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Sample records for ultrasound-guided steroid injection

  1. Diagnosis of iliotibial band friction syndrome and ultrasound guided steroid injection.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Hee; Kim, Ji Sub

    2013-10-01

    A 64-year-old woman visited our pain clinic with the pain of right lateral side of thigh for one year. Her pain always started from knee and was radiated to buttock area when symptom was severe. She showed significant tenderness at knee lateral side and local tightness at lateral thigh. Magnetic resonance image of the knee was performed and we could identify high signal intensity of iliotibial band through coronal and axial view. In spite of medication and physical stretching exercise of iliotibial band for one month, she did not show any improvement of pain. To alleviate her symptom, ultrasound guided local corticosteroid injection targeting beneath the iliotibial band was performed. After the procedure, the reduction of pain was significant and there was no need for further management. PMID:24156006

  2. Long-term assessment of clinical outcomes of ultrasound-guided steroid injections in patients with piriformis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hee Seok; Lee, Guen Young; Lee, Eu Gene; Joe, Eu Gene; Lee, Joon Woo; Kang, Heung Sik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided steroid injections in patients with piriformis syndrome. Methods: Between January 2010 and October 2012, 63 patients (23 men and 40 women; average age, 63.2 years; range, 24 to 90 years) were diagnosed with piriformis syndrome based on clinical history, electromyography, and flexion-adduction-internal rotation test results. They were divided into two groups. The first group (37 subjects) received a US-guided steroid injection around the piriformis muscle. The second group (26 subjects) received both piriformis muscle and spinal epidural injections. The therapeutic effect was categorized as improvement, partial improvement, or failure depending on the degree of symptom alleviation one month after injection, based on a review of each patient’s medical records. Results: In the first group, 15 patients (40.5%) showed improvement, seven (18.9%) showed partial improvement, and 15 (40.5%) failed to respond to the initial treatment. In the second group, eight patients (30.8%) showed improvement, 11 (42.3%) showed partial improvement, and seven (26.9%) failed to respond to the initial treatment. A second piriformis injection was performed in four cases, after which two patients showed improvement within 3 years, but the other two showed no therapeutic effect. Conclusion: US-guided steroid injection may be an effective treatment option for patients with piriformis syndrome. PMID:25672769

  3. Ultrasound-guided aspiration and steroid injection of a posterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Vilella, Giuseppe Maria; Guerrisi, Pietro; Lucignani, Giulia; Pasquali, Gaia; Drudi, Francesco Maria

    2015-09-01

    Ganglion cysts are benign masses that originate from mucinous degeneration of the connective tissues and are quite rare when arising from the knee joint. Symptoms are often represented by pain, joint tenderness, effusion and occasional swelling with a palpable mass in the popliteal region of the knee. Percutaneous aspiration followed by a corticosteroid injection of a ganglion cyst has either a diagnostic or therapeutic meaning and its guidance through ultrasound allows the operator to make more accurate the procedure, ensuring the correct placement of the needle inside the lesion. We report our experience in the treatment of a voluminous ganglion cyst of the posterior cruciate ligament performed through the ultrasound guidance in a symptomatic young patient. PMID:26261469

  4. Ultrasound-Guided Versus Fluoroscopy-Guided Caudal Epidural Steroid Injection for the Treatment of Unilateral Lower Lumbar Radicular Pain: Case-Controlled, Retrospective, Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Deok; Kim, Tai Kon; Lee, Woo Yong; Ahn, JaeKi; Koh, Sung Hoon; Park, Yongbum

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided Caudal Epidural Steroid Injection (CESI) compared with fluoroscopy (FL)-guided CESI in patients with unilateral lower lumbar radicular pain.This case-controlled, retrospective, comparative study was done at the university hospital. A total of 110 patients treated with US- or FL-guided CESI were administered a mixture of 20 cc (0.5% lidocaine 18.0?mL + dexamethason 10?mg 2?mL). Outcome measurement was assessed by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), verbal numeric pain scale (VNS) before injections and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the last injections. Successful outcome was defined as measured by >50% improvement in the VNS score and >40% improvement in the ODI.ODI and VNS showed improvement at 3, 6, and 12 months after the last injection in both groups. No statistical differences in ODI, VNS were observed between groups (P?

  5. Symptomatic Hallucal Interphalangeal Sesamoid Bones Successfully Treated with Ultrasound-guided Injection - A Case Report -

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye Young; Kim, Hye Young; Jung, Yoo Sun; An, Sangbum; Kang, Do Hyung

    2013-01-01

    The hallucal interphalangeal sesamoid bone is usually asymptomatic, but it is not uncommon for it to be symptomatic in cases of undue pressure, overuse, or trauma. Even in symptomatic cases, however, patients often suffer for extended periods due to misdiagnosis, resulting in depression and anxiety that can steadily worsen to the extent that symptoms are sometimes mistaken for a somatoform disorder. Dynamic ultrasound-guided evaluations can be an effective means of detecting symptomatic sesamoid bones, and a simple injection of a small dose of local anesthetics mixed with steroids is an easily performed and effective treatment option in cases, for example, of tenosynovitis. PMID:23614081

  6. Percutaneous Ultrasound Guided Thrombin Injection for Endoleaks: An Alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Kasthuri, Ram. S.; Stivaros, Stavros M.; Gavan, Duncan

    2005-01-15

    Endoleaks are now well-recognized complications of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and an incidence of up to 46% has been reported in the literature. These endoleaks can result in rupture of the aneurysmal sac with potentially serious consequences. A type 2 endoleak is the most common type with a feeding vessel reperfusing the aneurysm sac. Radiological treatment of such an endoleak usually involves coil or particle angioembolisation, but sometimes this can be difficult, especially if endovascular access to the feeding vessel is not straightforward. We describe and illustrate percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection in the treatment of a type 2 endoleak. In appropriate patients, this technique is simple to perform, and has low associated morbidity.

  7. Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Thrombin Injection as First-Line Treatment of Pancreatic Pseudoaneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    McErlean, Aoife; Looby, Seamus; Lee, Michael J.

    2007-06-15

    Pancreatic pseudoaneurysms are a rare but potentially fatal complication of pancreatitis. Surgical intervention and transcatheter embolization are not always feasible therapeutic options. In this report we present a case of a pseudoaneurysm secondary to pancreatitis which, despite being angiographically invisible, was successfully embolized with a single ultrasound-guided percutaneous injection of thrombin.

  8. Successful Treatment of Genitofemoral Neuralgia Using Ultrasound Guided Injection: A Case Report and Short Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A young male patient developed chronic, severe, and disabling right sided groin pain following resection of his left testicular cancer. Since there is considerable overlap, ultrasound guided, selective diagnostic nerve blocks were done for ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, and genitofemoral nerves, to determine the involved nerve territory. It was revealed that genitofemoral neuralgia was the likely cause. As a therapeutic procedure, it was injected with local anesthetic and steroid using ultrasound guidance. The initial injection led to pain relief of 3 months. Subsequent blocks reinforced the existing analgesia and were sufficient to allow for maintenance with the use of analgesic medications. This case report describes the successful use of diagnostic selective nerve blocks for the assessment of groin pain, subsequent to which an ultrasound guided therapeutic injection of genitofemoral nerve led to long term pain relief. As a therapeutic procedure, genitofemoral nerve block is done in patients with genitofemoral neuralgia. Ultrasound allows for controlled administration and greatly enhances the technical ability to perform precise localization and injection. There are very few case reports of such a treatment in the published literature. Apart from the case report, we also highlight the relevant anatomy and a brief review of genitofemoral neuralgia and its treatment. PMID:24804105

  9. Transient Neuronal Injury Followed by Intravascular Injection During an Ultrasound Guided Stellate Ganglion Block

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Hariharan; Simhan, Swetha

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound guidance for pain interventions is becoming increasing recognized as a useful imaging tool. One of the common interventions where it is gaining wider acceptance is during the performance of a stellate ganglion block. The following is a unique report where intravascular and neuronal injury occurred during the performance of an ultrasound guided stellate ganglion block followed by dysphagia. 41 year old male, with a diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome, was referred to our clinic for further management. He underwent a diagnostic ultrasound guided stellate ganglion block after having tried conservative therapies. The stellate ganglion block provided him with complete pain relief for over five weeks. During a subsequent therapeutic stellate ganglion block, performed by an experienced pain medicine fellow with more than 50 ultrasound guided proceduresclinician, the patient developed a transient injury to the brachial plexus upon needle entry. Subsequent redirection and injection of an ml of injectate resulted in an intravascular injection producing tinnitus. After the tinnitus decreased, he underwent another stellate block using an out of plane approach without any further complications. Two days later, he reported chest and throat discomfort which resolved over the next few days possibly due to a retropharyngeal hematoma. He declined further interventions and was subsequently managed with 3 tablets of oxycodone a day. This report highlights the importance of vigilance and meticulous planning during the performance of ultrasound guided pain interventions. PMID:24244924

  10. Ultrasound-guided injection of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of iliopsoas spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Sconfienza, L.M.; Perrone, N.; Lacelli, F.; Lentino, C.; Serafini, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is a common treatment for iliopsoas muscle spasticity, but it is not easy to position the needle in this muscle without guidance. In this paper we describe an ultrasound-guided technique for the intramuscular injection of BTX-A to treat spasticity of the iliopsoas muscle. Its effectiveness was assessed in 10 patients. Method and materials The ultrasound-guided technique for BTX-A injection was used on 10 patients. The needle was inserted into the muscle belly at an angle of 45 along the longitudinal axis of the muscle when allowed by patient's condition. Results In all cases, the iliopsoas muscle was easily identified and both the iliac and psoas components were assessed. Introduction of the needle and drug injection were entirely carried out under ultrasonographic guidance. The procedure was successful in all patients, even in those with a high-grade spasticity, and general anesthesia was not required. Conclusions This ultrasound-guided technique allows accurate guidance for the injection of BTX-A, and it can be considered as an alternate supportive therapy in patients with spasticity and dystonia. PMID:23396653

  11. Nonoperative Management (Including Ultrasound-Guided Injections) of Proximal Biceps Disorders.

    PubMed

    Schickendantz, Mark; King, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Nonoperative management of conditions of the long head of biceps tendon (LHBT) involves a multifaceted approach, addressing the entire shoulder complex in addition to conditions that involve the LHBT. LHBT pathologic conditions are divided into 3 categories: inflammation, instability and rupture. This article provides an overview of a nonoperative treatment algorithm that addresses these specific categories and includes a review of ultrasound-guided injection techniques used in the diagnosis and management of LHBT disorders. PMID:26614469

  12. Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injection to treat a parotid fistula following gunshot injury.

    PubMed

    Gok, Gulcan; Michl, P; Williams, M D; Howlett, D C

    2015-03-01

    Parotid fistula is a rare but very distressing sequelum of post-operative or traumatic injuries. The management of these injuries has been reported in the literature previously and techniques employed include pressure dressings, surgery and more recently botulinum toxin A (BTA) injections. We present a patient who developed a parotid fistula as a late complication of an extensive gunshot injury to the face with subsequent successful management with ultrasound-guided intraglandular injections of BTA. This case demonstrates that the BTA injection is an effective and safe method under ultrasound guidance and should considered as a first-line treatment option for the treatment of salivary fistulas. PMID:24302119

  13. Epidural Steroid Injections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cycle of pain and inflammation and allow the body to compensate for the condition. In this way, the injections can provide benefits that outlast the effects of the steroid itself. How Are Epidural Steroid Injections Performed? There ...

  14. Posttraumatic lingual artery pseudoaneurysm treated with ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection.

    PubMed

    Masella, Pamela C; Hanson, Megan M; Hall, Brian T; Verghese, John J; Kellicut, Dwight C

    2014-07-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the lingual artery are extremely rare and are commonly iatrogenic in nature or less frequently a result of blunt or penetrating trauma. Traditionally, these vascular abnormalities have been repaired with open or endovascular techniques. Although ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection has become a standard treatment for superficial pseudoaneurysms, there are no reports of this being used in the treatment of lingual artery pseudoaneurysms. We report the case of a 26-year-old man who suffered a penetrating head and neck injury after an improvised explosive device blast in Iraq who presented with persistent oropharyngeal swelling. Color-flow Doppler ultrasonography revealed the classic yin/yang sign of a pseudoaneurysm, and a computed tomography scan was obtained that revealed a right lingual artery pseudoaneurysm. With the lack of endovascular capabilities and the excessive risk of open surgery, thrombin was injected directly into the pseudoaneurysm under ultrasound guidance. A computed tomography scan and Doppler ultrasonography revealed complete resolution of the aneurysm. This article presents the first reported case in the English literature of a lingual artery aneurysm after penetrating trauma managed successfully with ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection. PMID:24365080

  15. Caudal epidural steroid injections.

    PubMed

    Ogoke, B A

    2000-07-01

    The caudal approach to the epidural space was first reported in 1901. Injection of steroids to treat low back pain was introduced in 1952. Caudal epidural steroid injection is a safe, effective technique when performed with appropriate care under fluoroscopic visualization. Caudal epidural injections are associated with inaccurate needle placement when performed blindly in a substantial number of patients, resulting in intravascular injections as well as other complications. This review will discuss anatomic and technical considerations of caudal epidural injections, along with advantages, disadvantages, complications, and indications. PMID:16906188

  16. Improved efficacy and reduced toxicity by ultrasound-guided intrahepatic injections of helper-dependent adenoviral vector in Gunn rats.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Nunzia; Nusco, Edoardo; Piccolo, Pasquale; Castaldo, Sigismondo; Vankova, Jana; Vetrini, Francesco; Palmer, Donna J; Vitek, Libor; Ng, Philip; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2013-10-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I is caused by mutations of the uridine diphospho-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene resulting in life-threatening increase of serum bilirubin. Life-long correction of hyperbilirubinemia was previously shown with intravenous injection of high doses of a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing UGT1A1 in the Gunn rat, the animal model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome. However, such high vector doses can activate an acute and potentially lethal inflammatory response with elevated serum interleukin-6 (IL-6). To overcome this obstacle, we investigated safety and efficacy of direct injections of low HDAd doses delivered directly into the liver parenchyma of Gunn rats. Direct hepatic injections performed by either laparotomy or ultrasound-guided percutaneous injections were compared with the same doses given by intravenous injections. A greater reduction of hyperbilirubinemia and increased conjugated bilirubin in bile were achieved with 1 10(11) vp/kg by direct liver injections compared with intravenous injections. In sharp contrast to intravenous injections, direct hepatic injections neither raised serum IL-6 nor resulted in thrombocytopenia. In conclusion, ultrasound-guided percutaneous injection of HDAd vectors into liver parenchyma resulted in improved hepatocyte transduction and reduced toxicity compared with systemic injections and is clinically attractive for liver-directed gene therapy of Crigler-Najjar syndrome. PMID:23947957

  17. Unusually Prolonged Motor and Sensory Block Following Single Injection Ultrasound-Guided Infraclavicular Block With Bupivacaine and Dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Aghdashi, Mir Moussa; Dehghan, Kasra; Shokohi, Shahram; Shafagh, Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of unexpectedly prolonged motor and sensory block following a successful single injection ultrasound guided infraclavicular block with bupivacaine (0.25%) and dexamethasone (8 mg). ultrasound guidance and safety measurement such as injection of the local anaesthetic at a slow rate and verifying that usual resistance was felt throughout the injection, has been applied. It took 42 hours for the block to go away. Although there was no evidence of neurologic injury but we should always be prepared to consider the possibility of nerve injury and take appropriate measures. PMID:24282779

  18. Effectiveness of Ultrasound-Guided Carpal Tunnel Injection Using In-Plane Ulnar Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Young; Park, Yongbum; Park, Ki Deok; Lee, Ju Kang; Lim, Oh Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study is to evaluate the degree of symptom improvement and the change of electrophysiological and ultrasonographic findings after sonographically guided local steroid injection using an in-plane ulnar approach in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Seventy-five cases of 44 patients diagnosed with CTS were included and evaluated at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks after injection. All patients received injection with 40?mg of triamcinolone mixed with 1?mL of 1% lidocaine into the carpal tunnel using an in-plane Ultrasound (US)-guided ulnar approach, out-plane US-guided approach, and blind injection. For clinical evaluation, we used the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) and electrophysiological tests. The ultrasonographic findings were also evaluated with regard to cross-sectional area and the flattening ratio of the median nerve. Subjective symptoms measured by BCTQ and median nerve conduction parameters showed significant improvement at 4 weeks in the in-plane ulnar approach group compared with the out-plane ulnar approach and blind injection. This improvement was still observed at 12 weeks. The flattening ratio and cross-sectional area of the median nerve showed a more significant decrease with the in-plane ulnar approach than with the out-plane ulnar approach and blind injection (P?steroid injection using an in-plane ulnar approach in the CTS may be more effective than out-plane or blind injection. PMID:25546691

  19. Ultrasound guided injection of dexamethasone versus placebo for treatment of plantar fasciitis: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plantar fasciitis is the most commonly reported cause of chronic pain beneath the heel. Management of this condition commonly involves the use of corticosteroid injection in cases where less invasive treatments have failed. However, despite widespread use, only two randomised trials have tested the effect of this treatment in comparison to placebo. These trials currently offer the best available evidence by which to guide clinical practice, though both were limited by methodological issues such as insufficient statistical power. Therefore, the aim of this randomised trial is to compare the effect of ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection versus placebo for treatment of plantar fasciitis. Methods The trial will be conducted at the La Trobe University Podiatry Clinic and will recruit 80 community-dwelling participants. Diagnostic ultrasound will be used to diagnose plantar fasciitis and participants will be required to meet a range of selection criteria. Participants will be randomly allocated to one of two treatment arms: (i) ultrasound-guided injection of the plantar fascia with 1 mL of 4 mg/mL dexamethasone sodium phosphate (experimental group), or (ii) ultrasound-guided injection of the plantar fascia with 1 mL normal saline (control group). Blinding will be applied to participants and the investigator performing procedures, measuring outcomes and analysing data. Primary outcomes will be pain measured by the Foot Health Status Questionnaire and plantar fascia thickness measured by ultrasound at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. All data analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis. Conclusion This will be a randomised trial investigating the effect of dexamethasone injection on pre-specified treatment outcomes in people with plantar fasciitis. Within the parameters of this protocol, the trial findings will be used to make evidence-based recommendations regarding the use of corticosteroid injection for treatment of this condition. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. ACTRN12610000239066. PMID:20633300

  20. Cognitive Task Analysis for Instruction in Single-Injection Ultrasound Guided-Regional Anesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucev, Gligor V.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is methodology for eliciting knowledge from subject matter experts. CTA has been used to capture the cognitive processes, decision-making, and judgments that underlie expert behaviors. A review of the literature revealed that CTA has not yet been used to capture the knowledge required to perform ultrasound guided

  1. ULTRASOUND-GUIDED INJECTIONS IN HORSES WITH CRANIOVENTRAL DISTENSION OF THE COXOFEMORAL JOINT CAPSULE: FEASIBILITY FOR A CRANIOVENTRAL APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, Mary Beth; Vaughan, Betsy; Katzman, Scott; Hersman, Jake

    2016-03-01

    Intrasynovial access to the equine coxofemoral joint (CFJ) is inherently challenging. Blind injection techniques rely upon inconsistently palpable landmarks, and ultrasound guidance requires expertise for needle placement into the coxofemoral articulation. Aspiration is recommended to confirm intrasynovial placement and avoid sciatic nerve anesthesia. The aim of this observational, descriptive, retrospective study was to evaluate the feasibility for an alternative ultrasound-guided approach in horses with cranioventral distention of the CFJ identified during pelvic ultrasound. Thirteen horses with cranioventral CFJ distention, including 12 with severe pathology, were recruited from 2009 to 2014. Seven were excluded as they were not injected or underwent ultrasound-guided injection using a dorsal approach. The remaining six horses underwent a total of nine injections into the cranioventral recess. With the exception of one foal, all were aged horses (15-29 years) of varying breeds and uses, with prominent lameness due to subluxation (three), luxation (two), and severe osteoarthritis (one). The cranioventral recess was imaged adjacent to the proximal femur using a low-frequency curvilinear transducer placed ventral to the cranial joint margins. Using aseptic technique, spinal needles were placed cranial to the transducer and advanced caudomedially into the distended cranioventral recess. Synovial fluid was retrieved in all cases with one needle placement. Findings indicated that, when distended, ultrasound-guided access to the cranioventral CFJ recess is a feasible alternative approach and may reduce the potential for extra-synovial placement. Distention in this sample of horses was accompanied by severe pathology, also supporting the use of this approach for therapeutic interventions. PMID:26748616

  2. Use of platelet-rich plasma in the care of sports injuries: our experience with ultrasound-guided injection

    PubMed Central

    Bernuzzi, Gino; Petraglia, Federica; Pedrini, Martina Francesca; De Filippo, Massimo; Pogliacomi, Francesco; Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Costantino, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelet-rich plasma is being used more frequently to promote healing of muscle injuries. The growth factors contained in platelet-rich plasma accelerate physiological healing processes and the use of these factors is simple and minimally invasive. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasound-guided injection of platelet-rich plasma in muscle strains and the absence of side effects. Materials and methods Fifty-three recreational athletes were enrolled in the study. The patients were recruited from the Emergency Room in the University Hospital at Parma according to a pre-defined protocol. Every patient was assessed by ultrasound imaging to evaluate the extent and degree of muscle injuries. Only grade II lesions were treated with three ultrasound-guided injections of autologous platelet-rich plasma every 7 days. Platelet concentrate was produced according to standard methods, with a 10% variability in platelet count. The platelet gel for clinical use was obtained by adding thrombin to the concentrates under standardised conditions. Outcomes assessed were: pain reduction, muscle function recovery and return to sports activity, ultrasound-imaging tissue healing, relapses, local infections, and any side effect during the treatment. Results In all cases muscle lesions healed fully on ultrasound-imaging, the pain disappeared, and muscle function recovery was documented with a return to sports activity. A single patient had a relapse 1 year after treatment. Discussion Platelet-rich plasma injected into the injury site is one of the most important factors rendering the treatment effective. To maximise its efficacy the preliminary ultrasound must be done accurately to localise the lesion and guide the needle into the corresponding lesion. According to the current results, which document full muscle recovery and no relapse except for one case, platelet-rich plasma ultrasound-guided injection represents a valid mini-invasive treatment for muscle injuries. PMID:23867186

  3. Ultrasound-guided interventional procedures around the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Tagliafico, Alberto; Russo, Giuseppe; Boccalini, Sara; Michaud, Johan; Klauser, Andrea; Serafini, Giovanni; Martinoli, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this review is to illustrate the spectrum of ultrasound-guided procedures around the shoulder. The shoulder is affected by a wide range of both, traumatic and degenerative diseases. Ultrasound guidance is a low-cost and safe tool to perform minimally invasive interventional procedures around the shoulder. The clinical outcome is shown by the use of clinical scores: visual analogue scale (VAS), Constant's score and Shoulder Pain Disability Index (SPADI). Rotator cuff calcification is a common painful condition that occurs in up to 7.5% of otherwise healthy adults. Ultrasound-guided procedures include single-needle and double-needle approach with different needles. These techniques are described and the results are critically compared. Ultrasound-guided viscosupplementation is a new therapeutic approach for treatment of several shoulder pain disorders: osteoarthritis, rotator cuff tear and tendinosis. In adhesive capsulitis, different therapeutic ultrasound-guided techniques such as corticosteroid injection, capsular distension (sodium chlorate solution; sodium chlorate and corticosteroids; air) and viscosupplementation are evaluated. Acromion-clavear injection of steroid and lidocaine solution under ultrasound guidance is easy to perform and is indicated in conservative treatment of painful osteoarthrosis. The treatment of rotator cuff tendinosis and partial tears with ultrasound-guided injection of concentrated autologous platelets is also described. PMID:24297588

  4. Cognitive task analysis for instruction in single-injection ultrasound guided-regional anesthesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gucev, Gligor V.

    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is methodology for eliciting knowledge from subject matter experts. CTA has been used to capture the cognitive processes, decision-making, and judgments that underlie expert behaviors. A review of the literature revealed that CTA has not yet been used to capture the knowledge required to perform ultrasound guided regional anesthesia (UGRA). The purpose of this study was to utilize CTA to extract knowledge from UGRA experts and to determine whether instruction based on CTA of UGRA will produce results superior to the results of traditional training. This study adds to the knowledge base of CTA in being the first one to effectively capture the expert knowledge of UGRA. The derived protocol was used in a randomized, double blinded experiment involving UGRA instruction to 39 novice learners. The results of this study strongly support the hypothesis that CTA-based instruction in UGRA is more effective than conventional clinical instruction, as measured by conceptual pre- and post-tests, performance of a simulated UGRA procedure, and time necessary for the task performance. This study adds to the number of studies that have proven the superiority of CTA-informed instruction. Finally, it produced several validated instruments that can be used in instructing and evaluating UGRA.

  5. Management of cesarean heterotopic pregnancy with transvaginal ultrasound-guided potassium chloride injection and gestational sac aspiration, and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Bastu, Ercan; Dogan, Murat; Kalelioglu, Ibrahim; Alanya, Sebnem; Has, Recep

    2012-01-01

    Cesarean scar pregnancy is one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy, located in the scar from a previous cesarean section. There are few reports of such pregnancies, and there is no consensus about the best management. Herein is reported a case of cesarean heterotopic pregnancy, diagnosed at 6 weeks' gestation and successfully treated via transvaginal ultrasound-guided potassium chloride injection and gestational sac aspiration, with preservation of the intrauterine pregnancy. PMID:22935313

  6. Neuroprotective effects of ultrasound-guided nerve growth factor injections after sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-fei; Wang, Yi-ru; Huo, Hui-ping; Wang, Yue-xiang; Tang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in promoting neuroregeneration after peripheral nerve injury. However, its effects are limited by its short half-life; it is therefore important to identify an effective mode of administration. High-frequency ultrasound (HFU) is increasingly used in the clinic for high-resolution visualization of tissues, and has been proposed as a method for identifying and evaluating peripheral nerve damage after injury. In addition, HFU is widely used for guiding needle placement when administering drugs to a specific site. We hypothesized that HFU guiding would optimize the neuroprotective effects of NGF on sciatic nerve injury in the rabbit. We performed behavioral, ultrasound, electrophysiological, histological, and immunohistochemical evaluation of HFU-guided NGF injections administered immediately after injury, or 14 days later, and compared this mode of administration with intramuscular NGF injections. Across all assessments, HFU-guided NGF injections gave consistently better outcomes than intramuscular NGF injections administered immediately or 14 days after injury, with immediate treatment also yielding better structural and functional results than when the treatment was delayed by 14 days. Our findings indicate that NGF should be administered as early as possible after peripheral nerve injury, and highlight the striking neuroprotective effects of HFU-guided NGF injections on peripheral nerve injury compared with intramuscular administration. PMID:26807123

  7. Single ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injection for treatment of supraspinatus tendinopathy in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Louisa K.; Baltzer, Wendy I.; Nemanic, Sarah; Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a single platelet-rich plasma injection for supraspinatus tendinopathy was assessed in 10 dogs. Subjective (owner-assessed) improvement in lameness and function were seen in 40% of dogs with improved tendon heterogeneity and echogenicity in 60%. There were no significant changes in gait reaction forces 6 wk after treatment. PMID:26246631

  8. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist XLVI. Ultrasound guided injection in the shoulder: a descriptive literature review.

    PubMed

    Delle Sedie, Andrea; Riente, Lucrezia; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Carli, Linda; Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Di Geso, Luca; Filippucci, Emilio; Sakellariou, Garifallia; Bombardieri, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder pain represents one of the most frequent clinical conditions in the general population and it can be generated by a large spectrum of pathologies. The most frequent approach of most rheumatologists to shoulder pain, in daily clinical practice, mainly based on their personal experience, is to locally inject drugs. Since the literature on this topic provides conflicting results due to the wide heterogeneity in the study designs, we decided to report the most relevant studies. Not enough data are available to assess whether US-guided injections are more efficient in controlling shoulder pain with respect to the landmark approach. However, it is likely that US-guided technique shows a more rapid improvement, possibly by providing a higher corticosteroid volume injected right where it is needed. When injecting hyaluronic acid, a more accurate localisation of the medicament might be useful to improve efficacy and avoid adverse effects (i.e. pain), however, there are no studies comparing the blind approach to the US-guided one. Finally, new treatments for shoulder pain have been used but they still need future validation in more appropriate RCTs. PMID:23899967

  9. Ultrasound-Guided Glue Injection as Alternative Treatment of Femoral Pseudoaneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Aytekin, Cueneyt; Firat, Ali; Yildirim, Erkan; Kirbas, Ismail; Boyvat, Fatih

    2004-11-15

    The interventional angiographic techniques using the percutaneous femoral approach for endovascular revascularization are becoming increasingly more popular. These methods usually require larger sheaths, and most patients need postprocedural anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy. As a consequence, the interventional procedure is associated with a higher rate of complications at the arterial entry site compared to diagnostic angiography. The reported incidence of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm formation after coronary artery interventions ranges from 3.2% to 7.7%, and the rates noted after diagnostic angiography range from 0.2% to 1%. Peripheral pseudoaneurysms have traditionally been treated by surgical intervention, but nonsurgical alternatives, such as ultrasound (US)-guided compression, coil embolization, stent-graft placement, and percutaneous thrombin injection with or without balloon occlusion have also been documented. Of these alternatives, direct percutaneous embolization with embolic agents is the most popular method. The tissue adhesive n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) (Hystoacryl) (B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) is one of the most popular occluding agents for neurovascular interventions, and has been widely used for more than 20 years [5,6]. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and utility of direct percutaneous injection of NBCA for embolization of femoral pseudoaneurysms.

  10. Successful treatment of athletic pubalgia in a lacrosse player with ultrasound-guided needle tenotomy and platelet-rich plasma injection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Paul M; Massimi, Stephen; Dahmen, Nick; Diamond, Joanne; Wyss, James

    2015-01-01

    Athletic pubalgia is a syndrome of persistent groin pain due to chronic repetitive trauma or stress involving the pelvic joints and many musculotendinous structures that cross the anterior pelvis. As a result, the differential diagnosis can be complex, but insertional tendinopathies are the most common. This case report describes a novel approach to the treatment of distal rectus abdominis tendinopathies with ultrasound-guided needle tenotomy and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection. After injection, the patient returned to pain-free play at his previous level of intensity. This suggests that PRP may be a useful treatment for this diagnosis. PMID:25134854

  11. Ultrasound-guided intra-articular and rotator interval corticosteroid injections in adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: a double-blind, sham-controlled randomized study.

    PubMed

    Prestgaard, Tore; Wormgoor, Marjon E A; Haugen, Simen; Harstad, Herlof; Mowinckel, Petter; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2015-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder) is a common cause of shoulder pain and disability. Previous studies have reported that intra-articular corticosteroid injections are of benefit compared with placebo up to 6 weeks. It has been suggested that the structures primarily involved in adhesive capsulitis are the capsule and the rotator interval. Systematic reviews have concluded that there is limited evidence of the treatment effectiveness of intra-articular corticosteroid injections and that high-quality primary research is required. The aim of this study was to compare ultrasound-guided intra-articular corticosteroid injection and combined intra-articular and rotator interval injection in a double-blind, sham-controlled randomized clinical trial. The main outcome measure was the group difference in change in shoulder pain (0-10) at 6 weeks. One hundred twenty-two patients were randomized (42 to intra-articular injection, 40 to combined intra-articular/interval injection, and 40 to sham injection). For both corticosteroid injection groups, there was a significant difference compared with sham injection at week 6. The mean group difference (adjusted for gender, age, dominant arm, and duration) in change in shoulder pain for the intra-articular vs sham injection was -1.7 (95% confidence interval, -2.7 to -0.6, P = 0.002) and -2.1 (95% confidence interval, -3.2 to -1.1, P = 0.0001) for the combined injection vs sham injection. The significant group differences were maintained at week 12 but not at week 26. Similar results were found for the secondary outcome measures (night pain, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index). Differences between the corticosteroid groups were not significant at any time. PMID:25919473

  12. Ultrasound-Guided Injection of Botulinum Toxin Type A for Piriformis Muscle Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Santamato, Andrea; Micello, Maria Francesca; Valeno, Giovanni; Beatrice, Raffaele; Cinone, Nicoletta; Baricich, Alessio; Picelli, Alessandro; Panza, Francesco; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Fiore, Pietro; Ranieri, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS) is caused by prolonged or excessive contraction of the piriformis muscle associated with pain in the buttocks, hips, and lower limbs because of the close proximity to the sciatic nerve. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) reduces muscle hypertonia as well as muscle contracture and pain inhibiting substance P release and other inflammatory factors. BoNT-A injection technique is important considering the difficult access of the needle for deep location, the small size of the muscle, and the proximity to neurovascular structures. Ultrasound guidance is easy to use and painless and several studies describe its use during BoNT-A administration in PMS. In the present review article, we briefly updated current knowledge regarding the BoNT therapy of PMS, describing also a case report in which this syndrome was treated with an ultrasound-guided injection of incobotulinumtoxin A. Pain reduction with an increase of hip articular range of motion in this patient with PMS confirmed the effectiveness of BoNT-A injection for the management of this syndrome. PMID:26266421

  13. Ultrasound-Guided Injection of Botulinum Toxin Type A for Piriformis Muscle Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Santamato, Andrea; Micello, Maria Francesca; Valeno, Giovanni; Beatrice, Raffaele; Cinone, Nicoletta; Baricich, Alessio; Picelli, Alessandro; Panza, Francesco; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Fiore, Pietro; Ranieri, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS) is caused by prolonged or excessive contraction of the piriformis muscle associated with pain in the buttocks, hips, and lower limbs because of the close proximity to the sciatic nerve. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) reduces muscle hypertonia as well as muscle contracture and pain inhibiting substance P release and other inflammatory factors. BoNT-A injection technique is important considering the difficult access of the needle for deep location, the small size of the muscle, and the proximity to neurovascular structures. Ultrasound guidance is easy to use and painless and several studies describe its use during BoNT-A administration in PMS. In the present review article, we briefly updated current knowledge regarding the BoNT therapy of PMS, describing also a case report in which this syndrome was treated with an ultrasound-guided injection of incobotulinumtoxin A. Pain reduction with an increase of hip articular range of motion in this patient with PMS confirmed the effectiveness of BoNT-A injection for the management of this syndrome. PMID:26266421

  14. Ultrasound Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block for Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Abhijit S.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is one the most common cause of chronic abdominal wall pain. The syndrome is mostly misdiagnosed, treated wrongly and inadequately. If diagnosed correctly by history, examination and a positive carnett test, the suffering of the patient can be relieved by addressing the cause i.e. local anaesthetic with steroid injection at the entrapment site. Conventionally, the injection is done by landmark technique. In this report, we have described 2 patients who were diagnosed with ACNES who were offered ultrasound guided transverses abdominis plane (TAP) injection who got significant pain relief for a long duration of time. PMID:26495084

  15. Ultrasound Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block for Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Rajendra Kumar; Nair, Abhijit S

    2015-10-01

    Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is one the most common cause of chronic abdominal wall pain. The syndrome is mostly misdiagnosed, treated wrongly and inadequately. If diagnosed correctly by history, examination and a positive carnett test, the suffering of the patient can be relieved by addressing the cause i.e. local anaesthetic with steroid injection at the entrapment site. Conventionally, the injection is done by landmark technique. In this report, we have described 2 patients who were diagnosed with ACNES who were offered ultrasound guided transverses abdominis plane (TAP) injection who got significant pain relief for a long duration of time. PMID:26495084

  16. Treatment of liver cancer of middle and advanced stages using ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection combined with radiofrequency ablation: A clinical analysis

    PubMed Central

    SUN, XUE; LI, RU; ZHANG, BOTAO; YANG, YUEJIE; CUI, ZHIFEI

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is a malignancy of the digestive system and has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Local intervention has become a viable option in identifying liver treatment. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical effects of treating liver cancer in middle and advanced stages using ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in tumors combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). A total of 100 patients with stage III–IV liver cancers were selected to participate in the study. Patients were divided into groups. In group A, treatment was initiated with PEI and after 1–2 weeks RFA was applied while in group B treatment was initiated with RFA and after 1–2 weeks PEI was applied. Patients in group C received PEI and RFA simultaneously. The clinical effects in the 3 groups were compared after 6-month follow ups. The volume of tumor ablation necrosis in group A was significantly greater than that in the groups B and C, while the size was significantly smaller compared to groups B and C after ablation. For group A, the complete ablation rate was significantly higher than that in groups B and C, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Liver damage indices, including raising levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and total bilirubin, were significantly decreased in group A (P<0.05). The survival rate in group A was also significantly higher than in groups B and C (P<0.05). In conclusion, for patients with liver cancer in middle and advanced stages, the treatment method using PEI followed by RFA was more beneficial in terms of improving the tumor ablation rate, alleviating liver damages and increasing survival rates.

  17. Effectiveness of ultrasound-guided carpal tunnel injection using in-plane ulnar approach: a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Young; Park, Yongbum; Park, Ki Deok; Lee, Ju Kang; Lim, Oh Kyung

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the degree of symptom improvement and the change of electrophysiological and ultrasonographic findings after sonographically guided local steroid injection using an in-plane ulnar approach in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Seventy-five cases of 44 patients diagnosed with CTS were included and evaluated at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks after injection. All patients received injection with 40 mg of triamcinolone mixed with 1 mL of 1% lidocaine into the carpal tunnel using an in-plane Ultrasound (US)-guided ulnar approach, out-plane US-guided approach, and blind injection. For clinical evaluation, we used the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) and electrophysiological tests. The ultrasonographic findings were also evaluated with regard to cross-sectional area and the flattening ratio of the median nerve. Subjective symptoms measured by BCTQ and median nerve conduction parameters showed significant improvement at 4 weeks in the in-plane ulnar approach group compared with the out-plane ulnar approach and blind injection. This improvement was still observed at 12 weeks. The flattening ratio and cross-sectional area of the median nerve showed a more significant decrease with the in-plane ulnar approach than with the out-plane ulnar approach and blind injection (P < 0.05). US-guided local steroid injection using an in-plane ulnar approach in the CTS may be more effective than out-plane or blind injection. PMID:25546691

  18. Neurological complications associated with epidural steroid injections.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-05-01

    Multiple case reports of neurological complications resulting from intraarterial injection of corticosteroids have led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to issue a warning, requiring label changes, warning of serious neurological events, some resulting in death. The FDA has identified 131 cases of neurological adverse events, including 41 cases of arachnoiditis. A review of the literature reveals an overwhelming proportion of the complications are related to transforaminal epidural injections, of which cervical transforaminal epidural injections constituted the majority of neurological complications. Utilization data of epidural injections in the Medicare population revealed that cervical transforaminal epidural injections constitute only 2.4% of total epidural injections and <5% of all transforaminal epidural injections. Multiple theories have been proposed as the cause of neurological injury including particulate steroid, arterial intimal flaps, arterial dissection, dislodgement of plaque causing embolism, arterial muscle spasm, and embolism of a fresh thrombus following disruption of the intima. PMID:25795154

  19. Ultrasound-Guided Myofascial Trigger Point Injection Into Brachialis Muscle for Rotator Cuff Disease Patients With Upper Arm Pain: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Mi Ri; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Hyo Seon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain. Methods A prospective, randomized, and single-blinded clinical pilot trial was performed at university rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-one patients clinically diagnosed with rotator cuff disease suspected of having brachialis myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) were randomly allocated into two groups. Effect of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection (n=11) and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (n=10) was compared by visual analog scale (VAS). Results US-guided trigger point injection of brachialis muscle resulted in excellent outcome compared to the oral NSAID group. Mean VAS scores decreased significantly after 2 weeks of treatment compared to the baseline in both groups (7.3 vs. 4.5 in the injection group and 7.4 vs. 5.9 in the oral group). The decrease of the VAS score caused by injection (ДVAS=-2.8) was significantly larger than caused by oral NSAID (ДVAS=-1.5) (p<0.05). Conclusion In patients with rotator cuff disease, US-guided trigger point injection of the brachialis muscle is safe and effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of pain is suspected to be originated from the muscle. PMID:25379497

  20. Ultrasound-guided interventional procedures around the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Messina, Carmelo; Banfi, Giuseppe; Orlandi, Davide; Lacelli, Francesca; Serafini, Giovanni; Mauri, Giovanni; Secchi, Francesco; Silvestri, Enzo; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is an established modality for shoulder evaluation, being accurate, low cost and radiation free. Different pathological conditions can be diagnosed using ultrasound and can be treated using ultrasound guidance, such as degenerative, traumatic or inflammatory diseases. Subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis is the most common finding on ultrasound evaluation for painful shoulder. Therapeutic injections of corticosteroids are helpful to reduce inflammation and pain. Calcific tendinopathy of rotator cuff affects up to 20% of painful shoulders. Ultrasound-guided treatment may be performed with both single- and double-needle approach. Calcific enthesopathy, a peculiar form of degenerative tendinopathy, is a common and mostly asymptomatic ultrasound finding; dry needling has been proposed in symptomatic patients. An alternative is represented by autologous platelet-rich plasma injections. Intra-articular injections of the shoulder can be performed in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory and degenerative diseases with corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid respectively. Steroid injections around the long head of the biceps brachii tendon are indicated in patients with biceps tendinopathy, reducing pain and humeral tenderness. The most common indication for acromion-clavicular joint injection is degenerative osteoarthritis, with ultrasound representing a useful tool in localizing the joint space and properly injecting various types of drugs (steroids, lidocaine or hyaluronic acid). Suprascapular nerve block is an approved treatment for chronic shoulder pain non-responsive to conventional treatments as well as candidate patients for shoulder arthroscopy. This review provides an overview of these different ultrasonography-guided procedures that can be performed around the shoulder. PMID:26313499

  1. Cervical Meningomyelitis After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujin; Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2015-06-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are a common treatment for back pain management. ESI-related complications have increased with the growing number of procedures. We report a case of cervical meningomyelitis followed by multiple lumbar ESI. A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with severe neck pain. He had a history of multiple lumbar injections from a local pain clinic. After admission, high fever and elevated inflammatory values were detected. L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hematoma in the S1 epidural space. Antibiotic treatment began under the diagnosis of a lumbar epidural abscess. Despite the treatment, he started to complain of weakness in both lower extremities. Three days later, the weakness progressed to both upper extremities. C-spine MRI revealed cervical leptomeningeal enhancement in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Removal of the epidural abscess was performed, but there was no neurological improvement. PMID:26161360

  2. Cervical Meningomyelitis After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are a common treatment for back pain management. ESI-related complications have increased with the growing number of procedures. We report a case of cervical meningomyelitis followed by multiple lumbar ESI. A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with severe neck pain. He had a history of multiple lumbar injections from a local pain clinic. After admission, high fever and elevated inflammatory values were detected. L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hematoma in the S1 epidural space. Antibiotic treatment began under the diagnosis of a lumbar epidural abscess. Despite the treatment, he started to complain of weakness in both lower extremities. Three days later, the weakness progressed to both upper extremities. C-spine MRI revealed cervical leptomeningeal enhancement in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Removal of the epidural abscess was performed, but there was no neurological improvement. PMID:26161360

  3. Comparison between Steroid Injection and Stretching Exercise on the Scalene of Patients with Upper Extremity Paresthesia: Randomized Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Wook; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Park, Yongbum; Chang, Won Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the therapeutic effects on upper extremity paresthesia of intra-muscular steroid injections into the scalene muscle with those of stretching exercise only. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with upper extremity paresthesia who met the criteria were recruited to participate in this single-blind, crossover study. Fourteen of 20 patients were female. The average age was 45.0±10.5 years and duration of symptom was 12.2±8.7 months. Each participant completed one injection and daily exercise program for 2 weeks. After randomization, half of all patients received ultrasound-guided injection of scalene muscles before exercise, while the other was invested for the other patients. Results After two weeks, there was a significant decrease of the visual analog scale score of treatment effect compared with baseline in both groups (6.90 to 2.85 after injection and 5.65 to 4.05 after stretching exercise, p<0.01). However, injection resulted in greater improvements than stretching exercise (p<0.01). The number of patients with successful treatment, defined as >50% reduction in post-treatment visual analog scale, was 18 of 20 (90.0%) after injection, compared to 5 of 20 (25.0%) after stretching exercise. There were no cases of unintended brachial plexus block after injection. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided steroid injection or stretching exercise of scalene muscles led to reduced upper extremity paresthesia in patients who present with localized tenderness in the scalene muscle without electrodiagnostic test abnormalities, although injection treatment resulted in more improvements. The results suggest that symptoms relief might result from injection into the muscle alone not related to blockade of the brachial plexus. PMID:26847305

  4. Exserohilum Infections Associated with Contaminated Steroid Injections

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Jana M.; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Blau, Dianna M.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Drew, Clifton P.; Batten, Brigid C.; Bartlett, Jeanine H.; Metcalfe, Maureen G.; Pham, Cau D.; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Patel, Mitesh; Liu, Lindy; Jones, Tara L.; Greer, Patricia W.; Montague, Jeltley L.; White, Elizabeth; Rollin, Dominique C.; Seales, Cynthia; Stewart, Donna; Deming, Mark V.; Brandt, Mary E.; Zaki, Sherif R.

    2014-01-01

    September 2012 marked the beginning of the largest reported outbreak of infections associated with epidural and intra-articular injections. Contamination of methylprednisolone acetate with the black mold, Exserohilum rostratum, was the primary cause of the outbreak, with >13,000 persons exposed to the potentially contaminated drug, 741 confirmed drug-related infections, and 55 deaths. Fatal meningitis and localized epidural, paraspinal, and peripheral joint infections occurred. Tissues from 40 laboratory-confirmed cases representing these various clinical entities were evaluated by histopathological analysis, special stains, and IHC to characterize the pathological features and investigate the pathogenesis of infection, and to evaluate methods for detection of Exserohilum in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Fatal cases had necrosuppurative to granulomatous meningitis and vasculitis, with thrombi and abundant angioinvasive fungi, with extensive involvement of the basilar arterial circulation of the brain. IHC was a highly sensitive method for detection of fungus in FFPE tissues, demonstrating both hyphal forms and granular fungal antigens, and PCR identified Exserohilum in FFPE and fresh tissues. Our findings suggest a pathogenesis for meningitis involving fungal penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid at the injection site, with transport through cerebrospinal fluid to the basal cisterns and subsequent invasion of the basilar arteries. Further studies are needed to characterize Exserohilum and investigate the potential effects of underlying host factors and steroid administration on the pathogenesis of infection. PMID:23809916

  5. Key safety considerations when administering epidural steroid injections.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Benyamin, Ramsin M

    2015-01-01

    Neurological and other complications of epidural steroid injections have been widely discussed in recent years. Consequently, the US FDA issued a warning about serious neurological events, some resulting in death, and consequently is requiring label changes. Neurological adverse events numbering 131, including 41 cases of arachnoiditis, have been identified by the FDA, and 700 cases of fungal meningitis following injection of contaminated steroids. A review of the literature reveals an overwhelming proportion of the complications are related to transforaminal epidural injections, with the majority of them to cervical transforaminal epidural injections. This perspective describes the prevalence of administering epidural injections, complications, pathoanatomy, mechanism of injury and various preventive strategies. PMID:26059467

  6. Geographic Variation in Epidural Steroid Injection Use in Medicare Patients

    PubMed Central

    Friedly, Janna; Chan, Leighton; Deyo, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background: The rates of epidural steroid injections have increased dramatically over time, with conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of epidural steroid injections for the treatment of various low-back pain disorders. Given the uncertainty about their role, we sought to evaluate the geographic variation in the use of epidural steroid injections for low back pain within the United States. We also sought to determine whether greater rates of epidural steroid injections are associated with lower rates of lumbar surgery. Methods: We used the 2001 Medicare Physician Part-B claims to examine the geographic variation in the use of epidural steroid injections. Current Procedural Technology codes were used to identify the number of procedures performed as well as the percentage of injections that were fluoroscopically guided. Procedure rates were analyzed with use of several geographic indicators, including state, United States Census Bureau regions (Northeast, South, Midwest, and West), and health referral regions as defined by the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care. Results: In 2001, there was a 7.7-fold difference between the state with the lowest rate (Hawaii at 5.2 per 1000) and the state with the highest rate (Alabama at 39.9 per 1000). The variation among health referral regions, which are smaller in size, was even greater, with an 18.4-fold difference from 5.6 per 1000 in Honolulu, Hawaii, to 103.6 per 1000 in Palm Springs, California. Higher statewide rates of epidural steroid injections were associated with significantly higher rates of lumbar surgery (p = 0.001). In areas with high injection rates, a significantly higher percentage of patients who sought care for low back pain received injections (p < 0.001). In addition, in areas with high injection rates, a significantly higher percentage of patients who presented with low back pain received both injections and lumbar surgery within the same year (p < 0.001). Conclusions: There is substantial geographic variation in the rates of epidural steroid injections within the United States. Southern states tend to have the highest procedure rates, whereas northeastern states have the lowest. Injection rates are positively correlated with lumbar surgery rates; therefore, epidural steroid injections do not appear to be substituting for lumbar surgeries or reducing overall rates of lumbar surgery. PMID:18676905

  7. Incidence of intravascular penetration in transforaminal cervical epidural steroid injections.

    PubMed

    Furman, Michael B; Giovanniello, Michael T; O'Brien, Erin M

    2003-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN A prospective, observational, human, study was conducted. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the incidence of vascular penetration during fluoroscopically guided, contrast-enhanced transforaminal cervical epidural steroid injections, and to determine whether the observation of blood in the needle hub can be used to predict a vascular injection. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Incorrectly placed intravascular cervical spinal injections result in medication flow systemically and not to the desired target. A recently published study demonstrates a high incidence of intravascular injections in transforaminal lumbosacral epidural injections. No studies so far have evaluated the incidence of vascular injections in transforaminal cervical epidural steroid injections, nor have they calculated the ability of observed blood in the needle hub to predict a vascular injection in the cervical spine.METHODS The incidence of fluoroscopically confirmed intravascular uptake of contrast was prospectively observed in 337 patients treated with cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections. The ability of observed blood in the needle hub to predict intravascular injection was also investigated. For each subject, the injection level was chosen on the basis of the clinical scenario including history, physical examination, and review of imaging studies. Some patients had multilevel injections. Using fluoroscopic guidance, the authors placed a 25-gauge needle into the epidural space using a transforaminal approach according to accepted standard technique. Needle tip location was confirmed with biplanar imaging. The presence or absence of blood in the needle hub spontaneously ("flash") and after attempted aspiration by pulling back on the syringe's plunger was documented. Contrast then was injected under real-time fluoroscopy to determine whether the location of the needle tip was intravascular. The results were recorded in a prospective manner indicating the presence or absence of blood in the needle hub and whether a vascular pattern was noted with contrast injection, and these were correlated. Relevant epidemiologic data also were recorded. RESULTS The study included 504 transforaminal epidural steroid injections. The overall rate of fluoroscopically confirmed intravascular contrast injections was 19.4%. Use of observed blood in the needle hub to predict intravascular injections was 97% specific, but only 45.9% sensitive. There was no significant difference in intravascular rates related to age or gender. CONCLUSIONS As compared with a previous study of lumbosacral epidural steroid injections, there is an overall higher incidence of intravascular injections with cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections. Use of observed blood in the needle hub to predict an intravascular injection is not sensitive, and therefore the absence of blood in the needle hub despite aspiration is not reliable. The reported sensitivity and specificity rates are similar to lumbar data. Fluoroscopically guided procedures without contrast confirmation instill medications intravascularly, and therefore not in the desired epidural location. This study confirms that there is a need not only for fluoroscopic guidance, but also for contrast instillation in cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections. PMID:12544950

  8. Ultrasound-guided interventional procedures in pain medicine: a review of anatomy, sonoanatomy, and procedures. Part IV: hip.

    PubMed

    Peng, Philip W H

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided injection in pain medicine is emerging as a popular technique for pain intervention. It can be applied for the intervention procedures in the hip region. The objectives of this review article were to review the relevant anatomy and sonoanatomy of the hip joint and the trochanteric bursae, to describe the techniques for ultrasound-guided injections, and to examine the efficacy and accuracy of such injections. PMID:23759705

  9. Refractory strictures despite steroid injection after esophageal endoscopic resection

    PubMed Central

    Hanaoka, Noboru; Ishihara, Ryu; Uedo, Noriya; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Kanesaka, Takashi; Matsuura, Noriko; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Hamada, Kenta; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although steroid injection prevents stricture after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), some patients require repeated sessions of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD). We investigated the risk for refractory stricture despite the administration of steroid injections to prevent stricture in patients undergoing esophageal ESD. Refractory stricture was defined as the requirement for more than three sessions of EBD to resolve the stricture. In addition, the safety of steroid injections was assessed based on the rate of complications. Patients and methods: We analyzed data from 127 consecutive patients who underwent esophageal ESD and had mucosal defects with a circumferential extent greater than three-quarters of the esophagus. To prevent stricture, steroid injection was performed. EBD was performed whenever a patient had symptoms of dysphagia. Results: The percentage of patients with a tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % was significantly higher in those with refractory stricture than in those without stricture (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, history of radiation therapy, tumor location, and tumor diameter showed that a tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % was an independent risk factor for refractory stricture (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 5.49 [95 %CI 1.91 – 15.84], P = 0.002). Major adverse events occurred in 3 patients (2.4 %): perforation during EBD in 2 patients and delayed perforation after EBD in 1 patient. The patient with delayed perforation underwent esophagectomy because of mediastinitis. Conclusions: A tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % is an independent risk factor for refractory stricture despite steroid injections. The development of more extensive interventions is warranted to prevent refractory stricture. PMID:27004256

  10. Normalisation of refractive error after steroid injection for adnexal haemangiomas.

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, A. J.; Willshaw, H. E.

    1991-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 27 patients with infantile haemangiomas is reported. It confirmed the efficacy of local steroid injection as a method of treatment; 81.5% of patients showed a marked improvement, with the lesion reducing to 25% or less of its original size. Involution was most marked in the first two weeks but continued for up to four months after injection. Amblyopia was present in 43% of children and was usually the result of induced refractive error rather than obstruction of the visual axis or strabismus. Anisometropia was found in 68% of children, with a high incidence of asymmetric astigmatism on the side of the haemangioma. Following local steroid injection a marked reduction in astigmatism was noted in 53.8% of children, a lesser reduction in 15.4%, and no reduction in 30.8%. Successful treatment of the haemangioma, therefore, may not remove the risk of amblyopia, and regular refraction and visual assessment remain mandatory. PMID:2036349

  11. Transient Glaucoma after an Epidural Steroid Injection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Manjiani, Deepak; Said, Salam; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-01-01

    Background Steroids are recognized as a beneficial treatment for various medical conditions, yet clinically relevant side effects of steroids are common and problematic, ranging from a minor case of acne to a potentially life-threatening Addisonian crisis. In anesthetic medicine, the use of epidural steroid injections (ESIs) for chronic low back pain and other radicular pain-related conditions has become standard practice in interventional pain management. Case Report We report the case of a patient who experienced sudden bilateral blurred vision after receiving an ESI and required urgent ophthalmic interventions and follow-up care. The main clinical findings from this case showed that the patient had high intraocular pressure (IOP) that caused unexpected short-term vision loss. The symptom resolved after 3 months without ophthalmic treatment. Conclusion Clinicians should inform patients about the possibility of visual complications associated with pain procedures involving steroids. Among the high-risk groups with predisposing factors, such as uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes mellitus, routine eye tests that include measuring IOP prior to ESI should be recommended as a preventive measure. Alternative pain management therapies should be considered if possible. Comprehensive planning of patient care will also ensure safety and prevent unwanted outcomes, particularly with high-risk patients receiving steroids for pain procedures. PMID:25829885

  12. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Oncologic Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Rei; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S.

    2013-01-01

    Since the development of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the early 1990s, its application has been extended to various diseases. For pancreatic cancer, EUS-FNA can obtain specimens from the tumor itself with fewer complications than other methods. Interventional EUS enables various therapeutic options: local ablation, brachytherapy, placement of fiducial markers for radiotherapy, and direct injection of antitumor agents into cancer. This paper will focus on EUS-guided oncologic therapy for pancreatic cancer. PMID:23533319

  13. Alternative approach for lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Falco, Frank J E; Formoso, Ferdinand; Onyewu, Obi; Irwin, Franklin L

    2011-01-01

    The traditional superoanterior approach for transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) carries a risk of complication by obstructing arterial flow to the anterior portion of the spinal cord by puncturing the spinal radicular artery that passes through the superoanterior foraminal zone or "safe triangle" zone, which does not describe vascular safety, but rather describes neural safety. Consequently, multiple disasters have been described in recent years with transforaminal epidural injections. They are utilized extensively even though their effectiveness has been debated. Here we describe a dorsal technique through transforaminal epidural injections to place the tip of the needle immediately dorsal to the dorsal root ganglion. Multiple different techniques have been discussed and described in recent years, the majority of them to avoid the radicular artery injection. The primary goal of this paper is to describe another posterior approach to place the tip of spinal needle directly toward the posterior epidural space to avoid puncturing the spinal radicular artery and minimize nerve root penetrations while delivering medication into the epidural space through the foramen. PMID:21785476

  14. Ultrasound-guided joint and soft tissue interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Minor procedures with an injection needle are frequently performed in orthopedic clinics. They may be of a diagnostic, diagnostic and therapeutic or purely therapeutic nature. Ultrasound guidance while inserting the needle allows for a safe medicine administration and evacuation of fluid contents. It improves the efficacy of such procedures by ensuring accurate needle insertion in the target site. Ultrasound-guided procedures reduce the duration of treatment (e.g. medicines reach the target site directly; all fluid collections are removed, even multilocular ones) and minimize pain (by the selection of optimal access sites omitting tendons, vessels and peripheral nerves). This paper presents the principles of performing ultrasound-guided interventions. A detailed description of such a technique is provided and the most commonly injected medicines as well as their adverse reactions and contraindications are discussed. Attention is also paid to image optimization and the role of procedure site selection with the exclusion of other pathologies in the puncture site (such as tumors, foreign bodies and vascular or nerve pathologies). What is more, the author also discusses the principles of needle length and thickness selection as well as the manners of its insertion in relation to the transducer. Moreover, the principles of aseptics that are mandatory during such interventions are also presented and the way to protect transducers from the effects of chemical disinfectants is discussed. Furthermore, the paper contains numerous photographs of performed interventions. It is addressed to clinical practitioners and its aim is to facilitate and improve the efficacy of the procedures which are commonly performed in orthopedics. Ultrasound guidance of joint and soft tissue interventions should become a gold standard in all orthopedic clinics.

  15. Ultrasound-guided interventional procedures for patients with chronic pelvic pain - a description of techniques and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Peng, Philip W H; Tumber, Paul S

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain can present in various pain syndromes. In particular, interventional procedure plays an important diagnostic and therapeutic role in 3 types of pelvic pain syndromes: pudendal neuralgia, piriformis syndrome, and "border nerve" syndrome (ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, and genitofemoral nerve neuropathy). The objective of this review is to discuss the ultrasound-guided approach of the interventional procedures commonly used for these 3 specific chronic pelvic pain syndromes. Piriformis syndrome is an uncommon cause of buttock and leg pain. Some treatment options include the injection of the piriformis muscle with local anesthetic and steroids or the injection of botulinum toxin. Various techniques for piriformis muscle injection have been described. CT scan and EMG-guidance are not widely available to interventional physicians, while fluoroscopy exposes the performers to radiation risk. Ultrasound allows direct visualization and real-time injection of the piriformis muscle. Chronic neuropathic pain arising from the lesion or dysfunction of the ilioinguinal nerve, iliohypograstric nerve, and genitofemoral nerve can be diagnosed and treated by injection to the invloved nerves. However, the existing techniques are confusing and contradictory. Ultrasonography allows visualization of the nerves or the structures important in the identification of the nerves and provides the opportunities for real-time injections. Pudendal neuralgia commonly presents as chronic debilitating pain in the penis, scrotum, labia, perineum, or anorectal region. A pudendal nerve block is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of pudendal neuralgia. The pudendal nerve is located between the sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments at the level of ischial spine. Ultrasonography, but not the conventional fluoroscopy, allows visualization of the nerve and the surrounding landmark structures. Ultrasound-guided techniques offer many advantages over the conventional techniques. The ultrasound machine is portable and is more readily available to the pain specialist. It prevents patients and healthcare professionals from the exposure to radiation during the procedure. Because it allows the visualization of a wide variety of tissues, it potentially improves the accuracy of the needle placement, as exemplified by various interventional procedures in the pelvic regions aforementioned. PMID:18354713

  16. The technique comparison of brachial plexus blocks by ultrasound guided with blocks by nerve stimulator guided

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-Ying; Chen, Zhen-Qiang; Jia, Hai-Yan; Dai, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Xue-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Brachial plexus perineural blocks provide specific analgesia for upper limb surgery. We present our experience with ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus perineural blocks for distal upper limb surgery. Although single-injection ultrasound-guided supraclavicular blocks have been reported, little is known about the advantages using this approach compared with nerve stimulator guided. Methods: There were 60 patients who underwent upper limb surgery for orthopedic trauma and received a supraclavicular brachial plexus anesthesia. 30 patients (U-group) were injected by an ultrasound-guided technique with the needle tip remaining under direct vision. 30 patients (NS-group) were inserted by nerve stimulator guided. Recorded the onset time, puncture times, pains cases with tourniquet in each group. Compared the difference between two groups. Results: In U-group, all cases had successful perineural injection. Most of them, effect of anesthesia was fast onset and needed insert only once. No pains were reported under using tourniquet. There were no vessel punctures or other direct procedure-related complications. In NS-group, most injections were successful, but slow onset and needed multiply insert needle. 5 patients said pains under using tourniquet when surgery started and had to add opioid by vein. One patients lung were puncture and result in pneumothorax. One patients was intravascular injection. Conclusions: Supraclavicular brachial plexus perineural insertion using ultrasound guidance is feasible and almost have no complications, deserves further study with a randomized controlled trial comparing this relatively new technique with only using nerve stimulator. PMID:26629206

  17. Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    Abrol, Nitin; Kekre, Nitin S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc.) are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at improving results of intervention for stone disease. Purpose of this review is to discuss development of this technology and its potential clinical applications. Materials and Methods: Pubmed search was made using key words Focused ultrasound and kidney stone. All English language articles were reviewed by title. Relevant studies describing development and application of focused ultrasound in renal stones were selected for review. Results: Focused ultrasound has proven its efficacy in successfully relocating up to 8 mm stone fragments in vitro and in pigs. Relocation is independent of stone composition. The latest model allows imaging and therapy with a single handheld probe facilitating its use by single operator. The acoustic energy delivered by the new prototype is even less than that used for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Therapeutic exposure has not caused thermal injury in pig kidneys. Conclusion: Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of stones is feasible. Though it is safe in application in pigs, technology is awaiting approval for clinical testing in human beings. This technology has many potential clinical applications in the management of stone disease. PMID:25624572

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Femoral Nerve Blocks.

    PubMed

    Baker, Mark D; Gullett, John P

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric acute femur fractures are a relatively common major orthopedic injury seen in emergency departments. Providing adequate and safe analgesia is essential while patients await definitive management of these fractures. Opioid medications are typically used to treat fracture-associated pain but have well-known adverse effects including respiratory and central nervous system depression, pruritus, nausea, and allergic reactions. Dose titration of opioids in pediatric patients may be difficult and requires frequent nursing and physician reassessments. Regional anesthesia using ultrasound guidance has been proposed as a reliable and safe method to provide pain relief for this population and to decrease reliance on opioid medications. There is a growing body of literature on the utility and safety of ultrasound-guided femoral nerve blocks for pediatric patients in the acute care setting. This review article covers recent literature on point-of-care ultrasound-guided femoral nerve blocks for pediatric patients, with a discussion of the indications, sonographic anatomy, selection of anesthetics, nerve block technique, and complications. This review supplements the expert supervision and practice required to gain competency. PMID:26626896

  19. Spondylodiscitis after facet joint steroid injection: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Bliziotis, Ioannis A; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2006-01-01

    Spondylodiscitis is a rare complication after facet joint steroid injection. This article presents a 78-y-old male with chronic back pain and facet joint arthritis who developed Pseudomonas aeruginosa L2-L3 and L3-L4 spondylodiscitis after computed tomography-guided facet joint steroid injection. Magnetic resonance imaging, fine needle aspiration and cultures confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was treated with intravenous administration of amikacin, and imipenem plus cilastatin for 4 weeks, followed by oral administration of ciprofloxacin for another 10 weeks. Sterile preparation prior to facet joint steroid injection should be stressed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only reported case of iatrogenic spondylodiscitis after facet joint steroid injection. This iatrogenic complication should be considered in the risk-benefit analysis of facet joint diagnostic or therapeutic injections. PMID:16718934

  20. Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures in Pain Medicine: A Review of Anatomy, Sonoanatomy, and Procedures: Part VI: Ankle Joint.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Neilesh; Peng, Philip W H

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided injections in pain medicine are emerging as a popular technique for pain interventions. Ultrasound can be applied for procedures of the ankle joint and surrounding structures. This review describes the anatomy and sonoanatomy of the ankle joint, subtalar joint, and surrounding extra-articular structures relevant for intra-articular injection. Second, it reviews injection techniques and the accuracy and efficacy of these intra-articular ankle injections. PMID:26655217

  1. Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from high school to the pros are testing athletes for steroid use, there's a growing chance the person will ... But maybe worst of all, any achievements the athlete made while on steroids could be questioned. Someone might say, "He didn' ...

  2. Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on the market. continue Dangers of Steroids Anabolic steroids cause many different types of problems. Less serious side effects include acne , oily hair, purple or red spots on the body, swelling of the legs and feet, and persistent ...

  3. Effects of intraoperative steroid injection on the outcome of pterygium surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kheirkhah, A; Nazari, R; Safi, H; Ghassemi, H; Behrouz, M J; Raju, V K

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of intraoperative triamcinolone injection on the outcome of pterygium surgery. Methods This prospective study included 54 eyes with primary nasal pterygia that underwent pterygium surgery with a bare-sclera technique and intraoperative mitomycin C application. Patients were randomized into two groups; the steroid group that received subconjunctival injection of 12?mg triamcinolone acetonide at the end of surgery, and the control group that did not receive such steroid injection. Main outcome measures included presence of conjunctival inflammation at 1 month postoperatively as well as recurrence of pterygium. Results Twelve-month follow-up was completed in 48 eyes (23 in the steroid group and 25 in the control group). At 1 month postoperatively, different grades of conjunctival inflammation were present in 11 (47.8%) of the steroid group and in 14 (56%) of the control group (P=0.39). For eyes with moderate or severe postoperative inflammation, subconjunctival triamcinolone was injected; these included 6 (26.1%) and 9 (36%) in the steroid and control groups, respectively (P=0.54). During follow-up, surgical area showed fine episcleral vessels without fibrous tissue in 1 (4.3%) of the steroid group and 3 (12.0%) of the control group (P=0.33), which all regressed after triamcinolone injection. Conjunctival recurrence of pterygium was seen in 2 (8.7%) of the steroid group and in 1 (4.0%) of the control group (P=0.47). No eye developed corneal recurrence in either group. Conclusions In pterygium surgery with a bare-sclera technique and mitomycin C application, intraoperative triamcinolone injection did not significantly reduce postoperative conjunctival inflammation or pterygium recurrence. PMID:23887766

  4. Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Tok, Chung Hong Kaur, Shaleen; Gangi, Afshin

    2011-02-15

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

  5. Steroid injections for shoulder disorders: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijden, G J; van der Windt, D A; Kleijnen, J; Koes, B W; Bouter, L M

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with shoulder disorders are believed to benefit considerably from steroid injections. However, the controversy about their efficacy persists. AIM: The study was designed to assess the efficacy of steroid injections for shoulder disorders. METHOD: A systematic computerized literature search in Medline (Index Medicus 1/1966-10/1995) and Embase (Excerpta Medica 1/1984-10/1995) was conducted, supplemented with citation tracking of all relevant publications. Studies published before November 1995 were selected if steroid injections were randomly allocated to patients with shoulder disorders and when clinically relevant outcome measures were reported. Because the validity of study outcomes depends heavily on the strength of methodological quality, the methods were assessed systematically by two 'blinded' independent reviewers. This resulted in a method score (maximum 100 points) that was based on four categories: study population, interventions, measurement of effect, and data presentation and analysis. Confidence intervals for the differences between groups in success rates were calculated in order to summarize the efficacy of steroid injections. RESULTS: Only three out of the 16 studies scored more than 50 points, indicating a generally poor quality of methods. Most studies reported small sample sizes. The flaws most often found were incomparability of co-interventions and poor blinding of therapist. The methods assessment was frequently hampered by incomplete information about randomization, prognostic comparability, compliance, outcome measures included, blinding of patients and blinding of outcome measurement. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence in favour of the efficacy of steroid injections for shoulder disorders is scarce. The methods of most studies appear to be of poor quality. The few studies that appear to be credible do not provide conclusive evidence about which patients at what time in the course of shoulder disorders benefit most from steroid injections. PMID:8762750

  6. Accuracy of Needle Placement in Cadavers: Non-Guided Versus Ultrasound-Guided

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jae Sung; Chung, Min Jae; Kim, Hae Rim; So, Jae In; Park, Jung Eun; Oh, Hyun Mi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy rates of non-guided vs. ultrasound-guided needle placement in four lower limb muscles (tibialis posterior, peroneus longus, and short and long heads of the biceps femoris). Methods Two electromyographers examined the four muscles in each of eight lower limbs from four fresh frozen cadavers. Each electromyographer injected an assigned dye into each targeted muscle in a lower limb twice (once without guidance, another under ultrasound guidance). Therefore, four injections were done in each muscle of one lower limb. All injections were performed by two electromyographers using 18 gauge 1.5 inch or 24 gauge 2.4 inch needles to place 0.5 mL of colored acryl solution into the target muscles. The third person was blinded to the injection technique and dissected the lower limbs and determined injection accuracy. Results A 71.9% accuracy rate was achieved by blind needle placement vs. 96.9% accuracy with ultrasound-guided needle placement (p=0.001). Blind needle placement accuracy ranged from 50% to 93.8%. Conclusion Ultrasound guidance produced superior accuracy compared with that of blind needle placement in most muscles. Clinicians should consider ultrasound guidance to optimize needle placement in these muscles, particularly the tibialis posterior. PMID:25932411

  7. The Effect and Safety of Steroid Injection in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: With or Without Local Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sung Hyuk; Ryu, Gi Hyeong; Park, Jin Woo; Lee, Ho Jun; Nam, Ki Yeun; Kim, Hyojun; Kim, Seung Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the long-term effect and safety of an epidural steroid injection in spinal stenosis patients, with or without local anesthetics. Methods Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with spinal stenosis were included and randomly divided into two groups. Translaminar epidural and selective nerve root spinal injection procedures were performed using steroids mixed with local anesthetics or normal saline. The effects of spinal injection procedures were measured with visual analogue scale (VAS) and functional rate index (FRI). These measurements were performed before injection, at 1 month after injection and at 3 months after injection. The occurrence of side effects was investigated each time. Results The VAS and FRI scores were significantly reduced in both the local anesthetics group and normal saline group at 1 and 3 months after the injection. However, there was no significant difference in VAS and FRI score reduction between the two groups each time. Side effects are not noted in both groups. Conclusion The spinal injection procedures using steroids mixed either with local anesthetics or normal saline have an effect in reducing pain and improving functional activities. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in relation to side effects and the long-term effects of pain and function. PMID:26949664

  8. A systematic review of ultrasound-guided methods for brachial plexus blockade.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, E; Mermoud, J; Fournier, N; Kern, C; Kirkham, K R

    2016-02-01

    We systematically reviewed 25 randomised controlled trials of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade that recruited 1948 participants: either one approach vs another (axillary, infraclavicular or supraclavicular); or one injection vs multiple injections. There were no differences in the rates of successful blockade with approach, relative risk (95% CI): axillary vs infraclavicular, 1.0 (1.0-1.1), p = 0.97; axillary vs supraclavicular, 1.0 (1.0-1.1), p = 0.68; and infraclavicular vs supraclavicular, 1.0 (1.0-1.1), p = 0.32. There was no difference in the rate of successful blockade with the number of injections, relative risk (95% CI) 1.0 (1.0-1.0), p = 0.69, for one vs multiple injections. The rate of procedural paraesthesia was less with one injection than multiple injections, relative risk (95% CI) 0.6 (0.4-0.9), p = 0.004. PMID:26670119

  9. The Impact of Epidural Steroid Injections on the Outcomes of Patients Treated for Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Radcliff, Kristen; Hilibrand, Alan; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Delasotta, Lawrence; Rihn, Jeffrey; Zhao, Wenyan; Vaccaro, Alexander; Albert, Todd J.; Weinstein, James N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) is a prospective, multicenter study of operative versus nonoperative treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. It has been suggested that epidural steroid injections may help improve patient outcomes and lower the rate of crossover to surgical treatment. Methods: One hundred and fifty-four patients included in the intervertebral disc herniation arm of the SPORT who had received an epidural steroid injection during the first three months of the study and no injection prior to the study (the ESI group) were compared with 453 patients who had not received an injection during the first three months of the study or prior to the study (the No-ESI group). Results: There was a significant difference in the preference for surgery between groups (19% in the ESI group compared with 56% in the No-ESI group, p < 0.001). There was no difference in primary or secondary outcome measures at four years between the groups. A higher percentage of patients changed from surgical to nonsurgical treatment in the ESI group (41% versus 12% in the No-ESI, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with epidural steroid injection had no improvement in short or long-term outcomes compared with patients who were not treated with epidural steroid injection. There was a higher prevalence of crossover to nonsurgical treatment among surgically assigned ESI-group patients, although this was confounded by the increased baseline desire to avoid surgery among patients in the ESI group. Given these data, we concluded that more studies are necessary to establish the value of epidural steroid injection for symptomatic lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:22739998

  10. The application of sonography in shoulder pain evaluation and injection treatment after stroke: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Wu; Fu, Yu; Hai-xin, Song; Yan, Dong; Jian-hua, Li

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This review article is designed to expose the application of sonography in shoulder pain after stroke. [Methods] A range of databases was searched to identify articles that address sonography examination, with or without ultrasound guided corticosteroid injection for hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP). The electronic databases of PubMed, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline were searched. [Results] According to the articles identified in our databases research, sonographic technique has potential to provide objective measurements in patients with HSP. The main sonography finding of HSP included subacromial subdeltoid (SASD) bursal effusion, tendinosis of the supraspinatus and subscapularis tendon, long head of biceps tendon sheath effusion, and shoulder subluxation. Our analysis also revealed significantly decreased pain score (VAS) and increased passive external rotation degree in the steroid injection group than control group. [Conclusion] The sonography examination is useful for HSP assessment and ultrasound guided technique is recommended for HSP injection treatment. PMID:26504346

  11. The application of sonography in shoulder pain evaluation and injection treatment after stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wu; Fu, Yu; Hai-Xin, Song; Yan, Dong; Jian-Hua, Li

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This review article is designed to expose the application of sonography in shoulder pain after stroke. [Methods] A range of databases was searched to identify articles that address sonography examination, with or without ultrasound guided corticosteroid injection for hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP). The electronic databases of PubMed, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline were searched. [Results] According to the articles identified in our databases research, sonographic technique has potential to provide objective measurements in patients with HSP. The main sonography finding of HSP included subacromial subdeltoid (SASD) bursal effusion, tendinosis of the supraspinatus and subscapularis tendon, long head of biceps tendon sheath effusion, and shoulder subluxation. Our analysis also revealed significantly decreased pain score (VAS) and increased passive external rotation degree in the steroid injection group than control group. [Conclusion] The sonography examination is useful for HSP assessment and ultrasound guided technique is recommended for HSP injection treatment. PMID:26504346

  12. Delayed Pneumocephalus Following Fluoroscopy Guided Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection: A Rare Complication and Anatomical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Hyang-Do; Moon, Hyun-Seog; Kim, Soo-Han

    2015-01-01

    Cervical epidural steroid injection is indicated for radicular symptoms with or without axial neck pain. Complications are rare but can be serious. Here, we report the case of a 54-year-old man with cervical radicular pain who was treated with cervical epidural steroid injection. Injection was administered twice under fluoroscopic guidance with the loss-of-resistance technique using air to confirm the epidural space. After the second procedure, the patient complained of severe persistent headache and was diagnosed with pneumocephalus on brain computed tomography. The patient returned home without any neurological complication, after a few days of conservative treatment. Though, a fluoroscopic guidance cervical epidural injection is also known to diminish the risk of complications. Physicians should always keep in mind that it does not guarantee safety, particularly in the cervical region, related to its anatomical considerations. PMID:26113967

  13. Steroid for epidural injection in spinal stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuan; Liu, Pengcheng; Liu, Run; Wu, Xing; Cai, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effectiveness and safety of epidural steroid injections in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Methods We performed a search on the CENTRAL, Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases up to September 2014. We recovered 17 original articles, of which only 10 were in full compliance with the randomized controlled trial (RCT) criteria. These articles were reviewed in an independent and blinded way by two reviewers who were previously trained to extract data and score their quality by the criteria of the Cochrane Handbook (5.1.0). Results We accepted ten studies with 1,010 participants. There is minimal evidence that shows that epidural steroid injections are better than lidocaine alone, regardless of the mode of epidural injection. There is a fair short-term and long-term benefit for treating spinal stenosis with local anesthetic and steroids. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that epidural steroid injections provide limited improvement in short-term and long-term benefits in LSS patients. PMID:25678775

  14. Musculoskeletal Sonopathology and Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Alan J. R.; Sites, Brian D.; Sites, Vincent R.; Naraghi, Ali M.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Singh, Mandeep; Antonakakis, John G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of real-time ultrasound guidance has revolutionized the practice of regional anesthesia. Ultrasound is rapidly becoming the technique of choice for nerve blockade due to increased success rates, faster onset, and potentially improved safety. In the course of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia, unexpected pathology may be encountered. Such anomalous or pathological findings may alter the choice of nerve block and occasionally affect surgical management. This case series presents a variety of musculoskeletal conditions that may be encountered during ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia practice. PMID:22294960

  15. Comparison of short term results of single injection of autologous blood and steroid injection in tennis elbow: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been recently reported that local injection of autologous blood in tennis elbow offers a significant benefit by virtue of various growth factors contained therein. The objective of our study was assessment of efficacy of autologous blood injection versus local corticosteroid injection in the treatment of tennis elbow. Methods and trial design A single blinded, prospective parallel group trial was undertaken. 50 consecutive patients of untreated lateral epicondylitis were enrolled. Randomisation was done on alternate basis and two groups were constituted, first one receiving steroid injection and second one injection of autologous blood. Both groups were evaluated at 2 and 6 weeks for pain relief and stage of disease. Results Baseline evaluation showed no difference between the two groups (chi square test, P > 0.05). Between group analysis at 2 weeks showed no difference in pain relief and Nirschl stage (unpaired t test, P > 0.05). Evaluation at 6 weeks demonstrated a significant decrease in pain levels and stage of disease in blood group (unpaired t test, p < 0.05). Conclusions Autologous blood injection was more effective than steroid injection in the short term follow up in tennis elbow. PMID:23621906

  16. Ultrasound-guided peripheral and truncal blocks in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Delvi, Mohamed Bilal

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound has added a feather in the cap of the anesthesiologists as real-time nerve localization and drug deposition around the nerve structure under real-time guidance is now a reality, as the saying seeing is believing has been proven true with the advent of ultrasound in anesthesia. Pediatric patients are a unique group regarding their anatomical and physiological features in comparison with adults; regional blocks in adults with the anatomical landmark and surface marking are almost uniform across the adult population. The landmark technique in pediatric patients is not reliable in all patients due to the variability in the age and size; the advent of ultrasound in assisting nerve localization has changed the way regional blocks are achieved in children and the range of blocks performed on adults can now be performed on pediatric patients; with advances in the technology and dexterity of ultrasound equipment, the chances of success of blocks has increased with a smaller dose of the local anesthetic in comparison to the traditional methods. Anesthesiologists are now able to perform blocks with more accuracy and avoid complications like intravascular injection and injury to the pleura and peritoneum during routine practice with the assistance of high-frequency transducers and top of the range portable ultrasound machines; catheters can be inserted to provide a continuous analgesia in the postoperative period. This review article describes the common peripheral blocks in pediatric patients; the readers are encouraged to gain experience by attending workshops, hands-on practice under supervision, and conduct random controlled trials pertaining to ultrasound-guided blocks in the pediatric age group. The recent literature is encouraging and further research is promising; a wide range of blocks being described in detail by many prominent experts from all over the world. PMID:21804805

  17. Ultrasound-guided interventional PDT of liver cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chaoying; Yang, Dong; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Huijuan; Huang, Muyin; Chen, Ji; Lu, Guorong

    1996-09-01

    Thirty patients with advanced liver cancer were treated by interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT). These included 28 hepatocellular carcinoma and two adenocarcinoma, 19 primary tumors and 11 recurred follow other treatments. The diameter of tumors were 7-10cm in 13 cases and 10-16cm in 17 cases. In this study, an argon laser pumped dye laser system was used to give a CW laser beam at 630 nm which was split and coupled into there optical fibers. The patients were injected intravenously with photosensitizer hematoporphyrin derivative at a dose of 5mg/kg body weight 48 hours before PDT. Then the fibers were inserted into tumor by ultrasound- guided percutaneous puncture. The inserted irradiation points were spaced in entire tumor with the light release power 300mW and the irradiation time 12 minutes per point. Total 52 treatments were performed in 30 patients. Among them, 14 cases were treated only one time and 16 cases via 2-3 times. The follow-up was carried out in 25 cases for 12- 24 months. The results show that significant remission was 22 percent in those patients by only one treatment and 62 percent in those via 2 to 3 treatments. The shrink rate of tumor size was over 90 percent in five of six cases after treatment 3. The survival time has been over one year in 12 cases. No obvious change to be found for all patients in liver function test, renal function test and blood routine examination. The level of AFP indicated a descending trend after PDT. This work indicate that PDT is effective and safe for the treatment of large liver cancers including those recurred follow hepatic resection and those failed in hepatic artery infusion embolic chemotherapy.

  18. Zoster sine herpete with thoracic motor paralysis temporally associated with thoracic epidural steroid injection.

    PubMed

    Schuchmann, John A; McAllister, Russell K; Armstrong, Christopher S; Puana, Rudolph

    2008-10-01

    Reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus can occur when the immune system is weakened leading to the typical presentation seen with herpes zoster or shingles. In a small percentage of these patients, motor paralysis can be seen in the affected myotomal distribution. Zoster sine herpete, or shingles without the typical vesicular rash, is an uncommon variant of zoster. Systemic steroids are known to weaken the immune response. Two previous case reports have implicated epidural steroid injections as a precipitating cause of zoster. We present a case of serologically verified zoster sine herpete producing an abdominal wall bulge, which occurred 1 wk after thoracic epidural steroid injection. Electromyography documented the presence of abdominal wall denervation. Given the low incidence of serologically proven zoster sine herpete--especially with thoracic motor paralysis--and the equally rarely documented incidence of zoster related to epidural steroids, we present what we believe to be the first reported case of zoster sine herpete with a neuropathic abdominal wall bulge occurring in close temporal association to receiving epidural steroids. PMID:18806512

  19. Intrathyroid Injection of Steroid in Benign Thyroid Swellings

    PubMed Central

    K B, Prashanth; H A, Manjunatha; K R, Sumanth; K M, Triveni

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Benign thyroid swelling disorders are common conditions, frequently encountered in clinical practice. Though medical management has been useful in treating the hormonal variations, it has not been very significant in reducing the size of the swelling. Objective To study the efficacy of intra thyroid injection of triamcinolone in benign thyroid swelling disorders. Materials and Methods A total of 20 patients were selected for this study. All the patients with thyroid swellings, were evaluated with history and clinical examination followed by routine blood investigations, thyroid function tests (T3,T4,TSH), Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) and Ultrasonography (USG) of the neck. The treatment adopted in this study was intrathyroid injection of triamcinolone acetonide. Results In this study there were 20 patients, all were females in the age group of 17- 55 years. Four patients did not come for regular follow up, and hence were excluded. Sixteen patients were followed up regularly. Thirteen (81.25 %) patients showed excellent results with no visible swelling, confirmed sonologically. Two patients (12.5%) showed fair results with residual swellings, and one patient did not show any reduction in size of the swelling. Conclusion Intrathyroid injection of triamcinolone acetonide is a safe, minimally invasive technique in reducing the size of benign thyroid swellings with minimal or no side effects. PMID:26816923

  20. An indigenous model for learning ultrasound-guided interventions

    PubMed Central

    Khera, Pushpinder S; Keshava, Shyamkumar N

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided interventions require good handeye coordination with respect to probe control and needle orientation. We describe a method of making an ultrasound phantom for practice purpose using an edible jelly mixture. The phantom is easy to make, reproducible, cheap, and simulates in vivo target. PMID:25024521

  1. Transurethral ultrasound-guided laser-induced prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayan, Richard K.; Roth, Robert A.

    1991-07-01

    A transurethral ultrasound-guided Nd:YAG laser delivery system has been developed for use as an alternative approach to the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The TULIP system has been extensively tested in canine models and is currently undergoing FDA trials in humans.

  2. Basic dissecting techniques in ultrasound-guided surgery

    PubMed Central

    Koczy, Bogdan; Mielnik, Micha?; Pilecki, Grzegorz; Dzielicki, Jzef; Jakubowski, Wies?aw

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided surgery is an area of minimally-invasive surgery where surgical procedures are performed with the aid of ultrasound imaging throghout the operation. This requires the operator to posses a certain degree of experience in endoscopic procedures, and to be adeptly skillfull in conducting US examinations. It is combining and finely tuning together these two elements that allows to perform efficiently an ultrasound-guided surgical procedure. Accessing an affected site correctly is of utmost importance in surgery, being oftentimes decisive in terms of the procedure's final outcome. In ultrasound-guided procedures, the operative site is accessed percutaneously, with a single point incision, yet tissues situated deeper within are dissected with dissecting techniques in a fluid evironment, typical for this area of surgery. Dissecting techniques in ultrasound-guided surgery are currently divided into basic ones which employ either a hydrodissection needle, surgical instruments, electrosurgical instruments, a thread, or a combination thereof, and advanced ones where either a balloon, a hook dissection technique, or a hybrid one is used. Hydrodissection with a needle was devised based on the rule of complementarity, and is the most frequently applied technique in ultrasound-guided surgery. The immense possibilities that go along with this modality will be of huge benefit to any surgeon, regardless of their field. Dissection with a variety of surgical instruments and electrosurgery instruments is a standard practice in all surgery areas, yet the method of imaging we employ in ultrasound-guided surgery results in certain modifications of these techniques. It is, however, learning the thread technique that facilitates a precise and oftentimes extensive dissection. This technique is successfully applied for dissecting muscle, ligament, tendon, vascular and other structures. Having mastered dissecting techniques allows to perform any minimally-invasive procedure efficiently, be they ultrasound-guided, artroscopic, or endoscopic ones. Various surgical techniques are bridged, resulting in applying the so-called hybrid ones. Their strength lies in excellent imaging results allowing to conduct a surgical procedure both in a body cavity and within a parenchymal organ. PMID:26674391

  3. Basic dissecting techniques in ultrasound-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Pilecki, Zbigniew; Koczy, Bogdan; Mielnik, Michał; Pilecki, Grzegorz; Dzielicki, Józef; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound-guided surgery is an area of minimally-invasive surgery where surgical procedures are performed with the aid of ultrasound imaging throghout the operation. This requires the operator to posses a certain degree of experience in endoscopic procedures, and to be adeptly skillfull in conducting US examinations. It is combining and finely tuning together these two elements that allows to perform efficiently an ultrasound-guided surgical procedure. Accessing an affected site correctly is of utmost importance in surgery, being oftentimes decisive in terms of the procedure's final outcome. In ultrasound-guided procedures, the operative site is accessed percutaneously, with a single point incision, yet tissues situated deeper within are dissected with dissecting techniques in a fluid evironment, typical for this area of surgery. Dissecting techniques in ultrasound-guided surgery are currently divided into basic ones which employ either a hydrodissection needle, surgical instruments, electrosurgical instruments, a thread, or a combination thereof, and advanced ones where either a balloon, a hook dissection technique, or a hybrid one is used. Hydrodissection with a needle was devised based on the rule of complementarity, and is the most frequently applied technique in ultrasound-guided surgery. The immense possibilities that go along with this modality will be of huge benefit to any surgeon, regardless of their field. Dissection with a variety of surgical instruments and electrosurgery instruments is a standard practice in all surgery areas, yet the method of imaging we employ in ultrasound-guided surgery results in certain modifications of these techniques. It is, however, learning the thread technique that facilitates a precise and oftentimes extensive dissection. This technique is successfully applied for dissecting muscle, ligament, tendon, vascular and other structures. Having mastered dissecting techniques allows to perform any minimally-invasive procedure efficiently, be they ultrasound-guided, artroscopic, or endoscopic ones. Various surgical techniques are bridged, resulting in applying the so-called hybrid ones. Their strength lies in excellent imaging results allowing to conduct a surgical procedure both in a body cavity and within a parenchymal organ. PMID:26674391

  4. Steroids.

    PubMed

    Riad, Maggy; Mogos, Marianna; Thangathurai, Duraiyah; Lumb, Philip D

    2002-08-01

    Corticosteroids are considered to be essential stress hormones. They are secreted together with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in response to the pulsatile secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Changes in pulse amplitude are responsible for the diurnal rhythm in circulating ACTH and cortisol levels. Steroid levels increase immediately after injury, pain, fever, and hypovolemia in response to the stimulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion by various cytokines. The increase in steroid levels is typically proportional to the magnitude of stress, with serum cortisol values being highest in moribund patients and shortly before death. With severe and prolonged stress, steroid levels are increased for weeks to months and may be associated with hypertrophy of the adrenal cortex. Cortisol acts in concert with catecholamines to maintain the vascular tone, endothelial integrity, vascular permeability, and the distribution of total body water within the vascular compartment. It also potentiates the vasoconstrictor effects of catecholamines. Cortisol helps to stimulate lipolysis, inhibit protein synthesis, facilitate amino acid mobilization from muscle, induce the enzymes of gluconeogenesis, enhance secretion of glucagon, inhibit insulin secretion, and stimulate conversion of lactic acid to glycogen. Because of their anti-inflammatory properties, steroids have been proposed as therapeutic adjuvants in systemic inflammation and may protect the host against overshooting defense reactions by reducing the migration of leukocytes to the inflammatory sites and the incidence of neutrophil-mediated tissue injury and organ dysfunction. PMID:12386486

  5. Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may need to take corticosteroids to treat Arthritis Asthma Autoimmune diseases such as lupus and multiple sclerosis Skin conditions such as eczema and rashes Some kinds of cancer Steroids are strong medicines, and they can have side effects, including weakened bones and cataracts. Because of this, ...

  6. Comparison of Two Methods of Epidural Steroid Injection in the Treatment of Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi-Nejad, Ali; Shahsavarani, Shahram; Keikhosravi, Ehsan; Shahba, Mohsen; Ebrahimi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study. Purpose We compared the effects of two methods of epidural steroid injection in patients with recurrent disc herniation. Overview of Literature To our knowledge, there is no previous report of such a comparison in these patients. Methods The study was performed with 30 patients with relapsed lumbar disc herniation whose pain was not relieved by conservative remedies. The patients were divided into two groups, each of 15 patients, and entered the study for caudal or transforaminal injections. The degree of pain, ability to stand and walk, and the Prolo function score were evaluated in both groups before the injection and 2 months and 6 months after the injection. Results The degrees of pain reduction in the caudal injection group in the second and sixth months were 0.6 and 1.63, respectively, and in the transforaminal injection group were 1.33 and 1.56, respectively. The difference between the two methods was not statistically significant. Similarly, no other evaluated criterion showed a significant difference between the methods. Conclusions In the current study, the caudal and transforaminal steroid injection methods showed similar outcomes in the treatment of relapsed lumbar disc herniation. However, more detailed patient categorizing may help in finding possible subgroups with differences. PMID:25346818

  7. Incidence of intravascular injection and the spread of contrast media during S1 transforaminal epidural steroid injection by two approaches: anteroposterior vs oblique.

    PubMed

    Kim, D-H; Yoon, D M; Yoon, K B

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this randomised study was to compare the incidence of intravascular injections during S1 transforaminal epidural steroid injection performed in the anteroposterior and oblique views. We also compared epidural spread patterns of contrast media, which included 201 injections at the S1 level. The overall incidence of intravascular injection during S1 transforaminal epidural steroid injection in the anteroposterior view was 29% (29/99), significantly higher than in the oblique view (11%, 11/102, p = 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups for epidural spread of contrast media in cases where intravascular injections did not occur (p = 0.77). Performing S1 transforaminal epidural steroid injection in the oblique view rather than the anteroposterior view reduces the risk of intravascular injections. PMID:25850817

  8. Comparative study of intralesional steroid injection and cryotherapy in alopecia areata

    PubMed Central

    Amirnia, Mehdi; Mahmoudi, Seyed-Sajjad; Karkon-Shayan, Farid; Alikhah, Hossein; Piri, Reza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Ranjkesh, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, non-scarring type of hair loss, affecting approximately 2.1% of the population, many modality of treatment recommended like steroid injection, topical Immunotherapy and several systemic therapies. The aim of this study was to compare intralesional steroid injection and cryotherapyoutcomes in AA. Materials and Methods: In an analytical-descriptive study, 120 AA patients treated with intralesionalsteroid injection and 120 AA patients treated with cryotherapy were randomly selected. These two groups matched for location, duration and size of lesion and also matched for age and gender. From March 2011 to September 2013, the effect and complications of the therapies after 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks were assessed and results were compared between the two groups. Results: Mean age of patients in steroid injection group was 30.2 ± 6.8 and in cryotherapy group was 31.8 ± 7.1. Sexual distribution in both groups was 56.7% and 43.3 % for male and female, respectively. Location of disease in 80% was in scalp and 20% was in face in both groups. The time of beginning response in steroid group was 4.13 ± 2.13 weeks and in cryotherapy group was 6.14 ± 0.29 weeks, difference between two groups was significant (P = 0.001). In term of clinical response at the end of study, in steroid group,20 patients (16.7%) no response, 32 patients (26.7%), moderate response and68 patients (56.7%) had a complete response, and also in cryotherapy group was, 52 patients (43.3%) no response, 40 patients (33.3%) moderate response and 28 patients (23.3%) had a complete response. There was significant different in complete response rate and steroid injection was more effective than cryotherapy(P < 0.05). Conclusion: As the cryotherapy isa considerable treatment of AA, alsothis study proposes intralesional injection of corticosteroid, as a replacement of AA therapy; particularly the short-term complications are not significantly different. PMID:26759508

  9. [Ocular hypertension after intravitreal steroid injections: Clinical update as of 2015].

    PubMed

    Dot, C; El Chehab, H; Russo, A; Agard, E

    2015-09-01

    Intravitreal injections are a therapeutic delivery method best suited to the treatment of retinal diseases. Recent years have been marked by the use of anti-VEGF agents as well as the arrival of sustained-release corticosteroid implants in France, replacing triamcinolone acetonide. A common complication of IVT steroids is secondary ocular hypertension (OHT) resulting from increased outflow resistance. This article summarizes current understanding. OHT induced by topical steroids has been described for 60 years. Intravitreal use also shows a temporary effect if the exposure is short, dose dependence, and varying incidence depending on the drug used. Sustained release formulations and discontinuing treatment have reduced the risk of induced OHT. Risk factors that induce OHT must be clearly identified prior to an injection. Most cases of OHT can be controlled medically, although differences exist between different drugs. In cases where it cannot be controlled, removal of the implant, selective laser trabeculoplasty, and filtration surgery can be discussed. PMID:26099427

  10. Cost effectiveness of epidural steroid injections to manage chronic lower back pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of epidural steroid injections in the management of chronic low back pain is disputed, yet the technique remains popular amongst physicians and patients alike. This study assesses the cost effectiveness of injections administered in a routine outpatient setting in England. Methods Patients attending the Nottingham University Hospitals Pain Clinic received two injections of methylprednisolone plus levobupivacaine at different dosages, separated by at least 12?weeks. Prior to each injection, and every week thereafter for 12?weeks, participants completed the EQ-5D health-related quality of life instrument. For each patient for each injection, total health state utility gain relative to baseline was calculated. The cost of the procedure was modelled from observed clinical practice. Cost effectiveness was calculated as procedure cost relative to utility gain. Results 39 patients provided records. Over a 13-week period commencing with injection, mean quality adjusted life year (QALY) gains per patient for the two dosages were 0.028 (SD 0.063) and 0.021 (SD 0.057). The difference in QALYs gained by dosage was insignificant (paired t-test, CIs -0.019 0.033). Based on modelled resource use and data from other studies, the mean cost of an injection was estimated at 219 (SD 83). The cost utility ratio of the two injections amounted to 8,975 per QALY gained (CIs 5,480 22,915). However, at costs equivalent to the tariff price typically paid to providers by health care purchasers, the ratio increased to 27,459 (CIs 16,779 70,091). Conclusions When provided in an outpatient setting, epidural steroid injections are a short term, but nevertheless cost effective, means of managing chronic low back pain. However, designation of the procedure as a day case requires the National Health Service to reimburse providers at a price which pushes the procedure to the margin of cost effectiveness. Trial registration ISRCTN 43299460 PMID:23016755

  11. Ultrasound-guided vs endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for pancreatic cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Masato; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kuraoka, Kensuke; Yukisawa, Seigo; Kasuga, Akiyoshi; Ozaka, Masato; Suzuki, Sho; Takano, Kouichi; Sugiyama, Yuko; Itoi, Takao

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PC). METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic PC between February 2006 and September 2011 were selected for this retrospective study. FNA biopsy for pancreatic tumors had been performed percutaneously under extracorporeal ultrasound guidance until October 2009; then, beginning in November 2009, EUS-FNA has been performed. We reviewed the complete medical records of all patients who met the selection criteria for the following data: sex, age, location and size of the targeted tumor, histological and/or cytological findings, details of puncture procedures, time from day of puncture until day of definitive diagnosis, and details of severe adverse events. RESULTS: Of the 121 patients who met the selection criteria, 46 had a percutaneous biopsy (Group A) and 75 had an EUS-FNA biopsy (Group B). Adequate cytological specimens were obtained in 42 Group A patients (91.3%) and all 75 Group B patients (P = 0.0192), and histological specimens were obtained in 41 Group A patients (89.1%) and 65 Group B patients (86.7%). Diagnosis of malignancy by cytology was positive in 33 Group A patients (78.6%) and 72 Group B patients (94.6%) (P = 0.0079). Malignancy by both cytology and pathology was found in 43 Group A (93.5%) and 73 Group B (97.3%) patients. The mean period from the puncture until the cytological diagnosis in Group B was 1.7 d, which was significantly shorter than that in Group A (4.1 d) (P < 0.0001). Severe adverse events were experienced in two Group A patients (4.3%) and in one Group B patient (1.3%). CONCLUSION: EUS-FNA, as well as percutaneous needle aspiration, is an effective modality to obtain cytopathological confirmation in patients with advanced PC. PMID:23613631

  12. Comparison of Two Different Doses of Single Bolus Steroid Injection to Prevent Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence after Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da-Rae; Won, Hoyoun; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Kim, Jong-Youn; Sung, Jung-Hoon; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Steroids may play a role in preventing the early recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). However, optimal doses and route of steroid delivery have not yet been determined. This study evaluated the effect of two different doses of a single bolus injection of steroids on AF recurrence after RFCA. Materials and Methods Of 448 consecutive AF patients who underwent RFCA, a single steroid bolus was injected into 291 patients. A low-dose steroid group (n=113) received 100 mg of hydrocortisone and a moderate-dose steroid group (n=174) received 125 mg of methylprednisolone. We used propensity-score matching to select patients as follows: control (n=95), low-dose (n=95), and moderate-dose steroid groups (n=97). Results Pericarditis developed in 1 (1.1%) control patient, 2 (2.1%) low-dose patients and 0 moderate-dose patients. Maximum body temperature and C-reactive protein were significantly decreased in the moderate-dose steroid group compared to the other groups (p<0.01). The number of patients of early AF recurrence (?3 months) did not differ among three groups. Early recurrence was 24 (25%) in the control, 24 (25%) in the low-dose and 25 (26%) in the medium-dose groups (p=0.99). Compared with control group, low-dose or moderate-dose steroid treatment did not effectively decrease mid-term (3-12 months) AF recurrence [22 (23%) vs. 23 (24%) vs. 18 (19%); p=0.12]. Conclusion A single injection of moderate-dose steroid decreased inflammation. However, single bolus injections of low-dose or moderate-dose steroids were not effective in preventing immediate, early or midterm AF recurrence after RFCA. PMID:25683977

  13. Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Block with Botulinum Toxin Type A for Intractable Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young Eun; Choi, Jung Hyun; Park, Hue Jung; Park, Ji Hye; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain includes postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN), and trigeminal neuralgia, and so on. Although various drugs have been tried to treat neuropathic pain, the effectiveness of the drugs sometimes may be limited for chronic intractable neuropathic pain, especially when they cannot be used at an adequate dose, due to undesirable severe side effects and the underlying disease itself. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has been known for its analgesic effect in various pain conditions. Nevertheless, there are no data of nerve block in PHN and PDN. Here, we report two patients successfully treated with ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block using BoNT-A for intractable PHN and PDN. One patient had PHN on the left upper extremity and the other patient had PDN on a lower extremity. Due to side effects of drugs, escalation of the drug dose could not be made. We injected 50 Botox units (BOTOX(®), Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) into brachial plexus and lumbar plexus, respectively, under ultrasound. Their pain was significantly decreased for about 4-5 months. Ultrasound-guided nerve block with BoNT-A may be an effective analgesic modality in a chronic intractable neuropathic pain especially when conventional treatment failed to achieve adequate pain relief. PMID:26761032

  14. Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Block with Botulinum Toxin Type A for Intractable Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Young Eun; Choi, Jung Hyun; Park, Hue Jung; Park, Ji Hye; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain includes postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN), and trigeminal neuralgia, and so on. Although various drugs have been tried to treat neuropathic pain, the effectiveness of the drugs sometimes may be limited for chronic intractable neuropathic pain, especially when they cannot be used at an adequate dose, due to undesirable severe side effects and the underlying disease itself. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has been known for its analgesic effect in various pain conditions. Nevertheless, there are no data of nerve block in PHN and PDN. Here, we report two patients successfully treated with ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block using BoNT-A for intractable PHN and PDN. One patient had PHN on the left upper extremity and the other patient had PDN on a lower extremity. Due to side effects of drugs, escalation of the drug dose could not be made. We injected 50 Botox units (BOTOX®, Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) into brachial plexus and lumbar plexus, respectively, under ultrasound. Their pain was significantly decreased for about 4–5 months. Ultrasound-guided nerve block with BoNT-A may be an effective analgesic modality in a chronic intractable neuropathic pain especially when conventional treatment failed to achieve adequate pain relief. PMID:26761032

  15. Bilateral rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon in a professional goalkeeper following steroid injections for extensor tenosynovitis.

    PubMed

    Mills, Simon P; Charalambous, Charalambos P; Hayton, Mike J

    2009-01-01

    We present a rare case of bilateral extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture in a professional football goalkeeper following steroid injection for extensor tenosynovitis. The potential pathogenesis mechanisms are discussed. PMID:20135742

  16. Efficacy and safety of steroid injections for shoulder and elbow tendonitis: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Gaujoux-Viala, C; Dougados, M; Gossec, L

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of steroid injections for patients with tendonitis of the shoulder or elbow. Methods: A systematic review of the literature using PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane library and manual searches was performed until April 2008. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the efficacy on pain or functional disability, and/or the safety of steroid injections, versus placebo, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or physiotherapy in patients with tendonitis were selected. Pooled effect size (ES) was calculated by meta-analysis using the MantelHaenszel method. Results: In all, 20 RCTs were analysed (744 patients treated by injections and 987 patients treated by controls; 618 shoulders and 1113 elbows). The pooled analysis indicated only short-term effectiveness of steroids versus the pooled controls for pain and function (eg, pain at week 13 ES?=?1.18 (95% CI 0.27 to 2.09), pain at week 48 ES?=?1.30 (95% CI 0.55 to 2.04), pain at week 1224 ES?=??0.38 (95% CI ?0.85 to 0.08) and pain at week 48 ES?=?0.07 (95% CI ?0.60 to 0.75)). Sensitivity analyses indicated similar results whatever the localisation, type of steroid and type of comparator except for NSAIDs: steroid injections were not significantly better than NSAIDs in the short-term. Steroid injections appeared more effective than pooled other treatments in acute or subacute tendonitis. The main side effects were transient pain after injection (10.7% of corticosteroid injections) and skin modification (4.0%). Conclusions: Steroid injections are well tolerated and more effective for tendonitis in the short-term than pooled other treatments, though similar to NSAIDs. No long-term benefit was shown. PMID:19054817

  17. Perspectives in ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventions.

    PubMed

    Daftary, Aditya Ravindra; Karnik, Alpana Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is a safe, easily available, and cost-effective modality, which has the additional advantage of being real time for imaging and image-guided interventions of the musculoskeletal system. Musculoskeletal interventions are gaining popularity in sports and rehabilitation for rapid healing of muscle and tendon injuries in professional athletes, healing of chronic tendinopathies, aspiration of joint effusions, periarticular bursae and ganglia, and perineural injections in acute and chronic pain syndromes. This article aims to provide an overview of the spectrum of musculoskeletal interventions that can be done under USG guidance both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:26288519

  18. Perspectives in ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventions

    PubMed Central

    Daftary, Aditya Ravindra; Karnik, Alpana Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is a safe, easily available, and cost-effective modality, which has the additional advantage of being real time for imaging and image-guided interventions of the musculoskeletal system. Musculoskeletal interventions are gaining popularity in sports and rehabilitation for rapid healing of muscle and tendon injuries in professional athletes, healing of chronic tendinopathies, aspiration of joint effusions, periarticular bursae and ganglia, and perineural injections in acute and chronic pain syndromes. This article aims to provide an overview of the spectrum of musculoskeletal interventions that can be done under USG guidance both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:26288519

  19. Comparison of Transforaminal and Parasagittal Epidural Steroid Injections in Patients With Radicular Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyed Masoud; Aryani, Mohamad Reza; Momenzadeh, Sirus; Razavi, Seyed Sajad; Mohseni, Gholamreza; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Esmilijah, Ali Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidural steroid injection (ESI), including transforaminal (TF) epidural injections and interlaminar (IL) epidural steroid injections are commonly performed procedures for the management of lumbosacral radicular pain. Parasagittal interlaminar (PIL) approach could enable higher ventral epidural spread, with fewer complications than TF. Objectives: This study aims to compare the effectiveness of PIL and TF ESI in relieving the pain and disability of patients with lumbosacral pain. Patients and Methods: This prospective study enrolled 64 patients, aged between 18 to 75 years, with a diagnosis of low back pain and unilateral lumbosacral radicular pain. The patients were randomized to receive fluoroscopically guided epidural injection, through either the PIL or TF approach. Patients were evaluated for effective pain relief [numerical rating scale (NRS) < 3] by 0 - 10 numeric rating scale (NRS) and functional improvement by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results: Effective pain relief [numeric rating scale (NRS) < 3] was observed in 77.3% (95% CI: 67?90.5%) of patients in PIL group and 74.2% (95% CI: 62.4 - 89.4%) of patients in the TF group (P = 0.34), at 4 weeks. Mean NRS score was not significantly different between the PIL group compared to the TF group, at 4 weeks (P = 0.19). Number of patients with improved disability (measured by ODI < 20%) was not significantly different in PIL group (78% of cases) compared to the TF group (76% of cases), at 4 weeks (P = 0.21). There were no adverse effects observed in any of our patients. Conclusions: The PIL epidural injection is as effective as TF epidural injection in improving pain and functional status, in patients with chronic lumbosacral low back pain, due to disc degeneration. PMID:26587400

  20. Effects of Repeated Steroid Injection at Subacromial Bursa With Different Interval

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Seung Deuk; Hong, Sung Kyung; Song, Jin Won; Woo, Seung Beom; Noh, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Zee Ihn

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of repeated steroid injection at subacromial bursa with different interval for patient with periarticular shoulder disorder. Methods Group A (n=10) received subacromial bursa injection only on their first visit, group C (n=10) received the injection on their first visit and one week later, and group B (n=10) received the injection on their first visit and two weeks later. All injections were done with a combination of 40 mg (1.0 mL) of triamcinolone and 5.0 mL 0.5% lidocaine (6 mL total). We examined the active range of motion (AROM) of the shoulder joint, visual analogue scale (VAS), and shoulder disability questionnaire (SDQ) at baseline at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the initial injection. Results In VAS, comparing the changes in VAS between groups, group B showed significant improvements compared with group A or C at 4 weeks after the initial injection (p<0.05). In SDQ, comparing the changes in SDQ between the groups, group B and C showed more improvement than group A at 4 weeks after the initial injection, but these results were not statistically significant (p>0.05). In AROM, comparing the changes in AROM of external rotation between groups, group B and C showed significant improvement compared with group A at 4 weeks after the initial injection (p<0.05). Conclusion It may be more effective in pain relief for patients with periarticular disorder to receive subacromial bursa injections twice with 2-week interval, as opposed to once. PMID:25566480

  1. Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection for Painful Spasticity in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun; Chun, Seong Min; Park, Hee Won; Bang, Moon Suk

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 53-year-old male with traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). He could not maintain a standing position because of painful spasticity in his lower limbs. A magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography indicated chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy, explaining his chronic low back pain before the injury. For diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes, transforaminal epidural steroid injection (ESI) to the right L5 root was performed. After the intervention, the spasticity decreased and his ambulatory function improved. This case illustrates that lumbar radiculopathy concomitant with a cervical SCI can produce severe spasticity and it can be dramatically improved by ESI. PMID:26361605

  2. Feasibility of percutaneous contrast ultrasound-guided cholecystography in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ji, Seoyeoun; Jung, Sunyoung; Kim, Boeun; Jung, Joohyun; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Mincheol

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating hepatocellular disease versus biliary obstruction can be challenging in dogs presented for icterus. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the feasibility of percutaneous contrast ultrasound-guided cholecystography in dogs. Ten normal dogs weighing 7.6-13.0 kg (median 9.8 kg) were recruited. All dogs were considered normal based on complete blood count, serum chemistry profile, ultrasound examination, and percutaneous radiographic cholecystography. Percutaneous contrast ultrasound-guided cholecystography was performed using 0.5 ml of commercially available contrast agent and two conventional ultrasound machines for simultaneous scanning at two different locations. Two observers independently evaluated the time to initial detection of contrast in the proximal duodenum and duration of contrast enhancement via visual monitoring. Dynamic contrast enhancement was calculated using time-intensity curves. Mean ( SD) and median (range) of time to initial detection were 8.60 s ( 3.35) and 8.0 s (2.0-11.0), respectively, and mean and median duration were 50.45 s ( 23.24) and 53.0 s (20.0 - 70.0), respectively. Mean, median, and range of peak intensity were 114.1 mean pixel value (MPV) (SD 30.7), 109.2 MPV, and 79.7-166.7, respectively, and mean, median, and range of time to peak intensity were 26.1 s (SD 7.1 s), 24.0 s, and 19.0-41.0 s, respectively. Findings indicated that percutaneous contrast ultrasound-guided cholecystography is a feasible technique for detecting and quantifying patency of the bile duct in normal dogs. Future studies are needed to assess the diagnostic utility of this technique for dogs with biliary obstruction. PMID:25403172

  3. Efficacy of Intra-articular Steroid Injection in Patients with Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Sun; Jang, Young Eun; Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Lee, Pyung Bok

    2013-01-01

    Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI) arises from morphological abnormalities between the proximal femur and acetabulum. Impingement caused by these morphologic abnormalities induces early degenerative changes in the hip joint. Furthermore, FAI patients complain of severe pain and limited range of motion in the hip, but a guideline for treatment of FAI has not yet been established. Medication, supportive physical treatment and surgical procedures have been used in the treatment of the FAI patients; however, the efficacies of these treatments have been limited. Here, we report the diagnosis and treatment for 3 cases of FAI patients. Intra-articular (IA) steroid injection of the hip joint was performed in all three patients. After IA injection, pain was reduced and function had improved for up to three months. PMID:23614077

  4. Infection after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ju

    2015-05-01

    Infectious complications after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) appear to be increasing, which reflects the high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae. Identifying patients at high risk for antibiotic resistance with history taking is an important initial step. Targeted prophylaxis with a prebiopsy rectal swab culture or augmented antibiotic prophylaxis can be considered for patients at high risk of antibiotic resistance. If infectious complications are suspected, the presence of urosepsis should be evaluated and adequate antibiotic treatment should be started immediately. PMID:25964834

  5. Infectious disease, injection practices, and risky sexual behavior among anabolic steroid users.

    PubMed

    Ip, Eric J; Yadao, Michael A; Shah, Bijal M; Lau, Bonnie

    2016-03-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are commonly misused to increase muscle size and strength, as well as improve physical appearance. Many AAS and certain PEDs are administered via injection and therefore pose a risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Further, AAS users may be more likely to take part in high-risk sexual behaviors than non-AAS users. This review explores the prevalence of infectious diseases as well as risky injection practices and sexual behaviors of AAS users in the current literature. A comprehensive MEDLINE search (1984-17 April 2015) for English language reports was performed on AAS users. Ten studies analyzed the prevalence of HIV infection, 6 studies analyzed HBV infection, and 6 studies analyzed HCV infection; 20 studies analyzed injection practices and 7 studies analyzed high-risk sexual behaviors of AAS users. HIV, HBV, HCV, and SSTIs have been associated with AAS users. In particular, HIV infection seems much higher among homosexual male AAS users. AAS users also take part in high-risk injection practices but to a much lower extent than intravenous drug users. AAS users are also more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors than the general population. Clinicians and health-policy leaders may utilize these findings to implement strategies to decrease the spread of infectious diseases. PMID:26422090

  6. A new ultrasound-guided pubic approach for proximal obturator nerve block: clinical study and cadaver evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Onishi, T; Furutani, K; Baba, H

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated an alternative technique for ultrasound-guided proximal level obturator nerve block that might facilitate needle visualisation using in-plane ultrasound guidance. Twenty patients undergoing transurethral bladder tumour resection requiring an obturator nerve block were enrolled into a prospective observational study. With the patient in the lithotomy position, the transducer was placed on the medial thigh along the extended line of the inguinal crease, and aimed cephalad to view a thick fascia between the pectineus and obturator externus muscles that contains the obturator nerve. A stimulating nerve block needle was inserted at the pubic region and advanced in-plane with the transducer in an anterior-to-posterior direction. Eight ml levobupivacaine 0.75% was injected within the fascia. The median (IQR [range]) duration for ultrasound identification of the target and injection were 8.5 (7-12 [5-24]) s and 62 (44.5-78.25 [39-383]) s, respectively. All blocks were successful. A cadaver evaluation demonstrated that the dye injected into the target fascia using our technique travelled retrogradely through the obturator canal, and surrounded the anterior and posterior branches of the obturator nerve both proximally and distally to the obturator canal. We believe that this is a promising new technique for ultrasound-guided proximal level obturator nerve block. PMID:26620274

  7. Efficacy of hyaluronic acid or steroid injections for the treatment of a rat model of rotator cuff injury.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Sasaki, Yu; Kijima, Takehiro; Hashimoto, Eiko; Sasaki, Yasuhito; Kenmoku, Tomonori; Yamazaki, Hironori; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ohtori, Seiji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated dorsal root ganglia from C3-C7, analyzed gait, and compared the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) which was a marker of inflammatory pain in a rat rotator cuff tear model in which the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons were detached; comparisons were made to a sham group in which only the tendons were exposed. Fluorogold was injected into the glenohumeral joint 21 days after surgery in both groups, and saline, steroids, or hyaluronic acid was injected into the glenohumeral joint in the rotator cuff tear group 26 days after surgery. The proportions of CGRP-immunoreactive neurons were higher and the gait parameters were impaired in the rotator cuff tear group compared to in the sham group. However, the CGRP expression was reduced and the gait was improved with steroid or hyaluronic acid injection compared to saline, suggesting that both hyaluronic acid and steroid injections suppressed of inflammation which thought to be provided pain relief. While there were no significant differences, the suppression of CGRP expression and the improved gait after hyaluronic acid and steroid injections suggested that both methods were effective for rat rotator cuff tear model. 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1861-1867, 2015. PMID:26147720

  8. A Toe Keloid after Syndactyly Release Treated with Surgical Excision and Intralesional Steroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Naitoh, Motoko; Ishiko, Toshihiro; Aya, Rino; Katayama, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2014-01-01

    Summary: A keloid is a benign fibroproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Although it is common among Asians, the development of keloid on the foot is rare. We experienced a case of a keloid which arose on the foot of a 4-year-old boy after the surgical release of syndactyly. He had congenital cutaneous syndactyly of the third and fourth toes. After the reconstructive operation was performed when the patient was 2 years old, the wound became hypertrophic and grew to 37 37 8 mm. After the diagnosis of keloid based on a pathological examination, the keloid was resected completely. The web was reconstructed with a planter rectangular flap, and the skin defects were covered with a full-thickness skin graft. After the operation, we administered 5 intralesional steroid injections. Finally, the keloid was diminished 2 years after the operation. PMID:25426369

  9. Ultrasound guided percutaneous EVAR success is predicted by vessel diameter

    PubMed Central

    Bensley, Rodney P.; Hurks, Rob; Huang, Zhen; Pomposelli, Frank; Hamdan, Allen; Wyers, Mark; Chaikof, Elliot; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasound guided access allows for direct visualization of the access artery during percutaneous endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. We hypothesize that the use of ultrasound guidance allowed us to safely increase the utilization of percutaneous endovascular aortic aneurysm repair to almost all patients and decrease access complications. Methods A retrospective chart review of all elective endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs, both abdominal and descending thoracic, from 2005-2010 was performed. Patients were identified using ICD9 codes and stratified based on access type: percutaneous vs. cutdown. We examined the success rate of percutaneous access and the cause of failure. Sheath size was large (18-24 Fr) or small (12-16 Fr). Minimum access vessel diameter was also measured. Outcomes were wound complications (infections or clinically significant hematomas that delayed discharge or required transfusion), operative and incision time, length of stay, and discharge disposition. Predictors of percutaneous failure were identified. Results 168 patients (296 arteries) had percutaneous access (P-EVAR) while 131 patients (226 arteries) had femoral cutdown access (C-EVAR). Ultrasound guided access was introduced in 2007. P-EVAR increased from zero cases in 2005 to 92.3% of all elective cases in 2010. The success rate with percutaneous access was 96%. Failures requiring open surgical repair of the artery included 7 for hemorrhage and 6 for flow limiting stenosis or occlusion of the femoral artery. P-EVAR had fewer wound complications (0.7% vs. 7.4%, P = .001) shorter operative time (153.3 vs. 201.5 minutes, P < .001) and larger minimal access vessel diameter (6.7 mm vs. 6.1 mm, P < .01). Patients with failed percutaneous access had smaller minimal access vessel diameters when compared to successful P-EVAR (4.9 mm vs. 6.8 mm, P < .001). More failures occurred in small sheaths than large ones (7.4% vs. 1.9%, P = .02). Access vessel diameter < 5 mm is predictive of percutaneous failure (16.7% of vessels < 5 mm failed vs. 2.4% of vessels ? 5 mm, P < .001) (OR 7.3, 95% CI [1.58-33.8], P = .01). Conclusion Ultrasound guided percutaneous EVAR can be performed in the vast majority of patients with a high success rate, shorter operative times, and fewer wound complications. Access vessel diameters less than 5 mm are at greater risk for percutaneous failure and should be treated selectively. PMID:22360918

  10. Review of Ultrasound-Guided Radial Artery Catheter Placement.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew G; Bardin, Amy J

    2016-03-01

    Radial artery catheters are commonly placed for continuous blood pressure monitoring, frequent arterial blood gas analysis, or frequent blood sampling for diagnostic testing. Radial artery cannulation can be challenging and ultrasound guidance has emerged as a valuable adjunct for the placement of radial artery catheters. The advantages of ultrasound guidance include: real-time visualization of landmarks, improved pre-procedure planning, reduction in complications, less time spent at the bedside, and improved first-attempt success rates. Disadvantages of ultrasound guidance include: equipment cost, equipment availability, limited availability of experts to train providers, and the cost of training providers. Ultrasound machines are readily available and widely utilized in many emergency departments, operating rooms, and ICUs. We will summarize the use of ultrasound guidance for the placement of radial artery catheters and describe the techniques used during ultrasound-guided arterial catheter placement. Training on the use of ultrasound should be encouraged for all practitioners who place radial artery catheters. PMID:26670469

  11. Laparoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Uterine Fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Milic, Andrea; Asch, Murray R. Hawrylyshyn, Peter A.; Allen, Lisa M.; Colgan, Terence J.; Kachura, John R.; Hayeems, Eran B.

    2006-08-15

    Four patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids measuring less than 6 cm underwent laparoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using multiprobe-array electrodes. Follow-up of the treated fibroids was performed with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and patients' symptoms were assessed by telephone interviews. The procedure was initially technically successful in 3 of the 4 patients and MRI studies at 1 month demonstrated complete fibroid ablation. Symptom improvement, including a decrease in menstrual bleeding and pain, was achieved in 2 patients at 3 months. At 7 months, 1 of these 2 patients experienced symptom worsening which correlated with recurrent fibroid on MRI. The third, initially technically successfully treated patient did not experience any symptom relief after the procedure and was ultimately diagnosed with adenomyosis. Our preliminary results suggest that RFA is a technically feasible treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids in appropriately selected patients.

  12. Transurethral ultrasound-guided laser prostatectomy: initial Luebeck experince

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Stephen; Spitzenpfeil, Elisabeth; Knipper, Ansgar; Jocham, Dieter

    1994-02-01

    Transurethral ultrasound guided laser prostatectomy is one of the most promising alternative invasive treatment modalities for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The principle feature is an on- line 3-D controlling of Nd:YAG laser denaturation of the periurethral tissue. Necrotic tissue is not removed, but sloughs away with the urinary stream within weeks. The bleeding hazard during and after the operation is minimal. By leaving the bladder neck untouched, sexual function is not endangered. Thirty-one patients with symptomatic BPH were treated with the TULIP system and followed up for at least 12 weeks. Suprapubic bladder drainage had to be maintained for a mean time of 37 days. Conventional TURP was performed in four patients due to chronic infection, recurrent bleeding, and poor results. Our initial experience with the TULIP system shows it to be very efficient and safe. A longer follow up of a larger patient population is necessary to compare the therapeutic efficiency to conventional transurethral resection.

  13. Selective ultrasound guided pectoral nerve targeting in breast augmentation: How to spare the brachial plexus cords?

    PubMed

    Desroches, Jean; Grabs, Ursula; Grabs, Detlev

    2013-01-01

    Subpectoral breast augmentation surgery under regional anesthesia requires the selective neural blockade of the medial and lateral pectoral nerves to diminish postoperative pain syndromes. The purpose of this cadaver study is to demonstrate a reliable ultrasound guided approach to selectively target the pectoral nerves and their branches while sparing the brachial plexus cords. After evaluating the position and appearance of the pectoral nerves in 25 cadavers (50 sides), a portable ultrasound machine was used to guide the injection of 10 ml of 0.2% aqueous methylene blue solution in the pectoral region on both sides of three Thiel's embalmed cadavers using a single entry point-triple injection technique. This technique uses a medial to lateral approach with the entry point just medial to the pectoral minor muscle and three subsequent infiltrations: (1) deep lateral part of the pectoralis minor muscle, (2) between the pectoralis minor and major muscles, and (3) between the pectoralis major muscle and its posterior fascia under ultrasound visualization. Dissection demonstrates that the medial and lateral pectoral nerves were well stained while leaving the brachial plexus cords unstained. We show that 10 ml of an injected solution is sufficient to stain all the medial and lateral pectoral nerve branches without a proximal extension to the cords of the brachial plexus. PMID:22730005

  14. Application of ultrasound-guided subcostal transversus abdominis plane block in gastric cancer patients undergoing open gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Li, Longyun; Gao, Ming; Zhu, Zhihua; Chen, Peng; Yang, Li; Zhao, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Background: To observe intraoperative and postoperative analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in gastric cancer patients undergoing open gastrectomy. Material and Methods: Forty patients with gastric cancer underwent open gastrectomy were randomly assigned into groups R and S. All patients received ultrasound-guided subcostal bilateral TAP under general anesthesia, and then were injected with 40 ml of 0.375% ropivacaine (group R) or equivalent amount of normal saline (group S). The surgery was performed in 30 min following the blocking. Intraoperatively, BIS value was maintained between 45 and 65. Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia pump was properly connected after the operation. Intraoperative changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were observed and the dosage of sufentanil and alternative drugs was closely monitored during the surgery. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and related surgical complications were recorded at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h following the operation. Results: The SBP, DBP and HR changes in the group R were significantly decreased compared with those in the group S (all P<0.01). In both groups, desirable analgesic effect was obtained. The VAS scores at postoperative 2, 4, 6 and 12 h after the surgery in the group R were significantly lower than those in the group S (all P<0.05). No TAP puncture-induced adverse reaction was observed in both groups. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided subcostal transversus abdominis plane block has the advantages of accurate localization and high success rate. Clinical application of this technique in open gastrectomy can significantly decrease intraoperative and postoperative dosage of analgesics and exert desirable analgesic effect. PMID:26550355

  15. 0.5% levobupivacaine versus 0.5% ropivacaine: Are they different in ultrasound-guided sciatic block?

    PubMed Central

    Pham Dang, Charles; Langlois, Cécile; Lambert, Chantal; Nguyen, Jean-Michel; Asehnoune, Karim; Lejus, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Context and Aims: Little is known about onset and duration of sciatic block after 0.5% levobupivacaine (Levo) versus 0.5% ropivacaine (Ropi) for ultrasound-guided technique. We assessed these parameters in the ultrasound-guided block, to know for the practice. Setting and Design: A comparative randomized double-blind study was conducted in the University Hospital. Materials and Methods: Were included 35 adults of ASA I-II, scheduled for foot surgery, presenting clear imaging of their sciatic nerve at mid-thigh. A volume of 20 mL of either 0.5% Levo or 0.5% Ropi were injected around the sciatic nerve at mid-thigh using ultrasound guidance (out of the plane) followed by placement of a catheter to use, if necessary, for perioperative analgesia. A femoral single shot block was systematically performed to block the saphenous nerve. The onset times until complete foot block (primary outcome) and the sensory and motor block duration (secondary outcome) were assessed using Wilcoxon test. Values were expressed as medians (1st-3rd quartile). Results: Except for two delayed sciatic blocks in each group, the onset time otherwise was 35 min (20-60) in Ropi versus 40 min (30-60) in Levo, P = 0.5. Sensory block lasted longer in Levo, 17 h (14-27) compared with 15 h (10-17) in Ropi, P = 0.04. No significant between-group difference was found with motor block durations, 15 h (12-18) in Levo and 15 h (12-16) in Ropi, P = 0.3. Conclusion: No difference of onset times was found in ultrasound-guided sciatic block whether using Levo or Ropi. Levo induced a longer-lasting sensory block. PMID:25558190

  16. The Incidence of Lumbar Discectomy after Epidural Steroid Injections or Selective Nerve Root Blocks

    PubMed Central

    Mroz, Thomas; Lieberman, Isador

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the use of Central Epidural Steroid Injections (ESI) and Selective Nerve Root Blocks (SNRB) along with the crossover rate to lumbar discectomy in patients with a lumbar disc herniation using retrospective records database search. Butterman et al found a crossover rate for patients with symptomatic disc herniations treated with ESI of 54% (27/50), while Riew similarly found a 53% (29/55) crossover patients receiving SNRB. Methods The database was searched in a sequential Boolean style for patients with the diagnosis of a lumbar disc herniation (Displaced Lumbar Disc - 722.1) and a SNRB (64483) or ESI (62311) who subsequently underwent a Lumbar Discectomy (63030) over a three year time period from January 2004 through December 2006. Statistical analysis was preformed examining the impact of injection type, age, location, gender, and year. Results Of 482,893 patients with the diagnosis of a disc herniation, 27,799(5.76%) underwent a lumbar discectomy. The 29,941 patients who received at least one SNRB for a disc herniation, 10.80% later underwent a lumbar discectomy. The 41,420 patients who received at least one ESI for a disc herniation 9.34% later underwent a lumbar discectomy. There was a noted increase in injection procedures, particularly SNRB during the study with a greater than 50% increase. Conclusions Our examination found a much smaller, but similar crossover rate to surgery between both injection methods, which argues against one method being more effective than another in avoiding surgery. It is likely that patients are receiving these procedures more frequently during the course of conservative treatment for a disc herniation. Level of Evidence This was a Level III study. PMID:26056627

  17. Editorial Commentary: Big Data Suggest That Because of a Significant Increased Risk of Postoperative Infection, Steroid Injection Is Not Recommended After Ankle Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-02-01

    A recent study addressing infection rate after intra-articular steroid injection during ankle arthroscopy gives pause to this practice, with an odds ratio of 2.2 in the entire population that was injected with a steroid simultaneously with ankle arthroscopy compared with patients who did not receive an ankle injection. Big data, used in the study upon which the Editor comments here, suggest that because of a significant increased risk of postoperative infection, steroid injection is not recommended after ankle arthroscopy. PMID:26814397

  18. Fluoroscopy-guided Intra-articular Sacroiliac Joint Steroid Injection for Sacroiliitis in Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, PUA; Dewar, NA; Tulloch-Reid, D

    2014-01-01

    Sacroiliitis, a condition commonly seen in ankylosing spondylitis, is well known to be one of the main pain generators of low back pain, which may result in difficulty with walking. A 20-year old male with history of ankylosing spondylitis presented to the University Hospital of the West Indies, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, with a two-year history of right buttock, low back and groin pain. Radiographic evaluation revealed increased sclerosis and erosive changes in bilateral sacroiliac joints, right greater than left. Right intra-articular sacroiliac joint steroid injection was administered under fluoroscopy guidance. Post-injection visual analogue pain scale (VAS) score with activity improved from 8 to 1 and Oswestry Disability Index improved from 40% moderate disability to 16% minimal disability. The patient's overall assessment was 95% perceived improvement in pain. This case report illustrates the effectiveness of intra-articular sacroiliac joint steroid injection in treating sacroiliitis in ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:25303203

  19. The risks of epidural and transforaminal steroid injections in the Spine: Commentary and a comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple type of spinal injections, whether epidural/translaminar or transforaminal, facet injections, are offered to patients with/without surgical spinal lesions by pain management specialists (radiologists, physiatrists, and anesthesiologists). Although not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), injections are being performed with an increased frequency (160%), are typically short-acting and ineffective over the longer-term, while exposing patients to major risks/complications. Methods: For many patients with spinal pain alone and no surgical lesions, the success of epidural injections may simply reflect the self-limited course of the disease. Alternatively, although those with surgical pathology may experience transient or no pain relief, undergoing these injections (typically administered in a series of three) unnecessarily exposes them to the inherent risks, while also delaying surgery and potentially exposing them to more severe/permanent neurological deficits. Results: Multiple recent reports cite contaminated epidural steroid injections resulting in meningitis, stroke, paralysis, and death. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) specifically identified 25 deaths (many due to Aspergillosis), 337 patients sickened, and 14,000 exposed to contaminated steroids. Nevertheless, many other patients develop other complications that go unreported/underreported: Other life-threatening infections, spinal fluid leaks (0.4-6%), positional headaches (28%), adhesive arachnoiditis (6-16%), hydrocephalus, air embolism, urinary retention, allergic reactions, intravascular injections (7.9-11.6%), stroke, blindness, neurological deficits/paralysis, hematomas, seizures, and death. Conclusions: Although the benefits for epidural steroid injections may include transient pain relief for those with/without surgical disease, the multitude of risks attributed to these injections outweighs the benefits. PMID:23646278

  20. Multiple epidural steroid injections and body mass index linked with occurrence of epidural lipomatosis: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidural lipomatosis (EL) is an increase of adipose tissue, normally occurring in the epidural space, sufficient to distort the thecal sac and compress neural elements. There is a lack of knowledge of risk factors, impact on patient’s symptoms, and its possible association with epidural steroid injections. Methods History, physical examination, patient chart, and MRI were analyzed from 856 outpatients referred for epidural steroid injections. Seventy patients with signs of EL on MRI comprised the study group. Thirty-four randomly selected patients comprised the control group. The severity of EL was determined by the MRI assessment. The impact of EL was determined by the patient’s history and physical examination. Logistic regression was used to correlate the probability of developing EL with BMI and epidural steroid injections. Results EL was centered at L5 and S1 segments. The average BMI for patients with EL was significantly greater than that of control group (36.0 ± 0.9 vs. 29.2 ± 0.9, p <0.01). The probability of developing EL with increasing BMI was linear up to the BMI of 35 after which it plateaued. Triglycerides were significantly higher for the EL group as compared to controls (250 ± 30 vs. 186 ± 21 mg/dL p < 0.01). The odds of having EL were 60% after two epidural steroid injections, 90% after three epidural steroid injections and approached 100% with further injections, independent of BMI. Other risk factors considered included alcohol abuse, use of protease inhibitors, levels of stress, hypothyroidism and genetic predisposition. However there were insufficient quantities to determine statistical significance with a degree of confidence. The impact of EL on patient’s symptoms correlated with EL severity with Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.73 at p < 0.01 significance level. Conclusions The BMI and triglycerides levels were found to be significantly elevated for the EL group, pointing to an increased risk of EL occurrence in progressively more obese US population. The data also revealed a strong correlation between the number of subsequent epidural steroid injections and EL occurrence calling for caution with the use of corticosteroids. PMID:25183952

  1. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy using a 6-F cystotome and 12-cm covered metal stent

    PubMed Central

    Mandai, Koichiro; Uno, Koji; Okada, Yusuke; Suzuki, Azumi; Yasuda, Kenjiro

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: An iincreasing number of reports describe endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy for malignant biliary obstruction in patients with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography failure. However, this procedure has not yet been standardized; as a result, the rate of adverse events, including bile leakage and stent migration, is relatively high. Here, we report our experience with four cases of endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy performed according to our institutional procedure.

  2. Primary observation of early transtympanic steroid injection in patients with delayed treatment of noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yide; Zheng, Guiliang; Zheng, Hongliang; Zhou, Ronjue; Zhu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 5% of the population worldwide suffer from varieties of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Prevention and early identification remain the best methods of approaching NIHL. Over the years, numerous methods of improving the outcome in patients presenting with NIHL have been evaluated; however, these are far from sufficient. The present trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of early transtympanic steroid injection in patients with delayed treatment of NIHL. Because systemic steroid treatment is the most common treatment of choice in the management of NIHL, it was considered unethical to replace the first-line systemic steroid treatment with transtympanic treatment. Therefore, the present study evaluated the combination of conventional steroid treatment with a transtympanic steroid injection. A total of 53 patients diagnosed with delayed treatment of NIHL were randomized into a transtympanic group (TR group, n=27) and a control group (n=26). The TR group received the conventional steroid treatment plus four courses of additional transtympanic injections of methylprednisolone 3 days after NIHL onset, and the control group received the conventional steroid treatment. Transtympanic injection was performed through laser-assisted myringotomy (a 0.5- to 1-mm perforation was made in the tympanic membrane) under an operation microscope. A total of 51.9% of the patients in the TR group had a ?15-dB HL improvement in pure-tone average, compared with 23.1% of the patients in the control group, at the 8-week follow-up audiogram. A total of 66.7% of the patients in the TR group had an improvement of ?15% in the speech discrimination score, compared with 30.8% of patients in the control group, 8 weeks after the treatment. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant. The outcome of this trial indicates that delayed treatment of NIHL may be preferable if transtympanic therapy can be applied earlier. The large variability in the individual results indicates that additional carefully controlled studies with larger sample sizes are needed to understand the effect of early transtympanic therapy in patients with delayed treatment of NIHL. PMID:23208457

  3. Intracranial Chronic Subdural Hematoma Presenting with Intractable Headache after Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myungsoo

    2015-01-01

    Postdural punctural headache (PDPH) following spinal anesthesia is due to intracranial hypotension caused by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, and it is occasionally accompanied by an intracranial hematoma. To the best of our knowledge, an intracranial chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) presenting with an intractable headache after a cervical epidural steroid injection (ESI) has not been reported. A 39-year-old woman without any history of trauma underwent a cervical ESI for a herniated nucleus pulposus at the C5-6 level. One month later, she presented with a severe headache that was not relieved by analgesic medication, which changed in character from being positional to non-positional during the preceding month. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a CSDH along the left convexity. Emergency burr-hole drainage was performed and the headache abated. This report indicates that an intracranial CSDH should be considered a possible complication after ESI. In addition, the event of an intractable and changing PDPH after ESI suggests further evaluation for diagnosis of an intracranial hematoma. PMID:26361532

  4. Epidural steroid injections compared with gabapentin for lumbosacral radicular pain: multicenter randomized double blind comparative efficacy study

    PubMed Central

    Hanling, Steven; Bicket, Mark C; White, Ronald L; Veizi, Elias; Kurihara, Connie; Zhao, Zirong; Hayek, Salim; Guthmiller, Kevin B; Griffith, Scott R; Gordin, Vitaly; White, Mirinda Anderson; Vorobeychik, Yakov; Pasquina, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether an epidural steroid injection or gabapentin is a better treatment for lumbosacral radiculopathy. Design A multicenter randomized study conducted between 2011 and 2014. Computer generated randomization was stratified by site. Patients and evaluating physicians were blinded to treatment outcomes. Settings Eight military, Veterans Administration, and civilian hospitals. Participants 145 people with lumbosacral radicular pain secondary to herniated disc or spinal stenosis for less than four years in duration and in whom leg pain is as severe or more severe than back pain. Interventions Participants received either epidural steroid injection plus placebo pills or sham injection plus gabapentin. Main outcome measures Average leg pain one and three months after the injection on a 0-10 numerical rating scale. A positive outcome was defined as a ?2 point decrease in leg pain coupled with a positive global perceived effect. All patients had one month follow-up visits; patients whose condition improved remained blinded for their three month visit. Results There were no significant differences for the primary outcome measure at one month (mean pain score 3.3 (SD 2.6) and mean change from baseline ?2.2 (SD 2.4) in epidural steroid injection group versus 3.7 (SD 2.6) and ?1.7 (SD 2.6) in gabapentin group; adjusted difference 0.4, 95% confidence interval ?0.3 to 1.2; P=0.25) and three months (mean pain score 3.4 (SD 2.7) and mean change from baseline ?2.0 (SD 2.6) versus 3.7 (SD 2.8) and ?1.6 (SD 2.7), respectively; adjusted difference 0.3, ?0.5 to 1.2; P=0.43). Among secondary outcomes, one month after treatment those who received epidural steroid injection had greater reductions in worst leg pain (?3.0, SD 2.8) than those treated with gabapentin (?2.0, SD 2.9; P=0.04) and were more likely to experience a positive successful outcome (66% v 46%; number needed to treat=5.0, 95% confidence interval 2.8 to 27.0; P=0.02). At three months, there were no significant differences between treatments. Conclusions Although epidural steroid injection might provide greater benefit than gabapentin for some outcome measures, the differences are modest and are transient for most people. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01495923. PMID:25883095

  5. Ultrasound-Guided Ankle Blocks: A Review of Current Practices.

    PubMed

    Falyar, Christian R

    2015-10-01

    Ankle blocks are routinely indicated for surgical anesthesia and postoperative analgesia of procedures involving the foot. Traditionally, ankle blocks have been performed by relying on landmark identification of nerves. The literature regarding the performance and efficacy of ankle blocks is inconsistent. This can be attributed to several variables, such as provider technique, differences in patient populations, and the type and volume of local anesthetics administered. As with other peripheral nerve blocks originally performed using landmark technique, ultrasound imaging is now being incorporated into these procedures. Ultrasound guidance provides the anesthetist with several advantages over landmark techniques. The ability to identify peripheral nerves, view needle movements in real-time, and observe the spread of local anesthetic has been shown to result in greater block efficacy, even with reduced volumes of local anesthetic. Additionally, ultrasound imaging gives the provider the option to perform regional anesthesia in specific patient populations not considered possible when using landmark technique. Despite the limited literature on ultrasound-guided ankle blocks, outcome metrics seem to be consistent with those of other peripheral nerve blocks performed using this technology. PMID:26638458

  6. Models to teach lung sonopathology and ultrasound-guided thoracentesis.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, Jacek A

    2014-12-01

    Lung sonography allows rapid diagnosis of lung emergencies such as pulmonary edema, hemothorax or pneumothorax. The ability to timely diagnose an intraoperative pneumothorax is an important skill for the anesthesiologist. However, lung ultrasound exams require an interpretation of not only real images but also complex acoustic artifacts such as A-lines and B-lines. Therefore, appropriate training to gain proficiency is important. Simulated environment using ultrasound phantom models allows controlled, supervised learning. We have developed hybrid models that combine dry or wet polyurethane foams, porcine rib cages and human hand simulating a rib cage. These models simulate fairly accurately pulmonary sonopathology and allow supervised teaching of lung sonography with the immediate feedback. In-vitro models can also facilitate learning of procedural skills, improving transducer and needle positioning and movement, rapid recognition of thoracic anatomy and hand - eye coordination skills. We described a new model to teach an ultrasound guided thoracentesis. This model consists of the experimenter's hand placed on top of the water-filled container with a wet foam. Metacarpal bones of the human hand simulate a rib cage and a wet foam simulates a diseased lung immersed in the pleural fluid. Positive fluid flow offers users feedback when a simulated pleural effusion is accurately assessed. PMID:26672739

  7. A novel ultrasound-guided shoulder arthroscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyryshkin, K.; Mousavi, P.; Beek, M.; Chen, T.; Pichora, D.; Abolmaesumi, P.

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a novel ultrasound-guided computer system for arthroscopic surgery of the shoulder joint. Intraoperatively, the system tracks and displays the surgical instruments, such as arthroscope and arthroscopic burrs, relative to the anatomy of the patient. The purpose of this system is to improve the surgeon's perception of the three-dimensional space within the anatomy of the patient in which the instruments are manipulated and to provide guidance towards the targeted anatomy. Pre-operatively, computed tomography images of the patient are acquired to construct virtual threedimensional surface models of the shoulder bone structure. Intra-operatively, live ultrasound images of pre-selected regions of the shoulder are captured using an ultrasound probe whose three-dimensional position is tracked by an optical camera. These images are used to register the surface model to the anatomy of the patient in the operating room. An initial alignment is obtained by matching at least three points manually selected on the model to their corresponding points identified on the ultrasound images. The registration is then improved with an iterative closest point or a sequential least squares estimation technique. In the present study the registration results of these techniques are compared. After the registration, surgical instruments are displayed relative to the surface model of the patient on a graphical screen visible to the surgeon. Results of laboratory experiments on a shoulder phantom indicate acceptable registration results and sufficiently fast overall system performance to be applicable in the operating room.

  8. White light-informed optical properties improve ultrasound-guided fluorescence tomography of photoactive protoporphyrin IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Brendan P.; DSouza, Alisha V.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Davis, Scott C.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-04-01

    Subsurface fluorescence imaging is desirable for medical applications, including protoporphyrin-IX (PpIX)-based skin tumor diagnosis, surgical guidance, and dosimetry in photodynamic therapy. While tissue optical properties and heterogeneities make true subsurface fluorescence mapping an ill-posed problem, ultrasound-guided fluorescence-tomography (USFT) provides regional fluorescence mapping. Here USFT is implemented with spectroscopic decoupling of fluorescence signals (auto-fluorescence, PpIX, photoproducts), and white light spectroscopy-determined bulk optical properties. Segmented US images provide a priori spatial information for fluorescence reconstruction using region-based, diffuse FT. The method was tested in simulations, tissue homogeneous and inclusion phantoms, and an injected-inclusion animal model. Reconstructed fluorescence yield was linear with PpIX concentration, including the lowest concentration used, 0.025 ?g/ml. White light spectroscopy informed optical properties, which improved fluorescence reconstruction accuracy compared to the use of fixed, literature-based optical properties, reduced reconstruction error and reconstructed fluorescence standard deviation by factors of 8.9 and 2.0, respectively. Recovered contrast-to-background error was 25% and 74% for inclusion phantoms without and with a 2-mm skin-like layer, respectively. Preliminary mouse-model imaging demonstrated system feasibility for subsurface fluorescence measurement in vivo. These data suggest that this implementation of USFT is capable of regional PpIX mapping in human skin tumors during photodynamic therapy, to be used in dosimetric evaluations.

  9. Ultrasound-guided axillary plexus block in a child with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Englbrecht, J S; Langer, M; Hahnenkamp, K; Ellger, B

    2010-11-01

    We report the use of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block in a child with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa needing surgical treatment of the right hand. The regional anaesthesia was used in association with sedation/ anaesthesia. This technique is suitable for these difficult patients because it can minimise the risk of new bullae formation due to palpation of landmarks or unintentional intra- or subcutaneous injections. Initial anaesthesia/sedation was provided with sevoflurane until intravenous access was obtained, following which intravenous propofol infusion with ketamine boluses without any invasive airway management was continued for performance of the block and the procedure. This management plan provided good surgical conditions, early postoperative analgesia, minimised stress for the patient and avoided the need to manipulate the airway with instruments and the associated risk of mucosal bullae. The classification and breadth of clinical manifestation of epidermolysis bullosa is complex and briefly summarised. The anaesthetist should clarify the details of a particular patient's form of epidermolysis bullosa, especially in terms of mucosal involvement, as this may greatly influence planning for a procedure. PMID:21226445

  10. Unnecessary multiple epidural steroid injections delay surgery for massive lumbar disc: Case discussion and review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidural steroid injections (ESI) in the lumbar spine are not effective over the long-term for resolving surgical lesions. Here, we present a patient with a massive L2L3 lumbar disk herniation whose surgery was delayed for 4 months by multiple unnecessary ESI, resulting in a cauda equina syndrome. Methods: A 54-year-old male acutely developed increased low back and radiating left leg pain in October of 2014. In December of 2014, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a massive central/left sided disk herniation at the L2L3 level resulting in marked thecal sac and left L2 foraminal and L3 lateral recess root compression. Despite the marked degree of neural compression, pain management treated him with 3 ESI over the next 3 months. Results: At the end of April of 2015, he presented to spine surgeon with a cauda equina syndrome. When the new MRI scan confirmed the previously documented massive central-left sided L2L3 disk herniation, the patient emergently underwent an L1L3 laminectomy with central-left sided L2L3 lateral/foraminal diskectomy. Postoperatively, the patient was neurologically intact. Conclusions: Pain specialists performed multiple unnecessary lumbar ESI critically delaying spinal surgery for 4 months in this patient with a massive lumbar disk herniation who ultimately developed a cauda equina syndrome. Unfortunately, pain specialists (e.g., radiologists, anesthesiologists, and physiatrists), not specifically trained to perform neurological examinations or spinal surgery, are increasingly mismanaging spinal disease with ESI/variants. It is time for spine surgeons to speak out against this, and take back the care of patients with spinal surgical disease. PMID:26425398

  11. Attaining proficiency with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yinin; Puri, Varun; Crabtree, Traves D.; Kreisel, Daniel; Krupnick, Alexander S.; Patterson, Alexander G.; Meyers, Bryan F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is becoming the preferred method of mediastinal staging for lung cancer. We investigated the learning curve for EBUS-TBNA using risk-adjusted cumulative sum (Cusum). Methods A retrospective study of EBUS-TBNA was performed at a single academic institution for patients with mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy in the setting of proven or suspected lung cancer. A sampling pass was defined as a full retraction and repositioning of the aspiration needle. Rapid on-site evaluation was not available. To track proficiency, risk-adjusted Cusum analysis was performed using acceptable and unacceptable failure rates of 10% and 20%, respectively. Failure was defined as false negative or nondiagnostic results. Results During the study period, 231 patients underwent EBUS-TBNA. Prevalence of mediastinal or hilar malignancy was 66.7% (154 out of 231). Sensitivity was 92.2% (142 out of 154), and negative predictive value was 87.9% (58 out of 66). Node size was identified as a significant predictor of EBUS-TBNA success by multiple regression. Risk-adjusted Cusum analysis demonstrated that the first and only unacceptable decision interval was crossed at 22 cases. Individual practitioner learning curves were highly variable, and the operator with the highest volume was the most consistently proficient. Conclusions In our experience, attainment of an acceptable failure rate for EBUS-TBNA required 22 cases. Node size is a predictor of EBUS-TBNA success. Risk-adjusted Cusum proved a powerful evaluative tool to monitor the training process of this new procedure. PMID:24075565

  12. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy in critically ill obese patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous tracheostomy (PCT) and the incidence of complications in critically ill, obese patients. Methods Fifty consecutive patients were included in a prospective study in two surgical and critical care medicine departments. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of at least 30 kg/m2. The feasibility of PCT and the incidence of complications were compared in obese patients (n = 26) and non-obese patients (n = 24). Results are expressed as the median (25th-75th percentile) or number (percentage). Results The median BMIs were 34 kg/m2 (32-38) in the obese patient group and 25 kg/m2 (24-28) in the non-obese group (p < 0.001). The median times for tracheostomy were 10 min (8-14) in non-obese patients and 9 min (5-10) in obese-patients (p = 0.1). The overall complication rate was similar in obese and non-obese patient groups (35% vs. 33%, p = 0.92). Most complications were minor (hypotension, desaturation, tracheal cuff puncture and minor bleeding), with no differences between obese and non-obese groups. Bronchoscopic inspection revealed two cases of granuloma (8%) in obese patients. One non-obese patient developed a peristomal skin infection, which was treated with intravenous antibiotics. Ultrasound-guided PCT was possible in all enrolled patients and there were no surgical conversions or deaths. Conclusions This study demonstrated that US-guided PCT is feasible in obese patients with a low complication rate. Obesity may not constitute a contra-indication for US-guided PCT. A US examination provides information on cervical anatomy and hence modifies and guides choice of the PCT puncture site. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01502657. PMID:22390815

  13. Breast tumor hypoxia mapping using ultrasound guided diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Nrusingh C.; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Quing

    2011-02-01

    Tumor hypoxia is an important indicator of tumor metabolism and tumor response to various forms of therapy. Currently, no imaging modality exists that can directly map tumor hypoxia non-invasively. We present an ultrasound guided diffuse optical imaging technique for precisely measuring the tumor oxygenation. The approach employs ultrasound structural information as a-prior knowledge for diffuse optical imaging. Hypoxia mapping is achieved using endogenous chromophores such as oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin in the tissue. Because oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin respond differently at different wavelengths, four different laser diodes of wavelengths 740 nm, 780 nm, 808 nm and 830 nm were used for mapping tumor hypoxia by diffuse optical imaging. Hypoxia model experiments were performed using phantoms at different oxygenation conditions (Hemoglobin oxygen saturation: 14%-92%) representing the hemoglobin oxygenation range in tissue. Targets of different sizes mimicking different development stages of breast tumors, 1.0 cm to 2.5 cm diameter in 0.5 cm steps, were tested to validate the oxygen saturation measurement accuracy with target size. The absolute deviations between the estimated hemoglobin oxygen saturations from absorption maps and oxygen measurements obtained using a pO2 electrode were less than 8% over the measured range of oxygen saturations (14% - 92%). An inhomogeneous cocentric blood phantom of deoxygenated center core and oxygenated outer shell was imaged and deoxy- and oxy- hemoglobin maps revealed corresponding distributions which correlate with inhomogeneous deoxy- and oxy- distributions frequently seen in advanced breast cancers located in the depth range of 1-3 cm.

  14. Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Hydrodissection of a Symptomatic Sural Neuroma.

    PubMed

    Fader, Ryan R; Mitchell, Justin J; Chadayammuri, Vivek P; Hill, John; Wolcott, Michelle L

    2015-11-01

    Symptomatic neuromas of the sural nerve are a rare but significant cause of pain and debilitation in athletes. Presentation is usually in the form of chronic pain and dysesthesias or paresthesias of the lateral foot and ankle. Treatment traditionally ranges from conservative measures, such as removing all external compressive forces, to administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamin B6, tricyclic antidepressants, antiepileptics, or topical anesthetics. This article reports a case of sural nerve entrapment in a 34-year-old male triathlete with a history of recurrent training-induced right-sided gastrocnemius strains. The patient presented with numbness in the right lateral foot and ankle that had persisted for 3 months, after he was treated unsuccessfully with extensive nonoperative measures, including anti-inflammatory drugs, activity modification, and a dedicated physical therapy program of stretching and strengthening. Orthopedic assessment showed worsening pain with forced passive dorsiflexion and manual pressure applied over the distal aspect of the gastrocnemius. Plain radiographs showed normal findings, but in-office ultrasound imaging showed evidence of sural nerve entrapment with edema and neuromatous scar formation in the absence of gastrocnemius or soleus pathology. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided hydrodissection of the sural nerve at the area of symptomatic neuroma and neural edema was performed the same day. The patient had complete relief of symptoms and full return to the preinjury level of participation in competitive sports. This case report shows that hydrodissection, when performed by an experienced physician, can be an effective, minimally invasive technique for neurolysis in the setting of sural nerve entrapment, resulting in improvement in clinical symptoms. PMID:26558670

  15. Comparative Study of: Non-Invasive Conservative Treatments with Local Steroid Injection in the Management of Planter Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Iraqi, Aftab Ahmed; Narula, Kusum; Katyal, Rashmi; Saxena, Mridul Shanker

    2014-01-01

    Background: Planter Fasciitis is an annoying and painful condition that limits function. There is pain and tenderness in the sole of the foot, mostly under the heel, with standing or walking and is considered a self limiting condition. Symptoms resolve in 80% to 90% of cases within ten months. However, this long interval is frustrating for both patients and clinicians. Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the two different modalities of non operative treatment: Non- invasive conservative methods: NSAID’s, Soft Insoles, Stretching, Ultrasound therapy and Contrast baths versus local Steroid injection therapy. Materials and Methods: Patients by random sampling were divided in two groups. Group A as: Conservative group and Group B as Local Steroid Injections group, 100 patients in each. Patients were assessed as per Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at the start of treatment and then after 4 wk and 8 wk duration on follow up. Statistical analysis used: SPSS for Windows (version 10.0) by the Chi-Square test. Results: The difference in the distribution of subjects belonging to either of the treatment modalities regarding the treatment outcome at four and eight week was found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion: As both treatment modalities are at par on comparison of their treatment outcome it is better to go for conservative approach because this can save the patients from the complications of steroid therapy. PMID:25386470

  16. Intrathecal opioid versus ultrasound guided fascia iliaca plane block for analgesia after primary hip arthroplasty: study protocol for a randomised, blinded, noninferiority controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hip replacement surgery is increasingly common due to an ageing population, and rising levels of obesity. The provision of excellent pain relief with minimal side effects is important in order to facilitate patient mobilisation and rehabilitation. Spinal opioids provide excellent analgesia but are associated with adverse effects. The fascia-iliaca block is an alternative technique which provides analgesia to the nerves innervating the hip. The success of fascia iliaca blocks has been demonstrated to be superior when using ultrasound compared to landmark techniques. However, the clinical benefit of this improvement has yet to be investigated. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block with spinal morphine for hip replacement surgery. Methods/Design This study is a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, noninferiority trial. Patients scheduled to undergo unilateral primary hip arthroplasty will receive a study information sheet and consent will be obtained in keeping with the Declaration of Helsinki. Patients will be randomised to receive either; (i) Ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block using levobupivacaine, plus spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine containing no morphine, or (ii) sham ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block performed with sterile saline, and spinal anaesthesia containing hyperbaric bupivacaine and 0.1 mg of spinal morphine. A total of 108 patients will be recruited. Primary outcome is post-operative morphine consumption in a 24 hour period. Secondary outcomes include; pain scores at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours, episodes of respiratory depression, hypotension, nausea and vomiting, pruritus, sedation, time to first mobilisation and patient satisfaction. Conclusions There are no studies to date comparing ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block with spinal morphine for pain control after hip arthroplasty. If the ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block provides pain relief which is not inferior to spinal morphine, then morphine could be removed from the spinal injection. This could reduce side effects and improve patient safety. Trial registration This study has been approved by the West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee 4 (reference no. 10/S0704/43) and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (reference no. NCT01217294). PMID:21338492

  17. Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection for Lumbosacral Radiculopathy: Preganglionic versus Conventional Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Sung Hyun; Choi, Ja-Young; Yeom, Jin-Sup; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Chung, Sang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Jib; Kim, Choonghyo; Kwack, Kyu Sung; Kwon, Jong Won; Moon, Sung Gyu; Jun, Woo Sun

    2006-01-01

    Objective The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) with using a preganglionic approach for treating lumbar radiculopathy when the nerve root compression was located at the level of the supra-adjacent intervertebral disc. Materials and Methods The medical records of the patients who received conventional TFESI at our department from June 2003 to May 2004 were retrospectively reviewed. TFESI was performed in a total of 13 cases at the level of the exiting nerve root, in which the nerve root compression was at the level of the supra-adjacent intervertebral disc (the conventional TFESI group). Since June 2004, we have performed TFESI with using a preganglionic approach at the level of the supra-adjacent intervertebral disc (for example, at the neural foramen of L4-5 for the L5 nerve root) if the nerve root compression was at the level of the supra-adjacent intervertebral disc. Using the inclusion criteria described above, 20 of these patients were also consecutively enrolled in our study (the preganglionic TFESI group). The treatment outcome was assessed using a 5-point patient satisfaction scale and by using a VAS (visual assessment scale). A successful outcome required a patient satisfaction scale score of 3 (very good) or 4 (excellent), and a reduction on the VAS score of > 50% two weeks after performing TFESI. Logistic regression analysis was also performed. Results Of the 13 patients in the conventional TFESI group, nine showed satisfactory improvement two weeks after TFESI (69.2%). However, in the preganglionic TFESI group, 18 of the 20 patients (90%) showed satisfactory improvement. The difference between the two approaches in terms of TFESI effectiveness was of borderline significance (p = 0.056; odds ratio: 10.483). Conclusion We conclude that preganglionic TFESI has the better therapeutic effect on radiculopathy caused by nerve root compression at the level of the supra-adjacent disc than does conventional TFESI, and the diffence between the two treatments had borderline statistical significance. PMID:16799275

  18. Diagnostic Yield of Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background: New transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) technologies have been developed, but their clinical effectiveness and determinants of diagnostic yield have not been quantified. Prospective data are needed to determine risk-adjusted diagnostic yield. Methods: We prospectively enrolled patients undergoing TBNA of mediastinal lymph nodes in the American College of Chest Physicians Quality Improvement Registry, Evaluation, and Education (AQuIRE) multicenter database and recorded clinical, procedural, and provider information. All clinical decisions, including type of TBNA used (conventional vs endobronchial ultrasound-guided), were made by the attending bronchoscopist. The primary outcome was obtaining a specific diagnosis. Results: We enrolled 891 patients at six hospitals. Most procedures (95%) were performed with ultrasound guidance. A specific diagnosis was made in 447 cases. Unadjusted diagnostic yields were 37% to 54% for different hospitals, with significant between-hospital heterogeneity (P = .0001). Diagnostic yield was associated with annual hospital TBNA volume (OR, 1.003; 95% CI, 1.000-1.006; P = .037), smoking (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.02-2.34; P = .042), biopsy of more than two sites (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38-0.85; P = .015), lymph node size (reference > 1-2 cm, ≤ 1 cm: OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.34-0.77; P = .003; > 2-3 cm: OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.61-3.85; P < .001; and > 3 cm: OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 2.17-6.00; P < .001), and positive PET scan (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.39-7.01; P = .018). Biopsy was performed on more and smaller nodes at high-volume hospitals (P < .0001). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first bronchoscopy study of risk-adjusted diagnostic yields on a hospital-level basis. High-volume hospitals were associated with high diagnostic yields. This study also demonstrates the value of procedural registries as a quality improvement tool. A larger number and variety of participating hospitals is needed to verify these results and to further investigate other determinants of diagnostic yield. PMID:21659432

  19. Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection for Unilateral Cervical Radiculopathy: Comparison of Midline and Paramedian Approaches for Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji Young; Yoon, Young Cheol; Lee, Jongseok

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of the cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection (CIESI) for unilateral radiculopathy by the midline or paramedian approaches and to determine the prognostic factors of CIESI. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 182 patients who underwent CIESI from January 2009 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were no previous spinal steroid injection, presence of a cross-sectional image, and presence of follow-up records. Exclusion criteria were patients with bilateral cervical radiculopathy and/or dominant cervical axial pain, combined peripheral neuropathy, and previous cervical spine surgery. Short-term clinical outcomes were evaluated at the first follow-up after CIESI. We compared the clinical outcomes between the midline and paramedian approaches. Possible prognostic factors for the outcome, such as age, gender, duration of radiculopathy, and cause of radiculopathy were also analyzed. Results Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections were effective in 124 of 182 patients (68.1%) at the first follow-up. There was no significant difference in the clinical outcomes of CIESI, between midline (69.6%) and paramedian (63.7%) approaches (p = 0.723). Cause of radiculopathy was the only significant factor affecting the efficacy of CIESI. Patients with disc herniation had significantly better results than patients with neural foraminal stenosis (82.9% vs. 56.0%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion There is no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the midline and paramedian approaches in CIESI, for unilateral radiculopathy. The cause of the radiculopathy is significantly associated with the treatment efficacy; patients with disc herniation experience better pain relief than those with neural foraminal stenosis. PMID:25995690

  20. Polyplex-Microbubble Hybrids for Ultrasound-Guided Plasmid DNA Delivery to Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sirsi, Shashank; Hernandez, Sonia; Zielinski, Lukasz; Blomback, Henning; Koubaa, Adel; Synder, Milo; Homma, Shunichi; Kandel, Jessica J.; Yamashiro, Darrell J.; Borden, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbubble ultrasound contrast agents are being developed as image-guided gene carriers for targeted delivery in vivo. In this study, novel polyplex-microbubbles were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for systemic circulation and tumor transfection. Branched polyethylenimine (PEI; 25 kDa) was modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG; 5 kDa), thiolated and covalently attached to maleimide groups on lipid-coated microbubbles. The PEI-microbubbles demonstrated increasingly positive surface charge and DNA loading capacity with increasing maleimide content. The in vivo ultrasound contrast persistence of PEI-microbubbles was measured in the healthy mouse kidney, and a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model accounting for free and adherent microbubbles was developed to describe the anomalous time-intensity curves. The model suggested that PEI loading dramatically reduced free circulation and increased nonspecific adhesion to the vasculature. However, DNA loading to form polyplex-microbubbles increased circulation in the bloodstream and decreased nonspecific adhesion. PEI-microbubbles coupled to a luciferase bioluminescence reporter plasmid DNA were shown to transfect tumors implanted in the mouse kidney. Site-specific delivery was achieved using ultrasound applied over the tumor area following bolus injection of the DNA/PEI-microbubbles. In vivo imaging showed over 10-fold higher bioluminescence from the tumor region compared to untreated tissue. Ex vivo analysis of excised tumors showed greater than 40-fold higher expression in tumor tissue than non-sonicated control (heart) tissue. These results suggest that the polyplex-microbubble platform offers improved control of DNA loading and packaging suitable for ultrasound-guided tissue transfection. PMID:21945680

  1. Intracellular Aggregation of Multimodal Silica Nanoparticles for Ultrasound-Guided Stem Cell Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Jokerst, Jesse V.; Khademi, Christine; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2013-01-01

    The promises of cardiac stem cell therapy have yet to be fully realized, in part because of poor survival and engraftment efficacy of implanted cells. Cells die after implantation owing to ischemia, inflammation, immune response, as well as mis-injection or implantation into fibrotic tissue. Imaging tools can help implant cells in areas of the heart most receptive to stem cell therapy and monitor the efficacy of treatment by reporting the viability, location, and number of implanted stem cells. We describe a multimodal, silica-based nanoparticle that can be used for cell sorting (fluorescence), real-time guided cell implantation ultrasound, and high-resolution, long-term monitoring by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The nanoparticle agent increased the ultrasound and MRI contrast of labeled human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) 700 and 200% versus unlabeled cells, respectively, and allowed cell imaging in animal models for 13 days after implantation. The agent had no significant impact on hMSC cell metabolic activity, proliferation, or pluripotency, and it increased the production of many paracrine factors implicated in cardiac repair. Electron microscopy and ultrasound imaging suggest that the mechanism of action is in vivo aggregation of the 300-nm silica nanoparticles into larger silica frameworks that amplify the ultrasound backscatter. The detection limit in cardiac tissue was 250,000 hMSCs via MRI and 70,000 via ultrasound. This ultrasound-guided cell delivery and multimodal optical/ultrasound/MRI intra-cardiac cell-tracking platform could improve cell therapy in the clinic by minimizing misdelivery or implantation into fibrotic tissue. PMID:23515077

  2. Analysis of anabolic androgenic steroids in urine by full-capillary sample injection combined with a sweeping CE stacking method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Chi; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Cheng, Hui-Ling; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2013-02-01

    This study describes an on-line stacking CE approach by sweeping with whole capillary sample filling for analyzing five anabolic androgenic steroids in urine samples. The five anabolic steroids for detection were androstenedione, testosterone, epitestosterone, boldenone, and clostebol. Anabolic androgenic steroids are abused in sport doping because they can promote muscle growth. Therefore, a sensitive detection method is imperatively required for monitoring the urine samples of athletes. In this research, an interesting and reliable stacking capillary electrophoresis method was established for analysis of anabolic steroids in urine. After liquid-liquid extraction by n-hexane, the supernatant was dried and reconstituted with 30 mM phosphate buffer (pH 5.00) and loaded into the capillary by hydrodynamic injection (10 psi, 99.9 s). The stacking and separation were simultaneously accomplished at -20 kV in phosphate buffer (30 mM, pH 5.0) containing 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and 40 % methanol. During the method validation, calibration curves were linear (r?0.990) over a range of 50-1,000 ng/mL for the five analytes. In the evaluation of precision and accuracy for this method, the absolute values of the RSD and the RE in the intra-day (n=3) and inter-day (n=5) analyses were all less than 6.6 %. The limit of detection for the five analytes was 30 ng/mL (S/N=5, sampling 99.9 s at 10 psi). Compared with simple MECK, this stacking method possessed a 108- to 175-fold increase in sensitivity. This simple and sensitive stacking method could be used as a powerful tool for monitoring the illegal use of doping. PMID:23263519

  3. Respiratory failure with hilar mass: Role of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in the medical intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Chichra, Astha; Lama, Kimmoi Wong; Koenig, Seth J.

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 58-year-old man on chronic steroid therapy, who developed a rapidly progressive right upper lobe infiltrate/mass that extended into the right hilum. Respiratory failure necessitated endotracheal intubation. Broad spectrum antibiotics were initiated without clinical improvement and because of his immunosuppressive therapy opportunistic pathogens were considered. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) was performed in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) with rapid onsite evaluation. Specimens obtained from the right hilar mass revealed organisms suspicious for cryptococcal infection, subsequently confirmed via a culture. No complications occurred during the EBUS procedure despite the patient requiring vasopressor support and 100% inspired oxygen. Little data exists regarding the use of EBUS in patients admitted to the MICU with respiratory failure of unknown etiology and mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy. This case illustrates the potential safe use of EBUS-TBNA in patients presenting with respiratory failure, with a mediastinal or hilar mass and suspected infectious etiology. PMID:25814808

  4. Percutaneous Ultrasound Guided Implantation of VX2 for Creation of a Rabbit Hepatic Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    White, Sarah B.; Chen, Jeane; Gordon, Andrew C.; Harris, Kathleen R.; Nicolai, Jodi R.; West, Derek L.; Larson, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Creation of a VX2 tumor model has traditionally required a laparotomy and surgical implantation of tumor fragments. Open surgical procedures are invasive and require long procedure times and recovery that can result in post-operative morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to report the results of a percutaneous ultrasound guided method for creation of a VX2 model in rabbit livers. A total of 27 New Zealand white rabbits underwent a percutaneous ultrasound guided approach, where a VX2 tumor fragment was implanted in the liver. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess for tumor growth and necropsy was performed to determine rates of tract seeding and metastatic disease. Ultrasound guided tumor implantation was successful in all 27 rabbits. One rabbit died 2 days following the implantation procedure. Two rabbits had no tumors seen on follow-up imaging. Therefore, tumor development was seen in 24/26 (92%) rabbits. During the follow-up period, tract seeding was seen in 8% of rabbits and 38% had extra-hepatic metastatic disease. Therefore, percutaneous ultrasound guided tumor implantation safely provides reliable tumor growth for establishing hepatic VX2 tumors in a rabbit model with decreased rates of tract seeding, compared to previously reported methods. PMID:25853660

  5. PLUS: open-source toolkit for ultrasound-guided intervention systems

    PubMed Central

    Lasso, Andras; Heffter, Tamas; Rankin, Adam; Pinter, Csaba; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    A variety of advanced image analysis methods have been under development for ultrasound-guided interventions. Unfortunately, the transition from an image analysis algorithm to clinical feasibility trials as part of an intervention system requires integration of many components, such as imaging and tracking devices, data processing algorithms, and visualization software. The objective of our work is to provide a freely available open-source software platform – PLUS: Public software Library for Ultrasound – to facilitate rapid prototyping of ultrasound-guided intervention systems for translational clinical research. PLUS provides a variety of methods for interventional tool pose and ultrasound image acquisition from a wide range of tracking and imaging devices, spatial and temporal calibration, volume reconstruction, simulated image generation, and recording and live streaming of the acquired data. This paper introduces PLUS, explains its functionality and architecture, and presents typical uses and performance in ultrasound-guided intervention systems. PLUS fulfills the essential requirements for the development of ultrasound-guided intervention systems and it aspires to become a widely used translational research prototyping platform. PLUS is freely available as open source under BSD license, the code and documentation are available at http://www.plustoolkit.org. PMID:24833412

  6. Value of Artisanal Simulators to Train Veterinary Students in Performing Invasive Ultrasound-Guided Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hage, Maria Cristina F. N. S.; Massaferro, Ana Beatriz; Lopes, rika Rondon; Beraldo, Carolina Mariano; Daniel, Jssika

    2016-01-01

    Pericardial effusion can lead to cardiac tamponade, which endangers an animal's life. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis is used to remove abnormal liquid; however, it requires technical expertise. In veterinary medical education, the opportunity to teach this procedure to save lives during emergencies is rare; therefore, simulators are

  7. Value of Artisanal Simulators to Train Veterinary Students in Performing Invasive Ultrasound-Guided Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hage, Maria Cristina F. N. S.; Massaferro, Ana Beatriz; Lopes, Érika Rondon; Beraldo, Carolina Mariano; Daniel, Jéssika

    2016-01-01

    Pericardial effusion can lead to cardiac tamponade, which endangers an animal's life. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis is used to remove abnormal liquid; however, it requires technical expertise. In veterinary medical education, the opportunity to teach this procedure to save lives during emergencies is rare; therefore, simulators are…

  8. Timely diagnosis of pulmonary artery tumor embolism by ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jinwoo; Yu, Su Jong; Lee, Hyun Ju; Kim, Kyung Ju; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Park, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary artery tumor embolism (PATE) is a rare disease without an established diagnostic method. In an autopsy series, however, the incidence of PATE was relatively high, between 3% and 26% in patients with a solid tumor. Here we report a case of a patient with a massive PATE from hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed safely and promptly by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.

  9. PLUS: open-source toolkit for ultrasound-guided intervention systems.

    PubMed

    Lasso, Andras; Heffter, Tamas; Rankin, Adam; Pinter, Csaba; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2014-10-01

    A variety of advanced image analysis methods have been under the development for ultrasound-guided interventions. Unfortunately, the transition from an image analysis algorithm to clinical feasibility trials as part of an intervention system requires integration of many components, such as imaging and tracking devices, data processing algorithms, and visualization software. The objective of our paper is to provide a freely available open-source software platform-PLUS: Public software Library for Ultrasound-to facilitate rapid prototyping of ultrasound-guided intervention systems for translational clinical research. PLUS provides a variety of methods for interventional tool pose and ultrasound image acquisition from a wide range of tracking and imaging devices, spatial and temporal calibration, volume reconstruction, simulated image generation, and recording and live streaming of the acquired data. This paper introduces PLUS, explains its functionality and architecture, and presents typical uses and performance in ultrasound-guided intervention systems. PLUS fulfills the essential requirements for the development of ultrasound-guided intervention systems and it aspires to become a widely used translational research prototyping platform. PLUS is freely available as open source software under BSD license and can be downloaded from http://www.plustoolkit.org. PMID:24833412

  10. Effectiveness of splinting and splinting plus local steroid injection in severe carpal tunnel syndrome: A Randomized control clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Khosrawi, Saeid; Emadi, Masoud; Mahmoodian, Amir Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two commonly used conservative treatments, splinting and local steroid injection in improving clinical and nerve conduction findings of the patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Materials and Methods: In this randomized control clinical trial, the patients with severe CTS selected and randomized in two interventional groups. Group A was prescribed to use full time neutral wrist splint and group B was injected with 40 mg Depo-Medrol and prescribed to use the full time neutral wrist splint for 12 weeks. Clinical and nerve conduction findings of the patients was evaluated at baseline, 4 and 12 weeks after interventions. Results: Twenty-two and 21 patients were allocated in group A and B, respectively. Mean of clinical symptoms and functional status scores, nerve conduction variables and patients’ satisfaction score were not significant between group at baseline and 4 and 12 weeks after intervention. Within the group comparison, there was significant improvement in the patients’ satisfaction, clinical and nerve conduction items between the baseline level and 4 weeks after intervention and between the baseline and 12 weeks after intervention (P < 0.01). The difference was significant for functional status score between 4 and 12 weeks after intervention in group B (P = 0.02). Conclusion: considering some findings regarding the superior effect of splinting plus local steroid injection on functional status scale and median nerve distal motor latency, it seems that using combination therapy could be more effective for long-term period specially in the field of functional improvement of CTS. PMID:26962518

  11. Fungal disease following contaminated steroid injections: Exserohilum is ready for its close-up.

    PubMed

    Feldmesser, Marta

    2013-09-01

    This Commentary highlights the article by Ritter etal. that reported the pathology associated with the recent fungal outbreak associated with contaminated methylprednisolone acetate injections. PMID:23876717

  12. Ultrasound-guided intervention in the ankle and foot.

    PubMed

    Drakonaki, Eleni E; Allen, Gina M; Watura, Roland

    2016-01-01

    In this comprehensive review, we discuss the main interventions performed in the foot and ankle for Achilles tendinopathy, Morton's neuromas and Plantar fasciitis as well as techniques for intra-articular and peritendinous injections. We present the different imaging techniques and injectable agents that can be used in clinical practice, trying to help the reader decide the most appropriate way of managing the patient with a problem in the ankle and foot. PMID:26537692

  13. The influence of pain sensitivity on the treatment outcome of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Yeom, Jin S; Lee, Joon Woo; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Lee, Gun-Woo; Im, Seung-Bin; Kim, Han Jo

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of individual pain sensitivity on the results of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) for the patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Seventy-seven patients with LSS were included in this study. Prospectively planned evaluations were performed twice consecutively before and 2 months after TFESI. These included a detailed medical history, a physical examination, and completion of a series of questionnaires, including pain sensitivity questionnaire (PSQ), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and visual analog scale (VAS) for back and leg pain. The correlations were analyzed among variables between total PSQ/PSQ-moderate/PSQ-minor and pain and disability level measured by VAS for back/leg pain and ODI both before and 2 months after TFESI. Two months after TFESI, there were significant decreases in VAS for back/leg pain and ODI compared with those before injection. Before injection, VAS for back pain and leg pain was highly associated with the PSQ scores including total PSQ and PSQ subscores after adjustment for age, BMI, and grade of canal stenosis. However, any subscores of PSQ and total PSQ scores were not correlated with either VAS for back pain/leg pain or ODI 2 months after TFESI with adjustment made to age, BMI, gender, and grade of canal stenosis. This study highlights that individual pain sensitivity does not influence the outcomes of TFESI treatment in patients with LSS, even though pain sensitivity has a significant negative correlation with symptom severity of LSS. PMID:23734752

  14. The advent of ultrasound-guided ablation techniques in nodular thyroid disease: towards a patient-tailored approach.

    PubMed

    Papini, Enrico; Pacella, Claudio M; Misischi, Irene; Guglielmi, Rinaldo; Bizzarri, Giancarlo; Dssing, Helle; Hegedus, Laszlo

    2014-08-01

    Surgery is the long-established therapeutic option for benign thyroid nodules, which steadily grow and become symptomatic. The cost of thyroid surgery, the risk of temporary or permanent complications, and the effect on quality of life, however, remain relevant concerns. Therefore, various minimally invasive treatments, directed towards office-based management of symptomatic nodules, without requiring general anaesthesia, and with negligible damage to the skin and cervical tissues, have been proposed during the past two decades. Today, ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection and thermal ablation with laser or radiofrequency have been thoroughly evaluated, and are accessible procedures in specialized centres. In clinical practice, relapsing thyroid cysts are effectively managed with percutaneous ethanol injection treatment, which should be considered therapy of choice. In solid non-functioning thyroid nodules that grow or become symptomatic, trained operators may safely induce, with a single session of laser ablation treatment or radiofrequency ablation, a 50% volume decrease and, in parallel, improve local symptoms. In contrast, hyperfunctioning nodules remain best treated with radioactive iodine, which results in a better control of hyperthyroidism, also in the long-term, and fewer side-effects. Currently, minimally invasive treatment is also investigated for achieving local control of small size neck recurrences of papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients who are poor candidates for repeat cervical lymph node dissection. This particular use should still be considered experimental. PMID:25047209

  15. Clinical Trial of Subcutaneous Steroid Injection in Patients with Migraine Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nikkhah, Karim; Ghandehari, Kavian; Jouybari, Ali Ghabeli; Mirzaei, Mohammad Mousavi; Ghandehari, Kosar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neurologic literature on therapeutic effect of subcutaneous corticosteroids in patients with migrainous chronic daily headache is scarce. The aim of this research is to assess the therapeutic effects of this management in such patients. Methods: Consecutive patients with migrainous chronic daily headache enrolled a prospective before-after therapeutic study during 2010-2013. Methylprednisolone 40 mg was divided into four subcutaneous injection doses. Two injections were administered in the right and left suboccipital area (exactly at retromastoid cervicocranial junction) and the other two injections in the lower medial frontal area (exactly at medial right and left eyebrows). A daily headache diary was filled out by the patients before and one month after the intervention. The severity of pain was classified based on a pain intensity instrument using numeric rating scale from 0-10 point scale. Paired t-test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: 504 patients (378 females, 126 males) with migrainous chronic daily headache were enrolled in the study. Dramatic, significant, moderate, mild, or no improvements respectively constituted 28.6%, 33.3%, 23.8%, and 14.3% of the post treatment courses. Therapeutic effect of intervention on mean pain scores was significant; t=7.38, df=20, P=0.000. Two cases developed subcutaneous fat atrophy in frontal injection site and three cases experienced syncope during injection. Conclusion: Subcutaneous corticosteroids could be used as an adjunct therapy in patients with migrainous chronic daily headache. PMID:26722139

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: A case study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Armellini, Elia; Crin, Stefano F; Ballar, Marco; Pallio, Socrate; Occhipinti, Pietro

    2016-02-10

    Here we offer a review of the literature regarding endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours and describe the case of a cystic tumour completely ablated after a multisession procedure. A total of 35 PubMed indexed cases of treated functioning and non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours resulted from our search, 29 of which are well-documented and summarised. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation appears as a local, minimally invasive treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, suitable for selected patients. This technique appears feasible, relatively safe and efficient, especially when applied to symptom relief in functioning tumours, aiming at loss of endocrine secretion. For non-functioning tumours, where the goal is complete tissue ablation, eus guided ethanol ablation can provide good results for patients who are unfit for surgery or for those who refuse surgical resection. Its role in "fit for surgery" patients requires assessment through further studies. PMID:26862370

  17. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: A case study and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Armellini, Elia; Crin, Stefano F; Ballar, Marco; Pallio, Socrate; Occhipinti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Here we offer a review of the literature regarding endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours and describe the case of a cystic tumour completely ablated after a multisession procedure. A total of 35 PubMed indexed cases of treated functioning and non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours resulted from our search, 29 of which are well-documented and summarised. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation appears as a local, minimally invasive treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, suitable for selected patients. This technique appears feasible, relatively safe and efficient, especially when applied to symptom relief in functioning tumours, aiming at loss of endocrine secretion. For non-functioning tumours, where the goal is complete tissue ablation, eus guided ethanol ablation can provide good results for patients who are unfit for surgery or for those who refuse surgical resection. Its role in fit for surgery patients requires assessment through further studies. PMID:26862370

  18. Development of a chute to facilitate transvaginal ultrasound guided oocyte aspiration (TUGA) in the sow.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Edward; Bellows, Shane; Lemieux, Frederick; Godke, Robert

    2013-02-01

    A procedure developed for nonsurgical transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte aspiration in the mature sow was dependent upon development of a special chute. This chute was designed to immobilize and protect the sow. The floor of the chute possessed a metal bar that was elevated via a hydraulic lift until the weight of the sow rested on the bar, while her hooves were still in contact with the floor. This exact positioning of the female prevented her from resisting procedure and allowed for a comfortable setting for technician to manipulate the ovaries (per rectum) and perform transvaginal ultrasound guided oocyte aspiration (TUGA). Oocyte collection was performed in six sows, and none experienced detrimental health effects from the procedure. PMID:22986298

  19. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Drainage of Neonatal Pyometrocolpos Under Local Anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Algin, Oktay; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Kilic, Nizamettin

    2011-02-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is an uncommon congenital disorder with cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus that occurs as a result of accumulated secretions from the reproductive tract due to distal genital tract obstruction. Secondary infection may also occur, resulting in pyometrocolpos, a potentially lethal disease. Immediate drainage of the cystic mass in patients determined to have pyometrocolpos is required to prevent or treat uropathy and septicemia until definitive corrective surgery can be performed. We report an unusual cause of obstructive uropathy in three infants: pyometrocolpos due to lower genital tract atresia. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage of the pyometrocolpos resulted in dramatically improved clinical and laboratory findings in these patients. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage under local anesthesia is a simple, minimally invasive, safe, and effective procedure that facilitates later successful corrective surgery and avoids the need for more complex drainage procedures.

  20. Enterococcus faecalis Septicemia and Vertebral Osteomyelitis after Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Biopsy of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Virji, Ayaz; Minces, Lucio R.; Abbass, Zargham

    2015-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUS) has rarely been associated with disseminated infection, yet the occurrence appears to be increasing. Resistance to fluoroquinolones, the most commonly used prophylaxis, is one of the likely causes, with Escherichia coli being the most commonly reported cause of these infections. Herein we present what is, to our knowledge, the first case of Enterococcus faecalis septicemia and vertebral osteomyelitis after TRUS. Previously reported cases of this condition are referenced also. PMID:26682075

  1. Localized Subcarinal Adenitis following Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Snchez-Font, Albert; lvarez, Luis; Ledesma, Gabriela; Curull, Vctor

    2015-10-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive procedure for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymph nodes and masses. Its complications are rare and include hemorrhage, pneumothorax and infections such as mediastinitis. We report the case of a 51-year-old patient who presented with a localized subcarinal adenitis after EBUS-TBNA. Germs colonizing the oropharynx may have been dragged along by the echobronchoscope, inoculating the punctured mediastinal lymph node. PMID:26277888

  2. Ultrasound guided fine needle biopsy of early hepatocellular carcinoma complicating liver cirrhosis: a multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Caturelli, E; Solmi, L; Anti, M; Fusilli, S; Roselli, P; Andriulli, A; Fornari, F; Del Vecchio Blanco, C; de Sio, I

    2004-01-01

    Background: Because hepatic cirrhosis is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, recent guidelines by the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) on clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma recommend periodic ultrasound surveillance of cirrhotic patients with immediate workup for nodules >1 cm; an increase in the frequency of screening is considered sufficient for smaller lesions. Aims: To determine the actual risk of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with the latter lesions and to assess the role of ultrasound guided-fine needle biopsy in their diagnosis Patients and methods: Data were analysed for 294 new nodular lesions <20 mm, including 48 that were <10 mm, detected during a prospective multicentre study involving ultrasound surveillance of 4375 patients with hepatic cirrhosis. In the absence of ? fetoprotein (AFP) levels diagnostic of hepatocellular carcinoma, ultrasound guided-fine needle biopsy was performed (n?=?274). AFP and fine needle biopsy diagnoses of malignancies (hepatocellular carcinoma and lymphoma) were considered definitive. Non-malignant fine needle biopsy diagnoses (dysplastic or regenerative nodule) were verified by a second imaging study. Diagnoses of hepatocellular carcinoma based on this study were considered definitive; non-malignant imaging diagnoses were considered definitive after at least one year of clinical and ultrasound follow up. Results: Overall, 258/294 (87.6%) nodules proved to be hepatocellular carcinoma, including 33/48 (68.7%) of those ?10 mm. Overall typing accuracy of ultrasound guided-fine needle biopsy was 89.4%, and 88.6% for lesions ?10 mm. Conclusions: In a screening population, well over half of very small nodules arising in cirrhotic livers may prove to be hepatocellular carcinoma, and approximately 90% of these malignancies can be reliably identified with ultrasound guided-fine needle biopsy. PMID:15306600

  3. Sudden appearance of free fluid during endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Rimba?, Mihai; Deaconu, Marian; Croitoru, Alexandru; Haidar, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    During endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of a pancreatic malignancy, a small quantity of free fluid, not seen before, suddenly appeared in the view, and time was spent ruling out ongoing hemorrhage. However, during follow-up, the patient gradually developed peritoneal signs and was referred for surgery. The images presented elucidate the diagnosis and raise the question of a theoretical change in diagnostic and therapeutic approach. PMID:26879168

  4. Bedside ultrasound-guided percutaneous cystostomy in an infant in the neonatal intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Yiu Shiobhon; Shin, Ji Hoon; Khoo, Jennifer Lai San

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of an infant born at 39 weeks of gestation who was in the neonatal intensive care unit for postoperative management of congenital heart disease and underwent bedside ultrasound-guided percutaneous cystostomy to treat an iatrogenic urethral injury. The procedure was uneventful, successful, and no complications were noted. This case demonstrates that this procedure is safe and minimally invasive. Indications, contraindications, techniques, potential complications, and the safety of performing this procedure in a bedside setting are discussed. PMID:25754366

  5. Development of a Mobile Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Nerve Block and Catheter Service

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Christina L.; Torrillo, Toni M.; Anderson, Michael R.; Morrison, R. Sean; Todd, Knox H.; Rosenblatt, Meg A.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound guidance is associated with improved efficiency and success of peripheral nerve blockade and a decreased incidence of vascular puncture, making these interventions safer. Patients with peripheral nerve blocks report decreased pain and increased satisfaction scores. We present the development of a mobile ultrasound-guided block service that allows for the safe and efficient placement of nerve blocks and perineural catheters at the nontraditional location of the patient’s bedside and in the emergency department. PMID:21795490

  6. Grey scale and power Doppler sonographic changes induced by intra-articular steroid injection treatment

    PubMed Central

    Filippucci, E; Farina, A; Carotti, M; Salaffi, F; Grassi, W

    2004-01-01

    Methods: 20 patients with clinically active synovitis of a small joint unresponsive to systemic drug treatment underwent a sonographic guided intralesional injection with triamcinolone acetonide. Clinical examinations were carried out by a trained rheumatologist. GSS and PDS examinations were performed independently by two examiners unaware of the results of the clinical examination. Joint cavity widening and power Doppler signal were evaluated and graded on a semiquantitative scale ranging from 1 to 4. Clinical and sonographic follow up examinations were carried out 2 weeks after the injection with triamcinolone acetonide. Results: All intra-articular injections were successfully carried out and documented under sonographic guidance. In 19/20 patients, baseline sonographic examinations clearly detected morphological and perfusional signs of synovitis. At follow up examinations, clinical and sonographic scores had improved significantly. Conclusion: GSS and PDS appear to be a useful adjunctive tool for assessing short term soft tissue changes induced by intra-articular injection treatment with triamcinolone acetonide in small joints of patients with chronic arthritis. PMID:15140784

  7. Usefulness of Ultrasound-Guided Lower Extremity Nerve Blockade in Surgery for Patellar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Mo; Kang, Chan; Yeon, Kyu-Ung; Kang, Dong-Hun; Park, Il-Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasound-guided nerve blockade in patellar fracture surgery. Materials and Methods Twenty-three patients who underwent metal fixation under ultrasound-guided lower extremity blockade after diagnosis of patellar fracture from July 2011 to June 2012 were enrolled in this study. Under ultrasound guidance, femoral nerve, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, obturator nerve, and sciatic nerve blockades were performed. For evaluation of anesthesia, interference with overall surgery, such as intraoperative knee pain and tourniquet pain, was checked. Individual anesthetic complications, satisfaction with nerve blocks, and choice of future anesthesia method were investigated. Results Nineteen patients underwent surgery without any pain and 4 patients with mild pain. Satisfaction was excellent in 17 patients, good in 5, and unsatisfactory in 1. No complications such as infection or nerve injury occurred. In terms of selection of future anesthesia, 22 patients chose a nerve blockade of the lower extremity under ultrasound guidance, and one chose general anesthesia. Conclusions Overall, ultrasound-guided nerve block of the lower extremity for patellar fracture surgery showed satisfactory results. Therefore, it could be a useful method to prevent complications associated with general or spinal anesthesia. PMID:26060610

  8. Value of artisanal simulators to train veterinary students in performing invasive ultrasound-guided procedures.

    PubMed

    Hage, Maria Cristina F N S; Massaferro, Ana Beatriz; Lopes, rika Rondon; Beraldo, Carolina Mariano; Daniel, Jssika

    2016-03-01

    Pericardial effusion can lead to cardiac tamponade, which endangers an animal's life. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis is used to remove abnormal liquid; however, it requires technical expertise. In veterinary medical education, the opportunity to teach this procedure to save lives during emergencies is rare; therefore, simulators are recommended for this practice. The present study aimed to create a model that can be made "at home" at low cost for ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis training and to gather feedback about this model through questionnaires given to the participants. Eighteen professionals and thirty-six students were introduced to the simulator in pairs. After the simulation training session, participants filled out the questionnaire. Participants considered the model strong in the following areas: visualization of the pericardium, the heart, fluid in the pericardium, and fluid decrease during fictitious pericardiocentesis and its realism. They considered the model weak or moderate in the following areas: visualization of the surrounding tissues, difficulty of pericardial puncture, and visualization of the catheter. The professionals classified the realism of the experimental heart as moderate, whereas the undergraduate students classified it as strong. All participants believed that the experimental model could be useful in preparing for a future real situation. This model fulfills the need for a practical, realistic, and cost-effective model for ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis training. PMID:26873896

  9. Ultrasound-guided technology versus neurostimulation for sciatic nerver block: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiuhong; Zhao, Xiang; Xu, Jin; Liu, Zhengmei; Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sciatic nerve block is widely used for anesthesia and analgesia in lower limb surgery, traditional method used for sciatic nerve block is nerve stimulation guidance. Whether the use of ultrasound-guided technology can increases the success rate of sciatic nerve block and provide other benefits are not defined. This meta-analysis was aimed to clarify this issue. Method: We searched Pubmed, the Cochrane library and Google Scholar. A total of 10 RCTs met our inclusion criteria. The patients included underwent ultrasound-guided or nerve stimulation guidance for sciatic nerve block. We compared the success rate, vascular puncture, the time of procedure and Success rate of catheter placement. Results: Ultrasound-guided technology, compared with nerve stimulation for sciatic nerve block, provided higher success rate. [RR = 1.22 95% CI: 1.04-1.42, P = 0.01], Ultrasound guidance also reduce the risk of vascular puncture. [RR = 0.13 95% CI: 0.02-0.97, P = 0.05]. However, the success rate of catheter placement [RR = 1.1095% CI: 0.93-1.29, P = 0.27] and the time of performing sciatica never block [RR = -0.17 95% CI: -1.61-1.27, P = 0.82] did not differ significantly. Conclusions: Compared to traditional nerve stimulation guidance, ultrasound guidance for sciatic nerve may improve the success rate of block and reduce the risk of vascular puncture. PMID:25784997

  10. [A New Teaching Model for Practicing Ultrasound-guided Regional Anesthesia Techniques].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Maiko; Inomata, Shinichi; Fujikura, Ai; Ogawa, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    We developed a simulator using "slime" composed of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and borax to evaluate this new ultrasound-guided nerve block training model. Seventeen subjects used the training model in the present study. They had no previous experience in performing ultrasound-guided nerve block. A plastic case measuring 25 x 18 x 12 cm was filled with 8 cm of slime. Three pieces of gauze were placed between the slime layers at 2 cm intervals. An in-plane approach was used to visualize the needle for the nerve block, and the amount of time required to stop the needle on the second gauze was measured 5 times for each subject. Significant differences were observed between the times for the first experiment and those for the third experiment to the fifth experiment In the fourth and fifth experiments, all subjects visualized the nerve block needle clearly above the target layer and were able to stop the needle at the target layer. The present simulation using our proposed ultrasound-guided nerve block training model was useful in terms of the amount of time required to perform the procedure and as well as in terms of its safety. PMID:26437564

  11. New developments in endoscopic ultrasound-guided therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bhutani, Manoop S.; Arora, Ayush

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has opened new horizons in minimally invasive therapies for diverse gastrointestinal pathologies. Digestive Disease Weak 2015 held in Washington, DC., USA featured exciting research articles on EUS-guided therapeutic procedures. EUS-guided biliary drainage has been attempted and described for many years. There seems to be a lot of interest among various international groups to compare this technique with other alternatives in terms of efficacy and safety. Similarly, EUS-guided pancreatic drainage of cysts and fluid collections continues to evolve with new stents and devices being developed specifically for deployment under endosonographic guidance. EUS-guided ablation of cystic pancreatic tumors is innovative but not always effective. Combining alcohol ablation with injecting chemotherapeutic agents may improve long-term results regarding efficacy. Similarly, for solid pancreatic tumors there appears to be ongoing interest and continuing efforts in injecting different chemotherapeutic or ablative agents, delivering fiducials for radiation guidance and even attempting ablation with radiofrequency. Gastric variceal treatment and EUS-guided anastomoses also continue to be investigated. This review article is focused on the recent developments in EUS-guided therapies presented at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2015. PMID:26643698

  12. New developments in endoscopic ultrasound-guided therapies.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Manoop S; Arora, Ayush

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has opened new horizons in minimally invasive therapies for diverse gastrointestinal pathologies. Digestive Disease Weak 2015 held in Washington, DC., USA featured exciting research articles on EUS-guided therapeutic procedures. EUS-guided biliary drainage has been attempted and described for many years. There seems to be a lot of interest among various international groups to compare this technique with other alternatives in terms of efficacy and safety. Similarly, EUS-guided pancreatic drainage of cysts and fluid collections continues to evolve with new stents and devices being developed specifically for deployment under endosonographic guidance. EUS-guided ablation of cystic pancreatic tumors is innovative but not always effective. Combining alcohol ablation with injecting chemotherapeutic agents may improve long-term results regarding efficacy. Similarly, for solid pancreatic tumors there appears to be ongoing interest and continuing efforts in injecting different chemotherapeutic or ablative agents, delivering fiducials for radiation guidance and even attempting ablation with radiofrequency. Gastric variceal treatment and EUS-guided anastomoses also continue to be investigated. This review article is focused on the recent developments in EUS-guided therapies presented at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2015. PMID:26643698

  13. Injection of steroids intralesional in central giant cell granuloma cases (giant cell tumor): Is it free of systemic complications or not? A case report

    PubMed Central

    El Hadidi, Yasser Nabil; Ghanem, Amr Amin; Helmy, Iman

    2015-01-01

    Central giant tumors commonly occur in long bones. In the oral and maxillofacial region, a counterpart coined with the term Central giant cell granuloma exists. Choung and Kaban classified central giant cell granulomas based on clinical and radiographic findings. The classification includes aggressive and non-aggressive variants. However, to date there has been no molecular method of distinguishing the variants. Different lines of treatment had been reported. The aggressive form showed high recurrence rates with conservative surgical treatment. Intra-lesional steroid, calcitonin, interferon, bisphosphonates and denosumab; have been administered as a treatment lines. Several reports support the injection of intra lesional steroids and its successful outcome. An Egyptian, nine years old female presented with a facial swelling affecting lower left side of the mandible. Biopsy confirmed it to be a CGCG. The treatment plan was intralesional steroid injections to avoid resection of the mandible. The treatment showed acceptable progress but was associated with cushinoid appearance of patient. This forced the operating team to halt the steroid injections and resolute to adjunctive surgical curettage yet sparing the mandible from resection. One-year follow up showed no recurrence, however, the patient still suffers mild cushinoid appearance. PMID:25699662

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy revisited: ultrasound-guided photoacoustic detection of micrometastases using molecularly targeted plasmonic nanosensors

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Geoffrey P.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.; Sokolov, Konstantin V.

    2014-01-01

    Metastases rather than primary tumors are responsible for killing most cancer patients. Cancer cells often invade regional lymph nodes (LN) before colonizing other parts of the body. However, due to the low sensitivity and specificity of current imaging methods to detect localized nodal spread, an invasive surgical procedure - sentinel lymph node biopsy - is generally employed to identify metastatic cancer cells. Here we introduce a new approach for more sensitive in vivo detection of lymph node micrometastases, based on the use of ultrasound-guided spectroscopic photoacoustic (sPA) imaging of molecularly-activated plasmonic nanosensors (MAPS). Using a metastatic murine model of oral squamous cell carcinoma, we showed that MAPS targeted to the EGFR shifted their optical absorption spectrum to the red-near-infrared region after specific interactions with nodal metastatic cells, enabling their non-invasive detection by sPA. Notably, LN metastases as small as 50 μm were detected at centimeter-depth range with high sensitivity and specificity. Large sPA signals appeared in metastatic LN within 30 minutes of MAPS injection, in support of the clinical utility of this method. Our findings offer a rapid and effective tool to non-invasively identify micrometastases as an alternate to sentinal node biopsy analysis. PMID:25106426

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Diagnosis and Treatment of Morton's Neuroma.

    PubMed

    Ata, Ayse Merve; Onat, Sule Sahin; Ozcakar, Levent

    2016-02-01

    Morton's neuroma is the fibrous enlargement of the interdigital nerve branches, usually in the second and third interspace between the metatarsal heads where the lateral and medial plantar nerves often join. Specific symptoms are dull or sharp pain, numbness and/or tingling in the third and fourth digits, burning sensation, cramping, and a feeling of "walking on a stone" around the metatarsal heads. Numerous clinical tests for Morton's neuroma have been described, such as thumb index finger squeeze, and Mulder's click and foot squeeze tests. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging can be used for confirmation, especially for differential diagnosis, exact localization, and number of neuromas. Further, performing dynamic imaging during the aforementioned tests is paramount and can readily be carried out with ultrasound. The treatment mainly comprises footwear modifications, radiofrequency ablation, physical therapy, local (corticosteroid and anesthetic) injections into the affected webspace, and surgery. Again the use of real-time ultrasound guidance during such interventions is noteworthy. PMID:26815264

  16. Tumors and new endoscopic ultrasound-guided therapies

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Silvia; Petrone, Maria Chiara; Testoni, Pier Alberto; Arcidiacono, Paolo Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of linear echoendoscopes, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become more operative and a new field of oncological application has been opened up. From tumor staging to tissue acquisition under EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration, new operative procedures have been developed on the principle of the EUS-guided puncture. A hybrid probe combining radiofrequency with cryotechnology is now available, to be passed through the operative channel of the echoendoscope into the tumor to create an area of ablation. EUS-guided fine-needle injection is emerging as a method to deliver anti-tumoral agents inside the tumor. Ethanol lavage, with or without paclitaxel, has been proposed for the treatment of cystic tumors in non-resectable cases and complete resolution has been recorded in up to 70%-80%. Many other chemical or biological agents have been investigated for the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: activated allogenic lymphocyte culture (Cytoimplant), a replication-deficient adenovirus vector carrying the tumor necrosis factor-? gene, or an oncolytic attenuated adenovirus (ONYX-015). The potential advantage of treatment under EUS control is the real-time imaging guidance into a deep target like the pancreas which is extremely difficult to reach by a percutaneous approach. To date there are no randomized controlled trials to confirm the real clinical benefits of these treatments compared to standard therapy so it seems wise to reserve them only for experimental protocols approved by ethics committees. PMID:23596535

  17. Epidural injections with or without steroids in managing chronic low back pain secondary to lumbar spinal stenosis: a meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Hai; Fei, Qi; Wang, Bingqiang; Yang, Yong; Li, Dong; Li, Jinjun; Su, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidural injections of anesthetic with or without steroids are widely used for treating lumbar spinal stenosis, a common cause of chronic low back pain, but there is a lack of rigorous data comparing the effectiveness of epidural injections of anesthetic with and without steroids. This meta-analysis presents a current, comprehensive picture of how epidural injections of anesthetic with steroids compare with those using local anesthetic alone. Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from their inception through February 5, 2015. Weight mean difference, risk ratio, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A random effects model or fixed effects model was used to pool the estimates, according to the heterogeneity between the included studies. Results We included 13 randomized controlled trials, involving 1,465 patients. Significant pain relief (?50%) was demonstrated in 53.7% of patients administered with epidural injections of anesthetic with steroids (group 1) and in 56.4% of those administered with local anesthetic alone (group 2). Patients showed a reduction in numeric rating scale pain score of 3.7 and 3.6 in the two groups, respectively. Significant functional improvement was achieved in 65.2% of patients in group 1 and 63.1% of patients in group 2, with Oswestry Disability Index reductions of 13.8 and 14.5 points, respectively. The overall number of injections per year was 3.21.3 and 3.41.2 with average total relief per year of 29.319.7 and 33.819.3 weeks, respectively. The opioid intakes decreased from baseline by 12.4 and 7.8 mg, respectively. Among the outcomes listed, only total relief time differed significantly between the two groups. Conclusion Both epidural injections with steroids or with local anesthetic alone provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in managing chronic low back pain secondary to lumbar spinal stenosis, and the inclusion of steroids confers no advantage compared to local anesthetic alone. PMID:26316704

  18. Commentary: Unnecessary preoperative epidural steroid injections lead to cerebrospinal fluid leaks confirmed during spinal stenosis surgery

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasingly, older patients with severe spinal stenosis/instability undergo multiple unnecessary preoperative epidural spinal injections (ESI), despite their risks and lack of long-term benefits. Here we add to the list of risks by showing how often preoperative ESI lead to punctate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas documented during subsequent surgery (e.g. multilevel laminectomies with non-instrumented fusions). Methods: A series of 39 patients with spinal stenosis/instability prospectively underwent multilevel laminectomy/non-instrumented fusion utilizing lamina autograft and NanOss Bioactive. We asked how often preoperative ESI were performed in this population and how frequently they contributed to operatively confirmed punctate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas. Notably, CSF leaks were clearly attributed to ESI, as they were located centrally/paracentrally at the L4-L5 level, just below hypertrophied/ossified yellow ligament (OYL), and were the exact size of a Tuohy needle with clean edges. Results: An average of 4.1 (range 2-12) preoperative ESI were performed in 33 of 39 patients undergoing average 4.3 level laminectomies and 1.3 level non-instrumented fusions; 6 (18.2%) patients exhibited operatively confirmed, punctate CSF fistulas attributed to these ESI. The most recent injections were administered between 2 and 5 weeks prior to surgery (average 3.9 weeks). Fistulas were primarily repaired with 7-0 GORE-TEX sutures and fibrin Sealant (Tisseel). Conclusions: Of 33 patients undergoing multilevel laminectomies with non-instrumented fusions receiving preoperative ESI, 6 (18.2%) had operatively confirmed punctate CSF fistulas due to preoperative ESI performed an average of 4.1 times per patient. PMID:25289153

  19. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Cortisone shot - hip; Hip injection; Intra-articular steroid injections - hip ... can see where to place the medicine. The steroid medicine is slowly injected into the joint. After the injection, you will remain on the table for another ...

  20. Treatment outcomes of intradiscal steroid injection/selective nerve root block for 161 patients with cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Ito, Keigo; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Machino, Masaaki; Inoue, Taro; Ouchida, Jun; Tomita, Keisuke; Kato, Fumihiko

    2015-02-01

    Patients with cervical radiculopathy (CR) were treated with intradiscal injection of steroids (IDIS) and/or selective nerve root block (SNRB) at our hospital. We retrospectively report the outcomes of these nonsurgical treatments for CR. 161 patients who were followed up for >2months were enrolled in this study. Patients' clinical manifestations were classified as arm pain, arm numbness, neck and/or scapular pain, and arm paralysis. Improvement in each manifestation was classified as "disappeared," "improved," "poor," or "worsened." Responses of "disappeared" or "improved" manifestations suggested treatment effectiveness. Final clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Odom criteria. Changes in herniated disc size were evaluated by comparing the initial and final MRI scans. On the basis of these changes, the patients were divided into regression, no-change, or progression groups. We investigated the relationship between the Odom criteria and changes observed on MRI. Effectiveness rates were 89% for arm pain, 77% for arm numbness, 82% for neck and/or scapular pain, and 76% for arm paralysis. In total, 91 patients underwent repeated MRI. In 56 patients (62%), the size of the herniated disc decreased, but 31 patients (34%) exhibited no change in disc size. The regression group showed significantly better Odom criteria results than the no-change group. In conclusion, IDIS and SNRB for CR are not widely performed. However, other extremely effective therapies that can rapidly improve neuralgia should be considered before surgery. PMID:25797986

  1. TREATMENT OUTCOMES OF INTRADISCAL STEROID INJECTION/SELECTIVE NERVE ROOT BLOCK FOR 161 PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL RADICULOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    ITO, KEIGO; YUKAWA, YASUTSUGU; MACHINO, MASAAKI; INOUE, TARO; OUCHIDA, JUN; TOMITA, KEISUKE; KATO, FUMIHIKO

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Patients with cervical radiculopathy (CR) were treated with intradiscal injection of steroids (IDIS) and/or selective nerve root block (SNRB) at our hospital. We retrospectively report the outcomes of these nonsurgical treatments for CR. 161 patients who were followed up for >2months were enrolled in this study. Patients clinical manifestations were classified as arm pain, arm numbness, neck and/or scapular pain, and arm paralysis. Improvement in each manifestation was classified as "disappeared," "improved," "poor," or "worsened." Responses of "disappeared" or "improved" manifestations suggested treatment effectiveness. Final clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Odom criteria. Changes in herniated disc size were evaluated by comparing the initial and final MRI scans. On the basis of these changes, the patients were divided into regression, no-change, or progression groups. We investigated the relationship between the Odom criteria and changes observed on MRI. Effectiveness rates were 89% for arm pain, 77% for arm numbness, 82% for neck and/or scapular pain, and 76% for arm paralysis. In total, 91 patients underwent repeated MRI. In 56 patients (62%), the size of the herniated disc decreased, but 31 patients (34%) exhibited no change in disc size. The regression group showed significantly better Odom criteria results than the no-change group. In conclusion, IDIS and SNRB for CR are not widely performed. However, other extremely effective therapies that can rapidly improve neuralgia should be considered before surgery. PMID:25797986

  2. Should routine MRI of the lumbar spine be required prior to lumbar epidural steroid injection for sciatica pain?

    PubMed Central

    Ghaly, Ramis F.; Lissounov, Alexei; Candido, Kenneth D.; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2015-01-01

    Background: We describe three patients who received lumbar epidural steroid injections (LESI) for lumbosacral radicular pain that resulted in worsening of their symptoms. The procedures were performed following a review of remote diagnostic imaging studies. These cases demonstrate the lack of consensus in pain management domains for how to approach the workup and treatment of persistent/chronic low back pain, with a noted fragmentation in pain management strategies and applied therapies. Case Description: We present three patients; two female patients (37 and 38 years old) undergoing LESI for remotely diagnosed disc herniations, and one 61-year-old male receiving an LESI for a presumed, unverified lumbar intervertebral disc disorder. Following a worsening of symptoms after LESI, neurosurgical consultations ultimately determined the presence of, respectively, an epidural hematoma, a neurilemoma, and a lung cancer metastasis to the sacrum as the source of symptoms, instead of being due to the intervertebral disc pathology. Conclusions: We would like to emphasize several principles in the diagnosis and use of imaging of the lumbosacral region prior to undertaking invasive neuraxial procedures. PMID:25883840

  3. Analysis of Androgenic Steroids in Environmental Waters by Large-volume Injection Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Backe, Will J.; Ort, Christoph; Brewer, Alex J.; Field, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    A new method was developed for the analysis of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids and their selected metabolites in aquatic environmental matrices using direct large-volume injection (LVI) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Method accuracy ranged from 88 to 108% for analytes with well-matched internal standards. Precision, quantified by relative standard deviation (RSD), was less than 12%. Detection limits for the method ranged from 1.2 to 360 ng/L. The method was demonstrated on a series of 1-hr composite wastewater influent samples collected over a day with the purpose of assessing temporal profiles of androgen loads in wastewater. Testosterone, androstenedione, boldenone, and nandrolone were detected in the sample series at concentrations up to 290 ng/L and loads up to 535 mg. Boldenone, a synthetic androgen, had a temporal profile that was strongly correlated to testosterone, a natural human androgen, suggesting its source may be endogenous. An analysis of the sample particulate fraction revealed detectable amounts of sorbed testosterone and androstenedione. Androstenedione sorbed to the particulate fraction accounted for an estimated five to seven percent of the total androstenedione mass. PMID:21391574

  4. Anesthesia Experience for Open Gastrostomy With Ultrasound-Guided Unilateral Subcostal Transversus Abdominis Plane Block in a High Risk Elderly Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ae Ryoung; Choe, Yun Suk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Many papers have reported that TAP block provides effective postoperative analgesia, but the sole use of TAP block for surgical anesthesia has been rarely reported. Case Presentation: Therefore, we presented an 80-year-old male undergoing ultrasound-guided unilateral subcostal TAP block providing surgical anesthesia for open gastrostomy. Left subcostal TAP block was performed using the method described by Hebbard with the M-Turbo ultrasound system and a linear probe placing immediately inferior and parallel to the costal margin. Using a 100 -mm long, 23 G short-bevel needle in-plane technique, 20 mL of 0.25% levobupivacaine was injected on the TAP. A sensory block from T7 to T11 was established and the satisfaction score was 7 - 8. Conclusions: Open gastrostomy was successfully performed under subcostal TAP block with small dose fentanyl supplementation. The subcostal TAP block is considered a useful anesthetic choice in surgery for high risk patients. PMID:26478861

  5. The Importance of Needle Echogenity in Ultrasound Guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Block: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    DUGER, Cevdet; ISBIR, Ahmet Cemil; KAYGUSUZ, Kenan; KOL, Iclal OZDEMIR; GURSOY, Sinan; OZTURK, Hayati; MIMARO?LU, Caner

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this study we aimed to compare the echogenic needles and the nerve stimulation addition to non-echogenic needles in ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block for upper extremity surgery. Methods: 90 patients were enrolled to the study. The patients were allocated into three groups randomly: Group E (n=30): ultrasound guided axillary block using echogenic needle, Group N (n=30): ultrasound guided axillary block using non-echogenic needle, Group NS (n=30): ultrasound guided axillary block using non-echogenic needle with nerve stimulator assistance. Duration of block procedure, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, pulse-oximetry, onset time of sensory and motor block, duration of sensory and motor block, time to first analgesic use, total need for analgesics, postoperative pain scores, patient and surgeon satisfaction scores were recorded. Results: Duration of block procedure values were lower in group E and NS, sensory and motor block durations, were significantly lower in group N. Sensorial and motor block onset time values were found lower in group NS but higher in group N. Patient and surgeon satisfaction scores were found lower in group N. Conclusion: We conclude that ultrasound guided axillary block may be performed successfully using both echogenic needles and nerve stimulation assisted non-echogenic needles. PMID:23869186

  6. Peridural Anesthesia or Ultrasound-Guided Continuous 3-in-1 Block

    PubMed Central

    Luger, Thomas J.; Kammerlander, Christian; Benz, Maureen; Luger, Markus F.; Garoscio, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical relevance of preoperative acute pain management and cardiovascular stability by ultrasound-guided continuous 3-in-1 nerve block in very elderly patients with hip fracture when compared to epidural anesthesia (PDA). Methods: To study the analgesic effect, we enrolled 37 very elderly patients with hip fractures, of whom 3 patients with dementia had to be excluded. Thus, 34 patients were randomized to 1 of the 3 groups: group A (ultrasound-guided continuous 3-in-1 block, bupivacaine; n = 10, dropout rate: 0), group B (PDA, bupivacaine; n = 14, dropout rate: 8), and group C (systemic pain therapy, piritramide/paracetamol; n = 10, dropout rate: 0). Pain intensity was assessed preoperatively and up to 24 hours postoperatively using a visual analog scale, verbal rating scale, analgesic consumption, scale of well-being, and cardiocirculatory parameters (eg, serum troponin T). Results: Our data show that in the preoperative period both regional anesthesia (RA) procedures (analgesia responders after 1 hour: 86.7% and 100%; P = .001) were superior to systemic analgesia (analgesia responders: 46.7%), and the rescue medication requirement in the 2 RA groups was significantly lower (P = .02). Serum troponin T level increased only in the systemic analgesia group (P = .04). In the emergency department, the disadvantage of PDA in geriatric patients with hip fracture was the fact that procedures were more complex, resulting in a high dropout rate (57.1%). The use of PDA has to be critically discussed for ethical concerns. Conclusion: In the specific situation of acute hospital admission, the ultrasound-guided continuous 3-in-1 block appears to be indicated as a stress-free means of providing adequate preoperative pain relief in very elderly patients with hip fracture. However, these findings should be corroborated by studies involving larger numbers of patients. PMID:23569705

  7. Intrarectal Lidocaine-Diltiazem-Meperidine Gel for Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Farsad; Moghaddam, Yasaman; Shariat Moharari, Reza; Etezadi, Farhad; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: TRUS-guided needle biopsy of the prostate gland is the current standard method used for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Pain control during this procedure is through the use of i.v. sedation or local anaesthetic (LA), depending on clinician preference. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intrarectal lidocaine, lidocaine-diltiazem and lidocaine-meperidine-diltiazem gel for anesthetizing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Patients and Methods: In a randomized double-blind clinical trial, 100 consecutive patients were divided into three groups. The patients received one of the gels before transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsy: group A, intrarectal and perianal lidocaine, gel 1 g; group B, intrarectal lidocaine gel, 1 g, + perianal diltiazem, 1 g; group C, intrarectal lidocaine gel, 1 g, + meperidine, 25 mg, and perianal diltiazem, 1 g. Visual analog pain scale was used to estimate pain during probe insertion and biopsy. Heart rate and blood pressure during probe insertion and biopsy were recorded too. Results: The mean of visual analog pain scale was 4.5 in group A, 3.5 in group B, and 2.0 in group C during probe insertion (P value = 0.01). The mean of visual analog pain scale was 5.1 in group A, 3.5 group B, and 2.5 in group C during biopsy (P value = 0.001). The groups were comparable for patients' age, weight, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostate size (P > 0.05). No side effects of meperidine and lidocaine including drowsiness, dizziness, tinnitus and light-headedness or requiring assistance for activity were noted. Conclusions: Lidocaine-meperidine-diltiazem gel provides significantly better pain control than lidocaine-diltiazem gel and lidocaine gel alone during transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy and probe insertion. This mixture gel is safe, easy to administer and well accepted by patients. PMID:26161317

  8. Ultrasound-Guided Pulsed Radiofrequency for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Single-Blinded Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective We assessed the therapeutic efficiency of ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment of the median nerve in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded study. Forty-four patients with CTS were randomized into intervention or control groups. Patients in the intervention group were treated with PRF and night splint, and the control group was prescribed night splint alone. Primary outcome was the onset time of significant pain relief assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS), and secondary outcomes included evaluation of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) results, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve, sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) of the median nerve, and finger pinch strength. All outcome measurements were performed at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment. Results Thirty-six patients completed the study. The onset time of pain relief in the intervention group was significantly shorter (median onset time of 2 days vs. 14 days; hazard ratio = 7.37; 95% CI, 3.04–17.87) compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Significant improvement in VAS and BCTQ scores (p < 0.05) was detected in the intervention group at all follow-up periods compared to the controls (except for the severity subscale of BCTQ at week 1). Ultrasound-guided PRF treatment resulted in a lower VAS score and stronger finger pinch compared to the control group over the entire study. Conclusions Our study shows that ultrasound-guided PRF serves as a better approach for pain relief in patients with CTS. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02217293 PMID:26067628

  9. Sonographic evaluation and ultrasound-guided therapy of the Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Daftary, Aditya; Adler, Ronald S

    2009-09-01

    The Achilles tendon is a frequent site of foot and ankle discomfort. Its superficial location lends it to excellent evaluation by ultrasonography. Continuing advances in US have enabled evaluation of Achilles pathology with unprecedented accuracy and efficiency in a cost-effective manner. For these reasons, radiologists are likely to be called on to evaluate Achilles tendinopathy with sonography. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of the sonographic technique and appearance of the normal and abnormal Achilles tendon, including a short synopsis of ultrasound-guided therapy with pictoral examples. PMID:19730050

  10. Bacterial pericarditis as a fatal complication after endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ha Youn; Kim, Joohae; Jo, Yong Suk; Park, Young Sik

    2015-10-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a safe and effective diagnostic tool for mediastinal evaluation. The guidelines for mediastinal evaluation of lung cancer were recently revised for both endoscopic procedures and surgical medical staging, and EBUS-TBNA is expected to be used more often in lung cancer diagnosis and staging. The major complication rate reported in previous meta-analyses is very low at 0.07-.15%; however, the mortality rate has not been reported. We present 2 cases of acute bacterial pericarditis after EBUS-TBNA, with 1 case resulting in mortality, and we discuss the appropriate management. PMID:25500728

  11. Resolution of pancreatico-pleural fistula with endoscopic ultrasound-guided therapy

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, M.D.; Bowyer, B.A.; Barclay, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatico-pleural fistula is an uncommon cause of recurrent pleural effusion. Delayed diagnosis may occur if fluid amylase level is not obtained early in the clinical course. As most cases of pancreatico-pleural effusion are due to chronic pancreatitis, endoscopic therapy may be effective if pancreatic fluid secretion can be diverted to a more physiologic pathway. However, when severe pancreatitis leads to disconnection of the pancreatic duct, it precludes conventional endoscopic treatment via transpapillary stenting of the pancreatic duct. We describe a patient with a chronic, refractory pancreatico-pleural fistula arising from chronic pancreatitis with a disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome, which resolved following endoscopic ultrasound-guided therapy. PMID:26029626

  12. Ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral block catheter experience in 2 neonates.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Mark E; Haynes, Brittany

    2015-09-01

    The study objective is to describe our experience with placement and management of thoracic paravertebral block catheters in 2 neonates. The design is retrospective chart review of 2 consecutive newborns undergoing repair of tracheoesophageal fistula. Ultrasound-guided oblique intercostal approach for catheter placement and infusions of dilute ropivicaine for 4-5 days. The measurements are postoperative narcotics and sedatives administered. The main results are neither infant required continuous infusions of sedatives or narcotics. Thoracic paravertebral block catheter infusions for neonatal thoracotomy and chest tube placement may eliminate the need for continuous narcotic infusions and may avoid the need for narcotic and benzodiazepine taper or weaning. PMID:26164309

  13. Ultrasound-Guided Pain Interventions - A Review of Techniques for Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Neilesh

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound has emerged to become a commonly used modality in the performance of chronic pain interventions. It allows direct visualization of tissue structure while allowing real time guidance of needle placement and medication administration. Ultrasound is a relatively affordable imaging tool and does not subject the practitioner or patient to radiation exposure. This review focuses on the anatomy and sonoanatomy of peripheral non-axial structures commonly involved in chronic pain conditions including the stellate ganglion, suprascapular, ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, genitofemoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves. Additionally, the review discusses ultrasound guided intervention techniques applicable to these structures. PMID:23614071

  14. Hemobilia and other complications caused by percutaneous ultrasound-guided liver biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Hemobilia accounts for approximately 3% of all major percutaneous liver biopsy complications, and rarely results from arterioportal fistula. We report a patient who suffered from four complications over 11 d after ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy: hemobilia, acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, and multiple stomach ulcers. Digital subtraction angiography was done after consultation with doctors, and showed obvious arteriovenous fistula of the right liver. The hepatic artery was selected and embolized by spring orbs. The active bleeding was stopped after embolization of the hepatic artery. The patient was discharged home on day 12 after embolization and remained well. PMID:24707158

  15. Hemobilia and other complications caused by percutaneous ultrasound-guided liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai-Bo

    2014-04-01

    Hemobilia accounts for approximately 3% of all major percutaneous liver biopsy complications, and rarely results from arterioportal fistula. We report a patient who suffered from four complications over 11 d after ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy: hemobilia, acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, and multiple stomach ulcers. Digital subtraction angiography was done after consultation with doctors, and showed obvious arteriovenous fistula of the right liver. The hepatic artery was selected and embolized by spring orbs. The active bleeding was stopped after embolization of the hepatic artery. The patient was discharged home on day 12 after embolization and remained well. PMID:24707158

  16. Follicular steroid hormones as markers of oocyte quality and oocyte development potential

    PubMed Central

    Carpintero, Nayara Lpez; Surez, Onica Armijo; Mangas, Carmen Cuadrado; Varea, Carolina Gonzlez; Rioja, Rubn Gmez

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Various components of follicular fluid are suggested as biochemical predictors of oocyte quality. Previous studies of follicular steroid hormone levels have shown disparate results when related with fertilization outcomes. AIM: The objective of the study was to relate the levels of steroid hormones of each individual follicle with oocyte maturation, fertilization results, embryo quality, and pregnancy rates. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in a university hospital. METHODS: In 31 patients, who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection, it was performed an ultrasound guided aspiration of follicular fluid of the first two mature follicles from each ovary. Follicular levels of estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Generalized estimating equation model. RESULTS: In follicular fluids with mature oocyte presence, in normal as well as in failed fertilization, there was a positive correlation between follicular testosterone and progesterone (r = 0.794, P = 0.0001 and r = 0.829, P = 0.0001). Progesterone levels were higher in cases of normal fertilization compared to failed fertilization (P = 0.003). B quality embryos came from oocytes immersed in follicular fluids with higher estradiol values and higher estradiol/progesterone and estradiol/testosterone ratios than those of C quality (P = 0.01; P = 0.0009; P = 0.001). Estradiol levels were higher in patients who achieved pregnancy (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The analysis of follicular hormone composition could be considered as an additional tool in oocyte selection. PMID:25395744

  17. Efficacy of Epidural Neuroplasty Versus Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection for the Radiating Pain Caused by a Herniated Lumbar Disc

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Jong; Rim, Byeong Cheol; Lim, Jeong-Wook; Park, Noh Kyoung; Kang, Tae-Wook; Sohn, Min Kyun; Beom, Jaewon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the treatment effects of epidural neuroplasty (NP) and transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) for the radiating pain caused by herniated lumbar disc. Methods Thirty-two patients diagnosed with herniated lumbar disc through magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography were included in this study. Fourteen patients received an epidural NP and eighteen patients had a TFESI. The visual analogue scale (VAS) and functional rating index (FRI) were measured before the treatment, and at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the treatment. Results In the epidural NP group, the mean values of the VAS before the treatment, and at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the treatment were 7.001.52, 4.291.20, 2.640.93, 1.430.51 and those of FRI were 23.573.84, 16.503.48, 11.432.44, 7.002.15. In the TFESI group, the mean values of the VAS before the treatment, and at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the treatment were 7.222.05, 4.281.67, 2.561.04, 1.330.49 and those of FRI were 22.006.64, 16.225.07, 11.564.18, 8.061.89. During the follow-up period, the values of VAS and FRI within each group were significantly reduced (p<0.05) after the treatment. But there were no significant differences between the two groups statistically. Conclusion Epidural NP and TFESI are equally effective treatments for the reduction of radiating pain and for improvement of function in patients with a herniated lumbar disc. We recommend that TFESI should be primarily applied to patients who need interventional spine treatment, because it is easier and more cost-effective than epidural NP. PMID:24466517

  18. No difference in pain reduction after epidural steroid injections in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Francis; Namdari, Bahram; Dupler, Suzanne; Kovac, Mario Farias; Makarova, Natalya; Dalton, Jarrod E.; Turan, Alparslan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Diabetes affects peripheral and central neurons causing paresthesia, allodynia, hyperalgesia, and spontaneous pain. However, the effect of diabetes on response to epidural steroid injection (ESI) remains unknown. We hypothesized that diabetic patients receiving ESI will have different pain scores compared to nondiabetic patients. We tested a secondary hypothesis that pain reduction differs at different levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) for patients with diabetes. Material and Methods: Data from 284 consecutive patients given ESIs for radiculopathy were obtained via a manual review of electronic medical records. We initially compared diabetic and nondiabetic groups with respect to balance on baseline demographic and morphometric characteristics. Next, a linear regression model was developed to evaluate the association between existing diabetes and postinjection reduction in pain scores. And finally, we univariably characterized the association between HbA1c and pain reduction. Results: After exclusion of nine patients, 275 patients were analysed, including 55 (20%) who were diabetic. Pain reduction after ESI was comparable in diabetic and nondiabetic patients (Wald test P = 0.61). The degree of pain reduction generally decreased with the level of HbA1c until reaching HbA1c levels of approximately 7.5%, after which point it stayed fairly constant. Conclusion: There was no difference in pain reduction after ESIs comparing diabetic with nondiabetic patients; however, for diabetic patients, pain reduction may decrease with uncontrolled diabetes determined by high HbA1c values, thus suggesting pain physicians to take an active role in guiding their patients to have their blood glucose levels better regulated to improve outcomes of their ESIs. PMID:27006548

  19. Cognitive Task Analysis for Instruction in Single-Injection Ultrasound Guided-Regional Anesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucev, Gligor V.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is methodology for eliciting knowledge from subject matter experts. CTA has been used to capture the cognitive processes, decision-making, and judgments that underlie expert behaviors. A review of the literature revealed that CTA has not yet been used to capture the knowledge required to perform ultrasound guided…

  20. A Molecular Image-directed, 3D Ultrasound-guided Biopsy System for the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Baowei; Schuster, David M.; Master, Viraj; Akbari, Hamed; Fenster, Aaron; Nieh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Systematic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy is the standard method for a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, this biopsy approach uses two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound images to guide biopsy and can miss up to 30% of prostate cancers. We are developing a molecular image-directed, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image-guided biopsy system for improved detection of prostate cancer. The system consists of a 3D mechanical localization system and software workstation for image segmentation, registration, and biopsy planning. In order to plan biopsy in a 3D prostate, we developed an automatic segmentation method based wavelet transform. In order to incorporate PET/CT images into ultrasound-guided biopsy, we developed image registration methods to fuse TRUS and PET/CT images. The segmentation method was tested in ten patients with a DICE overlap ratio of 92.4% 1.1 %. The registration method has been tested in phantoms. The biopsy system was tested in prostate phantoms and 3D ultrasound images were acquired from two human patients. We are integrating the system for PET/CT directed, 3D ultrasound-guided, targeted biopsy in human patients. PMID:22708023

  1. Ultrasound-guided atlanto-occipital puncture for cerebrospinal fluid analysis on the standing horse.

    PubMed

    Depecker, M; Bizon-Mercier, C; Courouc-Malblanc, A

    2014-01-11

    The atlanto-occipital site (AO) is convenient for retrieving an adequate volume and quality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the diagnosis of neurological disease in horses. However, general anaesthesia is not always possible for horses displaying severe neurological signs, or for economical reasons. The objectives of the present work were to determine the feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided CSF puncture at the AO site on the standing horse. Seven horses (six healthy and one mildly ataxic) were sedated with acepromazine (0.02 mg/kg bodyweight intravenously or 0.04 mg/kg bodyweight intramuscularly) and detomidine (0.01 mg/kg bodyweight intravenously), and placed in stocks or in a recovery stall with the head kept on a headstand. Puncture was performed by ultrasonographic guidance with a parasagittal technique, as previously described, using a 20 g, 3.5 inch spinal needle. In all horses, no adverse reaction was observed when crossing the dura mater and 20 ml of CSF was rapidly retrieved without any blood contamination. Ultrasound-guided CSF puncture can be performed easily at the AO site on a healthy standing horse. Regarding the potential risk of this procedure, safety measures and close observation are essential. Further studies on a larger amount of ataxic horses are also required before considering this technique as an alternative option for CSF puncture. PMID:24225443

  2. Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia in a pediatric patient with acute intermittent porphyria: literature review and case report.

    PubMed

    Olutunmbi, Yetunde; Gurnaney, Harshad G; Galvez, Jorge A; Simpao, Allan F

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia techniques placed under general anesthesia have not been reported in pediatric patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). A 9-year-old male with AIP presented for right inguinal herniorraphy. Family history included one relative's death after anesthesia. Preoperative preparation included reviewing medications safe for AIP patients, minimizing known AIP triggers (fasting, stress) and ensuring access to rescue medications. Intraoperative management included a propofol induction with the patient's mother present in the operating room. We performed an ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block under general anesthesia. The surgery proceeded without complications and the patient did not demonstrate signs of an AIP crisis. PMID:25137868

  3. Ultrasound-guided Continuous Axillary Brachial Plexus Block Using a Nerve Stimulating Catheter: EpiStim Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Kyoung; Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Se Hee; Yeo, Gwi Eun

    2015-01-01

    Brachial plexus block (BPB) under ultrasound guidance has come to be widely used. However, nerve injury has been reported following ultrasound-guided BPB. We hypothesized that BPB under ultrasound guidance in conjunction with real-time electrical nerve stimulation would help us prevent nerve injury and do more successful procedure. Here, we report the successful induction and maintenance of ultrasound-guided BPB and the achievement of good peri- and postoperative pain control using a conductive catheter, the EpiStim. PMID:26495085

  4. Comparative study of ultrasound-guided paravertebral block with ropivacaine versus bupivacaine for post-operative pain relief in children undergoing thoracotomy for patent ductus arteriosus ligation surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chalam, Kolli S; Patnaik, Sathya Swaroop; Sunil, C; Bansal, Tripti

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Thoracotomy incision following patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation surgery is often associated with severe post-operative pain that has deleterious effects on respiratory function. We aimed to assess pain relief with thoracic paravertebral block using either bupivacaine or ropivacaine in these surgeries. Methods: One hundred paediatric patients of age group between 2 and 10 years undergoing PDA ligation surgery were randomised either to bupivacaine or ropivacaine group in this prospective double-blinded study. After induction of general anaesthesia, the ultrasound-guided paravertebral block was carried out using 0.25% bupivacaine 0.4 ml/kg in Group B patients and 0.2% ropivacaine 0.4 ml/kg in Group R patients. Monitoring included minimum mandatory monitoring with pulse rate, pulseoximetry (SpO2), electrocardiogram, blood pressure, temperature during surgery and also in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Additionally, modified objective pain score (MOPS) was used in ICU for assessment of pain for 12 h after surgery. Incidence of complications was noted. Results: Mean values of MOPSs were comparable in both the groups. The time to rescue analgesic was 8 to 10 h in over 80% of patients in both the groups. More patients had hypotension and bradycardia in bupivacaine group compared to ropivacaine group. Conclusion: Paravertebral injection of 0.4 ml/kg of either 0.2% ropivacaine or 0.25% bupivacaine provided equipotent analgesia, but ropivacaine had a better side effect profile. Ultrasound-guided paravertebral block is a safe and effective mode of analgesia in paediatric patients undergoing thoracotomy. PMID:26379293

  5. Ultrasonographic percutaneous anatomy of the atlanto-occipital region and indirect ultrasound-guided cisternal puncture in the dog and the cat.

    PubMed

    Etienne, A-L; Audigié, F; Peeters, D; Gabriel, A; Busoni, V

    2015-04-01

    Cisternal puncture in dogs and cats is commonly carried out. This article describes the percutaneous ultrasound anatomy of the cisternal region in the dog and the cat and an indirect technique for ultrasound-guided cisternal puncture. Ultrasound images obtained ex vivo and in vivo were compared with anatomic sections and used to identify the landmarks for ultrasound-guided cisternal puncture. The ultrasound-guided procedure was established in cadavers and then applied in vivo in seven dogs and two cats. The anatomic landmarks for the ultrasound-guided puncture are the cisterna magna, the spinal cord, the two occipital condyles on transverse images, the external occipital crest and the dorsal arch of the first cervical vertebra on longitudinal images. Using these ultrasound anatomic landmarks, an indirect ultrasound-guided technique for cisternal puncture is applicable in the dog and the cat. PMID:24712312

  6. Ultrasound-guided RNA interference targeting HIF-1 alpha improves the effects of transarterial chemoembolization in rat liver tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng-Shi; Zhao, Qing; Qian, Sheng; Li, Hai-Liang; Guo, Chen-Yang; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Rong; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether ultrasound-guided RNA interference (RNAi) targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) can enhance the efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in treating hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials and methods Rats with orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma were randomized to four groups and treated as follows: 1) control; 2) siHIF-1α; 3) TACE; 4) siHIF-1α+TACE. Lentivirus (4×108 transfection units) with or without small interfering RNA (siRNA) expression in 0.6 mL transduction reagent was injected into tumors using a standard 1 mL syringe under ultrasonic guidance. In the siHIF-1α+TACE and siHIF-1α groups, rats received siRNA-expressing lentivirus; the rats in the TACE and control groups received lentivirus without siRNA. TACE was performed by placing a microcatheter into the gastroduodenal artery. Results The median survival time, body weight, and tumor volume of the siHIF-1α+TACE group were better than those of the TACE, siHIF-1α, and control groups. A comparative analysis of the different treatment groups demonstrated that HIF-1α RNAi could downregulate the levels of HIF-1α and VEGF, inhibit tumor angiogenesis, and lessen metastases; all of these effects were enhanced by TACE. Conclusion HIF-1α RNAi, which was administered in vivo in liver tumors under ultrasound guidance, improved the efficacy of TACE in treating hepatocellular carcinoma in an animal model. PMID:26664137

  7. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Removal of Wooden Foreign Bodies in the Extremities with Hydro-Dissection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Son, Eun Seok; Chung, Eun Chul; Rho, Myung Ho; Lee, Sun Joo

    2015-01-01

    Objective We described the technique of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous removal of the foreign bodies (FB) with hydro-dissection in the radiologic department and presented video files of several cases. Materials and Methods Four patients referred to the radiology department for US evaluation and US-guided percutaneous removal of the FBs in the upper and lower extremities between November, 2006 and November, 2013 were included in this study. The procedures started with US evaluation for the exact location and shape of the FB. A 5 mm-sized skin incision was made at the site of the nearest point from the FB where no passing arteries or tendons were present. We adopted a hydrodissection technique to separate the FB from adjacent tissue using a 2% lidocaine solution. Injected anesthetics detached the FBs from surrounding tissue and thereby facilitated removal. After the tip of the mosquito forceps reached the FB, the wooden FBs were removed. Results The mean time required for the entire procedure was approximately 20 minutes. There were no significant complications during the US-guided removal or long-term complications after the procedure. All 4 FBs were successfully removed from the soft tissue under US guidance. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided percutaneous removal of the FBs with hydro-dissection in the radiology department is a less invasive and safe method over surgical removal in the operating room. Additionally, the use of a guide wire and serial dilator may help minimize soft tissue injury and facilitate the introduction of forceps. PMID:26576123

  8. Ultrasound-Guided Pulsed Radiofrequency Application via the Pterygopalatine Fossa: A Practical Approach to Treat Refractory Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Nader, Antoun; Bendok, Bernard R; Prine, Jeremy J; Kendall, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    Although pharmacological therapy is the primary treatment modality for trigeminal neuralgia associated pain, ineffective analgesia and dose limiting side effects often prompt patients to seek alternative pharmacological solutions such as interventional nerve blockade. Blockade of the Gasserian ganglion or its branches is an effective analgesic procedure for trigeminal neuralgia, traditionally performed using fluoroscopy or CT imaging. Ultrasonography allows point of care and real time visualization of needle placement within the surrounding anatomical structures. The use of ultrasonography with pulsed radiofrequency therapy for trigeminal neuralgia has not been reported. Our case is a 66-year-old male suffering from trigeminal neuralgia for 4 years that was refractory to pharmacologic therapy. Neurological examination was normal with no sensory deficit. Imaging showed no vascular compression or mass involving the trigeminal nerve. A diagnostic ultrasound-guided trigeminal nerve block via the pterygopalatine fossa with 4 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% and 4 mg dexamethasone provided immediate pain relief (100%) with sustained analgesia >50% at 2 weeks. Pain relief was not sustained at one month, with return to pretreatment symptoms. A series of injections were performed with similar intermittent analgesic effectiveness. The decision was made that the patient was a suitable candidate for pulsed radiofrequency application in the pterygopalatine fossa. We successfully used an alternative approach through the pterygopalatine fossa to treat trigeminal neuralgia using ultrasound guidance in an office setting. Our case demonstrates the utility of ultrasound-guidance pulsed radiofrequency treatment in the pterygopalatine fossa as a potential alternative to other percutaneous techniques for patients with medical refractory trigeminal neuralgia. PMID:26000688

  9. Lack of Sex Difference in Minimum Local Analgesic Concentration of Ropivacaine for Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Qingqing; Yang, Yanqing; Liu, Qin; Peng, Zhiyou; Feng, Zhiying

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex differences, which may be an important variable for determining anesthetic requirements, have not been well investigated in the aspect of local anesthetic. This investigation aimed to compare the minimum local analgesic concentration (MLAC) of ropivacaine for ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block (US-SCB) between men and women. Material/Method Patients aged 1845 years undergoing elective forearm, wrist, or hand surgeries under US-SCB were divided into 2 groups according to sex. The initial concentration was 0.375% ropivacaine 20 mL and the concentration for the next patient was determined by the up-down technique at 0.025% intervals. Success was defined as the absence of any pain in response to a pinprick in the region of all 4 terminal nerves and the skin incision within 45 min. The primary outcome was the MLAC of ropivacaine, which was estimated by the Dixon and Massey method. The analgesia duration, which was defined as the time from the end of the US-SCB injection to the time of feeling discomfort and need for additional analgesics, was observed for each patient. Results The MLAC of ropivacaine 20 mL for US-SCB was 0.2675% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25120.2838%) in men and 0.2675% (95% CI, 0.25240.2826%) in women. There was no significant difference in MLAC or the analgesia duration between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Conclusions We found no significant sex-related differences in MLAC or analgesia duration of ropivacaine for US-SCB. PMID:26556653

  10. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration versus Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration in Diagnosis of Focal Pancreatic Masses

    PubMed Central

    Okasha, Hussein Hassan; Naga, Mazen Ibrahim; Esmat, Serag; Naguib, Mohamed; Hassanein, Mohamed; Hassani, Mohamed; El-Kassas, Mohamed; Mahdy, Reem Ezzat; El-Gemeie, Emad; Farag, Ali Hassan; Foda, Ayman Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pancreatic carcinoma is one of the leading cancer morbidity and mortality world-wide. Controversy has arisen about whether the percutaneous approach with computed tomography/ultrasonography-guidance fine needle aspiration (US-FNA) or endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the preferred method to obtain diagnostic tissue. Our purpose of this study is to compare between the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA and percutaneous US-FNA in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 197 patients with pancreatic masses were included in the study, 125 patients underwent US-FNA (Group 1) and 72 patients underwent EUS-FNA (Group 2). Results: EUS-FNA has nearly the same accuracy (88.9%) as US-FNA (87.2%) in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for EUS-FNA was 84%, 100%, 100%, 73.3% respectively. It was 85.5%, 90.4%, 94.7%, 76% respectively for US-FNA. EUS-FNA had a lower complication rate (1.38%) than US-FNA (5.6%). Conclusion: EUS-FNA has nearly the same accuracy as US-FNA of pancreatic masses with a lower complication rate. PMID:24949394

  11. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous antegrade hydropropulsion to relieve ureteral obstruction in a pet guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Eshar, David; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Chalmers, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Severe hydroureter and hydronephrosis secondary to ureteral obstruction by calculus were present in a guinea pig. A palliative ultrasound-guided percutaneous antegrade hydropropulsion was performed under general anesthesia to relieve the ureteral obstruction and the associated clinical signs. We describe the technique and the considerations for its potential application in similar cases. PMID:24293674

  12. A novel graphical user interface for ultrasound-guided shoulder arthroscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyryshkin, K.; Mousavi, P.; Beek, M.; Pichora, D.; Abolmaesumi, P.

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a novel graphical user interface developed for a navigation system for ultrasound-guided computer-assisted shoulder arthroscopic surgery. The envisioned purpose of the interface is to assist the surgeon in determining the position and orientation of the arthroscopic camera and other surgical tools within the anatomy of the patient. The user interface features real time position tracking of the arthroscopic instruments with an optical tracking system, and visualization of their graphical representations relative to a three-dimensional shoulder surface model of the patient, created from computed tomography images. In addition, the developed graphical interface facilitates fast and user-friendly intra-operative calibration of the arthroscope and the arthroscopic burr, capture and segmentation of ultrasound images, and intra-operative registration. A pilot study simulating the computer-aided shoulder arthroscopic procedure on a shoulder phantom demonstrated the speed, efficiency and ease-of-use of the system.

  13. Evaluation of the eZono 4000 with eZGuide for ultrasound-guided procedures.

    PubMed

    Gadsden, Jeff; Latmore, Malikah; Levine, Daniel M

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasound-guided procedures are increasingly common in a variety of acute care settings, such as the operating room, critical care unit and emergency room. However, accurate judgment of needle tip position using traditional ultrasound technology is frequently difficult, and serious injury can result from inadvertently advancing beyond or through the target. Needle navigation is a recent innovation that allows the clinician to visualize the needle position and trajectory in real time as it approaches the target. A novel ultrasound machine has recently been introduced that is portable and designed for procedural guidance. The eZono 4000 features an innovative needle navigation technology that is simple to use and permits the use of a wide range of commercially available needles, avoiding the inconvenience and cost of proprietary equipment. This article discusses this new ultrasound machine in the context of other currently available ultrasound machines featuring needle navigation. PMID:25543816

  14. Ultrasound-guided procedures to treat sport-related muscle injuries.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Davide; Corazza, Angelo; Arcidiacono, Alice; Messina, Carmelo; Serafini, Giovanni; Sconfienza, Luca M; Silvestri, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is well known as a low-cost, radiation-free and effective imaging technique to guide percutaneous procedures. The lower limb muscles represent a good target to perform such procedures under ultrasound guidance, thus allowing for clear and precise visualization of the needle during the whole procedure. The knowledge of guidelines and technical aspects is mandatory to act in the most safe and accurate way on target tissues that can be as small as a few millimetres. This review will focus above the local treatments of traumatic lower limb muscle injuries described in literature, focusing on new and promising approaches, such as platelet-rich plasma treatment of muscle tears in athletes. For each procedure, a brief how-to-do practical guide will be provided, emphasizing precautions and tricks based on day-by-day experience that may help to improve the outcome of percutaneous ultrasound-guided procedures around the lower limb muscles. PMID:26562097

  15. Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed using endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Caraway, Nancy P.; Salina, Davide; Deavers, Michael T.; Morice, Rodolfo; Landon, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is a rare intraluminal malignant neoplasm that has an aggressive biological behavior, and early diagnosis may improve patient outcome. We describe a case of pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed on cytologic material obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) biopsy with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). The aspirate showed loosely cohesive clusters of pleomorphic malignant spindled and epithelioid cells. An immunostain panel did not demonstrate any definitive mesenchymal or epithelial differentiation. The tumor's intraluminal origin was supported by radiographic imaging studies. Subsequently, the patient received preoperative chemotherapy and underwent tumor resection with reconstruction. This report describes the cytomorphologic features of this rare intravascular tumor and demonstrates how EBUS-TBNA with ROSE was instrumental in obtaining optimal cytologic sampling for ancillary studies, thus expediting the management. PMID:25745502

  16. Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed using endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Caraway, Nancy P; Salina, Davide; Deavers, Michael T; Morice, Rodolfo; Landon, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is a rare intraluminal malignant neoplasm that has an aggressive biological behavior, and early diagnosis may improve patient outcome. We describe a case of pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed on cytologic material obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) biopsy with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). The aspirate showed loosely cohesive clusters of pleomorphic malignant spindled and epithelioid cells. An immunostain panel did not demonstrate any definitive mesenchymal or epithelial differentiation. The tumor's intraluminal origin was supported by radiographic imaging studies. Subsequently, the patient received preoperative chemotherapy and underwent tumor resection with reconstruction. This report describes the cytomorphologic features of this rare intravascular tumor and demonstrates how EBUS-TBNA with ROSE was instrumental in obtaining optimal cytologic sampling for ancillary studies, thus expediting the management. PMID:25745502

  17. Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction following foam ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stephens, R; Dunn, S

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to describe a very rare complication of foam ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy (FUGS). An unusual case of persisting chest discomfort following FUGS in a 61-year-old woman led to a diagnosis of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The patient was found to have a patent foramen ovale (PFO). The differential diagnoses of paradoxical embolism, gas embolism or vasospasm are discussed, with reference to relevant literature. A hypothesis of post sclerotherapy release of endothelin-1 (in a patient with a known PFO) leading to sustained coronary artery spasm causing sufficient myocardial damage to be reflected in elevated troponin levels is suggested. Any episode of chest tightness or pain following FUGS should be considered as possibly cardiac in origin. Sustained symptoms warrant admission to hospital for troponin monitoring and ECG assessment. PMID:23563647

  18. Peripheral pulmonary carcinoid tumor diagnosed by endobronchial-ultrasound-guided bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ayaka; Akamatsu, Hiroaki; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2016-03-01

    A 45-year-old Japanese woman complained of uncontrolled hypertension and face swelling. She was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome with secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography revealed a 2 × 2 cm mass in her left lung, with high standardized maximum uptake value. She underwent bronchoscopy with endobronchial ultrasound via a guide-sheath. Surgical resection of her left upper lung was performed, and pathological examination showed a typical carcinoid tumor. After lung resection, she recovered from her subjective symptoms. Diagnosis of peripheral carcinoid tumor of the lung is generally difficult. Here, we introduce a case of peripheral pulmonary carcinoid tumor diagnosed by endobronchial-ultrasound-guided bronchoscopy. PMID:26839693

  19. The utility of ultrasound-guided thoracentesis and pleural biopsy in undiagnosed pleural exudates.

    PubMed

    Koegelenberg, Coenraad Frederik N; Irusen, Elvis Malcom; von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Bruwer, Johannes Willem; Batubara, Enas Mansour A; Diacon, Andreas Henri

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the utility of ultrasound to guide the selection of closed pleural biopsy technique and site and to assess the respective contributions of repeat thoracentesis and closed pleural biopsy in 100 consecutive patients with undiagnosed pleural exudates. Thoracentesis was more likely to be diagnostic in TB than malignancy (77.8% vs 31.0%, p<0.001). The addition of ultrasound-guided biopsy increased the combined yield for all diagnoses from 48.0% to 90.0% (p<0.001), for malignancy from 31.0% to 89.7% (p<0.001) and for TB from 77.8% to 88.9% (p=0.688). Our findings suggest that this minimally invasive approach has a high diagnostic yield. PMID:25997433

  20. Metastases to the Pancreas Encountered on Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided, Fine-Needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Pang, Judy C; Roh, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    Metastatic lesions in the pancreas are very uncommon and may be difficult to differentiate from the more commonly encountered primary neoplasms derived from the exocrine and endocrine pancreas because of the significant overlap in clinical presentation, imaging, and cytologic features. Metastasis to the pancreas may occur years after treatment of the primary neoplasm and is often not considered on initial evaluation because of the rarity of such events. The possibility of a metastasis to the pancreas should be entertained in patients with any prior history of malignancy because a proper diagnosis is essential in identifying surgical candidates, or avoiding potentially unnecessary surgery and facilitating triage to more appropriate nonoperative therapy. Herein, we describe intrapancreatic metastases secondary to renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and lung carcinoma, as documented by cytologic examination of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the pancreatic masses. PMID:26414469

  1. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous cholecystostomy in acute cholecystitis: case vignette and review of the technique.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Pablo A; Do Pico, Juan J

    2015-12-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a frequent condition. Although cholecystectomy is the indicated treatment of this entity, it cannot be performed in some high-risk surgery patients, such as critically ill or those with multiple comorbidities. In these non-uncommon scenarios, percutaneous cholecystostomy is the recommended alternative treatment, which allows immediate decompression and drainage of the acutely inflamed gallbladder and thus reducing the patient's symptoms and the systemic inflammatory response. Ultrasound is the imaging method of choice to guide the percutaneous cholecystostomy procedure due to its real-time guidance, lack of ionizing radiation and portability, avoiding the need to transfer unhealthy patients to the radiology department. We will review the ultrasound-guided percutaneous cholecystostomy procedure, of special interest for radiologists, surgeons, and also intensive care and emergency physicians. PMID:26550068

  2. Learning Ultrasound-Guided Needle Insertion Skills through an Edutainment Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Wing-Yin; Ni, Dong; Pang, Wai-Man; Qin, Jing; Chui, Yim-Pan; Yu, Simon Chun-Ho; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    Ultrasound-guided needle insertion is essential in many of minimally invasive surgeries or procedures, such as biopsy, drug delivery, spinal anaesthesia, etc. Accurate and safe needle insertion is a difficult task due to the high requirement of hand-eye coordination skills. Many proposed virtual reality (VR) based training systems put their emphasis on realistic simulation instead of pedagogical efficiency. The lack of schematic training scenario leads to boredom of repetitive operations. To solve this, we present our novel training system with the integration of game elements in order to retain the trainees' enthusiasm. Task-oriented scenarios, time attack scenarios and performance evaluation are introduced. Besides, some state-of-art technologies are also presented, including ultrasound simulation, needle haptic rendering as well as a mass-spring-based needle-tissue interaction simulation. These works are shown to be effective to keep the trainees up with learning.

  3. Ultrasound-guided central cluster approach for the supraclavicular brachial plexus block: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Geum; Lee, Kyung Cheon; Kim, Hong Soon; Park, Seol Ju; Suh, Young Je

    2015-01-01

    There are many different approaches to ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block (US-SCBPB), and each has a different success rate and complications. The most commonly performed US-SCBPB is the corner pocket approach in which the needle is advanced very close to the subclavian artery and pleura. Therefore, it may be associated with a risk of subclavian artery puncture or pneumothorax. We advanced the needle into the central part of the neural cluster after penetrating the sheath of the brachial plexus in US-SCBPB. We refer to this new method as the "central cluster approach." In this approach, the needle does not have to advance close to the subclavian artery or pleura. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of the central cluster approach in US-SCBPB. PMID:26634085

  4. Ultrasound-guided near-infrared spectroscopy for brain functional study: feasibility analysis and preliminary work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ronald; Qiang, Bo; Liu, Jun

    2005-04-01

    Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy (DOIS) allow the noninvasive measurement of local changes in cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics. Available DOIS devices fall into three categories: time domain (TD), frequency domain (FD) and continuous wave (CW). The TD and FD devices have potential for high spatial resolution, high temporal resolution and high accuracy measurement, but the instrument cost and the hardware size prevent their wide clinical application. Furthermore, the presence of the low scattering cerebrospinal fluid layer (CSF) and its thickness variation during motion challenges quantitative, continuous monitoring of the cortex layer oxygenation and blood content. MRI has been used to provide a priori knowledge of the head anatomy that helps the NIR image reconstruction. However, the technology is expensive and lacks portability. This paper proposes a method that combines the accuracy of a TD/FD system and the portability of a CW device. With the optical baseline measured by a TD or FD device and the layer thickness characterized by an ultrasound transducer, a conventional CW system may be able to quantify the cortex layer optical absorption with high accuracy. In this paper, the feasibility of using ultrasound guided CW spectroscopy to monitor brain activities was studied on a multi layer head model using Monte Carlo simulation and order of magnitude analysis. A forward algorithm based on diffuse approximation and 2D Fourier Transform was used to optimize the source detector separation. Both analytical and neuron network approaches were developed for inverse calculation of the cortex layer absorption in real time. An ultrasound transducer was used to monitor the thickness of different layers surrounding the cerebral cortex. The concept of ultrasound guided CW spectroscopy was demonstrated by numerical simulation on a 2 layer head model and the use of the ultrasound transducer for layer thickness characterization was verified by animal and bench top results.

  5. [Transrectal ultrasound-guided punch biopsies of the prostate. Indication, technique, results, and complications].

    PubMed

    Palisaar, J; Eggert, T; Graefen, M; Haese, A; Huland, H

    2003-09-01

    The golden standard for diagnosis of prostate cancer is transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic biopsy (TRUS-Bx). The optimal number of cylinders, sampling design, and indications for repeat biopsy are still in a state of flux. At the beginning of the 1980s, considerable doubts persisted regarding the benefit of ultrasound-guided punch biopsy for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The examination on a chair with a fixed ultrasound head caused the patient substantial discomfort. Besides, in the pre-PSA era, most prostate carcinomas were detected by palpation and digitally guided biopsies were easily obtained. Indeed, the DRU procedure alone exhibited low sensitivity. Keetch et al. found that in only 25% of patients with abnormal palpatory findings and PSA between 4 and 20 ng/ml was a carcinoma revealed upon biopsy. On the other hand, patients with suspicious palpatory findings and proven malignancy suffered more frequently from locally advanced and systemic metastasizing tumors. As a result of restaging based on PSA, in most series more than half of the detected carcinomas presented normal palpatory findings. Ultrasound examination made precise imaging of zonal structures possible and thus offered the advantage of precision guidance for tissue biopsy despite lower sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of suspicious lesions. Furthermore, calculation of prostate volume was possible. At the end of the 1980s, Hodge defined the systematic sextant biopsy as the first golden standard for early detection of prostate cancer. This meant the systematic removal of three punch cylinders from both lateral lobes of the prostate in the parasagittal midline at various levels (apex, middle, and base). PMID:14504751

  6. Epidural injections for back pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... procedure does not cure the cause of your back pain. You will need to continue back exercises and ...

  7. Intra-articular hip injections for lateral hip pain

    PubMed Central

    Bessette, Matthew C.; Olsen, Joshua R.; Mann, Tobias R.; Giordano, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Occult intra-articular hip pathology is commonly found in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome, and may be a possible pain generator in patients with recalcitrant lateral hip pain. We investigated the effect of intra-articular hip injections in patients with recalcitrant lateral hip pain. Between September 2012 and May 2013, patients over the age of 18 with a history lateral hip pain who had received prior treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications, physical therapy and peritrochanteric corticostroid injections were enrolled. Treatment consisted of an ultrasound guided intra-articular corticosteroid injection followed by a course of directed physical therapy and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication. Patients performed GaitRite analysis at baseline and 12 weeks following the injection. In addition, the Modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Non-Arthritic Hip Score (NAHS), Hip Outcome Scores (HOS), Short Form 36 (SF-36) and a visual analogue pain score (VAS) were collected at baseline, 1, 6 and 12 weeks.A total of 16 patients were studied. Patients experienced significant improvements from their baseline mHHS at 1 and 12 weeks (P = 0.03, P = 0.04). The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was exceeded at multiple timepoints on various clinical outcome surveys. Velocity and stride length were not significantly improved at 12 weeks. Intra-articular hip injections may decrease pain and improve function in patients with recalcitrant lateral hip pain, and occult intra-articular hip pathology should be considered in the etiology of lateral hip pain. Though low enrollment numbers left this study underpowered, MCID comparisons demonstrated potential benefit from this treatment. PMID:27011805

  8. Randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness study comparing pulsed radiofrequency to steroid injections for occipital neuralgia or migraine with occipital nerve tenderness.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Steven P; Peterlin, B Lee; Fulton, Larry; Neely, Edward T; Kurihara, Connie; Gupta, Anita; Mali, Jimmy; Fu, Diana C; Jacobs, Michael B; Plunkett, Anthony R; Verdun, Aubrey J; Stojanovic, Milan P; Hanling, Steven; Constantinescu, Octav; White, Ronald L; McLean, Brian C; Pasquina, Paul F; Zhao, Zirong

    2015-12-01

    Occipital neuralgia (ON) is characterized by lancinating pain and tenderness overlying the occipital nerves. Both steroid injections and pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) are used to treat ON, but few clinical trials have evaluated efficacy, and no study has compared treatments. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness study in 81 participants with ON or migraine with occipital nerve tenderness whose aim was to determine which treatment is superior. Forty-two participants were randomized to receive local anesthetic and saline, and three 120 second cycles of PRF per targeted nerve, and 39 were randomized to receive local anesthetic mixed with deposteroid and 3 rounds of sham PRF. Patients, treating physicians, and evaluators were blinded to interventions. The PRF group experienced a greater reduction in the primary outcome measure, average occipital pain at 6 weeks (mean change from baseline -2.743 2.487 vs -1.377 1.970; P < 0.001), than the steroid group, which persisted through the 6-month follow-up. Comparable benefits favoring PRF were obtained for worst occipital pain through 3 months (mean change from baseline -1.925 3.204 vs -0.541 2.644; P = 0.043), and average overall headache pain through 6 weeks (mean change from baseline -2.738 2.753 vs -1.120 2.1; P = 0.037). Adverse events were similar between groups, and few significant differences were noted for nonpain outcomes. We conclude that although PRF can provide greater pain relief for ON and migraine with occipital nerve tenderness than steroid injections, the superior analgesia may not be accompanied by comparable improvement on other outcome measures. PMID:26447705

  9. Randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness study comparing pulsed radiofrequency to steroid injections for occipital neuralgia or migraine with occipital nerve tenderness

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Steven P.; Peterlin, B. Lee; Fulton, Larry; Neely, Edward T.; Kurihara, Connie; Gupta, Anita; Mali, Jimmy; Fu, Diana C.; Jacobs, Michael B.; Plunkett, Anthony R.; Verdun, Aubrey J.; Stojanovic, Milan P.; Hanling, Steven; Constantinescu, Octav; White, Ronald L.; McLean, Brian C.; Pasquina, Paul F.; Zhao, Zirong

    2015-01-01

    Occipital neuralgia (ON) is characterized by lancinating pain and tenderness overlying the occipital nerves. Both steroid injections and pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) are used to treat ON, but few clinical trials have evaluated efficacy, and no study has compared treatments. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness study in 81 participants with ON or migraine with occipital nerve tenderness whose aim was to determine which treatment is superior. Forty-two participants were randomized to receive local anesthetic and saline, and three 120 second cycles of PRF per targeted nerve, and 39 were randomized to receive local anesthetic mixed with deposteroid and 3 rounds of sham PRF. Patients, treating physicians, and evaluators were blinded to interventions. The PRF group experienced a greater reduction in the primary outcome measure, average occipital pain at 6 weeks (mean change from baseline −2.743 ± 2.487 vs −1.377 ± 1.970; P <0.001), than the steroid group, which persisted through the 6-month follow-up. Comparable benefits favoring PRF were obtained for worst occipital pain through 3 months (mean change from baseline−1.925 ± 3.204 vs−0.541 ± 2.644; P = 0.043), and average overall headache pain through 6 weeks (mean change from baseline −2.738 ± 2.753 vs −1.120 ± 2.1; P = 0.037). Adverse events were similar between groups, and few significant differences were noted for nonpain outcomes. We conclude that although PRF can provide greater pain relief for ON and migraine with occipital nerve tenderness than steroid injections, the superior analgesia may not be accompanied by comparable improvement on other outcome measures. PMID:26447705

  10. Inhaled Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You are here: Health Information > Medications > Asthma and Lung Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids ... used every day to maintain control of your lung disease and prevent symptoms. An inhaled steroid prevents and ...

  11. Diagnostic utility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy for glomus tumor of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shin; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Chinen, Kenji; Murakami, Takahiro; Kunishima, Fumihito

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old man was referred for further investigation of a gastric submucosal tumor on the greater curvature of the antrum. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated a hypoechoic solid mass, which was primarily connected to the muscular layer of the stomach. We performed endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The pathological examination showed proliferation of oval-shaped cells with nest formation, which stained strongly positive for muscle actin, and negative for c-kit, CD34, CD56, desmin, S-100, chromogranin, and neuron-specific enolase. Therefore, we performed laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery based on the preoperative diagnosis of glomus tumor of the stomach. The final histological diagnosis confirmed the preoperative diagnosis. Although preoperative diagnosis of glomus tumor of the stomach is difficult with conventional images and endoscopic biopsy, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy is an essential tool to gain histological evidence of glomus tumor of the stomach for early diagnosis. PMID:26078584

  12. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy for the diagnosis of lumps in the neck: results in 82 patients.

    PubMed

    Howlett, D C; Menezes, L; Bell, D J; Ahmed, I; Witcher, T; Bhatti, N; Ramesar, K; Williams, M D

    2006-02-01

    Ultrasound-guided core biopsy of nodes (n = 78) and other lumps (n = 4) in the neck allowed a firm histological diagnosis in 76 of 82 patients (93%). Of the remaining six patients, histological examination was equivocal in four and valueless in two. Of 18 patients with a diagnosis of lymphoma only 3 required excision of the node to provide additional information for the planning of treatment. PMID:16214272

  13. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Venkatraman, Rajagopalan; Abhinaya, Ranganathan Jothi; Sakthivel, Ayyanar; Sivarajan, Govindarajan

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Transversus abdominis plane block (TAP block) is a novel procedure to provide postoperative analgesia following inguinal hernia surgery. The utilization of ultrasound has greatly augmented the success rate of this block and additionally avoiding complications. The aim of our study was to gauge the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided TAP block in patients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair. Materials and methods Sixty patients scheduled for elective inguinal hernia repair were selected for the study. At the end of the surgical procedure, they were randomly divided into two groups. Ultrasound-guided TAP block was performed with 20 mL of ropivacaine 0.2% (group A) or normal saline (group B). Visual analog scale (VAS) scores were used to assess pain. Paracetamol was given if VAS > 3 and tramadol was used when VAS > 6. Patients were monitored for VAS scores and total analgesic consumption for the 24-hour period. Results The TAP block with ropivacaine (group A) reduced VAS scores at 4, 6, and 12 hours. There was no distinction in VAS scores at 0, 2, and 24 hours between the two groups. The duration of analgesia for TAP block with ropivacaine lasted for 390 minutes. Total analgesics consumption was also significantly reduced in group A than group B. No complication was reported to TAP block in both the groups. Conclusion The ultrasound-guided TAP block provides good postoperative analgesia, reduces analgesic requirements, and provides good VAS scores with fewer complications following inguinal hernia surgery. PMID:26848274

  14. K-ras gene mutation in the diagnosis of ultrasound guided fine-needle biopsy of pancreatic masses

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Min; Liu, Lian-Xin; Zhu, An-Long; Qi, Shu-Yi; Jiang, Hong-Chi; Xiao, Zhu-Ying

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the utility of K-ras mutation analysis of ultrasound guided fine-needle aspirate biopsy of pancreatic masses. METHODS: Sixty-six ultrasound guided fine-needle biopsies were evaluated by cytology, histology and K-ras mutation. The mutation at codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene was detected by artificial restriction fragment length polymorphisms using BstN I approach. RESULTS: The presence of malignant cells was reported in 40 of 54 pancreatic carcinomas and K-ras mutations were detected in 45 of the 54 FNABs of pancreatic carcinomas. The sensitivity of cytology and K-ras mutation were 74% and 83%, respectively. The speciality of cytology and K-ras mutation were both 100%. The sensitivity and speciality of K-ras mutation combined with cytology were 83% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: High diagnostic accuracy with acceptable discomfort of FNAB make it useful in diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. Ultrasound guided fine-needle biopsy is a safe and feasible method for diagnosing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma has the highest K-ras mutation rate among all solid tumors. The mutation rate of K-ras is about 80%-100%. The usage of mutation of codon 12 of K-ras oncogene combined with cytology is a good alternative for evaluation of pancreatic masses. PMID:12508380

  15. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Mitoxantrone injection is used to decrease the number of symptom episodes and slow the development of disability in patients with certain forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitoxantrone injection is also used together with steroid medications to ...

  16. Ultrasound Guided Low Approach Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block for Upper Limb Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Kyung; Sung, Min Ha; Suh, Hae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background The interscalene brachial plexus block is widely used for pain control and anesthetic purposes during shoulder arthroscopic surgeries and surgeries of the upper extremities. However, it is known that interscalene brachial plexus block is not appropriate for upper limb surgeries because it does not affect the lower trunk (C8-T1, ulnar nerve) of the brachial plexus. Methods A low approach, ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block (LISB) was performed on twenty-eight patients undergoing surgery of the upper extremities. The patients were assessed five minutes and fifteen minutes after the block for the degree of block in each nerve and muscle as well as for any complications. Results At five minutes and fifteen minutes after the performance of the block, the degree of the block in the ulnar nerve was found to be 2.8 ± 2.6 and 1.1 ± 1.8, respectively, based on a ten-point scale. Motor block occurred in the median nerve after fifteen minutes in 26 of the 28 patients (92.8%), and in all of the other three nerves in all 28 patients. None of the patients received additional analgesics, and none experienced complications. Conclusions The present study confirmed the achievement of an appropriate sensory and motor block in the upper extremities, including the ulnar nerve, fifteen minutes after LISB, with no complications. PMID:26839666

  17. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided obturator nerve block in transurethral surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thallaj, Ahmed; Rabah, Dany

    2011-01-01

    Background: During transurethral resection surgery (TUR), accidental stimulation of the obturator nerve can cause violent adductor contraction, leading to serious intraoperative complications. General anesthesia with muscle relaxation is currently the preferred technique for TUR surgery. Spinal anesthesia combined with obturator nerve block has also been used for TUR surgery in geriatric population. Blind, anatomical methods for identifying the obturator nerve are often unsatisfactory. Therefore, we conducted this prospective study to validate the efficacy of ultrasound-guided obturator nerve block (USONB) during TUR procedures. Methods: Eighteen male patients undergoing TURP surgery under spinal anesthesia were included in the study. Bilateral USONB with maximum 20 ml of 1% lidocaine per patient was performed. An independent observer was present to monitor any adduction movements during the operation and to record patient and surgeon satisfactions. Results: In all patients, obturator nerve was visualized from the first attempt, requiring an average of 4.3 min for blocking of each side. USONB was successful (97.2%) in preventing an adductor spasm in all except one patient. Patient’s and surgeon’s satisfaction were appropriate. In all patients, adductor muscle strength recovered fully within 2 h following the surgical procedure. Conclusions: USONB is safe and effective during TUR surgery. It provides optimal intra-and postoperative conditions. PMID:21655015

  18. A PET/CT Directed, 3D Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy System for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Master, Viraj; Nieh, Peter; Akbari, Hamed; Yang, Xiaofeng; Fenster, Aaron; Schuster, David

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer affects 1 in 6 men in the USA. Systematic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy is the standard method for a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, this blind biopsy approach can miss at least 20% of prostate cancers. In this study, we are developing a PET/CT directed, 3D ultrasound image-guided biopsy system for improved detection of prostate cancer. In order to plan biopsy in three dimensions, we developed an automatic segmentation method based wavelet transform for 3D TRUS images of the prostate. The segmentation was tested in five patients with a DICE overlap ratio of more than 91%. In order to incorporate PET/CT images into ultrasound-guided biopsy, we developed a nonrigid registration algorithm for TRUS and PET/CT images. The registration method has been tested in a prostate phantom with a target registration error (TRE) of less than 0.4 mm. The segmentation and registration methods are two key components of the multimodality molecular image-guided biopsy system. PMID:26866061

  19. Are complications of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies of the prostate gland increasing?

    PubMed

    Dodds, Peter R; Boucher, Jonathan D; Shield, Dennis E; Bernie, Jonathan E; Batter, Stephen J; Serels, Scott R; Dodds, Jon H

    2011-09-01

    Although transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies (TRUSB) of the prostate gland are generally considered to be low-risk procedures, a study from Canada reported that there had been a significant increase in the percentage of hospital admissions following TRUSBs between 1996 and 2005 (1.0% to 4.1%). The authors speculated that the increase may be secondary to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria or the result of an increasing number of cores taken with each TRUSB. In a chart review, we retrospectively evaluated complications from 2,080 consecutive TRUSBs performed by one urology group in Connecticut between January 2003 and August 2010. We identified seven patients (0.34%) who were admitted to an acute-care hospital for infectious complications and three patients (0.14%) who were admitted for bleeding. The risk of serious infections and bleeding did not significantly rise during the study period despite a significant increase in the mean number of biopsy cores taken. PMID:21980673

  20. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors: How We Do It Safely and Completely.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Woong; Shin, Sang Soo; Heo, Suk Hee; Hong, Jun Hyung; Lim, Hyo Soon; Seon, Hyun Ju; Hur, Young Hoe; Park, Chang Hwan; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation has become one of the most promising local cancer therapies for both resectable and nonresectable hepatic tumors. Although RF ablation is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of liver tumors, the outcome of treatment can be closely related to the location and shape of the tumors. There may be difficulties with RF ablation of tumors that are adjacent to large vessels or extrahepatic heat-vulnerable organs and tumors in the caudate lobe, possibly resulting in major complications or treatment failure. Thus, a number of strategies have been developed to overcome these challenges, which include artificial ascites, needle track ablation, fusion imaging guidance, parallel targeting, bypass targeting, etc. Operators need to use the right strategy in the right situation to avoid the possibility of complications and incomplete thermal tissue destruction; with the right strategy, RF ablation can be performed successfully, even for hepatic tumors in high-risk locations. This article offers technical strategies that can be used to effectively perform RF ablation as well as to minimize possible complications related to the procedure with representative cases and schematic illustrations. PMID:26576111

  1. 3-D ultrasound-guided robotic needle steering in biological tissue.

    PubMed

    Adebar, Troy K; Fletcher, Ashley E; Okamura, Allison M

    2014-12-01

    Robotic needle steering systems have the potential to greatly improve medical interventions, but they require new methods for medical image guidance. Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound is a widely available, low-cost imaging modality that may be used to provide real-time feedback to needle steering robots. Unfortunately, the poor visibility of steerable needles in standard grayscale ultrasound makes automatic segmentation of the needles impractical. A new imaging approach is proposed, in which high-frequency vibration of a steerable needle makes it visible in ultrasound Doppler images. Experiments demonstrate that segmentation from this Doppler data is accurate to within 1-2 mm. An image-guided control algorithm that incorporates the segmentation data as feedback is also described. In experimental tests in ex vivo bovine liver tissue, a robotic needle steering system implementing this control scheme was able to consistently steer a needle tip to a simulated target with an average error of 1.57 mm. Implementation of 3-D ultrasound-guided needle steering in biological tissue represents a significant step toward the clinical application of robotic needle steering. PMID:25014948

  2. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration: The wet suction technique.

    PubMed

    Villa, Nicolas A; Berzosa, Manuel; Wallace, Michael B; Raijman, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become a fundamental tool in obtaining cytopathological diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. When sampling solid lesions of the pancreas, the endosonographer can use two suction techniques to enhance tissue acquisition; the dry and the wet suction techniques. The standard dry suction technique relies on applying negative pressure suction on the proximal end of the needle after the stylet is removed with a pre-vacuum syringe. The wet suction technique relies on pre-flushing the needle with saline to replace the column of air with fluid followed by aspiration the proximal end by using a prefilled syringe with saline. A new modified wet suction technique (hybrid suction technique) relies on preloading the needle with saline, but having continuous negative pressure with a pre-vacuum syringe to avoid manual intermittent suction. Tissue acquisition can be enhanced by applying fluid dynamic principles to the current aspiration techniques, such as the column of water used in the needle of the wet technique. In this review, we will focus on EUS-FNA using the wet suction technique for sampling of pancreatic solid lesions. PMID:26879162

  3. First Experience of Ultrasound-guided Percutaneous Ablation for Recurrent Hepatoblastoma after Liver Resection in Children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoxian; Zhou, Luyao; Huang, Guangliang; Zhong, Zhihai; Jiang, Chunlin; Shan, Quanyuan; Xu, Ming; Kuang, Ming; Xie, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to summarize the first experience with ultrasound-guided percutaneous ablation treatment (PAT) for recurrent hepatoblastoma (HB) after liver resection in children. From August 2013 to October 2014, PAT was used to treat 5 children with a total of 8 recurrent HB (mean size, 1.4??0.8?cm; size range, 0.7-3.1?cm), including 4 patients with 7 tumors in the liver and 1 patient with 1 tumor in the lung. Technical success was achieved in all patients (5/5, 100%). The complete ablation rate after the first ablation session was 80% (4/5) on a patient-by-patient basis and 87.5% (7/8) on a tumor-by-tumor basis. Only 1 patient developed a fever with temperature >39?C; it lasted 4 days after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and was resolved by conservative therapy. During the follow-up period, new intrahepatic recurrences after PAT were detected in two patients. One died due to tumor progression 4 months after ablation. The median overall survival time after PAT was 13.8 months. PAT is a safe and promising therapy for children with recurrent HB after liver resection, and further investigation in large-scale randomized clinical trials is required to determine its role in the treatment of this disease. PMID:26578035

  4. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration of pulmonary artery tumors: A systematic review (with video).

    PubMed

    Harris, Kassem; Modi, Kush; Kumar, Abhishek; Dhillon, Samjot Singh

    2015-01-01

    Convex probe endobronchial ultrasound (CP-EBUS) was originally introduced as a diagnostic and staging tool for lung cancer and subsequently utilized for diagnosis of other malignant and benign mediastinal diseases such as melanoma, lymphoma, and sarcoidosis. More recently, CP-EBUS has been successfully used for the visualization and diagnosis of pulmonary emboli and other vascular lesions including primary and metastatic pulmonary artery (PA) tumors. In this review, we will underline the role of EBUS-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial tumors such as sarcomas and tumor emboli. We will concisely discuss the clinical applications of EBUS-TBNA and the types of pulmonary arterial tumors and their different diagnostic modalities. We searched the Cochrane Library and PubMed from 2004 to 2014 to provide the most comprehensive review. Only 10 cases of EBUS-TBNA for intravascular lesions were identified in the literature. Although many cases of EBUS and EUS-guided transvascular tumor biopsies were described in the literature, there were no reported cases of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for intravascular tumor biopsies. Except for one paper, all cases were published as case reports. PMID:26374576

  5. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastrojejunostomy with a lumen-apposing metal stent: a multicenter, international experience

    PubMed Central

    Tyberg, Amy; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Sanchez-Ocaña, Ramon; Peñas, Irene; de la Serna, Carlos; Shah, Janak; Binmoeller, Kenneth; Gaidhane, Monica; Grimm, Ian; Baron, Todd; Kahaleh, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgical gastrojejunostomy and enteral self-expanding metal stents are efficacious for the management of gastric outlet obstruction but limited by high complication rates and short-term efficacy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastrojejunostomy (EUS-GJ) is a novel alternative option. Patients and methods: Patients who underwent EUS-GJ between March 2014 and September 2015 as part of a prospective multicenter registry at four academic centers in two countries were included. Technical success was defined as successful placement of a gastrojejunal lumen-apposing metal stent. Clinical success was defined as the ability of the patient to tolerate an oral diet. Post-procedural adverse events were recorded. Results: The study included 26 patients, of whom 11 (42 %) were male. Technical success was achieved in 24 patients (92 %). Clinical success was achieved in 22 patients (85 %). Of the 4 patients in whom clinical success was not achieved, 2 had persistent nausea and vomiting despite a patent EUS-GJ and required enteral feeding for nutrition, 1 died before the initiation of an oral diet, and 1 underwent surgery for suspected perforation. Adverse events, including peritonitis, bleeding, and surgery, occurred in 3 patients (11.5 %). Conclusion: EUS-GJ is an emerging procedure that has efficacy and safety comparable with those of current therapies and should hold a place as a new minimally invasive option for patients with gastric outlet obstruction. Clinical trial identification number: NCT01522573 PMID:27004243

  6. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors: How We Do It Safely and Completely

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Woong; Heo, Suk Hee; Hong, Jun Hyung; Lim, Hyo Soon; Seon, Hyun Ju; Hur, Young Hoe; Park, Chang Hwan; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation has become one of the most promising local cancer therapies for both resectable and nonresectable hepatic tumors. Although RF ablation is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of liver tumors, the outcome of treatment can be closely related to the location and shape of the tumors. There may be difficulties with RF ablation of tumors that are adjacent to large vessels or extrahepatic heat-vulnerable organs and tumors in the caudate lobe, possibly resulting in major complications or treatment failure. Thus, a number of strategies have been developed to overcome these challenges, which include artificial ascites, needle track ablation, fusion imaging guidance, parallel targeting, bypass targeting, etc. Operators need to use the right strategy in the right situation to avoid the possibility of complications and incomplete thermal tissue destruction; with the right strategy, RF ablation can be performed successfully, even for hepatic tumors in high-risk locations. This article offers technical strategies that can be used to effectively perform RF ablation as well as to minimize possible complications related to the procedure with representative cases and schematic illustrations. PMID:26576111

  7. Ultrasound-guided catheterisation of the subclavian vein: freehand vs needle-guided technique.

    PubMed

    Maecken, T; Heite, L; Wolf, B; Zahn, P K; Litz, R J

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this prospective, randomised study was to examine the impact of a multi-angle needle guide for ultrasound-guided, in-plane, central venous catheter placement in the subclavian vein. One hundred and sixty patients were randomly allocated to two groups, freehand or needle-guided, and then 159 catheterisations were analysed. Cannulation of the first examined access site was successful in 96.9% of cases with no significant difference between groups. There were three arterial punctures and no other severe injuries. Catheter misplacements did not differ between the groups. Higher success rates within the first and second attempts in the needle-guided group were observed (p = 0.041 and p = 0.019, respectively). Use of the needle guide reduced the access time from a median (IQR [range]) of 30 (18-76 [6-1409]) s to 16 (10-30 [4-295]) s; p = 0.0001, and increased needle visibility from 31.8% (9.7%-52.2% [0-96.67]) to 86.2% (62.5%-100% [0-100]); p < 0.0001. A multi-angle needle guide significantly improved aligning the needle and ultrasound plane compared with the freehand technique when cannulating the subclavian vein. Use of the guide resulted in faster access times and increased success at the first and second attempts. PMID:26316098

  8. Accuracy evaluation of a 3D ultrasound-guided biopsy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, Walter J.; Nye, Jonathan A.; Schuster, David M.; Nieh, Peter T.; Master, Viraj A.; Votaw, John R.; Fei, Baowei

    2013-03-01

    Early detection of prostate cancer is critical in maximizing the probability of successful treatment. Current systematic biopsy approach takes 12 or more randomly distributed core tissue samples within the prostate and can have a high potential, especially with early disease, for a false negative diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of a 3D ultrasound-guided biopsy system. Testing was conducted on prostate phantoms created from an agar mixture which had embedded markers. The phantoms were scanned and the 3D ultrasound system was used to direct the biopsy. Each phantom was analyzed with a CT scan to obtain needle deflection measurements. The deflection experienced throughout the biopsy process was dependent on the depth of the biopsy target. The results for markers at a depth of less than 20 mm, 20-30 mm, and greater than 30 mm were 3.3 mm, 4.7 mm, and 6.2 mm, respectively. This measurement encapsulates the entire biopsy process, from the scanning of the phantom to the firing of the biopsy needle. Increased depth of the biopsy target caused a greater deflection from the intended path in most cases which was due to an angular incidence of the biopsy needle. Although some deflection was present, this system exhibits a clear advantage in the targeted biopsy of prostate cancer and has the potential to reduce the number of false negative biopsies for large lesions.

  9. Anaesthesia for ultrasound guided oocyte retrieval: midazolam/remifentanil versus propofol/fentanyl regimens.

    PubMed

    Casati, A; Valentini, G; Zangrillo, A; Senatore, R; Mello, A; Airaghi, B; Torri, G

    1999-11-01

    To evaluate the quality of intra-operative anaesthesia and recovery characteristics of two different anaesthesia regimens, 60 healthy women undergoing ultrasound guided oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization procedures were randomly allocated to receive either a propofol/fentanyl or a midazolam/remifentanil based anaesthesia. The surgical procedure was successful in all patients and no severe side effects were reported by any patient. Four patients in the midazolam/remifentanil group (13%) would not accept the same anaesthetic procedure for further in vitro fertilization treatment due to intra-operative awareness, while all propofol/fentanyl patients were prepared to accept the same procedure again (P < 0.05). Patients in the propofol/fentanyl group required manual ventilation more frequently through a facemask than those patients treated with the midazolam/remifentanil combination (50% and 30%, respectively; P < 0.05). The time to achieve an Aldrete's score of 10 was shorter in the midazolam/remifentanil patients (2 +/- 2 min) than in those who received propofol/fentanyl (4 +/- 2 min) (P < 0.001), but no differences were observed in the time required to be 'fit to discharge' from the post-anaesthesia care unit. We conclude that the use of a midazolam/remifentanil regimen is as effective and safe as a fentanyl/propofol regimen in patients undergoing transvaginal oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization procedures. PMID:10713871

  10. Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Biopsy of the Prostate: Is the Information Accessible, Usable, Reliable and Readable?

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Ciaran E.; Nason, Gregory J.; Kelly, Michael E.; McMahon, Colm; Cantwell, Colin P.; Quinlan, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the accessibility, usability, reliability and readability of Internet information regarding transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy of the prostate. Materials and Methods The terms “prostate biopsy”, “TRUS biopsy” and “transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate” were separately entered into the each of the top 5 most accessed Internet search engines. Websites were evaluated for accessibility, usability and reliability using the LIDA tool – a validated tool for the assessment of health related websites. Website readability was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score and the Flesch Kincaid Grade Level. Results Following the application of exclusion criteria, 82 unique websites were analyzed. There was a significant difference in scores depending on authorship categories (p ≤ 0.001), with health related charity websites scoring highest (mean 122.29 ± 13.98) and non-academic affiliated institution websites scoring lowest (mean 87 ± 19.76). The presence of advertisements on a website was associated with a lower mean overall LIDA tool score (p = 0.024). Only a single website adhered to the National Institutes for Health recommendations on readability. Conclusions This study demonstrates variability in the quality of information available to Internet users regarding TRUS biopsies. Collaboration of website design and clinical acumen are necessary to develop appropriate websites for patient benefit. PMID:26195961

  11. Diagnostic yield of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for mediastinal staging in lung cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Bussy, Sebastián; Labarca, Gonzalo; Canals, Sofia; Caviedes, Iván; Folch, Erik; Majid, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive diagnostic test with a high diagnostic yield for suspicious central pulmonary lesions and for mediastinal lymph node staging. The main objective of this study was to describe the diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA for mediastinal lymph node staging in patients with suspected lung cancer. METHODS: Prospective study of patients undergoing EBUS-TBNA for diagnosis. Patients ≥ 18 years of age were recruited between July of 2010 and August of 2013. We recorded demographic variables, radiological characteristics provided by axial CT of the chest, location of the lesion in the mediastinum as per the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer classification, and definitive diagnostic result (EBUS with a diagnostic biopsy or a definitive diagnostic method). RESULTS: Our analysis included 354 biopsies, from 145 patients. Of those 145 patients, 54.48% were male. The mean age was 63.75 years. The mean lymph node size was 15.03 mm, and 90 lymph nodes were smaller than 10.0 mm. The EBUS-TBNA method showed a sensitivity of 91.17%, a specificity of 100.0%, and a negative predictive value of 92.9%. The most common histological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: EBUS-TBNA is a diagnostic tool that yields satisfactory results in the staging of neoplastic mediastinal lesions. PMID:26176519

  12. First Experience of Ultrasound-guided Percutaneous Ablation for Recurrent Hepatoblastoma after Liver Resection in Children

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baoxian; Zhou, Luyao; Huang, Guangliang; Zhong, Zhihai; Jiang, Chunlin; Shan, Quanyuan; Xu, Ming; Kuang, Ming; Xie, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to summarize the first experience with ultrasound-guided percutaneous ablation treatment (PAT) for recurrent hepatoblastoma (HB) after liver resection in children. From August 2013 to October 2014, PAT was used to treat 5 children with a total of 8 recurrent HB (mean size, 1.4 ± 0.8 cm; size range, 0.7–3.1 cm), including 4 patients with 7 tumors in the liver and 1 patient with 1 tumor in the lung. Technical success was achieved in all patients (5/5, 100%). The complete ablation rate after the first ablation session was 80% (4/5) on a patient-by-patient basis and 87.5% (7/8) on a tumor-by-tumor basis. Only 1 patient developed a fever with temperature >39 °C; it lasted 4 days after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and was resolved by conservative therapy. During the follow-up period, new intrahepatic recurrences after PAT were detected in two patients. One died due to tumor progression 4 months after ablation. The median overall survival time after PAT was 13.8 months. PAT is a safe and promising therapy for children with recurrent HB after liver resection, and further investigation in large-scale randomized clinical trials is required to determine its role in the treatment of this disease. PMID:26578035

  13. A randomized trial of ultrasound-guided anterior subcostal liver biopsy versus the conventional Menghini technique.

    PubMed

    Papini, E; Pacella, C M; Rossi, Z; Bizzarri, G; Fabbrini, R; Nardi, F; Picardi, R

    1991-11-01

    An ultrasound-guided double pass biopsy technique using a large bore cutting needle via an anterior subcostal route (USAB) is described. The diagnostic adequacy of this biopsy procedure was evaluated in comparison with the traditional Menghini technique in 200 cases of suspected chronic liver disease randomly assigned to the two different procedures. Retrieval rate was better in the USAB group. The sample length was less than 15 mm in four cases in the USAB group and in 19 cases in the Menghini group. In three cases in the USAB group the second pass modified the diagnosis of the first specimen from chronic active hepatitis to active cirrhosis. In order to evaluate the safety and discomfort of the two procedures 340 patients assigned to the different techniques had liver ultrasound scans 6 and 24 h following percutaneous biopsy. USAB was associated with a reduced frequency of complications (one out of 170 patients vs. seven out of 170 patients who had the intercostal Menghini procedure). In our study, USAB seems to offer better sampling and size of individual samples, together with reduced frequency of major and minor complications. PMID:1808221

  14. Ultrasound-guided vascular catheterization in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Di Bello, Antonio; Valastro, Carmela; Freggi, Daniela; Saponaro, Vittorio; Grimaldi, Domenico

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the authors describe a simple, nontraumatic procedure for ultrasound-guided placement and maintenance ofjugular and cephalic vein catheterization. The ultrasound scans were performed with a GE Logiq 400 machine connected to a multifrequency (7-11 MHz) linear-array transducer. To find the cephalic vein, longitudinal and transverse color-Doppler ultrasonographic scans were made of the dorsal surface of the flipper. To find the jugular vein, scans of the midline of the lateral surface of the neck were performed. Once the vein had been located, a 16- to 22-gauge 51-mm needle catheter was inserted into the skin beneath the ultrasound probe, inclined at 15-25 degrees to the skin surface. The successful insertion of the catheter inside the vein was monitored by ultrasound. The authors believe that the procedure described offers a good option for fashioning a simple, nontraumatic, and durable vascular access in sea turtles compared with previously described techniques. Caretta caretta, cephalic vein, jugular vein, ultrasonography, vascular catheterization. PMID:20945652

  15. A cMUT probe for ultrasound-guided focused ultrasound targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Gross, Dominique; Coutier, Caroline; Legros, Mathieu; Bouakaz, Ayache; Certon, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound-mediated targeted therapy represents a promising strategy in the arsenal of modern therapy. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) technology could overcome some difficulties encountered by traditional piezoelectric transducers. In this study, we report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of an ultrasound-guided focused ultrasound (USgFUS) cMUT probe dedicated to preclinical evaluation of targeted therapy (hyperthermia, thermosensitive liposomes activation, and sonoporation) at low frequency (1 MHz) with simultaneous ultrasonic imaging and guidance (15 to 20 MHz). The probe embeds two types of cMUT arrays to perform the modalities of targeted therapy and imaging respectively. The wafer-bonding process flow employed for the manufacturing of the cMUTs is reported. One of its main features is the possibility of implementing two different gap heights on the same wafer. All the design and characterization steps of the devices are described and discussed, starting from the array design up to the first in vitro measurements: optical (microscopy) and electrical (impedance) measurements, arrays' electroacoustic responses, focused pressure field mapping (maximum peak-to-peak pressure = 2.5 MPa), and the first B-scan image of a wire-target phantom. PMID:26067049

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of kidney lesions: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Moura, Renata Nobre; Artifon, Everson

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, treatment of renal lesions is indicated based only on imaging features. Although controversy exists about tissue sampling from small renal masses, renal biopsy is indicated in some cases. In this review, we discuss the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and summarize the recent advances in this field, providing recommendations for the practicing clinician. The use of EUS-FNA appears to be a safe and feasible means of confirming or excluding malignancy. EUS allows assessment and biopsy of masses or lesions within both kidneys and related complications are rare. The main advantages of EUS-FNA are that it can be done as an outpatient procedure, with good results, minimal morbidity and a short hospital stay. Nevertheless, EUS-FNA of renal masses should be indicated only in selected cases, in which there is potential to decrease unnecessary treatment of small renal masses and to best select tumors for active surveillance and minimally invasive ablative therapies. Additionally, some renal lesions may be ineligible for EUS-guided biopsy because of anatomical limitations. EUS-FNA renal biopsy will probably be best applied to central anterior renal masses, while tumors on the posterior aspect of the kidney, percutaneous access will probably be superior. PMID:25789096

  17. ULTRASOUND GUIDED FOAM SCLEROTHERAPY - THE SIMPLEST, LEAST INVASIVE, AND CHEAPEST METHOD FOR VARICOSE VEIN TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Krnić, Anton

    2015-06-01

    The aim is to present our experience and observations regarding varicose vein treatment by means of ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS). The study included 81 patients, 54 with insufficient main stem superficial veins in one limb and 27 with both limbs affected. Great saphenous vein insufficiency was diagnosed in 68, small saphenous insufficiency in 18, anterior accessory saphenous vein insufficiency in 11, and Giacomini vein insufficiency in 3 limbs. Seven limbs had combined insufficiency of great saphenous vein and small saphenous vein, and 1 limb had combined insufficiency of Giacomini vein and small saphenous vein. UGFS was employed to treat main stem vein reflux and their tributaries. Within a month after treatment, all main stem veins were occluded and only small corrections were performed occasionally to treat residual varices. Regarding side effects, skin darkening and hard lumps at the sites of varicose veins were most commonly observed. We also recorded several episodes of thrombophlebitis. Few patients experienced dry cough, visual disturbances and headache following the treatment. After six months, repeat UGFS of main stem veins had to be performed in few patients. Very few patients expressed dissatisfaction a year after treatment, mainly because of residual skin darkening. In conclusion, UGFS proved to be the simplest, quickest and cheapest method of varicose vein treatment. According to our experience, it yielded satisfactory functional and cosmetic results. Side effects do occur, but are acceptable, in particular at long term. PMID:26415309

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration: The wet suction technique

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Nicolas A.; Berzosa, Manuel; Wallace, Michael B.; Raijman, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become a fundamental tool in obtaining cytopathological diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. When sampling solid lesions of the pancreas, the endosonographer can use two suction techniques to enhance tissue acquisition; the dry and the wet suction techniques. The standard dry suction technique relies on applying negative pressure suction on the proximal end of the needle after the stylet is removed with a pre-vacuum syringe. The wet suction technique relies on pre-flushing the needle with saline to replace the column of air with fluid followed by aspiration the proximal end by using a prefilled syringe with saline. A new modified wet suction technique (hybrid suction technique) relies on preloading the needle with saline, but having continuous negative pressure with a pre-vacuum syringe to avoid manual intermittent suction. Tissue acquisition can be enhanced by applying fluid dynamic principles to the current aspiration techniques, such as the column of water used in the needle of the wet technique. In this review, we will focus on EUS-FNA using the wet suction technique for sampling of pancreatic solid lesions. PMID:26879162

  19. Analysis of Efficacy Differences between Caudal and Lumbar Interlaminar Epidural Injections in Chronic Lumbar Axial Discogenic Pain: Local Anesthetic Alone vs. Local Combined with Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Benyamin, Ramsin M.; Boswell, Mark V.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design: Comparative assessment of randomized controlled trials of caudal and lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in chronic lumbar discogenic pain. Objective: To assess the comparative efficacy of caudal and lumbar interlaminar approaches of epidural injections in managing axial or discogenic low back pain. Summary of Background Data: Epidural injections are commonly performed utilizing either a caudal or lumbar interlaminar approach to treat chronic lumbar axial or discogenic pain, which is pain exclusive of that associated with a herniated intervertebral disc, or that is due to degeneration of the zygapophyseal joints, or due to dysfunction of the sacroiliac joints, respectively. The literature on the efficacy of epidural injections in managing chronic axial lumbar pain of presumed discogenic origin is limited. Methods: The present analysis is based on 2 randomized controlled trials of chronic axial low back pain not caused by disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain, utilizing either a caudal or lumbar interlaminar approach, with a total of 240 patients studied, and a 24-month follow-up. Patients were assigned to receive either local anesthetic only or local anesthetic with a steroid in each 60 patient group. Results: The primary outcome measure was significant improvement, defined as pain relief and functional status improvement of at least 50% from baseline, which was reported at 24-month follow-ups in 72% who received local anesthetic only with a lumbar interlaminar approach and 54% who received local anesthetic only with a caudal approach. In patients receiving local anesthetic with a steroid, the response rate was 67% for those who had a lumbar interlaminar approach and 68% for those who had a caudal approach at 12 months. The response was significantly better in the lumbar interlaminar group who received local anesthetic only, 77% versus 56% at 12 months and 72% versus 54% at 24 months. Conclusion: This assessment shows that in patients with axial or discogenic pain in the lumbar spine after excluding facet joint and SI Joint pain, epidural injections of local anesthetic by the caudal or lumbar interlaminar approach may be effective in managing chronic low back pain with a potential superiority for a lumbar interlaminar approach over a caudal approach. PMID:25678838

  20. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy of simple renal cysts with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and iodized oil mixture as an outpatient procedure

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Tamer A.; Abdelaal, Mohamed A.; Enite, Ashraf; Badran, Yasser A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound guided percutaneous sclerotherapy of symptomatic simple renal cysts with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and iodized oil mixture as an outpatient single session procedure. Materials and Methods: A total of ninety two patients with 100 symptomatic simple renal cysts (larger than 5 cm) were treated by ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous aspiration and injection of NBCA and iodized oil mixture. The patients (68 men and 24 women, mean age, 42.4 ± 10.5 years) were treated with as out-patients. The volume of the treated cysts was calculated with periodic noncontrast enhanced CT examinations 3, 6 and 9, months after the procedure. The procedure was considered successful at follow-up CT when there was total ablation or greater than 80% reduction of size with resolution of symptoms, respectively. Failure was defined as less than 80% reduction and/or persistent symptoms. Results: The sclerotherapy was technically successful in all patients. The diameter of the cysts ranged between 5.5 and 13.5 cm (mean, 8.8 ± 1.4 cm), and 1.5 and 3.8 cm (mean, 2.1 ± 0.4 cm) before and after sclerotherapy, respectively (P < 0.001). Average diameter reduction was 83.7% during the follow-up period. The mean follow- up lasted 7.1 months (3–11 months). Flank pain resolved in 86 of 92 symptomatic patients (93.48%). In six patients, the symptoms decreased slightly. The procedure was successful in 98 of 100 cysts (98%), demonstrated by follow-up CT. The only two failed cyst was larger than 10 cm in diameter and don’t required any further treatment. We did not observe any procedure related complications. Conclusion: Ultrasound guided percutaneous sclerotherapy with NBCA and iodized oil mixture for management of symptomatic simple renal cysts was found to be a real time, effective, safe, well tolerated, alternative and simple technique that can be carried out by urologists as an outpatient procedure. PMID:26834402

  1. Epidural injection with or without steroid in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain: ameta-analysis of ten randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Jinshuai; Zhang, Long; Li, Mengya; Tian, Yiren; Zheng, Wang; Chen, Jia; Huang, Teng; Li, Xicheng; Tian, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic low back and lower extremity pain is mainly caused by lumbar disc herniation (LDH) and radiculitis. Various surgery and nonsurgical modalities, including epidural injections, have been used to treat LDH or radiculitis. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to assess the effects of the two interventions in managing various chronic low and lower extremity pain. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared the effect of local anesthetic with or without steroids. The outcomes included pain relief, functional improvement, opioid intake, and therapeutic procedural characteristics. Pooled estimates were calculated using a random-effects or fixed-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity between the included studies. Results: 10 RCTs (involving 1111 patients) were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that 41.7% of patients who received local anesthetic with steroid (group 1) and 40.2% of patients who received local anesthetic alone (group 2) had significant improvement in pain relief. And the Numeric Rating Scale pain scales were significantly reduced by 4.09 scores (95% CI: -4.26, -3.91), and 4.12 (95% CI: -4.35, -3.89) scores, respectively. Similarly, 39.8% of patients in group 1 and 40.7% of patients in group 2 achieved significantly improved functional status. The Oswestry Disability Index in the two groups were reduced by 14.5 (95% CI: -15.24, -13.75) and 12.37 (95% CI: -16.13, -8.62), respectively. The average procedures per year in group 1 was 3.68 1.17 and 3.68 1.26 in group 2 with an average total relief per year of 31.67 13.17 weeks and 32.64 13.92 weeks, respectively. The opioid intake decreased from baseline by 8.81 mg (95% CI: -12.24, -5.38) and 16.92 mg (95% CI: -22.71, -11.12) in the two groups, respectively. Conclusion: This meta-analysis confirms that epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids have beneficial but similar effects in the treatment of patients with chronic low back and lower extremity pain. PMID:26309483

  2. Development of a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Derek; Sherebrin, Shi; Izawa, Jonathan; Fenster, Aaron

    2007-03-01

    Biopsy of the prostate using ultrasound guidance is the clinical gold standard for diagnosis of prostate adenocarinoma. However, because early stage tumors are rarely visible under US, the procedure carries high false-negative rates and often patients require multiple biopsies before cancer is detected. To improve cancer detection, it is imperative that throughout the biopsy procedure, physicians know where they are within the prostate and where they have sampled during prior biopsies. The current biopsy procedure is limited to using only 2D ultrasound images to find and record target biopsy core sample sites. This information leaves ambiguity as the physician tries to interpret the 2D information and apply it to their 3D workspace. We have developed a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system that provides 3D intra-biopsy information to physicians for needle guidance and biopsy location recording. The system is designed to conform to the workflow of the current prostate biopsy procedure, making it easier for clinical integration. In this paper, we describe the system design and validate its accuracy by performing an in vitro biopsy procedure on US/CT multi-modal patient-specific prostate phantoms. A clinical sextant biopsy was performed by a urologist on the phantoms and the 3D models of the prostates were generated with volume errors less than 4% and mean boundary errors of less than 1 mm. Using the 3D biopsy system, needles were guided to within 1.36 +/- 0.83 mm of 3D targets and the position of the biopsy sites were accurately localized to 1.06 +/- 0.89 mm for the two prostates.

  3. Fluoroquinolone-based antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Sieczkowski, M; Gibas, A; Bronk, M; Matuszewski, M

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of resistance to fluoroquinolones in Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) and to evaluate the incidence of possible infectious complications associated with this procedure. One hundred and four patients undergoing a TRUS-Bx in a single medical centre were prospectively enrolled in this study. In all patients, pre-biopsy rectal swabs were obtained. The analysis determined the antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli strains to levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and a panel of other antibiotics. Before biopsy, each of the men received a levofloxacin-based prophylaxis. Telephone follow-up was used to identify patients who had complications after TRUS-Bx. Fluoroquinolone-resistant strains were isolated from 9.62 % of the patients. In all cases, there were related to E. coli and all those strains were resistant to both levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Fluoroquinolones showed greater antimicrobial activity against E. coli (p?

  4. Endobronchial ultrasound elastography: a new method in endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jun-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background TBNA through the flexible bronchoscope is a 37-year-old technology that utilizes a TBNA needle to puncture the bronchial wall and obtain specimens of peribronchial and mediastinal lesions through the flexible bronchoscope for the diagnosis of benign and malignant diseases in the mediastinum and lung. Methods Since 2002, the Olympus Company developed the first generation ultrasound equipment for use in the airway, initially utilizing an ultrasound probe introduced through the working channel followed by incoroporation of a fixed linear ultrasound array at the distal tip of the bronchoscope. This new bronchoscope equipped with a convex type ultrasound probe on the tip was subsequently introduced into clinical practice. The convex probe (CP)-EBUS allows real-time endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. EBUS-TBNA is a minimally invasive procedure performed under local anesthesia that has been shown to have a high sensitivity and diagnostic yield for lymph node staging of lung cancer. Results In 10 years of EBUS development, the Olympus Company developed the second generation EBUS bronchoscope (BF-UC260FW) with the ultrasound image processor (EU-M1), and in 2013 introduced a new ultrasound image processor (EU-M2) into clinical practice. FUJI company has also developed a curvilinear array endobronchial ultrasound bronchoscope (EB-530 US) that makes it easier for the operator to master the operation of the ultrasonic bronchoscope. Also, the new thin convex probe endobronchial ultrasound bronchoscope (TCP-EBUS) is able to visualize one to three bifurcations distal to the current CP-EBUS. Conclusions The emergence of EBUS-TBNA has also been accompanied by innovation in EBUS instruments. EBUS elastography is, then, a new technique for describing the compliance of structures during EBUS, which may be of use in the determination of metastasis to the mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. This article describes these new EBUS techniques and reviews the relevant literature. PMID:26807274

  5. Current status of ultrasound-guided surgery in the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Volders, Jos H; Haloua, Max H; Krekel, Nicole Ma; Meijer, Sybren; van den Tol, Petrousjka M

    2016-02-10

    The primary goal of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to obtain tumour-free resection margins. Margins positive or focally positive for tumour cells are associated with a high risk of local recurrence, and in the case of tumour-positive margins, re-excision or even mastectomy are sometimes needed to achieve definite clear margins. Unfortunately, tumour-involved margins and re-excisions after lumpectomy are still reported in up to 40% of patients and additionally, unnecessary large excision volumes are described. A secondary goal of BCS is the cosmetic outcome and one of the main determinants of worse cosmetic outcome is a large excision volume. Up to 30% of unsatisfied cosmetic outcome is reported. Therefore, the search for better surgical techniques to improve margin status, excision volume and consequently, cosmetic outcome has continued. Nowadays, the most commonly used localization methods for BCS of non-palpable breast cancers are wire-guided localization (WGL) and radio-guided localization (RGL). WGL and RGL are invasive procedures that need to be performed pre-operatively with technical and scheduling difficulties. For palpable breast cancer, tumour excision is usually guided by tactile skills of the surgeon performing "blind" surgery. One of the surgical techniques pursuing the aims of radicality and small excision volumes includes intra-operative ultrasound (IOUS). The best evidence available demonstrates benefits of IOUS with a significantly high proportion of negative margins compared with other localization techniques in palpable and non-palpable breast cancer. Additionally, IOUS is non-invasive, easy to learn and can centralize the tumour in the excised specimen with low amount of healthy breast tissue being excised. This could lead to better cosmetic results of BCS. Despite the advantages of IOUS, only a small amount of surgeons are performing this technique. This review aims to highlight the position of ultrasound-guided surgery for malignant breast tumours in the search for better oncological and cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26862490

  6. Ultrasound guided electrocoagulation in patients with chronic non‐insertional Achilles tendinopathy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Boesen, M Ilum; Torp‐Pedersen, S; Koenig, M Juhl; Christensen, R; Langberg, H; Hölmich, P; Nielsen, M Bachmann; Bliddal, H

    2006-01-01

    Background High resolution colour Doppler ultrasound shows intratendinous Doppler activity in patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. Treatment of this neovascularisation with sclerosing therapy seems to relieve the pain. However, the procedure often has to be repeated. Objective To investigate the effect of electrocoagulation of the neovessels on tendon pain and tendon vascularity in patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. Methods Colour Doppler ultrasound guided electrocoagulation was used on vessels in the ventral portion of the Achilles tendon in 11 patients (seven men, four women, mean age 41 years) with painful chronic mid‐portion Achilles tendinosis. A unipolar coagulation device was used. Results One patient dropped out after two months (dissatisfied with the results). The remaining 10 patients (91%) were satisfied. These 10 patients were still satisfied at six months of follow up and had returned to their previous level of activity. All 10 patients were “cured” after one treatment. The patient who dropped out received two treatments because of lack of progress. There was significantly reduced pain (Likert pain scale, 0–10) during activity, from a median of 7 (range 4 to 10) at baseline to 0 (0 to 8) at six months' follow up (p<0.005); and at rest, from 1.5 (1 to 5) to 0 (0 to 8) (p = 0.005). In all patients, vascularisation was unchanged at the six months follow up, with no significant change in semiquantitative or quantitative colour scoring. Conclusions Coagulation in the area with vessels entering the tendon appears to be effective treatment for painful chronic mid‐tendinous Achilles tendinopathy. No effect on the intratendinous Doppler activity could be detected, suggesting that the effect is independent of changes in blood flow. Localisation of hyperaemia appears to be the key to the pathology and for targeting the treatment. One explanation could be that the effect is obtained by destruction of nerves accompanying the vessels. PMID:16807305

  7. Ultrasound-guided aspiration cytology of retroperitoneal masses with histopathological corroboration: A study of 71 cases

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Indranil; Bhowmik, Sourav; Sinha, Mamata Guha Mallick; Bera, Pranati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of retroperitoneal lesions is one of the most difficult areas in surgical pathology. Both primary and metastatic tumors can grow silently in retroperitoneum before the appearance of clinical signs and symptoms. Guided aspiration cytology has shown a promising role in diagnosis of lesions in this region. Aims: This study was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses and to study the spectrum of retroperitoneal lesions in a rural tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This study was done on 71 patients presenting with retroperitoneal masses over a period of 20 months in a tertiary care hospital. Ultrasound-guided FNAC was done and the smears were stained by MGG and H and E stains. Histopathological corroboration could be done on all neoplastic lesions along with some non-neoplastic lesions. Results: Out of 71 cases, 48 cases (67.6%) were found to be neoplastic. Malignant tumors (35 cases) were more common than benign ones (13 cases). Malignant lesions were predominantly composed of lesions of lymph node (17 cases i.e. 48.57%) followed by sarcomas (5 cases) and germ cell tumors. Some uncommon retroperitoneal lesions like adrenal myelolipoma, renal angiomyolipoma, Burkitt's lymphoma and adrenocortical carcinoma were found in our study. Guided FNAC could diagnose all the malignant lesions with 100% accuracy except in 2 cases of poorly differentiated carcinoma which came out to be non-Hodgkin lymphoma on subsequent biopsies. Conclusion: Guided FNAC is an inexpensive, rapid and reliable method for diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses. PMID:25190978

  8. Current status of ultrasound-guided surgery in the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volders, José H; Haloua, Max H; Krekel, Nicole MA; Meijer, Sybren; van den Tol, Petrousjka M

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to obtain tumour-free resection margins. Margins positive or focally positive for tumour cells are associated with a high risk of local recurrence, and in the case of tumour-positive margins, re-excision or even mastectomy are sometimes needed to achieve definite clear margins. Unfortunately, tumour-involved margins and re-excisions after lumpectomy are still reported in up to 40% of patients and additionally, unnecessary large excision volumes are described. A secondary goal of BCS is the cosmetic outcome and one of the main determinants of worse cosmetic outcome is a large excision volume. Up to 30% of unsatisfied cosmetic outcome is reported. Therefore, the search for better surgical techniques to improve margin status, excision volume and consequently, cosmetic outcome has continued. Nowadays, the most commonly used localization methods for BCS of non-palpable breast cancers are wire-guided localization (WGL) and radio-guided localization (RGL). WGL and RGL are invasive procedures that need to be performed pre-operatively with technical and scheduling difficulties. For palpable breast cancer, tumour excision is usually guided by tactile skills of the surgeon performing “blind” surgery. One of the surgical techniques pursuing the aims of radicality and small excision volumes includes intra-operative ultrasound (IOUS). The best evidence available demonstrates benefits of IOUS with a significantly high proportion of negative margins compared with other localization techniques in palpable and non-palpable breast cancer. Additionally, IOUS is non-invasive, easy to learn and can centralize the tumour in the excised specimen with low amount of healthy breast tissue being excised. This could lead to better cosmetic results of BCS. Despite the advantages of IOUS, only a small amount of surgeons are performing this technique. This review aims to highlight the position of ultrasound-guided surgery for malignant breast tumours in the search for better oncological and cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26862490

  9. Diagnostic value of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in various lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ortakoylu, Mediha Gonenc; Iliaz, Sinem; Bahadir, Ayse; Aslan, Asuman; Iliaz, Raim; Ozgul, Mehmet Akif; Urer, Halide Nur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a new method for the diagnosis and staging of lung disease, and its use is increasing worldwide. It has been used as a means of diagnosing lung cancer in its initial stages, and there are data supporting its use for the diagnosis of benign lung disease. The aim of this study was to share our experience with EBUS-TBNA and discuss its diagnostic value. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the results related to 159 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA at our pulmonary medicine clinic between 2010 and 2013. We recorded the location and size of lymph nodes seen during EBUS. Lymph nodes that appeared to be affected on EBUS were sampled at least twice. We recorded the diagnostic results of EBUS-TBNA and (for cases in which EBUS-TBNA yielded an inconclusive diagnosis) the final diagnoses after further investigation and follow-up. Results: We evaluated 159 patients, of whom 89 (56%) were male and 70 (44%) were female. The mean age was 54.6 ± 14.2 years among the male patients and 51.9 ± 11.3 years among the female patients. Of the 159 patients evaluated, 115 (84%) were correctly diagnosed by EBUS. The diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA was 83% for benign granulomatous diseases and 77% for malignant diseases. Conclusions: The diagnostic value of EBUS-TBNA is also high for benign pathologies, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. In patients with mediastinal disorders, the use of EBUS-TBNA should be encouraged, primarily because it markedly reduces the need for mediastinoscopy. PMID:26578131

  10. Real-time ultrasound-guided PCNL using a novel SonixGPS needle tracking system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Long, Qingzhi; Chen, Xingfa; He, Dalin; Dalin, He; He, Hui

    2014-08-01

    SonixGPS is a successful ultrasound guidance position system. It helps to improve accuracy in performing complex puncture operations. This study firstly used SonixGPS to perform kidney calyx access in PCNL to investigate its effectiveness and safety. This was a prospectively randomized controlled study performed from September 2011 to October 2012. A total of 97 patients were prospectively randomized into two groups using random number generated from SAS software. 47 Patients were enrolled in conventional ultrasound-guided (US-guided) group and 50 patients were classified into SonixGPS-guided group. Nine patients were lost during follow-up. Hence, a total of 88 patients were qualified and analyzed. Preoperative examinations included urine analysis, urine culture, kidney function, coagulation profile and routine analysis of blood. Ultrasonography was used to evaluate the degree of hydronephrosis. The intraoperative findings, including blood loss, operating time, time to successful puncture, the number of attempts for successful puncture and hospital stay were recorded. The stone clearance rate and complications were analyzed. The present study showed no significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic data, preoperative markers, stone clearance rate and the stone composition. However, the time to successful puncture, the number of trials for successful puncture, operating time and hospital length of stay were significantly decreased in the SonixGPS-guided group. Furthermore, the hemoglobin decrease was also obviously lower in the SonixGPS group than that in conventional US-guided group. SonixGPS needle tacking system guided PCNL is safe and effective in treating upper urinary tract stones. This novel technology makes puncturing more accuracy and can significantly decrease the incidence of relative hemorrhage and accelerate recovery. PMID:24965272

  11. Epidural Steroid Injections Are Associated with Less Improvement in the Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A subgroup analysis of the SPORT

    PubMed Central

    Radcliff, Kris; Kepler, Christopher; Hilibrand, Alan; Rihn, Jeffrey; Zhao, Wenyan; Lurie, Jon; Tosteson, Tor; Vaccaro, Alexander; Albert, Todd; Weinstein, James

    2013-01-01

    Summary of Background Data Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common incidental finding among adults over the age of 60, The use of ESI in these patients is common, although there is little evidence in the literature to demonstrate the long-term benefit of ESI in the treatment of lumbar stenosis. Objective The hypothesis of this study was that patients who received epidural steroid injections (ESI) during initial treatment as part of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) would have improved clinical outcomes and a lower rate of crossover to surgery compared to patients who did not receive ESI. Methods Patients with lumbar spinal stenosis who received epidural steroid injections within the first three months of enrollment in SPORT (ESI) were compared to patients who did not receive epidural injections during the first three months of the study (No ESI). Results There were 69 ESI patients and 207 No-ESI patients. There were no significant differences in demographic factors, baseline clinical outcome scores, or operative details although there was a significant increase in baseline preference for nonsurgical treatment among ESI patients (62% vs. 33%, p <0.001). There was an average 26 minute increase in operative time and an increased length of stay by 0.9 days among the ESI patients who ultimately underwent surgical treatment. Averaged over four years, there was significantly less improvement in SF36 PF among surgically treated ESI patients (ESI 14.8 vs. No-ESI 22.5, p=0.025). In addition, there was also significantly less improvement among the nonsurgically treated patients in SF36 BP (ESI 7.3 vs. No-ESI 16.7, p=0.007) and SF36 PF (ESI 5.5 vs. No-ESI 15.2, p=0.009). Of the patients assigned to surgical treatment, there was a significantly increased crossover to nonsurgical treatment among patients who received an ESI (ESI 33% vs. No ESI 11%, p=0.012). Of the patients assigned to non-operative treatment, there was a significantly increased crossover to surgical treatment in the ESI patients (ESI 58% vs. No ESI 32%, p=0.003). Conclusion Despite equivalent baseline status, ESI were associated with significantly less improvement at four years among all patients with spinal stenosis in SPORT. Furthermore, ESI were associated with longer duration of surgery and longer hospital stay. There was no improvement in outcome with ESI whether patients were treated surgically or nonsurgically. PMID:23238485

  12. Comparison of the efficacy of saline, local anesthetics, and steroids in epidural and facet joint injections for the management of spinal pain: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Nampiaparampil, Devi E.; Manchikanti, Kavita N.; Falco, Frank J.E.; Singh, Vijay; Benyamin, Ramsin M.; Kaye, Alan D.; Sehgal, Nalini; Soin, Amol; Simopoulos, Thomas T.; Bakshi, Sanjay; Gharibo, Christopher G.; Gilligan, Christopher J.; Hirsch, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of epidural and facet joint injections has been assessed utilizing multiple solutions including saline, local anesthetic, steroids, and others. The responses to these various solutions have been variable and have not been systematically assessed with long-term follow-ups. Methods: Randomized trials utilizing a true active control design were included. The primary outcome measure was pain relief and the secondary outcome measure was functional improvement. The quality of each individual article was assessed by Cochrane review criteria, as well as the criteria developed by the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) for assessing interventional techniques. An evidence analysis was conducted based on the qualitative level of evidence (Level I to IV). Results: A total of 31 trials met the inclusion criteria. There was Level I evidence that local anesthetic with steroids was effective in managing chronic spinal pain based on multiple high-quality randomized controlled trials. The evidence also showed that local anesthetic with steroids and local anesthetic alone were equally effective except in disc herniation, where the superiority of local anesthetic with steroids was demonstrated over local anesthetic alone. Conclusion: This systematic review showed equal efficacy for local anesthetic with steroids and local anesthetic alone in multiple spinal conditions except for disc herniation where the superiority of local anesthetic with steroids was seen over local anesthetic alone. PMID:26005584

  13. Estimated deaths and illnesses averted during fungal meningitis outbreak associated with contaminated steroid injections, United States, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel M; Derado, Gordana; Wise, Matthew; Harris, Julie R; Chiller, Tom; Meltzer, Martin I; Park, Benjamin J

    2015-06-01

    During 2012-2013, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and partners responded to a multistate outbreak of fungal infections linked to methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) injections produced by a compounding pharmacy. We evaluated the effects of public health actions on the scope of this outbreak. A comparison of 60-day case-fatality rates and clinical characteristics of patients given a diagnosis on or before October 4, the date the outbreak was widely publicized, with those of patients given a diagnosis after October 4 showed that an estimated 3,150 MPA injections, 153 cases of meningitis or stroke, and 124 deaths were averted. Compared with diagnosis after October 4, diagnosis on or before October 4 was significantly associated with a higher 60-day case-fatality rate (28% vs. 5%; p<0.0001). Aggressive public health action resulted in a substantially reduced estimated number of persons affected by this outbreak and improved survival of affected patients. PMID:25989264

  14. Sonoanatomy relevant for ultrasound-guided central neuraxial blocks via the paramedian approach in the lumbar region

    PubMed Central

    Karmakar, M K; Li, X; Kwok, W H; Ho, A M-H; Ngan Kee, W D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The use of ultrasound to guide peripheral nerve blocks is now a well-established technique in regional anaesthesia. However, despite reports of ultrasound guided epidural access via the paramedian approach, there are limited data on the use of ultrasound for central neuraxial blocks, which may be due to a poor understanding of spinal sonoanatomy. The aim of this study was to define the sonoanatomy of the lumbar spine relevant for central neuraxial blocks via the paramedian approach. Methods The sonoanatomy of the lumbar spine relevant for central neuraxial blocks via the paramedian approach was defined using a water-based spine phantom, young volunteers and anatomical slices rendered from the Visible Human Project data set. Results The water-based spine phantom was a simple model to study the sonoanatomy of the osseous elements of the lumbar spine. Each osseous element of the lumbar spine, in the spine phantom, produced a signature pattern on the paramedian sagittal scans, which was comparable to its sonographic appearance in vivo. In the volunteers, despite the narrow acoustic window, the ultrasound visibility of the neuraxial structures at the L3/L4 and L4/L5 lumbar intervertebral spaces was good, and we were able to delineate the sonoanatomy relevant for ultrasound-guided central neuraxial blocks via the paramedian approach. Conclusion Using a simple water-based spine phantom, volunteer scans and anatomical slices from the Visible Human Project (cadaver) we have described the sonoanatomy relevant for ultrasound-guided central neuraxial blocks via the paramedian approach in the lumbar region. PMID:22010025

  15. Gonadotrophin and steroid concentrations in jugular and testicular venous plasma in stallions before and after GnRH injection.

    PubMed

    Seamans, M C; Roser, J F; Linford, R L; Liu, I K; Hughes, J P

    1991-01-01

    Six normal stallions of light horse breeds aged 5-17 years were used from fall to winter to investigate the difference between steroid hormone concentrations in testicular and jugular venous blood before and after exogenous GnRH. At 48 h before experimentation, an indwelling cannula was placed surgically in the testicular vein of the stallion. After the stallion recovered from anaesthesia, a catheter was placed percutaneously in the jugular vein. Each stallion was housed in a tie stall to allow simultaneous sampling of jugular or testicular blood. On the first and second sampling days, respectively, 1 ml of physiological saline solution and a 1 ml solution of GnRH (25 micrograms) were administered intravenously. Samples were taken from both sites at intervals from 60 min before treatment to 780 min after treatment. Plasma was analyzed for luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17 beta-hydroxyandrogens (androgens), oestrone and oestrogen conjugates by radioimmunoassay. Pre-treatment (baseline) plasma concentrations of both LH and FSH between jugular and testicular samples were similar. The difference between basal levels of jugular and testicular androgens, oestrone and oestrogen conjugates were 144-fold, 60-fold and 13-fold respectively, although individual variation was observed. A low dose of exogenous GnRH produced a significant LH and FSH response in testicular and jugular plasma (P less than 0.05). There were no significant changes in steroid secretion caused by the increases in LH and FSH (P greater than 0.05), although individual variation in the androgen response was apparent (P less than 0.1). There was a positive correlation between basal testicular venous androgen levels and the magnitude of the FSH response to GnRH (P less than 0.05). Significant correlations between baseline oestrogens and the magnitude of the gonadotrophin response was not observed. Surgery depressed jugular oestrogen conjugate values (P less than 0.001) when compared to pre-surgical samples. Spermatogenesis also was depressed (P less than 0.01) by surgical manipulation, although total viable spermatozoa counts returned to normal limits within 3-5 months post operatively. We developed a model that allows the study of dynamic endocrine events associated with the hypophyseal-gonadal axis of the stallion. Our findings confirm the presence of a testicular-jugular hormone gradient in the unanaesthetized stallion. We have demonstrated that a relatively low dose of GnRH can induce a significant gonadotrophin response and a variable androgen response, but not a significant oestrogen response. Although baseline levels of androgens and not oestrone and oestrogen conjugates appeared to affect pituitary responsiveness, other steroidogenic components may be involved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1795300

  16. Successful Xenograft of Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Specimen from Human Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma into an Immunodeficient Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Se Young; Bae, Han Ik; Lee, In Kyu; Park, Hwan Ki; Cho, Chang-Min

    2015-01-01

    Patient-derived tumor xenograft is the transfer of primary human tumors directly into an immunodeficient mouse. Patient-derived tumor xenograft plays an important role in the development and evaluation of new chemotherapeutic agents. We succeeded in generating a patient-derived tumor xenograft of a biliary tumor obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration from a patient who had an inoperable extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. This patient-derived tumor xenograft will be a promising tool for individualized cancer therapy and can be used in developing new chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of biliary cancer in the future. PMID:26087785

  17. The Natural Course of Endobronchial Inflammatory Polyps as a Complication after Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Min; Jang, Sun Mi; Oh, Seo Young; Kim, Do Young; Lee, Geewon; Kim, Ahrong; Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Tae Hwa; Park, Joon Woo; Lee, Kwangha; Kim, Ki Uk; Lee, Min Ki; Eom, Jung Seop

    2015-10-01

    We presented a case of unusual endobronchial inflammatory polyps as a complication following endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in a patient with tuberculous lymphadenitis. EBUS-TBNA of the right hilar lymph node was performed in a 29-year-old, previously healthy man. The patient was confirmed with tuberculous lymphadenitis and received antituberculosis medication over the course of 6 months. Chest computed tomography, after 6 months of antituberculosis therapy following the EBUS-TBNA showed nodular bronchial wall thickening of the right main bronchus. Histological and microbiological examinations revealed inflammatory polyps. After 7 months, the inflammatory polyps regressed almost completely without need for removal. PMID:26508937

  18. The Natural Course of Endobronchial Inflammatory Polyps as a Complication after Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Min; Jang, Sun Mi; Oh, Seo Young; Kim, Do Young; Lee, Geewon; Kim, Ahrong; Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Tae Hwa; Park, Joon Woo; Lee, Kwangha; Kim, Ki Uk; Lee, Min Ki

    2015-01-01

    We presented a case of unusual endobronchial inflammatory polyps as a complication following endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in a patient with tuberculous lymphadenitis. EBUS-TBNA of the right hilar lymph node was performed in a 29-year-old, previously healthy man. The patient was confirmed with tuberculous lymphadenitis and received antituberculosis medication over the course of 6 months. Chest computed tomography, after 6 months of antituberculosis therapy following the EBUS-TBNA showed nodular bronchial wall thickening of the right main bronchus. Histological and microbiological examinations revealed inflammatory polyps. After 7 months, the inflammatory polyps regressed almost completely without need for removal. PMID:26508937

  19. Anabolic Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... from some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  20. The potential contributing effect of ketorolac and fluoxetine to a spinal epidural hematoma following a cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection: a case report and narrative review.

    PubMed

    Chien, George C Chang; McCormick, Zack; Araujo, Marco; Candido, Kenneth D

    2014-01-01

    Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections (ESIs) are commonly performed as one part of a multi-modal analgesic regimen in the management of upper extremity radicular pain. Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is a rare complication with a reported incidence ranging from 1.38 in 10,000 to 1 in 190,000 epidurals. Current American Society of Regional Anesthesia (ASRA), American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP), and the International Spine Intervention Society (ISIS) recommendations are that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) do not need to be withheld prior to epidural anesthesia. We report a case wherein intramuscular ketorolac and oral fluoxetine contributed to a SEH and tetraplegia following a cervical interlaminar (ESI). A 66 year-old woman with chronic renal insufficiency and neck pain radiating into her right upper extremity presented for evaluation and was deemed an appropriate CESI candidate. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multi-level neuroforaminal stenosis and degenerative intervertebral discs. Utilizing a loss of resistance to saline technique, an 18-gauge Tuohy-type needle entered the epidural space at C6-7. After negative aspiration, 4 mL of saline with 80 mg of methyl-prednisolone was injected. Immediately thereafter, the patient reported significant spasmodic-type localized neck pain with no neurologic status changes. A decision was made to administer 30 mg intramuscular ketorolac as treatment for the spasmodic-type pain. En route home, she developed a sudden onset of acute tetraplegia. She was brought to the emergency department for evaluation including platelet and coagulation studies which were normal. MRI demonstrated an epidural hematoma extending from C5 to T7. She underwent a bilateral C5-T6 laminectomy with epidural hematoma evacuation and was discharged to an acute inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Chronic renal insufficiency, spinal stenosis, female gender, and increasing age have been identified as risk factors for SEH following epidural anesthesia. In the present case, it is postulated that after the spinal vascular system was penetrated, hemostasis was compromised by the combined antiplatelet effects of ketorolac, fluoxetine, fish oil, and vitamin E. Although generally well tolerated, the role of ketorolac, a potent anti-platelet medication used for pain relief in the peri-neuraxial intervention period, should be seriously scrutinized when other analgesic options are readily available. Although the increased risk of bleeding for the alternative medications are minimal, they are nevertheless well documented. Additionally, their additive impairment on hemostasis has not been well characterized. Withholding NSAIDs, fluoxetine, fish oil, and vitamin E in the peri-procedural period is relatively low risk and should be considered for all patients with multiple risk factors for SEH. PMID:24850120

  1. Achilles tendinopathy: A prospective study on the effect of active rehabilitation and steroid injections in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Wetke, E; Johannsen, F; Langberg, H

    2015-08-01

    In published efficacy studies on Achilles tendinopathy (AT) exercise alone results in improvement in 60-90% of the cases. However, this high success rate cannot be expected in usual clinical practice. We prospectively investigated the effectiveness of a treatment regimen consisting of home-based exercises (concentric, eccentric, and stretching) and optional glucocorticosteroid (GCS) injections in patients with (AT) in a usual clinical setting. Patients unable to commence or progress in exercise were offered GCS, hypothesizing that the GCS would facilitate exercise. Ninety-three consecutive patients with AT referred to two outpatient rheumatology clinics were registered, and seen at five visits over a 6-month period. Exercises seemed to have a slow, but long-lasting effect with GCS having a dramatic short-term effect on symptoms. Twenty-six?percent of the patients could proceed with training alone, the remainder received one to three supplementary GCS. There were significant improvements on all outcome variables over time (P???0.001). At follow-up, 42 had no more symptoms, 29 good result, 16 slightly improved, 4 unchanged, and 2 slightly worse. Overall, 94% of the patients had improved, and we thus recommend the use of GCS injections in AT patients if training alone does not lead to improvement. PMID:25367547

  2. FaceTime() for teaching ultrasound-guided anesthetic procedures in remote place.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Tetsuya; Iketani, Yasuhiro; Nagamine, Yusuke; Goto, Takahisa

    2014-04-01

    In isolated area in Japan, only one anesthesiologist must often do new anesthetic techniques such as ultrasound-guided procedures without receiving any teaching. One solution to this problem may involve teleanesthesia, by which experienced anesthesiologists teach novices in remote places, by utilizing information communication technologies. FaceTime (Apple, USA), which provides 120p of the resolution and 30 frames per second (fps) is an application of free visual communications using iPod Touch, iPhone or iPad (Apple, USA). We investigated the delay time, the loss of the frames and the picture quality of iPad (as the device in the teaching site) in combination with iPod Touch, iPhone4 or iPhone5 (as the device in the isolated site) during FaceTime. At the operating rooms in Sado General Hospital (SGH) located in Sado Island (population; approximately 60,000), Japan, an anesthesiologist prepared 3 mobile devices (iPod Touch, iPhone4 or iPhone5). He called the other anesthesiologist at Yokohama City University Hospital (YCUH; approximately 300 km apart) by FaceTime using 1 of 3 mobile devices. The anesthesiologist at YCUH received the FaceTime call using iPad. After the connection was established, the display of the same cervical ultrasound image at SGH was sent to YCUH to evaluate the distinctness visually. Then we measured the delay time of every second (n = 60) and the loss of the frames (total frames = 30 fps 60 s = 1,800) in each device for a minute. P < 0.01 was statistically significant. The quality of the pictures on the iPad display sent from iPhone5 was distinctly the best visually. The delay time of iPhone5 was significantly longer than the others (iPod Touch; 0.14 0.02 s, iPhone4; 0.13 0.02 s, iPhone5; 0.19 0.03 s), but clinically acceptable. The loss of the frames of iPhone5 (20; 1.1%) was significantly less than the others (iPhone4; 900, 50.0%, iPod Touch; 902, 50.1%). To teach anesthetic techniques in remote place by FaceTime, iPhone5 as the devise in isolate site was optimum compared with iPod Touch and iPhone4. PMID:24222344

  3. An optical tracker based robot registration and servoing method for ultrasound guided percutaneous renal access

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Robot-assisted needle steering facilitates the percutaneous renal access (PRA) for their accuracy and consistency over manual operation. However, inaccurate image-robot correspondence and uncertainties in robot parameters make the needle track deviate from the intrarenal target. This paper aims to simplify the image-tracker-robot registration procedure and improves the accuracy of needle alignment for robot assisted ultrasound-guided PRA. Methods First, a semi-automatic rigid registration is used for the alignment of the preoperative MR volume and the intraoperative orthogonal US slices. Passive markers are mounted both on US probe and robot end-effector, the planned puncture path is transferred from the MR volume frame into optical tracker frame. Tracker-robot correspondence and robot calibration are performed iteratively using a simplified scheme, both position and orientation information are incorporated to estimate the transformation matrix, only several key structural robot parameters and joint zero-positions are calibrated for simplicity in solving the inverse kinematic. Furthermore, an optical tracker feedback control is designed for compensating inaccuracies in robot parameters and tracker-robot correspondence, and improving the accuracy of needle alignment. The intervention procedure was implemented by a telemanipulated 5R1P robot, two experiments were conducted to validate the efficiency of robot-tracker registration method and the optical tracker feedback control, robot assisted needle insertion experiment was conducted on kidney phantom to evaluate the system performance. Results The relative positioning accuracy of needle alignment is 0.24??0.08 mm, the directional accuracy is 6.78??1.65??10-4rad; the needle-target distance of needle insertion is 2.15??0. 17 mm. The optical tracker feedback control method performs stable against wide range of angular disturbance over (0?~?0.4) radians, and the length disturbance over (0?~?100) mm. Conclusions The proposed optical tracker based robot registration and servoing method is capable of accurate three dimension needle operation for PRA procedure with improved precision and shortened time. PMID:23705678

  4. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for suspected malignancies adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Gambitta, Pietro; Armellino, Antonio; Forti, Edoardo; Vertemati, Maurizio; Colombo, Paola Enrica; Aseni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in association with a multidisciplinary team evaluation for the detection of gastrointestinal malignancies. METHODS: A cohort of 1019 patients with suspected malignant lesions adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract received EUS-FNA after a standardized multidisciplinary team evaluation (MTE) and were divided into 4 groups according to their specific malignant risk score (MRS). Patients with a MRS of 0 (without detectable risk of malignancy) received only EUS without FNA. For patients with a MRS score ranging from 1 (low risk) - through 2 (intermediate risk) - to 3 (high risk), EUS-FNA cytology of the lesion was planned for a different time and was prioritized for those patients at higher risk for cancer. The accuracy, efficiency and quality assessment for the early detection of patients with potentially curable malignant lesions were evaluated for the whole cohort and in the different classes of MRSs. The time to definitive cytological diagnosis (TDCD), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the rate of inconclusive tests were calculated for all patients and for each MRS group. RESULTS: A total of 1019 patients with suspected malignant lesions were evaluated by EUS-FNA. In 515 patients of 616 with true malignant lesions the tumor was diagnosed by EUS-FNA; 421 patients with resectable lesions received early surgical treatment, and 94 patients received chemo-radiotherapy. The overall diagnostic accuracy for the 1019 lesions in which a final diagnosis was obtained by EUS-FNA was 0.95. When patients were stratified by MTE into 4 classes of MRSs, a higher rate of patients in the group with higher cancer risk (MRS-3) received early treatment and EUS-FNA showed the highest level of accuracy (1.0). TDCD was also shorter in the MRS-3 group. The number of patients who received surgical treatment or chemo-radiotherapy was significantly higher in the MRS-3 patient group (36.3% in MRS-3, 10.7% in MRS-2, and 3.5% in MRS-1). CONCLUSION: EUS-FNA can effectively detect a curable malignant lesions at an earlier time and at a higher rate in patients with a higher cancer risk that were evaluated using MTE. PMID:25024614

  5. Comparative efficacy of ultrasound-guided and stimulating popliteal-sciatic perineural catheters for postoperative analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Loland, Vanessa J.; Sandhu, NavParkash S.; Bishop, Michael L.; Lee, Daniel K.; Schwartz, Alexandra K.; Girard, Paul J.; Ferguson, Eliza J.; Ilfeld, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Perineural catheter insertion using ultrasound guidance alone is a relatively new approach. Previous studies have shown that ultrasound-guided catheters take less time to place with high placement success rates, but the analgesic efficacy compared with the established stimulating catheter technique remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that popliteal-sciatic perineural catheter insertion relying exclusively on ultrasound guidance results in superior postoperative analgesia compared with stimulating catheters. Methods Preoperatively, subjects receiving a popliteal-sciatic perineural catheter for foot or ankle surgery were assigned randomly to either ultrasound guidance (bolus via needle with non-stimulating catheter insertion) or electrical stimulation (bolus via catheter). We used 1.5% mepivacaine 40 mL for the primary surgical nerve block and 0.2% ropivacaine (basal 8 mL·hr−1; bolus 4 mL; 30 min lockout) was infused postoperatively. The primary outcome was average surgical pain on postoperative day one. Results Forty of the 80 subjects enrolled were randomized to each treatment group. One of 40 subjects (2.5%) in the ultrasound group failed catheter placement per protocol vs nine of 40 (22.5%) in the stimulating catheter group (P = 0.014). The difference in procedural duration (mean [95% confidence interval (CI)]) was −6.48 (−9.90 - −3.05) min, with ultrasound requiring 7.0 (4.0-14.1) min vs stimulation requiring 11.0 (5.0-30.0) min (P < 0.001). The average pain scores of subjects who provided data on postoperative day one were somewhat higher for the 33 ultrasound subjects than for the 26 stimulation subjects (5.0 [1.0-7.8] vs 3.0 [0.0-6.5], respectively; P = 0.032), a difference (mean [95%CI]) of 1.37 (0.03-2.71). Conclusion For popliteal-sciatic perineural catheters, ultrasound guidance takes less time and results in fewer placement failures compared with stimulating catheters. However, analgesia may be mildly improved with successfully placed stimulating catheters. Clinical trial registration number NCT00876681. PMID:20700680

  6. Ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia for a parturient with severe malformations of the skeletal system undergoing cesarean delivery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Luo, LinLi; Ni, Juan; Wu, Lan; Luo, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Anesthetic management of patients with preexisting diseases is challenging and individualized approaches need to be determined based on patients complications. We report here a case of ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia in combination with low-dose ketamine during cesarean delivery on a parturient with severe malformations of the skeletal system and airway problems. The ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia was performed in the L1L2 space, followed by an intravenous administration of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) for sedation and analgesia. Satisfactory anesthesia was provided to the patient and spontaneous ventilation was maintained during the surgery. The mother and the baby were discharged 5 days after surgery, no complications were reported for either of them. Our work demonstrated that an ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia combined with low-dose ketamine can be used to successfully maintain spontaneous ventilation and provide effective analgesia during surgery and reduce the risk of postoperative anesthesia-related pulmonary infection. PMID:25999759

  7. Steroidal Saponins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  8. Dexamethasone or Dexmedetomidine as Local Anesthetic Adjuvants for Ultrasound-guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Blocks with Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myeong Jong; Koo, Dae Jeong; Choi, Yu Sun; Lee, Kyu Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone or dexmedetomidine added to ropivacaine on the onset and duration of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus blocks (BPB). Methods Fifty-one ASA physical status I-II patients with elective forearm and hand surgery under axillary brachial plexus blocks were randomly allocated to receive 20 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine with 2 ml of isotonic saline (C group, n = 17), 20 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine with 2 ml (10 mg) of dexamethasone (D group, n = 17) or 20 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine with 2 ml (100 g) of dexmedetomidine (DM group, n = 17). A nerve stimulation technique with ultrasound was used in all patients. The onset time and duration of sensory blocks were assessed. Results The duration of the sensory block was extended in group D and group DX compared with group C (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between group D and group DX. However, there were no significant differences in onset time in all three groups. Conclusions Dexamethasone 10 mg and dexmedetomidine 100 g were equally effective in extending the duration of ropivacaine in ultrasound-guided axillary BPB with nerve stimulation. However, neither drug has significantly effects the onset time. PMID:26839668

  9. Ultrasound-Guided Pulse-Dose Radiofrequency: Treatment of Neuropathic Pain after Brachial Plexus Lesion and Arm Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Magistroni, Ernesta; Panero, Bernardino; Verna, Valter

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain following brachial plexus injury is a severe sequela that is difficult to treat. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) has been proved to reduce neuropathic pain after nerve injury, even though the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This case report describes the use of ultrasound-guided PRF to reduce neuropathic pain in a double-level upper extremity nerve injury. A 25-year-old man who sustained a complete left brachial plexus injury with cervical root avulsion came to our attention. Since 2007 the patient has suffered from neuropathic pain (NP) involving the ulnar side of the forearm, the proximal third of the forearm, and the thumb. No pain relief was obtained by means of surgery, rehabilitation, and medications. Ultrasound-guided PRF was performed on the ulnar nerve at the elbow level. The median nerve received a PRF treatment at wrist level. After the treatment, the patient reported a consistent reduction of pain in his hand. We measured a 70% reduction of pain on the VAS scale. PRF treatment allowed our patient to return to work after a period of absence enforced by severe pain. This case showed that PRF is a useful tool when pharmacological therapy is inadequate for pain control in posttraumatic neuropathic pain. PMID:25525439

  10. Transesophageal Bronchoscopic Ultrasound-guided Fine-needle Aspiration (EUS-B-FNA) in a 3-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Madan, Karan; Garg, Pramod; Kabra, Sushil K; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep

    2015-10-01

    Evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy in children is challenging and surgical procedures (mediastinoscopy/thoracotomy) are usually performed wherever tissue sampling is required. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a widely utilized and minimally invasive modality for evaluation of mediastinum (lymphadenopathy, masses, and nodal staging in patients with lung cancer) in adults. Smaller size of pediatric trachea potentially limits the use of EBUS. The EBUS bronchoscope can also be introduced into the esophagus for mediastinal evaluation and sampling, a technique described as transesophageal bronchoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-B-FNA). We herein report the successful utilization of EUS-B-FNA to obtain diagnostic mediastinal lymph node sampling in a 3-year-old child. The procedure was accomplished under moderate conscious sedation without any procedural complications. EUS-B-FNA, by obviating entry of EBUS scope into small pediatric trachea and reduced anesthesia requirement can evolve into an extremely useful modality for evaluation of pediatric mediastinal lymphadenopathy. PMID:26492608

  11. Ultrasound-guided medial mid-thigh approach to sciatic nerve block with a patient in a supine position.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Yoshimune; Kashiwagi, Masanori; Nagatsuka, Yukio; Miwa, Sakurako

    2011-08-01

    We report the use of a 'medial mid-thigh approach (medial approach),' a new approach for performing ultrasound-guided sciatic nerve blockade (SNB) with patients in a supine position. Fifty-four patients undergoing knee surgery under general anesthesia and a combined femoral nerve block (FNB) and SNB were included in the study. After FNB, an ultrasound-guided medial approach was used to perform the SNB. The patient was placed in a supine position, and the hip and knee joints were flexed with the leg rotating externally. A linear ultrasound transducer was positioned perpendicular to the skin at the level of the upper mid-thigh. The sciatic nerve was identified in all patients using ultrasound imaging, and the distance to the nerve was 3.0-5.5cm. A combined ultrasound- and nerve stimulator-guided SNB was then performed, and 0.375% ropivacaine was administered. The block was successful in all patients, and the mean duration of the sensory and motor blockade was 11.9 and 8.2h, respectively. In this study, the medial approach was highly successful and easy to perform. As performing a simultaneous FNB and SNB with patients in a supine position has several potential advantages, future studies should compare this approach with other more proximal approaches for performing SNB. PMID:21671142

  12. Intra-Abscess Administration of Antibiotics Through UltrasoundGuided Percutaneous Catheter for the Treatment of Pyogenic Liver Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Pakam, Raghavakalyan; Midde, Manoranjan; Naik, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess is a potentially life-threatening disease. The treatment of a pyogenic liver abscess usually involves ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage because of the poor penetration of the systemic administration of antibiotics inside the abscess. However, a sizable proportion of patients will necessitate surgical interventions, which involves high peri- and post-operative risks. Theoretically, the local instillation of antibiotics inside the pyogenic liver abscess fluid could achieve a high concentration of the antibiotic for a long period of time. This could be especially beneficial for time-dependent bactericidal antibiotics such as beta-lactams, because their bactericidal effectiveness depends on the amount of time that bacteria are exposed to the antibiotic. We are reporting two patients with complicated pyogenic liver abscesses, who were successfully treated with systemic antibiotics and local instillation of meropenem inside the cavities of the abscesses. These cases suggest that the local instillation of the beta-lactam antibiotics could be an effective and a safe strategy for the treatment of pyogenic liver abscesses that cannot be completely drained through an ultrasound guided percutaneous catheter. PMID:24086880

  13. Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Complicating Liver Cirrhosis: Utility of Repeat Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy after Unsuccessful First Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Caturelli, Eugenio; Biasini, Elisabetta; Bartolucci, Francesca; Facciorusso, Domenico; Decembrino, Francesco; Attino, Vito; Bisceglia, Michele

    2002-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a second ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of liver nodules thought to be hepatocellular carcinoma when the original biopsy has failed to provide a reliable diagnosis. Methods: Thirty-seven cirrhotic patients underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of liver nodules that were subsequently diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma. Each biopsy involved a single puncture with a 20 G cutting needle, which yielded pathologic material used both for cytologic and histologic studies. In 23 cases (mean diameter of nodules 48 mm) the biopsy furnished exclusively necrotic material (non-diagnostic subgroup); in the other 14 cases (mean diameter 26 mm) the biopsy yielded no neoplastic elements (false-negative subgroup). All 37 nodules were subjected to repeat biopsies performed in the same manner. Results: The repeat biopsies provided a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in six of the 23 patients from the non-diagnostic subgroup and in seven of the 14 in the false-negative subgroup. Overall, repeat biopsy produced a diagnostic gain of 35.1%. Conclusion: The chance of success with repeat biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma is limited and may depend to some extent on the characteristics of the lesions (i.e., areas of necrosis in large nodules, well-differentiated cellular populations in small ones)

  14. Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks combined with sedoanalgesia versus spinal anesthesia in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Tekelioglu, Umit Yasar; Demirhan, Abdullah; Ozturan, Kutay Engin; Bayir, Hakan; Kocoglu, Hasan; Bilgi, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Background Although regional anesthesia is the first choice for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), it may not be effective and the risk of complications is greater in patients who are obese or who have spinal deformities. We compared the success of ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks with sedoanalgesia versus spinal anesthesia in unilateral TKA patients in whom spinal anesthesia was difficult. Methods We enrolled 30 patients; 15 for whom spinal anesthesia was expected to be difficult were classified as the block group, and 15 received spinal anesthesia. Regional anesthesia was achieved with bupivacaine 62.5 mg and prilocaine 250 mg to the sciatic nerve, and bupivacaine 37.5 mg and prilocaine 150 mg to the femoral nerve. Bupivacaine 20 mg was administered to induce spinal anesthesia. Hemodynamic parameters, pain and sedation scores, and surgical and patient satisfaction were compared. Results A sufficient block could not be obtained in three patients in the block group. The arterial pressure was significantly lower in the spinal group (P < 0.001), and the incidence of nausea was higher (P = 0.017) in this group. Saturation and patient satisfaction were lower in the block group (P < 0.028), while the numerical pain score (P < 0.046) and the Ramsay sedation score were higher (P = 0.007). Conclusions Ultrasound-guided sciatic and femoral nerve blocks combined with sedoanalgesia were an alternative anesthesia method in selected TKA patients. PMID:25237444

  15. Reduction of the incidence of development of venous thromboembolism by ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Hiroki; Mori, Hisatake; Yano, Takashi; Kanayama, Yasuhide; Takagi, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) and the subsequent development of pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major cause of post-operative mortality in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We evaluated whether the addition of an ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block with general anesthesia affected the incidence in the development of VTE following TKA. Methods This was a retrospective non-randomized comparative study with patients assigned to groups based on the surgery date (pre-femoral nerve block versus post-femoral nerve block periods). All anesthesia and medical records of the patients who had undergone computer-navigated TKA in our facility between January 2009 and March 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Results Forty patients were identified; 15 patients underwent computer-navigated TKA under general anesthesia alone (Group G) and 25 patients underwent surgery under general anesthesia combined with ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block (Group F). The incidence of development of VTE post-operatively was significantly lower in Group F (P = 0.037). Logistic regression analysis identified the use of a femoral nerve block as the most significant variable correlating with the incidence of post-operative development of VTE, and the odds ratio for VTE development in Group G was 3.12 (95% CI, 0.57-20.56). Conclusions We suggest the possibility that the addition of a femoral nerve block on general anesthesia may reduce the incidence of the development of VTE following TKA. PMID:22148086

  16. Ultrasound-Guided Miniscalpel-Needle Release versus Dry Needling for Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yongjun; Shi, Dongping; Wu, Xiaotong; Gu, Minghong; Ai, Zisheng; Tang, Kun; Ye, Le; Wang, Xiangrui

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare ultrasound-guided miniscalpel-needle (UG-MSN) release versus ultrasound-guided dry needling (UG-DN) for chronic neck pain. Methods. A total of 169 patients with chronic neck pain were randomized to receive either UG-MSN release or UG-DN. Before treatment and at 3 and 6 months posttreatment, pain was measured using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS). Neck function was examined using the neck disability index. Health-related quality of life was examined using the physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS) of the SF-36 health status scale. Results. Patients in the UG-MSN release had greater improvement on the VAS (by 2 points at 3 months and 0.9 points at 6 months) versus in the UG-DN arm; (both P < 0.0001). Patients receiving UG-MSN release also showed significantly lower scores on the adjusted neck disability index, as well as significantly lower PCS. No severe complications were observed. Conclusion. UG-MSN release was superior to UG-DN in reducing pain intensity and neck disability in patients with chronic neck pain and was not associated with severe complications. The procedural aspects in the two arms were identical; however, we did not verify the blinding success. As such, the results need to be interpreted with caution. PMID:25386218

  17. Implementing a Program for Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Venous Access: Training, Policy and Procedure Development, Protocol Use, Competency, and Skill Tracking.

    PubMed

    Laksonen, Richard P; Gasiewicz, Nanci K

    2015-12-01

    Peripheral intravenous (IV) access provides a means to administer medications, IV fluids, and blood products and allows for the sampling of blood for analysis. The traditional approach to obtaining peripheral IV access relies on vessel visualization in the arm and/or palpation of the blood vessel beneath the skin. However, the general population is aging, obesity is commonplace, and IV drug abuse is widespread, making peripheral IV access difficult. Use of ultrasound-guided peripheral IV access fills a practice gap in safe patient care between traditional peripheral IV access methods of vein visualization and/or palpation and ultrasound-guided central venous access. PMID:26596664

  18. Percutaneous Adhesiolysis Versus Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection for the Treatment of Chronic Radicular Pain Caused by Lumbar Foraminal Spinal Stenosis: A Retrospective Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yongbum; Lee, Woo Yong; Ahn, Jae Ki; Nam, Hee-Seung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of percutaneous adhesiolysis (PA) compared to fluoroscopy (FL)-guided transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) in patients with radicular pain caused by lumbar foraminal spinal stenosis (LFSS) by assessing pain relief and functional improvement at 4 and 12 weeks post-procedure. Methods This retrospective study included 45 patients who underwent PA or FL-guided TFSEI for radicular pain caused by LFSS of at least 3 months' duration. Outcomes were assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Verbal Numeric Pain Scale (VNS) before the procedure and at 4 and 12 weeks post-procedure. A successful outcome was defined by >50% improvement in the VNS score and >40% improvement in the ODI score. Results ODI and VNS scores improved 4 and 12 weeks post-procedure in both groups. Statistically significant differences between groups were observed in ODI and VNS at 12 weeks (p<0.05). The proportion of patients with successful outcomes was significantly different between the two groups only at the 12-week time point. Conclusion Our study suggests that PA is effective for pain reduction and functional improvement in patients with chronic radicular pain caused by LFSS. Therefore, PA can be considered for patients with previous ineffective responses to conservative treatment. Although PA seems to be more effective than TFEFI according to the results of our study, in order to fully elucidate the difference in effectiveness, a prospective study with a larger sample size is necessary. PMID:26798608

  19. Comparison of curcumin with intralesional steroid injections in Oral Submucous Fibrosis A randomized, open-label interventional study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Monu; Aravinda, K.; Saxena, Vasu S.; Srinivas, K.; Ratnakar, P.; Gupta, Jyothi; Sachdev, Arti Saluja; Shivhare, Peeyush

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is precancerous condition caused by areca nut chewing characterized by restricted mouth opening, burning sensation and stiffness & blanching of oral mucosa. Complete regression of the condition had not been achieved in all cases with any of the present treatment regimens. Curcumin is (diferuloylmethane), a yellow pigment in curry powder, exhibits anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-apoptotic activities. Hence an interventional study was undertaken to establish the efficacy of curcumin in OSMF patients. Settings & design A randomized open label, interventional study was conducted in forty patients with clinically and histologically proven Oral Submucous Fibrosis. Materials & methods Forty patients with clinically and histologically proven Oral Submucous Fibrosis were selected for the study and were randomly divided into 2 groups. The first group was treated with weekly intralesional injection of 4mg Dexamethasone & 1500I.U Hyaluronidase and the second group by oral administration of two Curcumin tablets (Turmix 300mg) per day for 3 months each. Improvement of burning sensation, interincisal distance and tongue protrusion was evaluated on a weekly basis. Results Burning sensation improved in both the groups from early to late stages. Complete resolution of burning sensation was noted with turmix. The mean increase in interincisal distance was 3.13mm and 1.25mm respectively in groups 1 &2. The interincisal distance improved in both the groups, with significant results at the end of first month. Tongue protrusion showed greater recovery at the end of 1st month in group 1 when compared with group 2. Conclusion Turmix is beneficial and effective in reducing burning sensation in early OSMF patients. PMID:25737939

  20. Steroid osteopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

  1. Free-hand ultrasound guidance permits safe and efficient minimally invasive intrathymic injections in both young and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Tuckett, Andrea Z; Zakrzewski, Johannes L; Li, Duan; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Thornton, Raymond H

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate whether use of an aseptic free-hand approach to ultrasound-guided injection facilitates injection into the thymic gland in mice. We used this interventional radiology technique in young, aged and immunodeficient mice and found that the thymus was visible in all cases. The mean injection period was 8 seconds in young mice and 19 seconds in aged or immunodeficient mice. Injection accuracy was confirmed by intrathymic location of an injected dye or by in vivo bioluminescence imaging of injected luciferase-expressing cells. Accurate intrathymic injection was confirmed in 97% of cases. No major complications were observed. We conclude that an aseptic freehand technique for ultrasound-guided intrathymic injection is safe and accurate and reduces the time required for intrathymic injections. This method facilitates large-scale experiments and injection of individual thymic lobes and is clinically relevant. PMID:25701534

  2. Dismiss Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound-guided and Embrace Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging-informed Prostate Biopsy: Is the Paradigm Ready to Shift?

    PubMed

    Giannarini, Gianluca; Briganti, Alberto; Crestani, Alessandro; Rossanese, Marta; Montorsi, Francesco; Ficarra, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-informed prostate biopsy is attracting increasing interest among practicing urologists. Whether this will become the new gold standard in prostate cancer diagnosis and supplant systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided sampling remains to be determined. Here we present the main open questions and current concerns regarding this new approach. PMID:26070515

  3. Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Identify Outcome Predictors of Caudal Epidural Steroid Injections for Lower Lumbar Radicular Pain Caused by a Herniated Disc

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Sung Oh; Jang, Chul Hoon; Hong, Jin Oh; Park, Joon Sang

    2014-01-01

    Objective We used lumbar magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings to determine possible outcome predictors of a caudal epidural steroid injection (CESI) for radicular pain caused by a herniated lumbar disc (HLD). Methods Ninety-one patients with radicular pain whose MRI indicated a HLD were enrolled between September 2010 and July 2013. The CESIs were performed using ultrasound (US). A responder was defined as having complete relief or at least a 50% reduction of pain as assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS) and functional status on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ); responder (VAS n=61, RMDQ n=51), and non-responder (VAS n=30, RMDQ n=40). MRI findings were analyzed and compared between the two groups with regard to HLD level, HLD type (protrusion or exclusion), HLD zone (central, subarticular, foraminal, and extraforaminal), HLD volume (mild, moderate, or severe), relationship between HLD and nerve root (no contact, contact, displaced, or compressed), disc height loss (none, less than half, or more than half ), and disc degeneration grade (homogeneous disc structure or inhomogeneous disc structure-clear nucleus and height of intervertebral disc). Results A centrally located herniated disc was more common in the responder group than that in the non-responder group. Treatment of centrally located herniated discs showed satisfactory results. (VAS p=0.025, RMDQ p=0.040). Other factors, such as HLD level, HLD type, HLD volume, relationship to nerve root, disc height loss, and disc degeneration grade, were not critical. Conclusion The HLD zone was significant for pain reduction after CESI. A centrally located herniated disc was a predictor of a good clinical outcome. PMID:25566478

  4. Lymphoepithelial cysts of the pancreas: The use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Zamil; Walker, Blair; Lam, Eric C

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) are rare non-neoplastic lesions that can appear as a complex cyst or a mass in the pancreas. Cytology from endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can be helpful in making a diagnosis with the aim of avoiding unnecessary surgical resection. A case involving a 51-year-old woman with lower abdominal pain who was found to have a multiloculated cystic lesion at the junction of the pancreatic body and tail is described. Cytology from EUS-FNA was consistent with a pancreatic LEC. The lesion was managed conservatively and follow-up imaging of the cyst over the following two years was unchanged. The patient remains clinically well. Cytology from EUS-FNA can help distinguish LECs from cystic neoplasms, thus preventing radical surgical resection of this benign pancreatic cyst. PMID:20559575

  5. Foamy Macrophage Deposition in Lymph Nodes Mimicking Lung Cancer Recurrence Diagnosed via Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiaoling; West, Douglas G; Shelley-Fraser, Golda; Medford, Andrew R L

    2015-11-01

    The radiological finding of mediastinal lymph node enlargement following surgery for lung cancer often signifies locoregional recurrence. The use of oxidised cellulose haemostatic agents (OCHAs) during staging mediastinoscopy is common. We report a case of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-avid subcarinal lymphadenopathy in a patient in whom OCHAs had been used at mediastinoscopy 5 months earlier. Histopathological examination of suspected nodal recurrence is facilitated by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). The technique is particularly useful after previous mediastinoscopy, when repeat surgical exploration can be challenging. EBUS-TBNA samples showed extensive foamy macrophage deposition, with no evidence of malignancy. The association between the use of OCHAs and subsequent intranodal foamy macrophage deposition is new. Clinicians should consider this possibility in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy after surgical exploration, where OCHAs have been left in situ; it remains important to resample the lymph nodes before assuming disease recurrence to prevent unnecessary treatment. PMID:26337366

  6. Tension pneumothorax as a severe complication of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Szlubowski, Artur; Gil, Tomasz; Koco?, Piotr; Zi?tkiewicz, Miros?aw; Twardowska, Magdalena; Ku?d?a?, Jaros?aw

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case report of a patient suffering from bullous emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who was diagnosed with tension pneumothorax after undergoing endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). Tension pneumothorax is a severe but rare complication of EBUS-TBNA. It can result from lung injury caused by the biopsy needle or, in patients suffering from bullous emphysema, from spontaneous rupture of an emphysematous bulla resulting from increased pressure in the chest cavity during cough caused by bronchofiberoscope insertion. The authors emphasize that patients should be carefully monitored after the biopsy, and, in the case of complications, provided with treatment immediately in proper hospital conditions. Patients burdened with a high risk of complications should be identified before the procedure and monitored with extreme care after its completion. PMID:26855656

  7. Tension pneumothorax as a severe complication of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Gnass, Maciej; Szlubowski, Artur; Gil, Tomasz; Kocoń, Piotr; Ziętkiewicz, Mirosław; Twardowska, Magdalena; Kużdżał, Jarosław

    2015-12-01

    This article presents a case report of a patient suffering from bullous emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who was diagnosed with tension pneumothorax after undergoing endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). Tension pneumothorax is a severe but rare complication of EBUS-TBNA. It can result from lung injury caused by the biopsy needle or, in patients suffering from bullous emphysema, from spontaneous rupture of an emphysematous bulla resulting from increased pressure in the chest cavity during cough caused by bronchofiberoscope insertion. The authors emphasize that patients should be carefully monitored after the biopsy, and, in the case of complications, provided with treatment immediately in proper hospital conditions. Patients burdened with a high risk of complications should be identified before the procedure and monitored with extreme care after its completion. PMID:26855656

  8. Perisciatic Ultrasound-Guided Infiltration for Treatment of Deep Gluteal Syndrome: Description of Technique and Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Julio; García, Nicolás; Rafols, Claudio; Pérez, Marcelo; Verdugo, Marco A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a perisciatic ultrasound-guided infiltration technique for treatment of deep gluteal syndrome and to report its preliminary clinical results. A mixture of saline (20 mL), a local anesthetic (4 mL), and a corticosteroid solution (1 mL) was infiltrated in the perisciatic region between the gluteus maximus and pelvitrochanteric muscles. Relative pain relief was achieved in 73.7% of the patients, with average preprocedural and postprocedural visual analog scale scores of 8.3 and 2.8, respectively. Fifty percent of patients reported recurrence of discomfort, and the average duration of the therapeutic effect in these patients was 5.3 weeks. PMID:26446817

  9. Subsurface PpIX imaging in vivo with ultrasound-guided tomographic spectroscopy: reconstruction vs. born-normalized data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Brendan P.; D'Souza, Alisha V.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Maytin, Edward; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Topically applied ALA promotes PpIX production preferentially in tumors, and many strategies have been developed to increase PpIX distribution and PDT treatment efficacy at depths > 1mm is not fully understood. While surface imaging techniques provide useful diagnosis, dosimetry, and efficacy information for superficial tumors, these methods cannot interrogate deeper tumors to provide in situ insight into spatial PpIX distributions. We have developed an ultrasound-guided, white-light-informed, tomographics spectroscopy system for the spatial measurement of subsurface PpIX. Detailed imaging system specifications, methodology, and optical-phantom-based characterization will be presented separately. Here we evaluate preliminary in vivo results using both full tomographic reconstruction and by plotting individual tomographic source-detector pair data against US images.

  10. Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Laser Ablation with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography for Hyperfunctioning Parathyroid Adenoma: A Preliminary Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tianan; Chen, Fen; Zhou, Xiang; Hu, Ying; Zhao, Qiyu

    2015-01-01

    The study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of ultrasound-guided percutaneous laser ablation (pLA) as a nonsurgical treatment for primary parathyroid adenoma. Surgery was contraindicated in, or refused by, the included patients. No lesion enhancement on contrast-enhanced ultrasound immediately after pLA was considered complete ablation. Nodule size, serum calcium, and parathyroid hormone level were compared before and after pLA. Complete ablation was achieved in all 21 patients with 1 (n = 20) or 2 (n = 1) sessions. Nodule volume decreased from 0.93 0.58?mL at baseline to 0.53 0.38 and 0.48 0.34?mL at 6 and 12 months after pLA (P < 0.05). At 1 day, 6 months, and 12 months after pLA, serum PTH decreased from 15.23 3.00?pmol/L at baseline to 7.41 2.79, 6.95 1.78, and 6.90 1.46?pmol/L, serum calcium decreased from 3.77 0.77?mmol/L at baseline to 2.50 0.72, 2.41 0.37, and 2.28 0.26?mmol/L, respectively (P < 0.05). At 12 months, treatment success (normalization of PTH and serum calcium) was achieved in 81%. No serious complications were observed. Ultrasound-guided pLA with contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a viable alternative to surgery for primary parathyroid adenoma. PMID:26788059

  11. A Descriptive Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Central Venous Cannulation of the Internal Jugular to Landmark Based Subclavian Vein Cannulation

    PubMed Central

    Theodoro, Daniel; Bausano, Brian; Lewis, Lawrence; Evanoff, Bradley; Kollef, Marin

    2013-01-01

    The safest site for central venous cannulation (CVC) remains debated. Many emergency medicine physicians advocate the ultrasound guided internal jugular approach (USIJ) because of data supporting its efficiency. However, a number of physicians prefer, and are most comfortable with, the subclavian vein approach. The purpose of this study was to describe adverse event rates among operators using the USIJ approach and the landmark subclavian vein approach without ultrasound (SC). Methods This was a prospective observational trial of patients undergoing CVC of the subclavian or internal jugular veins in the Emergency Department (ED). Physicians performing the procedures did not undergo standardized training in either technique. The primary outcome was a composite of adverse events defined as hematoma, arterial cannulation, pneumothorax, and failure to cannulate. Physicians recorded the anatomical site of cannulation, ultrasound assistance, indications and acute complications. Variables of interest were collected from the pharmacy and ED record. Physician experience was based on a self-reported survey. We followed outcomes of central line insertion until device removal or patient discharge. Results Physicians attempted 236 USIJ and 132 SC cannulations on 333 patients. The overall adverse event rate was 22% with failure to cannulate being the most common. Adverse events occurred in 19% of USIJ attempts compared to 29% of non-ultrasound guided subclavian attempts. Among highly experienced operators CVCs placed at the subclavian site resulted in more adverse events than those performed using USIJ (RR=1.89, 95%CI 1.05 to 3.39). Conclusions While limited by observational design, our results suggest that the USIJ technique may result in fewer adverse events compared to the landmark SC approach. PMID:20370781

  12. Ultrasound-guided bilateral greater occipital nerve block for the treatment of post-dural puncture headache

    PubMed Central

    Akyol, Fethi; Binici, Orhan; Kuyrukluyildiz, Ufuk; Karabakan, Guldane

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is one of the complications frequently observed after spinal or epidural anesthesia with dural penetration. For PDPH patients who do not respond to conservative medical treatment, alternative treatments such as bilateral occipital nerve block should be considered.In this study the efficacy of bilateral occipital nerve block was retrospectively evaluated in patients with post-dural puncture headache. Methods: Ultrasound-guided bilateral occipital nerve block was administrated in 21 patients who developed PDPH after spinal anesthesia, but did not respond to conservative medical treatment within 48 hours between January 2012 and February 2014. The study was conducted at Erzincan University Faculty of Medicine Gazi Mengucek Education and Research Hospital Results: Mean Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain scores at 10 minutes and 6, 10, 15 and 24 hours after the block were significantly improved compared to the patients with a pre-block VAS score between 4 and 6 as well as patients with a pre-block VAS score between 7 and 9 (p<0.01). After 24 hours of the block applied, VAS pain score dropped to 1 for all 12 patients who had a pre-block VAS score between 4 and 6. Whereas, VAS score decreased to 2 at 24 hours after the block in only one of the patients with a pre-block VAS between 7 and 9. For the patients with a pre-block VAS score between 7 and 9, there was no significant improvement in the mean VAS score 24 hours after the block. Conclusions: For patients with PDPH and a pre-block VAS score between 4 and 6 who do not respond to conservative medical treatment, an ultrasound-guided bilateral occipital nerve block may be effective. PMID:25878625

  13. Landmark-based versus ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve blocks in the treatment of chronic postherniorrhaphy groin pain: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Drew; Moeschler, Susan; Pingree, Matthew; Hoelzer, Brian; Wang, Zhen; Mauck, William; Qu, Wenchun

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic postherniorrhaphy groin pain (CPGP) is a debilitating condition, which is often refractory to conservative medical management. To our knowledge, there have been no studies directly comparing landmarked-based and ultrasound-guided approaches in this population. Objective To compare the effectiveness of landmark-based and ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve blocks in the treatment of CPGP. Study design This is a retrospective chart review of patients who presented to our tertiary care pain medicine clinic with a diagnosis of CPGP. Inclusion criteria were the following: age >18 years, diagnosis of groin pain, and prior history of herniorrhaphy. Exclusion criteria included those who were seen for initial consultation but were lost to follow-up. Primary outcomes were 50% or greater reduction in pain on visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes were 30% or greater reduction in VAS pain score, changes in VAS pain scores, and reported complications. Results A total of 36 patients were included in the study. Of them, 20 patients underwent the landmark-based and 16 underwent the ultrasound-guided techniques. There was no significant difference in baseline demographics. The average VAS score preinjection was 7.08 in the landmark-based and 7.0 in the ultrasound-guided groups (P=0.65). A total of 14 patients (70%) in the landmark-based and eleven patients (79%) in the ultrasound-guided groups experienced at least a 50% reduction in VAS scores. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P=1.0), and no complications were noted. We also did not find a significant difference in terms of number of patients with 30% or greater reduction (P=0.71) and changes in VAS pain scores (P=0.64). No complications were reported in either group. Conclusion In our study, there was no statistically significant difference between the landmark-based and ultrasound-guided groups in terms of a reduction in VAS pain scores, and no complications were noted in either group. PMID:26604817

  14. Ultrasound-Guided Microinjection into the Mouse Forebrain In Utero at E9.5

    PubMed Central

    Pierfelice, Tarran J.; Gaiano, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    In utero survival surgery in mice permits the molecular manipulation of gene expression during development. However, because the uterine wall is opaque during early embryogenesis, the ability to target specific parts of the embryo for microinjection is greatly limited. Fortunately, high-frequency ultrasound imaging permits the generation of images that can be used in real time to guide a microinjection needle into the embryonic region of interest. Here we describe the use of such imaging to guide the injection of retroviral vectors into the ventricular system of the mouse forebrain at embryonic day (E) 9.5. This method uses a laparotomy to permit access to the uterine horns, and a specially designed plate that permits host embryos to be bathed in saline while they are imaged and injected. Successful surgeries often result in most or all of the injected embryos surviving to any subsequent time point of interest (embryonically or postnatally). The principles described here can be used with slight modifications to perform injections into the amnionic fluid of E8.5 embryos (thereby permitting infection along the anterior posterior extent of the neural tube, which has not yet closed), or into the ventricular system of the brain at E10.5/11.5. Furthermore, at mid-neurogenic ages (~E13.5), ultrasound imaging can be used direct injection into specific brain regions for viral infection or cell transplantation. The use of ultrasound imaging to guide in utero injections in mice is a very powerful technique that permits the molecular and cellular manipulation of mouse embryos in ways that would otherwise be exceptionally difficult if not impossible. PMID:21113114

  15. Percutaneous Repair of Radial Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a Hemodialysis Patient Using Sonographically Guided Thrombin Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Corso, Rocco Rampoldi, Antonio; Vercelli, Ruggero; Leni, Davide; Vanzulli, Angelo

    2006-02-15

    We report a case of a radial artery pseudoaneurysm complicating an incorrect puncture of a Brescia-Cimino hemodialysis fistula that was treated with percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection. The pseudoaneurysm recurred after the initial successful thrombin injection. With a second injection we obtained permanent pseudoaneurysm occlusion. Our case illustrates that this procedure is an effective treatment in this type of arteriovenous fistula complication. We compare this case with the only similar one we could find in the literature.

  16. Percutaneous Thrombin Injection of a Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysm with Simultaneous Venous Balloon Occlusion of a Communicating Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Mittleider, Derek Cicuto, Kenneth; Dykes, Thomas

    2008-07-15

    An 82-year-old woman developed acute occlusion of her right coronary artery. She underwent percutaneous coronary stent placement and aortic balloon pump installation. In the postprocedural period, she developed a common femoral artery pseudoaneurysm (PSA) that communicated with the common femoral vein via an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). After unsuccessful ultrasound-guided compression, ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of the PSA was performed, with simultaneous balloon occlusion of the common femoral vein at the level of the AVF. There was complete thrombosis of the PSA and AVF.

  17. Evaluation of diagnostic utility, safety considerations, and effect on fertility of transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovarian biopsy in mares.

    PubMed

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nairn, Dawne; Manning, Steve; Dedden, Ilse; Ripley, Elinorah; Nielsen, Kayla; Card, Claire

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound-guided biopsies of corpora lutea have been previously used for research purposes in the mare and cow. However, the health effects and fertility after transvaginal luteal biopsies (TVLB) or transvaginal ovarian biopsies (TVOB) obtained for diagnostic purposes in cases of suspected ovarian tumors have not been previously evaluated in the horse. The aim of this study was to determine the effects on health and fertility of TVLB and TVOB in mares; 53 mares were included in the study (11 control non-biopsied mares, 37 TVLB mares biopsied on one or more of the following Days 8, 10, 12, 15, 21, and 5 TVOB mares with ovarian abnormalities), resulting in a total of 108 TVLB and TVOB cycles and 183 procedures. Mares were divided into Groups 1 to 3 by the number of TVLB per estrous cycle (mare in Group 1 had 1 TVLB procedure, mares in Group 2 had 2 TVLB procedures, and mares in Group 3 had 3 TVLB procedures). Group 4 comprised TVOB mare cycles with ovarian abnormalities (n = 5). Mares were examined to determine day of ovulation (Day 0) and the presence of a corpora lutea using transrectal ultrasonography. Mares were sedated, and an ultrasound-guided transvaginal biopsy was performed of luteal or ovarian tissue. Health effects of TVLB or TVOB were assessed by daily rectal temperatures, appetite, and general demeanor for 72 hours post-procedure, and 3 mares were examined at necropsy. Fertility was not significantly different in control and TVLB Groups 1 to 3 (P = 0.7648) and in the first or subsequent cycles where the ovulation was from an ovary that had a previous TVLB (P = 0.7147). A TVLB on Day 8 post-ovulation may induce an early return to estrus. In conclusion, the TVLB or TVOB procedure had no effect on health and fertility in this study if the procedure was correctly performed with good technique. Because of the low number of cycles (n = 37), the fertility data should be interpreted with caution. The TVOB may be applied in the diagnosis of mares with ovarian abnormalities, and no adverse health effects were associated with TVOB of mares with granulosa theca cell tumor. PMID:26719038

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Out-of-Plane vs. In-Plane Interscalene Catheters: A Randomized, Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwenk, Eric S.; Gandhi, Kishor; Baratta, Jaime L.; Torjman, Marc; Epstein, Richard H.; Chung, Jaeyoon; Vaghari, Benjamin A.; Beausang, David; Bojaxhi, Elird; Grady, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous interscalene blocks provide excellent analgesia after shoulder surgery. Although the safety of the ultrasound-guided in-plane approach has been touted, technical and patient factors can limit this approach. We developed a caudad-to-cephalad out-of-plane approach and hypothesized that it would decrease pain ratings due to better catheter alignment with the brachial plexus compared to the in-plane technique in a randomized, controlled study. Objectives: To compare an out-of-plane interscalene catheter technique to the in-plane technique in a randomized clinical trial. Patients and Methods: Eighty-four patients undergoing open shoulder surgery were randomized to either the in-plane or out-of-plane ultrasound-guided continuous interscalene technique. The primary outcome was VAS pain rating at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included pain ratings in the recovery room and at 48 hours, morphine consumption, the incidence of catheter dislodgments, procedure time, and block difficulty. Procedural data and all pain ratings were collected by blinded observers. Results: There were no differences in the primary outcome of median VAS pain rating at 24 hours between the out-of-plane and in-plane groups (1.50; IQR, [0 - 4.38] vs. 1.25; IQR, [0 - 3.75]; P = 0.57). There were also no differences, respectively, between out-of-plane and in-plane median PACU pain ratings (1.0; IQR, [0 - 3.5] vs. 0.25; IQR, [0 - 2.5]; P = 0.08) and median 48-hour pain ratings (1.25; IQR, [1.25 - 2.63] vs. 0.50; IQR, [0 - 1.88]; P = 0.30). There were no differences in any other secondary endpoint. Conclusions: Our out-of-plane technique did not provide superior analgesia to the in-plane technique. It did not increase the number of complications. Our technique is an acceptable alternative in situations where the in-plane technique is difficult to perform. PMID:26705526

  19. A rare case of mediastinal metastasis of ovarian carcinoma diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA).

    PubMed

    Carbonari, Augusto; Camunha, Marco; Binato, Marcelo; Saieg, Mauro; Marioni, Fabio; Rossini, Lucio

    2015-10-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has become a minimally invasive tool with excellent diagnostic accuracy and low risk of complications in the diagnosis of thoracic diseases, including lung cancers and primary mediastinal lesions. Occasionally, EBUS-TBNA may be useful in identifying thoracic metastasis from distant tumors. Here we report an interesting and rare case of mediastinal metastasis of ovarian carcinoma diagnosed by EBUS-TBNA. PMID:26623131

  20. A rare case of mediastinal metastasis of ovarian carcinoma diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA)

    PubMed Central

    Camunha, Marco; Binato, Marcelo; Saieg, Mauro; Marioni, Fabio; Rossini, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has become a minimally invasive tool with excellent diagnostic accuracy and low risk of complications in the diagnosis of thoracic diseases, including lung cancers and primary mediastinal lesions. Occasionally, EBUS-TBNA may be useful in identifying thoracic metastasis from distant tumors. Here we report an interesting and rare case of mediastinal metastasis of ovarian carcinoma diagnosed by EBUS-TBNA. PMID:26623131

  1. Transvaginal ultrasound-guided cumulus oocyte complexes aspiration and in vitro embryo production in suckled beef and lactating dairy cattle on pasture-based management conditions.

    PubMed

    Ratto, M H; Peralta, O A; Mogollon, G; Strobel, P; Correa, J

    2011-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the use of repeated transvaginal ultrasound-guided cumulus oocyte complex (COC) aspiration on COC recovery rate, in vitro embryo production (IVP) and subsequent pregnancy rates in Holstein Friesian (HF) and Aberdeen Angus (AA) cows (Experiment 1), and in pregnant and non-pregnant Holstein Friesian cows (Experiment 2). Cycling, non-pregnant HF (n=17) and AA (n=32) cows with 40-70 days postpartum, between 3 and 5 years of age were used in the Experiment 1. All cows were submitted to repeated transvaginal ultrasound-guided COC aspiration twice a week for 5-7 weeks. Cumulus ooctye complexes (COC) were in vitro matured, fertilized and cultured for 8 days. An overall of 100 and 350 embryos from HF and AA cows respectively were cryopreserved using a conventional slow freezing (Experiment 1). A total of 81 and 285 frozen-thawed embryos from HF and AA cows respectively were transferred to recipient cows. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed at 60 and 150 days of gestation using transrectal ultrasonography. In Experiment 2, cycling non-pregnant (n=9) and pregnant (n=8) HF cows were submitted to repeated ultrasound-guided COC aspiration and COC were in vitro matured, fertilized and cultured as in Experiment 1, except that embryos were cryopreserved but not thawed and transferred as described for Experiment 1. The results of this study indicate that COC recovery rate and blastocyts production are affected by the breed of the donor cow. The quality of blastocyts produced from both breed did not differ in terms of pregnancy and calving rates (Experiment 1). The physiologic state of pregnancy did not affect COC recovery rate and blastocysts production per donor/session (Experiment 2). The use of ultrasound-guided COC aspiration and IVP could be a powerful technique to improve the genetic of beef and dairy cattle managed under pasture-based conditions management in the southern Chile. PMID:22030337

  2. Multiparameter evaluation of in vivo gene delivery using ultrasound-guided, microbubble-enhanced sonoporation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Galina; Wong, Andrew W; Bez, Maxim; Yang, Fang; Tam, Sarah; Even, Lisa; Sheyn, Dmitriy; Ben-David, Shiran; Tawackoli, Wafa; Pelled, Gadi; Ferrara, Katherine W; Gazit, Dan

    2016-02-10

    More than 1800 gene therapy clinical trials worldwide have targeted a wide range of conditions including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and monogenic diseases. Biological (i.e. viral), chemical, and physical approaches have been developed to deliver nucleic acids into cells. Although viral vectors offer the greatest efficiency, they also raise major safety concerns including carcinogenesis and immunogenicity. The goal of microbubble-mediated sonoporation is to enhance the uptake of drugs and nucleic acids. Insonation of microbubbles is thought to facilitate two mechanisms for enhanced uptake: first, deflection of the cell membrane inducing endocytotic uptake, and second, microbubble jetting inducing the formation of pores in the cell membrane. We hypothesized that ultrasound could be used to guide local microbubble-enhanced sonoporation of plasmid DNA. With the aim of optimizing delivery efficiency, we used nonlinear ultrasound and bioluminescence imaging to optimize the acoustic pressure, microbubble concentration, treatment duration, DNA dosage, and number of treatments required for in vivo Luciferase gene expression in a mouse thigh muscle model. We found that mice injected with 50μg luciferase plasmid DNA and 5×10(5) microbubbles followed by ultrasound treatment at 1.4MHz, 200kPa, 100-cycle pulse length, and 540 Hz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) for 2min exhibited superior transgene expression compared to all other treatment groups. The bioluminescent signal measured for these mice on Day 4 post-treatment was 100-fold higher (p<0.0001, n=5 or 6) than the signals for controls treated with DNA injection alone, DNA and microbubble injection, or DNA injection and ultrasound treatment. Our results indicate that these conditions result in efficient gene delivery and prolonged gene expression (up to 21days) with no evidence of tissue damage or off-target delivery. We believe that these promising results bear great promise for the development of microbubble-enhanced sonoporation-induced gene therapies. PMID:26682505

  3. Assessment of Postoperative Analgesia after Application of Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia for Surgery in a Swine Femoral Fracture Model

    PubMed Central

    Royal, Joseph M; Settle, Timothy L; Bodo, Michael; Lombardini, Eric; Kent, Michael L; Upp, Justin; Rothwell, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Management of pain in research swine used for studies involving painful procedures is a considerable challenge. Here we assessed whether a regional anesthesia method is effective for pain control of hindlimb injuries in pigs used for research in bone fracture healing. For this randomized controlled study, we administered regional anesthesia before an experimental femoral injury was produced. Using ultrasound guidance, we placed sterile infusion catheters near the sciatic and femoral nerves and administered local anesthetic (bupivacaine) for the first 24 h after surgery. We evaluated various behavioral and physiologic parameters to test the hypothesis that this regional anesthesia would provide superior analgesia compared with systemic analgesia alone. We also collected blood samples to evaluate serum levels of cortisol and fentanyl postoperatively. At the end of the study period, we collected sciatic and femoral nerves and surrounding soft tissues for histopathologic evaluation. Treatment pigs had lower subjective pain scores than did control animals. Control pigs had a longer time to first feed consumption and required additional analgesia earlier in the postoperative period than did treatment pigs. Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia is a viable and effective adjunct to systemic analgesics for providing pain control in swine with experimental femoral fractures. PMID:23849409

  4. Dexamathasone added to levobupivacaine improves postoperative analgesia in ultrasound guided interscalene brachial plexus blockade for arthroscopic shoulder surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Guie Yong; Kim, Dong Yeon; Kim, Chi Hyo; Baik, Hee-Jung; Heo, Seok

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of 5 mg dexamethasone to 10 ml of 0.5% levobupivacaine on postoperative analgesic effects of ultrasound guided-interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) in arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia. Methods In 60 patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery that underwent general anesthesia, ISBPB was preoperatively performed with 10 ml of 0.5% levobupivacaine under the guidance of ultrasound and a nerve stimulator. Patients were randomly allocated to receive the same volume of normal saline (Group I), 5 mg of dexamethasone (Group II), or 1 : 400,000 epinephrine (Group III) as an adjuvant to the mixture. A blind observer recorded total analgesic consumption, sleep quality, complication, and patient satisfaction using a verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS) at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, 48 h after the operation. Results All patients had successful ISBPB and excellent analgesic effects less than VNRS 4 up to discharge time. VNRS in Group II at 12 h and 48 h was statistically much lower than in Group I and III. There were no differences in total analgesic consumption, sleep quality, complications, and patient satisfaction. Conclusions We conclude that the addition of 5 mg of dexamethasone to 10 ml of 0.5% levobupivacaine in ISBPB showed improvement of postoperative analgesia for arthroscopic shoulder operation without any specific complications. PMID:22379567

  5. Visualization of molecular composition and functionality of cancer cells using nanoparticle-augmented ultrasound-guided photoacoustics

    PubMed Central

    Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Kim, Seungsoo; Karpiouk, Andrei; Joshi, Pratixa P.; Sokolov, Konstantin; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of molecular signatures of tumors in addition to their anatomy and morphology is desired for effective diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Development of in vivo imaging techniques that can identify and monitor molecular composition of tumors remains an important challenge in pre-clinical research and medical practice. Here we present a molecular photoacoustic imaging technique that can visualize the presence and activity of an important cancer biomarker – epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), utilizing the effect of plasmon resonance coupling between molecular targeted gold nanoparticles. Specifically, spectral analysis of photoacoustic images revealed profound changes in the optical absorption of systemically delivered EGFR-targeted gold nanospheres due to their molecular interactions with tumor cells overexpressing EGFR. In contrast, no changes in optical properties and, therefore, photoacoustic signal, were observed after systemic delivery of non-targeted gold nanoparticles to the tumors. The results indicate that multi-wavelength photoacoustic imaging augmented with molecularly targeted gold nanoparticles has the ability to monitor molecular specific interactions between nanoparticles and cell-surface receptors, allowing visualization of the presence and functional activity of tumor cells. Furthermore, the approach can be used for other cancer cell-surface receptors such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Therefore, ultrasound-guided molecular photoacoustic imaging can potentially aid in tumor diagnosis, selection of customized patient-specific treatment, and monitor the therapeutic progression and outcome in vivo. PMID:25893171

  6. Visualization of molecular composition and functionality of cancer cells using nanoparticle-augmented ultrasound-guided photoacoustics.

    PubMed

    Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Kim, Seungsoo; Karpiouk, Andrei; Joshi, Pratixa P; Sokolov, Konstantin; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of molecular signatures of tumors in addition to their anatomy and morphology is desired for effective diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Development of in vivo imaging techniques that can identify and monitor molecular composition of tumors remains an important challenge in pre-clinical research and medical practice. Here we present a molecular photoacoustic imaging technique that can visualize the presence and activity of an important cancer biomarker - epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), utilizing the effect of plasmon resonance coupling between molecular targeted gold nanoparticles. Specifically, spectral analysis of photoacoustic images revealed profound changes in the optical absorption of systemically delivered EGFR-targeted gold nanospheres due to their molecular interactions with tumor cells overexpressing EGFR. In contrast, no changes in optical properties and, therefore, photoacoustic signal, were observed after systemic delivery of non-targeted gold nanoparticles to the tumors. The results indicate that multi-wavelength photoacoustic imaging augmented with molecularly targeted gold nanoparticles has the ability to monitor molecular specific interactions between nanoparticles and cell-surface receptors, allowing visualization of the presence and functional activity of tumor cells. Furthermore, the approach can be used for other cancer cell-surface receptors such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Therefore, ultrasound-guided molecular photoacoustic imaging can potentially aid in tumor diagnosis, selection of customized patient-specific treatment, and monitor the therapeutic progression and outcome in vivo. PMID:25893171

  7. Surgical vs ultrasound-guided drainage of deep neck space abscesses: a randomized controlled trial: surgical vs ultrasound drainage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Deep neck space abscesses (DNAs) are relatively common otolaryngology-head and neck surgery emergencies and can result in significant morbidity with potential mortality. Traditionally, surgical incision and drainage (I&D) with antibiotics has been the mainstay of treatment. Some reports have suggested that ultrasound-guided drainage (USD) is a less invasive and effective alternative in select cases. Objectives To compare I&D vs USD of well-defined DNAs, using a randomized controlled clinical trial design. The primary outcome measure was effectiveness (length of hospital stay (LOHS) and safety), and the secondary outcome measure was overall cost to the healthcare system. Methods Patients presenting to the University of Alberta Emergency Department with a well-defined deep neck space abscess were recruited in the study. Patients were randomized to surgical or US-guided drainage, placed on intravenous antibiotics and admitted with airway precautions. Following drainage with either intervention, abscess collections were cultured and drains were left in place until discharge. Results Seventeen patients were recruited in the study. We found a significant difference in mean LOHS between patients who underwent USD (3.1days) vs I&D (5.2days). We identified significant cost savings associated with USD with a 41% cost reduction in comparison to I&D. Conclusions USD drainage of deep neck space abscesses in a certain patient population is effective, safe, and results in a significant cost savings to the healthcare system. PMID:23672735

  8. Unplanned pregnancy after ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of uterine fibroids: A follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Bing-song, Zhang; Jing, Zhang; Zhi-yu, Han; Chang-tao, Xu; Rui-fang, Xu; Xiu-mei, Li; Hui, Liu

    2016-01-01

    A follow-up study was performed with 169 women of childbearing age who underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (UPMWA) therapy for symptomatic uterine fibroids in the Chinese PLA General Hospital from June 2007 to December 2014. This study aimed to observe the incidence of unplanned pregnancies in these women after UPMWA treatment in order to evaluate its effect on natural conception. Ten unplanned pregnancies in nine women were occurred. Of the nine patients, six did not want the pregnancy and chose for induced abortion to end the pregnancy at an early stage. Three chose to continue with the pregnancy and gave birth to a healthy term infant delivered by cesarean section (of these three patients, two had been previously diagnosed as infertility). None of the patients had any serious obstetric complications. After UPMWA treatment for uterine fibroids, patients may conceive naturally, the impact of the procedure on fertility and pregnancy outcomes is worthy of further prospective study in larger sample. PMID:26733265

  9. Endoscopic and endobronchial ultrasound-guided needle aspiration in the mediastinal staging of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Raptakis, Thomas; Boura, Paraskevi; Tsimpoukis, Sotirios; Gkiozos, Ioannis; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2013-06-01

    Invasive staging of mediastinal lymph nodes is recommended for the majority of patients with potentially resectable non-small cell lung cancer. In the past, 'blind' transbronchial needle aspiration during bronchoscopy and mediastinoscopy, a surgical procedure conducted under general anesthesia, were the only diagnostic methods. The latter is still considered the 'gold standard'; however, two novel, minimally-invasive techniques have emerged for the evaluation of the mediastinum: endoscopic (transesophageal) and endobronchial ultrasound--both performed using a dedicated echoendoscope, facilitating the ultrasound-guided, real-time aspiration of mediastinal lymph nodes. These methods are well-tolerated under local anesthesia and moderate sedation, with very low complication rates. Current guidelines on the invasive mediastinal staging of lung cancer still state that a negative needle aspiration result from these methods should be confirmed by mediastinoscopy. As more experience is gathered and echoendoscopes evolve, a thorough endosonographic evaluation of the mediastinum by both techniques, will obviate the need for surgical staging in the vast majority of patients and reduce the number of futile thoracotomies. PMID:23749884

  10. Comparative analysis of laparoscopic and ultrasound-guided biopsy methods for gene expression analysis in transgenic goats.

    PubMed

    Melo, C H; Sousa, F C; Batista, R I P T; Sanchez, D J D; Souza-Fabjan, J M G; Freitas, V J F; Melo, L M; Teixeira, D I A

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare laparoscopic (LP) and ultrasound-guided (US) biopsy methods to obtain either liver or splenic tissue samples for ectopic gene expression analysis in transgenic goats. Tissue samples were collected from human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF)-transgenic bucks and submitted to real-time PCR for the endogenous genes (Sp1, Baff, and Gapdh) and the transgene (hG-CSF). Both LP and US biopsy methods were successful in obtaining liver and splenic samples that could be analyzed by PCR (i.e., sufficient sample sizes and RNA yield were obtained). Although the number of attempts made to obtain the tissue samples was similar (P > 0.05), LP procedures took considerably longer than the US method (P = 0.03). Finally, transgene transcripts were not detected in spleen or liver samples. Thus, for the phenotypic characterization of a transgenic goat line, investigation of ectopic gene expression can be made successfully by LP or US biopsy, avoiding the traditional approach of euthanasia. PMID:26345799

  11. An ex vivo human lung model for ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy using lung flooding.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Frank; Reichenbach, Jrgen R; Lesser, Thomas G

    2014-03-01

    The usability of an exvivo human lung model for ablation of lung cancer tissue with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is described. Lung lobes were flooded with saline, with no gas remaining after complete atelectasis. The tumor was delineated sono-morphologically. Speed of sound, tissue density and ultrasound attenuation were measured for flooded lung and different pulmonary cancer tissues. The acoustic impedance of lung cancer tissue (1.6-1.9 mega-Rayleighs) was higher than that of water, as was its attenuation coefficient (0.31-0.44 dB/cm/MHz) compared with that of the flooded lung (0.12 dB/cm/MHz). After application of HIFU, the temperature in centrally located lung cancer surrounded by the flooded lung increased as high as 80C, which is sufficient for treatment. On the basis of these preliminary results, ultrasound-guided HIFU ablation of lung cancer, by lung flooding with saline, appears feasible and should be explored in future clinical studies. PMID:24412177

  12. Unplanned pregnancy after ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of uterine fibroids: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bing-Song, Zhang; Jing, Zhang; Zhi-Yu, Han; Chang-Tao, Xu; Rui-Fang, Xu; Xiu-Mei, Li; Hui, Liu

    2016-01-01

    A follow-up study was performed with 169 women of childbearing age who underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (UPMWA) therapy for symptomatic uterine fibroids in the Chinese PLA General Hospital from June 2007 to December 2014. This study aimed to observe the incidence of unplanned pregnancies in these women after UPMWA treatment in order to evaluate its effect on natural conception. Ten unplanned pregnancies in nine women were occurred. Of the nine patients, six did not want the pregnancy and chose for induced abortion to end the pregnancy at an early stage. Three chose to continue with the pregnancy and gave birth to a healthy term infant delivered by cesarean section (of these three patients, two had been previously diagnosed as infertility). None of the patients had any serious obstetric complications. After UPMWA treatment for uterine fibroids, patients may conceive naturally, the impact of the procedure on fertility and pregnancy outcomes is worthy of further prospective study in larger sample. PMID:26733265

  13. Ultrasound-guided block of sciatic and femoral nerves: an anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Waag, Sonja; Stoffel, Michael H; Spadavecchia, Claudia; Eichenberger, Urs; Rohrbach, Helene

    2014-04-01

    The sheep is a popular animal model for human biomechanical research involving invasive surgery on the hind limb. These painful procedures can only be ethically justified with the application of adequate analgesia protocols. Regional anaesthesia as an adjunct to general anaesthesia may markedly improve well-being of these experimental animals during the postoperative period due to a higher analgesic efficacy when compared with systemic drugs, and may therefore reduce stress and consequently the severity of such studies. As a first step 14 sheep cadavers were used to establish a new technique for the peripheral blockade of the sciatic and the femoral nerves under sonographic guidance and to evaluate the success rate by determination of the colorization of both nerves after an injection of 0.5?mL of a 0.1% methylene blue solution. First, both nerves were visualized sonographically. Then, methylene blue solution was injected and subsequently the length of colorization was measured by gross anatomical dissection of the target nerves. Twenty-four sciatic nerves were identified sonographically in 12 out of 13 cadavers. In one animal, the nerve could not be ascertained unequivocally and, consequently, nerve colorization failed. Twenty femoral nerves were located by ultrasound in 10 out of 13 cadavers. In three cadavers, signs of autolysis impeded the scan. This study provides a detailed anatomical description of the localization of the sciatic and the femoral nerves and presents an effective and safe yet simple and rapid technique for performing peripheral nerve blocks with a high success rate. PMID:24464921

  14. Comparison of two techniques for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus blockade in cats.

    PubMed

    Ansn, Agustina; Laredo, Francisco G; Gil, Francisco; Soler, Marta; Belda, Eliseo; Ayala, Maria D; Agut, Amalia

    2015-06-01

    Axillary blockade of the brachial plexus (BP) is advocated in humans and dogs for surgical procedures carried out on the foot, carpus and elbow as it provides complete analgesia distally from above the elbow joint. The aim of this study was to develop an ultrasound (US)-guided approach to block the BP in cats. Two groups of 12 feline cadavers each were used to compare two different techniques to block the BP at the axillary level. The reliability of the techniques was assessed by anatomical and computed tomography (CT) studies. Cadavers of the first group were positioned in dorsal recumbency with the forelimb to be blocked adducted (thoracic limbs flexed and orientated caudally) (FAD technique). The second group was positioned in dorsal recumbency with the forelimb abducted 90 (FAB technique). The accuracy of the techniques was determined by US after injecting 1 ml blue ink along the BP nerves, and by CT after injecting 1 ml of an iodinated contrast medium. The anatomical and CT studies confirmed the accuracy of the US location of the BP nerves. Staining of the axillaris, musculocutaneous, radialis, medianus and ulnaris nerves was observed in 100% of cats using the FAB technique and in 66% of the cats using the FAD technique. Rate of complications was higher in the FAD technique. In conclusion, a US-guided axillary approach to the BP by the use of a FAB technique is a safe and feasible procedure to block the BP in the cat. Further studies are needed to ascertain whether the technique can be applied in a clinical setting. PMID:25193280

  15. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided vascular therapy: is it safe and effective?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J-M; Giacino, C; Pioche, M; Vanbiervliet, G; Brardjanian, S; Ah-Soune, P; Vitton, V; Grimaud, J-C; Barthet, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent developments in therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) have enabled new approaches to the management of refractory gastrointestinal bleeding, including EUS-guided sclerotherapy and vessel embolization. Few cases have been reported in the literature. Eight patients were admitted for severe, refractory gastrointestinal bleeding, seven of whom were actively bleeding. Causes of bleeding were gastric varices secondary to portal hypertension (n = 3); gastroduodenal artery aneurysm or fundal aneurysmal arterial malformation (n = 3); and Dieulafoy's ulcer (n = 2); the latter five patients having arterial bleeding. During the procedures, the bleeding vessel was punctured with a 19-gauge needle then injected with a sclerosing agent (cyanoacrylate glue [n = 6] or polidocanol 2 % [n = 2]) under Doppler control. The median follow-up time was 9 months (3 - 18 months). In all 10 endoscopic procedures were performed. The procedure was successful at the first attempt in seven out of eight patients (87.5 %). No clinical complications were observed, although in one case there was diffusion of cyanoacrylate in the hepatic artery. The seven successful cases all showed immediate and complete disappearance of the Doppler flow signal at the end of the procedure. This retrospective study highlights the utility of EUS-guided vascular therapy. However, more large randomized studies should be conducted to confirm these results. PMID:22389233

  16. Real-Time Ultrasound-Guided Spinal Anaesthesia: A Prospective Observational Study of a New Approach

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, P. H.; Luyet, C.; McCartney, C. J.; McHardy, P. G.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the subarachnoid space has traditionally been achieved by either a blind landmark-guided approach or using prepuncture ultrasound assistance. To assess the feasibility of performing spinal anaesthesia under real-time ultrasound guidance in routine clinical practice we conducted a single center prospective observational study among patients undergoing lower limb orthopaedic surgery. A spinal needle was inserted unassisted within the ultrasound transducer imaging plane using a paramedian approach (i.e., the operator held the transducer in one hand and the spinal needle in the other). The primary outcome measure was the success rate of CSF acquisition under real-time ultrasound guidance with CSF being located in 97 out of 100 consecutive patients within median three needle passes (IQR 16). CSF was not acquired in three patients. Subsequent attempts combining landmark palpation and pre-puncture ultrasound scanning resulted in successful spinal anaesthesia in two of these patients with the third patient requiring general anaesthesia. Median time from spinal needle insertion until intrathecal injection completion was 1.2 minutes (IQR 0.834.1) demonstrating the feasibility of this technique in routine clinical practice. PMID:23365568

  17. Out-of-plane ultrasound-guided paravertebral blocks improve analgesic outcomes in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Amlong, Corey; Guy, Moltu; Schroeder, Kristopher M; Donnelly, Melanie J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Paravertebral blocks (PVBs) are a method of limiting postoperative pain for patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). We began providing ultrasound-guided PVBs for patients undergoing VATS in the spring of 2011, using an out-of-plane approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate this practice change. Methods Following institutional review board approval, we reviewed the charts of 114 patients undergoing VATS by one surgeon at our institution between January 2011 and July 2012. Of the 78 eligible patients, 49 patients received a PVB prior to surgery. We evaluated opioids administered in the perioperative period, pain scores, and side effects from pain medications. Results Patients who received a preoperative PVB required fewer narcotics intraoperatively and during their hospital stay (P=0.001 and 0.011, respectively). Pain scores on initial assessment and in recovery were lower in patients who received a PVB (P=0.005), as were dynamic and resting pain scores at 24 hours after surgery (P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). Patients receiving a PVB had fewer episodes of treated nausea both in the postanesthesia care unit (P=0.004) and for the first 24 hours after surgery (P=0.001). These patients also spent less time in recovery (P=0.025) than the patients who did not receive a block. Conclusion The current study suggests improved outcomes in patients who underwent VATS with a preoperative PVB. All variables showed a trend toward improved results in patients who obtained a preoperative PVB. PMID:26730208

  18. Gleason score and tumor laterality in radical prostatectomy and transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Renan A; Costa, Roberto S; Muglia, Valdair F; Silva, Fbio Frana; Lajes, Joyce S; Dos Reis, Rodolfo B; Silva, Gyl EB

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare Gleason score and tumor laterality between transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUSBX) and radical prostatectomy (RP). Some factors that could cause a discrepancy in results between these two procedures were also evaluated. Among the 318 cases reviewed, 191 cases were selected for inclusion in this comparative study. We divided the patients into two groups using the Gleason score: an intermediate/high-grade group (?7) and a low-grade group (<6). Exploratory analyses were conducted for comparisons between groups. We also performed comparisons between TRUSBX and RP for tumor laterality. TRUSBX overestimated 6% and underestimated 24% cases in comparison with RP for Gleason score, and overestimated 2.6% and underestimated 46% cases compared with RP for tumor laterality. Biopsy specimens were slightly smaller in TRUSBX cases with underestimated tumor laterality (P < 0.05), and no relationship between the biopsy specimen size and underestimated Gleason score in TRUSBX was found. Prostatic volume showed no statistical correlation with the likelihood of under or overestimation (P > 0.05). Thus, our study showed that TRUSBX has a high likelihood of underestimating both the Gleason score and tumor laterality in prostate cancer (PCa). The size of the fragment appears to be an important factor influencing the likelihood of laterality underestimation and Gleason score overestimation via TRUSBX. Due to the high likelihood of underestimation of the Gleason score and tumor laterality by 12-core prostate biopsy, we conclude that this type of biopsy should not be used alone to guide therapy in PCa. PMID:25652629

  19. Ultrasound-guided tissue fractionation by high intensity focused ultrasound in an in vivo porcine liver model

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Wang, Yak-Nam; Simon, Julianna C.; Cunitz, Bryan W.; Starr, Frank; Paun, Marla; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Khokhlova, Vera A.

    2014-01-01

    The clinical use of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy for noninvasive tissue ablation has been recently gaining momentum. In HIFU, ultrasound energy from an extracorporeal source is focused within the body to ablate tissue at the focus while leaving the surrounding organs and tissues unaffected. Most HIFU therapies are designed to use heating effects resulting from the absorption of ultrasound by tissue to create a thermally coagulated treatment volume. Although this approach is often successful, it has its limitations, such as the heat sink effect caused by the presence of a large blood vessel near the treatment area or heating of the ribs in the transcostal applications. HIFU-induced bubbles provide an alternative means to destroy the target tissue by mechanical disruption or, at its extreme, local fractionation of tissue within the focal region. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a recently developed approach to HIFU-induced ultrasound-guided tissue fractionation in an in vivo pig model. In this approach, termed boiling histotripsy, a millimeter-sized boiling bubble is generated by ultrasound and further interacts with the ultrasound field to fractionate porcine liver tissue into subcellular debris without inducing further thermal effects. Tissue selectivity, demonstrated by boiling histotripsy, allows for the treatment of tissue immediately adjacent to major blood vessels and other connective tissue structures. Furthermore, boiling histotripsy would benefit the clinical applications, in which it is important to accelerate resorption or passage of the ablated tissue volume, diminish pressure on the surrounding organs that causes discomfort, or insert openings between tissues. PMID:24843132

  20. Accuracy assessment of an automatic image-based PET/CT registration for ultrasound-guided biopsies and ablations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadoury, Samuel; Wood, Bradford J.; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Dalal, Sandeep; Xu, Sheng; Kruecker, Jochen

    2011-03-01

    The multimodal fusion of spatially tracked real-time ultrasound (US) with a prior CT scan has demonstrated clinical utility, accuracy, and positive impact upon clinical outcomes when used for guidance during biopsy and radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of cancer. Additionally, the combination of CT-guided procedures with positron emission tomography (PET) may not only enhance navigation, but add valuable information regarding the specific location and volume of the targeted masses which may be invisible on CT and US. The accuracy of this fusion depends on reliable, reproducible registration methods between PET and CT. This can avoid extensive manual efforts to correct registration which can be long and tedious in an interventional setting. In this paper, we present a registration workflow for PET/CT/US fusion by analyzing various image metrics based on normalized mutual information and cross-correlation, using both rigid and affine transformations to automatically align PET and CT. Registration is performed between the CT component of the prior PET-CT and the intra-procedural CT scan used for navigation to maximize image congruence. We evaluate the accuracy of the PET/CT registration by computing fiducial and target registration errors using anatomical landmarks and lesion locations respectively. We also report differences to gold-standard manual alignment as well as the root mean square errors for CT/US fusion. Ten patients with prior PET/CT who underwent ablation or biopsy procedures were selected for this study. Studies show that optimal results were obtained using a crosscorrelation based rigid registration with a landmark localization error of 1.1 +/- 0.7 mm using a discrete graphminimizing scheme. We demonstrate the feasibility of automated fusion of PET/CT and its suitability for multi-modality ultrasound guided navigation procedures.

  1. The efficacy of ultrasound-guided extracorporeal shockwave therapy in patients with cervical spondylosis and nuchal ligament calcification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tz-Yan; Chen, Jing-Ting; Chen, Yu-Yu; Chen, Tien-Wen; Lee, Chia-Ling; Chen, Chia-Hsin; Huang, Mao-Hsiung

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) on the rehabilitation of cervical spondylosis with nuchal ligament (NL) calcification under X-ray and ultrasound guidance. Sixty patients with cervical spondylosis and calcification of NL were selected and randomly assigned to three groups: A, B, and C. Patients in Group A received rehabilitation with 20minutes of hot packs and underwent 15minutes of intermittent cervical traction three times/week for 6weeks. Patients in Group B received the same rehabilitation as those in Group A and ESWT (2000 impulses, 0.27mJ/mm(2)) over the calcified NL guided by X-ray image. Patients in Group C received the same treatment as those in Group B, but the ESWT was guided by musculoskeletal sonography. The therapeutic effects were evaluated by: changes in range of motion (ROM) of the cervical spine including flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation; visual analog pain scale; and Neck Disability Index before and after treatment and at follow up 3months later. We found a significant reduction in pain in each treated group after treatment and at follow up. However, patients in Groups B and C showed more improvements in ROM and neck pain relief after treatment and a decrease in Neck Disability Index. Furthermore, patients in Group C showed better cervical ROM at follow up than Group B. ESWT is an adjuvant treatment in the management of cervical spondylosis with calcification of NL and ultrasound-guided ESWT results in more functional improvements. PMID:26162813

  2. Secondary tumors of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Waters, Lindsay; Si, Quisheng; Caraway, Nancy; Mody, Dina; Staerkel, Gregg; Sneige, Nour

    2014-09-01

    Determining whether a pancreatic mass is a primary or secondary neoplasm is necessary for appropriate treatment. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors to identify clinical and cytopathologic characteristics of metastatic disease. We reviewed all cases of tumors metastatic to the pancreas evaluated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas during the period from 2002 to 2012. The review included cytologic specimens, clinical history, radiologic findings, primary tumor type, and clinical follow-up. We identified 66 patients with disease metastatic to the pancreas for which cytologic material was available: 38 (58%) men and 28 (42%) women, with an average age of 63 years (range, 40-89 years). Most metastases (98%) were single lesions, and nearly half were located in the head of the pancreas (30/66). The most common site of origin for these metastases was kidney (27 [41%] cases). Follow-up information was available for 65 (98%) patients, and duration of follow-up ranged from <1 to 10 years (mean, 2.3 years). Thirty-three patients (50%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up contact. Of the 25 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, 19 (76%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up. It was concluded that metastases may mimic primary pancreatic carcinomas both clinically and cytologically. Ancillary studies in conjunction with clinical history are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of FNAs of secondary pancreatic tumors. PMID:24554612

  3. The emerging role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided core biopsy for the evaluation of solid pancreatic masses.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, M; Koduru, P; Lanke, G; Bruno, M; Maitra, A; Giovannini, M

    2015-06-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a lethal cancer with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Surgical resection is the only curative treatment but only 20% are eligible for resection at the time of diagnosis. Early detection of cancer is of paramount importance in the management. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the preferred modality for obtaining tissue diagnosis of pancreatic masses. However, the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA may be limited by several factors like availability of onsite cytopathology, adequacy of tissue core for histology, location of the mass, presence of underlying chronic pancreatitis, and experience of the endoscopist. Modern oncology is focusing on personalizing treatment based on tissue analysis of genetic aberrations and molecular biomarkers which are now available. Core tissue also aids in the diagnosis of disease entities like lymphoma, metastatic tumors, neuroendocrine tumors and autoimmune pancreatitis whose diagnosis rely on preserved tissue architecture and immunohistochemistry. Making accurate diagnosis of solid pancreatic masses is critical to avoid unnecessary resections in patients with benign lesions like focal lesions of chronic pancreatitis and autoimmune pancreatitis which mimic cancer. To overcome the limitations of FNA and to obtain adequate core tissue, a Tru-Cut biopsy needle was developed which met with variable success due to stiffness, cumbersome operation and technical failure using it in the duodenum/pancreatic head. More recently fine needle biopsy needles, with reverse bevel technology have become available in different sizes (19, 22, 25-gauge). The aim of this article was to review the emerging role of core biopsy needles in acquiring tissue in solid pancreatic masses and discuss its potential role in personalized medicine. PMID:25675155

  4. Comparison of 21-Gauge and 22-Gauge Aspiration Needle in Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Akulian, Jason; Lechtzin, Noah; Yasin, Faiza; Kamdar, Biren; Ernst, Armin; Ost, David E.; Ray, Cynthia; Greenhill, Sarah R.; Jimenez, Carlos A.; Filner, Joshua; Feller-Kopman, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive procedure originally performed using a 22-gauge (22G) needle. A recently introduced 21-gauge (21G) needle may improve the diagnostic yield and sample adequacy of EBUS-TBNA, but prior smaller studies have shown conflicting results. To our knowledge, this is the largest study undertaken to date to determine whether the 21G needle adds diagnostic benefit. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the results of 1,299 patients from the American College of Chest Physicians Quality Improvement Registry, Education, and Evaluation (AQuIRE) Diagnostic Registry who underwent EBUS-TBNA between February 2009 and September 2010 at six centers throughout the United States. Data collection included patient demographics, sample adequacy, and diagnostic yield. Analysis consisted of univariate and multivariate hierarchical logistic regression comparing diagnostic yield and sample adequacy of EBUS-TBNA specimens by needle gauge. Results: A total of 1,235 patients met inclusion criteria. Sample adequacy was obtained in 94.9% of the 22G needle group and in 94.6% of the 21G needle group (P = .81). A diagnosis was made in 51.4% of the 22G and 51.3% of the 21G groups (P = .98). Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression showed no statistical difference in sample adequacy or diagnostic yield between the two groups. The presence of rapid onsite cytologic evaluation was associated with significantly fewer needle passes per procedure when using the 21G needle (P < .001). Conclusions: There is no difference in specimen adequacy or diagnostic yield between the 21G and 22G needle groups. EBUS-TBNA in conjunction with rapid onsite cytologic evaluation and a 21G needle is associated with fewer needle passes compared with a 22G needle. PMID:23632441

  5. Risk factors for aggressive nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and the role of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Ende, Alexander R.; Sedarat, Alireza; Shah, Pari; Jhala, Nirag; Fraker, Douglas L.; Drebin, Jeffrey A.; Metz, David C.; Kochman, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-pNETs) are increasingly being diagnosed but management, especially of small tumors, remains a clinical dilemma. Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is now routinely used for diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) but has not been well studied as a tool for identifying aggressive disease. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the cytology database identified all patients at our center who underwent EUS-FNA from 1999 through 2011 and were diagnosed with NF-pNET. Results: A total of 50 patients were identified. Though patients with metastatic disease had a mean tumor size of 40 mm compared to 25 mm in patients without metastatic disease (P = 0.04), we also identified several patients with tumors <20 mm who presented with metastatic disease. Furthermore, we found no statistically significant difference in metastatic disease between tumors <20 mm and >20 mm (P = 0.13). Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we found that using a cutoff point of 20 mm only led to a sensitivity of 85% in screening for metastases, while lowering the cutoff point to 18 mm allowed for a sensitivity of 95%. Conclusion: Currently, guidelines suggest that only patients with tumors greater than 20 mm undergo surgical resection, as tumors less than this size are thought to have low risk of metastases. Our analysis suggests that these recommendations could lead to undertreating patients with small tumors. Tumor size alone may be inadequate as a marker for aggressive NF-pNETs. Given this, other risk factors for aggressive pNETs should be studied to help identify the patients most likely to benefit from surgery. PMID:26879167

  6. Comparison of 22G reverse-beveled versus standard needle for endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling of solid pancreatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Alatawi, Abdullah; Beuvon, Frdric; Grabar, Sophie; Leblanc, Sarah; Chaussade, Stanislas; Terris, Benoit; Barret, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) using standard needles has a high diagnostic value in the evaluation of solid pancreatic masses. Fenestrated needles have been developed to improve the quality of EUS-guided tissue sampling by providing core biopsies (FNB). Methods Patients with solid pancreatic masses of >2?cm were prospectively included in our study and randomized to receive EUS sampling, using either a standard 22G FNA or a 22G Procore FNB needle. The main study endpoint was the number of needle passes required to obtain a diagnosis in more than 90% of cases. Results We included 100 patients (male?=?63, female?=?37; mean age?=?68.4 years) in our study. We found that 88% of the lesions were malignant, with a mean size of 32?mm. A sample adequate for diagnosis was obtained in more than 90% of cases after the second needle pass in the FNB group, versus the third needle pass in the FNA group. Slide cellularity and presence of tissue microfragments were significantly higher in the FNB group. Sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignancy was 88.4% versus 97.8% for the EUS-FNA and EUS-FNB group, respectively, while specificity for both techniques was 100%. No complications were recorded. Conclusions Although the accuracy of both needle types for proving malignancy was similar, a lower number of passes was required with the FNB needles to achieve the same contributive sample rate as with the FNA needles. FNB also improved the histopathological quality of specimens, suggesting an overall superiority of FNB sampling. PMID:26279842

  7. Comparison of Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration and Video-Assisted Mediastinoscopy for Mediastinal Staging of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiahui; Guan, Wenbin; Han, Fengfeng; Guo, Xuejun; Jin, Zhichao

    2015-10-01

    Video-assisted mediastinoscopy (VAM) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) are the two most commonly used invasive methods for mediastinal staging of lung cancer. The objective of this review is to assess and compare the overall diagnostic values of VAM and EBUS-TBNA. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies that evaluated EBUS-TBNA or VAM accuracy. Quantitative meta-analysis was used to pool sensitivity and specificity, and study quality was evaluated. Meta-regression was applied to indirectly compare EBUS-TBNA and VAM after adjusting quality score, study design, and station number. A total of ten studies with 999 EBUS-TBNA patients and seven studies with 915 VAM patients were included. Since the pooled specificity was 100% for both modalities, sensitivity was mainly analyzed. The pooled sensitivities for EBUS-TBNA and VAM were 0.84 (95% CI 0.79-0.88) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.82-0.90), respectively. Subgroup analyses of quality score, study design, station number and rapid on-site cytologic evaluation showed no significant influence on the overall sensitivity of the two modalities. After adjusting quality score, study design, and station number, the pooled sensitivities of VAM and EBUS-TBNA were not significantly different. However, more procedural complications and fewer false negatives (FN) were found with VAM than EBUS-TBNA. VAM and EBUS exhibited equally high diagnostic accuracy for mediastinal staging of lung cancer. Due to lower morbidity with EBUS-TBNA and fewer FN with VAM, EBUS-TBNA should be performed first, followed by VAM in the case of a negative needle result. PMID:26186887

  8. Real-Time Automatic Artery Segmentation, Reconstruction and Registration for Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anaesthesia of the Femoral Nerve.

    PubMed

    Smistad, Erik; Lindseth, Frank

    2016-03-01

    The goal is to create an assistant for ultrasound- guided femoral nerve block. By segmenting and visualizing the important structures such as the femoral artery, we hope to improve the success of these procedures. This article is the first step towards this goal and presents novel real-time methods for identifying and reconstructing the femoral artery, and registering a model of the surrounding anatomy to the ultrasound images. The femoral artery is modelled as an ellipse. The artery is first detected by a novel algorithm which initializes the artery tracking. This algorithm is completely automatic and requires no user interaction. Artery tracking is achieved with a Kalman filter. The 3D artery is reconstructed in real-time with a novel algorithm and a tracked ultrasound probe. A mesh model of the surrounding anatomy was created from a CT dataset. Registration of this model is achieved by landmark registration using the centerpoints from the artery tracking and the femoral artery centerline of the model. The artery detection method was able to automatically detect the femoral artery and initialize the tracking in all 48 ultrasound sequences. The tracking algorithm achieved an average dice similarity coefficient of 0.91, absolute distance of 0.33 mm, and Hausdorff distance 1.05 mm. The mean registration error was 2.7 mm, while the average maximum error was 12.4 mm. The average runtime was measured to be 38, 8, 46 and 0.2 milliseconds for the artery detection, tracking, reconstruction and registration methods respectively. PMID:26513782

  9. Routine use of ultrasound-guided access reduces access-site related complications after lower extremity percutaneous revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Fokkema, Margriet T.M.; Curran, Thomas; Darling, Jeremy; Hamdan, Allen D.; Wyers, Mark; Martin, Michelle; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We sought to elucidate the risks for access site-related complications (ASC) following percutaneous lower extremity revascularization and to evaluate benefit of routine ultrasound-guided access (RUS) in decreasing ASC. Methods We reviewed all consecutive percutaneous revascularizations (PTA or stent) performed for lower extremity atherosclerosis at our institution from 20022012. RUS began September 2007. Primary outcome was any ASC (bleeding, groin or retroperitoneal [RP] hematoma, vessel rupture, or thrombosis). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of ASC. Results A total of 1,371 punctures were performed on 877 patients (43% women, median age 69 [IQR 6078] yrs for claudication (29%), critical limb ischemia (59%), or bypass graft stenosis (12%) using 48Fr sheaths. There were 72 ASCs (5%): 52 instances of bleeding or groin hematoma, 9 pseudoaneurysms, 8 retroperitoneal hematomas, 2 artery lacerations, and 1 thrombosis. ASC were less frequent when RUS was used (4% vs. 7%, P=.02). Multivariable predictors of ASC were age >75 years (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.13.7, P=.03), CHF (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.11.3, P=.02), preoperative warfarin use (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.13.5, P=.02), & RUS (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.20.7, P<.01). Vascular closure devices (VCDs) were not associated with lower rates of ASCs (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.20.7, P<.01). RUS lowered ASCs in those >75 years (5% vs. 12%, P<.01) but not those on warfarin preoperatively (10% vs. 13%, P=.47). RUS did not decrease VCD failure (6% vs. 4%, P=.79). Conclusions We were able to decrease the rate of ASCs during lower extremity revascularization with the implementation of RUS. VCDs did not impact ASCs. Particular care should be taken on patients >75 years old, those with CHF, and those on warfarin. PMID:25240244

  10. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of secondary tumors involving the pancreas: An institution's experience

    PubMed Central

    Alomari, Almed K.; Ustun, Berrin; Aslanian, Harry R.; Ge, Xinquan; Chhieng, David; Cai, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pancreatic masses may seldom represent a metastasis or secondary involvement by lymphoproliferative disorders. Recognition of this uncommon occurrence may help render an accurate diagnosis and avoid diagnostic pitfalls during endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). In this study, we review our experience in diagnosing secondary tumors involving the pancreas. Materials and Methods: The electronic database of cytopathology archives was searched for cases of secondary tumors involving the pancreas at our institution and a total of 31 cases were identified. The corresponding clinical presentations, imaging study findings, cytological diagnoses, the results of ancillary studies, and surgical follow-up, if available, were reviewed. Results: Nineteen of the patients were male and 12 female, with a mean age of 66 years. Twenty-three patients (74%) had a prior history of malignancy, with the latency ranging from 6 months to 19 years. The secondary tumors involving the pancreas included metastatic carcinoma (24 cases), metastatic sarcoma (3 cases), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (2 cases), and plasma cell neoplasm (2 cases). The most common metastatic tumors were renal cell carcinoma (8 cases) and lung carcinoma (7 cases). Correct diagnoses were rendered in 29 cases (94%). The remaining two cases were misclassified as primary pancreatic carcinoma. In both cases, the patients had no known history of malignancy, and no ancillary studies were performed. Conclusions: Secondary tumors involving the pancreas can be accurately diagnosed by EUS-FNA. Recognizing uncommon cytomorphologic features, knowing prior history of malignancy, and performing ancillary studies are the keys to improve diagnostic performance and avoid diagnostic pitfalls.

  11. Needle localization using a moving stylet/catheter in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Parmida; Rohling, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Despite the wide range and long history of ultrasound guided needle insertions, an unresolved issue in many cases is clear needle visibility. A well-known ad hoc technique to detect the needle is to move the stylet and look for changes in the needle appearance. We present a new method to automatically locate a moving stylet/catheter within a stationary cannula using motion detection. We then use this information to detect the needle trajectory and the tip. The differences between the current frame and the previous frame are detected and localized, to minimize the influence of tissue global motions. A polynomial fit based on the detected needle axis determines the estimated stylet shaft trajectory, and the extent of the differences along the needle axis represents the tip. Over a few periodic movements of the stylet including its full insertion into the cannula to the tip, a combination of polynomial fits determines the needle trajectory and the last detected point represents the needle tip. Experiments are conducted in water bath and bovine muscle tissue for several stylet/catheter materials. Results show that a plastic stylet has the best needle shaft and tip localization accuracy in the water bath with RMSE = 0:16 mm and RMSE = 0:51 mm, respectively. In the bovine tissue, the needle tip was best localized with the plastic catheter with RMSE = 0:33 mm. The stylet tip localization was most accurate with the steel stylet, with RMSE = 2:81 mm and the shaft was best localized with the plastic catheter, with RMSE = 0:32 mm.

  12. Ultrasound-guided anaesthetic blockade of the pelvic limb in calves.

    PubMed

    Re, Michela; Blanco-Murcia, Javier; Villaescusa Fernández, Alejandra; De Gaspar Simón, Ignacio; Gómez de Segura, Ignacio A

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to describe a suitable acoustic window to facilitate access to the sciatic and femoral nerves in calves and to study the effects of their blockade with local anaesthetics. The neuroanatomical and ultrasound (US) study was performed on the cadavers of 10 calves, and the effects of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine (0.2 mL/kg) were determined in five healthy calves. The sciatic nerve in the cadavers was easily visualised as a hyperechoic band distal to the femoral greater trochanter and caudal to the femoral shaft. The femoral nerve in the cadavers was not easily identified, and was visualised as a hyperechoic oval structure situated immediately medial to the psoas major muscle and lateral to the femoral artery. The sciatic nerve was stained by methylene blue, injected under US guidance, in 9/10 cases, and the femoral nerve was stained in 6/10 cases. Sciatic nerve blockade under US guidance produced adduction of the limb with metatarsophalangeal joint flexion, while the femoral nerve blockade produced reduced weight bearing. The sciatic nerve blockade produced a reduced response to the noxious stimulus, mainly in the phalanges, proximal and distal metatarsus, tarsus and tibia and, following the femoral nerve blockade, in the medial subarea of the femur. However, femoral nerve blockade produced a more variable degree of blockade. In conclusion, US -guided anaesthetic blockade of the sciatic nerve in calves may be considered for surgery in the distal pelvic limb, although further studies are necessary to determine its clinical application. PMID:24797105

  13. The impact of local anesthetic distribution on block onset in Ultrasound-guided interscalene block

    PubMed Central

    Lang, R Scott; Kentor, Michael L; Vallejo, Manuel; Bigeleisen, Paul; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Orebaugh, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent investigations of local anesthetic distribution in the lower extremity have revealed that completely surrounding the sciatic nerve with local anesthetic provides the advantage of more rapid and complete anesthesia in the territory served by the nerve. We hypothesized that a pattern of distribution which entirely envelops the targeted nerve roots during interscalene block would provide similar benefits of more rapid anesthesia onset. Methods During interscalene block guided by ultrasound with nerve-stimulator confirmation, the pattern of local anesthetic distribution was recorded and later classified as complete or incomplete envelopment of the visible nerve elements in 50 patients undergoing ambulatory shoulder arthroscopic surgery. The pattern was then compared to the extent of block set-up at predetermined intervals, as well as to postoperative pain levels and block duration. Results 22 patients (44%) had complete envelopment of the nerves in the plane of injection during ultrasound imaging of the interscalene block. There was no difference in the fraction of blocks that were fully set-up at 10 minutes with regards to complete or incomplete envelopment of the nerves by local anesthetic. All of the patients had complete set-up of the block by 20 minutes. In addition, the postoperative pain levels and duration of block did not vary among the two groups with complete versus incomplete local anesthetic distribution around the nerves. Conclusion The presence or absence of complete envelopment of the nerve elements in the interscalene groove by local anesthetic did not determine the likelihood of complete block effect at predetermined time intervals after the procedure. PMID:22845687

  14. Fentanyl Patches to Supplement Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Blocks forImproving Pain Control After Foot and Ankle Surgery: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Hwang; Kang, Chan; Hwang, Deuk-Soo; Hwang, Jung-Mo; Shin, Byung-Kon

    2016-01-01

    The analgesic effects of preoperative ultrasound-guided nerve blocks wear off after about 12hours, leaving some patients in substantial pain. Transdermal fentanyl concentrations peak at 12 to 24hours after application and maintain this concentration for approximately 72hours. We sought to determine whether combining the use of a transdermal fentanyl patch with either a sciatic or femoral-sciatic nerve block would improve pain control in patients undergoing foot and/or ankle surgery. Consecutive patients in the no-patch control group (n=104) were enrolled from July 2011 to October 2011, and those in the treatment group (n=232) were enrolled from November 2011 to May 2012 and received a transdermal patch (4.125mg/7.5cm(2) releasing 25?g of fentanyl per hour) applied to their chest postoperatively. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale at 6, 12, 24, and 48hours after surgery. The primary outcome measure was the number of requests for additional postoperative pain medication. Additional postoperative analgesia was requested by 49 of the 104 control patients (47.1%) and 63 of the 232 treated patients (27.1%; p=.002). The mean pain scores were also lower in the treatment group, with a statistically significant difference (p<.05) at 12, 24, and 48hours. Thus, patients receiving a fentanyl patch combined with an ultrasound-guided nerve block required less supplemental analgesia to maintain adequate pain control than did those receiving a nerve block alone. In conclusion, a fentanyl patch is a useful adjunct to an ultrasound-guided nerve block in foot and ankle surgery. PMID:26422649

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Small Vessel Cannulation: Long-Axis Approach Is Equivalent to Short-Axis in Novice Sonographers Experienced with Landmark-Based Cannulation

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Catherine S.; Liao, Michael M.; Haukoos, Jason S.; Douglass, Erica; DiGeronimo, Margaret; Christensen, Eric; Hopkins, Emily; Bender, Brooke; Kendall, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Our primary objective was to describe the time to vessel penetration and difficulty of long-axis and short-axis approaches for ultrasound-guided small vessel penetration in novice sonographers experienced with landmark-based small vessel penetration. Methods This was a prospective, observational study of experienced certified emergency nurses attempting ultrasound-guided small vessel cannulation on a vascular access phantom. We conducted a standardized training, practice, and experiment session for each participant. Five long-axis and five short-axis approaches were attempted in alternating sequence. The primary outcome was time to vessel penetration. Secondary outcomes were number of skin penetrations and number of catheter redirections. We compared long-axis and short-axis approaches using multivariable regression adjusting for repeated measures, vessel depth, and vessel caliber. Results Each of 10 novice sonographers made 10 attempts for a total of 100 attempts. Median time to vessel penetration in the long-axis and short-axis was 11 (95% confidence interval [CI] 712) and 10 (95% CI 613) seconds, respectively. Skin penetrations and catheter redirections were equivalent and near optimal between approaches. The median caliber of cannulated vessels in the long-axis and short-axis was 4.6 (95% CI 4.15.5) and 5.6 (95% CI 5.16.2) millimeters, respectively. Both axes had equal success rates of 100% for all 50 attempts. In multivariable regression analysis, long-axis attempts were 32% (95% CI 11%48%; p=0.009) faster than short-axis attempts. Conclusion Novice sonographers, highly proficient with peripheral IV cannulation, can perform after instruction ultrasound-guided small vessel penetration successfully with similar time to vessel penetration in either the long-axis or short-axis approach on phantom models. PMID:25493126

  16. In-line positioning of ultrasound images using wireless remote display system with tablet computer facilitates ultrasound-guided radial artery catheterization.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Masahiko; Mizutani, Koh; Funai, Yusuke; Nakamoto, Tatsuo

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasound-guided procedures may be easier to perform when the operator's eye axis, needle puncture site, and ultrasound image display form a straight line in the puncture direction. However, such methods have not been well tested in clinical settings because that arrangement is often impossible due to limited space in the operating room. We developed a wireless remote display system for ultrasound devices using a tablet computer (iPad Mini), which allows easy display of images at nearly any location chosen by the operator. We hypothesized that the in-line layout of ultrasound images provided by this system would allow for secure and quick catheterization of the radial artery. We enrolled first-year medical interns (n=20) who had no prior experience with ultrasound-guided radial artery catheterization to perform that using a short-axis out-of-plane approach with two different methods. With the conventional method, only the ultrasound machine placed at the side of the head of the patient across the targeted forearm was utilized. With the tablet method, the ultrasound images were displayed on an iPad Mini positioned on the arm in alignment with the operator's eye axis and needle puncture direction. The success rate and time required for catheterization were compared between the two methods. Success rate was significantly higher (100 vs. 70%, P=0.02) and catheterization time significantly shorter (28.57.5 vs. 68.214.3s, P<0.001) with the tablet method as compared to the conventional method. An ergonomic straight arrangement of the image display is crucial for successful and quick completion of ultrasound-guided arterial catheterization. The present remote display system is a practical method for providing such an arrangement. PMID:25869898

  17. Routine use of ultrasound guided tandem placement in intracavitary brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer a South Indian institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pamidimukkala Bramhananda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intracavitary brachytherapy necessitates the insertion of a tandem applicator through the cervical os into the uterine cavity. Blind insertion of the tandem may result in suboptimal tandem placement. This decreases the control of the tumor locally and may result in uterine perforation. Although routine real time ultrasound guided tandem placement has shown better results, it is seldom practised. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of routine real-time intraoperative trans-abdominal ultrasound guided tandem placement in intracavitary brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. Material and methods This is a prospective single institutional study conducted from April 2013 to May 2015. A total of 96 patients of locally advanced cervical cancer were treated with routine ultrasound guided brachytherapy amounting to a total of 282 intracavitary applications. Results In 78 of the study patients, the cervical os could be easily identified visually, which was then confirmed with ultrasound guidance. In another 12 patients, though the os could be identified visually, uterine sounding was only possible under ultrasound guidance. In another 4 patients, the cervical os could not be identified visually as the cervix was flushed with vagina and ultrasound guidance was necessary for accurate os identification. In 2 of the study patients, intraoperative ultrasound helped in identifying the patients suitable for interstitial brachytherapy rather than intracavitary brachytherapy. Out of the 96 study patients, the length of the uterine canal changed in 15 patients during the subsequent brachytherapy application. Conclusions This procedure is strongly advocated for proper placement of the tandem applicator and to avoid perforations. It is an accurate, fast, easily available, and cost-effective method. Hence, it can be incorporated in intracavitary applications for cervical cancers even in the developing countries where cost, accessibility, and time are important issues. PMID:26622240

  18. Inhibition of GABAA receptor-mediated current responses by enoxacin (new quinolone) and felbinac (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) in Xenopus oocytes injected with mouse-brain messenger RNA.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, J; Shimokawa, M; Yamamoto, K; Sawada, Y; Asanuma, A; Yanagisawa, K; Iga, T

    1993-07-01

    The convulsant interaction between enoxacin (ENX), a new quinolone antibacterial agent (NQ), and felbinac (FLB), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), in vivo was reproduced as the change of GABA-induced current response in Xenopus oocytes injected with mouse brain mRNA. GABA (10 microM) response was inhibited by ENX in a dose-dependent manner, and IC50 of ENX was 96 microM. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of ENX was 80-fold potentiated in the presence of 10 microM FLB. The GABAA-antagonistic interaction between these two drugs in vitro was considered a possible mechanism of convulsant reaction after concomitant administration of NQs and NSAIDs in vivo. PMID:7691340

  19. A serious mediastinum abscess induced by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA): a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Uchimura, Keigo; Oda, Keishi; Takenaka, Masaru; Kawanami, Toshinori; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A 75-year-old man with interstitial pneumonia and enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes underwent endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). He developed a high-grade fever seven days after EBUS-TBNA was performed; laboratory and radiologic findings showed intense inflammatory reactions, with swelling of the mediastinal lymph nodes on chest computed tomography. Mediastinal lymph node abscess was diagnosed, and it worsened in spite of systemic antibacterial treatment. Surgical treatment using a median sternotomy was performed, and the cultivation of surgically obtained mediastinal lymph node abscess fluid revealed Streptococcus intermedius. Combined treatment with antibiotics and surgical treatment was effective, leading to remission. PMID:26466704

  20. Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath catheters: A feasible and effective, opioid-sparing, post-operative pain management technique: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Sumitra; Mapari, Amol; Paliwal, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Epidural analgesia, though the gold standard of post-operative pain management for laparotomies, is associated with limitations and is contraindicated in many patients. Opioid-based pain management, which is an alternative to epidural, has been implicated in post-operative nausea, vomiting, and ileus. We report successful management of post operative pain with ultrasound guided rectus sheath (RS) catheters. RS block is a promising alternative in scenarios were epidural is contraindicated, has failed or in case of unexpected change in the surgical plan. PMID:25788745

  1. Ultrasound-Guided Retrieval and Position Replacement of a Dislodged Fetal Pleuro-Amniotic Shunt: A Novel Approach for a Known Complication of Feto-Amniotic Shunting.

    PubMed

    Adams, Tracy M; Kunzier, Nadia B; Chavez, Martin R; Vintzileos, Anthony M

    2016-01-01

    Untreated fetal pleural effusion can cause significant perinatal morbidity and mortality. Treatment of pleural effusions with pleuro-amniotic shunting has been shown to improve outcomes. Pleuro-amniotic shunting is associated with complications including ruptured membranes, preterm labor and shunt dislodgement into either the amniotic cavity or the fetal thorax. Shunt dislodgement into the thoracic cavity can cause prenatal complications from the shunt itself or may necessitate neonatal surgery for removal. We present a case where a novel ultrasound-guided technique was used to replace the dislodged pleural shunt in utero, thereby effectively draining the effusion while simultaneously obviating the need for neonatal surgery and decreasing possible perinatal complications. PMID:25660293

  2. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions (ENES): a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kongkam, Pradermchai; Pittayanon, Rapat; Sampatanukul, Pichet; Angsuwatcharakon, Phonthep; Aniwan, Satimai; Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Sriuranpong, Virote; Navicharern, Patpong; Treeprasertsuk, Sombat; Kullavanijaya, Pinit; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (EUS-nCLE) has been shown to aid in the diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesions. This is a pilot project to study its findings in patients with solid pancreatic lesions (SPLs) with a prospective single-blinded study design. Methods: Patients with SPLs undergoing trans-gastric EUS fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) from July 2013 to March 2014 were prospectively enrolled. The nCLE diagnoses were compared with the final diagnoses. Researchers learned about the EUS-nCLE findings from previously published studies and applied it to diagnose SPLs. In the meantime, the findings were recorded. Results: In total, 22 patients were recruited (mean age 62.7 years, SD 13.8 years; 14 men and eight women). The mean maximal tumor diameter was 36.0 mm (SD 10.9 mm). EUS-nCLE yielded satisfactory images in all patients during the first EUS procedure and diagnosed benign and malignant SPLs in 3 and 19 patients, respectively. Final diagnoses of malignant SPLs were made in 19 patients. Benign SPLs were eventually diagnosed in three patients, with confirmed the cytology and disease stability during the 12-month follow-up period. At the end of the project, based on the results of this current study, EUS-nCLE findings for malignant SPLs were dark clumping with or without dilated vessels (> 40 μm). There were two criteria for diagnosing benign lesions which were white fibrous bands and normal acini cells. The accuracy rate of EUS-nCLE was 90.9 % (20/22). One falsely diagnosed malignant SPL was an inflammatory mass from a recent acute pancreatitis. Another one with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting with a symptomatic pseudocyst was incorrectly diagnosed as an inflammatory mass. This was likely from sampling error of the EUS-nCLE probe in an inflammatory area. Only one patient had post EUS-FNA bleeding but did not require a blood transfusion. The inter-observer agreement among three blinded endoscopists was almost perfect (Kappa 0.82). Conclusion: EUS-nCLE is a promising technique for the diagnosis of SPLs with good inter-observer agreement. Study registration‎: TCTR20140402001 PMID:26793780

  3. Oncological safety of ultrasound-guided laparoscopic liver resection for colorectal metastases: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Langella, Serena; Russolillo, Nadia; D'Eletto, Marco; Forchino, Fabio; Lo Tesoriere, Roberto; Ferrero, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    Laparoscopic liver surgery has gained widespread acceptance and nowadays it is suggested even for malignant disease. Although the benefits on short-term outcomes have been proven, data on oncological safety are still lacking. The aim of this study is to assess oncologic results after ultrasound-guided laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) or open liver resection (OLR) for colorectal metastases. 37 consecutive patients undergoing LLR between 01/2004 and 03/2014 were matched at a ratio of 1:1 with 37 OLR. Matching criteria were male sex, number and diameter of liver metastases, segment location, synchronous presentation, site and stage of primary tumor, positive lymph nodes of the primary, and concomitant extrahepatic disease. Demographic characteristics were similar among groups. Parenchymal transection time was longer in the LLR group (68 ± 38.2 SD vs 40 ± 33.7 SD, p = 0.01). Mortality was nil in LLR and OLR. Overall morbidity was significantly lower in LLR (13.5 vs 37.8%, p = 0.02), although severe complications were similar among the two groups. Patients undergoing LLR were discharged earlier (5 ± 2.3 SD vs 8 ± 6.6 SD days, p < 0.001). The median margin width was 5 (0-40) mm in LLR vs 8 (0-25) mm in OLR, p = 0.897. R1 resection was recorded in four LLR and three OLR (p = 1). Overall recurrences were similar among groups. Eight patients with hepatic or extrahepatic recurrence among LLR underwent surgery vs four of OLR (p = 0.03). After a median follow-up of 35.7 months in LLR and 47.9 months in OLR, 3-year overall survival was 91.8% LLR and 74.8% OLR (p = 0.14). 3-year disease-free survival was 69.1% LLR and 65.9% OLR (p = 0.53). Multivariate analysis showed that postoperative complications [HR 3.42 (95% CI 1.32-8.89)] and multiple metastases [HR 3.84 (95% CI 1.34-10.83)] were independent predictors of worse survival (p = 0.01). Ultrasound-LLR for colorectal hepatic metastases is safe, ensuring oncologic outcomes comparable to OLR. PMID:26220046

  4. Comparison of MR/Ultrasound FusionGuided Biopsy With Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy for the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, M. Minhaj; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Turkbey, Baris; George, Arvin K.; Rothwax, Jason; Shakir, Nabeel; Okoro, Chinonyerem; Raskolnikov, Dima; Parnes, Howard L.; Linehan, W. Marston; Merino, Maria J.; Simon, Richard M.; Choyke, Peter L.; Wood, Bradford J.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Targeted magnetic resonance (MR)/ultrasound fusion prostate biopsy has been shown to detect prostate cancer. The implications of targeted biopsy alone vs standard extended-sextant biopsy or the 2 modalities combined are not well understood. Objective To assess targeted vs standard biopsy and the 2 approaches combined for the diagnosis of intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer. Design, Setting, And Participants Prospective cohort study of 1003 men undergoing both targeted and standard biopsy concurrently from 2007 through 2014 at the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Patients were referred for elevated level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or abnormal digital rectal examination results, often with prior negative biopsy results. Risk categorization was compared among targeted and standard biopsy and, when available, whole-gland pathology after prostatectomy as the gold standard. Interventions Patients underwent multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging to identify regions of prostate cancer suspicion followed by targeted MR/ultrasound fusion biopsy and concurrent standard biopsy. Main Outcomes And Measures The primary objective was to compare targeted and standard biopsy approaches for detection of high-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score ?4 + 3); secondary end points focused on detection of low-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score 3 + 3 or low-volume 3 + 4) and the biopsy ability to predict whole-gland pathology at prostatectomy. Results Targeted MR/ultrasound fusion biopsy diagnosed 461 prostate cancer cases, and standard biopsy diagnosed 469 cases. There was exact agreement between targeted and standard biopsy in 690 men (69%) undergoing biopsy. Targeted biopsy diagnosed 30% more high-risk cancers vs standard biopsy (173 vs 122 cases, P < .001) and 17% fewer low-risk cancers (213 vs 258 cases, P < .001). When standard biopsy cores were combined with the targeted approach, an additional 103 cases (22%) of mostly low-risk prostate cancer were diagnosed (83% low risk, 12% intermediate risk, and 5% high risk). The predictive ability of targeted biopsy for differentiating low-risk from intermediate- and high-risk disease in 170 men with whole-gland pathology after prostatectomy was greater than that of standard biopsy or the 2 approaches combined (area under the curve, 0.73, 0.59, and 0.67, respectively; P < .05 for all comparisons). Conclusions and Relevance Among men undergoing biopsy for suspected prostate cancer, targeted MR/ultrasound fusion biopsy, compared with standard extended-sextant ultrasound-guided biopsy, was associated with increased detection of high-risk prostate cancer and decreased detection of low-risk prostate cancer. Future studies will be needed to assess the ultimate clinical implications of targeted biopsy. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00102544 PMID:25626035

  5. Steroids (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Testing Talking to Kids About Steroids Stories about athletes and steroids seem to pop up regularly in the news. ... to produce muscle and prevent muscle breakdown. Some athletes take steroids in the hopes that they will improve their ...

  6. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... continue to abuse steroids despite physical problems, high costs to buy the drugs, and negative effects on their relationships. These behaviors reflect steroids' addictive potential. Research has further found that some steroid users turn ...

  7. Ultrasound guided fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoqiang; Lesage, Frederic

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a hybrid-model imaging system combining fluorescence and ultrasound (US) was investigated with the motivation of providing structural priors towards improvement of fluorescence reconstruction. A single element transducer was scanned over the sample for anatomy. In the fluorescence part, a laser source was scanned over the sample with the emission received by an EMCCD camera. Synchronization was achieved by a pair of motorized linear stages. Structural information was derived from the US images and a profilometry and used to constrain reconstruction. In the reconstruction, we employed a GPU-based Monte Carlo simulation for forward modeling and a pattern-based method to take advantage of the huge dataset for the inverse problem. Performance of this system was validated with two phantoms with fluorophore inclusions. The results indicated that the fluorophore distribution could be accurately reconstructed. And the system has a potential for the future in-vivo study.

  8. Utility of endobronchial ultrasound-guided-fine-needle aspiration and additional value of cell block in the diagnosis of mediastinal granulomatous lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Shaesta Naseem; Raddaoui, Emad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration is a minimally invasive technique for diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. Although most studies have reported the utility of EBUS-FNA in malignancy, its use has been extended to the benign conditions as well. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic yield and cytologic accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (EBUS-FNA) in cases of clinically and radiologically suspected granulomatous diseases. Patients and Method: From May 2010 to April 2015, 43 of 115 patients who underwent EBUS-FNA at one center for radiologically and clinically suspicious granulomatous lesions, and with no definite histological diagnosis, were included in this retrospective study. Results: When the histological diagnosis was taken as the gold standard, the sensitivity of EBUS-FNA was 85% and specificity was 100% with the positive predictive value of 100. The combined diagnostic sensitivity of EBUS-FNA and transbronchial lung biopsy was 100%. In 4 cases, cell block provided an exclusive morphological diagnosis of sarcoidosis which was noncontributory by EBUS-FNA. Conclusion: Our study supports the use of EBUS-FNA, by virtue of being a safe, minimally invasive, and an outpatient procedure, in the diagnosis of granulomatous mediastinal lymphadenopathy, thereby obviating more invasive testing in a significant number of patients. Also, cell block provides additional data in the diagnosis in these benign mediastinal diseases. PMID:26445590

  9. Efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided continuous hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy for the treatment of malignant ascites: a midterm study of 36 patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yinbing; Pan, Mingxin; Cui, Shuzhong; Ba, Mingchen; Chen, Zulong; Ruan, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided continuous hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy (CHIPC) for the treatment of malignant ascites (MA). Methods Between July 2011 and June 2013, 36 MA patients were prospectively and consecutively hospitalized for three cycles of elective CHIPC under ultrasound guidance, maintained at a constant flow rate of 400–600 mL/min normal saline containing 5-fluorouracil plus mitomycin or carboplatin and at a constant temperature of 43°C±0.2°C, for 90 minutes. Main outcome measures were ascites resolution, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), and serum tumor biomarkers at 2 weeks after the last cycle of CHIPC. All the patients underwent uneventful CHIPC as scheduled, and vital signs remained stable over CHIPC. Results At 2 weeks after the last cycle of CHIPC, MA completely and partially resolved in 26 (72.2%) patients and eight (22.2%) patients, respectively; mean KPS score increased from pretreatment 61±9 to posttreatment 76±9 (P<0.001), and serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigens 12-5 and 19-9 significantly decreased (all P<0.01). Conclusion The current study indicated that ultrasound-guided CHIPC is an effective and safe palliative treatment modality for MA with respect to MA resolution, patient’s general well-being, and systemic disease control. The long-term benefit of CHIPC on overall survival remains to be investigated in MA patients. PMID:26855589

  10. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  11. Lung cancer diagnosis and staging with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration compared with conventional approaches: an open-label, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Navani, Neal; Nankivell, Matthew; Lawrence, David R; Lock, Sara; Makker, Himender; Baldwin, David R; Stephens, Richard J; Parmar, Mahesh K; Spiro, Stephen G; Morris, Stephen; Janes, Sam M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The diagnosis and staging of lung cancer is an important process that identifies treatment options and guides disease prognosis. We aimed to assess endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration as an initial investigation technique for patients with suspected lung cancer. Methods In this open-label, multicentre, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial, we recruited patients who had undergone a CT scan and had suspected stage I to IIIA lung cancer, from six UK centres and randomly assigned them to either endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) or conventional diagnosis and staging (CDS), for further investigation and staging. If a target node could not be accessed by EBUS-TBNA, then endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) was allowed as an alternative procedure. Randomisation was stratified according to the presence of mediastinal lymph nodes measuring 1 cm or more in the short axis and by recruiting centre. We used a telephone randomisation method with permuted blocks of four generated by a computer. Because of the nature of the intervention, masking of participants and consenting investigators was not possible. The primary endpoint was the time-to-treatment decision after completion of the diagnostic and staging investigations and analysis was by intention-to-diagnose. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00652769. Findings Between June 10, 2008, and July 4, 2011, we randomly allocated 133 patients to treatment: 66 to EBUS-TBNA and 67 to CDS (one later withdrew consent). Two patients from the EBUS-TBNA group underwent EUS-FNA. The median time to treatment decision was shorter with EBUS-TBNA (14 days; 95% CI 1415) than with CDS (29 days; 2335) resulting in a hazard ratio of 198, (139282, p<00001). One patient in each group had a pneumothorax from a CT-guided biopsy sample; the patient from the CDS group needed intercostal drainage and was admitted to hospital. Interpretation Transbronchial needle aspiration guided by endobronchial ultrasound should be considered as the initial investigation for patients with suspected lung cancer, because it reduces the time to treatment decision compared with conventional diagnosis and staging techniques. Funding UK Medical Research Council. PMID:25660225

  12. Creation of multiple transluminal gateway during endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic necrosis by enlarging tract of impending rupture in duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Surinder Singh; Sharma, Vishal; Gorka, Suresh; Sharma, Ravi; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Necrotic pancreatic collections are difficult to treat endoscopically due to a concern for inadequate drainage of the necrotic debris. Multiple techniques including the use of metallic stents, endoscopic necrosectomy and use of hybrid approaches utilizing endoscopic and percutaneous approaches have been described for the management of pancreatic necrotic collections. Furthermore, multiple transluminal gateway technique has been used to create endosonography guided multiple tracts to drain a perigastric or periduodenal collection. We hereby report about a patient with walled off necrosis resulting as a complication of alcohol related acute pancreatitis that was drained using endoscopic ultrasound-guided approach. However, a spontaneous cystoduodenal fistula was used to create another tract and place transmural stents resulting in a quick resolution of symptoms. PMID:26374587

  13. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Vein Access for Placement of Broviac Catheters in Extremely Low Birth Weight Neonates: A Series of 3 Successful Cases.

    PubMed

    Dambkowski, Carl L; Abrajano, Claire T; Wall, James

    2015-11-01

    As medical and surgical interventions to support premature infants have evolved, the need for long-term vascular access in extremely low birth weight infants has increased. The classic approach to Broviac() (C.R. Bard, Covington, GA) catheter placement in very small neonates has been through an open surgical cutdown technique. Ultrasound guidance has emerged as a potentially beneficial method for obtaining central venous access in children and is being applied to smaller and smaller infants. This case series reports the feasibility of using ultrasound-guided percutaneous vein access to obtain a long-term central venous line in three extremely low birth weight infants who all weighed less than 850?g at the time of line placement. PMID:26288340

  14. [An application of low-invasive access in ultrasound-guided surgery of liquid formation of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space].

    PubMed

    Demin, D B; La?kov, A V; Funygin, M S; Chegodaeva, A A; Solodov, Iu Iu; Butina, K V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a low-invasive method in the intraoperative ultrasound-guided surgery. The method had several steps: an access (2-3 cm) was made to a liquid formation with the following aspiration of contents, a necrotic detritus was removed through the wound tract using simultaneous ultrasound examination of efficacy of emptying the cavity with drainage. This means allowed the performance of single-stage sanitization and drainage of cavity formations, which contained the liquid and dense necrotic tissues in the lumen. The method was effective, technically workable in any surgical hospital. At the same time, it was economically reasonable, because there wasn't need to buy an additional equipment. The application of the means considerably shortened a hospital stay and the lethality was reduced. PMID:25055518

  15. Use of a novel covered self-expandable metal stent with an anti-migration system for endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of a pseudocyst

    PubMed Central

    Tllez-vila, Flix Ignacio; Villalobos-Garita, lvaro; Ramrez-Luna, Miguel ngel

    2013-01-01

    The development of pseudocysts in patients with chronic pancreatitis has been reported in 23%-60% of cases and drainage is indicated when they become symptomatic. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage with the placement of plastic or metallic stents to create a cystogastric anastomosis has been shown to be a reliable and efficacious maneuver. Metallic stent use appears to be a safe and effective alternative that shortens the length of time of the procedure and maintains a greater diameter in the cystogastric communication. However, important migration rates have been reported. The use of new metallic stents that are specially designed to prevent migration represents a promising development in the treatment of these group of patients that appears to be safe and effective for pseudocyst drainage and could importantly reduce migration rates, while at the same time having the advantage of a single step procedure and a larger fistula diameter in the endoscopic cystogastric anastomosis. PMID:23772268

  16. Utility of microbiological testing of thoracic lymph nodes sampled by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca M; Arnaout, Ramy; Koziel, Henry; Folch, Erik; Majid, Adnan; Kirby, James E

    2016-02-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) represents a minimally invasive technique to sample peribronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes for diagnosis of cancer, lymphoma, or sarcoidosis. However, the value of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosis of respiratory infections has not been well explored. Here, microbiologic testing data for EBUS-TBNA samples collected from 82 patients over a 30-month period were retrospectively reviewed. No organisms were identified on Gram, acid-fast, or fungal stains. Bacterial cultures were positive in 52% of samples; however, all but 1 culture were considered contaminants. Mycobacterial cultures yielded Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare not identified in a concurrent bronchoalveolar lavage sample in 1 patient. Fungal cultures were negative. Overall, routine microbiologic tests on EBUS-TBNA samples do not appear sufficiently sensitive to rule out infectious causes of adenopathy. High clinical suspicion for infection may require modification of sampling techniques or more sensitive detection methods. PMID:26602949

  17. Ultrasound-guided trans-hepatic embolization of a renal artery pseudoaneurysm in a patient with acquired solitary kidney and with chronic renal failure secondary to phenacetin abuse.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Emiliana; Serra, Carla; Di Felice, Antonio; Mandreoli, Marcora; Brunocilla, Eugenio; Santoro, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    A patient with a pseudoaneurysm of the right renal artery underwent treatment with percutaneous approach. No complications were observed. Based on the experience described in this report, a percutaneous ultrasound guided approach can be proposed in selected patients. Renal insufficiency and allergic reactions are potential contraindications to angiography with conventional ionic iodinated contrast dye in patients who need endovascular stent-graft placement. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) guided endovascular procedures may provide an alternative to overcome these limitations. We report an endovascular renal artery repair in a solitary kidney patient with an asymptomatic infrarenal aortic aneurysm and renal insufficiency due to phenacetin abuse. The precise placement of the stent-graft was performed with CEUS and intraprocedural angiographic fluoroscopy without the use of any nephrotoxic contrast dye. During follow-up, CEUS was used to exclude endoleaks, stent-graft failure or malposition. PMID:24616752

  18. Focused parathyroidectomy without intra-operative parathormone monitoring: The value of PTH assay in preoperative ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration washout

    PubMed Central

    Kuzu, Fatih; Arpaci, Dilek; Cakmak, Guldeniz Karadeniz; Emre, Ali Ugur; Elri, Tarik; Ilikhan, Sevil Uygun; Bahadir, Burak; Bayraktaoglu, Taner

    2016-01-01

    Background The accurate identification of hyperfunctioning parathyroid (HP) gland is the only issue for definitive surgical treatment in primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Various imaging and operative techniques have been proposed to confirm the localization of the diseased gland. Nevertheless, none of these methods proved to be the gold standard. The presented study aimed to assess the value of parathyroid hormone assay in preoperative ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (FNA)-PTH washout fluid to verify the correct localisation for focused parathyroidectomy without intra-operative PTH monitoring. Material and Methods The retrospective analysis of 57 patients with pHPT who underwent FNA-PTH was conducted from a prospective database. Biochemical assessment together with radiological (ultrasonography) and nuclear (MIBI scan) imaging was reviewed. Associations between FNA-PTH washout values and localization technics were evaluated and compared in terms of operative findings. Results Focused parathyroidectomy without intraoperative PTH monitoring was performed to 45 patients with high FNA-PTH values. The median largest diameter of the target parathyroid lesion identified by ultrasonography was 13 mm (range, 6 to 36). The median serum PTH level was 190 pg/mL (range, 78 to 1709; reference range, 15 to 65) whereas the median washout PTH was 2500 pg/mL (range, 480 to 3389). According to operative findings high FNA-PTH levels correctly identified parathyroid adenoma in 40 cases (89% of sensitivity and 100% of specificity and positive predictive value) whereas MIBI scan localized the lesion in 36 of these cases (80% of sensitivity). Conclusions The higher level of PTH in preoperative ultrasound guided FNA washout is a considerable data to predict the correct localization of HP, particularly in circumstances of greater values than the serum PTH level. However, although its specificity is high, in cases of coexisting nodular thyroid disease, associated additional HP might be missed at focused parathyroidectomy without PTH monitoring, leading to recurrent disease. PMID:26955476

  19. Comparison of Pregnancy Outcome between Ultrasound- Guided Tubal Recanalization and Office-Based Microhysteroscopic Ostial Dilatation in Patients with Proximal Blocked Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Seyam, Emaduldin Mostafa; Hassan, Momen Mohamed; Tawfeek Mohamed Sayed Gad, Mohamed; Mahmoud, Hazem Salah; Ibrahim, Mostafa Gamal

    2016-01-01

    Background The current research to the best of my knowledge is the first to compare the pregnancy outcome between ultrasound-guided tubal recanalization (UGTR) using a special fallopian tubal catheter, and office-based micrhysteroscopic ostial dilatation (MHOD) using the same tubal catherter in infertile women with previously diagnosed bilateral proximal tubal obstruction (PTO). Materials and Methods This prospective study reported the pregnancy outcomes for 200 women in private infertility care center in Arafa hospital in Fayoum and in El Minya University Hospital in the period between January 2010 and October 2013 treated as outpatients for their bilateral PTO after the routine hysterosalpingography (HSG). A Cook’s catheter, special fallopian tubal catheter, were used to recanalize the blocked tubes in 100 women (group A) under UGTR, and the same Cook’s tubal catheter was used through 2mm microhysteroscope to cannulate both ostia using MHOD in another 100 women (group B). Pregnancy outcome was determined after the procedures for a 12-month period follow-up. Results The number of the recanalization of PTO was not significantly different between two groups. As of the 200 blocked fallopian tubes in group A, 140 tubes (70%) were successfully recanalized by passing the ultrasound-guided special cannula, while 150 tubes (75%) were successfully recanalized in group B, using the same tubal catheter through a 2mm microhysteroscope. The cumulative pregnancy rate after the two procedures was not statistically different between two groups. It was 25.9% in group A, while it was 26.3% in group B, after a 12-month period follow-up. Conclusion UGTR is highly recommended as the first step to manage infertile women due to PTO, as it is easier procedure; however, there is possible to obtain nearly similar results after MHOD. PMID:26985337

  20. Effectiveness of Doppler Image of the Vertebral Artery as an Anatomical Landmark for Identification of Ultrasound-Guided Target Level in Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Park, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A prospective sonographic study. Purpose To verify the effectiveness of simultaneous application of two landmarks, Doppler image of the vertebral artery and shape of the transverse tubercle of the seventh cervical (C7) vertebra. Overview of Literature Counting upwards from the C7 vertebra which only has a posterior tubercle of the transverse process is a commonly used method for ultrasound-guided cervical nerve root block. However, each transverse process has a different shape. Methods Sonograms of 20 volunteers were examined. At first, we identified the C7 transverse process based on the presence of the vertebral artery without the anterior tubercle. The C5 and C6 transverse processes were identified based on the presence of anterior tubercle without the vertebral artery. Subsequently, we placed needles on the C5, C6, and C7 transverse processes and the location and direction of needles were confirmed by fluoroscopy. Results In the 120 segments, 93.3% of needles were placed correctly as desired; 97.5% of needles were placed on the 5C transverse process; 97.5% of needles were placed on the C6 transverse process; and 85.0% of needles were placed on the C7 transverse process, respectively. Both sides showed the same accuracy of 93.3%. Conclusions Simultaneous application of Doppler image of the vertebral artery and shape of the C7 transverse tubercle showed 93.3% accuracy in identifying the target cervical level. Therefore, Doppler image of the vertebral artery can be considered to be a useful landmark for ultrasound-guided cervical nerve root block. PMID:26435784

  1. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and are not the same as the anabolic steroids used illegally by some athletes for bodybuilding. Corticosteroids do not affect the liver or cause sterility Available as pills and syrups. Often ... lung disease, routine daily steroid pills may be required. Because long-term treatment ...

  2. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lead to violence. What are the other health effects of anabolic steroids? Aside from mental problems, steroid use commonly causes severe acne. It also causes the body to swell, especially in the hands and feet. ...

  3. Steroids (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body to grow larger and stronger. However, the effects of too much testosterone circulating in the body can be harmful over time. Dangers of Anabolic Steroids Steroids are dangerous for two reasons: they are ...

  4. Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of superficial lymph nodes: an alternative to fine-needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bohelay, Grme; Battistella, Maxime; Pags, Ccile; de Margerie-Mellon, Constance; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Viguier, Manuelle; Kerob, Delphine; Madjlessi, Nika; Baccard, Michel; Archimbaud, Alain; Comte, Christelle; Mourah, Samia; Porcher, Raphael; Bagot, Martine; Janin, Anne; De Kerviler, Eric; Lebb, Cleste

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (US-CNB) in suspected cases of lymph node metastasis from cutaneous melanoma. All patients with cutaneous melanoma followed in Saint-Louis Hospital between 2006 and 2010 who underwent US-CNB for suspicion of melanoma lymph node metastasis were reviewed retrospectively. Histopathological results of US-CNB samples were classified as melanoma, other malignancy, suspicious, inadequate, or benign. The diagnostic accuracy of US-CNB was assessed by comparison with two reference standards: histopathological examination of the radical lymph node dissection or, when this was not available, clinical and radiological follow-up. The data from 72 US-CNB were analyzed. Forty-four melanomas, 22 benign, three other malignancies, three inadequate samples, and no inconclusive specimens were diagnosed. Seventy-one US-CNB results were confirmed (98.6%). US-CNB achieved high sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (respectively, 97.9, 100, and 100%). No adverse events were reported after the procedure. US-CNB provided a mean tissue volume of 16.7?mm per lymphadenopathy. US-CNB has diagnostic value similar to that of fine-needle aspiration cytology. It represents a reliable alternative method in melanoma lymph node metastasis to avoid surgery in patients who will not benefit from it. US-CNB provides relatively large samples of tissue suitable for comprehensive genomic analyses currently needed for research and personalized care of melanoma patients. PMID:25933210

  5. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle core biopsy for the diagnosis of pancreatic malignant lesions: a systematic review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongtao; Li, Lianyong; Qu, Changmin; Liang, Shuwen; Zeng, Bolun; Luo, Zhiwen

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle core biopsy (EUS-FNB) has been used as an effective method of diagnosing pancreatic malignant lesions. It has the advantage of providing well preserved tissue for histologic grading and subsequent molecular biological analysis. In order to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNB for pancreatic malignant lesions, studies assessing EUS-FNB to diagnose solid pancreatic masses were selected via Medline. Sixteen articles published between 2005 and 2015, covering 828 patients, met the inclusion criteria. The summary estimates for EUS-FNB differentiating malignant from benign solid pancreatic masses were: sensitivity 0.84 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82–0.87); specificity 0.98 (95% CI, 0.93–1.00); positive likelihood ratio 8.0 (95% CI 4.5–14.4); negative likelihood ratio 0.17 (95% CI 0.10–0.26); and DOR 64 (95% CI 30.4–134.8). The area under the sROC curve was 0.96. Subgroup analysis did not identify other factors that could substantially affect the diagnostic accuracy, such as the study design, location of study, number of centers, location of lesion, whether or not a cytopathologist was present, and so on. EUS-FNB is a reliable diagnostic tool for solid pancreatic masses and should be especially considered for pathology where histologic morphology is preferred for diagnosis. PMID:26960914

  6. Diagnostic concordance rate between histologic and cytologic specimens of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in lung cancer: A single institution experience

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Won; Kim, Hyojin; Kim, Yong A; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Park, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Background The aspirates from endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) were examined using the tissue core and cytology. We assessed that the tissue core was a more reliable specimen and attempted to analyze how many discrepancies were found between the two specimens. We investigated diagnostic concordance rate between histology and cytology. Methods From January 2011 to December 2011, a total of 267 consecutive patients with lung cancer, who underwent EBUS-TBNA, were included in this retrospective study. Results Of the 267 lung cancer patients, 207 (77.5%) were men. The median age was 65 years old. The most common pathologic type was adenocarcinoma (120, 44.9%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (79, 29.6%). Among the 267 patients, 579 mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes were punctured. The right lower paratracheal (204, 35.2%) and subcarinal (172, 29.7%) lymph nodes were the most common nodal stations. Among the 579 lymph nodes, malignant cells were observed in 267 (46.1%) nodes, in either the histologic, cytologic or both slides: 209 in both histology and cytology, 37 in histology only, and 21 in cytology only slides. The diagnostic concordance rate between the tissue core and cytology was 90.0% (95% confidence interval CI, 87.192.2) (? = 0.79). Conclusions The diagnostic concordance rate between the histology and cytology of EBUS-TBNA in lung cancer was 90.0% (95% CI, 87.192.2) (? = 0.79).

  7. Assessment of Factors Affecting the Usefulness and Diagnostic Yield of Core Biopsy Needles with a Side Hole in Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tadahisa; Okumura, Fumihiro; Mizushima, Takashi; Nishie, Hirotada; Iwasaki, Hiroyasu; Anbe, Kaiki; Ozeki, Takanori; Kachi, Kenta; Fukusada, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yuta; Sano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims A barbed puncture needle with a side hole was recently developed to improve sample quality and quantity in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). In this study, we retrospectively assessed the usefulness of this puncture needle. Methods Factors affecting diagnostic yield, safety, and diagnostic accuracy were investigated in 76 patients who consecutively underwent EUS-FNA for neoplastic lesions at our hospital between January and December 2013. Results The procedure was successful in all cases; the rates of sample collection and determination of the correct diagnosis were 92.1% and 89.5%, respectively. The mean number of needle passes required for diagnosis was 1.1. Complications included mild intraluminal bleeding in two patients (2.6%). Multivariate analysis revealed that lesion size (≤20 mm) was significantly associated with a decreased chance of determining the correct diagnosis. Conclusions Core biopsy needles with a side hole are safe and provide a satisfactory diagnostic yield. However, the side hole may potentially reduce the rate of making the correct diagnosis in small lesions. PMID:25963081

  8. Rapid on-site evaluation during endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for the diagnosis of hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongbo; Liu, Sujing; Guo, Jun; Li, Bobo; Li, Wanhu; Lu, Zuowei; Sun, Jujie; Zhang, Baijiang; Yu, Jinming

    2016-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) during endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and the interpretation of its results. Based on the criterion of using ROSE or not, 236 patients with known or suspected lung cancer undergoing EBUS-TBNA were allocated into the ROSE group (122 patients with 252 lymph nodes) and non-ROSE group (114 patients with 260 lymph nodes). In the ROSE group, the percentages of the suspicious specimens on cytology and non-diagnostic specimens on pathology were both significantly lower than that in the non-ROSE group (8.7% vs. 14.6%, p = 0.038; and 0.9% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.018, respectively), and 13 out of 22 suspicious lesions on ROSE were confirmed with definite diagnoses on TBNA pathology. The diagnostic yield stratified by pathology was significantly higher in the ROSE group than that in the non-ROSE group (90.5% vs. 81.2%, p = 0.003). These results suggest that ROSE during EBUS-TBNA allows for a low rate of suspicious results and therefore improves the diagnostic yield stratified by pathology when sampling hilar or mediastinal lymphadenopathy in patients with lung cancer. PMID:26656954

  9. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic tool in comparison to ultrasound and MRI for staging in oral- and oropharyngeal squamous cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Souren, Cyriel; Kloss-Brandsttter, Anita; Stadler, Annika; Kross, Kenneth; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Ketelsen, Dominik; Kessler, Peter; Lethaus, Bernd

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to test the diagnostic performance of ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (USFNAC) in comparison to ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting lymph node metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral and oropharyngeal region. 143 patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were included in the study. US, USFNAC and MRI were routinely performed prior to neck dissection. The results of the imaging studies were compared to histopathology. The sensitivity of MRI was highest at 83%, followed by USFNAC and US at 81% and 73%, respectively. The specificity was highest for FNAC at 100%, followed by MRI and US at 76% and 45%, respectively. Positive predictive value was highest for USFNAC 100%, US 57%, MRI 75% and negative predictive value was 77%, 69% and 84%, respectively. In our patient group with oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma, MRI had a higher sensitivity than USFNAC and US alone. USFNAC provided additional staging information. Especially in an uncertain lymph node situation it can facilitate and optimize preoperative planning with a specificity of 100% regarding tissue entity of cervical lymph nodes. PMID:26732639

  10. Transoesophageal endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of pleural effusion for the staging of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lococo, Filippo; Cesario, Alfredo; Attili, Fabia; Chiappetta, Marco; Leuzzi, Giovanni; Costamagna, Guido; Granone, Pierluigi; Larghi, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for evaluating mediastinal adenopathy in lung cancer is nowadays proven. However, its accuracy for detection of malignant pleural effusion per se has not been yet investigated. Herein we report our experience with EUS for detecting pleural effusion during the staging procedure of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS Between January 2009 and December 2011, we performed endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) on 92 selected NSCLC patients to evaluate the T and N factors and to acquire bioptic material and when this was detected, to sample the pleural effusion. RESULTS In 10 patients (8 males and 2 females, mean age 66.9 9.2 years) a pleural effusion was detected and sampled. In 7 out of the 10 cases, the cytological examination of the fluid obtained by EUS-FNA tested positive for malignant cells, thereby upgrading the case to Stage IV, irrespective of T and N statuses. In 3 cases the cytology on the EUS-FNA material was proven to be negative for malignancy thereby allowing patients to be treated with curative intent without further delay. CONCLUSIONS EUS-FNA of the pleural fluid is a safe and simple procedure. Our data, albeit stemming from a limited study population, show that it can be efficient in selected NSCLC cases for obtaining useful material and information with significant impact on the staging and, therefore, on the planning of the optimum therapeutic strategy. PMID:23615434

  11. Thrombin Injection for Treatment of Brachial Artery Pseudoaneurysm at the Site of a Hemodialysis Fistula: Report of Two Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Timothy W.I.; Abraham, Robert J.

    2000-09-15

    We report two patients with arteriovenous hemodialysis fistulas that were complicated by brachial artery pseudoaneurysms. Each pseudoanerysm was percutaneously thrombosed with an injection of thrombin, using techniques to prevent escape of thrombin into the native brachial artery. In one patient, an angioplasty balloon was inflated across the neck of the aneurysm during thrombin injection. In the second patient, thrombin was injected during ultrasound-guided compression of the neck of the pseudoaneurysm. Complete thrombosis of each pseudoaneurysm was achieved within 30 sec. No ischemic or embolic events occurred. This technique may be useful in treating pseudoaneurysms of smaller peripheral arteries.

  12. Traumatic Inferior Gluteal Artery Aneurysm Managed with Emergency Transcatheter Thrombin Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Juszkat, Robert; Zielinski, Maciej; Wykretowicz, Mateusz; Piekarek, Alina; Majewski, Waclaw

    2010-06-15

    Pseudoaneurysms of the inferior gluteal artery (IGA) are rare and are often caused by trauma. Treatment options vary and include surgery, ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection, and endovascular procedures such as stent-graft placement, coil embolization, and glue injection. We report a 70-year-old male who presented to the hospital after a road accident with a posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm that was treated by endovascular thrombin embolization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of inferior gluteal artery false aneurysm treated by this method.

  13. Percutaneous Thrombin Injection to Complete SMA Pseudoaneurysm Exclusion After Failing of Endograft Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Szopinski, Piotr Ciostek, Piotr; Pleban, Eliza; Iwanowski, Jaroslaw; Krol, Malgorzata Serafin-; Marianowska, Agnieszka; Noszczyk, Wojciech

    2005-05-15

    Visceral aneurysms are potentially life-threatening vascular lesions. Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) pseudoaneurysms are a rare but well-recognized complication of chronic pancreatitis. Open surgical repair of such an aneurysm, especially in patients after previous surgical treatment, might be dangerous and risky. Stent graft implantation makes SMA pseudoaneurysm exclusion possible and therefore avoids a major abdominal operation. Percutaneous direct thrombin injection is also one of the methods of treating aneurysms in this area. We report a first case of percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection to complete SMA pseudoaneurysm exclusion after an unsuccessful endograft placement. Six-month follow-up did not demonstrate any signs of aneurysm recurrence.

  14. Subacromial impingement syndrome and pain: protocol for a randomised controlled trial of exercise and corticosteroid injection (the SUPPORT trial)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Subacromial impingement syndrome is the most frequent cause of shoulder problems which themselves affect 1 in 3 adults. Management commonly includes exercise and corticosteroid injection. However, the few existing trials of exercise or corticosteroid injection for subacromial impingement syndrome are mostly small, of poor quality, and focus only on short-term results. Exercise packages tend to be standardised rather than individualised and progressed. There has been much recent interest in improving outcome from corticosteroid injections by using musculoskeletal ultrasound to guide injections. However, there are no high-quality trials comparing ultrasound-guided and blind corticosteroid injection in subacromial impingement syndrome. This trial will investigate how to optimise the outcome of subacromial impingement syndrome from exercise (standardised advice and information leaflet versus physiotherapist-led exercise) and from subacromial corticosteroid injection (blind versus ultrasound-guided), and provide long-term follow-up data on clinical and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The study design is a 2x2 factorial randomised controlled trial. 252 adults with subacromial impingement syndrome will be recruited from two musculoskeletal Clinical Assessment and Treatment Services at the primary-secondary care interface in Staffordshire, UK. Participants will be randomised on a 1:1:1:1 basis to one of four treatment groups: (1) ultrasound-guided subacromial corticosteroid injection and a physiotherapist-led exercise programme, (2) ultrasound-guided subacromial corticosteroid injection and an advice and exercise leaflet, (3) blind subacromial corticosteroid injection and a physiotherapist-led exercise programme, or (4) blind subacromial corticosteroid injection and an advice and exercise leaflet. The primary intention-to-treat analysis will be the mean differences in Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) scores at 6 weeks for the comparison between injection interventions and at 6 months for the comparison between exercise interventions. Although independence of treatment effects is assumed, the magnitude of any interaction effect will be examined (but is not intended for the main analyses). Secondary outcomes will include comparison of long-term outcomes (12 months) and cost-effectiveness. A secondary per protocol analysis will also be performed. Discussion This protocol paper presents detail of the rationale, design, methods and operational aspects of the SUPPORT trial. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN42399123. PMID:24625273

  15. Evolving Role of Ultrasound in Therapeutic Injections of the Upper Extremity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David J; Scully, William F; Rawlings, John M

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound machines are creating more refined pictures and becoming more user-friendly and readily accessible. As a result, ultrasound is being increasingly used for therapeutic purposes. One example involves the use of ultrasound guidance in musculoskeletal interventional procedures, such as joint injections, tendon sheath injections, and peripheral nerve blocks. Technical considerations and therapeutic results have been described for multiple locations about the upper extremities, with varying levels of success. The implementation of ultrasound-guided injections in the orthopedist's clinic has therapeutic, financial, and provider role implications. Given these potential benefits, orthopedic providers, both in practice and residency, would benefit from increased exposure and education in ultrasound use. Ultrasound provides the benefit of real-time, dynamic imaging without the radiation exposure of fluoroscopy, and ultrasound-guided injections can be performed in the office, as opposed to the operating room, which is frequently required when using fluoroscopy. A basic knowledge of the principles and terms used in ultrasound is required. With these simple principles, a practitioner can review techniques for specific areas of the musculoskeletal system and begin using ultrasound to guide injections. Many locations for diagnostic and/or therapeutic injections in the upper extremities have improved accuracy and benefit with the use of ultrasound vs blind techniques, although a few have not been shown to have a significant difference in the literature. The educational and professional implications can be significant, but these potential benefits need to be carefully weighed against costs by each orthopedic practice. PMID:26558666

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation of a large metastatic carcinoid tumor: success with a note of caution.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Bradley W; Harvey, Harold A; Dye, Charles E; Dougherty-Hamod, Brandy; Moyer, Matthew T

    2014-12-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography with fine needle infusion (EUS-FNI) of alcohol is the most reported method for EUS-guided tumor ablation. Several studies have reported successful EUS-guided ablation of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. However, these tumors have been relatively small (< 3 cm). In this report, a 50-year-old man with a metastatic carcinoid tumor with a large porta hepatis mass was referred to our clinic for EUS-guided ethanol ablation. After two separate EUS-FNI ablations, there was a 36 % reduction in tumor size (9.0 × 11.4 cm to 6.7 × 9.8 cm) with associated tumor lysis syndrome. Chromogranin A levels decreased from 460 to 132 ng/mL. The patient reported complete resolution of abdominal pain within 2 weeks, but only mild improvement in flushing and diarrhea. In conclusion, large metastatic neuroendocrine tumors can be successfully treated with EUS-guided ethanol ablation. Evidence-based guidelines are needed with regard to the appropriate volume of ethanol injected in EUS-guided ablation to promote the efficacy and safety of this emerging procedure. PMID:26135103

  17. Epidural steroid warning controversy still dogging FDA.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Candido, Kenneth D; Singh, Vijay; Gharibo, Christopher G; Boswell, Mark V; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Falco, Frank J E; Grider, Jay S; Diwan, Sudhir; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    On April 23, 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a letter of warning that injection of corticosteroids into the epidural space of the spine may result in rare, but serious adverse events, including "loss of vision, stroke, paralysis, and death." The advisory also advocated that patients should discuss the benefits and risks of epidural corticosteroid injections with their health care professionals, along with the benefits and risks associated with other possible treatments. In addition, the FDA stated that the effectiveness and safety of the corticosteroids for epidural use have not been established, and the FDA has not approved corticosteroids for such use. To raise awareness of the risks of epidural corticosteroid injections in the medical community, the FDA's Safe Use Initiative convened a panel of experts including pain management experts to help define the techniques for such injections with the aim of reducing preventable harm. The panel was unable to reach an agreement on 20 proposed items related to technical aspects of performing epidural injections. Subsequently, the FDA issued the above referenced warning and a notice that a panel will be convened in November 2014. This review assesses the inaccuracies of the warning and critically analyzes the available literature. The literature has been assessed in reference to alternate techniques and an understanding of the risk factors when performing transforaminal epidural injections in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions, ultimately resulting in improved safety. The results of this review show the efficacy of epidural injections, with or without steroids, in a multitude of spinal ailments utilizing caudal, cervical, thoracic, and lumbar interlaminar approaches as well as lumbar transforaminal epidural injections . The evidence also shows the superiority of steroids in managing lumbar disc herniation utilizing caudal and lumbar interlaminar approaches without any significant difference as compared to transforaminal approaches, either with local anesthetic alone or local anesthetic and steroids combined. In conclusion, the authors request that the FDA modify the warning based on the evidence. PMID:25054397

  18. Endobronchial ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration versus transcervical mediastinoscopy in nodal staging of non small cell lung cancer: a prospective comparison study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At present only few studies directly compare the diagnostic yield of endobronchial ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EBUS-FNA) and transcervical video-assisted mediastinoscopy (TM) for mediastinal lymph node staging in patients with NSCLC. If and when EBUS-FNA may replace TM as Gold Standard remains controversial. Methods From April 2008 to December 2009, 36 patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy underwent simultaneous EBUS-FNA/ TM at our institution. Among them were 26 patients with confirmed or suspected NSCLC. Results A total of 133 samples were obtained by EBUS-FNA and 157 samples by TM. EBUS-FNA achieved significantly less conclusive, but more indeterminate pathological results in comparison to TM (78.7% vs. 98.6%, p?

  19. Efficacy of two-time prophylactic intravenous administration of tazobactam/piperacillin for transrectal ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Hiroaki; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Miyagi, Tohru; Nakashima, Takao; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Namiki, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Escherichia coli has been recently increasing worldwide. We analyzed the incidence and characteristics of acute bacterial prostatitis after transrectal ultrasound-guided needle prostate biopsy (TRUSP-Bx) with prophylactic tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) treatment as an alternative regimen. Methods A total of 391 patients who underwent TRUSP-Bx were included in the study. All patients received intravenous TAZ/PIPC (4.5g) 30 minutes before and 6 hours after TRUSP-Bx. Results Acute bacterial prostatitis developed in six patients (1.5%); the frequency of its occurrence was significantly higher in patients in whom rectal disinfection was not performed (P<0.05). These six patients developed clinical symptoms of acute bacterial prostatitis a median of 24 hours after the biopsy. Escherichia coli was isolated in urine or blood bacterial cultures in four cases, and Klebsiella pneumoniae in two cases. All of the isolated organisms showed excellent sensitivity to TAZ/PIPC. Conclusions The incidence rate of acute prostatitis with prophylactic TAZ/PIPC was consistent with those reported previously with FQ-based regimens, despite the favorable sensitivity of isolated organisms. Two-time regimen of TAZ/PIPC may not always prevent the post-TRUSP-Bx infection, possibly due to the pharmacokinetic characteristics of TAZ/PIPC. However, if each case was considered individually to select the best setting and frequency of dosage of TAZ/PIPC, this can be an optimal prophylaxis in the era of widespread FQ-resistant microorganisms. PMID:26473153

  20. Diagnostic Value of Convex Probe Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in Mediastinal Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Yuqing; Liu, Chao; Peng, Wenjia

    2015-01-01

    Background Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has been widely used in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathies. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the diagnostic value of EBUS-TBNA in mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenopathy (TBLA). Material/Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and Sinoced were systematically searched for articles published in English or Chinese that reported the diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA in mediastinal TBLA. The quality of studies was assessed using the QualSyst tool. Using 95% confidence intervals (CI), the diagnostic yields of EBUS-TBNA were calculated for the individual studies, and the results were then pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also assessed. Results A total of 14 studies, consisting of 684 patients with mediastinal TBLA, were finally included. The pooled diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA for mediastinal TBLA was 80% (95% CI: 74–86%). Significant heterogeneity (I2=77.9%) and significant publication bias were detected (Begg’s test p=0.05 and Egger’s test p=0.02). From subgroup analyses, significant differences in the diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA were associated with Asian vs. European (UK) studies, retrospective vs. prospective studies, those employing rapid on-site cytological evaluation vs. not, those employing different anesthetic types, and those employing smear vs. culture. However, microbiological examination and the number of lymph node passes did not have a significant effect on the diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA. Fifteen minor complications for EBUS-TBNA were reported. Conclusions EBUS-TBNA appears to be an efficacious and safe procedure and should be used as an initial diagnostic tool for mediastinal TBLA. PMID:26177653

  1. Rapid on-site evaluation with dynamic telecytopathology for ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of head and neck nonthyroid lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Kamal K.; Xu, Weisheng; Wang, Dongliang; Swarnkar, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) at the time of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (USGFNA) of head and neck lesion is essential for obtaining adequate samples and providing the preliminary diagnosis. We summarize our experience with ROSE of USGFNA on head and neck nonthyroid lesions using telecytopathology. Materials and Methods: Real-time images of Diff-Quik stained cytology smears were obtained at ultrasound suite with an Olympus DP-70 digital camera attached to an Olympus CX41 microscope, and transmitted via ethernet by a cytotechnologist to a cytopathologist in cytopathology laboratory who rendered a preliminary diagnosis. Live communication was conducted with Vocera voice communication system. The ultrasound suite was located on different floor from the cytopathology laboratory. Accuracy of ROSE via telecytopathology was compared with an equal number of cases that received ROSE, prior to introduction of telecytopathology, via conventional microscopy. Results: Rapid on-site evaluation was performed on a total of 116 USGFNA of head and neck nonthyroid lesions. The telecytopathology system and conventional microscopy was used to evaluate equal number of cases (58 each). Preliminary diagnoses of benign, atypical/suspicious for malignancy, and positive for malignancy were 72.4%, 17.2% and 10.3% for telecytopathology, and 69.0%, 10.3% and 20.7% for conventional microscopy. None of the cases were deemed unsatisfactory. The overall concordance between the preliminary and final diagnoses was 94.8% for telecytopathology and 98.3% for conventional microscopy and was not statistically significant (P = 0.309). The causes of discordant preliminary and final diagnoses were mainly attributed to availability of cell block and Papanicolaou-stained slides for review or flow cytometry results for lymphoma cases at the time of final sign out. Conclusions: Telecytopathology is comparable with conventional microscopy in ROSE of USGFNA of head and neck nonthyroid lesions. PMID:26110087

  2. The use of prophylactic single-dose fosfomycin in patients who undergo transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy: A prospective, randomized, and controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Volkan; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Bozkurt, Ibrahim Halil; Yonguc, Tarik; Sen, Pinar; Polat, Salih; Degirmenci, Tansu; Bolat, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to demonstrate the efficacy, safety, and convenient use of fosfomycin trometamol in the preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUSBP) in this prospective, randomized study. Methods: Between May 2014 and May 2015, a total of 300 patients who underwent TRUSBP were examined prospectively. Patients were randomized into two groups: group 1 consisted of 150 patients who were administered a single dose of 3 g oral fosfomycin as a PAP the night before the procedure; group 2 consisted of 150 patients who were administered 500 mg oral ciprofloxacin 60 min before the procedure as a PAP. Post-procedural febrile and afebrile infectious complications and pathological characteristics of the two groups were compared prospectively. Results: The mean age of the patients was 63.5±0.6 years in group 1 and 62.9±0.6 years in group 2. A total of two patients (1.3%) in group 1 and nine patients (6.0%) in group 2 experienced afebrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Afebrile UTI rate was significantly higher in group 2 (1.3% s. 6.0%, p=0,032). Febrile UTI was detected in two patients in group 2 and one patient in group 1. Urine cultures revealed 35.7% fluoroquinolone resistance. As a limitation, although the sample size was appropriate due to the power calculation, we believe that comprehensive studies including larger patient cohorts are needed to support our findings. Conclusions: Due to its ease-of-use with only a single dose and lower rates of infectious complications (resistant and febrile UTIs), fosfomycin trometamol is a strong alternative for antibiotic prophylaxis in TRUSBP. PMID:26788236

  3. Is ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of adequate value in detecting breast cancer patients with three or more positive axillary lymph nodes?

    PubMed

    Kramer, G M; Leenders, M W H; Schijf, L J; Go, H L S; van der Ploeg, T; van den Tol, M P; Schreurs, W H

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of the sonographically most suspicious axillary lymph node (US/FNAC) to select early breast cancer patients with three or more tumour-positive axillary lymph nodes. Between 2004 and 2014, a total of 2130 patients with histologically proven early breast cancer were evaluated and treated in the Noordwest Clinics Alkmaar. US/FNAC was performed preoperatively in all these patients. We analysed the results of US/FNAC retrospectively. Pathological axillary node status (sentinel node biopsy and/or axillary lymph node dissection) was used as reference standard. A total of 634 (29.8 %) of 2130 patients had axillary lymph node metastases on final histology. 248 node positive patients (11.6 %) had three or more positive lymph nodes. The accuracy of US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes was 89.8 %, sensitivity was 44.8 %, specificity was 95.7 %, PPV was 58.1 %, and NPV was 92.9 %. This study shows a more than adequate accuracy of preoperative US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes (89.8 %). However, when US/FNAC was chosen as the only axillary staging method, 6.4 % of all patients (false negative group) would have been undertreated and 3.8 % of all patients (false positive group) would have been overtreated according to the ACOSOG Z0011 criteria. PMID:26995283

  4. Analgesia and Respiratory Function after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Patients receiving Ultrasound-Guided Bilateral Oblique Subcostal Transversus Abdominis Plane Block: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Basaran, Betul; Basaran, Ahmet; Kozanhan, Betul; Kasdogan, Ela; Eryilmaz, Mehmet Ali; Ozmen, Sadik

    2015-01-01

    Background Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been shown to ameliorate postoperative pain after abdominal surgery. Postoperative pain-associated respiratory compromise has been the subject of several studies. Herein, we evaluate the effect of oblique subcostal TAP (OSTAP) block on postoperative pain and respiratory functions during the first 24 postoperative hours. Material/Methods In this double-blind, randomized study, 76 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were assigned to either the OSTAP group (n=38) or control group (n=38). Bilateral ultrasound-guided OSTAP blocks were performed with 20 ml 0.25% bupivacaine after induction of general anesthesia. Both the OSTAP and control groups were treated with paracetamol, tenoxicam, and tramadol as required for postoperative analgesia. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain scores (while moving and at rest), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), arterial blood gas variables, and opioid consumption were assessed during first 24 h. Results VAS pain scores at rest and while moving were significantly lower in the OSTAP group on arrival to PACU and at 2 h postoperatively. The total postoperative tramadol requirement was significantly reduced at 0–2 h and 2–24 h in the OSTAP group. Postoperative deterioration in FEV1 and FVC was significantly less in the OSTAP group when compared to the control group (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). There were no between-group differences in arterial blood gas variables. Conclusions After laparoscopic cholecystectomy, OSTAP block can provide significant improvement in respiratory function and better pain relief with lower opioid requirement. PMID:25948166

  5. Utility and diagnostic accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration cytology of mediastinal lesions: Saudi Arabian experience

    PubMed Central

    Raddaoui, Emad; Alhamad, Esam H; Zaidi, Shaesta Naseem; Al-Habeeb, Fatmah F; Arafah, Maha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the cytological accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (EBUS-TFNA) of the mediastinal mass/nodular lesions. Study Design: Over 3 years from inception at King Khalid University Hospital, a retrospective analysis of the cytological diagnoses of all the EBUS-TFNA procedures performed in 80 patients who had mediastinal mass/nodular enlargement. Cytology results were reviewed and correlated with the histologic follow-up. Results: Of the 80 patients who underwent EBUS-TFNA, 15 cases (18.75%) were positive for malignancy, 48 cases (60%) negative for malignancy and 17 cases (21.25%) unsatisfactory. Of the 48 cases, which were negative for malignancy, 24 (50%) cases were of granulomatous inflammation. The overall diagnostic yield of our EBUS-TFNA specimen was 78.75%. Forty-seven cases (58.75%) of 80 cases had histological follow-up biopsies. Among them, 32 cases (68%) had the same cytological and histological diagnosis and 15 cases (31.09%) had discordance between the cytology and the follow-up histological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for diagnosing granulomas by EBUS-TFNA are 77%, 82%, 83%, and 75% and for diagnosing malignancy are 71%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively. Conclusion: Preliminary results show that cytological samples obtained through EBUS-TFNA are accurate and specific in making a diagnosis of the mediastinal mass/nodular lesions. Its optimum use depends on the effective collaboration between the cytotechnologist, pathologist, and the bronchoscopist. PMID:25191512

  6. Application of Ultrasound-Guided Core Biopsy to Minimal-Invasively Diagnose Supraclavicular Fossa Tumors and Minimize the Requirement of Invasive Diagnostic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Nan; Lin, Che-Yi; Chi, Fan-Hsiang; Chou, Chen-Han; Hsu, Ya-Ching; Kuo, Yen-Lin; Lin, Chih-Feng; Chen, Tseng-Cheng; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Lou, Pei-Jen; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Yang, Tsung-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the supraclavicular fossa (SC) is clinically challenging because of anatomical complexity and tumor pathological diversity. Because of varied diseases entities and treatment choices of SC tumors, making the accurate decision among numerous differential diagnoses is imperative. Sampling by open biopsy (OB) remains the standard procedure for pathological confirmation. However, complicated anatomical structures of SC always render surgical intervention difficult to perform. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy (USCB) is a minimally invasive and office-based procedure for tissue sampling widely applied in many diseases of head and neck. This study aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy and utility of using USCB as the sampling method of SC tumors. From 2009 to 2014, consecutive patients who presented clinical symptoms and signs of supraclavicular tumors and were scheduled to receive sampling procedures for diagnostic confirmation were recruited. The patients received USCB or OB respectively in the initial tissue sampling. The accurate diagnostic rate based on pathological results was 90.2% for USCB, and 93.6% for OB. No significant difference was noted between USCB and OB groups in terms of diagnostic accuracy and the percentage of inadequate specimens. All cases in the USCB group had the sampling procedure completed within 10?minutes, but not in the OB group. No scars larger than 1?cm were found in USCB. Only patients in the OB groups had the need to receive general anesthesia and hospitalization and had scars postoperatively. Accordingly, USCB can serve as the first-line sampling tool for SC tumors with high diagnostic accuracy, minimal invasiveness, and low medical cost. PMID:26825877

  7. The Effect of Radiotherapy on Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy and the Ultrasound Characteristics of Neck Lymph Nodes in Oral Cancer Patients after Primary Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wu-Chia; Cheng, Po-Wen; Wang, Chi-Te; Shueng, Pei-Wei; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Chang, Yih-Leong; Liao, Li-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (USgFNA) and sonographic characteristics in the assessment of cervical lymph nodes (LNs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients after primary treatment. Materials and Methods 88 treated OSCC patients underwent 111 USgFNAs of the neck LNs after US evaluation. Among them, 48 USgFNAs were performed on 40 patients following RT and 63 USgFNAs on 48 patients without previous RT. The results of USgFNA and the US characteristics were compared between these two groups. Results USgFNA had a sensitivity of 88.0%, specificity of 91.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 88.0%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 91.4% and accuracy of 90.0% in patients without previous RT, and a sensitivity of 97.1%, specificity of 83.3%, PPV of 94.3%, NPV of 90.9% and accuracy of 93.5% in those with previous neck RT. The ranges of the short-axis and long-axis length were 13.3 ± 8.0 mm (mean ± SD) versus 17.8 ± 9.1 mm, and 18.6 ± 9.0 mm versus 24.4 ± 10.9 mm for recurrent LNs from patients with, versus without, previous RT (both ps < 0.05), respectively. 76.5% (26/34) of the recurrent nodes after RT and 48% (12/25) of the recurrent nodes without previous RT exhibited an irregular margin (p < 0.05). Additionally, irradiated recurrent LNs had a significantly decreased percentage of discernable calcification compared with non-irradiated recurrent nodes (48% versus 20.6%, p < 0.05). Conclusions RT had influence on sonographic characteristics but no influence on USgFNA in diagnosing recurrent LNs in treated OSCC patients. PMID:26954569

  8. Systematic Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Mediastinal Staging Versus Positron Emission Tomography for Comprehensive Mediastinal Staging in NSCLC Before Radical Radiotherapy of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Steinfort, Daniel P.; Siva, Shankar; Leong, Tracy L.; Rose, Morgan; Herath, Dishan; Antippa, Phillip; Ball, David L.; Irving, Louis B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite known limitations of positron emission tomography (PET) for mediastinal staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radiation treatment fields are generally based on PET-identified disease extent. However, no studies have examined the accuracy of FDG-PET/CT on a per-node basis in patients being considered for curative-intent radiotherapy in NSCLC. In a prospective trial, patients with NSCLC being considered for definitive thoracic radiotherapy (± systemic chemotherapy) underwent minimally invasive systematic mediastinal evaluation with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) following noninvasive staging with integrated PET-CT. Thirty patients underwent EBUS-TBNA, with TBNA performed from a mean 2.5 lymph node (LN) stations per patient (median 3, range 1–5). Discordant findings between PET-CT and EBUS-TBNA were observed in 10 patients (33%, 95% CI 19%–51%). PET-occult LN metastases were demonstrated by EBUS in 4 patients, whereas a lesser extent of mediastinal involvement, compared with FDG-PET, was demonstrated by EBUS in 6 patients, including 2 patients downstaged from cN3 to pN2. LNs upstaged by EBUS were significantly smaller than nodes downstaged by EBUS, 7.5 mm (range 7–9) versus 12 mm (range 6–21), P = 0.005. A significant proportion of patients considered for definitive radiotherapy (+/-chemotherapy) undergoing systematic mediastinal evaluation with EBUS-TBNA in this study have an extent of mediastinal NSCLC involvement discordant with that indicated by PET-CT. Systematic EBUS-TBNA may aid in defining the extent of mediastinal involvement in NSCLC patients undergoing radiotherapy. Systematic EBUS-TBNA has the potential to contribute significantly to radiotherapy planning and delivery, by either identifying occult nodal metastases, or demonstrating FDG-avid LNs to be disease-free. PMID:26937894

  9. Effect of ketamine as an adjuvant in ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A double-blind randomized clinical trial study

    PubMed Central

    Lashgarinia, Mohammadreza; Naghibi, Khosro; Honarmand, Azim; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Khazaei, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Supraclavicular brachial plexus block is one of the most effective anesthetic procedures in operations for the upper extremity. Ketamine has been reported to enhance the analgesic effects of local anesthetics. We have conducted this study to assess whether coadministration of ketamine can prolong the local analgesic effect of lidocaine in the supraclavicular brachial plexus block for patients undergoing elective upper extremity surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult patients undergoing elective surgery of the elbow, forearm, wrist or hand were randomly allocated in two groups of 30 patients each. Group 1 (ketamine group) received 5 mg/kg lidocaine 1.5% plus 2 mg/kg ketamine, Group 2 (control group) received 5 mg/kg lidocaine 1.5% and saline. The outcome measures included severity of pain by using visual analog scale (VAS, 0 = no pain 10 cm = the most severe pain), time of first request for analgesia, and total dose of postoperative opioid administration. The data was analyzed using the ?2 test, student's t-test, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Multivariate analysis tests. Results: Patients in the control group had a higher VAS than patients who received ketamine, at all time points during the first 24 hours after surgery (all P < 0.05). The time of first request for analgesia in the ketamine group was significantly more than in the control group (8.93 1.0 vs. 7.30 1.9, respectively, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The addition of ketamine to lidocaine in the ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block could decrease the postoperative pain and need for analgesic. Therefore, it could be considered as an option in the brachial plexus block to enhance the analgesic action of lidocaine. PMID:25538918

  10. Adequacy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration samples processed as histopathological samples for genetic mutation analysis in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    JEYABALAN, ABIRAMY; BHATT, NIDHI; PLUMMERIDGE, MARTIN J.; MEDFORD, ANDREW R.L.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotyping non-small-cell lung cancer is becoming increasingly important with the advent of molecular testing. Tumours harbouring somatic mutations in the gene that encodes for the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been found to increase responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive technique for mediastinal node sampling. The available prospective data on EBUS-TBNA sample suitability for molecular profiling are currently limited. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the adequacy of EBUS-TBNA samples for EGFR and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genetic mutation analysis in confirmed primary lung adenocarcinomas. We conducted a prospective analysis of 410 consecutive patients referred for EBUS-TBNA between 2010 and 2014. Rapid on-site cytological evaluation was not used. The samples were obtained using 21-gauge (21G) or 22G needles and were prepared as histopathological samples. A total of 91 samples were confirmed as lung adenocarcinomas and 80 of these samples were sent for EGFR mutation analysis. EBUS-TBNA had a diagnostic accuracy of 98.3% for malignancy. EGFR mutation testing was possible in 79/80 cases (98.75%). EGFR mutations were detected in 5/80 (6.3%) samples. ALK gene analysis, which became available during the study period, was requested and successfully performed in 21/21 samples (100%). The total combined genotyping success rate was 100/101 (99.0%). This UK study confirmed the high clinical utility of EBUS-TBNA samples processed as histopathological specimens for EGFR and ALK genotyping in primary lung adenocarcinoma. The needle gauge did not affect genotyping efficacy. PMID:26870369

  11. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided deep and large biopsy for diagnosis of gastric infiltrating tumors with negative malignant endoscopy biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin-Xin; Pan, Hang-Hai; Usman, Ali; Ji, Feng; Jin, Xi; Zhong, Wei-Xiang; Chen, Hong-Tan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic yield and safety of a deep and large biopsy technique under the guidance of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for diagnosis of gastric infiltrating tumors with negative malignant endoscopy biopsies. METHODS: From January 2009 to March 2014, 36 patients in whom gastric infiltrating tumors had been diagnosed by EUS received negative results for malignancy after endoscopic biopsies. The deep and large biopsy technique combined bite-on-bite technique with or without endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) to obtain submucosal tissue from lesions. EUS was used to select the appropriate biopsy sites. If the lesion protruded into the cavity, EMR was performed for removal of the overlying mucosa and then bite-on-bite technique was conducted in the resected area to obtain submucosal tissue. If the lesion appeared to be flat or was difficult to lift by injection, the bite-on-bite technique was directly used. RESULTS: Twenty-eight of the 36 patients were treated by EMR followed by bite-on-bite technique, while 8 patients only underwent bite-on-bite technique. Histological results showed 23 of the 36 lesions were poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, 2 diffuse large B cell lymphomas, 4 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphomas, and 7 undiagnosed. The deep and large biopsy technique provided a definitive and conclusive diagnosis in 29 (80.6%) of the 36 patients. The 12 gastric linitis plastica and 6 lymphoma patients received chemotherapy and avoided surgery. Minor oozing of blood in 2 mucosal resection wounds was managed by argon plasma coagulation and in 5 cases after deep biopsies by epinephrine (0.001%). Neither severe hemorrhage nor perforation occurred in any patient. CONCLUSION: The deep and large biopsy technique is superior to ordinary endoscopic biopsy for achieving an accurate diagnosis of gastric infiltrating tumors. This procedure guided by EUS is an effective and safe diagnostic method for gastric infiltrating tumors in which endoscopic biopsy results were negative for malignancy. PMID:25834327

  12. Anabolic steroid abuse.

    PubMed

    Landry, G L; Primos, W A

    1990-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are capable of increasing strength and muscle bulk in certain individuals when combined with a proper diet and an intense training program. Any steroid that is anabolic is also androgenic. Anabolic steroids are fraught with numerous side effects, a few of which are potentially life threatening, and some of which are permanent. Most of the side effects are mild and reversible. Use of anabolic steroids in sports is as much a moral issue as a medical one. Drug testing has not been a very successful means to eradicate abuse in the sporting arena. Education alone is probably not the answer to stopping anabolic steroid abuse but is an essential first step in combating this problem. Use of anabolic steroids in athletes is a form of cheating, and use will likely continue, especially if the rewards for success in sports remain so high. Physicians should avoid condemning individuals who choose to use anabolic steroids and encourage discussion of use with their health providers. PMID:2264527

  13. Tendo Achillis pain: steroids and outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Read, M T; Motto, S G

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective study is presented of 83 athletes with tendo Achillis pain (TAP) treated conservatively over a 12-year period from 1976 to 1988. Local steroid injections did not contribute to an earlier return to sport, though many individuals were improved symptomatically. Local steroids were not found to have a deleterious effect on outcome. Steroids were used most frequently in the chronic cases that presented late and had been treated previously: this group had most recurrences and surgical intervention. One case of Achilles rupture (3%) occurred in the group treated with steroids. Early presentation for treatment led to an earlier return to sport and avoidance of recurrences. Recurrences were most frequent in athletes with bilateral Achilles tendinopathy. The tendo Achillis lesion may range from peritendinitis through a mixed lesion of the tendon and paratenon, to complete rupture. The management depends upon accurate diagnosis, its chronicity and the age and aspirations of the patient. Steroids are safe to use and further prospective trials should note presentation time and disease staging accurately. PMID:1600448

  14. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided insertion of a large diameter fully covered self-expandable metallic stent as rescue therapy for recurrent infected walled off pancreatic necrosis after surgical necrosectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Eu Kwek, Andrew Boon; Fock, Kwong Ming; Teo, Eng Kiong

    2014-01-01

    A 39-year-old man developed severe necrotizing gallstone pancreatitis complicated by infected pancreatic necrosis. Surgical necrosectomy was performed to control the on-going sepsis. Subsequently, there was a recurrence of an infected necrotic collection at the site of surgical necrosectomy, in the region of the pancreatic body and tail. He did not respond to conservative treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Pancreatic duct stenting was performed to treat pancreatic duct leak, followed by endoscopic ultrasound guided insertion of a large diameter fully covered self-expandable metallic stent to drain the infected collection. There was rapid and complete clinical recovery. PMID:25485273

  15. Clinical Predictors of Long-term Success in Ultrasound-guided High-intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation Treatment for Adenomyosis: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yang; Wang, Yuexiang; Li, Qiuyang; Tang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The long-term outcomes of ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) ablation treatment for adenomyosis and the relevant factors affecting the durability of symptom relief were assessed in this study.A total of 230 women with adenomyosis who were treated with USgHIFU ablation between January 2007 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) was performed immediately after the treatment to evaluate the ablation effect, and the nonperfused volume (NPV) ratio was then calculated. Regular follow-up was conducted and the visual analog scale (VAS) score was used to assess the changes in dysmenorrhea. The effect of treatment was evaluated after an average follow-up length of 3 months and the factors affecting clinical success and symptom relapse were identified.Of the 230 treated patients, 208 (90.4%) were followed up regularly, with a median follow-up length of 40 months (range, 18-94 months). Mean value of the NPV ratio calculated immediately after the treatment was 57.4??24.4%. Varying degrees of symptomatic relief of dysmenorrhea based on the VAS scores were observed in 173 (83.2%) patients and 71.0% of the patients were asymptomatic during follow-up. Women with higher NPV ratio (OR?=?0.964, 95% CI?=?0.947-0.982, P?=?0.000) and older age (OR?=?0.342, 95% CI?=?0.143-0.819, P?=?0.016) were more likely to achieve clinical success. Dysmenorrhea recurred in 45 (26%) out of 173 cases; the median recurrence time was 12 months after treatment. The lower BMI (OR?=?1.221, 95% CI?=?1.079-1.381, P?=?0.001) and the higher acoustic power (OR?=?0.992, 95% CI?=?0.986-0.998, P?=?0.007) were associated with less risk of relapse. Twelve of the 14 patients who were retreated by USgHIFU ablation after experiencing dysmenorrhea recurrence achieved clinical success.USgHIFU ablation is an effective uterus-conserving treatment for symptomatic adenomyosis with an acceptable long-term success rate. Higher chance of clinical success can be achieved in patients with larger NPV ratio and older age, whereas higher BMI and lower acoustic power may result in a higher chance of recurrence. These factors are helpful in selecting suitable patients for USgHIFU and in predicting the durability of symptom relief. PMID:26817877

  16. Improvement of Cellularity on Cell Block Preparations Using the So-Called Tissue Coagulum Clot Method During Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Fine-Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Rex Chin Wei; Otell, Susan; Illei, Peter; Clark, Douglas P.; Feller-Kopman, David; Yarmus, Lonny; Askin, Frederic; Gabrielson, Edward; Li, Qing Kay

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cell block (CB) preparation during the endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) procedure plays an important role in the diagnosis of lung cancer and recovery of cellular material for molecular characterization of the tumor. However, the efficiency of the conventional method of CB preparation is suboptimal. METHODS In the current study, the tissue coagulum clot cell block (TCC-CB) method was used to prepare the CBs and its efficiency was compared with that of the conventional saline rinse cell block (NR-CB) method. A total of 84 consecutive TCC-CBs (106 lymph nodes [LNs] and 14 lung lesions) and 28 consecutive cases of NR-CB (39 LNs and 3 lung lesions) obtained within the same time period were included in the current study. RESULTS In the TCC-CB specimens, 94 of 106 LN cases (88.7%) yielded sufficient diagnostic material, as did 11 of 14 lung lesions (78.6%). In the NR-CB group, which was used as the control, 22 of 39 LN specimens (56.4%) and none of 3 lung specimens (0%) were found to provide sufficient diagnostic material. Although the average size of the LNs in the study group were not significantly different from those in the control group (1.76 cm vs 1.82 cm; P>.05), the overall nondiagnostic rates in the TCC-CB and NR-CB groups were 11.2% and 43.6%, respectively (P<.001). The nondiagnostic rates of the lung specimens were 15.4% in the TCC-CB group and 100% in the NR-CB group (P<.05). In addition, immunohistochemistry studies and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/KRAS mutational analyses were performed in 26 and 14 TCC-CB cases, respectively. With the exception of 1 case, all of them had satisfactory results. CONCLUSIONS The data from the current study demonstrate that the TCC-CB method significantly increases the cellular yield of CB preparations without compromising cytomorphological characterization of tumor cells. PMID:22144401

  17. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids

    PubMed Central

    Kicman, A T

    2008-01-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophicandrogenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided. PMID:18500378

  18. Drooling: are botulinum toxin injections into the major salivary glands a good treatment option?

    PubMed

    Nordgarden, Hilde; sterhus, Ingvild; Mystad, Anne; Asten, Pamela; Johnsen, Ulf L-H; Storhaug, Kari; Loven, Jens yvind

    2012-04-01

    There are several treatment options available for drooling; botulinum toxin injections into the major salivary glands are one. There is no consensus as to how many and which glands should be injected. A research project on this topic was terminated because of adverse effects. Individual results and the adverse effects are described and discussed in this article. Six individuals with cerebral palsy were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups, with five individuals receiving ultrasound-guided injections to parotid and submandibular glands and one receiving injections to the submandibular glands only. Reduction of observed drooling was registered in 3, while 4 patients reported subjective improvement (Visual Analog Scale). Two participants reported adverse effects, including dysphagia, dysarthria, and increased salivary viscosity. Injections with botulinum toxin can be a useful treatment option but there is a risk of adverse effects. Multidisciplinary evaluation and informed discussions with patients/caregivers are important factors in the decision-making process. PMID:21940695

  19. Ultrasound guided spine needle insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Elvis C. S.; Mousavi, Parvin; Gill, Sean; Fichtinger, Gabor; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2010-02-01

    An ultrasound (US) guided, CT augmented, spine needle insertion navigational system is introduced. The system consists of an electromagnetic (EM) sensor, an US machine, and a preoperative CT volume of the patient anatomy. Three-dimensional (3D) US volume is reconstructed intraoperatively from a set of two-dimensional (2D) freehand US slices, and is coregistered with the preoperative CT. This allows the preoperative CT volume to be used in the intraoperative clinical coordinate. The spatial relationship between the patient anatomy, surgical tools, and the US transducer are tracked using the EM sensor, and are displayed with respect to the CT volume. The pose of the US transducer is used to interpolate the CT volume, providing the physician with a 2D "x-ray vision" to guide the needle insertion. Many of the system software components are GPU-accelerated, allowing real-time performance of the guidance system in a clinical setting.

  20. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

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  1. Endoscopic ultrasound guided interventional procedures

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder S; Bhasin, Deepak K

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy. EUS provides access to many organs and lesions which are in proximity to the gastrointestinal tract and thus giving an opportunity to target them for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. This modality also provides a real time opportunity to target the required area while avoiding adjacent vascular and other structures. Therapeutic EUS has found role in management of pancreatic fluid collections, biliary and pancreatic duct drainage in cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, drainage of gallbladder, celiac plexus neurolysis/blockage, drainage of mediastinal and intra-abdominal abscesses and collections and in targeted cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Infact, therapeutic EUS has emerged as the therapy of choice for management of pancreatic pseudocysts and recent innovations like fully covered removable metallic stents have improved results in patients with organised necrosis. Similarly, EUS guided drainage of biliary tract and pancreatic duct helps drainage of these systems in patients with failed cannulation, inaccessible papilla as with duodenal/gastric obstruction or surgically altered anatomy. EUS guided gall bladder drainage is a useful emergent procedure in patients with acute cholecystitis who are not fit for surgery. EUS guided celiac plexus neurolysis and blockage is more effective and less morbid vis-à-vis the percutaneous technique. The field of interventional EUS is rapidly advancing and many more interventions are being continuously added. This review focuses on the current status of evidence vis-à-vis the established indications of therapeutic EUS. PMID:26078831

  2. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... site Citation Site Map Print Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Home / Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter ... to build muscle faster. The Brain's Response to Anabolic Steroids Hi, my name's Sara Bellum. Welcome to my ...

  3. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history

  4. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

  5. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  6. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and

  7. Nonprescription Steroids on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Christen L.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Patapis, Nicholas S.; Festinger, David S.; Forman, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular websites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March and June, 2006 revealed that approximately half of the websites advocated their “safe” use, and roughly one-third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The websites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the websites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment and policy are discussed. PMID:22080724

  8. Intracardiac injection of a capsid-modified Ad5/35 results in decreased heart toxicity when compared to standard Ad5

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical gene therapy trials for cardiovascular diseases have demonstrated the crucial role of efficient gene delivery and transfection technologies in achieving clinically relevant results. We hypothesized that the use of tropism-modified adenoviruses would improve transduction efficacy and to this end we analyzed the transduction efficiency and toxicity of standard Ad5 and tropism-modified Ad5/35 in combination with ultrasound-guided intramyocardial gene delivery. Methods Ultrasound-guided intracardiac injections were used to deliver 1??1010 pfu/ml Ad5-lacZ and Ad5/35-lacZ vectors into mouse left ventricle wall. Since Ad5/35 uses human CD46 as its primary receptor, we used transgenic hCD46Ge mice expressing human CD46 at levels comparable to man. Mice were sacrificed 6 or 14 days post-injection and immunohistochemistry and X-gal staining were used to detect transgene and viral receptor expression. Virus-induced cardiac toxicity was evaluated by a pathologist. Results The intramyocardial injection was well tolerated and both Ad5-lacZ and Ad5/35-lacZ were able to give robust transgene expression after a single injection. Interestingly, while Ad5-lacZ was able to generate greater transgene expression than Ad5/35-lacZ, it also evoked more severe tissue damage with large areas of interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration and myocyte necrosis. Conclusions Ultrasound-guided intramyocardial injection is an effective and safe way to deliver vectors to the heart. The observed severe tissue damage of Ad5-lacZ greatly undermines the efficient transgene expression and suggests that Ad5/35 capsid modification can result in safer adenoviral vectors for cardiovascular gene therapy, although at the cost of some vector transduction efficacy. PMID:23190872

  9. Results of a phase II trial of transrectal ultrasound-guided permanent radioactive implantation of the prostate for definitive management of localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 98-05)

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Colleen A. . E-mail: clawton@radonc.mcw.edu; DeSilvio, Michelle; Lee, W. Robert; Gomella, Leonard; Grignon, David; Gillin, Michael; Morton, Gerard; Pisansky, Thomas; Sandler, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of transrectal ultrasound-guided permanent radioactive {sup 125}I implantation of the prostate for organ-confined adenocarcinoma of the prostate compared with historical data of prostatectomy and external beam radiotherapy within a cooperative group setting. Methods and Materials: Patients accrued to this study had histologically confirmed, locally confined, adenocarcinoma of the prostate with clinical Stage T1b, T1c, or T2a, no nodal or metastatic disease, prostate-specific antigen level of {<=}10 ng/mL, and Gleason score of {<=}6. All patients underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided radioactive {sup 125}I permanent seed implantation into the prostate. The prescribed dose was 145 Gy to the prostate planning target volume. Results: A total of 27 institutions accrued a total of 101 patients to this protocol, with no institution accruing >8 patients. Six patients were ineligible, leaving 95 properly entered as eligible in the study. The median follow-up was 5.3 years (range, 0.4-6.5 years). At 5 years, 5 patients had local failure, 1 had evidence of distant failure, and 6 (6%) had biochemical failure. The overall survival rate at 5 years was 96.7%. At last follow-up, no patient had died of prostate cancer or related toxicities. Eight patients had a maximal acute toxicity level of 3, and no patient had Grade 4 or 5 acute toxicity. During follow-up, 2 patients had maximal Grade 3 toxicity, both related to bladder issues, and no patient experienced Grade 4 or 5 toxicity. Conclusion: The results of this clinical protocol (a multi-institutional trial of brachytherapy for localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate) have demonstrated that this type of trial can be successfully completed through Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Biochemical disease-free survival was comparable with other brachytherapy published series and with the results after surgery and external beam radiotherapy.

  10. Physiological responses and characteristics of sperm collected after electroejaculation or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands in anesthetized mouflons (Ovis musimon) and Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica).

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; Lpez-Sebastin, Antonio; Esteso, Milagros; Pradiee, Jorgea; Toledano-Daz, Adolfo; Castao, Cristina; Labrador, Beatriz; Santiago-Moreno, Julin

    2015-10-15

    The objective was to characterize the stress response and the seminal parameters obtained with electroejaculation (EE) or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) in two captive but nondomestic ruminants, the mouflons and the Iberian ibex under general anesthesia. In mouflons, the physiological responses (heart and respiratory rate, rectal temperature, cortisol, creatine kinase, potassium and glucose concentrations) changed similarly with both procedures. The TUMASG procedure was faster than EE in mouflons (21.7 1.4 vs. 12.4 1.2 minutes, P < 0.01). In ibexes, respiratory rate, cortisol and creatine kinase concentration changes were greater with EE than with TUMASG (final respiratory rate: 62.7 5.5 vs. 38.1 5.6 breaths/min [P < 0.05]; final cortisol: 51.4 5.1 vs. 25.3 5.6 ng/mL [P < 0.001]; and final creatine kinase: 300.9 99.9 vs. 87.1 16.9 U/L [P < 0.001]). Electroejaculation provided better results in some sperm parameters (mouflons: sperm score: 3.4 0.3 vs. 2.6 0.2 [P < 0.01]; total number of sperm ejaculated: 982.4 299 vs. 710.0 542.2 [P < 0.05]; ibexes: sperm with progressive motility: 47.7 6.2 vs. 20.5 8.3 [P < 0.05]). The transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands appears to be an alternative technique to collect sperm from wild ruminants, reducing the need for electrical stimuli and thus decreasing the undesired responses of EE in the more sensitive species. On the other hand, better fresh sperm may be collected with EE. However, TUMASG provides practical advantages in animal welfare, firstly in these wild species more sensible to stress management and capture myopathy. PMID:26174035

  11. A systematic review of ultrasound-guided FNA of lesions in the head and neck—focusing on operator, sample inadequacy and presence of on-spot cytology service

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, A; Burnside, G

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to perform a systematic review of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) services for head and neck lesions with assessment of inadequacy rates and related variables such as the presence of immediate cytological assessment. A computer-based systematic search of articles in English language was performed using MEDLINE (1950 to date) from National Health Service evidence healthcare database and PubMed. Full texts of all relevant articles were obtained and scrutinized independently by two authors according to the stated inclusion and exclusion criteria. The primary search identified 932 articles, but only 78 met all the study criteria. The overall inadequacy rate was 9.3%, 16 studies had on-site evaluation by a cytopathologist/specialist clinician with a rate of 6.0%. In seven studies, a cytotechnician was available to either assess the sample or prepare the slides with an average inadequacy rate of 11.4%. In 1 study, the assessment was unclear, but the inadequacy rate for the remaining 54 studies, without immediate assessment, was 10.3%. The rate for the cytopathologist/specialist clinicians was significantly different to no on-site assessment but this was not found for assessment by cytotechnicians. The review suggests that the best results are obtained with a cytopathologist-led FNA service, where the pathologist reviews the specimen immediately, in relation to the clinical context, thereby deciding on adequacy and need for further biopsies. A systematic review looking at ultrasound-guided FNA of head and neck lesions has not been published previously. PMID:25247346

  12. Long-Term Results of a Phase II Trial of Ultrasound-Guided Radioactive Implantation of the Prostate for Definitive Management of Localized Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate (RTOG 98-05)

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Colleen A.; Hunt, Daniel; Lee, W. Robert; Gomella, Leonard; Grignon, David; Gillin, Michael; Morton, Gerard; Pisansky, Thomas M.; Sandler, Howard

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of transrectal ultrasound-guided permanent radioactive I{sup 125} implantation of the prostate for organ confined adenocarcinoma of the prostate compared with historical data of prostatectomy and external beam radiotherapy within a cooperative group setting. Methods and Materials: Patients accrued to this study had histologically confirmed, locally confined adenocarcinoma of the prostate clinical stage T1b, T1c, or T2a; no nodal or metastatic disease; prostate-specific antigen level of {<=}10 ng/ml; and a Gleason score of {<=}6. All patients underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided radioactive I{sup 125} seed implantation into the prostate. The prescribed dose was 145 Gy to the prostate planning target volume. Results: A total of 101 patients from 27 institutions were accrued to this protocol; by design, no single institution accrued more than 8 patients. There were 94 eligible patients. The median follow up was 8.1 years (range, 0.1-9.2 years). After 8 years, 8 patients had protocol-defined biochemical (prostate-specific antigen) failure (cumulative incidence, 8.0%); 5 patients had local failure (cumulative incidence, 5.5%); and 1 patient had distant failure (cumulative incidence, 1.1%; this patient also had biochemical failure and died of causes not related to prostate cancer). The 8-year overall survival rate was 88%. At last follow-up, no patient had died of prostate cancer or related toxicities. Three patients had maximum late toxicities of Grade 3, all of which were genitourinary. No Grade 4 or 5 toxicities were observed. Conclusions: The long-term results of this clinical trial have demonstrated that this kind of trial can be successfully completed through the RTOG and that results in terms of biochemical failure and toxicity compare very favorably with other brachytherapy published series as well as surgical and external beam radiotherapy series. In addition, the prospective, multicenter design highlights the probable generalizability of the outcomes.

  13. Steroid Receptor-Associated Immunophilins: A Gateway to Steroid Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak, Thomas; Cluning, Carmel; Ward, Bryan K

    2015-01-01

    The steroid receptor-associated immunophilins FKBP51, FKBP52, CyP40 and PP5 have specific roles in steroid receptor function that impact steroid hormone-binding affinity, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and transcriptional activation of target genes in a tissue-specific manner. Aberrant expression of these functionally unique immunophilins has the potential to cause steroid-based diseases, including breast and prostate cancer, diabetes and related metabolic disorders, male and female infertility and major depressive disorders. This review addresses the function of these proteins as co-chaperones in steroid receptor-Hsp90 complexes and extensively covers current knowledge of the link between the steroid receptor-associated immunophilins and human disease. An improved understanding of their mechanisms of action has revealed opportunities for molecular therapies to enhance or inhibit cellular processes under immunophilin control that contribute both to human health and disease. PMID:26224894

  14. Therapeutic uses of contraceptive steroids.

    PubMed

    Starks, G C

    1984-09-01

    During the past 20 years, contraceptive steroids have undergone significant changes as the result of an increased understanding of their metabolic, pharmacologic, and hormonal activities. During this time, prospective and retrospective epidemiologic studies have elucidated several noncontraceptive health benefits of oral contraceptive steroids, including their therapeutic effects for endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, polycystic ovarian disease, and benign breast disease. From this review it appears that the benefits of oral contraceptive steroids in young, healthy, nonsmoking women far outweigh their more publicized, infrequent risks. PMID:6470632

  15. Steroid biosynthesis in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Vihma, Veera

    2015-11-01

    Tissue-specific expression of steroidogenic enzymes allows the modulation of active steroid levels in a local manner. Thus, the measurement of local steroid concentrations, rather than the circulating levels, has been recognized as a more accurate indicator of the steroid action within a specific tissue. Adipose tissue, one of the largest endocrine tissues in the human body, has been established as an important site for steroid storage and metabolism. Locally produced steroids, through the enzymatic conversion from steroid precursors delivered to adipose tissue, have been proven to either functionally regulate adipose tissue metabolism, or quantitatively contribute to the whole body's steroid levels. Most recently, it has been suggested that adipose tissue may contain the steroidogenic machinery necessary for the initiation of steroid biosynthesis de novo from cholesterol. This review summarizes the evidence indicating the presence of the entire steroidogenic apparatus in adipose tissue and discusses the potential roles of local steroid products in modulating adipose tissue activity and other metabolic parameters. PMID:25846979

  16. Steroid Administration is Effective to Prevent Strictures After Endoscopic Esophageal Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjin; Ma, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Esophageal stricture is a severe adverse event after circumferential endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Steroid administration is a new method to prevent stricture formation. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and safety of steroid administration to prevent esophageal stricture after circumferential ESD. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Database, and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched. Studies on steroid administration + endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) versus EBD alone for esophageal stricture were included and pooled analyzed in random-effects models. Besides, subgroup analysis and network analysis were performed to define the influence of ESD type and steroid administration method. Twelve studies involving 513 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that steroid administration significantly achieved a lower stricture rate (risk ratio [RR], 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20–0.81) and less required EBD sessions (mean difference [MD], −4.33; 95% CI, −6.10 to −2.57) than control. Subgroup analysis indicated that steroid was effective after both semi- and complete circumferential ESD. Network meta-analysis showed that compared with oral steroid, local injected steroid had a similar effect to prevent stricture (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.48–2.85), whereas a better effect to reduce required EBD sessions (MD, 7.77; 95%CI, 0.26–15.3). Additional steroid administration is effective to reduce the stricture rate and required EBD sessions. And local injected steroid was superior to oral steroid in EBD reduction, whereas due to the varied method and dose of steroid administration, the finding needs to be clarified in the future. PMID:26426665

  17. Sex steroids and bone.

    PubMed

    Manolagas, S C; Kousteni, S; Jilka, R L

    2002-01-01

    The adult skeleton is periodically remodeled by temporary anatomic structures that comprise juxtaposed osteoclast and osteoblast teams and replace old bone with new. Estrogens and androgens slow the rate of bone remodeling and protect against bone loss. Conversely, loss of estrogen leads to increased rate of remodeling and tilts the balance between bone resorption and formation in favor of the former. Studies from our group during the last 10 years have elucidated that estrogens and androgens decrease the number of remodeling cycles by attenuating the birth rate of osteoclasts and osteoblasts from their respective progenitors. These effects result, in part, from the transcriptional regulation of genes responsible for osteoclastogenesis and mesenchymal cell replication and/or differentiation and are exerted through interactions of the ligand-activated receptors with other transcription factors. However, increased remodeling alone cannot explain why loss of sex steroids tilts the balance of resorption and formation in favor of the former. Estrogens and androgens also exert effects on the lifespan of mature bone cells: pro-apoptotic effects on osteoclasts but anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts and osteocytes. These latter effects stem from a heretofore unexpected function of the classical "nuclear" sex steroid receptors outside the nucleus and result from activation of a Src/Shc/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signal transduction pathway probably within preassembled scaffolds called caveolae. Strikingly, estrogen receptor (ER) alpha or beta or the androgen receptor can transmit anti-apoptotic signals with similar efficiency, irrespective of whether the ligand is an estrogen or an androgen. More importantly, these nongenotropic, sex-nonspecific actions are mediated by the ligand-binding domain of the receptor and can be functionally dissociated from transcriptional activity with synthetic ligands. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly suggest that, in sex steroid deficiency, loss of transcriptional effects may be responsible for the increased osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis and thereby the increased rate of bone remodeling. Loss of nongenotropic anti-apoptotic effects on mature osteoblasts and osteocytes, in combination with an opposite effect on the lifespan of mature osteoclasts, may be responsible for the imbalance between formation and resorption and the progressive loss of bone mass and strength. Elucidation of the dual function of sex steroid receptors has important pathophysiologic and pharmacologic implications. Specifically, synthetic ligands of the ER that can evoke the nongenotropic but not the genotropic signal may be bone anabolic agents, as opposed to natural estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators that are antiresorptive agents. The same ligands may also circumvent the side effects associated with conventional hormone replacement therapy. PMID:12017554

  18. Roles of Steroids in Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability of nematodes to biosynthesize steroids de novo and the resulting dependence of parasitic nematodes upon their hosts have enhanced the importance of elucidating the metabolism of sterols and the hormonal and other functions of steroids in nematodes. Biochemical research has revealed th...

  19. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can also affect how aggressive a person is. Athletes sometimes take anabolic steroids because of their testosterone-like effects. Another group ... and medical associations. In spite of this, some athletes continue to take steroids because they think it gives them a competitive ...

  20. Crystallization of steroids in gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkura, S. Narayana; Devanarayanan, S.

    1991-03-01

    The crystal growth and characterization of certain steriods, viz., cholesterol, cholesteryl acetate, β-sitosterol, progesterone and testosterone, in a silica gel medium is discussed. The present study shows that the single test tube diffusion method can be used to grow crystals of steroids in a silica gel medium by the reduction of steroid solubility.

  1. Sex steroids in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Martocchia, A; Stefanelli, M; Cola, S; Falaschi, P

    2011-01-01

    A sexual dysmorphism in the immune response has been described and females display an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases. Experimental data show that sex steroids influence immune cell development and have immunomodulatory effects. The distribution, the action (genomic and nongenomic), the sex and tissue-depending expression pattern of estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors and their functional disruptions in corresponding receptor knockout animals will be discussed, pointing out the difference among sex steroid hormones. Recent advances indicate an immunomodulatory role of sex steroids in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The outcomes of the clinical trials will help to find the best use of sex steroids in combination with current therapeutic drugs in autoimmune diseases. Sex steroid receptor modulating drugs will provide new therapeutic approaches in these pathologies. PMID:21463254

  2. Another cause of headache after epidural injection.

    PubMed

    Anwari, Jamil S; Hazazi, Abdulaziz A

    2015-04-01

    Headache is a potential complication of epidural injection. We report a patient who developed headache 5 days after a lumbar epidural steroid injection, which was not related to the epidural procedure, but caused by Duloxetine induced hyponatremia. Antidepressant drug induced headache should be considered in the differential diagnosis of post dural puncture headache. PMID:25864071

  3. Another cause of headache after epidural injection

    PubMed Central

    Anwari, Jamil S.; Hazazi, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Headache is a potential complication of epidural injection. We report a patient who developed headache 5 days after a lumbar epidural steroid injection, which was not related to the epidural procedure, but caused by Duloxetine induced hyponatremia. Antidepressant drug induced headache should be considered in the differential diagnosis of post dural puncture headache. PMID:25864071

  4. Cyclophosphamide Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Cytoxan® Injection ... Neosar® Injection ... Cyclophosphamide injection comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected intravenously (into a vein) by a ... you are feeling during your treatment with cyclophosphamide injection.

  5. Anabolic Steroid Use: Federal Efforts to Prevent and Reduce Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenagers. Report to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Government Accountability Office, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic steroids by teenagers--that is, their use without a prescription--is a health concern. Anabolic steroids are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone that can be taken orally, injected, or rubbed on the skin. Although a 2006 survey funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found that less than 3 percent of 12th…

  6. An androgenic steroid decreases left ventricular compliance in rats.

    PubMed

    Trifunovic, B; Norton, G R; Duffield, M J; Avraam, P; Woodiwiss, A J

    1995-03-01

    The effect of chronic administration of an androgenic steroid on left ventricular (LV) compliance and contractility was studied in rats. Rats received a biweekly intramuscular injection of nandrolone decanoate (5 mg/kg; steroid group) or the vehicle (control group) for 3 mo. Cardiac performance was measured in anesthetized open-chest ventilated rats. LV compliance was determined from the slope of the LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) vs. LV end-diastolic (LVED) strain relation measured in the long and short axes of the LV. LV regional myocardial compliance was determined from the slope of the LVED stress vs. LVED strain relation (myocardial elastic stiffness constant). Cardiac contractility was determined from the slope of the LV end-systolic (LVES) pressure vs. LVES strain relation. Systolic performance was also assessed from the slope of the pressure-length area (PL area) or stroke work vs. LVED strain and LVEDP relations. Nandrolone decanoate decreased body weight, heart weight, and plasma testosterone concentrations but increased the heart weight-to-body weight ratio. Nandrolone decanoate decreased LV compliance (slope of LVEDP vs. LVED strain relation in long and short axes; steroid vs. control, P < 0.01). This occurred as a result of an increased regional myocardial stiffness (myocardial elastic stiffness constant; steroid vs. control, P < 0.01), which resulted in a reduced cardiac systolic performance (PL area vs. LVEDP, slope of steroid vs. control group, P < 0.005). Diastolic geometry (LV wall thickness-to-radius ratio) and cardiac contractility were unchanged with steroid administration. In conclusion, chronic administration of the androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate decreases LV myocardial compliance and thus overall cardiac performance without altering contractility in rats. PMID:7900863

  7. Supinator Cyst in a Young Female Softball Player Successfully Treated With Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Redler, Lauren H; Makhni, Eric C; Visco, Christopher J; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2015-07-01

    Ganglion cysts around the elbow joint are rare, with fewer than 25 citations in the English-language literature, most of them case reports. Among the many causes of elbow pain, cysts are primarily a diagnosis that depends on advanced imaging. When an elbow ganglion or perineural cyst is symptomatic, treatment has ranged from nonoperative to surgical intervention. Our case is unique because it is the first documented ultrasound-guided aspiration and cortisone injection that successfully alleviated a patient's symptoms. The procedures and outcomes of minimally invasive ultrasound-guided aspiration and steroid injections have not been described for cysts around the elbow. PMID:26161770

  8. Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder. PMID:25284849

  9. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Medroxyprogesterone intramuscular (into a muscle) injection and medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous (under the skin) injection are used to prevent pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis ( ...

  10. Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

  11. Respiratory Cytology-Current Trends Including Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy and Electromagnetic Navigational Bronchoscopy: Analysis of Data From a 2013 Supplemental Survey of Participants in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Nongynecologic Cytology.

    PubMed

    Sturgis, Charles D; Marshall, Carrie B; Barkan, Guliz A; Booth, Christine N; Kurtycz, Daniel F I; Souers, Rhona J; Keylock, Joren B; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Russell, Donna K; Moriarty, Ann T; Doyle, Mary A; Thomas, Nicole; Yildiz-Aktas, Isil Z; Collins, Brian T; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Crothers, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Context .- Nongynecologic cytology (NGC) practices are expanding in relationship to historical gynecologic cytology screening programs. Bronchopulmonary cytology is experiencing an evolution regarding new procedural types. The College of American Pathologists (CAP) tracks practice patterns in NGC by developing questionnaires, surveying participants, and analyzing respondent data. Objective .- To analyze responses to a 2013 CAP supplemental survey from the Interlaboratoy Comparison Program on bronchopulmonary NGC. Design .- The "NGC 2013 Supplemental Questionnaire: Demographics in Performance and Reporting of Respiratory Cytology" was mailed to 2074 laboratories. Results .- The survey response rate was 42% (880 of 2074) with 90% of respondents (788 of 880) indicating that their laboratories evaluated cytology bronchopulmonary specimens. More than 95% of respondents indicated interpreting bronchial washings (765 of 787) and bronchial brushings (757 of 787). A minority of laboratories (43%, 340 of 787) dealt with endobronchial ultrasound-guided samples, and an even smaller fraction of laboratories (14%, 110 of 787) saw cases from electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy. Intraprocedural adequacy assessments by pathologists (and less often by cytotechnologists or pathologists-in-training) were routinely performed in percutaneous transthoracic aspiration cases (74%, 413 of 560) with less involvement for other case types. Most laboratories reported that newly diagnosed primary pulmonary adenocarcinomas were triaged for molecular testing of epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase. Conclusions .- The parameters examined in this 2013 survey provide a snapshot of current pulmonary cytopathology practice and may be used as benchmarks in the future. PMID:26717056

  12. Steroids in Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: Is There a Role in Current Treatment Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Mohammed; Souka, Ahmed A. R.

    2015-01-01

    With the current widespread use of anti-VEGFs in the treatment of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), the role for steroids has become greatly diminished. Recent large scale randomized control trials (RCTs) have established the efficacy and safety of anti-VEGFs in the treatment of CRVO. Steroids are known to cause elevations in intraocular pressure as well as increase the risk of cataract formation. With that in mind many ophthalmologists are injecting steroids less frequently. This paper aims to review some of the data pertaining to the use of steroids either as a first line monotherapy, adjunct therapy, or an alternative therapy to help answer the question: Is there currently any role for steroids in the management of CRVO? PMID:26635973

  13. Industrial and Compendial Steroid Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grg, Sndor

    The aim of this section is to give an overview of the requirements of steroid analysis in pharmaceutical industry and to cover the methodological aspects of these requirements with regard to quality control of bulk steroid drugs and drug formulations. Although this is an important area, the challenges here are not comparable with those in biological-clinical steroid analysis, which was the sole topic of the first edition of this book. This is reflected by the much smaller number of research publications dealing with this pharmaceutical area of steroid analyses. Only a few (more or less obsolete) books are available (Grg and Szsz, 1978; Grg, 1983, 1989). The newer developments in this area are summarised in a comprehensive review (Grg, 2004), on which this chapter is based.

  14. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body hair. Testosterone levels can also affect how aggressive a person is. Athletes sometimes take anabolic steroids ... balding or hair loss weight gain mood swings aggression problems sleeping high blood pressure greater chance of ...

  15. Steroid metabolism with intestinal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Groh, H; Schade, K; Hörhold-Schubert, C

    1993-01-01

    As a result of the metabolic activities of numerous anaerobic microorganisms with sterols, bile acids and steroid hormones as substrates in connection with the enterohepatic circulation of these compounds, the intestine may be considered as an "endocrine" active site or organ. The review summarizes transformations of steroids by anaerobic intestinal bacteria, the physiological and supposed pathophysiological meaning thereof. The aim is to recommend further investigation in this field with respect to both the elucidation of the reactions and biological responses. PMID:8478793

  16. Animal study assessing safety of an acoustic coupling fluid that holds the potential to avoid surgically induced artifacts in 3D ultrasound guided operations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of ultrasound in brain tumor surgery is common. The difference in attenuation between brain and isotonic saline may cause artifacts that degrade the ultrasound images, potentially affecting resection grades and safety. Our research group has developed an acoustic coupling fluid that attenuates ultrasound energy like the normal brain. We aimed to test in animals if the newly developed acoustic coupling fluid may have harmful effects. Methods Eight rats were included for intraparenchymal injection into the brain, and if no adverse reactions were detected, 6 pigs were to be included with injection of the coupling fluid into the subarachnoid space. Animal behavior, EEG registrations, histopathology and immunohistochemistry were used in assessment. Results In total, 14 animals were included, 8 rats and 6 pigs. We did not detect any clinical adverse effects, seizure activity on EEG or histopathological signs of tissue damage. Conclusion The novel acoustic coupling fluid intended for brain tumor surgery appears safe in rats and pigs under the tested circumstances. PMID:24666721

  17. Intradiscal steroids. A prospective double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Simmons, J W; McMillin, J N; Emery, S F; Kimmich, S J

    1992-06-01

    A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was performed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of intradiscal steroid injections. Criteria for entrance were one-level internal disc disruption or nonsequestered nuclear prolapse with or without sciatica and a positive pain response on awake discography. Exclusion criteria were multilevel disease, central or lateral stenosis, prior lumbar surgery, or medical disease requiring systemic steroids. A total of 25 patients were randomly assigned to Treatment Group A (methylprednisolone, Depo-Medrol 80 mg/ml, The Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, Michigan) or Treatment Group B (bupivacaine, Marcaine .5% 1.5 ml, Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, New York). Fourteen patients received Depo-Medrol, with 21% showing subjective improvement and 79% no improvement; 0% were clinically worse. Eleven patients received intradiscal Marcaine, with 9% showing clinical improvement and 91% no improvement; 0% were clinically worse. To quantify clinical response, a pain diagram grid score, a visual analog scale, and the Oswestry Pain Questionnaire were used before injection and 10-14 days after injection. No statistically significant benefit was identified in the use of intradiscal steroids. PMID:1385902

  18. The Nicolas Andry award. The pathogenesis and prevention of steroid-induced osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, G J; Cui, Q; Balian, G

    2000-01-01

    The effects of steroids on a cloned pluripotential cell from bone marrow stroma were examined in vitro in culture and in vivo after the cells were transfected with a traceable gene and transplanted into host mice. Bipedal chickens were treated with steroids to establish a model for osteonecrosis. The effects of a lipid lowering agent, lovastatin, on the prevention of steroid induced adipogenesis in vitro in cell culture, and on adipogenesis and osteonecrosis in vivo in chickens, were evaluated. On treatment with dexamethasone, cloned pluripotential cells began to differentiate into adipocytes and expressed a fat specific gene, whereas the expression of Type I collagen and osteocalcin messenger ribonucleic acid decreased. Addition of lovastatin in culture inhibited steroid induced fat gene expression and counteracted the inhibitory effect of steroids on osteoblastic gene expression. Cloned pluripotential cells were transduced with a traceable retrovirus vector encoding the beta-galactosidase and neomycin resistance genes. The transfected cells were administered to mice either by tail vein or by direct intramedullary injection. Half of the animals in each group were treated with steroids. Histologic sections showed the appearance of transplanted cells in the marrow. Analysis of marrow blowouts by flow cytometry revealed that steroid treatment produced adipogenesis in transplanted cells. Evidence of osteonecrosis was observed in steroid treated chickens, whereas sections from animals treated with steroids and lovastatin showed less adipogenesis and no bone death. The results indicate that steroid induced adipogenesis in the marrow may contribute to osteonecrosis and that lovastatin may be helpful in preventing the development of steroid induced osteonecrosis. PMID:10660725

  19. Femoral perfusion after pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation in a steroid-induced osteonecrosis model.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Akira; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Saito, Masazumi; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Hayashi, Shigeki; Ishida, Masashi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate femoral perfusion after pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation in a steroid-induced osteonecrosis rabbit model by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Steroid-induced osteonecrosis was produced by single intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone in 15 rabbits. Eight rabbits underwent PEMF stimulation (PEMF group) and seven did not (control group). DCE-MRI was performed before PEMF stimulation, immediately before steroid administration, and 1, 5, 10, and 14 days after steroid administration. Regions of interest were set in the bilateral proximal femora. Enhancement ratio (ER), initial slope (IS), and area under the curve (AUC) were analyzed. ER, IS, and AUC in the control group significantly decreased after steroid administration compared with before administration (P<0.05). In PEMF group, IS significantly decreased; however, ER and AUC showed no significant differences after steroid administration compared with before. ER and IS in PEMF group were higher than in control group until 10th day, and AUC was higher until 5th day after steroid administration (P<0.05). PEMF stimulation restrains the decrease in blood flow after steroid administration. PMID:25808585

  20. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mites) whose symptoms are not controlled with inhaled steroids. Omalizumab is also used to treat chronic hives ... your doctor immediately or get emergency medical treatment: fever, muscle aches, rash, and swollen glands within 1 ...

  1. Lipoic acid prevents steroid-induced osteonecrosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bang-Bao; Li, Kang-Hua

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate in vivo effects of lipoic acid (LA) in preventing steroid-induced osteonecrosis and the possible pathway in a rabbit model. Sixty rabbits were divided into 2 groups: rabbits were intraperitoneally injected with LA aqueous solution at 36 mg/kg of body weight per day for 4 weeks in Group A and rabbits were injected with physiologic saline (PS) as a control in Group B. At 2 weeks after starting treatment, they were intramuscularly injected once with 20 mg/kg of methylprednisolone acetate (MPSL). The femora were histopathologically examined for the presence of osteonecrosis. The plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glutathione (GSH), endothelin (ET) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assayed at 2 weeks after the injection of MPSL. The incidence of osteonecrosis was significantly higher in Group B (73.1%) than in Group A (20.8%). The GSH level was higher in Group A than in Group B after the LA injection. The plasma MDA and ET levels were lower in Group A than in Group B at 2 weeks after the MPSL administration. Lipoic acid can prevent the development of steroid-induced osteonecrosis in rabbits. Inhibited oxidative stress and amendment of vascular endothelial dysfunction is a possible mechanism for this effect. PMID:21431293

  2. Comparison of oocyte developmental competence and follicular steroid content of nulliparous heifers and cows at different stages of lactation.

    PubMed

    Roth, Z; Inbar, G; Arav, A

    2008-05-01

    Reduced reproductive performance and lower conception rates of lactating cows are closely associated with genetic progress for high milk production. In contrast, the fertility of nulliparous Holstein heifers has remained fairly stable over the years and appears to be markedly higher than that of mature lactating cows. Possible differences in oocyte quality and follicular steroid levels, which could be associated with the low fertility of high-lactating cows, were examined in 13-month-old heifers, cows around the time of first AI (60-95 d post-partum, yielding 49+/-2.4 kg/d) and cows at mid-lactation (120-225 d post-partum, yielding 37+/-2.1 kg/d). Estrus was synchronized by two doses of PGF2alpha and follicles (5-8 mm) were aspirated on days 4, 8, 11 and 15 of the cycle by an ultrasound-guided procedure. Oocytes were morphologically examined, matured in vitro, chemically activated and cultured for 8d. Cleavage rate and the proportion of developing parthenogenetic blastocysts were determined on days 3 and 8 post-activation, respectively. On day 17, heifers and cows received additional PGF2alpha and follicular fluids from preovulatory follicles were collected on day 19 perior to the expected estrus. Follicular-fluid volumes were similar in cows and heifers, as were estradiol, progesterone and androstenedione concentrations in the follicular fluid. Percentages of high-grade oocytes, proportions of cleaved oocytes and developed blastocysts did not differ between the groups. Results suggest that the fertility gap between nulliparous heifers and high-lactating cows is not directly related to steroid content in the preovulatory follicular fluid or oocyte developmental competence. PMID:18359068

  3. [Mass spectrometry for steroid assays].

    PubMed

    Dufour-Rainfray, Diane; Moal, Valrie; Cloix, Lucie; Mathieu, Elisabeth; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Brossaud, Julie; Corcuff, Jean-Benot; Fraissinet, Franois; Collet, Christine; Boux de Casson, Florence; Guilloteau, Denis; Emond, Patrick; Reynier, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormone measurement, first developed with radioimmunoassay, is now becoming easier with the use of automated platforms of immunoassay. However, some hormones remain uneasily detectable because of their low blood concentration, their structural homology or the presence of interferences. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can be considered as an alternative to immunoassays. This approach allows the simultaneous determination of several parameters thanks to its selectivity led by the detector mass spectrometer and the separate dimension of chromatography liquid. In addition, recourse to UHPLC (ultra high performance liquid chromatography) allows improving selectivity and sensitivity while limiting the samples volumes. The "ready-to-use" kits are now available and added to the "homemade" techniques developed by laboratories, thus giving opportunity for measurement of a wide steroid panel with only one sample. Finally, mass spectrometry methods, including a prior extraction step, allow the use of varied biological fluids (blood, urine, saliva). Also, several clinical indications could gain from mass spectrometry, especially when hormone levels are low, when several steroids have to be identified, when the sample volume is low. However, this technology represents an important financial investment and in-depth staff training. In addition, some steroids are not easily quantifiable by mass spectrometry. It is likely by immunoassay and mass spectrometry, well-matched technologies, that we could answer the best to clinical questions about steroids. PMID:25582724

  4. Steroidal Saponins in Oat Bran.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junli; Wang, Pei; Wu, Wenbin; Zhao, Yantao; Idehen, Emmanuel; Sang, Shengmin

    2016-02-24

    Saponins are one type of widespread defense compound in the plant kingdom and have been exploited for the production of lead compounds with diverse pharmacological properties in drug discovery. Oats contain two unique steroidal saponins, avenacoside A, 1, and avenacoside B, 2. However, the chemical composition, the levels of these saponins in commercial oat products, and their health effects are still largely unknown. In this study, we directly purified 5 steroidal saponins (1-5) from a methanol extract of oat bran, characterized their structures by analyzing their MS and NMR spectra, and also tentatively identified 11 steroidal saponins (6-16) on the basis of their tandem mass spectra (MS(n), n = 2-3). Among the five purified saponins, 5 is a new compound and 4 is purified from oats for the first time. Using HPLC-MS techniques, a complete profile of oat steroidal saponins was determined, and the contents of the two primary steroidal saponins, 1 and 2, were quantitated in 15 different commercial oat products. The total levels of these two saponins vary from 49.6 to 443.0 mg/kg, and oat bran or oatmeal has higher levels of these two saponins than cold oat cereal. Furthermore, our results on the inhibitory effects of 1 and 2 against the growth of human colon cancer cells HCT-116 and HT-29 showed that both had weak activity, with 2 being more active than 1. PMID:26852819

  5. Spread patterns and effectiveness for surgery after ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block in adult day-case patients scheduled for umbilical hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Manassero, Alberto; Bossolasco, Matteo; Meineri, Maurizio; Ugues, Susanna; Liarou, Chrysoula; Bertolaccini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: We conducted a prospective study to examine the local anesthetic (LA) spread and the effectiveness for surgical anesthesia of ultrasound (US)-guided rectus sheath block (RSB) in adult patients undergoing umbilical hernia repair. Material and Methods: Thirty patients received at T-10 level a bilateral US-guided injection of 20 mL levobupivacaine 0.375% + epinephrine 5 ?g/mL behind the rectus muscle to detach it from its sheath. Anesthetic spread into the rectus sheath was evaluated ultrasonographically at T-9 and T-11 levels and scored from 0 to 4. The RSB was defined effective for surgical anesthesia if it was able to guarantee an anesthetic level sufficient for surgery without any mepivacaine supplementation. Results: Overall, the block was effective for surgical anesthesia in 53.3% of patients (95% confidence interval, 17.8). In the remaining patients, anesthesia supplementation was needed at cutaneous incision, whereas manipulation of the muscle and fascial planes was painless. No patients required general anesthesia. LA spreads as advocated (to T-9 and to T-11 bilaterally = spread score 4) in 8/30 patients (26.6%); in these cases, the block was 75% effective for surgery. The anesthetic spread was most negatively influenced by increased body mass index. Postoperative analgesia was excellent in 97% of patients. Conclusion: Use of RSB as an anesthetic management of umbilical herniorrhaphy is recommended only with anesthetic supplementation at the incision site. PMID:26330714

  6. Analysis of Inadvertent Intradiscal Injections during Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Injection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Mun; Bae, Jin Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, there have been several case reports and retrospective studies about the incidence of intradiscal (ID) injection during transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI). Inadvertent ID injection is not a rare complication, and it carries the risk of developing diskitis, although there has been no report of diskitis after TFESI. We prospectively evaluated the incidence of inadvertent ID injection during lumbar TFESI and analyzed the contributing factors. Methods Ten patients received 2-level TFESI, and the remaining 229 patients received 1-level TFESI. When successful TFESI was performed, 2 ml of contrast dye was injected under real-time fluoroscopy to check for any inadvertent ID spread. A musculoskeletal radiologist analyzed all magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of patients who demonstrated inadvertent ID injection. When reviewing MRIs, the intervertebral foramen level where ID injection occurred was carefully examined, and any anatomical structure which narrowing the foramen was identified. Results Among the 249 TFESI, we identified 6 ID injections; thus, there was an incidence of 2.4%. Four patients had isthmic spondylolisthesis, and the level of spondylolisthesis coincided with the level of ID injection. We further examined the right or left foramen of the spondylolisthesis level and identified the upward migrated disc material that was narrowing the foramen. Conclusions Inadvertent ID injection during TFESI is not infrequent, and pain physicians must pay close attention to the type and location of disc herniation. PMID:24748946

  7. Steroid degradation in Comamonas testosteroni.

    PubMed

    Horinouchi, Masae; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2012-03-01

    Steroid degradation by Comamonas testosteroni and Nocardia restrictus have been intensively studied for the purpose of obtaining materials for steroid drug synthesis. C. testosteroni degrades side chains and converts single/double bonds of certain steroid compounds to produce androsta-1,4-diene 3,17-dione or the derivative. Following 9?-hydroxylation leads to aromatization of the A-ring accompanied by cleavage of the B-ring, and aromatized A-ring is hydroxylated at C-4 position, cleaved at ?4 by meta-cleavage, and divided into 2-hydroxyhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (A-ring) and 9,17-dioxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid (B,C,D-ring) by hydrolysis. Reactions and the genes involved in the cleavage and the following degradation of the A-ring are similar to those for bacterial biphenyl degradation, and 9,17-dioxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid degradation is suggested to be mainly ?-oxidation. Genes involved in A-ring aromatization and degradation form a gene cluster, and the genes involved in ?-oxidation of 9,17-dioxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid also comprise a large cluster of more than 10 genes. The DNA region between these two main steroid degradation gene clusters contain 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene, ?5,3-ketosteroid isomerase gene, genes for inversion of an ?-oriented-hydroxyl group to a ?-oriented-hydroxyl group at C-12 position of cholic acid, and genes possibly involved in the degradation of a side chain at C-17 position of cholic acid, indicating this DNA region of more than 100kb to be a steroid degradation gene hot spot of C. testosteroni. Article from a special issue on steroids and microorganisms. PMID:21056662

  8. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Cefepime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney infections. Cefepime injection is used in combination with metronidazole (Flagyl) to treat abdominal (stomach area) infections. Cefepime injection is ...

  9. Ondansetron Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  10. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the immune system ... one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications ...

  11. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Humira® Injection ... Adalimumab injection is used alone or with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders (conditions in ... form on some areas of the body). Adalimumab injection is in a class of medications called tumor ...

  12. Fluorouracil Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Adrucil® Injection ... Fluorouracil injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be given intravenously (into a vein) by a doctor or nurse ... you are feeling during your treatment with fluorouracil injection.

  13. Effectiveness of Platelet-rich Plasma Injection for Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy: A Prospective Open-label Study

    PubMed Central

    Scarpone, Michael; Snell, Edward; DeMeo, Patrick; Ruppert, Kristine; Pritchard, Perry; Arbogast, Gennie; Wilson, John J.; Balzano, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Assess platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection for rotator cuff tendinopathy (RCT). Design: Prospective open label study with 1-year follow-up. Methods: Participants recruited from an outpatient sports medicine clinic had clinically and magnetic resonance image (MRI)demonstrated RCT refractory to physical therapy and corticosteroid injection. They received one ultrasound-guided injection of 3.0 mL of 1% xylocaine followed by 3.5 mL of PRP at the lesion and surrounding tendon. Primary outcome: 010 visual analog scale (VAS; baseline, 8, 12, and 52 weeks). Secondary outcomes: functional shoulder tests assessing rotator cuff strength and endurance (at baseline and 8 and 12 weeks), MRI severity (15 points [at baseline and 4 and 8 weeks]), and patient satisfaction (52 weeks). Results: Eighteen participants with 19 assessed shoulders reported VAS pain score improvement from 7.5 0.3 points to 0.5 0.3 points by week 12 and 0.4 0.2 (P = .0001) points at week 52. Functional outcomes significantly improved; the largest effect was seen in the external rotation test: 33.5 5.7 seconds to 62.6 7.2 seconds at week 12 (P = .0001). MRI appearance improved by 1 to 3 points in 16 of 18 assessed shoulders. Seventeen participants were completely satisfied (12) or satisfied (5). One participant was unsatisfied. Conclusions: A single ultrasound-guided, intralesional injection of PRP resulted in safe, significant, sustained improvement of pain, function, and MRI outcomes in participants with refractory RCT. Randomized multidisciplinary effectiveness trials that add ultrasound and validated clinical outcome measures are needed to further assess PRP for RCT. PMID:24416661

  14. Neuroactive steroids and central nervous system disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Bckstrm, T; Sundstrm, I; Wahlstrm, G; Olsson, T; Zhu, D; Johansson, I M; Bjrn, I; Bixo, M

    2001-01-01

    Steroid hormones are vital for the cell life and affect a number of neuroendocrine and behavioral functions. In contrast to their endocrine actions, certain steroids have been shown to rapidly alter brain excitability and to produce behavioral effects within seconds to minutes. In this article we direct attention to this issue of neuroactive steroids by outlining several aspects of current interest in the field of steroid research. Recent advances in the neurobiology of neuroactive are described along with the impact of advances on drug design for central nervous system (CNS) disorders provoked by neuroactive steriods. The theme was selected in association with the clinical aspects and therapeutical potentials of the neuroactive steroids in CNS disorders. A wide range of topics relating to the neuroactive steroids are outlined, including steroid concentrations in the brain, premenstrual syndrome, estrogen and Alzheimer's disease, side effects of oral contraceptives, mental disorder in menopause, hormone replacement therapy, Catamenial epilepsy, and neuractive steroids in epilepsy treatment. PMID:11599309

  15. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... same as anabolic steroids, used illegally by some athletes for bodybuilding. Corticosteroids do not affect the liver or cause sterility. Does the body make steroids? Corticosteroids are similar to cortisol, a hormone produced ...

  16. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

  17. Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and the health risks they incur from abusing anabolic steroids drugs that were originally intended for people with ... that he or she will not be taking anabolic steroids, but rather corticosteroids . Corticosteroids are made from a ...

  18. The steroid benefit in treating complicated haemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Kamal H.

    2009-01-01

    The clinical study included 30 patients with complicated cutaneous haemangioma (ulceration, bleeding, obstruction of anatomical orifices, and interference with function or movement). The patients were studied regarding the age group, sex, site of lesion, size of lesion, and the percentage of regression after treatment with steroid. The age ranged from three months to six years, there were 20 female patients and 10 male patients. We used local injection of diluted triamcinolone 4 mg with 5 ml. 0.9% NACI (normal saline), injected through 23-guage syringe under local or general anaesthesia every two weeks for six to eight sessions depending on the severity of the case, followed by a local pressure dressing. We measured the size of the lesion before each session and recorded the regression of the lesion. The patients were followed up for two years. Haemangioma commonly presents in infants and children, most commonly in females, especially in the head and neck and are usually of a small size. It regresses if the treatment is started earlier. PMID:20368866

  19. Steroid and sterol hormone action

    SciTech Connect

    Spelsberg, T.C.; Kumar, R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 21 selections. Some of the titles are: Estrogen control of vitellogenin gene transcription and mRNA stability; Inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor conversion to the DNA-binding state and inhibition of subunit dissociation; Steroid regulation of rRNA synthesis; Messenger RNA-S14 as a model of thyroid hormone action at the hepatocellular level; and The oxysterol receptor.

  20. Adolescents and Steroids: A User Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids ("steroids") are synthetic derivatives of the natural male hormone testosterone. They were first used non-medically by elite athletes seeking to improve performance. More recently, however, steroid use has filtered down to high school and junior high school levels. The purpose of this study was to describe adolescent…

  1. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  2. Pitavastatin may reduce risk of steroid-induced osteonecrosis in rabbits: a preliminary histological study.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kenjiro; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Jingushi, Seiya; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2008-05-01

    Several animal and human studies suggest pharmacological approaches may prevent steroid-induced osteonecrosis (ON). We asked whether the newly developed 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, pitavastatin, could prevent steroid-induced ON in rabbits. We injected 65 adult male Japanese white rabbits once with 20 mg/kg of methylprednisolone acetate into the right gluteus medius muscle. The rabbits were divided into two groups; one group of 35 rabbits received pitavastatins (PS), and the other group of 30 rabbits received no prophylaxis (CTR). Hematological examinations were performed just before the steroid injection (0 weeks) and at 1 and 2 weeks after steroid injection; both the femora and the humeri were histologically examined 2 weeks postinjection. The incidence of histologic changes consistent with early ON in the PS group (13 of 35; 37%) was lower in comparison to the CTR group (21 of 30; 70%). The size of the bone marrow fat cells in the PS group (56.6 +/- 10 microm) was smaller than those in the CTR group (60 +/- 4 microm). The data suggest pitavastatin has the potential to lower the incidence of steroid-induced ON in rabbits. PMID:18350345

  3. Alcoholic Hepatitis: Steroids vs. Pentoxifylline

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Laura; Gobejishvili, Leila; Crittenden, Neil; Barve, Shirish; McClain, Craig J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) remains a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality in the United States and is actually increasing in certain areas of Europe. Thus, there is a pressing need for new therapies/approaches. Major barriers for reducing morbidity, mortality, and costs of care include: lack of translational animal and human studies of new therapies for AH; limited trials of combination therapies in AH targeted at specific disease mechanisms (e.g., gut permeability, cytokines, oxidative stress); limited studies on non-invasive, non-mortality end points; few studies on mechanisms of steroid non-responsiveness; and inadequate prognostic indicators, to name only a few. In spite of these gaps, we have made major advances in understanding mechanisms for AH and appropriate therapies for AH. This article reviews mechanisms and rationale for use of steroids and pentoxifylline in AH and future directions in therapy. PMID:23750115

  4. The Steroid Metabolome of Adrenarche

    PubMed Central

    Rege, Juilee; Rainey, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenarche is an endocrine developmental process whereby humans and select nonhuman primates increase adrenal output of a series of steroids, especially dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). The timing of adrenarche varies between primates, but in humans, serum levels of DHEAS are seen to increase around 6 years of age. This phenomenon corresponds with the development and expansion of the zona reticularis (ZR) of the adrenal gland. The physiological phenomena that trigger the onset of adrenarche are still unknown; however the biochemical pathways leading to this event have been elucidated in detail. There are numerous reviews examining the process of adrenarche, most of which, have focused on the changes within the adrenal as well as the phenotypic results of adrenarche. This article reviews the recent and past studies that show the breadth of changes in the circulating steroid metabolome that occurs during the process of adrenarche. PMID:22715193

  5. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage

    PubMed Central

    Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya; Draganov, Peter V

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage has emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to percutaneous and surgical interventions for patients with biliary obstruction who had failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). EUS-guided biliary drainage has become feasible due to the development of large channel curvilinear therapeutic echo-endoscopes and the use of real-time ultrasound and fluoroscopy imaging in addition to standard ERCP devices and techniques. EUS-guided biliary drainage is an attractive option because of its minimally invasive, single step procedure which provides internal biliary decompression. Multiple investigators have reported high success and low complication rates. Unfortunately, high quality prospective data are still lacking. We provide detailed review of the use of EUS for biliary drainage from the perspective of practicing endoscopists with specific focus on the technical aspects of the procedure. PMID:22363114

  6. [Ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access].

    PubMed

    Fuzier, Régis; Rougé, Pierre; Pierre, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    International guidelines advocate the use of first-line ultrasound for central venous catheter, particularly for the internal jugular vein. The role of ultrasound in peripheral venous access remains questionable. In some specific situations, such as pediatrics, obesity and patients with poor venous network, problems to cannulate peripheral vein may occur. Success rate of peripheral intravenous access increases with the diameter of the vein and for a depth of the vein between 0.3 and 1.5cm. The type of puncture (long-axis or short-axis) and the type of catheters have little influence on the success rate. Specific considerations have to be taken concerning infection control. PMID:26632089

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided liver biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Parth J.; Majithia, Raj; Diehl, David L.; Baron, Todd H.

    2015-01-01

    Liver biopsy remains the cornerstone in the diagnosis and management of liver disorders. Results of liver biopsy can often drive therapeutic decision-making. Unfortunately, studies have shown conventional biopsy techniques to carry significant sampling variability that can potentially impact patient care. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is gaining traction as an alternative method of biopsy. For parenchymal disease, it can decrease sampling variability. It offers a more targeted approach for focal lesions. Its diagnostic yield and limited adverse event profile make it a promising approach for liver biopsy. PMID:26020041

  8. Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Block Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Re, Michela; Blanco, Javier; Gmez de Segura, Ignacio A

    2016-03-01

    Superficial nerves can be visualized through ultrasonography in the cattle and facilitate local anesthetic disposition around nerve structures. Expected advantages include a higher successful rate of nerve block improving the degree and duration of the block. Among others, conduction nerves of clinical interest in cattle include the paravertebral nerves, nerves of the epidural space, the brachial plexus, and the sciatic and femoral nerves, and nerves of the head. PMID:26922116

  9. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have lipodystrophy (increased body fat in certain areas of the body). Tesamorelin injection is not used to help with weight loss. Tesamorelin injection is in a class of medications ...

  10. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  11. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and may make it more difficult to read, drive, or perform other daily activities). Pegaptanib injection is ... vision blurred vision floaters in the eye seeing flashes of light swelling of the eyelid Pegaptanib injection ...

  12. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... red blood cells) caused by low levels of folic acid in the body. Leucovorin injection is also used ... injection is in a class of medications called folic acid analogs. It treats people who are receiving methotrexate ...

  13. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Palonosetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting that may occur within 24 hours after receiving ... occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called ...

  14. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Methotrexate injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat gestational trophoblastic tumors (a type of ... bones) after surgery to remove the tumor. Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis (a ...

  15. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  16. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Cefazolin injection is also sometimes used for certain penicillin allergic patients who have a heart condition and ... injection is also sometimes used to treat certain penicillin allergic women who are in labor in order ...

  17. Ipilimumab Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Ipilimumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with ... has spread to other parts of the body. Ipilimumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

  18. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Certolizumab injection is used to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders (conditions in which the immune system attacks ... other areas causing pain and joint damage). Certolizumab injection is in a class of medications called tumor ...

  19. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

  20. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Tobramycin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of ... lungs, skin, bones, joints, and urinary tract. Tobramycin injection is in a class of medications called aminoglycoside ...