their threshold power for inertial cavitation. This in turn leads to a sudden rise in temperature in ethanol-treated samples at a lower acoustic power than that in untreated ones. The analysis of passive cavitation detection data shows that once the threshold acoustic power is reached, inertial cavitation becomes a major contributor to acoustic scattering in ethanol-treated phantoms and bovine liver samples as compared to control. This study opens up the possibility of improved tumor ablation therapy via a combination of percutaneous ethanol injection and high-intensity focused ultrasound. PMID:22290554

  14. Effect of ethanol injection on cavitation and heating of tissues exposed to high-intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Liu, Y.; Maruvada, S.; Myers, M.; Khismatullin, D.

    2012-02-01

    Cavitation activity and temperature rise have been investigated in a tissue-mimicking material and excised bovine liver treated with ethanol and insonated with a 0.825 MHz focused acoustic transducer. The acoustic power was varied from 1.3 to 26.8 W to find the threshold leading to the onset of inertial cavitation. Cavitation events were quantified by three independent techniques: B-mode ultrasound imaging, needle hydrophone measurements and passive cavitation detection. Temperature in or near the focal zone was measured by thermocouples embedded in the samples. The results of this study indicate that the treatment of tissue phantoms and bovine liver samples with ethanol reduces their threshold power for inertial cavitation. This in turn leads to a sudden rise in temperature in ethanol-treated samples at a lower acoustic power than that in untreated ones. The analysis of passive cavitation detection data shows that once the threshold acoustic power is reached, inertial cavitation becomes a major contributor to acoustic scattering in ethanol-treated phantoms and bovine liver samples as compared to control. This study opens up the possibility of improved tumor ablation therapy via a combination of percutaneous ethanol injection and high-intensity focused ultrasound.

  15. Comparison of ultrasound turbinate reduction, radiofrequency tissue ablation and submucosal cauterization in inferior turbinate hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Gindros, George; Kantas, Ilias; Balatsouras, Dimitrios G; Kaidoglou, Aikaterini; Kandiloros, Dimitris

    2010-11-01

    Chronic nasal obstruction owed to chronic hypertrophic rhinitis is a common cause of nasal airway obstruction. In cases unresponsive to conservative treatment, various surgical techniques are commonly performed, but the issue of the optimal surgical procedure is still controversial. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ultrasound treatment of the hypertrophied inferior turbinates, which is a technique recently applied in rhinologic surgery. We aimed, also, to compare this method with the radiofrequency cold coblation turbinate reduction and the traditional submucosal monopolar inferior turbinate cauterization. We studied prospectively 60 patients with chronic hypertrophic rhinitis of nonallergic etiology, who underwent different surgical methods of turbinate reduction, divided into two groups: (1) in 30 patients, inferior turbinate volume reduction using ultrasound procedure on the left side and monopolar diathermy on the right was performed; (2) in 30 patients, radiofrequency coblation technique on the left side and ultrasound turbinate reduction on the right side was undertaken. Subjective evaluation of nasal obstruction and pain was performed using visual analog scales and objective evaluation of the surgical outcome was obtained using active anterior rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry. Examinations were performed preoperatively, and 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Both subjective and objective evaluation showed significant postoperative improvement in all cases. The best results were obtained with the ultrasound procedure, and second with the radiofrequency technique. The least improvement was observed in the electrocautery group, although its results did not differ significantly from the radiofrequency group. It may be, thus, concluded that ultrasound turbinate reduction is an effective and safe procedure for the management of chronic hypertrophic rhinitis, in patients failing to respond to medical treatment. Using this method, better results were obtained in decreasing subjective symptoms and nasal obstruction, in comparison with radiofrequency and electrocautery. PMID:20432043

  16. SOUND-SPEED AND ATTENUATION IMAGING OF BREAST TISSUE USING WAVEFORM TOMOGRAPHY OF TRANSMISSION ULTRASOUND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG, LIANJIE [Los Alamos National Laboratory; PRATT, R. GERHARD [Los Alamos National Laboratory; DURIC, NEB [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LITTRUP, PETER [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-25

    Waveform tomography results are presented from 800 kHz ultrasound transmission scans of a breast phantom, and from an in vivo ultrasound breast scan: significant improvements are demonstrated in resolution over time-of-flight reconstructions. Quantitative reconstructions of both sound-speed and inelastic attenuation are recovered. The data were acquired in the Computed Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system, comprising a 20 cm diameter solid-state ultrasound ring array with 256 active, non-beamforming transducers. Waveform tomography is capable of resolving variations in acoustic properties at sub-wavelength scales. This was verified through comparison of the breast phantom reconstructions with x-ray CT results: the final images resolve variations in sound speed with a spatial resolution close to 2 mm. Waveform tomography overcomes the resolution limit of time-of-flight methods caused by finite frequency (diffraction) effects. The method is a combination of time-of-flight tomography, and 2-D acoustic waveform inversion of the transmission arrivals in ultrasonic data. For selected frequency components of the waveforms, a finite-difference simulation of the visco-acoustic wave equation is used to compute synthetic data in the current model, and the data residuals are formed by subtraction. The residuals are used in an iterative, gradient-based scheme to update the sound-speed and attenuation model to produce a reduced misfit to the data. Computational efficiency is achieved through the use of time-reversal of the data residuals to construct the model updates. Lower frequencies are used first, to establish the long wavelength components of the image, and higher frequencies are introduced later to provide increased resolution.

  17. Numerical simulations of heating patterns and tissue temperature response due to high-intensity focused ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco P. Curra; Pierre D. Mourad; Vera A. Khokhlova; Robin O. Cleveland; Lawrence A. Crum

    2000-01-01

    The results of this paper show-for an existing high intensity, focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer-the importance of nonlinear effects on the space\\/time properties of wave propagation and heat generation in perfused liver models when a blood vessel also might be present. These simulations are based on the nonlinear parabolic equation for sound propagation and the bio-heat equation for temperature generation. The

  18. Assessment of Shear Modulus of Tissue Using Ultrasound Radiation Force Acting on a Spherical Acoustic Inhomogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Karpiouk, Andrei B.; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Ilinskii, Yury A.; Zabolotskaya, Eugenia A.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2011-01-01

    An ultrasound-based method to locally assess the shear modulus of a medium is reported. The proposed approach is based on the application of an impulse acoustic radiation force to an inhomogeneity in the medium and subsequent monitoring of the spatio-temporal response. In our experimental studies, a short pulse produced by a 1.5-MHz highly focused ultrasound transducer was used to initiate the motion of a rigid sphere embedded into an elastic medium. Another 25 MHz focused ultrasound transducer operating in pulse-echo mode was used to track the displacement of the sphere. The experiments were performed in gel phantoms with varying shear modulus to demonstrate the relationship between the displacement of the sphere and shear modulus of the surrounding medium. Because the magnitude of acoustic force applied to sphere depends on the acoustic material properties and, therefore, cannot be used to assess the absolute value of shear modulus, the temporal behavior of the displacement of the sphere was analyzed. The results of this study indicate that there is a strong correlation between the shear modulus of a medium and spatio-temporal characteristics of the motion of the rigid sphere embedded in this medium. PMID:19942525

  19. High-frequency ultrasound for monitoring changes in liver tissue during preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, Roxana M.; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Giles, Anoja; Sherar, Michael D.; Hunt, John W.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    Currently the only method to assess liver preservation injury is based on liver appearance and donor medical history. Previous work has shown that high-frequency ultrasound could detect ischemic cell death due to changes in cell morphology. In this study, we use high-frequency ultrasound integrated backscatter to assess liver damage in experimental models of liver ischemia. Ultimately, our goal is to predict organ suitability for transplantation using high-frequency imaging and spectral analysis techniques. To examine the effects of liver ischemia at different temperatures, livers from Wistar rats were surgically excised, immersed in phosphate buffer saline and stored at 4 and 20 °C for 24 h. To mimic organ preservation, livers were excised, flushed with University of Wisconsin (UW) solution and stored at 4 °C for 24 h. Preservation injury was simulated by either not flushing livers with UW solution or, before scanning, allowing livers to reach room temperature. Ultrasound images and corresponding radiofrequency data were collected over the ischemic period. No significant increase in integrated backscatter (~2.5 dBr) was measured for the livers prepared using standard preservation conditions. For all other ischemia models, the integrated backscatter increased by 4-9 dBr demonstrating kinetics dependent on storage conditions. The results provide a possible framework for using high-frequency imaging to non-invasively assess liver preservation injury.

  20. Shock-induced heating and millisecond boiling in gels and tissue due to high intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Canney, Michael S; Khokhlova, Vera A; Bessonova, Olga V; Bailey, Michael R; Crum, Lawrence A

    2010-02-01

    Nonlinear propagation causes high-intensity ultrasound waves to distort and generate higher harmonics, which are more readily absorbed and converted to heat than the fundamental frequency. Although such nonlinear effects have been investigated previously and found to not significantly alter high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments, two results reported here change this paradigm. One is that at clinically relevant intensity levels, HIFU waves not only become distorted but form shock waves in tissue. The other is that the generated shock waves heat the tissue to boiling in much less time than predicted for undistorted or weakly distorted waves. In this study, a 2-MHz HIFU source operating at peak intensities up to 25,000 W/cm(2) was used to heat transparent tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver samples. Initiation of boiling was detected using high-speed photography, a 20-MHz passive cavitation detector and fluctuation of the drive voltage at the HIFU source. The time to boil obtained experimentally was used to quantify heating rates and was compared with calculations using weak shock theory and the shock amplitudes obtained from nonlinear modeling and measurements with a fiber optic hydrophone. As observed experimentally and predicted by calculations, shocked focal waveforms produced boiling in as little as 3 ms and the time to initiate boiling was sensitive to small changes in HIFU output. Nonlinear heating as a result of shock waves is therefore important to HIFU, and clinicians should be aware of the potential for very rapid boiling because it alters treatments. PMID:20018433

  1. Shock-induced heating and millisecond boiling in gels and tissue due to high intensity focused ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Canney, Michael S.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Bessonova, Olga V.; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear propagation causes high intensity ultrasound waves to distort and generate higher harmonics, which are more readily absorbed and converted to heat than the fundamental frequency. Although such nonlinear effects have previously been investigated and found not to significantly alter high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments, two results reported here change this paradigm. One is that at clinically relevant intensity levels, HIFU waves not only become distorted but form shock waves in tissue. The other is that the generated shock waves heat the tissue to boiling in much less time than predicted for undistorted or weakly distorted waves. In this study, a 2-MHz HIFU source operating at peak intensities up to 25,000 W/cm2 was used to heat transparent tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver samples. Initiation of boiling was detected using high-speed photography, a 20-MHz passive cavitation detector, and fluctuation of the drive voltage at the HIFU source. The time to boil obtained experimentally was used to quantify heating rates and was compared to calculations using weak shock theory and the shock amplitudes obtained from nonlinear modeling and from measurements with a fiber optic hydrophone. As observed experimentally and predicted by calculations, shocked focal waveforms produced boiling in as little as 3 ms and the time to initiate boiling was sensitive to small changes in HIFU output. Nonlinear heating due to shock waves is therefore important to HIFU and clinicians should be aware of the potential for very rapid boiling since it alters treatments. PMID:20018433

  2. Method of and Apparatus for Histological Human Tissue Characterization Using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); TalEr, George A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining important histological characteristics of tissue, including a determination of the tissue's health. Electrical pulses are converted into meaningful numerical representations through the use of Fourier Transforms. These numerical representations are then used to determine important histological characteristics of tissue. This novel invention does not require rectification and thus provides for detailed information from the ultrasonic scan.

  3. Method of and Apparatus for Histological Human Tissue Characterization Using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); Taler, George A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining important histological characteristics of tissue, including a determination of the tissue's health is discussed. Electrical pulses are converted into meaningful numerical representations through the use of Fourier Transforms. These numerical representations are then used to determine important histological characteristics of tissue. This novel invention does not require rectification and thus provides for detailed information from the ultrasonic scan.

  4. An innovative ultrasound foot scanner system for measuring the change in biomechanical properties of plantar tissue from sitting to standing.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas Ka-Wai; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Kwan, Rachel Lai-Chu; Cheing, Gladys Lai-Ying

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the reliability of an innovative ultrasound foot scanner system in assessing the thickness and stiffness of plantar soft tissue and the comparison of stiffness and thickness in sitting and standing. Fifteen young healthy individuals were examined. The target sites on the foot sole for investigation included the heel pad, the fifth metatarsal head, the second metatarsal head, the first metatarsal head, and the pulp of the hallux. The test (day 1) and retest (day 2) were performed 1 week apart at the exact time with humidity and temperature of the assessment room under control. The thickness and stiffness of the plantar soft tissue obtained in sitting and standing positions on day 1 were used for comparison. The results showed significant test-retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient(3,2)>0.90, P<0.001] at all five sites in both sitting and standing positions. When changing from sitting to standing, the plantar soft tissue became significantly thinner (with decrease ranging from 10 to 14% at various sites) and stiffer (with increase ranging from 123 to 164% at various sites, all P<0.05). The present innovative system is a reliable device for the measurement of the thickness and stiffness of plantar soft tissue in either the sitting or the standing position. The change in positions from sitting to standing resulted in a significant thinning and stiffening of plantar soft tissues. This system could be a potential clinical device to monitor the biomechanical properties of plantar tissue in the elderly or in patients with diseases such as diabetes to estimate the risk of developing foot ulcer or other foot complications. PMID:25426574

  5. Investigation into the mechanisms of tissue atomization by high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Simon, Julianna C; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Wang, Yak-Nam; Khokhlova, Vera A; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasonic atomization, or the emission of a fog of droplets, was recently proposed to explain tissue fractionation in boiling histotripsy. However, even though liquid atomization has been studied extensively, the mechanisms underlying tissue atomization remain unclear. In the work described here, high-speed photography and overpressure were used to evaluate the role of bubbles in tissue atomization. As static pressure increased, the degree of fractionation decreased, and the ex vivo tissue became thermally denatured. The effect of surface wetness on atomization was also evaluated in vivo and in tissue-mimicking gels, where surface wetness was found to enhance atomization by forming surface instabilities that augment cavitation. In addition, experimental results indicated that wetting collagenous tissues, such as the liver capsule, allowed atomization to breach such barriers. These results highlight the importance of bubbles and surface instabilities in atomization and could be used to enhance boiling histotripsy for transition to clinical use. PMID:25662182

  6. Listening to speech recruits specific tongue motor synergies as revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation and tissue-Doppler ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Ausilio, A; Maffongelli, L; Bartoli, E; Campanella, M; Ferrari, E; Berry, J; Fadiga, L

    2014-01-01

    The activation of listener's motor system during speech processing was first demonstrated by the enhancement of electromyographic tongue potentials as evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over tongue motor cortex. This technique is, however, technically challenging and enables only a rather coarse measurement of this motor mirroring. Here, we applied TMS to listeners' tongue motor area in association with ultrasound tissue Doppler imaging to describe fine-grained tongue kinematic synergies evoked by passive listening to speech. Subjects listened to syllables requiring different patterns of dorso-ventral and antero-posterior movements (/ki/, /ko/, /ti/, /to/). Results show that passive listening to speech sounds evokes a pattern of motor synergies mirroring those occurring during speech production. Moreover, mirror motor synergies were more evident in those subjects showing good performances in discriminating speech in noise demonstrating a role of the speech-related mirror system in feed-forward processing the speaker's ongoing motor plan. PMID:24778384

  7. Comparative Study of the Topical Application of Aloe Vera Gel, Therapeutic Ultrasound and Phonophoresis on the Tissue Repair in Collagenase-Induced Rat Tendinitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Luiz Martins Maia Filho; Antonio Balbin Villaverde; Egberto Munin; Flávio Aimbire; Regiane Albertini

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study was to compare topical use of Aloe vera gel, pulsed mode ultrasound (US) and Aloe vera phonophoresis on rat paw with collagenase-induced tendinitis. Edema size, tensile tendon strength, tendon elasticity, number of inflammatory cells and tissue histology were studied at 7 and 14 days after tendinitis induction. Pulse mode US parameters were: 1 MHz frequency,

  8. The prediction of carcass composition and tissue distribution in beef cattle using ultrasound scanning at the start and\\/or end of the finishing period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Lambe; D. W. Ross; E. A. Navajas; J. J. Hyslop; N. Prieto; C. Craigie; L. Bünger; G. Simm; R. Roehe

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound tissue depths, similar to those measured commercially as part of UK beef genetic evaluation schemes, were measured on 52 crossbred steers and 10 heifers at the start and end of the finishing period (average age 476 and 568days, respectively). Animals were slaughtered at commercial target weights and carcass grades, and one carcass side fully dissected. Combining live weights and

  9. Thermal fixation of swine liver tissue after magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Courivaud, Frédéric; Kazaryan, Airazat M; Lund, Alice; Orszagh, Vivian C; Svindland, Aud; Marangos, Irina Pavlik; Halvorsen, Per Steinar; Jebsen, Peter; Fosse, Erik; Hol, Per Kristian; Edwin, Bjørn

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate experimental conditions for efficient and controlled in vivo liver tissue ablation by magnetic resonance (MR)-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in a swine model, with the ultimate goal of improving clinical treatment outcome. Histological changes were examined both acutely (four animals) and 1 wk after treatment (five animals). Effects of acoustic power and multiple sonication cycles were investigated. There was good correlation between target size and observed ablation size by thermal dose calculation, post-procedural MR imaging and histopathology, when temperature at the focal point was kept below 90°C. Structural histopathology investigations revealed tissue thermal fixation in ablated regions. In the presence of cavitation, mechanical tissue destruction occurred, resulting in an ablation larger than the target. Complete extra-corporeal MR-guided HIFU ablation in the liver is feasible using high acoustic power. Nearby large vessels were preserved, which makes MR-guided HIFU promising for the ablation of liver tumors adjacent to large veins. PMID:24768489

  10. Feasibility of optoacoustic visualization of high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in live tissue.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Parag V; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Oraevsky, Alexander A

    2010-01-01

    A 3-D optoacoustic imaging system was used to visualize thermal lesions produced in vivo using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). A 7.5-MHz, surgical, focused transducer with a radius of curvature of 35 mm and an aperture diameter of 23 mm was used to generate HIFU. A pulsed laser, which could operate at 755 nm and 1064 nm, was used to illuminate excised tissue and mice using a bifurcated fiber bundle resulting in two wide beams of light. Tomographic images were obtained while the specimens were rotated within a sphere outlined by a concave arc-shaped array of 64 piezo-composite transducers. These images were then combined to reconstruct 3-D volume images (voxel resolution 0.5 mm), which were acquired before and after HIFU exposure. In vivo optoacoustic images acquired at 1064 nm provided visualization of HIFU lesions. The lesion was indicated by a negative optoacoustic contrast. The molecular nature of such contrast may possibly be associated with reduction of the optical absorption due to reduced concentration of blood, tissue dehydration, denaturation of proteins and porphyrins, and reduction of thermoacoustic efficiency in the thermally treated tissue. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of optoacoustic imaging to assess and monitor the progress of HIFU therapy. PMID:20459235

  11. The role of acoustic nonlinearity in tissue heating behind the rib cage using high intensity focused ultrasound phased array

    PubMed Central

    Yuldashev, Petr V.; Shmeleva, Svetlana M.; Ilyin, Sergey A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Gavrilov, Leonid R.; Khokhlova, Vera A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate theoretically the effects of nonlinear propagation in a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field produced by a therapeutic phased array and the resultant heating of tissue behind a rib cage. Three configurations of focusing were simulated: in water, in water with ribs in the beam path, and in water with ribs backed by a layer of soft tissue. The Westervelt equation was used to model the nonlinear HIFU field and a 1 MHz phased array consisting of 254 circular elements was used as a boundary condition to the model. The temperature rise in tissue was modelled using the bioheat equation, and thermally necrosed volumes were calculated using the thermal dose formulation. The shapes of lesions predicted by the modelling were compared with those previously obtained in in vitro experiments at low power sonications. Intensity levels at the face of the array elements that corresponded to formation of high amplitude shock fronts in the focal region were determined as 10 W·cm?2 in the free field in water and 40 W·cm?2 in the presence of ribs. It was shown that exposures with shocks provided a substantial increase in tissue heating, and its better spatial localization in the main focal region only. The relative effects of overheating ribs and splitting of the focus due to the periodic structure of the ribs were therefore reduced. These results suggest that utilizing nonlinear propagation and shock formation effects can be beneficial for inducing confined HIFU lesions when irradiating through obstructions such as ribs. Design of compact therapeutic arrays to provide maximum power outputs with lower intensity levels at the elements is necessary to achieve shock wave regimes for clinically relevant sonication depths in tissue. PMID:23528338

  12. Evaluation of ultrasound and glucose synergy effect on the optical clearing and light penetration for human colon tissue using SD-OCT.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingliang; Wei, Huajiang; He, Yonghong; Ren, Qiushi; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2014-11-01

    Topical application optical clearing agents (OCAs) can effectively enhance the tissue optical clearing on the human colon tissue, which has been demonstrated in our previous studies. Nevertheless, the strong light scattering still limits the diffusion rate of OCAs and penetration depth of light into the tissue. In this study, in order to further increase the diffusion of the OCA of glucose into tissue, we employ a method to improve the glucose permeability and light penetration with ultrasound (sonophoretic delivery, SP) and glucose (G) synergy on human normal and cancerous colon tissues in vitro, which was measured and quantified with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) technology. To evaluate the effect of ultrasound mediation, the percentages of OCT signal enhancement (PSE) and 1/e light-penetration depth were calculated for G alone and ultrasound-G treatments. The PSE was calculated at approximately 313 ?m from the sample tissue surface. For normal and cancerous colon tissues the PSE were about 91.1 ± 10.6% and 65.3% ± 12.3% with 30% G/SP, but for the 30% G alone treatment it was about 78.6 ± 11.2% and 54.5% ± 9.3%, respectively. The max value of 1/e light-penetration depth for normal colon tissue was 0.47 ± 0.02 mm with 30% G alone and 0.60 ± 0.05 mm (p < 0.05)with 30% G/SP synergy. However, for the cancerous colon tissue the max value was 0.45 ± 0.01 mm and 0.57 ± 0.03 mm (p < 0.05), respectively. The obtained permeability coefficients showed a significant enhancement with ultrasound mediation. The mean permeability coefficients of 30% G/SP in normal and cancerous colon tissues were (6.3 ± 0.16) × 10(-6) cm/s and (12.1 ± 0.34) × 10(-6) cm/s (p < 0.05), respectively. These preliminary experiments showed that ultrasound can effectively enhance the tissue optical clearing and glucose diffusion rate as well as increase the light-penetration depth into biotissues. PMID:24458608

  13. Heart rate, conduction and ultrasound abnormalities in adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Camerota, Filippo; Castori, Marco; Celletti, Claudia; Colotto, Marco; Amato, Silvia; Colella, Alessandra; Curione, Mario; Danese, Chiara

    2014-07-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT) are two clinically overlapping heritable connective tissue disorders strongly associating with pain, fatigue and other secondary aspects. Though not considered a diagnostic criterion for most EDS subtypes, cardiovascular involvement is a well-known complication in EDS. A case-control study was carried out on 28 adults with JHS/EDS-HT diagnosed according to current criteria, compared to 29 healthy subjects evaluating resting electrocardiographic (ECG), 24-h ECG and resting heart ultrasound data. Results obtained in the ECG studies showed a moderate excess in duration of the PR interval and P wave, an excess of heart conduction and rate abnormalities and an increased rate of mitral and tricuspid valve insufficiency often complicating with "true" mitral valve prolapse in the ecocardiographic study. These variable ECG subclinical anomalies reported in our sample may represent the resting surrogate of such a subnormal cardiovascular response to postural changes that are known to be present in patients with JHS/EDS-HT. Our findings indicate the usefulness of a full cardiologic evaluation of adults with JHS/EDS-HT for the correct management. PMID:24752348

  14. Analysis of the potential for coded excitation to improve the detection of tissue and blood motion in medical ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Lamboul, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound imaging modalities arguably represent one of the most complex task performed (usually in real time) by ultrasound scanners. At the heart of these techniques lies the ability to detect and estimate soft ...

  15. AMUM LECTURE: Therapeutic ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Crum

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy,

  16. Centenarian Stroke Treated with Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Gorman; David Tanne; Christopher A. Lewandowski

    2002-01-01

    Background: Elderly patients with acute ischemic stroke often do worse than younger counterparts independent of thrombolytic therapy. Further, tissue-type plasminogen activator, (t-PA) is frequently withheld from the very old. This may be the result of comorbid conditions prohibiting its use or possibly the fear of causing more harm than good. We present a case of a 100-year-old woman who was

  17. Scale Space Texture Classification Using Combined Classifiers with Application to Ultrasound Tissue Characterization

    E-print Network

    Duin, Robert P.W.

    tissue characterization for discrimination of normal liver from cirrhosis yields prom- ising results or at least one lobe is completely affected. In diffused liver diseases like cirrhosis, the texture of liver

  18. Ultrasonic tissue-type imaging of the prostate: implications for biopsy and treatment guidance.

    PubMed

    Feleppa, Ernest J

    2008-01-01

    Improved means of imaging prostate cancer would enable more-effective biopsy and treatment guidance and potentially would provide a reliable means of monitoring non-surgical therapy. Current, commonly used, conventional means of imaging the prostate do not reliably depict cancerous lesions, and as a result, biopsy needles are placed with respect to visible anatomic features of the gland, treatment tends to involve the entire gland, and monitoring of non-surgical therapy is based predominantly on blood PSA levels, and in many cases, periodic biopsies. Conventional transrectal ultrasound often is the imaging modality of choice for prostate biopsy and treatment procedures, but it offers no advantages in terms of reliably depicting cancerous regions of the gland. However, new methods of tissue-type imaging that are based on spectrum analysis of echo signals and that utilize artificial neural networks for classification offer promise of reliably distinguishing cancerous lesions from non-cancerous tissue in the prostate. The classifier produced an ROC-curve area of 0.84 for 617 biopsied locations compared to areas of 0.64 for conventional assessments of the same locations in biopsy-guidance B-mode images. The potential improvement in imaging sensitivity implied by the ROC curves is more than 50%. If current validation studies confirm these initial results, then an effective, inexpensive, noninvasive means of imaging prostate-cancer foci and therefore of guiding biopsies and treatments will be available to urologists and radiation oncologists. PMID:18957711

  19. A multi-classifier system for the characterization of normal, infectious, and cancerous prostate tissues employing transrectal ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Glotsos, Dimitris; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Theocharakis, Pantelis; Georgiadis, Pantelis; Daskalakis, Antonis; Ninos, Kostas; Zoumboulis, Pavlos; Filippidou, Anna; Cavouras, Dionisis

    2010-01-01

    A computer-aided diagnostic system has been developed for the discrimination of normal, infectious and cancer prostate tissues based on texture analysis of transrectal ultrasound images. The proposed system has been designed using a panel of three classifiers, which have been evaluated individually or as a mutli-classifier scheme, using the external cross-validation procedure. Clinical data consisted of 165 transrectal ultrasound images, characterized by an experienced physician as normal (55/165), cancerous (55/165), and infectious (55/165) prostate cases. From each image, the physician delineated the most representative regions of interest, from which, 23 textural features were extracted. Classification was seen as a two level hierarchical decision tree. Normal from infectious and infectious from cancer cases were discriminated at the 1st and 2nd level of the decision tree, respectively. The best classification results for the 1st level were 89.5%, whereas for the 2nd level 90.1%. The utilization of multi-classifier system improved the discrimination of prostate pathologies as compared to individual classifiers; for infectious prostate cases improvement was from 87.3% to 88.7% and for cancer prostate cases improvement was from 84.1% to 91.4%. In terms of overall system performance (the decision tree's node propagating error taken into account), best classification accuracies were 89.5%, 79.6% and 82.7% for the recognition of normal, infectious and cancer cases, respectively. The proposed system might be used as a second opinion tool for assisting diagnosis of different prostate pathologies. PMID:19647888

  20. Assessment of the effects of ultrasound-mediated glucose on permeability of normal, benign, and cancerous human lung tissues with the Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Huajiang; Wu, Guoyong; Guo, Zhouyi; Yang, Hongqin; He, Yonghong; Xie, Shusen; Guo, Xiao

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound-mediated analyte diffusion on permeability of normal, benign, and cancerous human lung tissue in vitro and to find more effective sonophoretic (SP) delivery in combination with the optical clearing agents (OCAs) method to distinguish normal and diseased lung tissues. The permeability coefficients of SP in combination with OCAs diffusion in lung tissue were measured with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). 30% glucose and SP with a frequency of 1 MHz and an intensity of 0.80 W/cm2 over a 3 cm probe was simultaneously applied for 15 min. Experimental results show that the mean permeability coefficients of 30% glucose/SP were found to be (2.01±0.21)×10-5 cm/s from normal lung (NL) tissue, (2.75±0.28)×10-5 cm/s from lung benign granulomatosis (LBG) tissue, (4.53±0.49)×10-5 cm/s from lung adenocarcinoma tumor (LAT) tissue, and (5.81±0.62)×10-5 cm/s from lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) tissue, respectively. The permeability coefficients of 30% glucose/SP increase approximately 36.8%, 125.4%, and 189.1% for the LBG, LAT, and LSCC tissue compared with that for the NL tissue, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in permeability coefficients of 30% glucose/SP between LBG and NL tissue (p<0.05), between LAT and NL tissue (p<0.05), and between LSCC and NL tissue (p<0.05). The results suggest that the OCT functional imaging technique to combine an ultrasound-OCAs combination method could become a powerful tool in early diagnosis and monitoring of changed microstructure of pathologic human lung tissue.

  1. Type III collagen metabolism in soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed Central

    Wiklund, T. A.; Elomaa, I.; Blomqvist, C. P.; Risteli, L.; Risteli, J.

    1992-01-01

    Sera of 85 patients with benign soft tissue lesions or sarcomas of soft tissues were investigated for a collagen metabolite, the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP). Patients were divided into three groups: benign soft tissue lesions (n = 39), localised (n = 29) and metastatic (n = 18) soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Values of PIIINP above the reference range were found in 15%, 28% and 50% of the respective groups. The difference in the concentration of PIIINP was statistically significant between the benign lesions and the localised sarcomas; P = 0.05, and between the benign lesions and the metastatic sarcomas; P less than 0.001. In localised sarcomas there was a correlation between PIIINP and bone-involvement (r = 0.61, P = 0.002) and in metastatic disease between PIIINP and liver metastases (r = 0.77, P less than 0.001). In localised sarcomas the overall survival for patients with a value of PIIINP above the reference range was significantly poorer (P = 0.03) than for patients with values within the reference range, even after stratification for the histological malignancy grade of the tumours (P = 0.04). PMID:1739616

  2. Miniaturized fiber-optic ultrasound probes for endoscopic tissue analysis by micro-opto-mechanical technology.

    PubMed

    Vannacci, E; Belsito, L; Mancarella, F; Ferri, M; Veronese, G P; Roncaglia, A; Biagi, E

    2014-06-01

    A new Micro-Opto-Mechanical System (MOMS) technology for the fabrication of optoacoustic probes on optical fiber is presented. The technology is based on the thermoelastic emission of ultrasonic waves from patterned carbon films for generation and on extrinsic polymer Fabry-Perot acousto-optical transducers for detection, both fabricated on miniaturized single-crystal silicon frames used to mount the ultrasonic transducers on the tip of an optical fiber. Thanks to the fabrication process adopted, high miniaturization levels are reached in the MOMS devices, demonstrating fiber-optic emitters and detectors with minimum diameter around 350 and 250 ?m respectively. A thorough functional testing of the ultrasound emitters mounted on 200 and 600 ?m diameter optical fibers is presented, in which the fiber-optic emitter with a diameter of 200 ?m shows generated acoustic pressures with peak-to-peak value up to 2.8 MPa with rather flat emission spectra extended beyond 150 MHz. The possibility to use the presented optoacoustic sources in conjunction with the fiber-optic acousto-optical detectors within a minimally invasive probe is also demonstrated by successfully measuring the ultrasonic echo reflected from a rigid surface immersed in water with various concentration of scatterers. The resulting spectra highlight the possibility to discriminate the effects due to frequency selective attenuation in a very wide range of frequencies within a biological medium using the presented fiber-optic probes. PMID:24573502

  3. High frequency ultrasound measurements of the attenuation and backscatter from biological tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subha Maruvada

    2000-01-01

    There are now diagnostic ultrasonic imaging devices that operate at very high frequencies (VHF) of 20 MHz and beyond for clinical applications in ophthalmology, dermatology, and vascular surgery. To be able to better interpret these images and to further the development of these devices, knowledge of ultrasonic attenuation and scattering of biological tissues in this high frequency range is crucial.

  4. Sonicator (ultrasound) Use sound energy to agitate samples

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Robert E.

    1 Sonicator (ultrasound) · Use sound energy to agitate samples · Speed dissolution · Rise ultrasound · Disturbance in tissue · Try to avoid long high intensity exposure to ultrasound... Ultrasound

  5. Influence of Temperature-Dependent Thermal Parameters on Temperature Elevation of Tissue Exposed to High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound: Numerical Simulation.

    PubMed

    Guntur, Sitaramanjaneya Reddy; Choi, Min Joo

    2015-03-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been used successfully as a non-invasive modality in treating solid tumors. The temperature rise HIFU irradiation causes in a tissue depends on the thermal properties of the tissue. This study was motivated by our observation that the thermal properties of a tissue vary significantly with temperature (Guntur SR, Lee KI, Paeng DG, Coleman AJ, Choi MJ. Ultrasound Med Biol 2013;39:1771-1784). This research investigated how significantly the alteration of tissue thermal parameters, in the ranges of values measured at 25°C-90°C, affects prediction of the temperature elevation of tissue under the same HIFU exposure. The numerical simulation was performed by coupling a non-linear Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation with a bio-heat transfer function. In the conventional method of prediction, the thermal parameters were set as constants measured at room temperature (25°C). This study compared the conventional prediction with those predicted with different thermal parameters measured at the various temperatures up to 90°C. The results indicated that the conventional method significantly overestimated the rise in focal temperature in the liver tissue exposed to a clinical HIFU field, compared with the prediction made using thermal parameters measured at temperatures that cause thermal denaturation. This finding suggests that temperature-dependent thermal parameters should be considered in predicting the temperature rise in a tissue to avoid use of an insufficient thermal dose in treatment planning for HIFU surgery. PMID:25638316

  6. Ultrasound Estimates of Visceral and Subcutaneous-Abdominal Adipose Tissues in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Modi, Neena; Uthaya, Sabita; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Dunger, David B.; Acerini, Carlo; Stolk, Ronald P.; Ong, Ken K.

    2013-01-01

    Other imaging techniques to quantify internal-abdominal adiposity (IA-AT) and subcutaneous-abdominal adiposity (SCA-AT) are frequently impractical in infants. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to validate ultrasound (US) visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal depths in assessing IA-AT and SCA-AT from MRI as the reference method in infants and (b) to analyze the association between US abdominal adiposity and anthropometric measures at ages 3 months and 12 months. Twenty-two infants underwent MRI and US measures of abdominal adiposity. Abdominal US parameters and anthropometric variables were assessed in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS), n = 487 infants (23 girls) at age 3 months and n = 495 infants (237 girls) at 12 months. US visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal depths correlated with MRI quantified IA-AT (r = 0.48, P < 0.05) and SCA-AT (r = 0.71, P < 0.001) volumes, respectively. In CBGS, mean US-visceral depths increased by ~20 % between ages 3 and 12 months (P < 0.0001) and at both ages were lower in infants breast-fed at 3 months than in other infants. US-visceral depths at both 3 and 12 months were inversely related to skinfold thickness at birth (P = 0.03 and P = 0.009 at 3 and 12 months, resp.; adjusted for current skinfold thickness). In contrast, US-subcutaneous-abdominal depth at 3 months was positively related to skinfold thickness at birth (P = 0.004). US measures can rank infants with higher or lower IA-AT and SCA-AT. Contrasting patterns of association with visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal adiposities indicate that they may be differentially regulated in infancy. PMID:23710350

  7. Cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects of high-energy pulsed ultrasound (HEPUS) on human squamous cell carcinoma cells as compared to connective tissue fibroblasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Iro; B. A. Völklein; F. Waldfahrer; T. Schneider; R. E. Riedlinger; J. Zenk

    1998-01-01

    The cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects of high-energy pulsed ultrasound (HEPUS) on human squamous cell carcinoma cells\\u000a cloned from the hypopharynx (FaDu) and benign connective tissue cells (fibroblasts) were investigated in vitro. Sonication\\u000a was carried out using an experimental piezoelectric, self-focusing burst-signal transducer. To increase the induction of cavitation,\\u000a the transducer used was specifically designed to produce multiple oscillations with a

  8. Multimodal ultrasound-photoacoustic imaging of tissue engineering scaffolds and blood oxygen saturation in and around the scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Yahfi; Avti, Pramod; Sun, John; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2014-05-01

    Preclinical, noninvasive imaging of tissue engineering polymeric scaffold structure and/or the physiological processes such as blood oxygenation remains a challenge. In vitro or ex vivo, the widely used scaffold characterization modalities such as porosimetry, electron or optical microscopy, and X-ray microcomputed tomography have limitations or disadvantages-some are invasive or destructive, others have limited tissue penetration (few hundred micrometers) and/or show poor contrast under physiological conditions. Postmortem histological analysis, the most robust technique for the evaluation of neovascularization is obviously not appropriate for acquiring physiological or longitudinal data. In this study, we have explored the potential of ultrasound (US)-coregistered photoacoustic (PA) imaging as a noninvasive multimodal imaging modality to overcome some of the above challenges and/or provide complementary information. US-PA imaging was employed to characterize poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer scaffolds or single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-incorporated PLGA (SWCNT-PLGA) polymer scaffolds as well as blood oxygen saturation within and around the scaffolds. Ex vivo, PLGA and SWCNT-PLGA scaffolds were placed at 0.5, 2, and 6 mm depths in chicken breast tissues. PLGA scaffolds could be localized with US imaging, but generate no PA signal (excitation wavelengths 680 and 780 nm). SWCNT-PLGA scaffolds generated strong PA signals at both wavelengths due to the presence of the SWCNTs and could be localized with both US and PA imaging depths between 0.5-6 mm (lateral resolution = 90 ?m, axial resolution = 40 ?m). In vivo, PLGA and SWCNT-PLGA scaffolds were implanted in subcutaneous pockets at 2 mm depth in rats, and imaged at 7 and 14 days postsurgery. The anatomical position of both the scaffolds could be determined from the US images. Only SWCNT-PLGA scaffolds could be easily detected in the US-PA images. SWCNT-PLGA scaffolds had significant four times higher PA signal intensity compared with the surrounding tissue and PLGA scaffolds. In vivo blood oxygen saturation maps around and within the PLGA scaffolds could be obtained by PA imaging. There was no significant difference in oxygen saturation for the PLGA scaffolds at the two time points. The blood oxygen saturation maps complemented the histological analysis of neovascularization of the PLGA scaffolds. PMID:24107069

  9. Impact of tissue characteristics on luminal narrowing of mild angiographic coronary stenosis: assessment of integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Makoto; Tanaka, Shinichiro; Noda, Toshiyuki; Segawa, Tomonori; Kawasaki, Masanori; Nishigaki, Kazuhiko; Minagawa, Taro; Watanabe, Sachiro; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2014-11-01

    Integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound (IB-IVUS) is a useful method for analyzing coronary plaque tissue. We evaluated whether tissue composition determined using IB-IVUS is associated with the progression of stenosis in coronary angiography. Sixty-three nontarget coronary lesions in 63 patients with stable angina were evaluated using conventional IVUS and IB-IVUS. IB-IVUS images were analyzed at 1-mm intervals for a length of 10 mm. After calculating the relative areas of the tissue components using the IB-IVUS system, fibrous volume (FV) and lipid volume (LV) were calculated through integration of the slices, after which percentages of per-plaque volume (%FV/PV, %LV/PV) and per-vessel volume (%FV/VV, %LV/VV) were calculated. Progression of coronary stenosis was interpreted from the increase in percent diameter stenosis (%DS) from baseline to the follow-up period (6-9 months) using quantitative coronary angiography. %DS was 24.1 ± 12.8 % at baseline and 23.2 ± 13.7 % at follow-up. Using IB-IVUS, LV was 31.7 ± 10.5 mm(3), and %LV/PV and %LV/VV were 45.6 ± 10.3 % and 20.2 ± 6.0 %, respectively. FV, %FV/PV, and %FV/VV were 35.5 ± 12.1 mm(3), 52.1 ± 9.5 %, and 23.4 ± 7.1 %, respectively. The change in %DS was -0.88 ± 7.25 % and correlated closely with %LV/VV (r = 0.27, P = 0.03) on simple regression. Multivariate regression after adjustment for potentially confounding risk factors showed %LV/VV to be correlated independently with changes in %DS (r = 0.42, P = 0.02). Logistic regression analysis after adjusting for confounding coronary risk factors showed LV (odds ratio 1.08; 95 % confidence interval 1.01-1.16; P = 0.03) and %LV/VV (odds ratio 1.13; 95 % confidence interval 1.01-1.28; P = 0.03) to be independent predictors of the progression of angiographic coronary stenosis. Our findings suggest that angiographic luminal narrowing of the coronary artery is likely associated with tissue characteristics. IB-IVUS may provide information about the natural progression of luminal narrowing in coronary stenosis. PMID:24154856

  10. Study on the refractive index matching effect of ultrasound on optical clearing of bio-tissues based on the derivative total reflection method

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Huanhuan; Wang, Jin; Ye, Qing; Deng, Zhichao; Mei, Jianchun; Zhou, Wenyuan; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the tissue optical clearing (OC) technique in the biomedicine field has drawn lots of attention. Various physical and chemical methods have been introduced to improve the efficacy of OC. In this study, the effect of the combination of glycerol and ultrasound treatment on OC of in vitro porcine muscle tissues has been investigated. The refractive index (RI) matching mechanism of OC was directly observed based on the derivative total reflection method. A theoretical model was used to simulate the proportion of tissue fluid in the illuminated area. Moreover, the total transmittance spectra have been obtained by a spectrometer over the range from 450 nm to 700 nm. The administration of glycerol and ultrasound has led to an increase of the RI of background medium and a more RI matching environment was achieved. The experimental results support the validity of the ultrasound treatment for OC. The RI matching mechanism has been firstly quantitatively analyzed based on the derivative total reflection method. PMID:25360366

  11. Assessment of ultrasound-assisted extraction as sample pre-treatment for the measurement of lead isotope ratios in marine biological tissues by multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Costas-Rodríguez; Isela Lavilla; Carlos Bendicho

    2011-01-01

    In this work, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was evaluated as a sample preparation procedure for lead isotope ratio measurements in marine biological tissues by multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 20mg of marine biological tissue and 1mL of acid extractant were sonicated for 3min at 60% ultrasound amplitude. Matrix separation was performed in the supernatant using a chromatographic exchange resin (Sr-Spec™). Total

  12. Microbubble Type and Distribution Dependence of Focused Ultrasound Induced Blood Brain Barrier Opening

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shutao; Samiotaki, Gesthimani; Olumolade, Oluyemi; Feshitan, Jameel A.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Focused Ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles has been used to non-invasively induce reversible blood brain barrier (BBB) opening in both rodents and non-human primates. This study aims at identifying the dependence of the BBB opening properties on the polydisperse microbubble (since all clinically approved microbubbles are polydisperse) type and distribution by using clinically approved UCA (Definity®) and in-house made polydisperse microbubbles (IHP) in mice. A total of 18 C57BL/6 mice (n = 3) were used in this study, and each mouse received either Definity® or IHP microbubbles via tail vein injection. The concentration and size distribution of both the activated Definity® and IHP microbubbles were measured and diluted to 6×108/ml prior to injection. Immediately after the microbubble administration, FUS sonications were carried out with the following parameters: frequency of 1.5 MHz, pulse repetition frequency of 10 Hz, 1000 cycles, in situ peak rarefactional acoustic pressures of 0.3 MPa, 0.45 MPa, and 0.6 MPa for a sonication duration of 60 s. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to confirm the BBB opening and allowed for image-based analysis. The permeability of the treated region and volumes of BBB opening using the two types of microbubbles did not show significant difference (P > 0.05) for PRPs of 0.45 MPa and 0.6 MPa, while IHP microbubbles showed significantly higher permeability and volume of opening (P < 0.05) at the relatively lower pressure of 0.3 MPa. The results from this study indicate that the microbubble type and distribution could have significant effects on the FUS-induced BBB opening at lower, but less important at higher, pressure levels, possibly due to the stable cavitation that governs the former. This difference may have become less significant at higher FUS pressure levels where inertial cavitation typically occurs. PMID:24239362

  13. Overexpression of type VI collagen in neoplastic lung tissues.

    PubMed

    Voiles, Larry; Lewis, David E; Han, Ling; Lupov, Ivan P; Lin, Tsang-Long; Robertson, Michael J; Petrache, Irina; Chang, Hua-Chen

    2014-11-01

    Type VI collagen (COL6), an extracellular matrix protein, is important in maintaining the integrity of lung tissue. An increase in COL6 mRNA and protein deposition was found in the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis, a chronic inflammatory condition with a strong association with lung cancer. In the present study, we demonstrated overexpression of COL6 in the lungs of non-small cell lung cancers. We hypothesized that excessive COL6 in the lung interstitium may exert stimulatory effects on the adjacent cells. In vitro stimulation of monocytes with COL6 resulted in the production of IL-23, which may promote tumor development in an environment of IL-23-mediated lung inflammation, where tissue modeling occurs concurrently with excessive COL6 production. In addition, COL6 was capable of stimulating signaling pathways that activate focal adhesion kinase and extracellular signal?regulated kinase 1/2 in lung epithelial cells, which may also facilitate the development of lung neoplasms. Taken together, our data suggest the potential role of COL6 in promoting lung neoplasia in diseased lungs where COL6 is overexpressed. PMID:25176343

  14. Overexpression of type VI collagen in neoplastic lung tissues

    PubMed Central

    VOILES, LARRY; LEWIS, DAVID E.; HAN, LING; LUPOV, IVAN P.; LIN, TSANG-LONG; ROBERTSON, MICHAEL J.; PETRACHE, IRINA; CHANG, HUA-CHEN

    2014-01-01

    Type VI collagen (COL6), an extracellular matrix protein, is important in maintaining the integrity of lung tissue. An increase in COL6 mRNA and protein deposition was found in the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis, a chronic inflammatory condition with a strong association with lung cancer. In the present study, we demonstrated overexpression of COL6 in the lungs of non-small cell lung cancers. We hypothesized that excessive COL6 in the lung interstitium may exert stimulatory effects on the adjacent cells. In vitro stimulation of monocytes with COL6 resulted in the production of IL-23, which may promote tumor development in an environment of IL-23-mediated lung inflammation, where tissue modeling occurs concurrently with excessive COL6 production. In addition, COL6 was capable of stimulating signaling pathways that activate focal adhesion kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in lung epithelial cells, which may also facilitate the development of lung neoplasms. Taken together, our data suggest the potential role of COL6 in promoting lung neoplasia in diseased lungs where COL6 is overexpressed. PMID:25176343

  15. Backward-mode multiwavelength photoacoustic scanner using a planar Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Edward; Laufer, Jan; Beard, Paul

    2008-02-01

    A multiwavelength backward-mode planar photoacoustic scanner for 3D imaging of soft tissues to depths of several millimeters with a spatial resolution in the tens to hundreds of micrometers range is described. The system comprises a tunable optical parametric oscillator laser system that provides nanosecond laser pulses between 600 and 1200 nm for generating the photoacoustic signals and an optical ultrasound mapping system based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film sensor for detecting them. The system enables photoacoustic signals to be mapped in 2D over a 50 mm diameter aperture in steps of 10 microm with an optically defined element size of 64 microm. Two sensors were used, one with a 22 microm thick polymer film spacer and the other with a 38 mum thick spacer providing -3 dB acoustic bandwidths of 39 and 22 MHz, respectively. The measured noise equivalent pressure of the 38 microm sensor was 0.21 kPa over a 20 MHz measurement bandwidth. The instrument line-spread function (LSF) was measured as a function of position and the minimum lateral and vertical LSFs found to be 38 and 15 microm, respectively. To demonstrate the ability of the system to provide high-resolution 3D images, a range of absorbing objects were imaged. Among these was a blood vessel phantom that comprised a network of blood filled tubes of diameters ranging from 62 to 300 microm immersed in an optically scattering liquid. In addition, to demonstrate the applicability of the system to spectroscopic imaging, a phantom comprising tubes filled with dyes of different spectral characteristics was imaged at a range of wavelengths. It is considered that this type of instrument may provide a practicable alternative to piezoelectric-based photoacoustic systems for high-resolution structural and functional imaging of the skin microvasculature and other superficial structures. PMID:18239717

  16. Backward-mode multiwavelength photoacoustic scanner using a planar Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Edward; Laufer, Jan; Beard, Paul

    2008-02-01

    A multiwavelength backward-mode planar photoacoustic scanner for 3D imaging of soft tissues to depths of several millimeters with a spatial resolution in the tens to hundreds of micrometers range is described. The system comprises a tunable optical parametric oscillator laser system that provides nanosecond laser pulses between 600 and 1200 nm for generating the photoacoustic signals and an optical ultrasound mapping system based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film sensor for detecting them. The system enables photoacoustic signals to be mapped in 2D over a 50 mm diameter aperture in steps of 10 ?m with an optically defined element size of 64 ?m. Two sensors were used, one with a 22 ?m thick polymer film spacer and the other with a 38 ?m thick spacer providing -3 dB acoustic bandwidths of 39 and 22 MHz, respectively. The measured noise equivalent pressure of the 38 ?m sensor was 0.21 kPa over a 20 MHz measurement bandwidth. The instrument line-spread function (LSF) was measured as a function of position and the minimum lateral and vertical LSFs found to be 38 and 15 ?m, respectively. To demonstrate the ability of the system to provide high-resolution 3D images, a range of absorbing objects were imaged. Among these was a blood vessel phantom that comprised a network of blood filled tubes of diameters ranging from 62 to 300 ?m immersed in an optically scattering liquid. In addition, to demonstrate the applicability of the system to spectroscopic imaging, a phantom comprising tubes filled with dyes of different spectral characteristics was imaged at a range of wavelengths. It is considered that this type of instrument may provide a practicable alternative to piezoelectric-based photoacoustic systems for high-resolution structural and functional imaging of the skin microvasculature and other superficial structures.

  17. Influence of different sized nanoparticles combined with ultrasound on the optical properties of in vitro normal and cancerous human lung tissue studied with OCT and diffuse reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L. P.; Wu, G. Y.; Wei, H. J.; Guo, Z. Y.; Yang, H. Q.; He, Y. H.; Xie, S. S.; Liu, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The present study is concerned with the in vitro study of different sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles’ (NPs) penetration and accumulation in human normal lung (NL) tissue and lung adenocarcinoma tumor (LAT) tissue by the methods of continuous optical coherence tomography (OCT) monitoring and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra measurement, and their evaluating the effects of TiO2 NPs in two sizes (60?nm and 100?nm) and their combination with ultrasound (US) on the optical properties of human NL and LAT tissue. Spectral measurements indicate that TiO2 NPs penetrate and accumulate into the tissues and thus induce enhancement of DR. The averaged and normalized OCT signal intensity suggests that light penetration depth is significantly enlarged by ultrasound. The average attenuation coefficient of NL tissue changes from 5.10? ± ?0.26?mm?1 to 3.12? ± ?0.43?mm?1 and 2.15? ± ?0.54?mm?1 at 120?min for 60?nm TiO2 NPs and 60?nm TiO2NPs/US treatment, respectively, and from 5.54? ± ?0.46?mm?1 to 3.24? ± ?0.73?mm?1 and 2.69? ± ?0.34?mm?1 at 150?min for 100?nm TiO2 NPs and 100?nm TiO2NPs/US, respectively. The average attenuation coefficient of LAT tissue changes from 9.12? ± ?0.54?mm?1 to 4.54? ± ?0.39?mm?1 and 3.61? ± ?0.38?mm?1 at 120?min for 60?nm TiO2 NPs and 60?nm TiO2NPs/US treatment, respectively, and from 9.79? ± ?0.32?mm?1 to 5.12? ± ?0.47?mm?1 and 4.89? ± ?0.59?mm?1 at 150?min for 100?nm TiO2 NPs and 100?nm TiO2NPs/US, respectively. The results suggest that the optical properties of NL and LAT tissues are greatly influenced by TiO2 NPs and their combination with ultrasound.

  18. Doppler Ultrasound Detection of Preclinical Changes in Foot Arteries in Early Stage of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Leoniuk, Jolanta; ?ukasiewicz, Adam; Szorc, Ma?gorzata; Sackiewicz, Izabela; Janica, Jacek; ?ebkowska, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background There are few reports regarding the changes within the vessels in the initial stage of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate the hemodynamic and morphological parameters in foot arteries in type 2 diabetes subjects and to compare these parameters to those obtained in a control group of healthy volunteers. Material/Methods Ultrasound B-mode, color Doppler and pulse wave Doppler imaging of foot arteries was conducted in 37 diabetic patients and 36 non-diabetic subjects to determine their morphological (total vascular diameter and flow lumen diameter) and functional parameters (spectral analysis). Results In diabetic patients, the overall vascular diameter and wall thickness were statistically significantly larger when compared to the control group in the right dorsalis pedis artery (P=0.01; P=0.001), left dorsalis pedis artery (P=0.007; P=0.006), right posterior tibial artery (P=0.005; P=0.0005), and left posterior tibial artery (P=0.007; P=0.0002). No significant differences were observed in both groups in flow lumen diameters and blood flow parameters (PSV, EDV, PI, RI). In the diabetic group, the level of HbA1c positively correlated with flow resistance index in the right dorsalis pedis artery (r=0.38; P=0.02), right posterior tibial artery (r=0.38; P=0.02) and left posterior tibial artery (r=0.42; P=0.009). The pulsatility index within the dorsalis pedis artery decreased with increased trophic skin changes (r=–0.431, P=0.009). Conclusions In the diabetic group, overall artery diameters larger than and flow lumina comparable to the control group suggest vessel wall thickening occurring in the early stage of diabetes. Doppler flow parameters are comparable in both groups. In the diabetic group, the level of HbA1c positively correlated with flow resistance index and negative correlation was observed between the intensity of trophic skin changes and the pulsatility index. PMID:25202434

  19. Intravascular ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    IVUS; Ultrasound - coronary artery; Endovascular ultrasound; Intravascular echocardiography ... A tiny ultrasound wand is attached to the top of a thin tube called a catheter. This ultrasound catheter is inserted ...

  20. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and ethanol induced tissue ablation: Thermal lesion volume and temperature ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Nguyen Hai

    HIFU is the upcoming technology for noninvasive or minimally invasive tumor ablation via the localized acoustic energy deposition at the focal region within the tumor target. The presence of cavitation bubbles had been shown to improve the therapeutic effect of HIFU. In this study, we have investigated the effect of HIFU on temperature rise and cavitation bubble activity in ethanol-treated porcine liver and kidney tissues. We have also explored changes in the viability and proliferation rate of HepG2, SW1376, and FB1 cancer cells with their exposure to ethanol and HIFU. Tissues were submerged in 95% ethanol for five hours and then exposed to HIFU generated by a 1.1 MHz transducer or injected into focal spot before HIFU exposure. Cavitation events were measured by a passive cavitation detection technique for a range of acoustic power from 1.17 W to 20.52 W. The temperature around the focal zone was measured by type K or type E thermocouples embedded in the samples. In experiments with cancer cells, 2.7 millions cells were treated with concentration of ethanol at concentration 2%, 4%, 10%, 25%, and 50% and the cell were exposed to HIFU with power of 2.73 W, 8.72 W, and 12.0 W for 30 seconds. Our data show that the treatment of tissues with ethanol reduces the threshold power for inertial cavitation and increases the temperature rise. The exposure of cancer cells to various HIFU power only showed a higher number of viable cells 24 to 72 hours after HIFU exposure. On the other hand, both the viability and proliferation rate were significantly decreased in cells treated with ethanol and then HIFU at 8.7 W and 12.0 W even at ethanol concentration of 2 and 4 percent. In conclusion, the results of our study indicate that percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and HIFU have a synergistic effect on cancer cells ablation.

  1. Deformation correction in ultrasound imaging in an elastography framework

    E-print Network

    Sun, Shih-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Tissue deformation in ultrasound imaging is an inevitable phenomenon and poses challenges to the development of many techniques related to ultrasound image registration, including multimodal image fusion, freehand ...

  2. Automated classification of tissue by type using real-time spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaron, David A.; Cheong, Wai-Fung; Duckworth, Joshua L.; Noles, Kenneth; Nezhat, Camran; Seidman, Daniel; Hintz, Susan R.; Levinson, Carl J.; Murphy, Aileen L.; Price, John W., Jr.; Liu, Frank W.; Stevenson, David K.; Kermit, Eben L.

    1997-12-01

    Each tissue type has a unique spectral signature (e.g. liver looks distinct from bowel due to differences in both absorbance and in the way the tissue scatters light). While differentiation between normal tissues and tumors is not trivial, automated discrimination among normal tissue types (e.g. nerve, artery, vein, muscle) is feasible and clinically important, as many medical errors in medicine involve the misidentification of normal tissues. In this study, we have found that spectroscopic differentiation of tissues can be successfully applied to tissue samples (kidney and uterus) and model systems (fruit). Such optical techniques may usher in use of optical tissue diagnosis, leading to automated and portable diagnostic devices which can identify tissues, and guide use of medical instruments, such as during ablation or biopsy.

  3. Tissue-type plasminogen activator gene is on chromosome 8

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Tripputi; F. Blasi; T. Ny; B. S. Emanuel; J. Letosfsky; C. M. Croce

    1986-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator is one of the two plasminogen activators, both serine proteases, that catalyze the conversion of inactive plasminogen to plasmin, which then degrades the fibrin network of blood clots. By combining somatic cell genetics, in situ hybridization, and Southern blot hybridization, we localized the human tissue plasminogen activator gene to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 8.Copyright © 1986

  4. Quantification of petroleum-type hydrocarbons in avian tissue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gay, M.L.; Belisle, A.A.; Patton, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Summary: Methods were developed for the analysis of 16 hydrocarbons in avian tissue. Mechanical extraction with pentane was followed by clean-up on Florisil and Silicar. Residues were determined by gas--liquid chromatography and gas-liquid, chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method was applied to the analysis of liver, kidney, fat, and brain tissue of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) fed a mixture of hydrocarbons. Measurable concentrations of all compounds analyzed were present in all tissues except brain. Highest concentrations were in fat.

  5. Tissue cryobanking for conservation programs: effect of tissue type and storage time after death.

    PubMed

    Caputcu, Arzu Tas; Akkoc, Tolga; Cetinkaya, Gaye; Arat, Sezen

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the temporal post-mortem limits, within which there will be guarantees of obtaining living cells from several tissues of sheep and cattle and the effect of vitrification on the ability of cells from tissue stored at different times. Muscle tissue and auricular cartilage were stored at 4°C for 5, 48, 72, 96 and 216 h post-mortem (hpm). Tissue samples were sorted into two groups: one group was in vitro cultured immediately after storage and the other was vitrified after storage and then in vitro cultured. In cattle and sheep, no differences in subconfluence rates were observed between the two experimental groups. At the same time, no significant differences were observed in the number of days required in culture to reach confluence between non-vitrified and vitrified groups when tissues were stored at 4°C for different times. In sheep, while the population doubling times (PDT) were similar in cartilage cells from vitrified and non-vitrified tissues and stored at 4°C for 5 and 216 hpm, PDT of muscle cells were longer in 216 hpm stored groups than in 5 hpm stored groups. In bovine, although the PDT of muscle cells were similar for 5 and 216 hpm and both vitrified and non-vitrified tissues and the PDT were longer in cartilage cells from vitrified than from non-vitrified tissues. In conclusion, although storage times and vitrification have different effects on tissues from cattle and sheep, this study showed that living cells could be obtained from all groups. Therefore, cartilage and muscle tissues can be stored at 4°C for 216 hpm and used for cyrobanking. PMID:22271151

  6. Temperature estimation with ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Matthew

    Hepatocelluar carcinoma is the fastest growing type of cancer in the United States. In addition, the survival rate after one year is approximately zero without treatment. In many instances, patients with hepatocelluar carcinoma may not be suitable candidates for the primary treatment options, i.e. surgical resection or liver transplantation. This has led to the development of minimally invasive therapies focused on destroying hepatocelluar by thermal or chemical methods. The focus of this dissertation is on the development of ultrasound-based image-guided monitoring options for minimally invasive therapies such as radiofrequency ablation. Ultrasound-based temperature imaging relies on relating the gradient of locally estimated tissue displacements to a temperature change. First, a realistic Finite Element Analysis/ultrasound simulation of ablation was developed. This allowed evaluation of the ability of ultrasound-based temperature estimation algorithms to track temperatures for three different ablation scenarios in the liver. It was found that 2-Dimensional block matching and a 6 second time step was able to accurately track the temperature over a 12 minute ablation procedure. Next, a tissue-mimicking phantom was constructed to determine the accuracy of the temperature estimation method by comparing estimated temperatures to that measured using invasive fiber-optic temperature probes. The 2-Dimensional block matching was able to track the temperature accurately over the entire 8 minute heating procedure in the tissue-mimicking phantom. Finally, two separate in-vivo experiments were performed. The first experiment examined the ability of our algorithm to track frame-to-frame displacements when external motion due to respiration and the cardiac cycle were considered. It was determined that a frame rate between 13 frames per second and 33 frames per second was sufficient to track frame-to-frame displacements between respiratory cycles. The second experiment examined the ability of a novel dynamic frame selection based temperature algorithm to track temperatures during ablation of porcine kidney tissue. Here a novel multi-level 2-Dimensional cross-correlation algorithm was required to accurately track the temperature over an 8 minute ablation procedure.

  7. Identification of major cell types in paraffin sections of bovine tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikael Niku; Anna Ekman; Tiina Pessa-Morikawa; Antti Iivanainen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of cell types in bovine tissue sections is complicated by the limited availability of anti-bovine antibodies, and by antigen retrieval treatments required for formalin-fixed tissue samples. We have evaluated an antibody and lectin panel for identifying major cell types in paraffin-embedded bovine tissue sections, and report optimized pretreatments for these markers. RESULTS: We selected 31 useful antibodies and

  8. Combined ultrasound, optoacoustic, and elasticity imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanislav Y. Emelianov; Salavat R. Aglyamov; J. Shah; S. Sethuraman; W. G. Scott; R. Schmitt; Massoud Motamedi; A. Karpiouk; Alexander A. Oraevsky

    2004-01-01

    Combination of three complementary imaging technologies - ultrasound imaging, elastography, and optoacoustic imaging - is suggested for detection and diagnostics of tissue pathology including cancer. The fusion of these ultrasound-based techniques results in a novel imaging system capable of simultaneous imaging of the anatomy (ultrasound imaging), cancer-induced angiogenesis (optoacoustic imaging) and changes in mechanical properties (elasticity imaging) of tissue to

  9. valuation of the in vivo contrast using fast spin echo MRI sequences between tissues and thermal lesions in rabbit produced by high intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damianou, Christakis; Ioannides, Kleanthis; Hadjisavas, Venediktos; Milonas, Nikos; Couppis, Andreas; Iosif, Demitris

    2010-03-01

    In this paper the goal was to measure the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of fast spin echo (FSE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences in detecting thermal lesions created by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in rabbit kidney, liver, heart, and brain and lamb pancreas. A spherically focused transducer was used which is navigated inside MRI by a custom made positioning device. A simple simulation model was developed which predicts the CNR for the two FSE MRI sequences. The maximum contrast measured with T1-W FSE ranges from 10 to 25. For all 5 tissues of interest if one uses TR between 400 and 500 ms the contrast is maximized. The T1, and T2 value of lesion depends strongly on the host tissue and is always lower than the host tissue. The greater the difference in T1 value, the greater the CNR. The simulated model for predicting the CNR was proven successful. The CNR measured with T2-W FSE varies between 12 and 15 for all 5 tissues. With T2-W FSE if one uses TE between 40 and 50 ms, the contrast is maximized.

  10. Topographical Control of Ocular Cell Types for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Kevin J.; Saint-Geniez, Magali; Tao, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Visual impairment affects over 285 million people worldwide and has a major impact on an individual’s quality of life. Tissue engineering has the potential to increase quality of life for many of these patients by preventing vision loss or restoring vision using cell-based therapies. However, these strategies will require an understanding of the microenvironmental factors that influence cell behavior. The eye is a well-organized organ whose structural complexity is essential for proper function. Interactions between ocular cells and their highly ordered extracellular matrix are necessary for maintaining key tissue properties including corneal transparency and retinal lamination. Therefore, it is not surprising that culturing these cells in vitro on traditional flat substrates result in irregular morphology. Instead, topographically patterned biomaterials better mimic native extracellular matrix and have been shown to elicit in vivo-like morphology and gene expression which is essential for tissue engineering. Herein we review multiple methods for producing well-controlled topography and discuss optimal biomaterial scaffold design for cells of the cornea, retina, and lens. PMID:23744715

  11. The characteristic ultrasound features of specific types of ovarian pathology (review).

    PubMed

    Sayasneh, Ahmad; Ekechi, Christine; Ferrara, Laura; Kaijser, Jeroen; Stalder, Catriona; Sur, Shyamaly; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Characterizing ovarian masses enables patients with malignancy to be appropriately triaged for treatment by subspecialist gynecological oncologists, which has been shown to optimize care and improve survival. Furthermore, correctly classifying benign masses facilitates the selection of patients with ovarian pathology that may either not require intervention, or be suitable for minimal access surgery if intervention is required. However, predicting whether a mass is benign or malignant is not the only clinically relevant information that we need to know before deciding on appropriate treatment. Knowing the specific histology of a mass is becoming of increasing importance as management options become more tailored to the individual patient. For example predicting a mucinous borderline tumor gives the opportunity for fertility sparing surgery, and will highlight the need for further gastrointestinal assessment. For benign disease, predicting the presence of an endometrioma and possible deeply infiltrating endometriosis is important when considering both who should perform and the extent of surgery. An examiner's subjective assessment of the morphological and vascular features of a mass using ultrasonography has been shown to be highly effective for predicting whether a mass is benign or malignant. Many masses also have features that enable a reliable diagnosis of the specific pathology of a particular mass to be made. In this narrative review we aim to describe the typical morphological features seen on ultrasound of different adnexal masses and illustrate these by showing representative ultrasound images. PMID:25406094

  12. The characteristic ultrasound features of specific types of ovarian pathology (Review)

    PubMed Central

    SAYASNEH, AHMAD; EKECHI, CHRISTINE; FERRARA, LAURA; KAIJSER, JEROEN; STALDER, CATRIONA; SUR, SHYAMALY; TIMMERMAN, DIRK; BOURNE, TOM

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing ovarian masses enables patients with malignancy to be appropriately triaged for treatment by subspecialist gynecological oncologists, which has been shown to optimize care and improve survival. Furthermore, correctly classifying benign masses facilitates the selection of patients with ovarian pathology that may either not require intervention, or be suitable for minimal access surgery if intervention is required. However, predicting whether a mass is benign or malignant is not the only clinically relevant information that we need to know before deciding on appropriate treatment. Knowing the specific histology of a mass is becoming of increasing importance as management options become more tailored to the individual patient. For example predicting a mucinous borderline tumor gives the opportunity for fertility sparing surgery, and will highlight the need for further gastrointestinal assessment. For benign disease, predicting the presence of an endometrioma and possible deeply infiltrating endometriosis is important when considering both who should perform and the extent of surgery. An examiner’s subjective assessment of the morphological and vascular features of a mass using ultrasonography has been shown to be highly effective for predicting whether a mass is benign or malignant. Many masses also have features that enable a reliable diagnosis of the specific pathology of a particular mass to be made. In this narrative review we aim to describe the typical morphological features seen on ultrasound of different adnexal masses and illustrate these by showing representative ultrasound images. PMID:25406094

  13. Combination of high-intensity focused ultrasound irradiation and hydroxyapatite nanoparticle injection to injure normal goat liver tissue in vivo without costal bone incision.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Xiao, Z; Xiao, Y; Wang, Z; Li, F; Li, M; Peng, X

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the in vivo safety of intravenous nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA), to explore how nano-HA might influence the effects of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on normal liver tissue, and to investigate whether intravenous nano-HA could enhance HIFU for hepatocellular carcinoma ablation in a goat model. The present study, for the first time, indicated that the delivery of abundant nano-HA into the body over short periods of time could be assembled by the hepatic reticuloendothelial system, subsequently leading to a rapid rise of ultrasound-induced overheating, and ultimately resulting in enlargement of the coagulation necrotic area for ablated hepatocellular carcinoma in goats both in vivo and ex vivo. On the other hand, therapeutic doses of nano-HA were much lower than the lethal dose, and consequently presented transient and mild abnormalities of hepatic enzymes and renal function during the first 24 h after nano-HA injection. These results suggested that the combined application of nano-HA and HIFU is potentially a more effective alternative option compared to surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma local ablation in a safe and feasible manner. PMID:25366724

  14. Investigation and Assessment of Disorder of Ultrasound B-mode Images

    E-print Network

    Rawat, Vidhi; shrimali, Vibhakar

    2010-01-01

    Digital image plays a vital role in the early detection of cancers, such as prostate cancer, breast cancer, lungs cancer, cervical cancer. Ultrasound imaging method is also suitable for early detection of the abnormality of fetus. The accurate detection of region of interest in ultrasound image is crucial. Since the result of reflection, refraction and deflection of ultrasound waves from different types of tissues with different acoustic impedance. Usually, the contrast in ultrasound image is very low and weak edges make the image difficult to identify the fetus region in the ultrasound image. So the analysis of ultrasound image is more challenging one. We try to develop a new algorithmic approach to solve the problem of non clarity and find disorder of it. Generally there is no common enhancement approach for noise reduction. This paper proposes different filtering techniques based on statistical methods for the removal of various noise. The quality of the enhanced images is measured by the statistical quant...

  15. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and Infrared Fiber Optic Probe Spectroscopy Identify Collagen Type in Connective Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hanifi, Arash; McCarthy, Helen; Roberts, Sally; Pleshko, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types) to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in connective tissues, using both imaging and fiber optic methodology. This has great potential for clinical in situ applications for monitoring tissue repair. PMID:23717662

  16. Scrotal Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  18. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  19. Hip Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  20. Carotid Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Ultrasound? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) ultrasound is a painless and harmless test that uses ... to your face, scalp, and neck. Overview Carotid ultrasound shows whether a waxy substance called plaque (plak) ...

  1. Towards a dosimetric framework for therapeutic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Adam; Ter Haar, Gail; Haller, Julian; Wilkens, Volker

    2015-03-01

    There is a need for a coherent set of exposure and dose quantities to describe ultrasound fields in media other than water (including tissue and tissue-simulating materials). This paper proposes an outline dosimetry scheme, with quantities for free field exposure, in situ exposure, dose (both instantaneous and cumulative) and effect, to act as a structure for organising a more complete set of definitions. It also presents findings from a survey of the views of the therapeutic ultrasound community which generally supports the principle of using modified free field quantities to describe the in situ field, and the prioritising of dose quantities which are related to heating and thermal mechanisms. Although there is no one-to-one relationship between any known ultrasound dose quantity and a specific biological effect, this can also be said of radiotherapy and other modalities where weighting factors have been developed to calculate the degree of equivalence between different tissues and radiation types. This same separation is recommended for ultrasound, provided that an appropriate set of recognised 'engineering' quantities can be established for exposure and dose quantities. PMID:25774889

  2. Section-thickness profiling for brachytherapy ultrasound guidance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Peikari; Thomas K. Chen; Everette C. Burdette; Gabor Fichtinger

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound (US) elevation beamwidth causes a certain type of image artifact around the anechoic areas of the tissue. It is generally assumed that the US image is of zero thickness, which contradicts the fact that the acoustic beam can only be mechanically focused at a depth resulting in a finite, non-uniformed elevation beamwidth. We suspect that elevation beamwidth artifacts

  3. Animal model for evaluation of soft tissue ingrowth into various types of porous coating.

    PubMed

    Freels, Douglas B; Kilpatrick, Scott; Gordon, E Stanley; Ward, William G

    2002-04-01

    Results from several studies have suggested that soft tissue ingrowth into porous coating can serve as a biologic containment mechanism to prevent particulate debris migration by sealing off the effective joint space. Therefore, a rabbit animal model was developed to investigate soft tissue ingrowth into various types of metallic rods. After implantation of several types of coated and smooth rods within the thigh musculature of rabbits, a thick encapsulation of soft tissue was observed around porous-coated rods whereas a nonadherent pseudosynovial-lined cavity was observed around smooth rods. Within 3 weeks, soft tissue had grown into the three different types of porous coating on the rods. Histologic evaluation verified that maturation of this ingrowth tissue occurred by 12 weeks. Incomplete soft tissue ingrowth occurred into the depths of large-bead (590-840 mm) porous-coated surfaces. Soft tissue separation from the bead surfaces was observed at 12 weeks in the porous-coated implants that also had been coated with a thin layer of tricalcium phosphate. These findings suggest that soft tissue ingrowth can be expected to occur into the porous coatings tested, but that tricalcium phosphate should not be used as an additional surface coating to obtain long-term adherence of circumferential soft tissue ingrowth. PMID:11953623

  4. Towards enabling ultrasound guidance in cervical cancer high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Adrian; Sojoudia, Samira; Gaudet, Marc; Yap, Wan Wan; Chang, Silvia D.; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Aquino-Parsons, Christina; Moradi, Mehdi

    2014-03-01

    MRI and Computed Tomography (CT) are used in image-based solutions for guiding High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment of cervical cancer. MRI is costly and CT exposes the patients to ionizing radiation. Ultrasound, on the other hand, is affordable and safe. The long-term goal of our work is to enable the use of multiparametric ultrasound imaging in image-guided HDR for cervical cancer. In this paper, we report the development of enabling technology for ultrasound guidance and tissue typing. We report a system to obtain the 3D freehand transabdominal ultrasound RF signals and B-mode images of the uterus, and a method for registration of ultrasound to MRI. MRI and 3D ultrasound images of the female pelvis were registered by contouring the uterus in the two modalities, creating a surface model, followed by rigid and B-spline deformable registration. The resulting transformation was used to map the location of the tumor from the T2-weighted MRI to ultrasound images and to determine cancerous and normal areas in ultrasound. B-mode images show a contrast for cancer vs. normal tissue. Our study shows the potential and the challenges of ultrasound imaging in guiding cervical cancer treatments.

  5. Current time-domain methods for assessing tissue motion by analysis from reflected ultrasound echoes-a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Hein

    1993-01-01

    The Doppler technique has traditionally been the method used to extract motion information from ultrasonic echoes reflected by moving tissues. The Doppler technique has been around for a long time, and has been extensively reviewed and analyzed in the literature. Recently, time-domain methodologies for estimating tissue motion have gained in popularity. Time-domain methods have advantages over Doppler methods in many

  6. Analyzing Gene Expression from Whole Tissue vs. Different Cell Types Reveals the Central Role of Neurons

    E-print Network

    Ruppin, Eytan

    . Here we analyze gene expression from neurons, astrocytes and whole tissues across different brain find that predictions based on neuronal gene expression are significantly more accurate than thoseAnalyzing Gene Expression from Whole Tissue vs. Different Cell Types Reveals the Central Role

  7. Ultrasound—biophysics mechanisms†

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasonic biophysics is the study of mechanisms responsible for how ultrasound and biological materials interact. Ultrasound-induced bioeffect or risk studies focus on issues related to the effects of ultrasound on biological materials. On the other hand, when biological materials affect the ultrasonic wave, this can be viewed as the basis for diagnostic ultrasound. Thus, an understanding of the interaction of ultrasound with tissue provides the scientific basis for image production and risk assessment. Relative to the bioeffect or risk studies, that is, the biophysical mechanisms by which ultrasound affects biological materials, ultrasound-induced bioeffects are generally separated into thermal and nonthermal mechanisms. Ultrasonic dosimetry is concerned with the quantitative determination of ultrasonic energy interaction with biological materials. Whenever ultrasonic energy is propagated into an attenuating material such as tissue, the amplitude of the wave decreases with distance. This attenuation is due to either absorption or scattering. Absorption is a mechanism that represents that portion of ultrasonic wave that is converted into heat, and scattering can be thought of as that portion of the wave, which changes direction. Because the medium can absorb energy to produce heat, a temperature rise may occur as long as the rate of heat production is greater than the rate of heat removal. Current interest with thermally mediated ultrasound-induced bioeffects has focused on the thermal isoeffect concept. The non-thermal mechanism that has received the most attention is acoustically generated cavitation wherein ultrasonic energy by cavitation bubbles is concentrated. Acoustic cavitation, in a broad sense, refers to ultrasonically induced bubble activity occurring in a biological material that contains pre-existing gaseous inclusions. Cavitation-related mechanisms include radiation force, microstreaming, shock waves, free radicals, microjets and strain. It is more challenging to deduce the causes of mechanical effects in tissues that do not contain gas bodies. These ultrasonic biophysics mechanisms will be discussed in the context of diagnostic ultrasound exposure risk concerns. PMID:16934858

  8. 21 CFR 1271.85 - What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? 1271.85 Section 1271...THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? (a) All donors....

  9. 21 CFR 1271.85 - What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? 1271.85 Section 1271...THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? (a) All donors...

  10. 21 CFR 1271.85 - What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? 1271.85 Section 1271...THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? (a) All donors...

  11. 21 CFR 1271.85 - What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? 1271.85 Section 1271...THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? (a) All donors...

  12. 21 CFR 1271.85 - What donor testing is required for different types of cells and tissues?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? 1271.85 Section 1271...THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED...testing is required for different types of cells and tissues? (a) All donors...

  13. Tissue transglutaminase regulates chondrogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells on collagen type XI matrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shobana Shanmugasundaram; Sheila Logan-Mauney; Kaitlin Burgos; Maria Nurminskaya

    Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a multifunctional enzyme with a plethora of potential applications in regenerative medicine\\u000a and tissue bioengineering. In this study, we examined the role of tTG as a regulator of chondrogenesis in human mesenchymal\\u000a stem cells (MSC) using nanofibrous scaffolds coated with collagen type XI. Transient treatment of collagen type XI films and\\u000a 3D scaffolds with tTG results

  14. In the past our group has shown that the ultrasound power backscattered from subvolumes of in vitro tissue preparations is

    E-print Network

    Arthur, R. Martin

    this hypothesis in living perfused tissue. The animal system consisted of nude mice with implanted. Trobaugh, and R.M. Arthur Supported by NIH grant R21-CA90531 Current Experimental Setup ï Nude Mice

  15. An In Vivo Study of the Effects on Serum Glucose, Amylase and Histopathology of the Feline Pancreatic Tissue Treated by Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chongyan; Wang, Zhibiao; Wu, Junru; Bai, Jin; Li, Faqi

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most malignant neoplasms originating in the digestive system. Focused ultrasound (FUS) treatment instead of the surgery operation has been used to treat Pancreatic cancer noninvasively in clinical trials. The endocrine and exocrine glands in pancreas provide the two unique functions for a person to be healthy. It is critically important to find out if the FUS treatment can still keep the normal functions of the two glands. The goal of this study is to examine and analyze changes in histopathology and serum glucose and amylase levels of the targeted in-vivo felines after the FUS treatment. Various percentage volumes of pancreas of felines were insonified. The FUS treatment (7.5 MHz of central frequency; 5 W of acoustical power; transducer f-number ?=?0.33; 6 s insonification time per point) effectively generated coagulative necrosis at the insonified site while leaving tissue outside the insonified site intact. It was also observed that all felines endured well with the FUS treatment; changes introduced to pancreatic tissue after up to 50% of a pancreas by volume was insonified by the FUS procedure did not affect its normal endocrine and exocrine functions. PMID:24558434

  16. Characterization of ultrasound-potentiated fibrinolysis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Blinc, A; Francis, C W; Trudnowski, J L; Carstensen, E L

    1993-05-15

    We have characterized the effects of ultrasound on fibrinolysis in vitro to investigate the mechanism of ultrasonic potentiation of fibrinolysis and to identify potentially useful ultrasound parameters for therapeutic application. Radiolabeled clots in thin walled tubes were exposed to ultrasound fields in a water bath at 37 degrees C, and lysis was measured by solubilization of radiolabel. Ultrasound accelerated lysis of plasma, whole blood, and purified fibrin clots mediated by recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), urokinase, or streptokinase, but ultrasound by itself caused no clot solubilization. The degree of ultrasonic potentiation was dependent on plasminogen activator concentration, increasing from 2.2-fold at a streptokinase concentration of 75 U/mL to 5.5-fold at 250 U/mL in a 1 MHz ultrasound field at 4 W/cm2. Ultrasound exposure resulted in heating due to absorption by the plastic tube, but the temperature increase was insufficient to account for the increase in clot lysis rate, indicating that the primary effect was nonthermal. Ultrasound did not accelerate hydrolysis of a peptide substrate by rt-PA and did not alter the rate of plasmic degradation of fibrinogen, indicating that the augmentation of enzymatic fibrinolysis required the presence of a fibrin gel. The acceleration of fibrinolysis by ultrasound was greater at higher intensities and duty cycles and was maximum at frequencies between 1 and 2.2 MHz, but decreased at 3.4 MHz. These findings suggest that ultrasound accelerates enzymatic fibrinolysis by increasing transport of reactants through a cavitation-related mechanism. PMID:8490172

  17. Circulating tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Simpson; N. A. Booth; N. R. Moore; S. J. Lewis; R. S. Gray

    1999-01-01

    Several haemostatic abnormalities are associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. While abnormalities in plasma fibrinolytic\\u000a activity have been described in diabetic retinopathy, platelets (a rich source of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1,\\u000a PAI-1) have received little attention. As a result, little is known about the fibrinolytic potential of circulating whole\\u000a blood in diabetic retinopathy. The concentrations of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA)

  18. Towards automatic interpretation of sheep ultrasound scans

    E-print Network

    Stone, J. V.

    Towards automatic interpretation of sheep ultrasound scans C.A. Glasbey Scottish Agricultural and within individuals. Hence, this study investigated the automatic interpretation of ultrasound scans from of the speed of transmission of ultrasound across the body, and the fat content of the tissue through which

  19. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous delivery of tissue-engineered endothelial cells to the adventitia of stented arteries controls the response to vascular injury in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Helen M.; Ng, Yin-Shan; White, Desmond; Groothius, Adam; Kanner, Glenn; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective High restenosis rates are a limitation of peripheral vascular interventions. Previous studies have shown that surgical implantation of a tissue-engineered endothelium onto the adventitia surface of injured vessels regulates vascular repair. In the present study, we developed a particulate formulation of tissue-engineered endothelium and a method to deliver the formulation perivascular to injured blood vessels using a percutaneous, minimally invasive technique. Methods Stainless steel stents were implanted in 18 balloon-injured femoral arteries of nine domestic swine, followed by ultrasound-guided percutaneous perivascular injection of gelatin particles containing cultured allogeneic porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAE). Controls received injections of empty particles (matrix) or no perivascular injection (sham) after stent deployment. Animals were sacrificed after 90 days. Results Angiographic analysis revealed a significantly greater lumen diameter in the stented segments of arteries treated with PAE/matrix (4.72 ± 0.12 mm) compared with matrix (4.01 ± 0.20 mm) or sham (4.03 ± 0.16 mm) controls (P< .05). Similarly, histologic analysis revealed that PAE/matrix-treated arteries had the greatest lumen area(20.4 ± 0.7 mm2; P< .05) compared with controls (16.1 ± 0.9 mm2 and 17.1 ±1.0 mm2 for sham and matrix controls, respectively) and the smallest intimal area (3.3 ± 0.4 mm2; P < .05) compared with controls (6.2 ±0.5 mm2 and 4.4 ±0.5 mm2 for sham and matrix controls, respectively). Overall, PAE-treated arteries had a 33% to 50% decrease in percent occlusion (P < .05) compared with controls. Histopathological analysis revealed fewer leukocytes present in the intima in the PAE/matrix group compared with control groups, suggesting that the biological effects were in part due to inhibition of the inflammatory phase of the vascular response to injury. Conclusions Minimally invasive, perivascular delivery of PAE/matrix to stented arteries was performed safely using ultrasound-guided percutaneous injections and significantly decreased stenosis. Application at the time of or subsequent to peripheral interventions may decrease clinical restenosis rates. PMID:22796118

  20. Conformal thermal therapy using planar ultrasound transducers and adaptive closed-loop MR temperature control: demonstration in gel phantoms and ex vivo tissues.

    PubMed

    Tang, K; Choy, V; Chopra, R; Bronskill, M J

    2007-05-21

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy offers a minimally invasive approach for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Integrating a multi-element planar transducer with active MR temperature feedback can enable three-dimensional conformal thermal therapy of a target region within the prostate gland while sparing surrounding normal tissues. Continuous measurement of the temperature distribution in tissue enables dynamic compensation for unknown changes in blood flow and tissue properties during treatment. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using active temperature feedback on a clinical 1.5 T MR imager for conformal thermal therapy. MR thermometry was performed during heating in both gel phantoms and excised tissue with a transurethral heating applicator, and the rotation rate and power were varied based on the thermal measurements. The capability to produce a region of thermal damage that matched a target boundary was evaluated. The influence of a cooling gradient (to simulate cooling of the rectum or urethra) on the desired pattern of thermal damage was also investigated in gel phantoms. Results showed high correlation between the desired target boundary and the 55 degrees C isotherm generated during heating with an average distance error of 0.9 mm +/- 0.4 mm (n = 6) in turkey breasts, 1.4 mm +/- 0.6 mm (n = 4) in gel phantoms without rectal cooling and 1.4 mm +/- 0.6 mm (n = 3) in gel phantoms with rectal cooling. The results were obtained using a temporal update rate of 5 s, a spatial resolution of 3 x 3 x 10 mm for the control point, and a temperature uncertainty of approximately 1 degrees C. The performance of the control algorithm under these conditions was comparable to that of simulations conducted previously by our group. Overall, the feasibility of generating targeted regions of thermal damage with a transurethral heating applicator and active MR temperature feedback has been demonstrated experimentally. This method of treatment appears capable of accounting for unpredictable and varying tissue properties during the treatment. PMID:17473359

  1. Use of Romanowsky type (Diff3) stain for detecting Helicobacter pylori in smears and tissue sections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A M Zaitoun

    1992-01-01

    A Romanowsky type (Diff-3) stain was used for identifying Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy specimens from 50 patients with ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia. Air dried smears were prepared from fresh biopsy tissue and histological sections were prepared from paraffin wax processed tissue. The Diff-3 technique is accomplished in five steps and takes about 30 seconds. Results using the Diff-3 stain

  2. The Role of Adipose Tissue and Lipotoxicity in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Cusi

    2010-01-01

    The widespread epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) suggest that both conditions are closely linked. An\\u000a increasing body of evidence has shifted our view of adipose tissue from a passive energy depot to a dynamic “endocrine organ”\\u000a that tightly regulates nutritional balance by means of a complex crosstalk of adipocytes with their microenvironment. Dysfunctional\\u000a adipose tissue, particularly

  3. Improved cardiac motion detection from ultrasound images using TDIOF: a combined B-mode/ tissue Doppler approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Vahid; Stoddard, Marcus F.; Amini, Amir A.

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative motion analysis of echocardiographic images helps clinicians with the diagnosis and therapy of patients suffering from cardiac disease. Quantitative analysis is usually based on TDI (Tissue Doppler Imaging) or speckle tracking. These methods are based on two independent techniques - the Doppler Effect and image registration, respectively. In order to increase the accuracy of the speckle tracking technique and cope with the angle dependency of TDI, herein, a combined approach dubbed TDIOF (Tissue Doppler Imaging Optical Flow) is proposed. TDIOF is formulated based on the combination of B-mode and Doppler energy terms in an optical flow framework and minimized using algebraic equations. In this paper, we report on validations with simulated, physical cardiac phantom, and in-vivo patient data. It is shown that the additional Doppler term is able to increase the accuracy of speckle tracking, the basis for several commercially available echocardiography analysis techniques.

  4. Ultrasound Techniques for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, James A.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasound has proven to be a safe non-invasive technique for imaging organs and measuring cardiovascular function. It has unique advantages for application to problems with man in space including evaluation of cardiovascular function both in serial studies and during critical operations. In addition, specialized instrumentation may be capable of detecting the onset of decompression sickness during EVA activities. A spatial location and three-dimensional reconstruction system is being developed to improve the accuracy and reproducibility for serial comparative ultrasound studies of cardiovascular function. The three-dimensional method permits the acquisition of ultrasonic images from many views that can be recombined into a single reconstruction of the heart or vasculature. In addition to conventional imaging and monitoring systems, it is sometimes necessary or desirable to develop instrumentation for special purposes. One example of this type of development is the design of a pulsed-Doppler system to monitor cerebral blood flow during critical operations such as re-entry. A second example is the design of a swept-frequency ultrasound system for the detection of bubbles in the circulatory system and/or soft tissues as an early indication of the onset of decompression sickness during EVA activities. This system exploits the resonant properties of bubbles and can detect both fundamental and second harmonic emissions from the insonified region.

  5. Expression of tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators as well as plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and type-2 in human and rhesus monkey placenta

    PubMed Central

    HU, ZHAO-YUAN; LIU, YI-XUN; LIU, KUI; BYRNE, SIMON; NY, TOR; FENG, QIANG; OCKLEFORD, COLIN D.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of mRNAs and antigens of tissue type (t) and urokinase type (u) plasminogen activators (PA) plus their corresponding inhibitors, type-1 (PAI-1) and type-2 (PAI-2) were studied in human and rhesus monkey placentae by in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry. Specific monkey cRNA and antibodies against human tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 were used as probes. The following results were obtained. (1) All the molecules tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 and their mRNAs were identified in the majority of the extravillous cytotrophoblast cells of the decidual layer between Rohr's and Nitabuch's striae and in cytotrophoblast cells of the chorionic plate, basal plate, intercotyledonary septae and cytotrophoblast cells of the chorionic villous tree. (2) Expression of uPA and PAI-2 was noted in villous trophoblast whereas tPA and PAI-1 were mainly concentrated where detachment from maternal tissue occurs. (3) No expression of tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 was observed in the basal plate endometrial stromal cells, chorionic plate connective tissue cells, septal endometrial stromal cells or villous core mesenchyme. (4) The distribution of probes observed following in situ hybridisation is generally consistent with the immunofluorescence pattern of the corresponding antigens and no significant interspecies differences were noted. It is possible that both decidual and extravillous trophoblast cells of placentae of human and rhesus monkey are capable of producing tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 to differing extents. Coordinated expression of these genes in the tissue may play an essential role in the maintenance of normal placentation and parturition. The differences in distribution we observed are consistent with the suggestion that coordinated expression of tPA and its inhibitor PAI-1 may play a key role in fibrinolytic activity in the early stages of placentation and separation of placenta from maternal tissue at term. On the other hand, uPA with its inhibitor PAI-2 appears mainly to play a role in degradation of trophoblast cell-associated extracellular matrix, and thus may be of greatest importance during early stages of placentation. PMID:10337950

  6. Assessment of ultrasound-assisted extraction as sample pre-treatment for the measurement of lead isotope ratios in marine biological tissues by multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costas-Rodríguez, M.; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    In this work, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was evaluated as a sample preparation procedure for lead isotope ratio measurements in marine biological tissues by multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 20 mg of marine biological tissue and 1 mL of acid extractant were sonicated for 3 min at 60% ultrasound amplitude. Matrix separation was performed in the supernatant using a chromatographic exchange resin (Sr-Spec™). Total elimination of organic matter was achieved during the separation step. Microwave-assisted digestion and dry-ashing were used for comparative purposes. No significant differences were found in lead isotope ratios at 95% of confidence level. UAE emerges as an advantageous alternative to classical methods for sample preparation owing to its simplicity and rapidity ( i.e. operation steps were reduced), low reagent consumption and low contamination risks.

  7. Type-1 pericytes participate in fibrous tissue deposition in aged skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Mintz, Akiva

    2013-01-01

    In older adults, changes in skeletal muscle composition are associated with increased fibrosis, loss of mass, and decreased force, which can lead to dependency, morbidity, and mortality. Understanding the biological mechanisms responsible is essential to sustaining and improving their quality of life. Compared with young mice, aged mice take longer to recover from muscle injury; their tissue fibrosis is more extensive, and regenerated myofibers are smaller. Strong evidence indicates that cells called pericytes, embedded in the basement membrane of capillaries, contribute to the satellite-cell pool and muscle growth. In addition to their role in skeletal muscle repair, after tissue damage, they detach from capillaries and migrate to the interstitial space to participate in fibrosis formation. Here we distinguish two bona fide pericyte subtypes in the skeletal muscle interstitium, type-1 (Nestin-GFP?/NG2-DsRed+) and type-2 (Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+), and characterize their heretofore unknown specific roles in the aging environment. Our in vitro results show that type-1 and type-2 pericytes are either fibrogenic or myogenic, respectively. Transplantation studies in young animals indicate that type-2 pericytes are myogenic, while type-1 pericytes remain in the interstitial space. In older mice, however, the muscular regenerative capacity of type-2 pericytes is limited, and type-1 pericytes produce collagen, contributing to fibrous tissue deposition. We conclude that in injured muscles from aging mice, the pericytes involved in skeletal muscle repair differ from those associated with scar formation. PMID:24067916

  8. Prenatal Cardiac Ultrasound Finding in Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type 1a

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Malhotra; A. Pateman; R. Chalmers; D. Coman; S. Menahem

    2009-01-01

    We present the antenatal cardiac findings in an infant in whom a postnatal diagnosis of congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia (CDG-Ia) was confirmed. The antenatal findings at 34 weeks’ gestation included biventricular cardiac hypertrophy with pericardial effusion, multiple skeletal anomalies and cerebral ventricular dilatation. A severe CDG-Ia multisystem clinical phenotype evolved in the postnatal period, with the infant succumbing

  9. Intravascular Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) or intravascular echocardiography is a combination of echocardiography and a procedure called cardiac catheterization . IVUS uses ... IVUS uses high-frequency sound waves (also called ultrasound) that can provide a moving picture of your ...

  10. Ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by disposable pipette purification for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in small-size biological tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Pena-Abaurrea, M; García de la Torre, V S; Ramos, L

    2013-11-22

    The use of solid-phase extraction pipette tip (also called disposable pipette extraction, DPX) has been evaluated for the purification of environmentally relevant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fatty extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction with a sonication probe from small-size biological tissues. Complete sample treatment involved only 50 mg of sample and was completed in ca. 15 min with minimal sample manipulation and reagents consumption (i.e., 1.5 mL of n-hexane and 0.8 g of acidic silica). The performance of the proposed methodology for the intended determination was firstly evaluated by determination of the endogenous PCB levels in a naturally contaminated internal reference material. The determined concentrations showed a good agreement with those obtained using a more conventional sample preparation procedure previously validated in our laboratory (recoveries, as compared to levels determined using the latter method, were in the 85-123% range for a large majority of the studied congeners, and the relative standard deviations were in general lower than 14%). Results obtained for the analysis of reference food samples and certified reference materials NIST 1945 and 1947 demonstrated that, when combined with gas chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry working in the tandem mode, GC-ITD(MS/MS), the proposed methodology allowed accurate determination of most of the investigated PCBs and that 50 mg of sample sufficed for the screening of less abundant toxic congeners. PMID:23885664

  11. Comparative study of the topical application of Aloe vera gel, therapeutic ultrasound and phonophoresis on the tissue repair in collagenase-induced rat tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Maia Filho, Antonio Luiz Martins; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin; Munin, Egberto; Aimbire, Flávio; Albertini, Regiane

    2010-10-01

    The aim of our study was to compare topical use of Aloe vera gel, pulsed mode ultrasound (US) and Aloe vera phonophoresis on rat paw with collagenase-induced tendinitis. Edema size, tensile tendon strength, tendon elasticity, number of inflammatory cells and tissue histology were studied at 7 and 14 days after tendinitis induction. Pulse mode US parameters were: 1 MHz frequency, 100 Hz repetition rate, 10% duty cycle, and 0.5 W/cm(2) intensity, applied for 2 min each session. A 0.5 mL of Aloe vera gel at 2% concentration was applied for 2 min per session, topically and by phonophoresis. Topical application of Aloe vera gel did not show any statistically significant improvement in the inflammatory process, whereas phonophoresis enhanced the gel action reducing edema and number of inflammatory cells, promoting the rearrangement of collagen fibers and promoting also the recovery of the tensile strength and elasticity of the inflamed tendon to recover their normal pre-injury status. Results seem to indicate that Aloe vera phonophoresis is a promising technique for tendinitis treatment, without the adverse effect provoked by systemic anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:20800944

  12. healthcare.utah.edu/radiology What is Ultrasound?

    E-print Network

    Feschotte, Cedric

    healthcare.utah.edu/radiology Radiology What is Ultrasound? Ultrasound is a diagnostic medical, prostate, heart, and blood vessels. Sonographers, or ultrasound specialists, use sound waves to obtain images of organs and tissues in the body. During an ultrasound examination, the sonographer places

  13. Ultrasound (Sonography)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) produce this website which provides information on 15 varieties of sonography including hysterosonography, obstetric ultrasound, and thyroid ultrasound. Sections on each variety of ultrasound provide information on common uses of the procedure, equipment, procedure results & interpretation, benefits and risks, and limitations. This is a great resource for instructors of courses related to diagnostic medical sonography and for the aspiring sonographer or ultrasound technician.

  14. Studies of Bone Density, Quantitative Ultrasound, and Vertebral Fractures in Relation to Collagen Type I Alpha 1 Alleles in Elderly Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. U. Ashford; M. Luchetti; E. V. McCloskey; R. L. Gray; K. C. Pande; A. Dey; K. Kayan; S. H. Ralston; J. A. Kanis

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that an Sp1 binding site polymorphism in the collagen type I gene (COLIA1) is related to reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fractures in certain populations, particularly in the elderly. We have examined the relationship among these COLIA1 Sp1 alleles, BMD, quantitative ultrasound properties of bone, and fractures in a population-based cohort of elderly women

  15. Controlling collagen fiber microstructure in three-dimensional hydrogels using ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Kelley A.; VanderBurgh, Jacob; Hocking, Denise C.; Dalecki, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Type I collagen is the primary fibrillar component of the extracellular matrix, and functional properties of collagen arise from variations in fiber structure. This study investigated the ability of ultrasound to control collagen microstructure during hydrogel fabrication. Under appropriate conditions, ultrasound exposure of type I collagen during polymerization altered fiber microstructure. Scanning electron microscopy and second-harmonic generation microscopy revealed decreased collagen fiber diameters in response to ultrasound compared to sham-exposed samples. Results of mechanistic investigations were consistent with a thermal mechanism for the effects of ultrasound on collagen fiber structure. To control collagen microstructure site-specifically, a high frequency, 8.3-MHz, ultrasound beam was directed within the center of a large collagen sample producing dense networks of short, thin collagen fibrils within the central core of the gel and longer, thicker fibers outside the beam area. Fibroblasts seeded onto these gels migrated rapidly into small, circularly arranged aggregates only within the beam area, and clustered fibroblasts remodeled the central, ultrasound-exposed collagen fibrils into dense sheets. These investigations demonstrate the capability of ultrasound to spatially pattern various collagen microstructures within an engineered tissue noninvasively, thus enhancing the level of complexity of extracellular matrix microenvironments and cellular functions achievable within three-dimensional engineered tissues. PMID:23927189

  16. The future perspectives in transrectal prostate ultrasound guided biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung II; Lee, Hak Jong

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common neoplasms in men. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided systematic biopsy has a crucial role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, it shows limited value with gray-scale ultrasound alone because only a small number of malignancies are visible on TRUS. Recently, new emerging technologies in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were introduced and showed high potential in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. High echogenicity of ultrasound contrast agent reflect the increased status of angiogenesis in tumor. Molecular imaging for targeting specific biomarker can be also used using ultrasound contrast agent for detecting angiogenesis or surface biomarker of prostate cancer. The combination of TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and ultrasound contrast agents can increase the accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis. Elastography is an emerging ultrasound technique that can provide the information regarding tissue elasticity and stiffness. Tumors are usually stiffer than the surrounding soft tissue. In two types of elastography techniques, shearwave elastography has many potential in that it can provide quantitative information on tissue elasticity. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from high resolution morphologic and functional magnetic resonance (MR) technique enables to detect more prostate cancers. The combination of functional techniques including apparent diffusion coefficient map from diffusion weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced MR and MR spectroscopy are helpful in the localization of the prostate cancer. MR-ultrasound (US) fusion image can enhance the advantages of both two modalities. With MR-US fusion image, targeted biopsy of suspicious areas on MRI is possible and fusion image guided biopsy can provide improved detection rate. In conclusion, with recent advances in multiparametric-MRI, and introduction of new US techniques such as contrast-enhanced US and elastography, TRUS-guided biopsy may evolve toward targeted biopsies rather than systematic biopsy for getting information reflecting the exact status of the prostate. PMID:25599070

  17. Cell-type-specific isolation of ribosome-associated mRNA from complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Elisenda; Yang, Linghai; Su, Thomas; Morris, David R; McKnight, G Stanley; Amieux, Paul S

    2009-08-18

    Gene profiling techniques allow the assay of transcripts from organs, tissues, and cells with an unprecedented level of coverage. However, most of these approaches are still limited by the fact that organs and tissues are composed of multiple cell types that are each unique in their patterns of gene expression. To identify the transcriptome from a single cell type in a complex tissue, investigators have relied upon physical methods to separate cell types or in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Here, we describe a strategy to rapidly and efficiently isolate ribosome-associated mRNA transcripts from any cell type in vivo. We have created a mouse line, called RiboTag, which carries an Rpl22 allele with a floxed wild-type C-terminal exon followed by an identical C-terminal exon that has three copies of the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope inserted before the stop codon. When the RiboTag mouse is crossed to a cell-type-specific Cre recombinase-expressing mouse, Cre recombinase activates the expression of epitope-tagged ribosomal protein RPL22(HA), which is incorporated into actively translating polyribosomes. Immunoprecipitation of polysomes with a monoclonal antibody against HA yields ribosome-associated mRNA transcripts from specific cell types. We demonstrate the application of this technique in brain using neuron-specific Cre recombinase-expressing mice and in testis using a Sertoli cell Cre recombinase-expressing mouse. PMID:19666516

  18. Using Data Fusion to Characterize Breast Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Littrup, P; Duric, N; Leach, R R; Azevedo, S G; Candy, J V; Moore, T; Chambers, D H; Mast, J E; Johnson, S A; Holsapple, E

    2002-01-23

    New ultrasound data, obtained with a circular experimental scanner, are compared with data obtained with standard X-ray CT. Ultrasound data obtained by scanning fixed breast tissue were used to generate images of sound speed and reflectivity. The ultrasound images exhibit approximately 1 mm resolution and about 20 dB of dynamic range. All data were obtained in a circular geometry. X-ray CT scans were used to generate X-ray images corresponding to the same 'slices' obtained with the ultrasound scanner. The good match of sensitivity, resolution and angular coverage between the ultrasound and X-ray data makes possible a direct comparison of the three types of images. We present the results of such a comparison for an excised breast fixed in formalin. The results are presented visually using various types of data fusion. A general correspondence between the sound speed, reflectivity and X-ray morphologies is found. The degree to which data fusion can help characterize tissue is assessed by examining the quantitative correlations between the ultrasound and X-ray images.

  19. Posttranslational Modifications in Type I Collagen from Different Tissues Extracted from Wild Type and Prolyl 3-Hydroxylase 1 Null Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Pokidysheva, Elena; Zientek, Keith D.; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Kazunori; Vranka, Janice A.; Montgomery, Nathan T.; Keene, Douglas R.; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Okuyama, Kenji; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2013-01-01

    Type I collagen extracted from tendon, skin, and bone of wild type and prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1) null mice shows distinct patterns of 3-hydroxylation and glycosylation of hydroxylysine residues. The A1 site (Pro-986) in the ?1-chain of type I collagen is almost completely 3-hydroxylated in every tissue of the wild type mice. In contrast, no 3-hydroxylation of this proline residue was found in P3H1 null mice. Partial 3-hydroxylation of the A3 site (Pro-707) was present in tendon and bone, but absent in skin in both ?-chains of the wild type animals. Type I collagen extracted from bone of P3H1 null mice shows a large reduction in 3-hydroxylation of the A3 site in both ?-chains, whereas type I collagen extracted from tendon of P3H1 null mice shows little difference as compared with wild type. These results demonstrate that the A1 site in type I collagen is exclusively 3-hydroxylated by P3H1, and presumably, this enzyme is required for the 3-hydroxylation of the A3 site of both ?-chains in bone but not in tendon. The increase in glycosylation of hydroxylysine in P3H1 null mice in bone was found to be due to an increased occupancy of normally glycosylated sites. Despite the severe disorganization of collagen fibrils in adult tissues, the D-period of the fibrils is unchanged. Tendon fibrils of newborn P3H1 null mice are well organized with only a slight increase in diameter. The absence of 3-hydroxyproline and/or the increased glycosylation of hydroxylysine in type I collagen disturbs the lateral growth of the fibrils. PMID:23861401

  20. Combined ultrasound and MR imaging to guide focused ultrasound therapies in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvanitis, Costas D.; Livingstone, Margaret S.; McDannold, Nathan

    2013-07-01

    Several emerging therapies with potential for use in the brain, harness effects produced by acoustic cavitation—the interaction between ultrasound and microbubbles either generated during sonication or introduced into the vasculature. Systems developed for transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thermal ablation can enable their clinical translation, but methods for real-time monitoring and control are currently lacking. Acoustic emissions produced during sonication can provide information about the location, strength and type of the microbubble oscillations within the ultrasound field, and they can be mapped in real-time using passive imaging approaches. Here, we tested whether such mapping can be achieved transcranially within a clinical brain MRgFUS system. We integrated an ultrasound imaging array into the hemisphere transducer of the MRgFUS device. Passive cavitation maps were obtained during sonications combined with a circulating microbubble agent at 20 targets in the cingulate cortex in three macaques. The maps were compared with MRI-evident tissue effects. The system successfully mapped microbubble activity during both stable and inertial cavitation, which was correlated with MRI-evident transient blood-brain barrier disruption and vascular damage, respectively. The location of this activity was coincident with the resulting tissue changes within the expected resolution limits of the system. While preliminary, these data clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that it is possible to construct maps of stable and inertial cavitation transcranially, in a large animal model, and under clinically relevant conditions. Further, these results suggest that this hybrid ultrasound/MRI approach can provide comprehensive guidance for targeted drug delivery via blood-brain barrier disruption and other emerging ultrasound treatments, facilitating their clinical translation. We anticipate that it will also prove to be an important research tool that will further the development of a broad range of microbubble-enhanced therapies.

  1. Ultrasound simulation in bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan J. Kaufman; Gangming Luo; Robert S. Siffert

    2008-01-01

    The manner in which ultrasound interacts with bone is of key interest in therapy and diagnosis alike. These may include applications directly to bone, as, for example, in treatment to accelerate the healing of bone fractures and in assessment of bone density in osteoporosis, or indirectly in diagnostic imaging of soft tissue with interest in assessing exposure levels to nearby

  2. Molecular Advances in Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 Interaction with Thrombin and Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allart Stoop; Marja van Meijer; Anton J. G Horrevoets; Hans Pannekoek

    1997-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a glycoprotein that controls the activity of the key enzymes of the fibrinolytic system, the serine proteases tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Inhibition is accomplished by rapid formation of inactive, equimolar PAI-1\\/PA complexes. The physiological importance of PAI-1 for the fibrinolytic system has been underscored by the observation that in

  3. Metabolic factors, adipose tissue, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in Type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production by adipose tissue is increased in obesity, and its circulating levels are high in type 2 diabetes. PAI-1 increases cardiovascular risk by favoring clot stability, interfering with vascular remodeling, or both. We investigated in obese diabetic per...

  4. Immunohistological assessment of the synovial tissue in small joints in rheumatoid arthritis: validation of a minimally invasive ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy procedure.

    PubMed

    Scirè, Carlo Alberto; Epis, Oscar; Codullo, Veronica; Humby, Frances; Morbini, Patrizia; Manzo, Antonio; Caporali, Roberto; Pitzalis, Costantino; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform an immunohistological assessment of the synovial tissue from involved small joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to explore the reliability of a mini-invasive ultrasound (US)-guided technique of small joint synovial biopsy for the histopathological assessment. Synovial tissue collected during arthrotomic surgery of small joints in nine patients served as the gold standard for the validation of the histological assessment. Small hand-joint synovial biopsies from an additional nine patients with erosive RA were obtained by a mini-invasive US-guided procedure, performed percutaneously by the portal and rigid forceps technique. Using digital image analysis, the area fractions of synovial macrophages (CD68 cells), T cells (CD3 cells) and B cells (CD20 cells) were measured in all high-power fields of every sample at different cutting levels. The representative sample was defined as the minimal number of high-power fields whose mean area fraction would reflect the overall mean area fraction within a percentage mean difference of 10%. For each patient, a range of three to five large samples for surgical biopsies and a range of 8-12 samples for US-guided biopsies were collected and analysed. In arthrotomic samples, the analysis of a randomly selected tissue area of 2.5 mm2 was representative of the overall value for CD68, CD3 and CD20 cells. US-guided samples allowed histological evaluation in 100% of cases, with a mean valid area of 18.56 mm2 (range 7.29-38.28 mm2). The analysis of a cumulative area of 2.5 mm2 from eight randomly selected sections (from different samples or from different cutting levels) allowed to reduce the percentage mean difference to less than 10% for CD68, CD3 and CD20 cells. In conclusion, US-guided synovial biopsy represents a reliable tool for the assessment of the histopathological features of RA patients with a mini-invasive approach. PMID:17903238

  5. AMUM LECTURE: Therapeutic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Lawrence A.

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques.

  6. Automatic Diagnosis of Liver Diseases from Ultrasound Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Azaid; M. W. Fakhr; A. F. A. Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasound is a widely used medical imaging technique. Tissue characterization with ultrasound has become important topic since computer facilities have been available for the analysis of ultrasound signals. Automatic liver tissue characterizations from ultrasonic scans have been long the concern of many researchers. Different techniques has been used ranging from processing the RF signals received by the transducer to using

  7. Multi-Tissue Computational Modeling Analyzes Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes in MKR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Harrelson, Thomas; Lewis, Nathan E.; Gallagher, Emily J.; LeRoith, Derek; Shiloach, Joseph; Betenbaugh, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Computational models using metabolic reconstructions for in silico simulation of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can provide a better understanding of disease pathophysiology and avoid high experimentation costs. There is a limited amount of computational work, using metabolic reconstructions, performed in this field for the better understanding of T2DM. In this study, a new algorithm for generating tissue-specific metabolic models is presented, along with the resulting multi-confidence level (MCL) multi-tissue model. The effect of T2DM on liver, muscle, and fat in MKR mice was first studied by microarray analysis and subsequently the changes in gene expression of frank T2DM MKR mice versus healthy mice were applied to the multi-tissue model to test the effect. Using the first multi-tissue genome-scale model of all metabolic pathways in T2DM, we found out that branched-chain amino acids' degradation and fatty acids oxidation pathway is downregulated in T2DM MKR mice. Microarray data showed low expression of genes in MKR mice versus healthy mice in the degradation of branched-chain amino acids and fatty-acid oxidation pathways. In addition, the flux balance analysis using the MCL multi-tissue model showed that the degradation pathways of branched-chain amino acid and fatty acid oxidation were significantly downregulated in MKR mice versus healthy mice. Validation of the model was performed using data derived from the literature regarding T2DM. Microarray data was used in conjunction with the model to predict fluxes of various other metabolic pathways in the T2DM mouse model and alterations in a number of pathways were detected. The Type 2 Diabetes MCL multi-tissue model may explain the high level of branched-chain amino acids and free fatty acids in plasma of Type 2 Diabetic subjects from a metabolic fluxes perspective. PMID:25029527

  8. Multiplatform analysis of 12 cancer types reveals molecular classification within and across tissues of origin.

    PubMed

    Hoadley, Katherine A; Yau, Christina; Wolf, Denise M; Cherniack, Andrew D; Tamborero, David; Ng, Sam; Leiserson, Max D M; Niu, Beifang; McLellan, Michael D; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Zhang, Jiashan; Kandoth, Cyriac; Akbani, Rehan; Shen, Hui; Omberg, Larsson; Chu, Andy; Margolin, Adam A; Van't Veer, Laura J; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Laird, Peter W; Raphael, Benjamin J; Ding, Li; Robertson, A Gordon; Byers, Lauren A; Mills, Gordon B; Weinstein, John N; Van Waes, Carter; Chen, Zhong; Collisson, Eric A; Benz, Christopher C; Perou, Charles M; Stuart, Joshua M

    2014-08-14

    Recent genomic analyses of pathologically defined tumor types identify "within-a-tissue" disease subtypes. However, the extent to which genomic signatures are shared across tissues is still unclear. We performed an integrative analysis using five genome-wide platforms and one proteomic platform on 3,527 specimens from 12 cancer types, revealing a unified classification into 11 major subtypes. Five subtypes were nearly identical to their tissue-of-origin counterparts, but several distinct cancer types were found to converge into common subtypes. Lung squamous, head and neck, and a subset of bladder cancers coalesced into one subtype typified by TP53 alterations, TP63 amplifications, and high expression of immune and proliferation pathway genes. Of note, bladder cancers split into three pan-cancer subtypes. The multiplatform classification, while correlated with tissue-of-origin, provides independent information for predicting clinical outcomes. All data sets are available for data-mining from a unified resource to support further biological discoveries and insights into novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25109877

  9. Tracked ultrasound elastography (TRUE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Pezhman

    Medical ultrasound research has experienced a renaissance in the past decade leading to innovations in flow mapping, elasticity and thermal imaging, measurement of optical properties, beamforming, and image enhancement. In this thesis, we focus on ultrasound elastography, an emerging imaging modality with great potential to become a part of several ultrasound diagnostic applications. Elastography images the stiffness of soft tissue by applying a mechanical stimulus and estimating the disturbance created by this stimulus. In freehand elastography, soft tissue is palpated by hand using the ultrasound transducer. The elastography image is generated by comparing the pre- and post-compression images to form a displacement map which is then differentiated to produce the final strain map. To achieve the best result in freehand elastography, the sonographer must compress and decompress the tissue uniformly in a specific direction with adequate compression. This can be a difficult task even for trained users. A small rotational or out-of-plane motion in the collected ultrasound frames can render them unusable for elastography. This has made freehand elastography highly qualitative and user-dependent. We tackle this issue by incorporating the extra information from a position sensor attached to the ultrasound transducer. Our aim is to show that the localization information of ultrasound images may be utilized to improve the quality and reliability of freehand elastography. For this purpose, we have developed a frame selection scheme that finds pairs of images with optimal compression and minimal lateral and out-of-plane displacement. Relying on the localization information, our algorithm merges multiple strain images computed from the selected frame pairs. This method is applicable to both 2D and 3D elastography. Our 3D elastography does not require for the transducer to be held still during the acquisition of each volume. Instead, the sonographer freely palpates the tissue similar to the 2D case while a series of volumes are being collected. For applications such as needle ablation therapy, it is also possible to palpate the tissue internally using the ablation needle. In this case, we have assessed the feasibility of incorporating the localization information about the tip of the needle in elastography. We have evaluated these methods using tissue mimicking phantom, animal, and patient experiments. Our results suggest that in challenging clinical conditions, the proposed methods are capable of producing high-quality strain images.

  10. A study of the ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction based triplex-forming oligodexinucleotide delivery system to inhibit tissue factor expression

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, WEIHUA; ZHANG, WEIWEI; ZHAO, SHIFU; LI, QIANNING; YANG, YIMING; LIANG, HUA; CENG, RONGCHUAN

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of cellular uptake of triplex-forming oligodexinucleotides (TFO), and the inhibition of tissue factor (TF) is low. The aim of the present study was to improve the absorption of TFO, and increase the inhibition of TF induced by shear stress both in vitro and in vivo, by using an ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD)-based delivery system. TFO-conjugated lipid ultrasonic microbubbles (TFO-M) were first constructed and characterised. The absorption of TFO was observed by a fluorescence-based method, and the inhibition of TF by immunofluorescence and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. ECV304 human umbilical vein endothelial cells were subjected to fluid shear stress for 6 h after treatment with TFO conjugated lipid ultrasonic microbubbles without sonication (TFO-M group); TFO alone; TFO conjugated lipid ultrasonic microbubbles, plus immediate sonication (TFO+U group and TFO-M+U group); or mock treated with 0.9% NaCl only (SSRE group). The in vivo experiments were established in a similar manner to the in vitro experiments, except that TFO or TFO-M was injected into rats through the tail vein. Six hours after the preparation of a carotid stenosis model, the rats were humanely sacrificed. The transfection efficiency of TFO in the TFO-M+U group was higher as compared with the TFO-M and TFO+U group (P<0.01). The protein and mRNA expression of TF in the TFO-M+U group was significantly decreased both in vitro and in vivo (P<0.01), as compared with the TFO-M, TFO+U and SSRE groups. The UTMD-based TFO delivery system promoted the absorption of TFO and the inhibition of TF, and was therefore considered to be favorable for preventing thrombosis induced by shear stress. PMID:25355395

  11. Complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types prepared by inkjet printing technology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Zhao, Weixin; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Albanna, Mohammad Z; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a versatile method for fabricating complex and heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using simultaneous ink-jetting of multiple cell types. Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs), canine smooth muscle cells (dSMCs), and bovine aortic endothelial cells (bECs), were separately mixed with ionic cross-linker calcium chloride (CaCl(2)), loaded into separate ink cartridges and printed using a modified thermal inkjet printer. The three cell types were delivered layer-by-layer to pre-determined locations in a sodium alginate-collagen composite located in a chamber under the printer. The reaction between CaCl(2) and sodium alginate resulted in a rapid formation of a solid composite gel and the printed cells were anchored in designated areas within the gel. The printing process was repeated for several cycles leading to a complex 3D multi-cell hybrid construct. The biological functions of the 3D printed constructs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Each of the printed cell types maintained their viability and normal proliferation rates, phenotypic expression, and physiological functions within the heterogeneous constructs. The bioprinted constructs were able to survive and mature into functional tissues with adequate vascularization in vivo. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types using inkjet printing technology. PMID:23063369

  12. Biventricular function and glycemic load in type 1 diabetic children: Doppler tissue-imaging study.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Ahmed Anwer; Soliman, Mahmoud Ali

    2015-02-01

    To assess right- and left-ventricular function in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) as well as correlate cardiac function with diabetes duration and state of metabolic control. The present study included 30 patients with type 1 DM (group 1) and 20 apparently normal children with comparable age and sex as controls (group 2). All children were subjected to detailed history, clinical examination, and routine laboratory investigations, including glycated hemoglobin, as well as conventional echocardiographic and tissue Doppler examination. Children with type 1 DM have impaired diastolic function in both left and right ventricles before the development of systolic dysfunction when assessed with either conventional or tissue Doppler echocardiography. Resting heart rate in diabetic patients showed a significant positive correlation with mitral A flow velocity and a significant negative correlation with mitral and tricuspid E/A ratio. Regarding morphological parameters of the left ventricle, all dimensions and volumes were comparable between diabetic patients and controls; however, a significant positive correlation was found between interventricular septal thickness at diastole (IVSd), interventricular septal thickness at systole (IVSs), and left ventricular posterior wall at systole (LVPWs) and the duration of diabetes. Children with type 1 DM have impaired diastolic function in both left and right ventricles with normal systolic function when assessed with either conventional or tissue Doppler echocardiography. PMID:25304244

  13. Trajectory-based Deformation Correction in Ultrasound Images

    E-print Network

    Sun, Shih-Yu

    Tissue deformation in ultrasound imaging poses a challenge to the development of many image registration techniques, including multimodal image fusion, multi-angle compound image and freehand three-dimensional ultrasound. ...

  14. Validation of four-dimensional ultrasound for targeting in minimally-invasive beating-heart surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Danielle F.; Wiles, Andrew D.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Chris; Gobbi, David G.; Peters, Terry M.

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasound is garnering significant interest as an imaging modality for surgical guidance, due to its affordability, real-time temporal resolution and ease of integration into the operating room. Minimally-invasive intracardiac surgery performed on the beating-heart prevents direct vision of the surgical target, and procedures such as mitral valve replacement and atrial septal defect closure would benefit from intraoperative ultrasound imaging. We propose that placing 4D ultrasound within an augmented reality environment, along with a patient-specific cardiac model and virtual representations of tracked surgical tools, will create a visually intuitive platform with sufficient image information to safely and accurately repair tissue within the beating heart. However, the quality of the imaging parameters, spatial calibration, temporal calibration and ECG-gating must be well characterized before any 4D ultrasound system can be used clinically to guide the treatment of moving structures. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive accuracy assessment framework that can be used to evaluate the performance of 4D ultrasound systems while imaging moving targets. We image a dynamic phantom that is comprised of a simple robot and a tracked phantom to which point-source, distance and spherical objects of known construction can be attached. We also follow our protocol to evaluate 4D ultrasound images generated in real-time by reconstructing ECG-gated 2D ultrasound images acquired from a tracked multiplanar transesophageal probe. Likewise, our evaluation framework allows any type of 4D ultrasound to be quantitatively assessed.

  15. The effect of exercise on regional adipose tissue and splanchnic lipid metabolism in overweight Type 2 diabetic subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Simonsen; O. Henriksen; L. H. Enevoldsen; J. Bülow

    2004-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  To test the hypothesis that adipose tissue lipolysis is enhanced in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, we examined the effect of exercise on regional adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid mobilisation and measured the acute effects of exercise on the co-ordination of adipose tissue and splanchnic lipid metabolism.Methods  Abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue and splanchnic lipid metabolism were studied by conducting

  16. SNPsea: an algorithm to identify cell types, tissues and pathways affected by risk loci

    PubMed Central

    Slowikowski, Kamil; Hu, Xinli; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2014-01-01

    Summary: We created a fast, robust and general C++ implementation of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) set enrichment algorithm to identify cell types, tissues and pathways affected by risk loci. It tests trait-associated genomic loci for enrichment of specificity to conditions (cell types, tissues and pathways). We use a non-parametric statistical approach to compute empirical P-values by comparison with null SNP sets. As a proof of concept, we present novel applications of our method to four sets of genome-wide significant SNPs associated with red blood cell count, multiple sclerosis, celiac disease and HDL cholesterol. Availability and implementation: http://broadinstitute.org/mpg/snpsea Contact: soumya@broadinstitute.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24813542

  17. Exercise training does not improve myocardial diastolic tissue velocities in Type 2 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antti Loimaala; Kaj Groundstroem; Marjo Rinne; Arja Nenonen; Heini Huhtala; Ilkka Vuori

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myocardial diastolic tissue velocities are reduced already in newly onset Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Poor disease control may lead to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and heart failure. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of exercise training on myocardial diastolic function in T2D patients without ischemic heart disease. METHODS: 48 men (52.3 ± 5.6

  18. Proteomic profiling of cardiac tissue by isolation of nuclei tagged in specific cell types (INTACT)

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Nirav M.; Greco, Todd M.; Kuchenbrod, Lauren M.; Rigney, Maggie M.; Chung, Mei-I; Wallingford, John B.; Cristea, Ileana M.; Conlon, Frank L.

    2014-01-01

    The proper dissection of the molecular mechanisms governing the specification and differentiation of specific cell types requires isolation of pure cell populations from heterogeneous tissues and whole organisms. Here, we describe a method for purification of nuclei from defined cell or tissue types in vertebrate embryos using INTACT (isolation of nuclei tagged in specific cell types). This method, previously developed in plants, flies and worms, utilizes in vivo tagging of the nuclear envelope with biotin and the subsequent affinity purification of the labeled nuclei. In this study we successfully purified nuclei of cardiac and skeletal muscle from Xenopus using this strategy. We went on to demonstrate the utility of this approach by coupling the INTACT approach with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomic methodologies to profile proteins expressed in the nuclei of developing hearts. From these studies we have identified the Xenopus orthologs of 12 human proteins encoded by genes, which when mutated in human lead to congenital heart disease. Thus, by combining these technologies we are able to identify tissue-specific proteins that are expressed and required for normal vertebrate organ development. PMID:24496632

  19. Tissue transglutaminase regulates chondrogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells on collagen type XI matrices.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, Shobana; Logan-Mauney, Sheila; Burgos, Kaitlin; Nurminskaya, Maria

    2012-02-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a multifunctional enzyme with a plethora of potential applications in regenerative medicine and tissue bioengineering. In this study, we examined the role of tTG as a regulator of chondrogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) using nanofibrous scaffolds coated with collagen type XI. Transient treatment of collagen type XI films and 3D scaffolds with tTG results in enhanced attachment of MSC and supports rounded cell morphology compared to the untreated matrices or those incubated in the continuous presence of tTG. Accordingly, enhanced cell aggregation and augmented chondrogenic differentiation have been observed on the collagen type XI-coated poly-(L-lactide) nanofibrous scaffolds treated with tTG prior to cell seeding. These changes implicate that MSC chondrogenesis is enhanced by the tTG-mediated modifications of the collagen matrix. For example, exogenous tTG increases resistance to collagenolysis in collagen type XI matrices by catalyzing intermolecular cross-linking, detected by a shift in the denaturation temperature. In addition, tTG auto-crosslinks to collagen type XI as detected by western blot and immunofluorescent analysis. This study identifies tTG as a novel regulator of MSC chondrogenesis further contributing to the expanding use of these cells in cartilage bioengineering. PMID:21830118

  20. Tissue Transglutaminase Regulates Chondrogenesis in Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Collagen Type XI Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugasundaram, Shobana; Logan-Mauney, Sheila; Burgos, Kaitlin

    2011-01-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a multifunctional enzyme with a plethora of potential applications in regenerative medicine and tissue bioengineering. In this study, we examined the role of tTG as a regulator of chondrogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) using nanofibrous scaffolds coated with collagen type XI. Transient treatment of collagen type XI films and 3D scaffolds with tTG results in enhanced attachment of MSC and supports rounded cell morphology compared to the untreated matrices or those incubated in the continuous presence of tTG. Accordingly, enhanced cell aggregation and augmented chondrogenic differentiation have been observed on the collagen type XI-coated poly (L-lactide) - nanofibrous scaffolds treated with tTG prior to cell seeding. Exogenous tTG increases resistance to collagenolysis in collagen type XI matrices by catalyzing intermolecular cross-linking, detected by a shift in the denaturation temperature. In addition, tTG auto-crosslinks to collagen type XI as detected by western blot and immunofluorescent analysis. This study identifies tTG as a novel regulator of MSC chondrogenesis further contributing to the expanding use of these cells in cartilage bioengineering. PMID:21830118

  1. Ultrasound Imaging of Internal Corrosion Habib Ammari

    E-print Network

    Kang, Hyeonbae

    Ultrasound Imaging of Internal Corrosion Habib Ammari Hyeonbae Kang Eunjoo Kim§ Mikyoung Lim ultrasound boundary measurements. The method is based on an asymp- totic expansion of the effect, reconstruction, ultrasound detection, high fre- quencies, MUSIC-type algorithm 1 Introduction Corrosion detection

  2. Interactions between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Vaccinia Virus in Human Lymphoid Tissue Ex Vivo?

    PubMed Central

    Vanpouille, Christophe; Biancotto, Angélique; Lisco, Andrea; Brichacek, Beda

    2007-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been attracting attention recently not only as a vector for various vaccines but also as an immunization tool against smallpox because of its potential use as a bioterrorism agent. It has become evident that in spite of a long history of studies of VACV, its tissue pathogenesis remains to be fully understood. Here, we investigated the pathogenesis of VACV and its interactions with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the context of human lymphoid tissues. We found that ex vivo-cultured tonsillar tissue supports productive infection by the New York City Board of Health strain, the VACV strain of the Dryvax vaccine. VACV readily infected both T and non-T (B) lymphocytes and depleted cells of both of these subsets equally over a 12-day period postinfection. Among T lymphocytes, CD8+ cells are preferentially depleted in accordance with their preferential infection: the probability that a CD8+ T cell will be productively infected is almost six times higher than for a CD4+ T cell. T cells expressing CCR5 and the activation markers CD25, CD38, and HLA-DR are other major targets for infection by VACV in lymphoid tissue. As a consequence, VACV predominantly inhibits the replication of the R5SF162 phenotype of HIV-1 in coinfected tissues, as R5-tropic HIV-1 requires activated CCR5+ CD4+ cells for productive infection. Human lymphoid tissue infected ex vivo by VACV can be used to investigate interactions of VACV with other viruses, in particular HIV-1, and to evaluate various VACV vectors for the purpose of recombinant vaccine development. PMID:17804502

  3. Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin underlies obesity-induced adipose tissue fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miyako; Ikeda, Kenji; Suganami, Takayoshi; Komiya, Chikara; Ochi, Kozue; Shirakawa, Ibuki; Hamaguchi, Miho; Nishimura, Satoshi; Manabe, Ichiro; Matsuda, Takahisa; Kimura, Kumi; Inoue, Hiroshi; Inagaki, Yutaka; Aoe, Seiichiro; Yamasaki, Sho; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    In obesity, a paracrine loop between adipocytes and macrophages augments chronic inflammation of adipose tissue, thereby inducing systemic insulin resistance and ectopic lipid accumulation. Obese adipose tissue contains a unique histological structure termed crown-like structure (CLS), where adipocyte-macrophage crosstalk is known to occur in close proximity. Here we show that Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle), a pathogen sensor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is localized to macrophages in CLS, the number of which correlates with the extent of interstitial fibrosis. Mincle induces obesity-induced adipose tissue fibrosis, thereby leading to steatosis and insulin resistance in liver. We further show that Mincle in macrophages is crucial for CLS formation, expression of fibrosis-related genes and myofibroblast activation. This study indicates that Mincle, when activated by an endogenous ligand released from dying adipocytes, is involved in adipose tissue remodelling, thereby suggesting that sustained interactions between adipocytes and macrophages within CLS could be a therapeutic target for obesity-induced ectopic lipid accumulation. PMID:25236782

  4. Tissue Factor Expression in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Subjects and Its Regulation by Antidiabetic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Ciaraldi, Theodore P.; Samad, Fahumiya

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Increased coagulation activation may contribute to the high incidence of cardiovascular complications observed in obese and type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects. Although tissue factor (TF), the primary initiator of coagulation is increased in obesity, its expression in adipose tissues and its association with metabolic parameters are unclear. We sought to compare TF expression in plasma and adipose tissues of obese subjects with and without T2D, its correlation with metabolic parameters, and regulation in response to antidiabetic drugs. Methods Subjects were recruited from diabetes clinics and adipose tissue was obtained by needle biopsy of lower subcutaneous abdominal depot. For the intervention study, subjects were randomized into treatment groups with rosiglitazone or metformin for 4 months. Results. Plasma TF antigen, activity, and adipose TF mRNA were greater in obese T2D subjects compared with obese nondiabetics. Plasma TF activity correlated with fasting insulin, glucose, and free fatty acids, (FFAs), and adipose TF mRNA correlated with plasma FFA. Plasma TF activity was reduced by metformin and increased with rosiglitazone treatment. Conclusions. Specific diabetes-related metabolic parameters, but not obesity per se, are correlated with TF expression. Regulation of TF activity by different classes of antidiabetic drugs may relate to protective or adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

  5. Mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle tissue of complex regional pain syndrome type I patients.

    PubMed

    Tan, Edward C T; Janssen, Antoon J M; Roestenberg, Peggy; van den Heuvel, Lambert P; Goris, R Jan A; Rodenburg, Richard J T

    2011-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). Since the mitochondrial respiratory chain is a major source of ROS, we hypothesized that mitochondria play a role in the pathophysiology of CRPS I. The hypothesis was tested by studying mitochondrial energy metabolism in muscle tissue from amputated limbs of CRPS I patients. We observed that mitochondria obtained from CRPS I muscle tissue displayed reduced mitochondrial ATP production and substrate oxidation rates in comparison to control muscle tissue. Moreover, we observed reactive oxygen species evoked damage to mitochondrial proteins and reduced MnSOD levels. It remains to be established if the mitochondrial dysfunction that is apparent at the end-stage of CRPS I is also present in earlier stages of the disease, or are secondary to CRPS I. The observation of a reduced mitochondrial energy production combined with reactive oxygen species induced damage in muscle tissue from CRPS I patients warrants further studies into the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunctioning in the pathophysiology of CRPS I. PMID:21262583

  6. Hot topics in biomedical ultrasound: ultrasound therapy and its integration with ultrasonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everbach, E. Carr

    2005-09-01

    Since the development of biomedical ultrasound imaging from sonar after WWII, there has been a clear divide between ultrasonic imaging and ultrasound therapy. While imaging techniques are designed to cause as little change as possible in the tissues through which ultrasound propagates, ultrasound therapy typically relies upon heating or acoustic cavitation to produce a desirable therapeutic effect. Concerns over the increasingly high acoustic outputs of diagnostic ultrasound scanners prompted the adoption of the Mechanical Index (MI) and Thermal Index (TI) in the early 1990s. Therapeutic applications of ultrasound, meanwhile, have evolved from deep tissue heating in sports medicine to include targeted drug delivery, tumor and plaque ablation, cauterization via high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and accelerated dissolution of blood clots. The integration of ultrasonic imaging and therapy in one device is just beginning, but the promise of improved patient outcomes is balanced by regulatory and practical impediments.

  7. Silicon photonic micro-ring resonators strain and ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Silicon photonic micro-ring resonators to sense strain and ultrasound Wouter Westerveld #12;This and ultrasound. The front cover illustrates a new type of ultrasound microphone, consisting of a silicon micro to Sense Strain and Ultrasound Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Technische

  8. Prostate thermal therapy with interstitial and transurethral ultrasound applicators: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Chris J.; Nau, William H.; Deardorff, Dana L.; Khalil-Bustany, Ismail S.; Burdette, Everette C.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Wu, Max C.

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a transurethral ultrasound applicator in combination with implantable ultrasound applicators for inducing thermal coagulation and necrosis of localized cancer lesions or BPH within the prostate gland. The concept being evaluated is the potential to treat target zones in the anterior and lateral portions of the prostate with the transurethral applicator, while simultaneously treating regions of extracapsular extension and zones in the posterior prostate with the directive implantable applicators in combination with a rectal cooling bolus. Biothermal computer simulations, acoustic characterizations, and in vivo thermal dosimetry experiments were used to evaluate the performance of each applicator type and combinations thereof. The preliminary results of this investigation demonstrate that implantable ultrasound applicators, in combination with a transurethral ultrasound applicator, have the potential to provide thermal coagulation and necrosis of small or large regions within the prostate gland, while sparing thermally sensitive rectal tissue.

  9. Ultrasound of the elbow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Martinoli; Stefano Bianchi; Maria Pia Zamorani; Joaquin Lemos Zunzunegui; Lorenzo E Derchi

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the use of ultrasound (US) in the evaluation of the elbow. US is able to visualize several abnormalities affecting tendons, muscles, ligaments and bursae around the elbow joint as well as to delineate the nature of soft-tissue swelling, such as a space-occupying lesion or synovial enlargment. Occult fractures, osteophytes and intra-articular loose bodies can be depicted with

  10. Benign breast lesions: Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Masciadri, N.; Ferranti, C.

    2011-01-01

    Benign breast diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions arising in the mammary epithelium or in other mammary tissues, and they may also be linked to vascular, inflammatory or traumatic pathologies. Most lesions found in women consulting a physician are benign. Ultrasound (US) diagnostic criteria indicating a benign lesion are described as well as US findings in the most frequent benign breast lesions. PMID:23396888

  11. Consequences of seeded cell type on vascularization of tissue engineering constructs in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Paul; Tavassol, Frank; Lindhorst, Daniel; Stuehmer, Constantin; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Kampmann, Andreas; Mülhaupt, Rolf; Laschke, Matthias W; Menger, Michael D; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rücker, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Implantation of tissue engineering constructs is a promising technique to reconstruct injured tissue. However, after implantation the nutrition of the constructs is predominantly restricted to vascularization. Since cells possess distinct angiogenic potency, we herein assessed whether scaffold vitalization with different cell types improves scaffold vascularization. 32 male balb/c mice received a dorsal skinfold chamber. Angiogenesis, microhemodynamics, leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction and microvascular permeability induced in the host tissue after implantation of either collagen coated poly (L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds (group 4), additionally seeded with osteoblast-like cells (OLCs, group 1), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs, group 2) or a combination of OLCs and bmMSCs (group 3) were analyzed repetitively over 14 days using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Apart from a weak inflammatory response in all groups, vascularization was found distinctly accelerated in vitalized scaffolds, indicated by a significantly increased microvascular density (day 6, group 1: 202+/-15 cm/cm(2), group 2: 202+/-12 cm/cm(2), group 3: 194+/-8 cm/cm(2)), when compared with controls (group 4: 72+/-5 cm/cm(2)). This acceleration was independent from the seeded cell type. Immunohistochemistry revealed in vivo VEGF expression in close vicinity to the seeded OLCs and bmMSCs. Therefore, the observed lack of cell type confined differences in the vascularization process suggests that the accelerated vascularization of vitalized scaffolds is VEGF-related rather than dependent on the potential of bmMSCs to differentiate into specific vascular cells. PMID:19540853

  12. Confirmation of prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis by DNA typing of fetal tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, A; Strain, L; Mennie, M; Brock, D J

    1988-01-01

    Tissues from eight fetuses, diagnosed on the basis of amniotic fluid microvillar enzyme assay as having cystic fibrosis, were conserved in frozen storage for up to three years. Adequate samples of undegraded DNA could be extracted from small intestine, lung, and liver. DNA typing, with restriction fragment length polymorphisms tightly linked to the cystic fibrosis gene, showed all eight diagnoses to have been correct. Determining the DNA genotype of fetal material can also be used to establish the linkage relationship between markers and the cystic fibrosis gene, and will permit subsequent first trimester prenatal diagnosis for couples who have no living affected child. Images PMID:2894468

  13. The role of ultrasound operation mode for safely interfering in the heart rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Belassiano; R. Miller; E. Hartman; W. D. OaBrien; F. Buiochi; E. T. Costa

    2011-01-01

    Dia gnostic ultrasound applies low intensity acoustic waves to noninvasively investigate biological tissues. Higher intensities can alter tissue characteristics, and this is of interest for therapeutic ultrasound, when the occurrence of bioeffects is - to a certain extent - desirable for tissue healing. Relative to cardiology, diagnostic ultrasound is well established, whereas there is an unexplored potential for therapeutic applications.

  14. Effects of fluoride on the ultrastructure and expression of Type I collagen in rat hard tissue.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyan; Hao, Xianhui; Nie, Qingli; Feng, Cuiping; Wang, Hongwei; Sun, Zilong; Niu, Ruiyan; Wang, Jundong

    2015-06-01

    Long-term excessive fluoride (F) intake disrupts the balance of bone deposition and remodeling activities and is linked to skeletal fluorosis. Type I collagen, which is responsible for bone stability and cell biological functions, can be damaged by excessive F ingestion. In this study, Sodium fluoride (NaF) was orally administrated to rat at 150mgL(-)(1) for 60 and 120d. We examined the effects of excessive F ingestion on the ultrastructure and collagen morphology of bone in rats by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, we investigated the effect of F consumption on the expression levels of COL1A1 and COL1A2 in the bone tissues of rats by using quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of F-induced collagen protein damage. Our results showed that F affected collagen I arrangement and produced ultrastructural changes in bone tissue. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 were reduced and the COL I protein levels decreased in the fluorosis group. We concluded that excessive F ingestion adversely affected collagen I arrangement and caused ultrastructural changes in bone tissue. Reduced COL1A1 mRNA expression and altered COL I protein levels may contribute to the skeletal damage resulting from F exposure. PMID:25655816

  15. A new type of magnification system in free microvascular tissue transfer: Varioscope M5.

    PubMed

    Chiummariello, Stefano; Fioramonti, Paolo; Menichini, Giulio; Scuderi, Nicolò; Alfano, Carmine

    2007-01-01

    Free microvascular tissue transfers have become today a key instrument for the surgical treatment of wide loss of tissue. These procedures can provide definitive treatment in a single operation but they are expensive and require specialized practitioners. The operating microscope traditionally has provided this requirement; our study is focusing on the prospect of using a new visual system-Varioscope M5-in the reconstructive microsurgery field. Varioscope M5 (Life Optics, Vienna, Austria) has been employed in 21 microvascular anastomoses, where different free flaps were used in head and neck reconstruction. The necessity to operate in a different department, not provided with an operating microscope, brought along the idea of exploring an alternative procedure to classical visualization systems. Specific advantages such as reduced cost, freedom of movement, autofocus, minimal upkeep, a variable range of magnification from 2x to 9x are some of the reasons that convinced the authors to use this new type of magnification system. Increasing interest in microsurgery magnification highlights the need for further technical development in that field. We consider Varioscope M5 a future mean of anastomotic magnification in most free-tissue transfers with specific characteristics that combine the microscope and loupe philosophies. PMID:17705280

  16. A Protein Profile of Visceral Adipose Tissues Linked to Early Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Jin; Chae, Sehyun; Kim, Hokeun; Mun, Dong-Gi; Back, Seunghoon; Choi, Hye Yeon; Park, Kyong Soo; Hwang, Daehee; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Sang-Won

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is increasingly recognized as an endocrine organ playing important pathophysiological roles in metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), as opposed to subcutaneous adipose tissue, is closely linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2DM. Despite the importance of VAT, its molecular signatures related to the pathogenesis of T2DM have not been systematically explored. Here, we present comprehensive proteomic analysis of VATs in drug-naïve early T2DM patients and subjects with normal glucose tolerance. A total of 4,707 proteins were identified in LC-MS/MS experiments. Among them, 444 increased in abundance in T2DM and 328 decreased. They are involved in T2DM-related processes including inflammatory responses, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling, oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose metabolism. Of these proteins, we selected 11 VAT proteins that can represent alteration in early T2DM patients. Among them, up-regulation of FABP4, C1QA, S100A8, and SORBS1 and down-regulation of ACADL and PLIN4 were confirmed in VAT samples of independent early T2DM patients using Western blot. In summary, our profiling provided a comprehensive basis for understanding the link of a protein profile of VAT to early pathogenesis of T2DM. PMID:24403596

  17. Three-dimensional coupled-object segmentation using symmetry and tissue type information.

    PubMed

    Bijari, Payam B; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an automatic method for segmentation of brain structures using their symmetry and tissue type information. The proposed method generates segmented structures that have homogenous tissues. It benefits from general symmetry of the brain structures in the two hemispheres. It also benefits from the tissue regions generated by fuzzy c-means clustering. All in all, the proposed method can be described as a dynamic knowledge-based method that eliminates the need for statistical shape models of the structures while generating accurate segmentation results. The proposed approach is implemented in MATLAB and tested on the Internet Brain Segmentation Repository (IBSR) datasets. To this end, it is applied to the segmentation of caudate and ventricles three-dimensionally in magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain. Impacts of each of the steps of the proposed approach are demonstrated through experiments. It is shown that the proposed method generates accurate segmentation results that are insensitive to initialization and parameter selection. The proposed method is compared to four previous methods illustrating advantages and limitations of each method. PMID:19932598

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is a special ultrasound technique that evaluates blood flow through a blood vessel, including the body's major ... physician to see and evaluate: blockages to blood flow (such as clots). narrowing of vessels. tumors and ...

  19. Ultrasound microscope: the new field in ultrasound diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novyc'kyy, Victor V.; Lushchyk, Ulyana B.

    2001-06-01

    A device which is a new stage in the development of medical equipment has been developed. The device works as an ultrasound microscope in vivo and provides 4 up to 32 colored histological image. It gives possibility to estimate tissue acoustic density with the help of 4 up to 32 gradation coloring different tissues and enables tissue microcirculation visualization. With the help of the device a doctor can objectify fatty hepatitis and cirrhosis, edema of different organs and tissues as well as microcirculation in organs and tissues (e.g. muscles, myocard and bone system). New promising applications of ultrasound systems in diagnostics and for choosing individual treatment tactics, with pathogenesis being taken into account, may be developed with the help of the device.

  20. Viscoelastic properties of tissue conditioners--influence of ethyl alcohol content and type of plasticizer.

    PubMed

    Murata, H; Murakami, S; Shigeto, N; Hamada, T

    1994-03-01

    The effect of both the ethyl alcohol content of liquids and the type of plasticizer on the viscoelastic properties after gelation of tissue conditioners was studied by means of a stress relaxation test. The results are summarized as follows. The liquids containing the larger percentages of ethyl alcohol produced the larger flow after gelation. Furthermore, the ethyl alcohol content had a significant influence on changes in viscoelastic properties with the passage of time. Flow properties were found to reduce rapidly with time of storage with an increase in the ethyl alcohol content. The use of benzyl benzoate produced the larger flow after gelation than dibutyl phthalate, which in turn produced the larger flow than butyl phthalyl butyl glycolate. The type of plasticizer, however, was found to have no influence on changes in viscoelastic properties with the passage of time. PMID:8182496

  1. Bio-acoustic thermal lensing and nonlinear propagation in focused ultrasound surgery using large focal spots: a parametric study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher W. Connor; Kullervo Hynynen

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that the acoustic properties of soft tissue have a dependence on tissue temperature. This is of particular interest in focused ultrasound surgery since the mechanism of action of focused ultrasound surgery is to kill targeted tissue by inducing localized heating by ultrasound absorption, and hence cautery of that tissue. However, the act of localized heating induces

  2. Transmission of Therapeutic Ultrasound by Wound Dressings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon Poltawski; Tim Watson

    Ultrasound has been used for the treatment of a variety of cutaneous wounds, particularly venous ulcers. Many of the published studies involved application of ultrasound to the surrounding tissue rather than directly over the wound. Insonating the wound itself may enhance the healing process, but the lack of data regarding the trans- mission characteristics of dressings has limited the use

  3. A genotyping protocol for multiple tissue types from the polyploid tree species Sequoia sempervirens (Cupressaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Lakshmi; Dodd, Richard S.; O’Hara, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Identifying clonal lineages in asexually reproducing plants using microsatellite markers is complicated by the possibility of nonidentical genotypes from the same clonal lineage due to somatic mutations, null alleles, and scoring errors. We developed and tested a clonal identification protocol that is robust to these issues for the asexually reproducing hexaploid tree species coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). Methods: Microsatellite data from four previously published and two newly developed primers were scored using a modified protocol, and clones were identified using Bruvo genetic distances. The effectiveness of this clonal identification protocol was assessed using simulations and by genotyping a test set of paired samples of different tissue types from the same trees. Results: Data from simulations showed that our protocol allowed us to accurately identify clonal lineages. Multiple test samples from the same trees were identified correctly, although certain tissue type pairs had larger genetic distances on average. Discussion: The methods described in this paper will allow for the accurate identification of coast redwood clones, facilitating future studies of the reproductive ecology of this species. The techniques used in this paper can be applied to studies of other clonal organisms as well. PMID:25798341

  4. Sites of synthesis of urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activators in the murine kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Sappino, A P; Huarte, J; Vassalli, J D; Belin, D

    1991-01-01

    Kidneys have long been recognized as a major source of plasminogen activators (PAs). However, neither the sites of synthesis of the enzymes nor their role in renal function have been elucidated. By the combined use of zymographies on tissue sections and in situ hybridizations, we have explored the cellular distribution of urokinase-type (u-PA) and tissue-type (t-PA) plasminogen activators and of their mRNAs in developing and adult mouse kidneys. In 17.5-d old embryos, renal tubules synthesize u-PA, while S-shaped bodies produce t-PA. In the adult kidney, u-PA is synthesized and released in urine by the epithelial cells lining the straight parts of both proximal and distal tubules. In contrast, t-PA is produced by glomerular cells and by epithelial cells lining the distal part of collecting ducts. The precise segmental distribution of PAs suggests that both enzymes may be implicated in the maintenance of tubular patency, by catalyzing extracellular proteolysis to prevent or circumvent protein precipitation. Images PMID:1900311

  5. Breast biopsy - ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Biopsy - breast - ultrasound; Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy; Core needle breast biopsy - ultrasound ... needs to be biopsied. The doctor uses an ultrasound machine to guide the needle to the abnormal ...

  6. An optimized ultrasound-assisted extraction and simultaneous quantification of 26 characteristic components with four structure types in functional foods from ginkgo seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guisheng; Yao, Xin; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Zhang, Li; Jin, Chun; Qin, Yong; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-09-01

    An optimized method of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2)) was proposed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of 26 characteristic components covering four structure types (flavonoids, terpene lactones, ginkgolic acids and phenylpropanols) in ginkgo seeds (GSs). The UAE parameters (ultrasound power, time and solvent-to-material ratio) were optimized using a response surface methodology. This is the first report of the simultaneous analysis of 26 compounds in Ginkgo biloba using UHPLC-TQ/MS(2); this analysis afforded good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2) was successfully applied to ginkgo seed samples, and the analysis showed that GSs are rich in terpene lactones and could be selected as a healthy food resource. The results suggest that UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2) might be able to be utilized as a tool for the quality assessment of samples from GSs or other related products using flavonoids, terpene lactones, ginkgolic acids and phenylpropanols as markers. PMID:24731329

  7. Cryopreservation and in vitro culture of primary cell types from lung tissue of a stranded pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps)?

    PubMed Central

    Mancia, Annalaura; Spyropoulos, Demetri D.; McFee, Wayne E.; Newton, Danforth A.; Baatz, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Current models for in vitro studies of tissue function and physiology, including responses to hypoxia or environmental toxins, are limited and rely heavily on standard 2-dimensional (2-D) cultures with immortalized murine or human cell lines. To develop a new more powerful model system, we have pursued methods to establish and expand cultures of primary lung cell types and reconstituted tissues from marine mammals. What little is known about the physiology of the deep-sea diving pygmy sperm whale (PSW), Kogia breviceps, comes primarily from stranding events that occur along the coast of the southeastern United States. Thus, development of a method for preserving live tissues and retrieving live cells from deceased stranded individuals was initiated. This report documents successful cryopreservation of PSW lung tissue. We established in vitro cultures of primary lung cell types from tissue fragments that had been cryopreserved several months earlier at the stranding event. Dissociation of cryopreserved lung tissues readily provides a variety of primary cell types that, to varying degrees, can be expanded and further studied/manipulated in cell culture. In addition, PSW-specific molecular markers have been developed that permitted the monitoring of fibroblast, alveolar type II, and vascular endothelial cell types. Reconstitution of 3-D cultures of lung tissues with these cell types is now underway. This novel system may facilitate the development of rare or disease-specific lung tissue models (e.g., to test causes of PSW stranding events and lead to improved treatments for pulmonary hypertension or reperfusion injury in humans). Also, the establishment of a “living” tissue bank biorepository for rare/endangered species could serve multiple purposes as surrogates for freshly isolated samples. PMID:21501697

  8. An atlas of active enhancers across human cell types and tissues.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Robin; Gebhard, Claudia; Miguel-Escalada, Irene; Hoof, Ilka; Bornholdt, Jette; Boyd, Mette; Chen, Yun; Zhao, Xiaobei; Schmidl, Christian; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ntini, Evgenia; Arner, Erik; Valen, Eivind; Li, Kang; Schwarzfischer, Lucia; Glatz, Dagmar; Raithel, Johanna; Lilje, Berit; Rapin, Nicolas; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Jørgensen, Mette; Andersen, Peter Refsing; Bertin, Nicolas; Rackham, Owen; Burroughs, A Maxwell; Baillie, J Kenneth; Ishizu, Yuri; Shimizu, Yuri; Furuhata, Erina; Maeda, Shiori; Negishi, Yutaka; Mungall, Christopher J; Meehan, Terrence F; Lassmann, Timo; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Kondo, Naoto; Kawai, Jun; Lennartsson, Andreas; Daub, Carsten O; Heutink, Peter; Hume, David A; Jensen, Torben Heick; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Müller, Ferenc; Forrest, Alistair R R; Carninci, Piero; Rehli, Michael; Sandelin, Albin

    2014-03-27

    Enhancers control the correct temporal and cell-type-specific activation of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. Knowing their properties, regulatory activity and targets is crucial to understand the regulation of differentiation and homeostasis. Here we use the FANTOM5 panel of samples, covering the majority of human tissues and cell types, to produce an atlas of active, in vivo-transcribed enhancers. We show that enhancers share properties with CpG-poor messenger RNA promoters but produce bidirectional, exosome-sensitive, relatively short unspliced RNAs, the generation of which is strongly related to enhancer activity. The atlas is used to compare regulatory programs between different cells at unprecedented depth, to identify disease-associated regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms, and to classify cell-type-specific and ubiquitous enhancers. We further explore the utility of enhancer redundancy, which explains gene expression strength rather than expression patterns. The online FANTOM5 enhancer atlas represents a unique resource for studies on cell-type-specific enhancers and gene regulation. PMID:24670763

  9. An atlas of active enhancers across human cell types and tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Robin; Gebhard, Claudia; Miguel-Escalada, Irene; Hoof, Ilka; Bornholdt, Jette; Boyd, Mette; Chen, Yun; Zhao, Xiaobei; Schmidl, Christian; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ntini, Evgenia; Arner, Erik; Valen, Eivind; Li, Kang; Schwarzfischer, Lucia; Glatz, Dagmar; Raithel, Johanna; Lilje, Berit; Rapin, Nicolas; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Jørgensen, Mette; Andersen, Peter Refsing; Bertin, Nicolas; Rackham, Owen; Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Ishizu, Yuri; Shimizu, Yuri; Furuhata, Erina; Maeda, Shiori; Negishi, Yutaka; Mungall, Christopher J.; Meehan, Terrence F.; Lassmann, Timo; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Kondo, Naoto; Kawai, Jun; Lennartsson, Andreas; Daub, Carsten O.; Heutink, Peter; Hume, David A.; Jensen, Torben Heick; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Müller, Ferenc; Consortium, The Fantom; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Carninci, Piero; Rehli, Michael; Sandelin, Albin

    2014-03-01

    Enhancers control the correct temporal and cell-type-specific activation of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. Knowing their properties, regulatory activity and targets is crucial to understand the regulation of differentiation and homeostasis. Here we use the FANTOM5 panel of samples, covering the majority of human tissues and cell types, to produce an atlas of active, in vivo-transcribed enhancers. We show that enhancers share properties with CpG-poor messenger RNA promoters but produce bidirectional, exosome-sensitive, relatively short unspliced RNAs, the generation of which is strongly related to enhancer activity. The atlas is used to compare regulatory programs between different cells at unprecedented depth, to identify disease-associated regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms, and to classify cell-type-specific and ubiquitous enhancers. We further explore the utility of enhancer redundancy, which explains gene expression strength rather than expression patterns. The online FANTOM5 enhancer atlas represents a unique resource for studies on cell-type-specific enhancers and gene regulation.

  10. Cell-type-specific expression pattern of ceramide synthase 2 protein in mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Kremser, Christiane; Klemm, Anna-Lena; van Uelft, Martina; Imgrund, Silke; Ginkel, Christina; Hartmann, Dieter; Willecke, Klaus

    2013-11-01

    Ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2) catalyzes the synthesis of dihydroceramides from dihydrosphingosine and very long fatty acyl (C22-C24)-CoAs. CerS2-deficient (gene trap) mice were reported to exhibit myelin and behavioral abnormalities, associated with the expression of CerS2 in oligodendrocytes and neurons based on expression of lacZ reporter cDNA instead of the cers2 gene in these mice. In order to clarify the cell-type-specific expression of CerS2 protein, we have raised antibodies that specifically recognize the glycosylated and non-glycosylated CerS2 protein in wild-type but not in CerS2-deficient mouse tissues. In early postnatal, juvenile and adult mouse brain, the new antibodies detect CerS2 protein only in oligodendrocytes but not in neurons, suggesting that the gene trap vector in CerS2-deficient mice led to ectopic expression of the lacZ reporter gene in neurons. In liver, the CerS2 protein is expressed in hepatocytes but not in Ito cells or Kupffer cells. We conclude that the behavioral abnormalities observed in CerS2-deficient mice originate primarily in oligodendrocytes and not in neurons. The identification of specific cell types in which CerS2 protein is expressed is prerequisite to further mechanistic characterization of phenotypic abnormalities exhibited by CerS2-deficient mice. The amount of CerS2 protein detected in different tissues by immunoblot analyses does not strictly correspond to the activity of the CerS2 enzyme. Disproportional results are likely due to post-translational regulation of the CerS2 protein. PMID:23591958

  11. Human 72-Kilodalton Type IV Collagenase Forms a Complex with a Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteases Designated TIMP-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory I. Goldberg; Barry L. Marmer; Gregory A. Grant; Arthur Z. Eisen; Scott Wilhelm; Chengshi He

    1989-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed human lung fibroblasts secrete both 72-kDa type IV collagenase and a closely related 92-kDa type IV collagenase that was not detected in the parental cell line. The 92-kDa type IV procollagenase purified from these cells exists in a noncovalent complex with the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases, TIMP. Here we report that the 72-kDa type IV procollagenase

  12. Effects of nonlinear propagation in ultrasound contrast agent imaging.

    PubMed

    Tang, Meng-Xing; Kamiyama, Naohisa; Eckersley, Robert J

    2010-03-01

    This paper investigates two types of nonlinear propagation and their effects on image intensity and contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) in contrast ultrasound images. Previous studies have shown that nonlinear propagation can occur when ultrasound travels through tissue and microbubble clouds, making tissue farther down the acoustic path appear brighter in pulse inversion (PI) images, thus reducing CTR. In this study, the effect of nonlinear propagation through tissue or microbubbles on PI image intensity and CTR are compared at low mechanical index. A combination of simulation and experiment with SonoVue microbubbles were performed using a microbubble dynamics model, a laboratory ultrasound system and a clinical prototype scanner. The results show that, close to the bubble resonance frequency, nonlinear propagation through a bubble cloud of a few centimeter thickness with a modest concentration (1:10000 dilution of SonoVue microbubbles) is much more significant than through tissue-mimicking material. Consequently, CTR in regions distal to the imaging probe is greatly reduced for nonlinear propagation through the bubble cloud, with as much as a 12-dB reduction compared with nonlinear propagation through tissue-mimicking material. Both types of nonlinear propagation cause only a small change in bubble PI signals at the bubble resonance frequency. When the driving frequency increases beyond bubble resonance, nonlinear propagation through bubbles is greatly reduced in absolute values. However because of a greater reduction in nonlinear scattering from bubbles at higher frequencies, the corresponding CTR is much lower than that at bubble resonance frequency. PMID:20133035

  13. In Vitro Effects of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation on the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Alveolar Bone-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Tooth Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lim, KiTaek; Kim, Jangho; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Chung, Jong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound stimulation produces significant multifunctional effects that are directly relevant to alveolar bone formation, which is necessary for periodontal healing and regeneration. We focused to find out effects of specific duty cycles and the percentage of time that ultrasound is being generated over one on/off pulse period, under ultrasound stimulation. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound ((LIPUS) 1?MHz) with duty cycles of 20% and 50% was used in this study, and human alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hABMSCs) were treated with an intensity of 50?mW/cm2 and exposure time of 10?min/day. hABMSCs exposed at duty cycles of 20% and 50% had similar cell viability (O.D.), which was higher (*P < 0.05) than that of control cells. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was significantly enhanced at 1 week with LIPUS treatment in osteogenic cultures as compared to control. Gene expressions showed significantly higher expression levels of CD29, CD44, COL1, and OCN in the hABMSCs under LIPUS treatment when compared to control after two weeks of treatment. The effects were partially controlled by LIPUS treatment, indicating that modulation of osteogenesis in hABMSCs was related to the specific stimulation. Furthermore, mineralized nodule formation was markedly increased after LIPUS treatment than that seen in untreated cells. Through simple staining methods such as Alizarin red and von Kossa staining, calcium deposits generated their highest levels at about 3?weeks. These results suggest that LIPUS could enhance the cell viability and osteogenic differentiation of hABMSCs, and could be part of effective treatment methods for clinical applications. PMID:24195067

  14. The cavitation threshold of human tissue exposed to 0.2MHz pulsed ultrasound: Preliminary measurements based on a study of clinical lithotripsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Coleman; T. Kodama; M. J. Choi; T. Adams; J. E. Saunders

    1995-01-01

    Evidence of acoustic cavitation was identified in the form of transient echoes in ultrasound B-scan images of patients receiving extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy treatment on a Storz Modulith SL20. This lithotripter generates 10-?s duration pulses with a centre frequency of 0.2 MHz at a pulse repetition frequency of 1 Hz. The visual appearance of B-scan images was examined in a total

  15. Lack of antigen-specific tissue remodeling in mice deficient in the macrophage galactose-type calcium-type lectin 1/CD301a.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kayoko; Imai, Yasuyuki; Higashi, Nobuaki; Kumamoto, Yosuke; Onami, Thandi M; Hedrick, Stephen M; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2005-07-01

    Macrophage galactose-type C-type lectins (MGLs), which were recently named CD301, have 2 homologues in mice: MGL1 and MGL2. MGLs are expressed on macrophages and immature dendritic cells. The persistent presence of granulation tissue induced by a protein antigen was observed in wild-type mice but not in mice lacking an endogenous, macrophage-specific, galactose-type calcium-type lectin 1 (MGL1) in an air pouch model. The anti-MGL1 antibody suppressed the granulation tissue formation in wild-type mice. A large number of cells, present only in the pouch of MGL1-deficient mice, were not myeloid or lymphoid lineage cells and the number significantly declined after administration of interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1alpha) into the pouch of MGL1-deficient mice. Furthermore, granulation tissue was restored by this treatment and the cells obtained from the pouch of MGL1-deficient mice were incorporated into the granulation tissue when injected with IL-1alpha. Taken together, MGL1 expressed on a specific subpopulation of macrophages that secrete IL-1alpha was proposed to regulate specific cellular interactions crucial to granulation tissue formation. PMID:15784728

  16. Enhanced ROS production and oxidative damage in subcutaneous white adipose tissue mitochondria in obese and type 2 diabetes subjects.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Mrittika; Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Chatterjee, Gargi; Ganguly, Anirban; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress in the insulin target tissues has been implicated in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. The study has examined the oxidative stress parameters in the mitochondria of subcutaneous white adipose tissue from obese and non-obese subjects with or without type 2 diabetes. An accumulation of protein carbonyls, fluorescent lipid peroxidation products, and malondialdehyde occurs in the adipose tissue mitochondria of obese type 2 diabetic, non-diabetic obese, and non-obese diabetic subjects with the maximum increase noticed in the obese type 2 diabetes patients and the minimum in non-obese type 2 diabetics. The mitochondria from obese type 2 diabetics, non-diabetic obese, and non-obese type 2 diabetics also produce significantly more reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro compared to those of controls, and apparently the mitochondrial ROS production rate in each group is proportional to the respective load of oxidative damage markers. Likewise, the mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase show decreased activities most markedly in obese type 2 diabetes subjects and to a lesser degree in non-obese type 2 diabetes or non-diabetic obese subjects in comparison to control. The results imply that mitochondrial dysfunction with enhanced ROS production may contribute to the metabolic abnormality of adipose tissue in obesity and diabetes. PMID:25312902

  17. A Study of Similarity Measures for In Vivo 3D Ultrasound Volume Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijaz, U. Z.; Prager, R. W.; Gee, A. H.; Treece, G. M.

    Most of the conventional ultrasound machines in hospitals work in two dimensions. However, there are some applications where doctors would like to be able to gather ultrasound data as a three-dimensional (3D) block rather than a two-dimensional (2D) slice. Two different types of 3D ultrasound have been developed to meet this requirement. One type involves a special probe that can record a fixed block of data, either by having an internal sweeping mechanism or by using electronic steering. The other type of 3D ultrasound uses a conventional 2D ultrasound probe together with a position sensor and is called freehand 3D ultrasound. A natural progression of the mechanically-swept 3D ultrasound system is to combine it with the free hand sensor. This results in an extended field of view. There are two major problems with using a position sensor. Firstly, line-of-sight needs to be maintained between the sensor and the reference point. Secondly, the multiple volumes rarely register because of tissue displacement and deformation. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to get rid of the inconvenient position sensor and to use an automatic image-based registration technique. We provide an experimental study of several intensity-based similarity measures for the registration of 3D ultrasound volumes. Rather than choosing a conventional voxel array to represent the 3D blocks, we use corresponding vertical and horizontal image slices from the blocks to be matched. This limits the amount of data thus making the calculation of the similarity measure less computationally expensive.

  18. Limited-Diffraction-Beam Ultrasound Transducers of Conical Type with Enhanced Time Resolution Fabricated Using a Functionally Graded Piezocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ken; Ohkubo, Atsunori; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2003-08-01

    A new approach for enhancing the resolution capability of an ultrasound transducer in both axial and lateral directions is presented. A functionally graded piezoelectric composite of 1-3 connectivity is newly devised and applied to a weighted conical transducer. In this piezocomposite material, an electric field for wave excitation is effectively graded in the thickness direction, and this makes it possible to launch an almost single-pulse ultrasonic wave. Because of flexibility, this composite material can be formed easily into a conical shape and enhances the time resolution of the conical transducer that possesses good lateral resolution over a large depth. The experimental results obtained for the fabricated transducer show the capability of launching a short ultrasonic pulse and creating a focused field over a large depth.

  19. Tissue reaction to three different types of tissue glues in an experimental aorta dissection model: a quantitative approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsti Witter; Zbyn?k Tonar; Vít Martin Mat?jka; Tomáš Martin?a; Michael Jonák; Slavomír Rokošný; Jan Pirk

    2010-01-01

    Tissue glues are used during surgical treatment of acute aorta dissection although some glues release toxic products and thus\\u000a alter the histological structure of the vessel wall. The aim of our study was to use a porcine experimental model of infrarenal\\u000a aorta dissection to compare histological changes of the vessel wall 1, 6 and 12 months after application of BioGlue, Gelatin-resorcin-formaldehyde

  20. Physics and principles of breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Staren, E D

    1996-02-01

    Ultrasound refers to sound of any frequency greater than 20 kilohertz; that is, above the frequency for which humans can normally hear. All sound, including ultrasound, travels through different tissues at different rates of speed. The point at which adjacent tissues with different speeds of sound meet is referred to as an acoustic interface. When sound hits an acoustic interface, an echo is created. Medical ultrasound is essentially a means of producing visual images based on echoes that occur at such acoustic interfaces. Crystals within the ultrasound transducer are capable of generating and receiving sound waves based on the "piezo-electric" effect. By this effect, the mechanical energy of the echo is converted into electrical energy that can be imaged on the ultrasound monitor. The resolution of ultrasound images of the breast has been greatly improved by computer-enhancement capabilities and the availability of high-frequency transducers. Although the detailed imaging of modern ultrasound allows for satisfactory evaluation of most breast lesions, there are a variety of artifacts inherent to breast ultrasound of which one must be cognizant, so as to avoid misinterpretation. This article will address a number of these issues, thereby presenting an introduction to the basic physics and principles relevant to breast ultrasound. PMID:8554185

  1. Regulation of seizure spreading by neuroserpin and tissue-type plasminogen activator is plasminogen-independent.

    PubMed

    Yepes, Manuel; Sandkvist, Maria; Coleman, Timothy A; Moore, Elizabeth; Wu, Jiang-Young; Mitola, David; Bugge, Thomas H; Lawrence, Daniel A

    2002-06-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a highly specific serine proteinase expressed in the CNS during events that require neuronal plasticity. In this study we demonstrate that endogenous tPA mediates the progression of kainic acid-induced (KA-induced) seizures by promoting the synchronization of neuronal activity required for seizure spreading, and that, unlike KA-induced cell death, this activity is plasminogen-independent. Specifically, seizure induction by KA injection into the amygdala induces tPA activity and cell death in both hippocampi, and unilateral treatment of rats with neuroserpin, a natural inhibitor of tPA in the brain, enhances neuronal survival in both hippocampi. Inhibition of tPA within the hippocampus by neuroserpin treatment does not prevent seizure onset but instead markedly delays the progression of seizure activity in both rats and wild-type mice. In tPA-deficient mice, seizure progression is significantly delayed, and neuroserpin treatment does not further delay seizure spreading. In contrast, plasminogen-deficient mice show a pattern of seizure spreading and a response to neuroserpin that is similar to that of wild-type animals. These findings indicate that tPA acts on a substrate other than plasminogen and that the effects of neuroserpin on seizure progression and neuronal cell survival are mediated through the inhibition of tPA. PMID:12070304

  2. Expression of human uterine tissue-type plasminogen activator in mouse cells using BPV vectors.

    PubMed

    Reddy, V B; Garramone, A J; Sasak, H; Wei, C M; Watkins, P; Galli, J; Hsiung, N

    1987-10-01

    Human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) cDNA was cloned from uterine tissue and engineered in expression vectors for production in mouse C127 cells. The vectors consisted of the bovine papilloma virus-1 (BPV-1) genome and t-PA transcriptional unit with a mouse metallothionein (MT-1) promoter at the 5' end and MT-1 genomic sequences or SV40 early introns and polyadenylation signals at the 3' end. Analysis of the expression vectors transfected into cells revealed that t-PA is expressed 100- to 200-fold more with an intronless vector utilizing the SV40 polyadenylation signal than with other, intron-containing vectors. RNA analysis of stable cell lines indicated that t-PA expression levels correlated with mRNA abundance. DNA copy number and transcriptional rate of the MT-1 promoter remained constant in cell lines transformed by different BPV expression vectors. Uterine t-PA produced by recombinant DNA means was enzymatically active and similar in properties to Bowes melanoma t-PA. PMID:2824147

  3. Immunological properties and tissue localization of two different collagen types in annelid and vestimentifera species.

    PubMed

    Gaill, F; Hamraoui, L; Sicot, F X; Timpl, R

    1994-12-01

    Rabbit antisera against cuticle and interstitial collagens from shallow sea water and hydrothermal vent annelids (Arenicola marina, and the pompeii worm Alvinella pompejana) and the vestimentiferan tube worm Riftia pachyptila showed a clear distinction between the two types of collagens, a broad cross-reactivity among the worm collagens and no reactions with various mammalian collagens. The antibodies reacted with various epitopes found on both triple helical and unfolded collagens. The cuticle collagens were localized by immunofluorescence to the outer surface of the epidermis and in annelids additionally to the anterior part of the digestive tract. The interstitial collagen was detected underneath the epidermis and between distinct muscle layers. Both collagens were also detected in the anterior obturaculum, a tissue unique to vestimentifera. They were located either in the periphery of the tissue (cuticle collagen) or in the central part (interstitial collagen), which appeared to be a large extracellular matrix. Both collagens, however, showed a different supramolecular organization in the obturaculum when compared to the posterior body wall collagens. The identity of the interstitial collagens from the two locations was verified by biochemical analysis. These data demonstrate a very special and rigid matrix structure in the obturaculum, which may adapt it to specific physiological functions. PMID:7720731

  4. Tissue sorbitol concentration can be altered by changing the type of dietary carbohydrate or copper status

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Fields, M. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

    1989-02-09

    This study was designed to determine whether rehabilitation of tissue sorbitol concentration occurs when rats consuming a high-fructose, low-copper diet are changed to diets containing starch or copper. Weanling male rats were provided with a diet which contained 62.7% fructose and 0.6 or 6.0 {mu}g Cu/g (F-Cu) for 4 weeks and then changed to either a fructose diet which contained 6.0 {mu}g Cu/g or a starch diet which contained either 0.6 or 6.0 {mu}g Cu/g for 2 weeks. Hepatic copper concentration of rats eating copper-deficient diets was about 30% of copper adequate rats regardless of the type of dietary carbohydrate. Pancreatic fructose, glucose and sorbitol concentrations were significantly lowered in rats changed to a starch diet. Kidney fructose and sorbitol concentrations were significantly lowered in rats changed to a starch diet. For all dietary groups, pancreatic and kidney sorbitol concentrations returned to normal after removal of rats from the F-Cu diet. In general, changing rats from a high-fructose, low-copper diet to a fructose diet with copper or a starch diet with or without copper improved the copper deficiency symptoms which changed in concert with tissue sorbitol levels.

  5. Innate lymphoid type 2 cells sustain visceral adipose tissue eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Molofsky, Ari B.; Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Liang, Hong-Erh; Van Dyken, Steven J.; Cheng, Laurence E.; Mohapatra, Alexander; Chawla, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have been implicated in metabolic homeostasis and the maintenance of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs). The absence of eosinophils can lead to adiposity and systemic insulin resistance in experimental animals, but what maintains eosinophils in adipose tissue is unknown. We show that interleukin-5 (IL-5) deficiency profoundly impairs VAT eosinophil accumulation and results in increased adiposity and insulin resistance when animals are placed on a high-fat diet. Innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s) are resident in VAT and are the major source of IL-5 and IL-13, which promote the accumulation of eosinophils and AAM. Deletion of ILC2s causes significant reductions in VAT eosinophils and AAMs, and also impairs the expansion of VAT eosinophils after infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, an intestinal parasite associated with increased adipose ILC2 cytokine production and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Further, IL-33, a cytokine previously shown to promote cytokine production by ILC2s, leads to rapid ILC2-dependent increases in VAT eosinophils and AAMs. Thus, ILC2s are resident in VAT and promote eosinophils and AAM implicated in metabolic homeostasis, and this axis is enhanced during Th2-associated immune stimulation. PMID:23420878

  6. High Resolution Ultrasound Murine Bowel Characterization and Acoustic Microscopy of Murine Intestinal Dysplasia

    E-print Network

    Greenaway, Alan

    High Resolution Ultrasound Murine Bowel Characterization and Acoustic Microscopy of Murine. Aim: To measure accurately the ultrasound signatures of normal and pre-cancerous tissue and to achieve ultrasound imaging, high resolution ultrasound imaging (HRUS) is more sensitive to cell structure and changes

  7. Pre-centralization soft tissue distraction for Bayne type IV congenital radial deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Sanjeev; Finuoli, Anthony L; Ghobadi, Fereydoon

    2005-01-01

    There are several surgical options for the treatment of severe congenital radial deficiency. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the results of a staged protocol consisting of gradual soft tissue distraction with an Ilizarov external fixator followed by centralization of the ulna. Three patients (four extremities) with Bayne type IV radial club hand were treated at an average age of 18 months. At a follow-up of 26 months, an average correction of 72 degrees in the hand-forearm angle and an improvement of 19 mm in the hand-forearm position were obtained. There were no cases of neurovascular compromise, wound infection, carpal resection, or ulnar shortening. All families were pleased with the results. These findings suggest that a staged surgical approach is a technically feasible alternative in the treatment of severe congenital radial club hand deformity in young children. PMID:15832159

  8. Ultrasound of the pleurae and lungs.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Mathis, Gebhard; Cui, Xin-Wu; Ignee, Andre; Hocke, Michael; Hirche, Tim O

    2015-02-01

    The value of ultrasound techniques in examination of the pleurae and lungs has been underestimated over recent decades. One explanation for this is the assumption that the ventilated lungs and the bones of the rib cage constitute impermeable obstacles to ultrasound. However, a variety of pathologies of the chest wall, pleurae and lungs result in altered tissue composition, providing substantially increased access and visibility for ultrasound examination. It is a great benefit that the pleurae and lungs can be non-invasively imaged repeatedly without discomfort or radiation exposure for the patient. Ultrasound is thus particularly valuable in follow-up of disease, differential diagnosis and detection of complications. Diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in patients with pathologic pleural and pulmonary findings can tolerably be performed under real-time ultrasound guidance. In this article, an updated overview is given presenting not only the benefits and indications, but also the limitations of pleural and pulmonary ultrasound. PMID:25592455

  9. Distribution and Characterization of Rhogocyte Cell Types in the Mantle Tissue of Haliotis laevigata.

    PubMed

    Sairi, Fareed; Valtchev, Peter; Gomes, Vincent G; Dehghani, Fariba

    2015-04-01

    Molluscan rhogocytes are known to be the only cells able to synthesize hemocyanin that is one of the largest respiratory proteins in nature. However, investigation of rhogocyte cells in vitro is limited due to difficulty in isolating and establishing marine cell culture. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature and distribution of rhogocyte cells of Haliotis laevigata in the mantle tissue with respect to the expression of the two known isoforms of hemocyanin. Rhogocyte cells were identified using immunofluorescence-fluorescence in situ hybridization (IF-FISH) that involved simultaneous staining of localized hemocyanin by a polyclonal antibody while the mRNA was hybridized with FISH probes. The distribution of rhogocyte cells was demonstrated using flow cytometry, followed by cell sorting with fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) and confocal microscope imaging for further characterization. Our results suggested that the mantle tissue is dominated by two distinct populations of rhogocyte cells that synthesize hemocyanin type 1. Observation with confocal microscopy of both populations revealed hemocyanin localization in the periphery of the cell membrane. Cell population with higher antibody signal had irregular and elongated cell morphology with punctate mRNA probe signals. The second population with lower antibody signal had ovoid morphology and wide distribution of mRNA probe signals. We suggest that these populations represent two distinct phases of hemocyanin biosynthesis of a single isoform, which is closely related to Haliotis tuberculata type 1 hemocyanin (HtH1). The knowledge acquired in this study enhances the understanding of the biology of rhogocyte cells and biosynthesis of hemocyanin. PMID:25382219

  10. Low-frequency quantitative ultrasound imaging of cell death in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Falou, Omar; Czarnota, Gregory J. [Imaging Research – Physical Science, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada) [Imaging Research – Physical Science, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Papanicolau, Naum; Tadayyon, Hadi [Imaging Research – Physical Science, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Imaging Research – Physical Science, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Lee, Justin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Zubovits, Judit [Department of Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Department of Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Sadeghian, Alireza [Department of Computer Science, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)] [Department of Computer Science, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Karshafian, Raffi [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Al-Mahrouki, Azza; Giles, Anoja [Imaging Research – Physical Science, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Imaging Research – Physical Science, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Kolios, Michael C. [Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)] [Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Currently, no clinical imaging modality is used routinely to assess tumor response to cancer therapies within hours to days of the delivery of treatment. Here, the authors demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasound at a clinically relevant frequency to quantitatively detect changes in tumors in response to cancer therapies using preclinical mouse models.Methods: Conventional low-frequency and corresponding high-frequency ultrasound (ranging from 4 to 28 MHz) were used along with quantitative spectroscopic and signal envelope statistical analyses on data obtained from xenograft tumors treated with chemotherapy, x-ray radiation, as well as a novel vascular targeting microbubble therapy.Results: Ultrasound-based spectroscopic biomarkers indicated significant changes in cell-death associated parameters in responsive tumors. Specifically changes in the midband fit, spectral slope, and 0-MHz intercept biomarkers were investigated for different types of treatment and demonstrated cell-death related changes. The midband fit and 0-MHz intercept biomarker derived from low-frequency data demonstrated increases ranging approximately from 0 to 6 dBr and 0 to 8 dBr, respectively, depending on treatments administrated. These data paralleled results observed for high-frequency ultrasound data. Statistical analysis of ultrasound signal envelope was performed as an alternative method to obtain histogram-based biomarkers and provided confirmatory results. Histological analysis of tumor specimens indicated up to 61% cell death present in the tumors depending on treatments administered, consistent with quantitative ultrasound findings indicating cell death. Ultrasound-based spectroscopic biomarkers demonstrated a good correlation with histological morphological findings indicative of cell death (r{sup 2}= 0.71, 0.82; p < 0.001).Conclusions: In summary, the results provide preclinical evidence, for the first time, that quantitative ultrasound used at a clinically relevant frequency, in addition to high-frequency ultrasound, can detect tissue changes associated with cell death in vivo in response to cancer treatments.

  11. Human vascular to cardiac tissue selectivity of L- and T-type calcium channel antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Sarsero, Doreen; Fujiwara, Toshimasa; Molenaar, Peter; Angus, James A

    1998-01-01

    Voltage-operated calcium channel (VOCC) antagonists are effective antihypertensive and antianginal agents but they also depress myocardial contractility. We compared four L-type calcium channel antagonists, felodipine, nifedipine, amlodipine and verapamil and a relatively T-type selective calcium channel antagonist, mibefradil, on human and rat isolated tissue assays to determine their functional vascular to cardiac tissue selectivity (V/C) ratio. The V/C ratio was calculated as the ratio of the IC50 value of the antagonist that reduced (by 50%) submaximally contracted (K+ 62?mM) human small arteries from the aortic vasa vasorum (vascular, V) mounted in a myograph and the IC50 value of the antagonist that reduced (?)-isoprenaline (6?nM) submaximally stimulated human right atrial trabeculae muscle (cardiac, C) mounted in organ chambers. The average pIC50 values (?log IC50?M) for the human vascular preparations were felodipine 8.30, nifedipine 7.78, amlodipine 6.64, verapamil 6.26 and mibefradil 6.22. The average pIC50 values for the cardiac muscle were felodipine 7.21, nifedipine 6.95, verapamil 6.91, amlodipine 5.94, and mibefradil 4.61. The V/C ratio calculated as antilog [pIC50V-pIC50C] is thus mibefradil 41, felodipine 12, nifedipine 7, amlodipine 5 and verapamil 0.2. In rat small mesenteric arteries the pIC50 values for the five drugs were similar to the values for human vasa vasorum arteries contracted by K+ 62?mM. However for methoxamine (10??M) contraction in the rat arteries the pIC50 values were lower for felodipine 7.24 and nifedipine 6.23, but similar for verapamil 6.13, amlodipine 6.28 and mibefradil 5.91. In conclusion, in the human tissue assays, the putative T-channel antagonist mibefradil shows the highest vascular to cardiac selectivity ratio; some 3 fold higher than the dihydropyridine, felodipine, and some 200 fold more vascular selective than the phenylalkylamine, verapamil. This favourable vascular to cardiac selectivity for mibefradil, from a new chemical class of VOCC antagonist, may be explained by its putative T-channel selectivity. PMID:9776350

  12. Periostin as a Tissue and Urinary Biomarker of Renal Injury in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Satirapoj, Bancha; Tassanasorn, Surat; Charoenpitakchai, Mongkon; Supasyndh, Ouppatham

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving the early detection of diabetic nephropathy remains a great challenge in disease management. Periostin is a marker of renal tubular injury and related to progressive kidney injury in animal models of chronic kidney disease. The clinical implications of urinary periostin activities in patients with type 2 diabetes have not been evaluated. Methods Urine samples were obtained from 30 healthy volunteers and 328 type 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (n=114), microalbuminuria (n=100) and macroalbuminuria (n=114). The excretion levels of urinary periostin were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical periostin expression was determined in kidney tissues from overt diabetic nephropathy. Results Increased periostin expression in glomeruli and tubular epithelium in diabetic renal pathology was observed. Urinary periostin levels were significantly elevated in the patients of the normoalbuminuria [3.06 (IQR: 1.12, 6.77) ng/mgCr], microalbuminuria [8.71 (IQR: 5.09, 19.29) ng/mgCr] and macroalbuminuria [13.58 (IQR: 3.99, 16.19) ng/mgCr] compared with healthy controls [1.15 (IQR: 0.60, 1.63) ng/mgCr] (P<0.01).Increased urine periostin level significantly correlated with aging, high albuminuria and decline of GFR. Urine periostin ELISA also demonstrated high performance for the diagnosis of established normoalbuminuric, microalbuminuric and macroalbuminuric type 2 diabetes (AUC 0.78 (95%CI, 0.71 to 0.86), 0.99 (95%CI, 0.98 to 1.00) and 0.95 (95%CI, 0.91 to 0.98), respectively). Conclusion The study indicates that increased urine periostin levels can be detected in patients with type 2 diabetes before the onset of significant albuminuria. Urinary periostin is an associated renal derangement in patients with established diabetic nephropathy and it may be used as an early marker of diabetic renal injury. PMID:25884625

  13. Diagnostic ultrasound exposure in man.

    PubMed

    Gramiak, R

    1975-09-01

    In his review of the AAPM statement on ultrasound, the author feels that allowing "some" research or demonstration on normal persons in the face of cautionary statements on as yet unknown side effects is an inconsistent position. The use of videotapes and the development of simulators hacked by data banks are offered in place of tissue phantoms. PMID:1153790

  14. Dorsalis pedis aneurysm: ultrasound diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Maydew, Marcus S

    2007-02-01

    Aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm of the dorsalis pedis artery are rare vascular entities, producing a focal soft tissue mass in the dorsal foot. A case of dorsalis pedis aneurysm is reported, illustrating the utility of ultrasound as the key imaging modality for prompt, accurate diagnosis. PMID:17165046

  15. Beneficial Autoimmunity at Body Surfaces – Immune Surveillance and Rapid Type 2 Immunity Regulate Tissue Homeostasis and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalessandri, Tim; Strid, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells (ECs) line body surface tissues and provide a physicochemical barrier to the external environment. Frequent microbial and non-microbial challenges such as those imposed by mechanical disruption, injury or exposure to noxious environmental substances including chemicals, carcinogens, ultraviolet-irradiation, or toxins cause activation of ECs with release of cytokines and chemokines as well as alterations in the expression of cell-surface ligands. Such display of epithelial stress is rapidly sensed by tissue-resident immunocytes, which can directly interact with self-moieties on ECs and initiate both local and systemic immune responses. ECs are thus key drivers of immune surveillance at body surface tissues. However, ECs have a propensity to drive type 2 immunity (rather than type 1) upon non-invasive challenge or stress – a type of immunity whose regulation and function still remain enigmatic. Here, we review the induction and possible role of type 2 immunity in epithelial tissues and propose that rapid immune surveillance and type 2 immunity are key regulators of tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis. PMID:25101088

  16. Tissue microstructure, physicochemical properties, and bioactive compound locations in different sweet pepper types.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Carrión, María; Hernando, Isabel; Quiles, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the location and content of some bioactive compounds in three different California sweet pepper types (red, green and yellow). The location was studied using different microscopic techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy at low temperatures (cryo-SEM) and light microscopy. Several physicochemical properties of the samples (carotenoid content, total soluble phenol content, antioxidant activity, dietary fibre content, total soluble solids content, pH and textural properties) were also examined. The degree of compaction and structuring of the cell wall was found to be indirectly related to solute transport at the cellular level and directly related to total dietary fibre content. The three types of pepper displayed formation and accumulation of phenolic aggregates and an active circulation of solutes. Yellow pepper tissue had the most labile cell walls and the highest transport of solutes. Red peppers could be suitable for obtaining extracts rich in carotenoid compounds, yellow peppers for obtaining phenolic compounds with a high antioxidant activity and green peppers for extracts with high dietary fibre content. PMID:23996968

  17. Cell type specific gene expression analysis of prostate needle biopsies resolves tumor tissue heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Krönig, Malte; Walter, Max; Drendel, Vanessa; Werner, Martin; Jilg, Cordula A.; Richter, Andreas S.; Backofen, Rolf; McGarry, David; Follo, Marie; Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Schüle, Roland

    2015-01-01

    A lack of cell surface markers for the specific identification, isolation and subsequent analysis of living prostate tumor cells hampers progress in the field. Specific characterization of tumor cells and their microenvironment in a multi-parameter molecular assay could significantly improve prognostic accuracy for the heterogeneous prostate tumor tissue. Novel functionalized gold-nano particles allow fluorescence-based detection of absolute mRNA expression levels in living cells by fluorescent activated flow cytometry (FACS). We use of this technique to separate prostate tumor and benign cells in human prostate needle biopsies based on the expression levels of the tumor marker alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR). We combined RNA and protein detection of living cells by FACS to gate for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) positive tumor and benign cells, EPCAM/CD45 double negative mesenchymal cells and CD45 positive infiltrating lymphocytes. EPCAM positive epithelial cells were further sub-gated into AMACR high and low expressing cells. Two hundred cells from each population and several biopsies from the same patient were analyzed using a multiplexed gene expression profile to generate a cell type resolved profile of the specimen. This technique provides the basis for the clinical evaluation of cell type resolved gene expression profiles as pre-therapeutic prognostic markers for prostate cancer. PMID:25514598

  18. A Prototype Ultrasound Instrument To Size Stone Fragments During Ureteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Mathew D.; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2008-09-01

    An intraoperative tool to measure the size of kidney stones or stone fragments during ureteroscopy would help urologists assess if a fragment is small enough to be removed through the ureter or ureteral access sheath. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of a prototype ultrasound device used to measure in vitro stone fragments compared to caliper measurements. A 10-MHz, 10-french ultrasound transducer probe was used to send an ultrasound pulse and receive ultrasound reflections from the stone using two methods. In Method 1 the instrument was aligned over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through the stone. The time between reflections from the proximal and the distal surface of the stone were used along with the sound speed to calculate the stone size. Although the sound speed varied between stones, it was unlikely to be known during surgery and thus was estimated at 3000 m/s for calculations. In Method 2 the instrument was aligned partially over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through water with a sound speed of 1481 m/s. Time was determined between the reflection from the proximal stone surface and the reflection from the tissue phantom on which the stone rested. Methods 1 and 2 were compared by linear regression to caliper measurements of the size of 19 human stones of 3 different stone types. Accuracy was measured by the difference of the mean ultrasound and mean caliper measurement and precision was measured as the standard deviation in the ultrasound measurements. For Method 1, the correlation between caliper-determined stone size and ultrasound-determined stone size was r2 = 0.71 (p<0.0001). In all but two stones accuracy and precision were less than 1 mm. For Method 2, the correlation was r2 = 0.99 (p<0.0001) and measurements were accurate and precise to within 0.25 mm. We conclude that the prototype device and either method measure stone size with good accuracy.

  19. Tongue movement and syllable onset complexity: ultrasound study 

    E-print Network

    Kocjancic, Tanja

    2008-01-01

    In this study ultrasound was used to investigate tongue movements in syllables with different number and type of onset consonants. Ultrasound recordings provided the information of the distance the tongue travels over a target, and audio recordings...

  20. Shaken and stirred: mechanisms of ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Bader, Kenneth B; Gruber, Matthew J; Holland, Christy K

    2015-01-01

    The use of ultrasound and microbubbles as an effective adjuvant to thrombolytics has been reported in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. However, the specific mechanisms underlying ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis have yet to be elucidated. We present visual observations illustrating two mechanisms of ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis: acoustic cavitation and radiation force. An in vitro flow model was developed to observe human whole blood clots exposed to human fresh-frozen plasma, recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (0, 0.32, 1.58 or 3.15 ?g/mL) and the ultrasound contrast agent Definity (2 ?L/mL). Intermittent, continuous-wave ultrasound (120 kHz, 0.44 MPa peak-to-peak pressure) was used to insonify the perfusate. Ultraharmonic emissions indicative of stable cavitation were monitored with a passive cavitation detector. The clot was observed with an inverted microscope, and images were recorded with a charge-coupled device camera. The images were post-processed to determine the time-dependent clot diameter and root-mean-square velocity of the clot position. Clot lysis occurred preferentially surrounding large, resonant-sized bubbles undergoing stable oscillations. Ultraharmonic emissions from stable cavitation were found to correlate with the lytic rate. Clots were observed to translate synchronously with the initiation and cessation of the ultrasound exposure. The root-mean-square velocity of the clot correlated with the lytic rate. These data provide visual documentation of stable cavitation activity and radiation force during sub-megahertz sonothrombolysis. The observations of this study suggest that the process of clot lysis is complex, and both stable cavitation and radiation force are mechanistically responsible for this beneficial bio-effect in this in vitro model. PMID:25438846

  1. Associations between Ultrasound Measures of Abdominal Fat Distribution and Indices of Glucose Metabolism in a Population at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The ADDITION-PRO Study

    PubMed Central

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Vistisen, Dorte; Sandbaek, Annelli; Almdal, Thomas P.; Christiansen, Jens S.; Lauritzen, Torsten; Witte, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Visceral adipose tissue measured by CT or MRI is strongly associated with an adverse metabolic risk profile. We assessed whether similar associations can be found with ultrasonography, by quantifying the strength of the relationship between different measures of obesity and indices of glucose metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 1342 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. We measured visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue with ultrasonography, anthropometrics and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance. Indices of glucose metabolism were derived from a three point oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression of obesity measures on indices of glucose metabolism was performed. Results Mean age was 66.2 years, BMI 26.9kg/m2, subcutaneous adipose tissue 2.5cm and visceral adipose tissue 8.0cm. All measures of obesity were positively associated with indicators of glycaemia and inversely associated with indicators of insulin sensitivity. Associations were of equivalent magnitude except for subcutaneous adipose tissue and the visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio, which showed weaker associations. One standard deviation difference in BMI, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, waist/height ratio and body fat percentage corresponded approximately to 0.2mmol/l higher fasting glucose, 0.7mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose, 0.06-0.1% higher HbA1c, 30 % lower HOMA index of insulin sensitivity, 20% lower Gutt’s index of insulin sensitivity, and 100 unit higher Stumvoll’s index of beta-cell function. After adjustment for waist circumference visceral adipose tissue was still significantly associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend towards inverse or no associations with subcutaneous adipose tissue. After adjustment, a 1cm increase in visceral adipose tissue was associated with ~5% lower insulin sensitivity (p?0.0004) and ~0.18mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose (p?0.001). Conclusion Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue assessed by ultrasonography are significantly associated with glucose metabolism, even after adjustment for other measures of obesity. PMID:25849815

  2. Different Types of Scaffolds for Reconstruction of the Urinary Tract by Tissue Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Brehmer; Dorothea Rohrmann; Christoph Becker; Günther Rau; Gerhard Jakse

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Tissue engineering is an important and expanding field in reconstructive surgery. The ideal biomaterial for urologic tissue engineering should be biodegradable and support autologous cell growth. We examined different scaffolds to select the ideal material for the reconstruction of the bladder wall by tissue engineering. Materials and Methods: We seeded mouse fibroblasts and human keratinocytes in a co-culture model

  3. Quantitative ultrasound can assess the regeneration process of tissue-engineered cartilage using a complex between adherent bone marrow cells and a three-dimensional scaffold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Hattori; Yoshinori Takakura; Hajime Ohgushi; Takashi Habata; Kota Uematsu; Jun Yamauchi; Kenji Yamashita; Takashi Fukuchi; Masao Sato; Ken Ikeuchi

    2005-01-01

    Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) defects resulting from traumatic injury or degenerative joint disease do not repair themselves spontaneously. Therefore, such defects may require novel regenerative strategies to restore biologically and biomechanically functional tissue. Recently, tissue engineering using a complex of cells and scaffold has emerged as a new approach for repairing cartilage defects and restoring cartilage function. With the advent

  4. Thermotherapy: feasibility study using a single focussed ultrasound transducer.

    PubMed

    Barkman, C A; Almquist, L O; Kirkhorn, T; Holmer, N G

    1999-01-01

    Feasibility studies on tissue lesioning using high intensity focussed ultrasound (HIFU) thermotherapy were carried out. A single strongly focussed transducer was used. The transducer has a diameter of 50 mm, a centre resonance frequency of 1 MHz and a focal distance of 50mm. Experiments were carried out both in vitro on pig muscle samples and in vivo on a pig (exposures on the thigh and on the liver). Different types of burst pulse signals were used, the best results were obtained with 1-2 s burst pulses, with a repetition period of 10s. The risk for skin damage increases for longer burst pulses. Lesions at the focus were obtained both in the experiments in vitro as well as in vivo. The size and the shape of the lesions in vivo resemble those obtained in vitro. The results of the experiments show that tissue lesions can be obtained at deep locations (4.5 cm in the tissue) with the transducer. The lesions were well discriminated from the surrounding tissue and were ellipsoid- or drop-shaped. The lesion size can be controlled by the choice of time parameters of the burst pulse signal, power and treatment time. Temperatures of about 80 degrees C were measured in the tissue at the ultrasound focus in vitro. These results show that elevated temperatures can be induced rapidly at the focus, thus reducing the effect of heat dissipation through blood perfusion. PMID:10193757

  5. Ultrasound Annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The 1984 edition of Ultrasound Annual explores new applications of ultrasound in speech and swallowing and offers guidelines on the use of ultrasound and nuclear medicine in thyroid and biliary tract disease. Other areas covered include Doppler sonography of the abdomen, intraoperative abdominal ultrasound, sonography of the placenta, ultrasound of the neonatal head and abdomen, and sonographic echo patterns created by fat.

  6. Temperature Changes During Therapeutic Ultrasound in the Precooled Human Gastrocnemius Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Rimington, Stephanie J.; Draper, David O.; Durrant, Earlene; Fellingham, Gilbert

    1994-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound is frequently employed as a deep heating rehabilitation modality. It is administered in one of three ways: a) ultrasound with no preceding treatment, b) ultrasound on preheated tissues, or c) ultrasound on precooled tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultrasound treatments on the tissue temperature rise of precooled human gastrocnemius muscle. Sixteen male subjects had a 23-gauge hypodermic needle microprobe inserted 3 cm deep into the medial aspect of their anesthetized gastrocnemius muscles. Data were gathered on each subject for one of two randomly assigned treatments: a) ultrasound treatment on precooled tissue, or b) ultrasound with no preceding treatment. Each treatment consisted of ultrasound delivered topically at 1.5 watts/cm2 in a continuous mode for 10 minutes. Ultrasound was applied in an overlapping longitudinal motion at 4 cm/s, with temperature readings recorded at 30-second intervals. We discovered a difference between the two treatment methods [t(14) = 16.26, p < .0001]. Ultrasound alone increased tissue temperature an average of 2°C, whereas ultrasound preceded by 15 minutes of ice did not increase tissue temperature even to the original baseline level. We concluded that, at a depth of 3 cm, ultrasound alone provided a greater heating effect than ultrasound preceded by an ice treatment. PMID:16558295

  7. Ultrasound RF time series for classification of breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Uniyal, Nishant; Eskandari, Hani; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Sojoudi, Samira; Gordon, Paula; Warren, Linda; Rohling, Robert N; Salcudean, Septimiu E; Moradi, Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    This work reports the use of ultrasound radio frequency (RF) time series analysis as a method for ultrasound-based classification of malignant breast lesions. The RF time series method is versatile and requires only a few seconds of raw ultrasound data with no need for additional instrumentation. Using the RF time series features, and a machine learning framework, we have generated malignancy maps, from the estimated cancer likelihood, for decision support in biopsy recommendation. These maps depict the likelihood of malignancy for regions of size 1 mm(2) within the suspicious lesions. We report an area under receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84%-0.90%) using support vector machines and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.78-0.85) using Random Forests classification algorithms, on 22 subjects with leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. Changing the classification method yielded consistent results which indicates the robustness of this tissue typing method. The findings of this report suggest that ultrasound RF time series, along with the developed machine learning framework, can help in differentiating malignant from benign breast lesions, subsequently reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies after mammography screening. PMID:25350925

  8. Host protective roles of type 2 immunity: Parasite killing and tissue repair, flip sides of the same coin

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Judith E.; Sutherland, Tara E.

    2014-01-01

    Metazoan parasites typically induce a type 2 immune response, characterized by T helper 2 (Th2) cells that produce the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 among others. The type 2 response is host protective, reducing the number of parasites either through direct killing in the tissues, or expulsion from the intestine. Type 2 immunity also protects the host against damage mediated by these large extracellular parasites as they migrate through the body. At the center of both the innate and adaptive type 2 immune response, is the IL-4R? that mediates many of the key effector functions. Here we highlight the striking overlap between the molecules, cells and pathways that mediate both parasite control and tissue repair. We have proposed that adaptive Th2 immunity evolved out of our innate repair pathways to mediate both accelerated repair and parasite control in the face of continual assault from multicellular pathogens. Type 2 cytokines are involved in many aspects of mammalian physiology independent of helminth infection. Therefore understanding the evolutionary relationship between helminth killing and tissue repair should provide new insight into immune mechanisms of tissue protection in the face of physical injury. PMID:25028340

  9. Host protective roles of type 2 immunity: parasite killing and tissue repair, flip sides of the same coin.

    PubMed

    Allen, Judith E; Sutherland, Tara E

    2014-08-01

    Metazoan parasites typically induce a type 2 immune response, characterized by T helper 2 (Th2) cells that produce the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 among others. The type 2 response is host protective, reducing the number of parasites either through direct killing in the tissues, or expulsion from the intestine. Type 2 immunity also protects the host against damage mediated by these large extracellular parasites as they migrate through the body. At the center of both the innate and adaptive type 2 immune response, is the IL-4R? that mediates many of the key effector functions. Here we highlight the striking overlap between the molecules, cells and pathways that mediate both parasite control and tissue repair. We have proposed that adaptive Th2 immunity evolved out of our innate repair pathways to mediate both accelerated repair and parasite control in the face of continual assault from multicellular pathogens. Type 2 cytokines are involved in many aspects of mammalian physiology independent of helminth infection. Therefore understanding the evolutionary relationship between helminth killing and tissue repair should provide new insight into immune mechanisms of tissue protection in the face of physical injury. PMID:25028340

  10. The Interaction of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 With Plasminogen Activators (Tissue-Type and Urokinase-Type) and Fibrin: Localization of Interaction Sites and Physiologic Relevance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaap Keijer; Marijke Linders; Anton-Jan van Zonneveld; Hartmut J. Ehrlich; Jan-Paul de Boer; Hans Pannekoek

    1991-01-01

    tory protein of the fibrinolytic system, harbors interaction sitesfor plasminogen activators (tissue-type (t-PA) and uroki- nase-type (u-PA)) and for fibrin. In this study, anti-PAl-1 monocional antibodies (MoAbs) were used to identify interac- tion sites of PAI-1 with these components. The binding sites of 18 different MoAbs were established and are located on five distinct \\

  11. Ultrasound elastography for musculoskeletal applications

    PubMed Central

    Drakonaki, E E; Allen, G M; Wilson, D J

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography (EUS) is a method to assess the mechanical properties of tissue, by applying stress and detecting tissue displacement using ultrasound. There are several EUS techniques used in clinical practice; strain (compression) EUS is the most common technique that allows real-time visualisation of the elastographic map on the screen. There is increasing evidence that EUS can be used to measure the mechanical properties of musculoskeletal tissue in clinical practice, with the future potential for early diagnosis to both guide and monitor therapy. This review describes the various EUS techniques available for clinical use, presents the published evidence on musculoskeletal applications of EUS and discusses the technical issues, limitations and future perspectives of this method in the assessment of the musculoskeletal system. PMID:23091287

  12. Electromechanical systems to enhance the usability and diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound imaging

    E-print Network

    Gilbertson, Matthew Wright

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is used extensively in medicine to non-invasively examine soft tissues. Compared to computed-tomography (CT) scanning or X-ray imaging, ultrasound is lower-cost, more portable, real time, and subjects neither ...

  13. Thermal therapeutic method for selective treatment of deep-lying tissue by combining laser and high-intensity focused ultrasound energy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haemin; Kang, Jeeun; Chang, Jin Ho

    2014-05-01

    Photothermal therapy is performed by delivering laser radiation into the target lesion containing tissue chromophores so as to induce localized heating. For high treatment efficacy, the laser wavelength should be selected to maximize the absorption of incident laser radiation in the tissue chromophores. However, even with the optimal laser wavelength, both the absorption and the scattering of laser energy in tissue openly hamper treatment efficacy in deep-lying lesions. To overcome the limitation, we propose a dual thermal therapeutic method in which both laser and acoustic energies are transmitted to increase therapeutic depth while maintaining high target selectivity of photothermal therapy. Through skin-mimicking phantom experiments, it was verified that the two different energies are complementary in elevation of tissue temperature, and the treatment depth using laser radiation is increased along with acoustic energy. PMID:24784108

  14. ULTRASOUND-ENHANCED rt-PA THROMBOLYSIS IN AN EX VIVO PORCINE CAROTID ARTERY MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, Kathryn E.; Ivancevich, Nikolas M.; Haworth, Kevin J.; Caudell Stamper, Danielle N.; Vela, Deborah C.; Sutton, Jonathan T.; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J.; Holland, Christy K.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is known to enhance recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) thrombolysis. In this study, occlusive porcine whole blood clots were placed in flowing plasma within living porcine carotid arteries. Ultrasonically induced stable cavitation was investigated as an adjuvant to rt-PA thrombolysis. Aged, retracted clots were exposed to plasma alone, plasma containing rt-PA (7.1 ± 3.8 ?g/mL) or plasma with rt-PA and Definity® ultrasound contrast agent (0.79 ± 0.47 ?L/mL) with and without 120-kHz continuous wave ultrasound at a peak-to-peak pressure amplitude of 0.44 MPa. An insonation scheme was formulated to promote and maximize stable cavitation activity by incorporating ultrasound quiescent periods that allowed for the inflow of Definity®-rich plasma. Cavitation was measured with a passive acoustic detector throughout thrombolytic treatment. Thrombolytic efficacy was measured by comparing clot mass before and after treatment. Average mass loss for clots exposed to rt-PA and Definity® without ultrasound (n = 7) was 34%, and with ultrasound (n = 6) was 83%, which constituted a significant difference (p < 0.0001). Without Definity® there was no thrombolytic enhancement by ultrasound exposure alone at this pressure amplitude (n = 5, p < 0.0001). In the low-oxygen environment of the ischemic artery, significant loss of endothelium occurred but no correlation was observed between arterial tissue damage and treatment type. Acoustic stable cavitation nucleated by an infusion of Definity® enhances rt-PA thrombolysis without apparent treatment-related damage in this ex vivo porcine carotid artery model. PMID:21723448

  15. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    PubMed

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak; Vaidiyanathan, Sabanayagam; Garstka, Maria; Szucs, Szilard; Iohom, Gabriella

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance. PMID:23979618

  16. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nirupama; Needles, Andrew; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionizing irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of preclinical and clinical ultrasound systems , the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic. PMID:20541656

  17. Tissue-specific alternative splicing of mouse brain type ryanodine receptor\\/calcium release channel mRNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryosuke Miyatake; Aizo Furukawa; Masayuki Matsushita; Kazuhiko Iwahashi; Kazuhiko Nakamura; Yoshiyuki Ichikawa; Hiroshi Suwaki

    1996-01-01

    We detected alternative splicing of the mouse brain type ryanodine receptor (RyR3) mRNA. The splicing variant was located in the transmembrane segment. The non-splicing type (RyR3-II) included a stretch of 341 bp, and that of the 13th codon was stop codon TAA. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis shows that RyR3-II mRNA was expressed in various peripheral tissues and brain

  18. Mechanical and histological characterization of trachea tissue subjected to blast-type pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, B. J.; Bo, C.; Tucker, A. W.; Jardine, A. P.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

    2014-05-01

    Injuries to the respiratory system can be a component of polytrauma in blast-loading injuries. Tissues located at air-liquid interfaces, including such tissues in the respiratory system, are particularly vulnerable to damage by blast overpressures. There is a lack of information about the mechanical and cellular responses that contribute to the damage of this class of tissues subjected to the high strain rates associated with blast loading. Here, we describe the results of dynamic blast-like pressure loading tests at high strain rates on freshly harvested ex vivo trachea tissue specimens.

  19. Predictors of epicardial adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), visceral fat depot of the heart, was found to be associated with coronary artery disease in cardiac and non-cardiac patients. Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were introduced as potential markers to determine inflammation in various disorders. Recently, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) was found to be closely associated with atherosclerosis in general population. Waist circumference is commonly used to assess the risk factors in various metabolic disorders. There has been a well known relation between inflammation and peripheral adipose tissue in diabetes mellitus. However, the data regarding EAT and inflammation is scant in this population. Hence, we aimed to determine the relationship between PLR, NLR, AIP, waist circumference and EAT in diabetic patients. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 156 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (87 females, 69 males; mean age, 53.62?±?9.33 years) and 50 control subjects (35 females, 15 males; mean age, 51.06?±?8.74 years). EAT was measured by using a trans-thoracic echocardiogram. Atherogenic index of plasma was calculated as the logarithmically transformed ratio of the serum triglyceride to high density lipoprotein (HDL)cholesterol. NLR and PLR were calculated as the ratio of the neutrophils and platelets to lymphocytes, respectively. Results Waist circumference, PLR, NLR, AIP and EAT measurements were significantly higher in diabetic patients when compared to control subjects. When diabetic patients were separated into two groups according to their median value of EAT (Group 1, EAT?

  20. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Ethan J

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging of the prostate is commonly used to assess the size of the gland and for needle placement during systematic biopsy. Ultrasound evaluation of prostate cancer is limited by difficulty in distinguishing benign from malignant tissue. Although Doppler techniques may provide some improvement in the detection of prostate cancer, targeted biopsy based on conventional ultrasound with Doppler is not sufficient to replace systematic biopsy. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging techniques that employ microbubble contrast agents represent an innovative approach to imaging of the neovascularity associated with prostate cancer. This review describes the application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound to improve detection and assessment of prostate cancer. PMID:17021624

  1. High definition ultrasound imaging for battlefield medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, K.S.; Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Krumm, J.C.; Dickey, F.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rogers, B; Walsh, N. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-06-23

    A team has developed an improved resolution ultrasound system for low cost diagnostics. This paper describes the development of an ultrasound based imaging system capable of generating 3D images showing surface and subsurface tissue and bone structures. We include results of a comparative study between images obtained from X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) and ultrasound. We found that the quality of ultrasound images compares favorably with those from CT. Volumetric and surface data extracted from these images were within 7% of the range between ultrasound and CT scans. We also include images of porcine abdominal scans from two different sets of animal trials.

  2. Treating Cancer with Strong Magnetic Fields and Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Dr. Friedwardt Winterberg

    2009-06-03

    It is proposed to treat cancer by the combination of a strong magnetic field with intense ultrasound. At the low electrical conductivity of tissue the magnetic field is not frozen into the tissue, and oscillates against the tissue which is brought into rapid oscillation by the ultrasound. As a result, a rapidly oscillating electric field is induced in the tissue, strong enough to disrupt cancer cell replication. Unlike radio frequency waves, which have been proposed for this purpose, ultrasound can be easily focused onto the regions to be treated. This method has the potential for the complete eradication of the tumor.

  3. Impedance-controlled ultrasound probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbertson, Matthew W.; Anthony, Brian W.

    2011-03-01

    An actuated hand-held impedance-controlled ultrasound probe has been developed. The controller maintains a prescribed contact state (force and velocity) between the probe and a patient's body. The device will enhance the diagnostic capability of free-hand elastography and swept-force compound imaging, and also make it easier for a technician to acquire repeatable (i.e. directly comparable) images over time. The mechanical system consists of an ultrasound probe, ball-screw-driven linear actuator, and a force/torque sensor. The feedback controller commands the motor to rotate the ball-screw to translate the ultrasound probe in order to maintain a desired contact force. It was found that users of the device, with the control system engaged, maintain a constant contact force with 15 times less variation than without the controller engaged. The system was used to determine the elastic properties of soft tissue.

  4. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

  5. Two-stage multishape segmentation of brain structures using image intensity, tissue type, and location information1

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The authors propose a fast, robust, nonparametric, entropy-based, coupled, multishape approach to segment subcortical brain structures from magnetic resonance images (MRIs). Methods: The proposed method uses three types of information: Image intensity, tissue types, and locations of structures. The image intensity information is captured by estimating the probability density function (pdf) of the image intensities in each structure. The tissue type information is captured by applying an unsupervised tissue segmentation method to the image and estimating a probability mass function (pmf) for the tissue type of each structure. The location information is captured by estimating pdf of the location of each structure from the training datasets. The resulting pmf’s and pdf’s are used to define an entropy function whose minimum corresponds to a desirable segmentation of the structures. The authors propose a three-step optimization strategy for the segmentation method. In the first step, a powerful automatic initialization method is developed based on tissue type and location information of the structures. In the second step, a quasi-Newton method is used to optimize the parameters of the energy function. To speed up the iterations, derivatives of the energy function with respect to its parameters are analytically derived and used in the optimization process. In the last step, the limitations related to the prior shape model are removed and a level-set method is applied for the fine tuning of the segmentation results. Results: The proposed method is applied to two different datasets and the results are compared to those of previous methods in literature. Experimental results are presented for lateral ventricles, caudate, thalamus, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, and amygdala. Conclusions: The results illustrate superior performance of the proposed segmentation method compared to other methods in literature. The execution time of the algorithm is a few minutes, suitable for a variety of applications. PMID:20879609

  6. Spatial coherence in human tissue: implications for imaging and measurement

    PubMed Central

    Pinton, Gianmarco; Trahey, Gregg; Dahl, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The spatial coherence properties of the signal backscattered by human tissue and measured by an ultrasound transducer array are investigated. Fourier acoustics are used to describe the propagation of ultrasound through a model of tissue that includes reverberation and random scatterering in the imaging plane. The theoretical development describes how the near-field tissue layer, transducer aperture properties, and reflectivity function at the focus reduce the spatial coherence of the imaging wave measured at the transducer surface. Simulations are used to propagate the acoustic field through a histologically characterized sample of the human abdomen and to validate the theoretical predictions. In vivo measurements performed with a diagnostic ultrasound scanner demonstrate that simulations and theory closely match the measured spatial coherence characteristics in the human body across the transducer array’s entire spatial extent. The theoretical framework and simulations are then used to describe the physics of spatial coherence imaging, a type of ultrasound imaging that measures coherence properties instead of echo brightness. The same echo data from an F/2 transducer was used to generate B-mode and short lag spatial coherence images. For an anechoic lesion at the focus the contrast to noise ratio is 1.21 for conventional B-mode imaging and 1.95 for spatial coherence imaging. It is shown that the contrast in spatial coherence imaging depends on the properties of the near-field tissue layer and the backscattering function in the focal plane. PMID:25474774

  7. Low dose high frequency ultrasound therapy for stellate ganglion blockade in complex regional pain syndrome type I: a randomised placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Askin, Ayhan; Savas, Serpil; Koyuncuoglu, Hasan Rifat; Baloglu, Hale Hekim; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to determine the sympatholytic and clinical effects of low dose high frequency ultrasound (US) applied on stellate ganglion in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I patients. Material and method: Fourty-five patients with CRPS type I were randomly allocated into three groups. Pharmacological treatment, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), contrast bath and exercise were applied to all groups for 20 sessions. In addition to this treatment protocol, low dose high frequency US was applied on stellate ganglion as 0.5 watts/cm2 in group I; 3 watts/cm2 in group II and as placebo in group III. Forty age and sex matched healthy controls were served as controls. Sympathetic skin response (SSR) was used for determining the sympatholytic effects of US. Pain was assessed with visual analog scale (VAS), limitation of total finger flexion was assessed with finger pulp-distal crease distance, muscle strength was assessed with measuring the grip strength, upper extremity disability was assessed with Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scale before and after the treatment. Results: All groups evalueted in terms of VAS score, finger pulp-distal crease distance, grip strength and DASH score after the treatment. The improvements in those parameters were not statistically significant between the groups (P > 0.05). SSR latency was significantly shorter in CRPS patients than controls (P < 0.05). Pre- and post-treatment SSR amplitude and latency values were not different within patient groups (P > 0.05). The differences in pre- and post-treatment SSR amplitude and latency values were not statistically different between patient groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Low dose high frequency US applied on stellate ganglion did not make a sympathetic blockade and was not of further benefit for pain, range of motion, grip strength and upper extremity disability in CRPS type I patients. PMID:25664079

  8. Retinoids regulate human amniotic tissue-type plasminogen activator gene by a two-step mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Valerie; Marceau, Geoffroy; Gallot, Denis; Blanchon, Loïc; Sapin, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The collagenolytic effects of the tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) leading to extracellular matrix degradation are clearly involved in the physiopathology of human foetal membranes rupture. Nevertheless, the regulation of t-PA gene expression in extraembryonic developmental contexts remains unknown. The aim of our study is to propose the retinoic acids (RAs) as molecular regulators of t-PA expression in foetal membranes. RA induced t-PA mRNA and proteins in a time-dependent manner in amniotic membrane explants and Wistar Institute Susan Hayflick (WISH) cells. Furthermore, the use of cycloheximide revealed a two-step regulation of t-PA gene. Gene reporter assays confirmed that the RA-induced t-PA gene expression occurred through interactions of retinoid receptors (RARs and RXRs) with a DR5 response element located at –7 kb from the transcription site. Site-directed mutagenesis of this region of the t-PA promoter showed that SP1 factor was also retinoid-mediated induction, and immunoprecipitation assays revealed that SP1 and RAR/RXR interacted physically. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that interactions between RARs, RXRs and t-PA promoter were time dependent: RAR-?/RXR-? bound DR5 motif before and up to 12 hrs of RA exposure, and RAR-?/RXR-? bound DR5 response element after 12 hrs of RA treatment. Finally, experiments using shRNA and RAR-?-specific antagonist revealed that reducing RAR-? induction decreased t-PA induction. Altogether, our results established that the RA-mediated regulation of t-PA in human foetal membranes occurred through two steps, with a major role played by RAR-?. PMID:19538480

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone reduces plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and tissue plasminogen activator antigen in men.

    PubMed

    Beer, N A; Jakubowicz, D J; Matt, D W; Beer, R M; Nestler, J E

    1996-05-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may help prevent heart disease in men. To test the hypothesis that DHEA might exert its effects by enhancing endogenous fibrinolytic potential, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted that assessed the effects of DHEA administration on plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen. Eighteen men received 50 mg DHEA orally and 16 men received a placebo capsule thrice daily for 12 days. Serum DHEA-sulfate and plasma PAI-1 and tPA antigen were measured before and after treatment. In the DHEA group, serum DHEA-sulfate (from 7.5 +/- 1.2 micromol/L to 20.2 +/- 1.5 micromol/L (P < 0.0001), androstenedione (from 2.6 +/- 0.2 nmol/L to 4.0 +/- 0.4 nmol/L; P < 0.005) and estrone (from 172 +/- 21 pmol/L to 352 +/- 28 pmol/L; P < 0.005) increased, whereas plasma PAI-1 (from 55.4 +/- 3.8 ng/mL to 38.6 +/- 3.3 ng/mL; P < 0.0001) and tPA antigen (from 8.1 +/- 1.9 ng/mL to 5.4 +/- 1.3 ng/mL; P < 0.0005) decreased. In the placebo group, serum DHEA-sulfate declined slightly from 8.0 +/- 3.3 micromol/L to 7.3 +/- 3.4 micromol/L (P < 0.05), but no other measured steroid changed. Plasma PAI-1 and tPA antigen did not change in the placebo group. These findings suggest that DHEA administration reduces plasma PAI-1 and tPA antigen concentrations in men. PMID:8615394

  10. Lead in tissues of mallard ducks dosed with two types of lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were sacrificed one month after ingesting one number 4 all-lead shot or one number 4 lead-iron shot. Livers, kidneys, blood, wingbones, and eggs were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption. Necropsy of sacrificed ducks failed to reveal any of the tissue lesions usually associated with lead poisoning in waterfowl. Lead levels in ducks given all-lead shot averaged about twice those in ducks given lead-iron shot, reflecting the amount of lead in the two types of shot. Lead in the blood of ducks dosed with all-lead shot averaged 0.64 ppm, and 0.28 ppm in ducks given lead-iron shot. Lead residues in livers and kidneys of females given all-lead shot were significantly higher than in males. In both dosed groups, lead levels in wingbones of females were about 10 times those in males, and were significantly correlated with the number of eggs laid after dosage. Lead levels in contents and shells of eggs laid by hens dosed with all-lead shot were about twice those in eggs laid by hens dosed with lead-iron shot. Eggshells were found to best reflect levels of lead in the blood. Our results indicate that mallards maintained on a balanced diet and dosed with one lead shot may not accumulate extremely high lead levels in the liver and kidney. However, extremely high lead deposition may result in the bone of laying hens after ingesting sublethal amounts of lead shot as a result of mobilization of calcium from the bone during eggshell formation.

  11. Analysis of Artificial Radiocarbon in Different Skeletal and Dental Tissue Types to Evaluate Date of Death

    SciTech Connect

    Ubelaker, D H; Buchholz, B A; Stewart, J

    2005-07-19

    Radiocarbon dating, with special reference to the modern bomb-curve, can provide useful information to elucidate the date of death of skeletonized human remains. Interpretation can be enhanced with analysis of different types of tissues within a single skeleton because of the known variability of formation times and remodeling rates. Analysis of radiocarbon content of teeth, especially the enamel in tooth crowns provides information about the date of formation in the childhood years and in consideration of the known timing of tooth formation can be used to estimate the birth date after 1950 A.D. Radiocarbon analysis of modern cortical and trabecular bone samples from the same skeleton may allow proper placement on the pre-1963 or post-1963 sides of the bomb-curve since most trabecular bone generally undergoes more rapid remodeling than does most cortical bone. Pre-1963 bone formation would produce higher radiocarbon values for most trabecular bone than for most cortical bone. This relationship is reversed for formation after 1963. Radiocarbon analysis was conducted in this study on dental, cortical and trabecular bone samples from two adult individuals of known birth (1925 and 1926) and death dates (1995 and 1959). As expected, the dental results correspond to pre-bomb bomb-curve values reflecting conditions during the childhoods of the individuals. The curve radiocarbon content of most bone samples reflected the higher modern bomb-curve values. Within the bone sample analyses, the values of the trabecular bone were higher than those of cortical bone and supported the known placement on the pre-1963 side of the bomb-curve.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and thrombolytic effects of the recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in horses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To test the efficacy of the recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) alteplase in horses, the thrombolytic effect was tested in in vitro generated equine thrombi. The extent of lysis was determined by measuring the decrease in thrombi weight over a period of 4 hours. In vivo pharmacokinetics of alteplase were determined in 6 healthy horses. A single dose (1 mg/kg) was applied via intravenous infusion over a period of 30 minutes Coagulation-related variables, blood count and clinical parameters were taken before the treatment and until 48 h after treatment. In addition, plasma rt-PA concentration was measured until 300 min after commencing the infusion. Results In vitro, a dose dependent decrease of thrombus weight ranging from a 56 (± 6.5) % decrease for 0.5 ?g/ml to 92 (± 2.1) % decrease for 5 ?g/ml rt-PA was noted. The D-dimer concentration in the lysis medium correspondingly increased from 0.10 up to 10.8 mg/l. In vivo, none of the horses showed an adverse reaction to the alteplase infusion. In some horses blood parameters were slightly altered. The 1 mg/kg dose yielded the following pharmacokinetic parameters: Cmax = 1.25?±?0.27 ?g/ml; CL = 21.46?±?5.67 ml/min/kg; dominant half life (t1/2?) = 6.81?±?1.48 minutes; median elimination half life (t1/2?) = 171 min (range: 85–1061); AUC = 50.33?±?17.62 ?g?·?min /ml. Conclusion These findings indicate that a single dose of 1 mg/kg alteplase results in rt-PA plasma concentrations comparable to those in humans and might be sufficient for a thrombolytic therapy in horses. Further studies must be performed to determine the alteplase effectiveness in horses with jugular vein thrombosis. PMID:23938183

  13. Tongue movements and syllable onset complex-ity: Ultrasound study

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Tongue movements and syllable onset complex- ity: Ultrasound study Tanja Kocjancic1 1 Speech of Edinburgh, UK Abstract In this study ultrasound was used to investigate tongue movements in syllables with different number and type of onset consonants. Ultrasound recordings provided the information

  14. Monoclonal antibody to intermediate filaments of cytokeratin type. I. Drug studies and reactivity with cultured cells and tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Bártek, J; Kovarík, J; Lauerová, L; Munzarová, M

    1985-01-01

    Establishment of a mouse-mouse hybridoma and partial characterization of IgM monoclonal antibody (M-04) identifying cytoplasmic filamentous structures is described. Immunofluorescence performed on a panel of various cultured human cell types as well as on frozen sections of normal and tumour tissues revealed specificity of M-04 antibody for cells of epithelial origin. Using MCF-7 cell line as a model, staining patterns of microtubules, microfilaments and M-04-target filaments in untreated cells were compared with those pretreated with Colcemid and Cytochalasin B. From both differential staining of various cell types and the results of drug studies it is concluded that monoclonal antibody M-04 binds to intermediate filaments of cytokeratin type. Furthermore, restricted expression of M-04 target determinant among epithelial tissues is suggested from the lack of reaction in stratified skin epithelium. PMID:2578996

  15. Application of ultrasound in periodontics: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Vivek K.; Mohan, Ranjana; Bains, Rhythm

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound offers great potential in development of a noninvasive periodontal assessment tool that would offer great yield real time information, regarding clinical features such as pocket depth, attachment level, tissue thickness, histological change, calculus, bone morphology, as well as evaluation of tooth structure for fracture cracks. In therapeutics, ultrasonic instrumentation is proven effective and efficient in treating periodontal disease. When used properly, ultrasound-based instrument is kind to the soft tissues, require less healing time, and are less tiring for the operator. Microultrasonic instruments have been developed with the aim of improving root-surface debridement. The dye/paper method of mapping ultrasound fields demonstrated cavitational activity in an ultrasonic cleaning bath. Piezosurgery resulted in more favorable osseous repair and remodeling in comparison with carbide and diamond burs. The effect of ultrasound is not limited to fracture healing, but that bone healing after osteotomy or osteodistraction could be stimulated as well. PMID:20142946

  16. Hippocampal culture stimulus with 4-megahertz ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratore, Robert; LaManna, Justine K.; Lamprecht, Michael R.; Morrison, Barclay, III

    2012-10-01

    Among current modalities, ultrasound uniquely offers both millisecond and millimeter accuracy in noninvasively stimulating brain tissue. In addition, by sweeping the ultrasound beam within the refractory period of the neuronal tissue, ultrasonic neuromodulation can be adapted to target extended or multiply connected regions with quasi-simultaneity. Towards the development of this safe brain stimulus technique, the response of rat hippocampal cultures to ultrasound was investigated. Hippocampal slices, 0.4-mm thick, were obtained from 8-day old Sprague Dawley rats and cultured for 6 days. The in vitro cultures were exposed to multiple 100-ms 4.04-MHz ultrasound pulses from a 42-mm diameter, 90-mm spherical cap transducer. Peak pressure ranged from 0 through about 77 kPa. Responses in the form of electrical potentials from a sixty channel electrode array were digitized and recorded. The DG and CA1 regions of the hippocampus exhibited similar ultrasonically-evoked field potentials.

  17. Ultrasound Backscatter Imaging Provides Frequency-Dependent Information on Structure, Composition and Mechanical Properties of Human Trabecular Bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janne P. Karjalainen; Juha Töyräs; Ossi Riekkinen; Mikko Hakulinen; Jukka S. Jurvelin

    2009-01-01

    The strength as well as the acoustic properties of trabecular bone are determined by its structure and composition. Consequently, tissue structure and compositional properties also affect the ultrasound propagation in bone. The diagnostic potential of ultrasound has not been fully exploited in clinical quantitative ultrasound devices. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of quantitative ultrasound pulse-echo

  18. CT Imaging of facial trauma. The role of different types of reconstruction. Part II – soft tissues

    PubMed Central

    Myga-Porosi?o, Jolanta; Skrzelewski, Stanis?aw; Sraga, Wojciech; Borowiak, Hanna; Jackowska, Zuzanna; Kluczewska, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background: Injury to facial soft tissues as a complication of skeleton fractures is an important problem among patients with facial trauma. The aim of this work was to assess the value of multiplanar and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using multi-detector row technology in spiral data acquisition in patients with facial injuries of soft tissue. Material/Methods: Sixty-seven patients diagnosed with injury to the facial skeleton underwent a CT scan with the use of GE Hispeed Qx/i scanner. For each patient: a two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and 3D volume rendering (VR) were conducted. Post-injury lesions of soft tissues were assessed. During the assessment of the post-injury lesions of soft tissues, the following features were evaluated: Extraocular muscle and fat tissue herniation through fractures in the medial and inferior orbital walls. Fluid in the sinuses and in the nasal cavity. Subcutaneous tissue emphysema. Results: For subcutaneous emphysema and sinus fluid imaging, both the axial and the 2D image reconstruction proved comparably effective. However, 2D reconstructions were superior to transverse plane images with regard to herniations into fractures of the inferior orbital wall. 3D reconstruction has no importance in diagnosing soft tissue injuries. Conclusions: Multiplanar CT reconstructions increase the effectiveness of imaging of orbital tissue herniations, especially in case of fractures in the inferior orbital wall. In suspected soft tissue herniations, as well as prior to surgical treatment, spiral CT with 2D multiplanar reconstructions should be the method of choice. PMID:22802816

  19. Global microRNA expression profiles in insulin target tissues in a spontaneous rat model of type 2 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Herrera; H. E. Lockstone; J. M. Taylor; M. Ria; A. Barrett; S. Collins; P. Kaisaki; K. Argoud; C. Fernandez; M. E. Travers; J. P. Grew; J. C. Randall; A. L. Gloyn; D. Gauguier; M. I. McCarthy; C. M. Lindgren

    2010-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  MicroRNAs regulate a broad range of biological mechanisms. To investigate the relationship between microRNA expression and\\u000a type 2 diabetes, we compared global microRNA expression in insulin target tissues from three inbred rat strains that differ\\u000a in diabetes susceptibility.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using microarrays, we measured the expression of 283 microRNAs in adipose, liver and muscle tissue from hyperglycaemic (Goto–Kakizaki),\\u000a intermediate glycaemic (Wistar Kyoto)

  20. The ovine plasminogen activator inhibitors type 1 and type 2 cDNAs: molecular cloning, characterization and expression in various tissues.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Giorgos; Bizelis, Iosif; Rogdakis, Emmanuel; Politis, Ioannis

    2010-04-01

    Two serine proteases, urokinase and tissue type, control the activation of plasminogen to plasmin. These proteases are in turn specifically inhibited by plasminogen activator inhibitors type 1 and 2 (PAI-1 and PAI-2), both of which belong to the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. Very little information is available on the role of PAI-1 and PAI-2 in ruminants, in mammary gland involution and in the adipose tissue. In this paper we describe the isolation of the full-length cDNAs of ovine PAI-1 and PAI-2 using a polymerase chain reaction based strategy. The ovine PAI-1 cDNA comprised of 1460bp and it is characterized by a coding region of 1209bp, and 5'- and 3'-UTR regions of 147 and 104bp, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 402 amino acids. The ovine PAI-2 cDNA is comprised of 2128bp and it is characterized by a coding region of 957bp and 5'- and 3'-UTR regions of 58 and 819bp respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 416 amino acids. Three-dimensional models of the putative protein products of both cDNAs showed that the proteins bear a high similarity with their human counterparts. Real-time PCR revealed that the two inhibitors were predominantly expressed in the ovine mammary gland and adipose tissue. Furthermore, PAI-1 and PAI-2 mRNA levels were higher in the involuting mammary tissue and the adipose tissue obtained from non-lactating ewes compared to the corresponding values in tissues obtained from lactating ewes. These data are consistent with the notion that the plasminogen activation cascade plays a key role in involution of the mammary gland. The upregulation of expression of both inhibitors in the adipose tissue during the non-lactating period is a rather enigmatic observation. However, the expression of both inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2) together with that of urokinase type plasminogen activator and its receptor previously reported by our group, strengthen the suggestion that the adipose tissue functions as an endocrine besides an energy storage organ. PMID:20114071

  1. Ultrasound Identification and Lysis of Clots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei V. Alexandrov

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—Poor recovery after systemic tissue plasminogen,activator (tPA) therapy could result from the initial severity of ischemic insult and slow and incomplete thrombolysis. Persisting arterial occlusions can be identified at bedside using portable diagnostic ultrasound by detecting residual flow signals around the thrombus,(thrombolysis in brain ischemia [TIBI] flow grades). A narrow pulsed ultrasound beam can be steadily aimed at the thrombus\\/residual

  2. NIH-Supported Researchers Map Epigenome of More Than 100 Tissue and Cell Types

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2015, 7 a.m. EST NIH-supported researchers map epigenome of more than 100 tissue and cell ... understanding the genetic basis of human health, new maps of the human epigenome may further unravel the ...

  3. Portable Bladder Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Data from the National Population Health Survey indicate prevalence rates of urinary incontinence are 2.5% in women and 1.4 % in men in the general population. Prevalence of urinary incontinence is higher in women than men and prevalence increases with age. Identified risk factors for urinary incontinence include female gender, increasing age, urinary tract infections (UTI), poor mobility, dementia, smoking, obesity, consuming alcohol and caffeine beverages, physical activity, pregnancy, childbirth, forceps and vacuum-assisted births, episiotomy, abdominal resection for colorectal cancer, and hormone replacement therapy. For the purposes of this review, incontinence populations will be stratified into the following; the elderly, urology patients, postoperative patients, rehabilitation settings, and neurogenic bladder populations. Urinary incontinence is defined as any involuntary leakage of urine. Incontinence can be classified into diagnostic clinical types that are useful in planning evaluation and treatment. The major types of incontinence are stress (physical exertion), urge (overactive bladder), mixed (combined urge and stress urinary incontinence), reflex (neurological impairment of the central nervous system), overflow (leakage due to full bladder), continuous (urinary tract abnormalities), congenital incontinence, and transient incontinence (temporary incontinence). Postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, which is the amount of urine in the bladder immediately after urination, represents an important component in continence assessment and bladder management to provide quantitative feedback to the patient and continence care team regarding the effectiveness of the voiding technique. Although there is no standardized definition of normal PVR urine volume, measurements greater than 100 mL to 150 mL are considered an indication for urinary retention, requiring intermittent catheterization, whereas a PVR urine volume of 100 mL to 150 mL or less is generally considered an acceptable result of bladder training. Urinary retention has been associated with poor outcomes including UTI, bladder overdistension, and higher hospital mortality rates. The standard method of determining PVR urine volumes is intermittent catheterization, which is associated with increased risk of UTI, urethral trauma and discomfort. The Technology Being Reviewed Portable bladder ultrasound products are transportable ultrasound devices that use automated technology to register bladder volume digitally, including PVR volume, and provide three-dimensional images of the bladder. The main clinical use of portable bladder ultrasound is as a diagnostic aid. Health care professionals (primarily nurses) administer the device to measure PVR volume and prevent unnecessary catheterization. An adjunctive use of the bladder ultrasound device is to visualize the placement and removal of catheters. Also, portable bladder ultrasound products may improve the diagnosis and differentiation of urological problems and their management and treatment, including the establishment of voiding schedules, study of bladder biofeedback, fewer UTIs, and monitoring of potential urinary incontinence after surgery or trauma. Review Strategy To determine the effectiveness and clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound as reported in the published literature, the Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases. Nonsystematic reviews, nonhuman studies, case reports, letters, editorials, and comments were excluded. Summary of Findings Of the 4 included studies that examined the clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound in the elderly population, all found the device to be acceptable. One study reported that the device underestimated catheterized bladder volume In patients with urology

  4. Ultrasound annual, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an analyses of developments in the field of diagnostic ultrasound. Endoscopic ultrasound and ultrasound-guided aspiration of ovarian follicles for in vitro fertilization are addressed. The use of Doppler ultrasound to measure blood flow in obstetrics is also examined.

  5. of Ultrasound to Materials

    E-print Network

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    plications of Ultrasound to Materials Chemistry Kenneth S. Suslick This article willbegin of ultrasound. Some re- cent applications of sonochemistry to the synthesis of nanophase and amorphous metals of ultrasound on metal polvders in liquid-solid slurries. Cavitation The chemical effects of ultrasound do

  6. Induction of hyperthermia by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Hahn, G M; Marmor, J B; Pounds, D

    1981-01-01

    Induction of hyperthermia by ultrasound is facilitated by the characteristics of sound absorption in tissue: at frequency of 500 kHz the penetration distance in muscle is about 12.5 cm. Energy deposition patterns can be shaped by focussing or by the use of multiple transducers. An initial clinical study has demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the heating technique. Temperatures of 43-45 degrees for 30-45 min were obtained in surface accessible tumors. 50 per cent of the treated tumors regressed either partially or totally. Normal tissue damage was minimal even in sites that had previously been heavily irradiated. A few patients given relatively small doses of X-irradiation in addition to the hyperthermia responded very well. Based upon these encouraging results, a new ultrasound system designed for heating of deep seated lesions has been built and tested. PMID:7337840

  7. Patterns of regulatory activity across diverse human cell types predict tissue identity, transcription factor binding, and long-range interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Nathan C.; Thurman, Robert E.; Song, Lingyun; Safi, Alexias; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Lenhard, Boris; Crawford, Gregory E.; Furey, Terrence S.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory elements recruit transcription factors that modulate gene expression distinctly across cell types, but the relationships among these remains elusive. To address this, we analyzed matched DNase-seq and gene expression data for 112 human samples representing 72 cell types. We first defined more than 1800 clusters of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) with similar tissue specificity of DNase-seq signal patterns. We then used these to uncover distinct associations between DHSs and promoters, CpG islands, conserved elements, and transcription factor motif enrichment. Motif analysis within clusters identified known and novel motifs in cell-type-specific and ubiquitous regulatory elements and supports a role for AP-1 regulating open chromatin. We developed a classifier that accurately predicts cell-type lineage based on only 43 DHSs and evaluated the tissue of origin for cancer cell types. A similar classifier identified three sex-specific loci on the X chromosome, including the XIST lincRNA locus. By correlating DNase I signal and gene expression, we predicted regulated genes for more than 500K DHSs. Finally, we introduce a web resource to enable researchers to use these results to explore these regulatory patterns and better understand how expression is modulated within and across human cell types. PMID:23482648

  8. Role of structural anisotropy of biological tissues in poroelastic wave propagation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Luis; Cowin, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound waves have a broad range of clinical applications as a non-destructive testing approach in imaging and in the diagnoses of medical conditions. Generally, biological tissues are modeled as an homogenized equivalent medium with an apparent density through which a single wave propagates. Only the first wave arriving at the ultrasound probe is used for the measurement of the speed of sound. However, the existence of a second wave in tissues such as cancellous bone has been reported and its existence is an unequivocal signature of Biot type poroelastic media. To account for the fact that ultrasound is sensitive to microarchitecture as well as density, a fabric-dependent anisotropic poroelastic ultrasound (PEU) propagation theory was recently developed. Key to this development was the inclusion of the fabric tensor - a quantitative stereological measure of the degree of structural anisotropy of bone - into the linear poroelasticity theory. In the present study, this framework is extended to the propagation of waves in several soft and hard tissues. It was found that collagen fibers in soft tissues and the mineralized matrix in hard tissues are responsible for the anisotropy of the solid tissue constituent through the fabric tensor in the model. PMID:22162897

  9. Ultrasound in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in microgravity environments. The goals of research in ultrasound usage in space environments are: (1) Determine accuracy of ultrasound in novel clinical conditions. (2) Determine optimal training methodologies, (3) Determine microgravity associated changes and (4) Develop intuitive ultrasound catalog to enhance autonomous medical care. Also uses of Ultrasound technology in terrestrial applications are reviewed.

  10. Strain imaging using conventional and ultrafast ultrasound imaging: numerical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Aglyamov; W. G. Scott; Stanislav Emelianov

    2007-01-01

    In elasticity imaging, the ultrasound frames acquired during tissue deformation are analyzed to estimate the internal displacements and strains. If the deformation rate is high, high-frame-rate imaging techniques are required to avoid the severe decorrelation between the neighboring ultrasound images. In these high-frame-rate techniques, however, the broader and less focused ultrasound beam is transmitted and, hence, the image quality is

  11. Liver-resident macrophage necroptosis orchestrates type 1 microbicidal inflammation and type-2-mediated tissue repair during bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Blériot, Camille; Dupuis, Théo; Jouvion, Grégory; Eberl, Gérard; Disson, Olivier; Lecuit, Marc

    2015-01-20

    Kupffer cells, the phagocytes of fetal origin that line the liver sinusoids, are key contributors of host defense against enteroinvasive bacteria. Here, we found that infection by Listeria monocytogenes induced the early necroptotic death of Kupffer cells, which was followed by monocyte recruitment and an anti-bacterial type 1 inflammatory response. Kupffer cell death also triggered a type 2 response that involved the hepatocyte-derived alarmin interleukin-33 (IL-33) and basophil-derived interleukin-4 (IL-4). This led to the alternative activation of the monocyte-derived macrophages recruited to the liver, which thereby replaced ablated Kupffer cells and restored liver homeostasis. Kupffer cell death is therefore a key signal orchestrating type 1 microbicidal inflammation and type-2-mediated liver repair upon infection. This indicates that beyond the classical dichotomy of type 1 and type 2 responses, these responses can develop sequentially in the context of a bacterial infection and act interdependently, orchestrating liver immune responses and return to homeostasis, respectively. PMID:25577440

  12. Component tissues of different morphological types of tomato fruit and their qualitative and quantitative effects on quality of processed product

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Alfred Bernhart

    1972-01-01

    Solids Acidity. Morphological Fruit Types. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 10 Raw Material 10 Processing Methods Evaluation of Fruit Areas. 10 13 Color. 13 Whole fruit color evaluations. 13 TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT' D) Page Peel color evaluation. 13... of the tomatoes were dissected into four tissue parts: peel, outer~all, cross~all and core, and locular contents. The nitrogen peeling process described by Brown et al. (1970) was used to remove the tomato skin. The various components were placed...

  13. Use of Discriminatory Probes for Strain Typing of Formalin-Fixed, Rabies Virus-Infected Tissues by In Situ Hybridization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan A. Nadin-Davis; Mary Sheen; Alexander I. Wandeler

    2003-01-01

    An in situ hybridization (ISH) method has been developed to overcome difficulties encountered in the viral typing of formalin-fixed rabies virus-infected brain tissue. Rabies viruses representative of all strains normally encountered in diagnostic submissions throughout Canada, including 3 strains of terrestrial hosts (arctic fox, western skunk, mid-Atlantic raccoon), 10 strains circulating in several bat reservoirs (BBCAN1 to BBCAN7, LACAN, SHCAN,

  14. Lipopolysaccharide activates an innate immune system response in human adipose tissue in obesity and type 2 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Creely; P. G. McTernan; C. M. Kusminski; ff. M. Fisher; N. F. Da Silva; M. Khanolkar; M. Evans; A. L. Harte; S. Kumar

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes ,(T2DM) is associated ,with ,chronic ,low-grade inflammation. Adipose tissue (AT) may represent an important site of inflammation.3T3-L1 studies have demonstrated,that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates toll like receptors (TLRs) tocause,inflammation. For this study we (1) examined ,activation of TLRs and adipocytokines by LPS in human,abdominal ,subcutaneous ,(AbdSc) adipocytes; (2) examined,blockade of nuclear ,factor-kappa B (NFAB) in human ,AbdSc

  15. Ethnic Differences in Visceral Adipose Tissue and Type 2 Diabetes: Filipino, African-American, and White Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Rosario G. Araneta; Elizabeth Barrett-Connor

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare ethnic differences in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), assessed by computed tomography, and type 2 diabetes risk among 55- to 80-year-old Filipino, African-American, and white women without known cardiovascular disease.Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects were participants in the Rancho Bernardo Study (n = 196), the Filipino Women’s Health Study (n = 181), and the Health Assessment Study of

  16. Evaluation of ultrasound-assisted extraction as sample pre-treatment for quantitative determination of rare earth elements in marine biological tissues by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Costas, M; Lavilla, I; Gil, S; Pena, F; de la Calle, I; Cabaleiro, N; Bendicho, C

    2010-10-29

    In this work, the determination of rare earth elements (REEs), i.e. Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in marine biological tissues by inductively coupled-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after a sample preparation method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is described. The suitability of the extracts for ICP-MS measurements was evaluated. For that, studies were focused on the following issues: (i) use of clean up of extracts with a C18 cartridge for non-polar solid phase extraction; (ii) use of different internal standards; (iii) signal drift caused by changes in the nebulization efficiency and salt deposition on the cones during the analysis. The signal drift produced by direct introduction of biological extracts in the instrument was evaluated using a calibration verification standard for bracketing (standard-sample bracketing, SSB) and cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts. Parameters influencing extraction such as extractant composition, mass-to-volume ratio, particle size, sonication time and sonication amplitude were optimized. Diluted single acids (HNO(3) and HCl) and mixtures (HNO(3)+HCl) were evaluated for improving the extraction efficiency. Quantitative recoveries for REEs were achieved using 5 mL of 3% (v/v) HNO(3)+2% (v/v) HCl, particle size <200 ?m, 3 min of sonication time and 50% of sonication amplitude. Precision, expressed as relative standard deviation from three independent extractions, ranged from 0.1 to 8%. In general, LODs were improved by a factor of 5 in comparison with those obtained after microwave-assisted digestion (MAD). The accuracy of the method was evaluated using the CRM BCR-668 (mussel tissue). Different seafood samples of common consumption were analyzed by ICP-MS after UAE and MAD. PMID:20951856

  17. Association between Tissue Characteristics of Coronary Plaque and Distal Embolization after Coronary Intervention in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Insights from a Meta-Analysis of Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Kong, Lingcong; Zhao, Yichao; Gao, Lingchen; Wang, Wei; Xu, Rende; Ge, Heng; Jiang, Meng; Pu, Jun; He, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The predictive value of plaque characteristics assessed by virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) including fibrous tissue (FT), fibrofatty (FF), necrotic core (NC) and dense calcium (DC) in identifying distal embolization after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is still controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the association of pre-PCI plaque composition and post-PCI distal embolization in acute coronary syndrome patients. Methods Studies were identified in PubMed, OVID, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Current Controlled Trials Register, reviews, and reference lists of relevant articles. A meta-analysis using both fixed and random effects models with assessment of study heterogeneity and publication bias was performed. Results Of the 388 articles screened, 10 studies with a total of 872 subjects (199 with distal embolization and 673 with normal flow) met the eligibility of our study. Compared with normal flow groups, significant higher absolute volume of NC [weighted mean differences (WMD): 5.79 mm3, 95% CI: 3.02 to 8.55 mm3; p<0.001] and DC (WMD: 2.55 mm3, 95% CI: 0.22 to 4.88 mm3; p?=?0.03) were found in acute coronary syndrome patients with distal embolization. Further subgroup analysis demonstrated that the predictive value of tissue characteristics in determining distal embolization was correlated to clinical scenario of the patients, definition of distal embolization, and whether the percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy was applied. Conclusion Our study that pooled current evidence showed that plaque components were closely related to the distal embolization after PCI, especially the absolute volume of NC and DC, supporting further studies with larger sample size and high-methodological quality. PMID:25375841

  18. Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction plus simultaneous silylation for rapid determination of salicylate and benzophenone-type ultraviolet filters in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jen-Wen; Chen, Hsin-Chang; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2013-08-01

    A rapid procedure, using minimal amounts of solvent, for the reliable determination of five salicylate and benzophenone-type ultraviolet (UV) filters: ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), 3,3,5-trimethyl-cyclohexyl salicylate (HMS), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3), 2,4-dihydroxy-benzophenone (BP-1) and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-8), in aqueous samples is described. The method involves an ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) plus simultaneous silylation prior to their determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The parameters affecting the extraction and derivatization efficiency of the target UV filters from aqueous samples were systematically investigated and the conditions optimized. The optimal silylation and extraction conditions involved the rapid injection of a mixture of 750?L of acetone (as a dispersant), 15?L of tetrachloroethylene (as an extractant), and 20?L of BSTFA (as a derivatizing agent) into a 10-mL volume of aqueous samples (pH 7.0) containing 0.5g of sodium chloride in a glass tube with a conical bottom. After ultrasonication for 2.0min and centrifugation at 5000rpm (10min), the sedimented phase 5.0?L was directly introduced into the GC-MS. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were less than 6ng/L. The precision for these analytes, as indicated by the relative standard deviations (RSDs), was less than 9% for both intra- and inter-day analysis. Accuracy, expressed as the mean extraction recovery, was between 74 and 92%. The method was then applied to environmental aqueous samples, using a standard addition method, showing the occurrence of BP-3 in samples of both river water and municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluents. PMID:23831000

  19. Noninvasive Multimodal Evaluation of Bioengineered Cartilage Constructs Combining Time-Resolved Fluorescence and Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Brett Z.; Decaris, Martin; Sun, Yinghua; Sun, Yang; Lam, Adrian; Ho, Clark K.L.

    2011-01-01

    A multimodal diagnostic system that integrates time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, and ultrasound backscatter microscopy is evaluated here as a potential tool for assessing changes in engineered tissue composition and microstructure nondestructively and noninvasively. The development of techniques capable of monitoring the quality of engineered tissue, determined by extracellular matrix (ECM) content, before implantation would alleviate the need for destructive assays over multiple time points and advance the widespread development and clinical application of engineered tissues. Using a prototype system combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, FLIM, and UBM, we measured changes in ECM content occurring during chondrogenic differentiation of equine adipose stem cells on 3D biodegradable matrices. The optical and ultrasound results were validated against those acquired via conventional techniques, including collagen II immunohistochemistry, picrosirius red staining, and measurement of construct stiffness. Current results confirm the ability of this multimodal approach to follow the progression of tissue maturation along the chondrogenic lineage by monitoring ECM production (namely, collagen type II) and by detecting resulting changes in mechanical properties of tissue constructs. Although this study was directed toward monitoring chondrogenic tissue maturation, these data demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for multiple applications toward engineering other tissues, including bone and vascular grafts. PMID:21303258

  20. Noninvasive multimodal evaluation of bioengineered cartilage constructs combining time-resolved fluorescence and ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Fite, Brett Z; Decaris, Martin; Sun, Yinghua; Sun, Yang; Lam, Adrian; Ho, Clark K L; Leach, J Kent; Marcu, Laura

    2011-04-01

    A multimodal diagnostic system that integrates time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, and ultrasound backscatter microscopy is evaluated here as a potential tool for assessing changes in engineered tissue composition and microstructure nondestructively and noninvasively. The development of techniques capable of monitoring the quality of engineered tissue, determined by extracellular matrix (ECM) content, before implantation would alleviate the need for destructive assays over multiple time points and advance the widespread development and clinical application of engineered tissues. Using a prototype system combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, FLIM, and UBM, we measured changes in ECM content occurring during chondrogenic differentiation of equine adipose stem cells on 3D biodegradable matrices. The optical and ultrasound results were validated against those acquired via conventional techniques, including collagen II immunohistochemistry, picrosirius red staining, and measurement of construct stiffness. Current results confirm the ability of this multimodal approach to follow the progression of tissue maturation along the chondrogenic lineage by monitoring ECM production (namely, collagen type II) and by detecting resulting changes in mechanical properties of tissue constructs. Although this study was directed toward monitoring chondrogenic tissue maturation, these data demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for multiple applications toward engineering other tissues, including bone and vascular grafts. PMID:21303258

  1. Bruising profile of fresh apples associated with tissue type and structure. Applied Engineering in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important to understand how apples bruise in order to prevent or reduce bruising. Tissue from ‘Golden Delicious’ apples was analyzed to determine the bruising mechanism at different maturity levels. Bruising was induced by an artificial finger attached to an Instron machine applying an exter...

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of cells and tissues from the upper and lower human female reproductive tract.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, A L; Edkins, R D; Rier, S E; Yeaman, G R; Stern, J E; Fanger, M W; Wira, C R

    1997-01-01

    Viable tissue sections and isolated cell cultures from the human fallopian tube, uterus, cervix, and vaginal mucosa were examined for susceptibility to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We examined infectivity by using the monocytotropic strain HIV-1(JR-FL) and several primary isolates of HIV-1 obtained from infected neonates. HIV-1 infection was measured by p24 production in short-term culture and by immunofluorescence detection of HIV-1 Nef and p24 proteins by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Three-color immunofluorescence was used to phenotype HIV-infected cells within tissue sections from each site. Our findings indicate that epithelial, stromal, and dendritic cells and cells with CD14+ CD4+, CD14-CD4-, and CD4+ CD14- phenotypes from the female reproductive tract are infectable with HIV-1. Of importance is the finding that tissues from the upper reproductive tract are susceptible to infection with HIV-1. Moreover, tissue samples from women in all stages of the menstrual cycle, including postmenopausal women (inactive), could be infected with HIV-1. Female reproductive tract cells required a minimum of 60 min of exposure to HIV-1 in order for infection to occur, in contrast to peripheral blood lymphocytes, which became infected after being exposed to HIV-1 for only 1 min. These findings demonstrate that HIV-1 can infect cells and tissues from different sites within the female reproductive tract and suggest that multiple cell types, including epithelial cells, may be targets for the initial infection by HIV-1. PMID:9094621

  3. Sonochemistry and Sonoluminescence in Simulated Ultrasound-assisted Lipoplasty Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moris Topaz; Aharon Gedanken; Yuri Koltypin; Menachem Motiei; Matthew B. Grisham; Seth J. Putterman; Keith R. Weninger

    1999-01-01

    Background: The issue of safety has arisen with the advent of high-intensity ultrasound energy (HIUE) in ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty (UAL). HIUE has been used in the last 3 decades in a variety of surgical procedures, but scientific data are lacking with regard to biologic interactions. We hypothesize that infiltration of tissue with an aqueous solution and exposure to HIUE as practiced

  4. Combined photoacoustic and magneto-motive ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Min; Kim, Seungsoo; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Joshi, Pratixa; Homan, Kimberly; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2010-02-01

    Ultrasound imaging can provide excellent resolution at reasonable depths while retaining the advantages of being nonionizing, cost-effective and portable. However, the contrast in ultrasound imaging is limited, and various ultrasoundbased techniques such as photoacoustic (PA) and magneto-motive ultrasound (MMUS) imaging have been developed to augment ultrasound imaging. Photoacoustic imaging enhances imaging contrast by visualizing the optical absorption of either tissue or injected contrast agents (e.g., gold or silver nanoparticles). MMUS imaging enhances the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound based on the detection of magnetic nanoparticles perturbed by an external magnetic field. This paper presents integrated magneto-photo-acoustic (MPA) imaging - a fusion of complementary ultrasound-based imaging techniques. To demonstrate the feasibility of MPA imaging, porcine ex-vivo tissue experiments were performed using a dual contrast (magnetic/plasmonic) agent. Spatially co-registered and temporally consecutive ultrasound, photoacoustic, and magneto-motive ultrasound images of the same cross-section of tissue were obtained. Our ex-vivo results indicate that magneto-photo-acoustic imaging can be used to detect magnetic/plasmonic nanoparticles with high resolution, sensitivity and contrast. Therefore, our study suggests that magneto-photo-acoustic images can identify the morphological properties, molecular information and complementary functional information of the tissue.

  5. Medical ultrasound - From inner space to outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    During the last decade, medical ultrasound has rapidly become a widely accepted imaging modality used in many medical specialties. It has the advantages that it is noninvasive, does not use ionizing radiation, is relatively inexpensive and is easy to use. Future trends in ultrasound include expanded areas of use, advanced signal processing and digital image analysis including tissue characterization and three-dimensional reconstructions.

  6. Identifying Candidate Genes for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity through Gene Expression Profiling in Multiple Tissues or Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yuhuan; Zhou, Jinghui; Zhuo, Min; Ling, Fei; Zhang, Yu; Du, Hongli; Wang, Xiaoning

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and obesity have become increasingly prevalent in recent years. Recent studies have focused on identifying causal variations or candidate genes for obesity and T2DM via analysis of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) within a single tissue. T2DM and obesity are affected by comprehensive sets of genes in multiple tissues. In the current study, gene expression levels in multiple human tissues from GEO datasets were analyzed, and 21 candidate genes displaying high percentages of differential expression were filtered out. Specifically, DENND1B, LYN, MRPL30, POC1B, PRKCB, RP4-655J12.3, HIBADH, and TMBIM4 were identified from the T2DM-control study, and BCAT1, BMP2K, CSRNP2, MYNN, NCKAP5L, SAP30BP, SLC35B4, SP1, BAP1, GRB14, HSP90AB1, ITGA5, and TOMM5 were identified from the obesity-control study. The majority of these genes are known to be involved in T2DM and obesity. Therefore, analysis of gene expression in various tissues using GEO datasets may be an effective and feasible method to determine novel or causal genes associated with T2DM and obesity. PMID:24455749

  7. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control . Author manuscript MR-guided adaptive focusing of ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    focusing of ultrasound Beno t Larratî * , Mathieu Pernot , Gabriel Montaldo , Mathias Fink , Micka l potential in the field of MR-Guided Ultrasound Therapy in particular for transcranial brain HIFU. Author of medical ultrasound. The heterogeneities of biological tissues in terms of speed of sound, density

  8. Convex Ultrasound Image Reconstruction with Log-Euclidean Priors Jos Seabra, Joo Xavier and Joo Sanches

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Convex Ultrasound Image Reconstruction with Log-Euclidean Priors José Seabra, João Xavier and João regularizes the solution. A Bayesian algorithm for ultrasound image reconstruction and de-noising is proposed and tissue transitions) are preserved. I. INTRODUCTION Ultrasound imaging is widely used in clinical practice

  9. Tubular Structure Enhancement for Surgical Instrument Detection in 3D Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Dupont, Pierre

    Tubular Structure Enhancement for Surgical Instrument Detection in 3D Ultrasound Hongliang Ren and Pierre E. Dupont, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--Three-dimensional ultrasound has been an effective imaging since it enables visualization of both instruments and tissue. Challenges to ultrasound

  10. Estimation of Speed of Sound in Dual-Layered Media using Medical Ultrasound Image

    E-print Network

    Kingsbury, Nick

    Estimation of Speed of Sound in Dual-Layered Media using Medical Ultrasound Image Deconvolution Ho The speed of sound in soft tissues is assumed as 1540 m/s in medical pulse-echo ultrasound imaging systems of image deconvolution. This enables the use of unmodified ultrasound machines and a normal scanning

  11. Abundant Expression of HIV Target Cells and C-Type Lectin Receptors in the Foreskin Tissue of Young Kenyan Men

    PubMed Central

    Hirbod, Taha; Bailey, Robert C.; Agot, Kawango; Moses, Stephen; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah; Murugu, Ruth; Andersson, Jan; Nilsson, Jakob; Broliden, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    A biological explanation for the reduction in HIV-1 (HIV) acquisition after male circumcision may be that removal of the foreskin reduces the number of target cells for HIV. The expression of potential HIV target cells and C-type lectin receptors in foreskin tissue of men at risk of HIV infection were thus analyzed. Thirty-three foreskin tissue samples, stratified by Herpes simplex virus type 2 status, were obtained from a randomized, controlled trial conducted in Kenya. The samples were analyzed by confocal in situ imaging microscopy and mRNA quantification by quantitative RT-qPCR. The presence and location of T cells (CD3+CD4+), Langerhans cells (CD1a+Langerin/CD207+), macrophages (CD68+ or CD14+), and submucosal dendritic cells (CD123+BDCA-2+ or CD11c+DC-SIGN+) were defined. C-type lectin receptor expressing cells were detected in both the epithelium and submucosa, and distinct lymphoid aggregates densely populated with CD3+CD4+ T cells were identified in the submucosa. Although the presence of lymphoid aggregates and mRNA expression of selected markers varied between study subjects, Herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus was not the major determinant for the detected differences. The detection of abundant and superficially present potential HIV target cells and submucosal lymphoid aggregates in foreskin mucosa from a highly relevant HIV risk group demonstrate a possible anatomical explanation that may contribute to the protective effect of male circumcision on HIV transmission. PMID:20395432

  12. Effects of overmilking and liner type and characteristics on teat tissue in small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Manuel; Roca, Amparo; Romero, Gema; Díaz, José-Ramón

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect on teat wall thickness and canal length in sheep and goats of overmilking for 2 min (OM+2) and of milking with used (AL; +3000 milkings) and twisted (TL; 45°) liners in sheep and goats, as well as the effect of milking goats with liners designed for sheep (SL, shorter length and diameter than liners for goats). To this end, we performed four experiments in goats and three in sheep, in a Latin square design with two experimental periods. During the experimental period 4 controls were carried out, performing ultrasound scans before and immediately after milking to determine the teat wall thickness (TWT), teat wall area (TWA), teat end area (TEWA) and teat canal length (TCL). OM+2 caused a significant increase in TWT, TWA, TEWA and TCL in goats and in TWA, TEWA and TCL in sheep. Liner features had a strong influence on the variables studied; aged liners caused significant changes in TWT and TCL in goats and in TWT in sheep; twisted liners produced a significant effect on the increase of TWT and TCL in goats, without reaching significance level in sheep; and milking goats with sheep liners led to a significant increase in TWT, TWA, TEWA and TCL. In practice, it is therefore important to avoid overmilking and the use of worn-out liners. It is also necessary to use liners designed for the morphological features of each species, taking special care to carry out periodic liner positioning revisions to ensure the benefits of pulsation on the teat end. Finally, it would be necessary to carry out long-term experiments to study whether the increase in thickness observed in some experiments is sufficient to affect milking efficiency and mammary gland health status. PMID:24594275

  13. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Play Video Clip (00:06:12) Your Radiologist Explains Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy ... limitations of Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? View larger with caption Lumps ...

  14. Variation in amount of wild-type transthyretin in different fibril and tissue types in ATTR amyloidosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabet Ihse; Ole B. Suhr; Ulf Hellman; Per Westermark

    2011-01-01

    Familial transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis is caused by a mutation in the TTR gene, although wild-type (wt) TTR is also incorporated\\u000a into the amyloid fibrils. Liver transplantation (LT) is the prevailing treatment of the disease and is performed in order\\u000a to eliminate the mutant TTR from plasma. The outcome of the procedure is varied; especially problematic is a progressive cardiomyopathy\\u000a seen

  15. Ultrasound-enhanced intrascleral delivery of protein.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Alex Chi Yeung; Yu, Yu; Tay, David; Wong, Hoi Sang; Ellis-Behnke, Rutledge; Chau, Ying

    2010-11-30

    We aim to investigate ultrasound on enhancing protein penetration into the sclera, a non-invasive method to overcome the first barrier in taking the transscleral route for delivering therapeutics. Rabbit eyes were immersed in a fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated bovine serum albumin solution. The distances of protein penetration, with and without ultrasound (30s continuous wave, 1MHz, 0.05W/cm(2)) applied on the sclera, and at different immersion time intervals (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60min), were measured by examining the cryo-sectioned tissues under fluorescence microscope (?60 measurements from 3 eyes for each condition). Retina was examined for structural damage by histology. It was found that ultrasound enhances the intrascleral penetration of protein, increasing the diffusivity by 1.6-folds while causing no damage to the retinal tissues. This physical modulation of the sclera is temporary, as evident by the restoration of the diffusional resistance at 15min after ultrasound treatment. The negligible effect of ultrasound-induced convection and the minimal temperature rise (<0.5°C), together with cavitation detected by acoustic emission and a decreased penetration distance at higher ultrasound frequency (30s continuous wave, 3MHz, 0.05W/cm(2)), suggest that cavitation is a possible mechanism for increasing the permeability of the sclera for diffusive transport. PMID:20868732

  16. Effect of the type of dietary triacylglycerol fatty acids on ?-tocopherol concentration in plasma and tissues of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Prévéraud, D P; Devillard, E; Rouffineau, F; Borel, P

    2014-11-01

    A study was performed in growing pigs to evaluate the efficacy of ?-tocopherol (Tol) concentration in plasma, muscle, liver, and adipose tissue following dietary supplementation with vitamin E (VE) and various sources of fat. The trial involved 96 piglets weaned at an average of 28 d of age. Piglets were fed for 2 wk a semipurified diet not supplemented with VE. Piglets were then randomly assigned to 5 isoenergetic semipurified diets with 100 IU/kg VE as dl-?-tocopheryl acetate: a control (CTRL) diet (with no added fat) and 4 other diets containing either 3% linseed oil (LIN), 3% hydrogenated coconut oil (COC), 3% olive oil (OLI), or 3% safflower oil (SAF) representing diets rich in n-3 PUFA, SFA, MUFA, and n-6 PUFA, respectively. After 49 d of treatment, pigs were killed and blood, muscle (longissimus dorsi), adipose tissue, and whole liver (without gallbladder) were collected and analyzed for their Tol concentrations. For all tissues, LIN and SAF diets led to lower (P < 0.02) Tol concentrations as compared to the CTRL diet: -63 and -67%, respectively. ?-Tocopherol concentrations in plasma, liver, and adipose tissue were greater (P < 0.001) in the COC group as compared to the CTRL group. The OLI diet led to greater (P < 0.01) liver Tol concentration (+92%) as compared to the CTRL diet but had no significant effect on plasma, muscle, and adipose tissue Tol concentrations. There were significant correlations (P < 0.001) between plasma, muscle, and liver Tol concentrations (r > 0.78). These results show that supplementation with PUFA markedly decreases Tol concentration in blood and tissues of growing pigs, whereas SFA increase Tol content in blood, liver, and adipose tissue. Monounsaturated fatty acids only increase liver Tol concentrations. Therefore, increasing the amount of fat in the diet (from <0.1 to approximately 3.5%) and the type of dietary fatty acids supplemented with VE are key factors with regards to VE concentration in plasma and tissue. The Tol:PUFA needs to be carefully considered to meet the VE pigs requirement and to ensure an optimal Tol meat enrichment. PMID:25349346

  17. Effects of Tissue-type and Development on Dark Respiration in Two Herbaceous Perennials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl L. McCutchan; Russell K. Monson

    2001-01-01

    Perennial plants go through a number of developmental stages during the growing season. Changes in metabolism during these phases have been documented in laboratory-grown plants but never in native plants growing in natural habitats. The purpose of this study was to describe the seasonal pattern of dark respiration in the above-ground tissues of two herbaceous perennials, Bistorta bistortoides(Pursh) Small and

  18. Macrophage responsiveness to therapeutic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Young, S R; Dyson, M

    1990-01-01

    Macrophages are a source of many important growth factors which can act as wound mediators during tissue repair. The aim of this work was to find out if levels of ultrasound which accelerate repair could stimulate the release of fibroblast mitogenic factors from an established macrophage-like cell line (U937). The U937 cells were exposed in vitro to continuous ultrasound at a space average, temporal average intensity of 0.5 W/cm2 at either 0.75 MHz or 3.0 MHz, for 5 min. The macrophage-conditioned medium was removed either 30 min or 12 h after exposure, and placed on 3T3 fibroblast cultures. Fibroblast proliferation (defined here as increase in cell number) was assessed over a 5-day period. The results showed that 0.75 MHz ultrasound appeared to be effective in liberating preformed fibroblast affecting substances from the U937 cells, possibly by producing permeability changes, whereas 3.0 MHz ultrasound appeared to stimulate the cell's ability to synthesize and secrete fibroblast mitogenic factors. PMID:2095011

  19. Tissue specific regulation of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor density after chemical sympathectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A.S.; Skolnick, P.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding to peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues were examined after chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). One week after the intracisternal administration of 6-OHDA, the number of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding sites (Bmax) in the hypothalamus and striatum increased 41 and 50% respectively, concurrent with significant reductions in catecholamine content. An increase (34%) in the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 to cardiac ventricle was observed one week after parenteral 6-OHDA administration. In contrast, the B/sub max/ of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4684 to pineal gland decreased 48% after 6-OHDA induced reduction in norepinephrine content. The Bmax values for (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding to other tissues (including lung, kidney, spleen, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus and olfactory bulbs) were unaffected by 6-OHDA administration. The density of pineal, but not cardiac PBR was also reduced after reserpine treatment, an effect reversed by isoproterenol administration. These findings demonstrate that alterations in sympathetic input may regulate the density of PBR in both the central nervous system and periphery in a tissue specific fashion. 33 references, 4 tables.

  20. Detection of herpes simplex virus type-2 DNA restriction fragments in human cervical carcinoma tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Park, M; Kitchener, H C; Macnab, J C

    1983-01-01

    DNA extracted from eight human cervical carcinomas, one lymph node metastasis and related control tissue was examined for the presence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA sequences. Southern blot transfers of tumour and control DNA were hybridised with radioactively labelled cloned probes representing 70% of the HSV-2 genome. Specific hybridisation to HSV DNA sequences was observed in one of eight carcinoma tissues analysed. Hybridisation of HSV-2 DNA probes to BamHI and XhoI restriction enzyme fragments of tumour cell DNA which co-migrated with authentic HSV-2 viral fragments identified co-linear HSV-2 DNA sequences comprising 3% of the HSV-2 genome, between map coordinates 0.582 and 0.612. The remaining eight tumour and all control tissues analysed, showed no specific hybridisation to any of the probes used at levels of sensitivity which would detect 0.5 copies/cell of HSV-2 DNA restriction fragments of 2 kb or greater. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:6313349

  1. Ultrasound triggered, image guided, local drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Deckers, Roel; Moonen, Chrit T W

    2010-11-20

    Ultrasound allows the deposition of thermal and mechanical energies deep inside the human body in a non-invasive way. Ultrasound can be focused within a region with a diameter of about 1mm. The bio-effects of ultrasound can lead to local tissue heating, cavitation, and radiation force, which can be used for 1) local drug release from nanocarriers circulating in the blood, 2) increased extravasation of drugs and/or carriers, and 3) enhanced diffusivity of drugs. When using nanocarriers sensitive to mechanical forces (the oscillating ultrasound pressure waves) and/or sensitive to temperature, the content of the nanocarriers can be released locally. Thermo-sensitive liposomes have been suggested for local drug release in combination with local hyperthermia more than 25 years ago. Microbubbles may be designed specifically to enhance cavitation effects. Real-time imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance, optical and ultrasound imaging have led to novel insights and methods for ultrasound triggered drug delivery. Image guidance of ultrasound can be used for: 1) target identification and characterization; 2) spatio-temporal guidance of actions to release or activate the drugs and/or permeabilize membranes; 3) evaluation of bio-distribution, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics; and 4) physiological read-outs to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy. PMID:20709123

  2. Microbubble-mediated ultrasound therapy: a review of its potential in cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ibsen, Stuart; Schutt, Carolyn E; Esener, Sadik

    2013-01-01

    The inherently toxic nature of chemotherapy drugs is essential for them to kill cancer cells but is also the source of the detrimental side effects experienced by patients. One strategy to reduce these side effects is to limit the healthy tissue exposure by encapsulating the drugs in a vehicle that demonstrates a very low leak rate in circulation while simultaneously having the potential for rapid release once inside the tumor. Designing a vehicle with these two opposing properties is the major challenge in the field of drug delivery. A triggering event is required to change the vehicle from its stable circulating state to its unstable release state. A unique mechanical actuation type trigger is possible by harnessing the size changes that occur when microbubbles interact with ultrasound. These mechanical actuations can burst liposomes and cell membranes alike allowing for rapid drug release and facilitating delivery into nearby cells. The tight focusing ability of the ultrasound to just a few cubic millimeters allows for precise control over the tissue location where the microbubbles destabilize the vehicles. This allows the ultrasound to highlight the tumor tissue and cause rapid drug release from any carrier present. Different vehicle designs have been demonstrated from carrying drug on just the surface of the microbubble itself to encapsulating the microbubble along with the drug within a liposome. In the future, nanoparticles may extend the circulation half-life of these ultrasound triggerable drug-delivery vehicles by acting as nucleation sites of ultrasound-induced mechanical actuation. In addition to the drug delivery capability, the microbubble size changes can also be used to create imaging contrast agents that could allow the internal chemical environment of a tumor to be studied to help improve the diagnosis and detection of cancer. The ability to attain truly tumor-specific release from circulating drug-delivery vehicles is an exciting future prospect to reduce chemotherapy side effects while increasing drug effectiveness. PMID:23667309

  3. Ultrasound Annual, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 edition of Ultrasound Annual features a state-of-the-art assessment of real-time ultrasound technology and a look at improvements in real-time equipment. Chapters discuss important new obstetric applications of ultrasound in measuring fetal umbilical vein blood flow and monitoring ovarian follicular development in vivo and in vitro fertilization. Other topics covered include transrectal prostate ultrasound using a linear array system; ultrasound of the common bile duct; ultrasound in tropical diseases; prenatal diagnosis of craniospinal anomalies; scrotal ultrasonography; opthalmic ultrasonography; and sonography of the upper abdominal venous system.

  4. The effect of therapeutic ultrasound on angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Young, S R; Dyson, M

    1990-01-01

    The effect of therapeutic ultrasound on the formation of new blood vessels in full-thickness excised lesions in the flank skin of adult rats was assessed quantitatively using microfocal x-ray techniques. Wounds were either sham-treated (control group) or exposed to ultrasound for 5 min daily at an intensity of 0.1 W/cm2 SATA (frequency either 0.75 MHz or 3.0 MHz). By 5 days after injury there were more blood vessels in equivalent regions of the granulation tissue of the ultrasound-treated wounds than in the control wounds. This suggested that the ultrasound-treated wounds were at a more advanced stage in the repair process. By 7 days after injury there was no significant difference in blood vessel number between the three groups. PMID:1694604

  5. Variogram methods for texture classification of atherosclerotic plaque ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeromin, Oliver M.; Pattichis, Marios S.; Pattichis, Constantinos; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Nicolaides, Andrew

    2006-03-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the western world and the major cause of disability in adults. The type and stenosis of extracranial carotid artery disease is often responsible for ischemic strokes, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or amaurosis fugax (AF). The identification and grading of stenosis can be done using gray scale ultrasound scans. The appearance of B-scan pictures containing various granular structures makes the use of texture analysis techniques suitable for computer assisted tissue characterization purposes. The objective of this study is to investigate the usefulness of variogram analysis in the assessment of ultrasound plague morphology. The variogram estimates the variance of random fields, from arbitrary samples in space. We explore stationary random field models based on the variogram, which can be applied in ultrasound plaque imaging leading to a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for the early detection of symptomatic atherosclerotic plaques. Non-parametric tests on the variogram coefficients show that the cofficients coming from symptomatic versus asymptomatic plaques come from distinct distributions. Furthermore, we show significant improvement in class separation, when a log point-transformation is applied to the images, prior to variogram estimation. Model fitting using least squares is explored for anisotropic variograms along specific directions. Comparative classification results, show that variogram coefficients can be used for the early detection of symptomatic cases, and also exhibit the largest class distances between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque images, as compared to over 60 other texture features, used in the literature.

  6. Ultrasound-enhanced drug delivery in a perfused ex vivo artery model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, Kathryn E.

    Acoustically driven stable cavitation may improve treatments of diseases in which passive penetration of drug into the target tissue is poor. Examples include atherosclerosis, in which the endothelium can prevent penetration of therapeutics into the plaque, and ischemic stroke, in which pathologically low flow of blood impedes the delivery of intravenous drugs to the clot. Understanding the way in which ultrasound cavitation agents nucleate cavitation in flowing blood-mimicking solutions is an important step in optimizing ultrasound-enhanced drug delivery. The use of a perfused, living ex vivo artery model permitted study of this phenomenon while still providing information on arterial bioeffects. Cavitation-enhanced delivery of anti-ICAM-1-targeted echogenic liposomes into and beyond the ex vivo murine aortic endothelium was demonstrated using 1-MHz continuous wave ultrasound. Acoustic cavitation had no apparent effect on the health of the murine arterial tissue. A method of maximizing the energy of stable cavitation through the use of intermittent 120-kHz ultrasound with quiescent periods to allow contrast agent inflow was developed. Using this insonificaiton method, sonothrombolysis was studied in ex vivo porcine carotid arteries using a 120-kHz center frequency and 0.44 MPa peak-to-peak pressure amplitude. Clot mass loss was used as a metric of thrombolytic efficacy. Clots exposed to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and the ultrasound contrast agent, DefinityRTM in flowing porcine plasma without ultrasound experienced 34% mass loss. When robust stable cavitation was induced via 120-kHz insonation, the mean clot mass loss rose to 83%, which constituted a significant improvement (n = 6, p<0.0001). Without DefinityRTM there was no thrombolytic enhancement by ultrasound exposure alone at the same insonation pressure (n = 6, p<0.0001). Significant loss of endothelium occurred in 64% of the porcine carotid arteries, possibly due to poor oxygen delivery by the low flow of plasma. However, no correlation was observed between arterial tissue damage and treatment type. In this perfused ex vivo artery model, acoustic stable cavitation was shown to enhance both the delivery of endothelium-targeted therapeutics into the arterial wall and the lysis of whole blood clots in the presence of rt-PA.

  7. Framework of Collagen Type I – Vasoactive Vessels Structuring Invariant Geometric Attractor in Cancer Tissues: Insight into Biological Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Jairo A.; Murillo, Mauricio F.; Jaramillo, Natalia A.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous research, we have described and documented self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complex organizations (GTCHC) in human pathological tissues. This article documents and gathers insights into the magnetic field in cancer tissues and also how it generates an invariant functional geometric attractor constituted for collider partners in their entangled environment. The need to identify this hierarquic attractor was born out of the concern to understand how the vascular net of these complexes are organized, and to determine if the spiral vascular subpatterns observed adjacent to GTCHC complexes and their assembly are interrelational. The study focuses on cancer tissues and all the macroscopic and microscopic material in which GTCHC complexes are identified, which have been overlooked so far, and are rigorously revised. This revision follows the same parameters that were established in the initial phase of the investigation, but with a new item: the visualization and documentation of external dorsal serous vascular bed areas in spatial correlation with the localization of GTCHC complexes inside the tumors. Following the standard of the electro-optical collision model, we were able to reproduce and replicate collider patterns, that is, pairs of left and right hand spin-spiraled subpatterns, associated with the orientation of the spinning process that can be an expansion or contraction disposition of light particles. Agreement between this model and tumor data is surprisingly close; electromagnetic spiral patterns generated were identical at the spiral vascular arrangement in connection with GTCHC complexes in malignant tumors. These findings suggest that the framework of collagen type 1 – vasoactive vessels that structure geometric attractors in cancer tissues with invariant morphology sets generate collider partners in their magnetic domain with opposite biological behavior. If these principles are incorporated into nanomaterial, biomedical devices, and engineered tissues, new therapeutic strategies could be developed for cancer treatment. PMID:19223987

  8. Ultrasound detection of beef cattle conformation alteration by injection

    E-print Network

    Shotwell, John David

    1997-01-01

    eflusions could not be detected. Braun and Gotz (1994) scanned the reticulum of 51 cows to look at the motility and determine whether or not ultrasound scanning was a good method of assessing reticular motility as a test for abnormalities. Ultrasound is a... good tool because it is noninvasive, unlike most other means of visualizing reticular motility. Other tissues scanned by ultrasound include the liver. In a study of 11 cows with hepatic abscesses, Braun et ak (1995b) found that ultrasound was a good...

  9. Cavitation methods in therapeutic ultrasound : techniques, mechanisms, and system design

    E-print Network

    Sokka, Shunmugavelu D. (Shunmugavelu Doraivelu), 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Focused ultrasound is currently being developed as a non-invasive thermal ablation technique for benign and cancerous tumors in several organ systems. Although these therapies are designed to ablate tissue purely by thermal ...

  10. Basement membrane zone type XV collagen is a disulfide-bonded chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in human tissues and cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Clark, C C; Myers, J C

    2000-07-21

    Type XV collagen has a widespread distribution in human tissues, but a nearly restricted localization in basement membrane zones. The alpha1(XV) chain contains a highly interrupted collagenous region of 577 residues, and noncollagenous amino- and carboxyl-terminal domains of 530 and 256 residues, respectively. Cysteines are present in each domain and consensus sequences for O-linked glycosaminoglycans are situated in the amino terminus and in two large, noncollagenous interruptions. We now report that type XV collagen is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in human tissues and cultured cells, and that the alpha chains are covalently linked by interchain disulfide bonds only between the two cysteines in the collagenous region. Western blotting of tissue extracts revealed a diffuse smear with a mean size >/=400 kDa, which after chondroitinase digestion resolved into a 250-kDa band in umbilical cord, and 250- and 225-kDa bands in placenta, lung, colon, and skeletal muscle. The latter two bands were also directly visualized by alcian blue/silver staining of a purified placenta extract. In a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line, almost all of the newly synthesized type XV collagen was secreted into the medium and upon chondroitinase digestion just the 250-kDa alpha chain was generated. Chondroitinase plus collagenase digestion of tissue and medium proteins followed by Western blotting using domain-specific antibodies revealed a 135-kDa amino-terminal fragment containing glycosaminoglycan chains and a 27-kDa fragment representing the intact carboxyl terminus. However, a truncated carboxyl peptide of approximately 8-kDa was also evident in tissue extracts containing the 225-kDa form. Our data suggest that the 225-kDa form arises from differential carboxyl cleavage of the 250-kDa form, and could explain the approximately 19-kDa endostatin-related fragments (John, H., Preissner, K. T., Forssmann, W.-G., and Ständker, L. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 10217-10224), which may be liberated from the alpha1(XV) chain. PMID:10791950

  11. Expressed sequence tag analysis of adult human optic nerve for NEIBank: Identification of cell type and tissue markers

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Steven L; Guo, Yan; Peterson, Katherine; Wistow, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    Background The optic nerve is a pure white matter central nervous system (CNS) tract with an isolated blood supply, and is widely used in physiological studies of white matter response to various insults. We examined the gene expression profile of human optic nerve (ON) and, through the NEIBANK online resource, to provide a resource of sequenced verified cDNA clones. An un-normalized cDNA library was constructed from pooled human ON tissues and was used in expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis. Location of an abundant oligodendrocyte marker was examined by immunofluorescence. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western analysis were used to compare levels of expression for key calcium channel protein genes and protein product in primate and rodent ON. Results Our analyses revealed a profile similar in many respects to other white matter related tissues, but significantly different from previously available ON cDNA libraries. The previous libraries were found to include specific markers for other eye tissues, suggesting contamination. Immune/inflammatory markers were abundant in the new ON library. The oligodendrocyte marker QKI was abundant at the EST level. Immunofluorescence revealed that this protein is a useful oligodendrocyte cell-type marker in rodent and primate ONs. L-type calcium channel EST abundance was found to be particularly low. A qRT-PCR-based comparative mammalian species analysis reveals that L-type calcium channel expression levels are significantly lower in primate than in rodent ON, which may help account for the class-specific difference in responsiveness to calcium channel blocking agents. Several known eye disease genes are abundantly expressed in ON. Many genes associated with normal axonal function, mRNAs associated with axonal transport, inflammation and neuroprotection are observed. Conclusion We conclude that the new cDNA library is a faithful representation of human ON and EST data provide an initial overview of gene expression patterns in this tissue. The data provide clues for tissue-specific and species-specific properties of human ON that will help in design of therapeutic models. PMID:19778450

  12. Sequence, evolution and tissue expression patterns of an epidermal type I keratin from the shark Scyliorhinus stellaris.

    PubMed

    Schaffeld, Michael; Höffling, Simon; Jürgen, Markl

    2004-08-01

    From the shark Scyliorhinus stellaris we cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding a novel type I keratin, termed SstK10. By MALDI-MS peptide mass fingerprinting of cytoskeletal proteins separated on polyacrylamide gels, we assigned SstK10 to a 46-kDa protein which is the major epidermal type I ("IE") keratin in this fish and is specifically expressed in stratified epithelia. In a phylogenetic tree based on type I keratin sequences and with lamprey keratins applied as outgroup, SstK10 branches off in a rather basal position. This tree strongly supports the concept that teleost keratins and tetrapod keratins resulted from two independent gene radiation processes. The only exception is human K18 because its orthologs have been found in all jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) studied; in the tree, they form a common, most early branch, with the shark version, SstK18, in the most basal position. Thus, the sequences of SstK10 and SstK18 also favor the classical view of vertebrate evolution that considers the cartilaginous fishes as the most ancient living Gnathostomata. To determine the overall expression patterns of epidermal ("E") and simple epithelial ("S") keratins in this shark, we furthermore tested a panel of monoclonal anti-keratin antibodies by immunofluorescence microscopy of frozen tissue sections, and in immunoblots of cytoskeletal preparations, demonstrating that immunodetection of specific keratins is a convenient method to characterize epithelial tissues in shark. PMID:15503859

  13. Markers of Tissue-Specific Insulin Resistance Predict the Worsening of Hyperglycemia, Incident Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    FízeI'ová, Mária; Cederberg, Henna; Stan?áková, Alena; Jauhiainen, Raimo; Vangipurapu, Jagadish; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the ability of surrogate markers of tissue-specific insulin resistance (IR, Matsuda IR, Adipocyte IR, Liver IR) to predict deterioration of hyperglycemia, incident type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events in the Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) Study. The METSIM Study includes 10,197 Finnish men, aged 45–73 years, and examined in 2005–2010. A total of 558 of 8,749 non-diabetic participants at baseline were diagnosed with new-onset diabetes and 239 with a new CVD event during a 5.9-year follow-up of this cohort (2010–2013). Compared to fasting plasma insulin level, Matsuda IR (IR in skeletal muscle) and Adipocyte IR were significantly better predictors of 2-hour plasma glucose and glucose area under the curve after adjustment for confounding factors. Liver IR was the strongest predictor of both incident type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio?=?1.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.68–1.98) and cardiovascular events (hazard ratio?=?1.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.15–1.48). Hazard ratios for fasting insulin were 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.32–1.42) and 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.00–1.24), respectively. Tissue-specific markers of IR, Matsuda IR and Adipocyte IR, were superior to fasting plasma insulin level in predicting worsening of hyperglycemia, and Liver IR was superior to fasting insulin level in predicting incident type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events. PMID:25310839

  14. Ultrasound in contemporary physiotherapy practice.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tim

    2008-08-01

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound as an element of physiotherapy practice is well established, but the nature of that practice has changed significantly over the last 20 years. This paper aims to review the rationale and range of applications for which this modality is employed in current practice. Whereas in the past, its primary use was as a thermal modality, it is argued that currently, it is the 'non-thermal' aspects of the intervention that are most commonly employed. The predominant use of therapeutic ultrasound is in relation to tissue repair and soft tissue lesion management, where the evidence would support its application in the inflammatory, proliferative and remodelling phases. The clinical outcomes appear to be dose dependent, and whilst this paper does not detail dose related clinical decision making, the broad issues are considered. The future possibilities for the use of the modality are reviewed, and although outside the immediate remit of this paper, the use of therapeutic ultrasound in fracture management is briefly considered. PMID:18466945

  15. Ultrasound Research Interface

    Cancer.gov

    The ultrasound research interface permits extensive instrument parameter control of a commercially available scanner that allows access to, and export of, the beam-formed signal data while simultaneously displaying the ultrasound system-processed data as a clinical image.

  16. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  17. Transvaginal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Transvaginal ultrasound is a method of imaging the genital tract in females. A hand held probe is inserted directly ... vaginal cavity to scan the pelvic structures, while ultrasound pictures are viewed on a monitor. The test ...

  18. Medical Ultrasound Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Explains the basic principles of ultrasound using everyday physics. Topics include the generation of ultrasound, basic interactions with material, and the measurement of blood flow using the Doppler effect. (Author/MM)

  19. Argonaute CLIP-Seq reveals miRNA targetome diversity across tissue types.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter M; Loher, Phillipe; Quann, Kevin; Brody, Jonathan; Londin, Eric R; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2014-01-01

    To date, analyses of individual targets have provided evidence of a miRNA targetome that extends beyond the boundaries of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and can involve non-Watson-Crick base pairing in the miRNA seed region. Here we report our findings from analyzing 34 Argonaute HITS-CLIP datasets from several human and mouse cell types. Investigation of the architectural (i.e. bulge vs. contiguous pairs) and sequence (Watson-Crick vs. G:U pairs) preferences for human and mouse miRNAs revealed that many heteroduplexes are "non-canonical" i.e. their seed region comprises G:U and bulge combinations. The genomic distribution of miRNA targets differed distinctly across cell types but remained congruent across biological replicates of the same cell type. For some cell types intergenic and intronic targets were more frequent whereas in other cell types mRNA targets prevailed. The findings suggest an expanded model of miRNA targeting that is more frequent than the standard model currently in use. Lastly, our analyses of data from different cell types and laboratories revealed consistent Ago-loaded miRNA profiles across replicates whereas, unexpectedly, the Ago-loaded targets exhibited a much more dynamic behavior across biological replicates. PMID:25103560

  20. Monitoring Radiofrequency Ablation Using Real-Time Ultrasound Nakagami Imaging Combined with Frequency and Temporal Compounding Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Shuicai; Wang, Chiao-Yin; Ma, Hsiang-Yang; Lin, Chung-Chih; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Gas bubbles induced during the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of tissues can affect the detection of ablation zones (necrosis zone or thermal lesion) during ultrasound elastography. To resolve this problem, our previous study proposed ultrasound Nakagami imaging for detecting thermal-induced bubble formation to evaluate ablation zones. To prepare for future applications, this study (i) created a novel algorithmic scheme based on the frequency and temporal compounding of Nakagami imaging for enhanced ablation zone visualization, (ii) integrated the proposed algorithm into a clinical scanner to develop a real-time Nakagami imaging system for monitoring RFA, and (iii) investigated the applicability of Nakagami imaging to various types of tissues. The performance of the real-time Nakagami imaging system in visualizing RFA-induced ablation zones was validated by measuring porcine liver (n = 18) and muscle tissues (n = 6). The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm can operate on a standard clinical ultrasound scanner to monitor RFA in real time. The Nakagami imaging system effectively monitors RFA-induced ablation zones in liver tissues. However, because tissue properties differ, the system cannot visualize ablation zones in muscle fibers. In the future, real-time Nakagami imaging should be focused on the RFA of the liver and is suggested as an alternative monitoring tool when advanced elastography is unavailable or substantial bubbles exist in the ablation zone. PMID:25658424

  1. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Downey, E D; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

    2013-11-01

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits in Angus beef cattle. Final antibody level and response to vaccination were based on neutralizing serum antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2). Calves were followed through development and the feedlot phase, with collection of yearling ultrasound (n=957), preharvest (n=762), and carcass (n=673) data. In this study, 48% of the animals were observed to have positively responded to the vaccine, as evidenced by higher final antibody levels compared to prevaccination antibody levels. Increased final antibody levels were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increased yearling weight and increased subcutaneous fat over the rump. An interaction between final antibody level and weaning time also was associated (P<0.05) with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and meat pH, with a favorable, negative relationship between final antibody and WBSF in calves weaned at initial vaccination. Overall antibody response by wean time interaction had a significant (P<0.05) association with ADG and meat pH, with calves weaned at initial vaccination having a favorable, positive relationship between overall antibody response and ADG. Under both the final antibody and overall antibody response models, animals weaned at initial vaccination had significantly (P<0.05) lower intramuscular fat at yearling time and conversely higher harvest weight than animals weaned at the booster vaccination. When antibody response was grouped (none, low, high), a significant interaction (P<0.05) between antibody response group and weaning time was identified for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW. Animals weaned at the initial vaccination in the high antibody response group had the advantage for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW compared to animals in the high-response group that were weaned at booster vaccination. Linear increases in antibody response generally did not have negative effects on performance or carcass quality traits in finished cattle (P>0.05). Therefore, producers should not be concerned about decreased production or quality attributes as a result of developing a robust antibody response to vaccination for BVDV2 in beef cattle. PMID:24045477

  2. Topographic distribution of the different cell types, connective tissue and vascular tissue/lumina within a functional bovine corpus luteum and its association with breed, type of fixation protocol and stage during the cycle.

    PubMed

    Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; De Vliegher, S; Piepers, S; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we analysed the effect of fixative, breed, luteal stage and location on the nuclear density, volume density of connective tissue and vascular tissue/lumina within a bovine luteal gland in view of the development of an in vivo sampling technique to longitudinally monitor luteal histophysiology. The inner zone defined as the zone geometrically closest to the centre of the gland shows a significantly lower nuclear density (for all cell types) and a higher volume density of collagen fibres and vessels when compared with the outer zone (p < 0.001). The nuclear density in luteal glands from Holstein-Friesian cows is not significantly different from that in Belgian Blue cows, nor is it in stage II vs stage III glands. The collagen fibre content was significantly lower in glands of Belgian Blue cows (p = 0.01) and in younger glands (p = 0.003). Hence, it seems that the lower nuclear density in the inner zone was compensated by a higher amount of collagen fibres. As the type of fixative applied has a significant effect on the nuclear density of the different cell types, the present study warrants future research to further optimize the fixation protocol. As a conclusion, we can state that the topographic difference in nuclear distribution for the different cell types in a bovine luteal gland is only significant when comparing the inner vs the outer zone. This implies that if a sample representative for the whole gland has to be taken, for example, when taking an in vivo sample, it is necessary that the biopsy goes through the inner zone and contains the total diameter of the gland. PMID:23281851

  3. Non-invasive ultrasound surgery: role of microbubble enhanced cavitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Tran; T. L. Hall; J. B. Fowlkes; C. A. Cain

    2000-01-01

    A method to make in-vivo acoustic cavitation practical as a mechanism for non-invasive ultrasound surgery is presented. Unlike thermal ablation mechanisms, acoustic cavitation can destroy tissue without heating complex overlying layers. However, cavitation thresholds are widely varying in tissues and cavitation requires high intensities to initiate. We have shown that introducing microbubbles (OptisonTM ultrasound contrast agent) significantly reduces the threshold

  4. Ultrasound Imaging System Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this video, astronaut Peggy Whitson uses the Human Research Facility (HRF) Ultrasound Imaging System in the Destiny Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS) to image her own heart. The Ultrasound Imaging System provides three-dimension image enlargement of the heart and other organs, muscles, and blood vessels. It is capable of high resolution imaging in a wide range of applications, both research and diagnostic, such as Echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart), abdominal, vascular, gynecological, muscle, tendon, and transcranial ultrasound.

  5. Multimodal Phantom of Liver Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chmarra, Magdalena K.; Hansen, Rune; Mårvik, Ronald; Langø, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging plays an important role in patients' care and is continuously being used in managing health and disease. To obtain the maximum benefit from this rapidly developing technology, further research is needed. Ideally, this research should be done in a patient-safe and environment-friendly manner; for example, on phantoms. The goal of this work was to develop a protocol and manufacture a multimodal liver phantom that is suitable for ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging modalities. The proposed phantom consists of three types of mimicked soft tissues: liver parenchyma, tumors, and portal veins, that are made of six ingredients: candle gel, sephadex®, agarose, glycerol, distilled water, and silicone string. The entire procedure is advantageous, since preparation of the phantom is simple, rather cost-effective, and reasonably quick – it takes around 2 days. Besides, most of the phantom's parts can be reused to manufacture a new phantom. Comparison of ultrasound images of real patient's liver and the developed phantom shows that the phantom's liver tissue and its structures are well simulated. PMID:23691165

  6. Multimodal phantom of liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Chmarra, Magdalena K; Hansen, Rune; Mårvik, Ronald; Langø, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging plays an important role in patients' care and is continuously being used in managing health and disease. To obtain the maximum benefit from this rapidly developing technology, further research is needed. Ideally, this research should be done in a patient-safe and environment-friendly manner; for example, on phantoms. The goal of this work was to develop a protocol and manufacture a multimodal liver phantom that is suitable for ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging modalities. The proposed phantom consists of three types of mimicked soft tissues: liver parenchyma, tumors, and portal veins, that are made of six ingredients: candle gel, sephadex®, agarose, glycerol, distilled water, and silicone string. The entire procedure is advantageous, since preparation of the phantom is simple, rather cost-effective, and reasonably quick - it takes around 2 days. Besides, most of the phantom's parts can be reused to manufacture a new phantom. Comparison of ultrasound images of real patient's liver and the developed phantom shows that the phantom's liver tissue and its structures are well simulated. PMID:23691165

  7. Quantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Urokinase Plasminogen Activator, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1, and Tissue Metalloproteinase Inhibitor Type 1 Gene Expressions in Primary Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Remedios Castello; Amparo Estelles; Carlos Vazquez; Cristina Falco; Francisco Espana; Sergio M. Almenar; Carlos Fuster; Justo Aznar

    Background: The plasminogen activation system and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a key role in the degradation of basement membrane and extracellular matrix in tissue remodeling, cancer cell invasion, and metastasis. Methods: Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription- PCR (RT-PCR) assays were developed to quantify urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), plasmino- gen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), and tissue metal- loproteinase inhibitor type 1 (TIMP-1)

  8. [What do doctors understand regarding ultrasound safety during pregnancy?].

    PubMed

    Meizner, Israel

    2012-04-01

    Ultrasound has a well established record for being a safe procedure during pregnancy. Nevertheless, one should bear in mind the fact that ultrasound is a source of energy with two main bioeffects in tissue: heat and cavitation. These effects are inherent in the physical properties of the ultrasound transducers and have not been shown to be harmful to the developing fetus. The two bioeffects are approximated by the thermal index for heating (TI) and the mechanical index (MI) for cavitation effects. These indices appear clearly on the ultrasound screen, enabling the operator to see if their values are within the normal range. Poor level of knowledge regarding safety issues were found among ultrasound performers both in Israel and the USA. This lack of knowledge is an alarm signal for the health authorities, arousing a demand for the establishment of training programs for all ultrasound end-users. PMID:22616153

  9. Acoustic Radiation Force Elasticity Imaging in Diagnostic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Joshua R.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.; Palmeri, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    The development of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods has been the focus of intense research activity since the mid-1990s. In characterizing the mechanical properties of soft tissues, these techniques image an entirely new subset of tissue properties that cannot be derived with conventional ultrasound techniques. Clinically, tissue elasticity is known to be associated with pathological condition and with the ability to image these features in vivo, elasticity imaging methods may prove to be invaluable tools for the diagnosis and/or monitoring of disease. This review focuses on ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods that generate an acoustic radiation force to induce tissue displacements. These methods can be performed non-invasively during routine exams to provide either qualitative or quantitative metrics of tissue elasticity. A brief overview of soft tissue mechanics relevant to elasticity imaging is provided, including a derivation of acoustic radiation force, and an overview of the various acoustic radiation force elasticity imaging methods. PMID:23549529

  10. Phenylalanine derived cyanogenic diglucosides from Eucalyptus camphora and their abundances in relation to ontogeny and tissue type.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Elizabeth H; Goodger, Jason Q D; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Frisch, Tina; Olsen, Carl Erik; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Woodrow, Ian E

    2011-12-01

    The cyanogenic glucoside profile of Eucalyptus camphora was investigated in the course of plant ontogeny. In addition to amygdalin, three phenylalanine-derived cyanogenic diglucosides characterized by unique linkage positions between the two glucose moieties were identified in E. camphora tissues. This is the first time that multiple cyanogenic diglucosides have been shown to co-occur in any plant species. Two of these cyanogenic glucosides have not previously been reported and are named eucalyptosin B and eucalyptosin C. Quantitative and qualitative differences in total cyanogenic glucoside content were observed across different stages of whole plant and tissue ontogeny, as well as within different tissue types. Seedlings of E. camphora produce only the cyanogenic monoglucoside prunasin, and genetically based variation was observed in the age at which seedlings initiate prunasin biosynthesis. Once initiated, total cyanogenic glucoside concentration increased throughout plant ontogeny with cyanogenic diglucoside production initiated in saplings and reaching a maximum in flower buds of adult trees. The role of multiple cyanogenic glucosides in E. camphora is unknown, but may include enhanced plant defense and/or a primary role in nitrogen storage and transport. PMID:21945721

  11. Ultrasound for molecular imaging and therapy in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Osamu F.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, molecularly-targeted contrast enhanced ultrasound (ultrasound molecular imaging) has attracted significant attention in preclinical research of cancer diagnostic and therapy. Potential applications for ultrasound molecular imaging run the gamut from early detection and characterization of malignancies to monitoring treatment responses and guiding therapies. There may also be a role for ultrasound contrast agents for improved delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and gene therapies across biological barriers. Currently, a first Phase 0 clinical trial in patients with prostate cancer assesses toxicity and feasibility of ultrasound molecular imaging using contrast agents targeted at the angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2). This mini-review highlights recent advances and potential applications of ultrasound molecular imaging and ultrasound-guided therapy in cancer. PMID:23061039

  12. Characterization of vascular strain during in-vitro angioplasty with high-resolution ultrasound speckle tracking

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ultrasound elasticity imaging provides biomechanical and elastic properties of vascular tissue, with the potential to distinguish between tissue motion and tissue strain. To validate the ability of ultrasound elasticity imaging to predict structurally defined physical changes in tissue, strain measurement patterns during angioplasty in four bovine carotid artery pathology samples were compared to the measured physical characteristics of the tissue specimens. Methods Using computational image-processing techniques, the circumferences of each bovine artery specimen were obtained from ultrasound and pathologic data. Results Ultrasound-strain-based and pathology-based arterial circumference measurements were correlated with an R2 value of 0.94 (p = 0.03). The experimental elasticity imaging results confirmed the onset of deformation of an angioplasty procedure by indicating a consistent inflection point where vessel fibers were fully unfolded and vessel wall strain initiated. Conclusion These results validate the ability of ultrasound elasticity imaging to measure localized mechanical changes in vascular tissue. PMID:20727172

  13. Modeling of thermal effects in antivascular ultrasound therapy

    PubMed Central

    Levenback, Benjamin J.; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Wood, Andrew K. W.

    2012-01-01

    Antivascular ultrasound consisting of low-intensity sonication in the presence of circulating microbubbles of an ultrasound contrast agent has been demonstrated to disrupt blood flow in solid cancers. In this study a mathematical framework is described for the microbubble-induced heating that occurs during antivascular ultrasound. Biological tissues are modeled as a continuum of microbubble-filled vasculature, cells, and interstitial fluids with compressibility equal to the sum of the compressibility of each component. The mathematical simulations show that the absorption of ultrasound waves by viscous damping of the microbubble oscillations induced significant local heating of the tissue vasculature. The extent and the rate of temperature increase not only depends on the properties of the microbubbles and the sonication parameters but is also influenced markedly by the blood flow. Slow flow conditions lead to higher tissue temperatures due to a stronger interaction between microbubbles and ultrasound and reduced heat dissipation. Because tumors have slower blood flow than healthy tissue, the microbubble-induced ultrasound antivascular therapy is likely to affect cancerous tissue more extensively than healthy tissue, providing a way to selectively target the vasculature of cancers. PMID:22280615

  14. Cytokine gene signatures in neural tissue of horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis or equine herpes type 1 myeloencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, N; Wilson, W D; Conrad, P A; Barr, B C; Ferraro, G L; Daft, B M; Leutenegger, C M

    2006-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the relative levels of gene transcription of selected pathogens and cytokines in the brain and spinal cord of 12 horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), 11 with equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) myeloencephalopathy, and 12 healthy control horses by applying a real time pcr to the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Total rna was extracted from each tissue, transcribed to complementary dna (cDNA) and assayed for Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora hughesi, EHV-1, equine GAPDH (housekeeping gene), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 AND IL-12 p40. S neurona cdna was detected in the neural tissue from all 12 horses with EPM, and two of them also had amplifiable cDNA of N hughesi. The relative levels of transcription of protozoal cdna ranged from 1 to 461 times baseline (mean 123). All the horses with ehv-1 myeloencephalopathy had positive viral signals by PCR with relative levels of transcription ranging from 1 to 1618 times baseline (mean 275). All the control horses tested negative for S neurona, N hughesi and EHV-1 cdna. The cytokine profiles of each disease indicated a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory markers. In the horses with epm the pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines (IL-8, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were commonly expressed but the anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 AND IL-10) were absent or rare. In the horses with ehv-1 the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 was commonly expressed, but IL-10 and IFN-gamma were not, and TNF-alpha was rare. Tissue from the control horses expressed only the gene GAPDH. PMID:16963713

  15. The increase in antioxidant capacity after wounding depends on the type of fruit or vegetable tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Fernando Reyes; J. Emilio Villarreal; Luis Cisneros-Zevallos

    Wounding of fresh produce may elicit an increase in antioxidant capacity associated with wound-induced phenolic compounds. How- ever, there have been no reports on the wounding response of different types of fresh produce. Changes in antioxidant capacity, total soluble phenolics, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and total anthocyanins were evaluated after wounding in zucchini, white and red cab- bage, iceberg lettuce,

  16. Comprehensive list of gene variants developed for cancer cells from nine tissue types

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists have developed a comprehensive list of genetic variants for each of the types of cells that comprise what is known as the NCI-60 cell line collection. This new list adds depth to the most frequently studied human tumor cell lines in cancer research, molecular pharmacology, and drug discovery.

  17. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a breast cancer targeting contrast agent for ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milgroom, Andrew Carson

    Current clinical use of ultrasound for breast cancer diagnostics is strictly limited to a role as a supplementary detection method to other modalities, such as mammography or MRI. A major reason for ultrasound’s role as a secondary method is its inability to discern between cancerous and non-cancerous bodies of similar density, like dense calcifications or benign fibroadenomas. Its detection capabilities are further diminished by the variable density of the surrounding breast tissue with the progression of age. Preliminary studies suggest that mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are a good candidate as an in situ contrast agent for ultrasound. By tagging the silica particle surface with the cancer-targeting antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin), suspect regions of interest can be better identified in real time with standard ultrasound equipment. Once the silica-antibody conjugate is injected into the bloodstream and enters the cancerous growth’s vasculature, the antibody arm will bind to HER2, a cell surface receptor known to be dysfunctional or overexpressed in certain types of breast cancer. As more particles aggregate at the cell surface, backscatter of the ultrasonic waves increases as a result of the higher porous silica concentration. This translates to an increased contrast around the lesion boundary. Tumor detection through ultrasound contrast enhancement provides a tremendous advantage over current cancer diagnostics because is it significantly cheaper and can be monitored in real time. Characterization of MCM-41 type MSNs suggests that these particles have sufficient stability and particle size distribution to penetrate through fenestrated tumor vasculature and accumulate in HER2+ breast cancer cells through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. A study of acoustic properties showed that particle concentration is linearly correlated to image contrast in clinical frequency-range ultrasound, although less pronounced than typical microbubble-type contrast agents. In vitro studies using cells with varied levels of HER2 expression demonstrated the selectivity of the MSN-Herceptin conjugate to cells with HER2 overexpression. Fluorescence imaging suggest these images remain surface-bound and are not incorporated into the cell body. This study demonstrates the potential of MSNs as a stable, safe, and effective imaging contrast agent for ultrasound-based cancer diagnostics. Ultimately this work will contribute towards the improvement of diagnostic alternatives to conventional ionizing radiation-intensive imaging—such as MRI or X-ray—without compromising the specificity of the test.

  18. Expression analysis and purification of human recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) from transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Nabiabad, Haidar Saify; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Javaran, Mokhtar Jalali; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) has been produced in different hosts. In this research, transgenic tobacco was selected for production of human rt-PA. Transgenic plants were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR. The protein was extracted by Lysine Sepharose chromatography column and was further purified by HiTrap desalting column. The function of eluted protein was analyzed on zymography gel. The results showed that the 1.7-kb cDNA of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) (as well as a shortened 650-bp transcript of t-PA) has been expressed in transgenic plants. The anticipated 63-kD protein band and an additional 53-kD protein were observed in transgenic plants. Finally, zymography assay revealed that the purified rt-PA has anticipated appropriate activity comparable to a positive control drug (Alteplase). On the whole, we can say that transgenic tobacco is a good alternative host for production of t-PA. PMID:21442553

  19. Validation of Potential Reference Genes for qPCR in Maize across Abiotic Stresses, Hormone Treatments, and Tissue Types

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Hai; Gao, Shibin; Liu, Hailan; Liu, Jian; Cao, Moju; Pan, Guangtang; Rong, Tingzhao; Zhang, Suzhi

    2014-01-01

    The reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful and widely used technique for the measurement of gene expression. Reference genes, which serve as endogenous controls ensure that the results are accurate and reproducible, are vital for data normalization. To bolster the literature on reference gene selection in maize, ten candidate reference genes, including eight traditionally used internal control genes and two potential candidate genes from our microarray datasets, were evaluated for expression level in maize across abiotic stresses (cold, heat, salinity, and PEG), phytohormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and gibberellins), and different tissue types. Three analytical software packages, geNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper, were used to assess the stability of reference gene expression. The results revealed that elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1?), tubulin beta (?-TUB), cyclophilin (CYP), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (EIF4A) were the most reliable reference genes for overall gene expression normalization in maize, while GRP (Glycine-rich RNA-binding protein), GLU1(beta-glucosidase), and UBQ9 (ubiquitin 9) were the least stable and most unsuitable genes. In addition, the suitability of EF1?, ?-TUB, and their combination as reference genes was confirmed by validating the expression of WRKY50 in various samples. The current study indicates the appropriate reference genes for the urgent requirement of gene expression normalization in maize across certain abiotic stresses, hormones, and tissue types. PMID:24810581

  20. Tissue-type plasminogen activator induces opening of the blood-brain barrier via the LDL receptor-related protein.

    PubMed

    Yepes, Manuel; Sandkvist, Maria; Moore, Elizabeth G; Bugge, Thomas H; Strickland, Dudley K; Lawrence, Daniel A

    2003-11-01

    The regulation of cerebrovascular permeability is critical for normal brain homeostasis, and the "breakdown" of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is associated with the development of vasogenic edema and intracranial hypertension in a number of neurological disorders. In this study we demonstrate that an increase in endogenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) activity in the perivascular tissue following cerebral ischemia induces opening of the BBB via a mechanism that is independent of both plasminogen (Plg) and MMP-9. We also show that injection of tPA into the cerebrospinal fluid in the absence of ischemia results in a rapid dose-dependent increase in vascular permeability. This activity is not seen with urokinase-type Plg activator (uPA) but is induced in Plg-/- mice, confirming that the effect is Plg-independent. However, the activity is blocked by antibodies to the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP) and by the LRP antagonist, receptor-associated protein (RAP), suggesting a receptor-mediated process. Together these studies demonstrate that tPA is both necessary and sufficient to directly increase vascular permeability in the early stages of BBB opening, and suggest that this occurs through a receptor-mediated cell signaling event and not through generalized degradation of the vascular basement membrane. PMID:14617754

  1. Ultrasound backscatter microscope for skin imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Turnbull; B. G. Starkoski; K. A. Harasiewiczz; G. R. Lockwood; F. S. Foster

    1993-01-01

    There is a growing interest in high resolution, subsurface imaging of cutaneous tissues using higher frequency ultrasound. Some of the possible applications of higher frequency skin imaging include tumour staging, boundary definition, and studies of the response of tumours to therapy, investigations of inflammatory skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema, and basic studies of skin aging, sun damage and

  2. Composite ultrasound imaging apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Morimoto, Alan K. (Albuquerque, NM); Bow, Jr., Wallace J. (Albuquerque, NM); Strong, David Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An imaging apparatus and method for use in presenting composite two dimensional and three dimensional images from individual ultrasonic frames. A cross-sectional reconstruction is applied by using digital ultrasound frames, transducer orientation and a known center. Motion compensation, rank value filtering, noise suppression and tissue classification are utilized to optimize the composite image.

  3. Composite ultrasound imaging apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J. Jr.; Strong, D.S.; Dickey, F.M.

    1998-09-15

    An imaging apparatus and method for use in presenting composite two dimensional and three dimensional images from individual ultrasonic frames. A cross-sectional reconstruction is applied by using digital ultrasound frames, transducer orientation and a known center. Motion compensation, rank value filtering, noise suppression and tissue classification are utilized to optimize the composite image. 37 figs.

  4. Ultrasound Strain Imaging Towards Verification and Guidance of Prostate Thermal Therapy with Catheter-Based Ultrasound Applicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar-Keralapura, Mallika; Chubb, Nicole; Scott, Serena; Phipps, Natalie; Burdette, Clif; Diederich, Chris

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasound based transurethral and interstitial catheters have been developed and tested in vivo to thermally ablate prostate cancers. Treatment validation and accurate control of therapy is currently done using MR thermal imaging (±1° C, update: 5-15 s). MRTI is effective for real-time monitoring and guidance, but, cost, setup time, and accessibility can be limiting. Ultrasound imaging methods could be a practicable approach to monitoring. We investigated Ultrasound Strain Imaging (USI) as a tool towards verifying and controlling prostate treatments by developing a novel methodology for tissue compression using ultrasound phantoms and ex vivo tissue models. We estimate strain using quasi real-time estimation algorithms and added automatic segmentation features. The methodology involved inserting an ultrasound applicator into ex vivo liver or porcine muscle tissue, ablating it for 10 min at 15 W to create a well defined thermal lesion. After treatment, the tissue was compressed either externally (3-5%) using the probe or by deflating/inflating the applicator's coupling balloon internally. Ultrasound RF data was recorded during the compression and USI was computed within 20 seconds and compared with photographs of corresponding excised tissue sections. USI estimated post ablation using balloon and external methods yielded significant contrast that correlated well with measurements of excised tissue sections. From these preliminary studies, USI can become an effective feasible tool for verification and guidance of ablation regions with these devices. Balloon compressions could potentially allow computation USI in clinical treatments for confirmation and boundary control.

  5. Majority of Children With Type 1 Diabetes Produce and Deposit Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase Antibodies in the Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Maglio, Mariantonia; Florian, Fiorella; Vecchiet, Monica; Auricchio, Renata; Paparo, Francesco; Spadaro, Raffaella; Zanzi, Delia; Rapacciuolo, Luciano; Franzese, Adriana; Sblattero, Daniele; Marzari, Roberto; Troncone, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Anti-tissue transglutaminase (TG2) antibodies are the serological marker of celiac disease. Given the close association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes, we investigated the production and deposition of anti-TG2 antibodies in the jejunal mucosa of type 1 diabetic children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Intestinal biopsies were performed in 33 type 1 diabetic patients with a normal mucosal architecture: 14 had high levels (potential celiac disease patients) and 19 had normal levels of serum anti-TG2 antibodies. All biopsy specimens were investigated for intestinal deposits of IgA anti-TG2 antibodies by double immunofluorescence. In addition, an antibody analysis using the phage display technique was performed on the intestinal biopsy specimens from seven type 1 diabetic patients, of whom four had elevated and three had normal levels of serum anti-TG2 antibodies. RESULTS Immunofluorescence studies showed that 11 of 14 type 1 diabetic children with elevated levels and 11 of 19 with normal serum levels of anti-TG2 antibodies presented with mucosal deposits of such autoantibodies. The phage display analysis technique confirmed the intestinal production of the anti-TG2 antibodies; however, whereas the serum-positive type 1 diabetic patients showed a preferential use of the VH5 antibody gene family, in the serum-negative patients the anti-TG2 antibodies belonged to the VH1 and VH3 families, with a preferential use of the latter. CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrate that there is intestinal production and deposition of anti-TG2 antibodies in the jejunal mucosa of the majority of type 1 diabetic patients. However, only those with elevated serum levels of anti-TG2 antibodies showed the VH usage that is typical of the anti-TG2 antibodies that are produced in patients with celiac disease. PMID:19401430

  6. Overexpression of the Wild Type p73 Gene in Breast Cancer Tissues and Cell Lines1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex I. Zaika; Sergey Kovalev; Natalie D. Marchenko; Ute M. Moll

    1999-01-01

    mRNA ranging from 5-25-fold above normal, with the remaining tumors (64%) falling within the normal range. Moreover, five of seven cell lines (71%) also exhibited p73 overexpression (13-73-fold). Yet, no correlation with p21 mRNA and protein levels was present, although four of the five lines were mutant for p53. Mutation analysis of the eight highest express- ers showed wild type

  7. Effects of temperature and tissue type on the development of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Boatright, Stacy A; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2010-09-01

    The secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), was reared on either equine gluteus muscle or porcine loin muscle at 20.8 degrees C, 24.3 degrees C, and 28.2 degrees C. C. macellaria needed approximately 35% more time to complete development when reared at 20.8 than 28.2 degrees C. Furthermore, larval growth and weight over time did not differ between larvae reared on equine versus porcine muscle. This study is the second in the United States to examine the development of C. macellaria and is the first to examine development of this species on muscle tissue from different vertebrate species. These data could provide significant information regarding time of colonization, including myiasis and neglect cases involving humans and animals. Furthermore, these results in comparison with the only other data set available for this species in North America indicate a fair amount of phenotypic variability as it relates to geographic location, suggesting caution should be taken when applying these data to forensic cases outside the region where this study was conducted. PMID:20939391

  8. Ultrasonic characterization of ultrasound contrast agents.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Nico; Emmer, Marcia; van Wamel, Annemieke; Versluis, Michel

    2009-08-01

    The main constituent of an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) is gas-filled microbubbles. An average UCA contains billions per ml. These microbubbles are excellent ultrasound scatterers due to their high compressibility. In an ultrasound field they act as resonant systems, resulting in harmonic energy in the backscattered ultrasound signal, such as energy at the subharmonic, ultraharmonic and higher harmonic frequencies. This harmonic energy is exploited for contrast enhanced imaging to discriminate the contrast agent from surrounding tissue. The amount of harmonic energy that the contrast agent bubbles generate depends on the bubble characteristics in combination with the ultrasound field applied. This paper summarizes different strategies to characterize the UCAs. These strategies can be divided into acoustic and optical methods, which focus on the linear or nonlinear responses of the contrast agent bubbles. In addition, the characteristics of individual bubbles can be determined or the bubbles can be examined when they are part of a population. Recently, especially optical methods have proven their value to study individual bubbles. This paper concludes by showing some examples of optically observed typical behavior of contrast bubbles in ultrasound fields. PMID:19468770

  9. [Role fo ultrasound in the study of latero-cervical metastases].

    PubMed

    Casolino, D; Caliceti, U; Ghigi, G; Boriani, F; Tesei, F; Pieri, F

    1989-01-01

    In patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for malignant neoplasies of the head and neck the availability of a diagnostic method permitting frequent, easy checkups of the latero-cervical lymph nodes would be extremely useful. This is especially so because clinical examination is often hindered by the post-actinic fibrosis of the tissues. Among the methods presently available for this purpose (CAT, NMR, lymphoscintigraphy, xerography, ultrasound) echotomography appears to be the most indicated as it is least invasive, can easily be repeated and is not difficult to perform. The refining of ultrasound techniques would, as reported in the literature, make it possible today to evaluate the effects of RT on latero-cervical metastases both during and some time after treatment. The authors, therefore evaluated the advantages and limitations of the method examining 33 patients undergoing RT for latero-cervical metastases due to head and neck carcinoma. Each patient underwent ultrasound examination prior to, during and at the end of the RT treatment cycle. Once treatment had been terminated 18 underwent latero-cervical neck dissection. Upon termination of the radiation treatment three distinct types of ultrasound behaviour were identified: complete response; partial response; minimal or negligible response. For those patients undergoing surgery this response was compared to lymph node chain histology while, for the others, it was compared to the ultrasound findings of subsequent examinations. The results obtained appear to indicate that a systematic scheduling of ultrasound checkups offers a reliable evaluation of how metastatic adenopathies respond to RT. At times such response can only be completed several months after treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2658470

  10. Plexin D1 determines body fat distribution by regulating the type V collagen microenvironment in visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Minchin, James E N; Dahlman, Ingrid; Harvey, Christopher J; Mejhert, Niklas; Singh, Manvendra K; Epstein, Jonathan A; Arner, Peter; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Rawls, John F

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated PLEXIN D1 (PLXND1) in body fat distribution and type 2 diabetes. However, a role for PLXND1 in regional adiposity and insulin resistance is unknown. Here we use in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish to show that Plxnd1 regulates body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Plxnd1 deficiency in zebrafish induced hyperplastic morphology in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and reduced lipid storage. In contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) growth and morphology were unaffected, resulting in altered body fat distribution and a reduced VAT:SAT ratio in zebrafish. A VAT-specific role for Plxnd1 appeared conserved in humans, as PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with hypertrophic morphology in VAT, but not SAT. In zebrafish plxnd1 mutants, the effect on VAT morphology and body fat distribution was dependent on induction of the extracellular matrix protein collagen type V alpha 1 (col5a1). Furthermore, after high-fat feeding, zebrafish plxnd1 mutant VAT was resistant to expansion, and excess lipid was disproportionately deposited in SAT, leading to an even greater exacerbation of altered body fat distribution. Plxnd1-deficient zebrafish were protected from high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance, and human VAT PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a conserved role for PLXND1 in insulin sensitivity. Together, our findings identify Plxnd1 as a novel regulator of VAT growth, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in both zebrafish and humans. PMID:25831505

  11. Study identifies potential therapeutic target for incurable, rare type of soft-tissue cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In a study published online in Cell Reports, scientists from the UT Southwestern Medical Center (home of the Harold C. Simmons Cancer Center) found that inhibiting the action of a protein called BRD4 caused cancer cells to die in a mouse model of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). MPNSTs are highly aggressive sarcomas that form around nerves. These tumors can develop sporadically, but about half of cases are in patients with a genetic disorder called neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) that affects 1 in 3,500 people.

  12. Microbubbles in Ultrasound-Triggered Drug and Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hernot, Sophie; Klibanov, Alexander L.

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents, in the form of gas-filled microbubbles, are becoming popular in perfusion monitoring; they are employed as molecular imaging agents. Microbubbles are manufactured from biocompatible materials, they can be injected intravenously, and some are approved for clinical use. Microbubbles can be destroyed by ultrasound irradiation. This destruction phenomenon can be applied to targeted drug delivery and enhancement of drug action. The ultrasonic field can be focused at the target tissues and organs; thus, selectivity of the treatment can be improved, reducing undesirable side effects. Microbubbles enhance ultrasound energy deposition in the tissues and serve as cavitation nuclei, increasing intracellular drug delivery. DNA delivery and successful tissue transfection is observed in the areas of the body where ultrasound is applied after intravascular administration of microbubbles and plasmid DNA. Accelerated blood clot dissolution in the areas of insonation by cooperative action of thrombolytic agents and microbubbles is demonstrated in several clinical trials. PMID:18486268

  13. Quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging: a review of sources of variability

    PubMed Central

    Tang, M.-X.; Mulvana, H.; Gauthier, T.; Lim, A. K. P.; Cosgrove, D. O.; Eckersley, R. J.; Stride, E.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound provides a valuable tool for medical diagnosis offering real-time imaging with excellent spatial resolution and low cost. The advent of microbubble contrast agents has provided the additional ability to obtain essential quantitative information relating to tissue vascularity, tissue perfusion and even endothelial wall function. This technique has shown great promise for diagnosis and monitoring in a wide range of clinical conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer, with considerable potential benefits in terms of patient care. A key challenge of this technique, however, is the existence of significant variations in the imaging results, and the lack of understanding regarding their origin. The aim of this paper is to review the potential sources of variability in the quantification of tissue perfusion based on microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound images. These are divided into the following three categories: (i) factors relating to the scanner setting, which include transmission power, transmission focal depth, dynamic range, signal gain and transmission frequency, (ii) factors relating to the patient, which include body physical differences, physiological interaction of body with bubbles, propagation and attenuation through tissue, and tissue motion, and (iii) factors relating to the microbubbles, which include the type of bubbles and their stability, preparation and injection and dosage. It has been shown that the factors in all the three categories can significantly affect the imaging results and contribute to the variations observed. How these factors influence quantitative imaging is explained and possible methods for reducing such variations are discussed. PMID:22866229

  14. Fast and Automatic Ultrasound Simulation from CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is currently widely used in clinical diagnosis because of its fast and safe imaging principles. As the anatomical structures present in an ultrasound image are not as clear as CT or MRI. Physicians usually need advance clinical knowledge and experience to distinguish diseased tissues. Fast simulation of ultrasound provides a cost-effective way for the training and correlation of ultrasound and the anatomic structures. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for fast simulation of ultrasound from a CT image. A multiscale method is developed to enhance tubular structures so as to simulate the blood flow. The acoustic response of common tissues is generated by weighted integration of adjacent regions on the ultrasound propagation path in the CT image, from which parameters, including attenuation, reflection, scattering, and noise, are estimated simultaneously. The thin-plate spline interpolation method is employed to transform the simulation image between polar and rectangular coordinate systems. The Kaiser window function is utilized to produce integration and radial blurring effects of multiple transducer elements. Experimental results show that the developed method is very fast and effective, allowing realistic ultrasound to be fast generated. Given that the developed method is fully automatic, it can be utilized for ultrasound guided navigation in clinical practice and for training purpose. PMID:24348736

  15. Concordance of human papillomavirus types detected on the surface and in the tissue of genital lesions in men

    PubMed Central

    Anic, Gabriella M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Rollison, Dana E.; Stockwell, Heather; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Gage, Christine; Silva, Roberto Jose C.; Baggio, Maria L.; Salmerón, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Swabbing the surface of a genital lesion to obtain a sample for HPV DNA testing is less invasive than a biopsy, but may not represent HPV types present in the lesion tissue. The objective of this study was to examine the concordance of HPV types detected in swab and biopsy samples from 165 genital lesions from men ages 18-70. Lesions included 90 condyloma, 10 penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), 23 non-condyloma with a known histology, and 42 lesions with an undetermined histology. All lesions were sampled by swabbing the surface of the lesion with a pre-wetted Dacron swab and taking a shave biopsy. HPV genotyping was performed using Linear Array for swab samples and INNO-LiPA for biopsy samples. The kappa and McNemar statistics were used to compare the concordance of detecting HPV types in swab and biopsy samples. Both sampling methods had high agreement for detection of HPV DNA in condyloma (87.8% agreement) and PeIN (100% agreement). There was also high concordance for detection of HPV16 (kappa = 1.00) and HPV18 (kappa = 1.00) in PeIN, however, agreement was low to moderate for detecting HPV6 (kappa = 0.31) and HPV11 (kappa = 0.56) in condyloma. Low to moderate agreement was also observed between sampling methods for detecting individual HPV types in the non-condyloma and lesions with an indefinite histology. The results suggest that obtaining a biopsy in addition to swabbing the surface of a lesion may provide additional information about specific HVP types associated with male genital lesions. PMID:23852680

  16. Ultrasound findings in cutaneous sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Dybiec, Ewa; Pietrzak, Aldona; Bartosi?ska, Joanna; Kieszko, Robert; Kanitakis, Jean

    2015-02-01

    The diagnosis of cutaneous sarcoidosis relies mainly on the patient's history, presence of characteristic skin lesions and histological examination that shows a granulomatous, non-necrotizing dermal infiltration. The aim of the study was to assess the ultrasonographic features of cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis before and after treatment. A 38-year-old woman with systemic sarcoidosis and specific cutaneous lesions was treated with systemic steroids followed by hydroxychloroquine. Ultrasonographic examination of the cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions was performed with a Philips iU 22 and Siemens Acuson S 2000 device, with the use of linear 15 MHz and 17 MHz transducers. Histological examination of skin lesions showed characteristic, naked, non-necrotizing granulomas in the upper dermis. Ultrasound examination revealed well-demarcated, hypoechogenic changes. Power-Doppler scan revealed increased vascularity within the lesions and the surrounding tissue. Clinical improvement of the skin lesions was confirmed by ultrasound examination, which showed a decrease in their size and normalization of dermal echogenicity and vascularity. Ultrasound examination can show cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions and their regression after appropriate treatment. PMID:25821428

  17. Ultrasound findings in cutaneous sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Dybiec, Ewa; Pietrzak, Aldona; Kieszko, Robert; Kanitakis, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of cutaneous sarcoidosis relies mainly on the patient's history, presence of characteristic skin lesions and histological examination that shows a granulomatous, non-necrotizing dermal infiltration. The aim of the study was to assess the ultrasonographic features of cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis before and after treatment. A 38-year-old woman with systemic sarcoidosis and specific cutaneous lesions was treated with systemic steroids followed by hydroxychloroquine. Ultrasonographic examination of the cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions was performed with a Philips iU 22 and Siemens Acuson S 2000 device, with the use of linear 15 MHz and 17 MHz transducers. Histological examination of skin lesions showed characteristic, naked, non-necrotizing granulomas in the upper dermis. Ultrasound examination revealed well-demarcated, hypoechogenic changes. Power-Doppler scan revealed increased vascularity within the lesions and the surrounding tissue. Clinical improvement of the skin lesions was confirmed by ultrasound examination, which showed a decrease in their size and normalization of dermal echogenicity and vascularity. Ultrasound examination can show cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions and their regression after appropriate treatment.

  18. Expression of VEGF in Periodontal Tissues of Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Chronic Periodontitis -an Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces proliferation of endothelial cells, stimulates angiogenesis, and increases vascular permeability, but information about its role in periodontal diseases is limited. The aim of this study is to determine the association between VEGF expression in healthy and periodontally diseased tissues of healthy and diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Seventeen systemically healthy and 17 Type 2 diabetic patients (DM), all diagnosed with periodontitis were enrolled into the study. Gingival samples were collected from both periodontal and healthy sites in all patients. Each patient served as his/her own control samples were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The diseased sites of diabetic subjects expressed higher level of VEGF when compared to diseased sites of non diabetic subjects with chronic periodontitis, VEGF was observed in healthy periodontal tissues of both diabetic and systemically healthy people with periodontitis and VEGF was intensely present in monocytes and macrophages. Conclusion: The increased expression of VEGF in diseased sites of diabetic patients suggests that diabetes mellitus might have direct influence over VEGF expression. PMID:25302255

  19. Characterization of the omega-conotoxin target. Evidence for tissue-specific heterogeneity in calcium channel types

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, L.J.; Johnson, D.S.; Olivera, B.M.

    1987-02-10

    Omega-Conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTx-VIA) is a 27 amino acid peptide from the venom of the fish-hunting snail, Conus geographus, that blocks voltage-activated Ca channels. The characterization of a biologically active, homogeneous /sup 125/I-labeled monoiodinated Tyr/sup 22/ derivative of omega-conotoxin GVIA and its use in binding and cross-linking studies are described. The /sup 125/I-labeled toxin is specifically cross-linked to a receptor protein with an apparent M/sub r/ of 135,000. The stoichiometry between omega-conotoxin and nitrendipine binding sites in different chick tissues was determined. Skeletal muscle has a high concentration of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding sites but no detectable omega-conotoxin sites. Brain microsomes have both binding sites, but omega-conotoxin targets are in excess. These results, combined with recent electrophysiological studies define four types of Ca channels in chick tissues, N, T, L/sub n/ (omega sensitive), and L/sub m/ (omega insensitive), and are consistent with the hypothesis that the ..cap alpha..-subunits of certain neuronal Ca/sup 2 +/ channels (L/sub n/, N) are the molecular targets of omega-conotoxin GVIA.

  20. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type: An Underdiagnosed Hereditary Connective Tissue Disorder with Mucocutaneous, Articular, and Systemic Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Castori, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type, constituting a phenotypic continuum with or, perhaps, corresponding to the joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS/EDS-HT), is likely the most common, though the least recognized, heritable connective tissue disorder. Known for decades as a hereditary condition with predominant rheumatologic manifestations, it is now emerging as a multisystemic disorder with widespread manifestations. Nevertheless, the practitioners' awareness of this condition is generally poor and most patients await years or, perhaps, decades before reaching the correct diagnosis. Among the various sites of disease manifestations, skin and mucosae represent a neglected organ where the dermatologist can easily spot diagnostic clues, which consistently integrate joint hypermobility and other orthopedic/neurologic manifestations at physical examination. In this paper, actual knowledge on JHS/EDS-HT is summarized in various sections. Particular attention has been posed on overlooked manifestations, including cutaneous, mucosal, and oropharyngeal features, and early diagnosis techniques, as a major point of interest for the practicing dermatologist. Actual research progresses on JH/EDS-HT envisage an unexpected link between heritable dysfunctions of the connective tissue and a wide range of functional somatic syndromes, most of them commonly diagnosed in the office of various specialists, comprising dermatologists. PMID:23227356