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Sample records for ultraviolet diode array

  1. Diode laser array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Nils W. (Inventor); Evans, Gary A. (Inventor); Kaiser, Charlie J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A diode laser array comprises a substrate of a semiconductor material having first and second opposed surfaces. On the first surface is a plurality of spaced gain sections and a separate distributed Bragg reflector passive waveguide at each end of each gain section and optically connecting the gain sections. Each gain section includes a cavity therein wherein charge carriers are generated and recombine to generate light which is confined in the cavity. Also, the cavity, which is preferably a quantum well cavity, provides both a high differential gain and potentially large depth of loss modulation. Each waveguide has a wavelength which is preferably formed by an extension of the cavity of the gain sections and a grating. The grating has a period which provides a selective feedback of light into the gain sections to supporting lasing, which allows some of the light to be emitted from the waveguide normal to the surface of the substrate and which allows optical coupling of the gain sections. Also, the grating period provides an operating wavelength which is on the short wavelength side of the gain period of the gain sections required for laser oscillation. An RF pulse is applied so as to maximize the magnitude of the loss modulation and the differential gain in the gain sections. The array is operated by applying a DC bias to all the gain sections at a level just below the threshold of the gain sections to only one of the gain sections which raises the bias in all of the gain sections to a level that causes all of the gain sections to oscillate. Thus, a small bias can turn the array on and off.

  2. Simultaneous determination three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in Artemisia apiacea by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiwoo; Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2015-01-01

    Background: Artemisia apiacea is a traditional herbal medicine using treatment of eczema and jaundice in Eastern Asia, including China, Korea, and Japan. Objective: An accurate and sensitive analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector and liquid chromatographymass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea was established. Materials and Methods: The analytes were separated on a Shiseido C18 column (5 ?m, 4.6 mm I.D. 250 mm) with gradient elution of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and detection wavelengths were set at 205 and 254 nm. Results: Validation of the method was performed to demonstrate its linearity, precision and accuracy. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9994). The limits of detection and limits of quantification were within the ranges 0.557.07 ?g/mL and 1.6721.44 ?g/mL, respectively. And, the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were <2.93%. The recoveries were found to be in the range of 90.03104.91%. Conclusion: The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis for quality control of campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea. PMID:25829768

  3. Laser diode array and transmission optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Jin H.

    1989-01-01

    Information on laser diode array and transmission optics is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on coherent combining of laser diode arrays, amplification through a laser diode array, the far field pattern of a laser diode transmitter, and beam diameter at receiver vs. transmission distance.

  4. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet diode array detection and refractive index detection to the determination of class composition and to the analysis of gasoline.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Marian; Kartanowicz, Rafał; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2004-03-12

    A method of effective application of normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) with ultraviolet diode array detection (DAD) and refractive index detection (RID) for the determination of class composition of gasoline and its components, i.e. for the determination of content of alkenes, aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons in gasoline meeting modern quality standards, has been developed. An aminopropyl-bonded silica stationary phase was used along with n-hexane or n-heptane as the mobile phase. A DAD signal integrated over the 207-240 nm range was used to determine alkenes. This eliminates the necessity of separating alkenes from saturates, because the latter do not absorb UV radiation above 200 nm. The content of aromatic hydrocarbons is determined by means of a refractive index detector. Calibration was based on hydrocarbon type composition determined by the fluorescent indicator adsorption method, ASTM D1319. The results obtained by the developed method were found to be consistent with those obtained by fluorescent indicator adsorption or by a multidimensional GC method (PIONA) (ASTM D5443). The method can be applied to gasoline meeting recent quality standards, irrespective of refining technology used in the production of gasoline components, including gasoline with various contents of oxygenates. The developed method cannot be used to determine the hydrocarbon type composition of gasoline that contains as a component the so-called pyrocondensate, i.e. the fraction with a boiling point up to 220 degrees C, obtained through thermal pyrolysis of distillation residues of crude oil or coal and, consequently, does not meet the quality standards. The paper includes the procedure for identification of this type of gasoline. PMID:15032352

  5. Determination of hydroxyalkyl derivatives of cobalamin (vitamin B12) using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and ultraviolet diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Alsberg, T; Minten, J; Haglund, J; Trnqvist, M

    2001-01-01

    Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) and ultraviolet diode array detection (UV-DAD), coupled on-line to reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was used for the characterization of hydroxyalkyl derivatives of cob(I)alamin. The reduced form of vitamin B12, cob(I)alamin, denoted a supernucleophile due to its high nucleophilic strength, has shown promise as an analytical tool in studies of electrophilically reactive compounds in vitro and in vivo. A method for analysis of DNA-phosphate adducts was developed earlier utilizing the supernucleophilicity of cob(I)alamin to transfer alkyl groups from the phosphotriester configuration in DNA, with the formation of a Co-substituted alkyl-cobalamin (alkyl-Cbl) complex. For the purpose of identification and quantification of alkyl-Cbls at high sensitivity, an MS/MS method has been developed with application to a number of 2-hydroxyalkyl-cobalamins (OHalkyl-Cbls). The precursor oxiranes were reacted with cob(I)alamin, followed by clean-up and mass spectrometric analysis of the resulting OHalkyl-Cbls. It was found that ionization was highly dependent on solvent composition. By using acetonitrile/water/trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (eluent I), the base peak was the doubly protonated molecule [M + 2H](2+), whereas acetonitrile/water/1-methylpiperidine (eluent II) yielded the singly protonated molecule [M + H](+) as the base peak. Excellent separation was obtained with eluent II, with good separation between stereoisomers, thus enabling the characterization of these by means of UV spectra. Limits of quantitation for 2-hydroxypropyl-cobalamin (OHPr-Cbl) were 0.2 and 2 pg/microL (or 0.1 and 1 fmol/microL) using selected ion recording (SIR) with eluent I and II, respectively. The obtained detection level should be sufficient for analysis of alkyl-Cbls from a wide range of toxicological applications. PMID:11746915

  6. Near-ultraviolet laser diodes for brilliant ultraviolet fluorophore excitation.

    PubMed

    Telford, William G

    2015-12-01

    Although multiple lasers are now standard equipment on most modern flow cytometers, ultraviolet (UV) lasers (325-365 nm) remain an uncommon excitation source for cytometry. Nd:YVO4 frequency-tripled diode pumped solid-state lasers emitting at 355 nm are now the primary means of providing UV excitation on multilaser flow cytometers. Although a number of UV excited fluorochromes are available for flow cytometry, the cost of solid-state UV lasers remains prohibitively high, limiting their use to all but the most sophisticated multilaser instruments. The recent introduction of the brilliant ultraviolet (BUV) series of fluorochromes for cell surface marker detection and their importance in increasing the number of simultaneous parameters for high-dimensional analysis has increased the urgency of including UV sources in cytometer designs; however, these lasers remain expensive. Near-UV laser diodes (NUVLDs), a direct diode laser source emitting in the 370-380 nm range, have been previously validated for flow cytometric analysis of most UV-excited probes, including quantum nanocrystals, the Hoechst dyes, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. However, they remain a little-used laser source for cytometry, despite their significantly lower cost. In this study, the ability of NUVLDs to excite the BUV dyes was assessed, along with their compatibility with simultaneous brilliant violet (BV) labeling. A NUVLD emitting at 375 nm was found to excite most of the available BUV dyes at least as well as a UV 355 nm source. This slightly longer wavelength did produce some unwanted excitation of BV dyes, but at sufficiently low levels to require minimal additional compensation. NUVLDs are compact, relatively inexpensive lasers that have higher power levels than the newest generation of small 355 nm lasers. They can, therefore, make a useful, cost-effective substitute for traditional UV lasers in multicolor analysis involving the BUV and BV dyes. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:25930008

  7. Beam multiplexing of diode laser arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruicong, Liu; Yuanyuan, Liu; Xue, Chen; Fuhua, Yang

    2015-04-01

    Design and experimental studies on the wavelength multiplexing and polarization multiplexing of diode laser arrays were carried out. First, the structure of a AlGaInAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well under compressive strain was used because the characteristic of wavelength was easier to adjust. We obtained diode laser arrays lasing in five different wavelengths, about 760 nm, 800 nm, 860 nm, 930 nm, and 976 nm. At the same time, four edge filters were designed, and an experimental study on the beam multiplexing of diode laser arrays was carried out. Second, two beams with different polarization states were composited using a half wave plate and a polarizing beam-splitter prism. After that, the beam focusing system was designed. Ultimately, ten beams of diode laser arrays in five wavelengths and two polarization states were composited, the total output power was 196 W and the overall efficiency was 76%. The size of the output focus spot was 144 1330 ?m2, and the power density of the focused light was as high as 1.02 105 W/cm2. Compared with a single diode laser array, the power density of the composite beam was improved by 4.3 times. Project supported by the National Science Foundation of China (No. 61275145).

  8. Diodes in photovoltaic modules and arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-03-01

    The use of diodes to enhance the energy generation capability and improve the reliability of photovoltaic modules and arrays is discussed. Array-level considerations influencing the application of such diodes in a bypass mode are conserved. Several methods for the mechanical and electrical integration of these devices as an integral part of the module electrical termination means are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the description of innovative approaches for the external mounting of bypass diodes. These descriptions were used as the basis for a detailed cost analysis and comparison among the candidate concepts. It was concluded that the photovoltaic source circuit blocking or isolation function can be implemented using the same basic diode enclosure designs with provisions for the inclusion of a fuse for overcurrent protection.

  9. Scalable diode array pumped Nd rod laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zenzie, H. H.; Knights, M. G.; Mosto, J. R.; Chicklis, E. P.; Perkins, P. E.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on a five-array pump head which utilizes gold-coated reflective cones to couple the pump energy to Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF rod lasers, demonstrating high efficiency and uniform energy deposition. Because the cones function as optical diodes to light outside their acceptance angle (typically 10-15 deg), much of the diode energy not absorbed on the first pass can be returned to the rod.

  10. The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the details for adapting a diode array UV-vis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes--fuge tubes--as cuvettes. Optical data are presented validating that the polyethylene fuge tubes are equivalent to the standard square cross section polystyrene or glass cuvettes generally used in…

  11. The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the details for adapting a diode array UV-vis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes--fuge tubes--as cuvettes. Optical data are presented validating that the polyethylene fuge tubes are equivalent to the standard square cross section polystyrene or glass cuvettes generally used in

  12. International ultraviolet explorer solar array power degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristic electrical performance of each International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) solar array panel is evaluated as a function of several prevailing variables (namely, solar illumination, array temperature and solar cell radiation damage). Based on degradation in the current-voltage characteristics of the array due to solar cell damage accumulated over time by space charged particle radiations, the available IUE solar array power is determined for life goals up to 10 years. Best and worst case calculations are normalized to actual IUE flight data (available solar array power versus observatory position) to accurately predict the future IUE solar array output. It is shown that the IUE solar array can continue to produce more power than is required at most observatory positions for at least 5 more years.

  13. Graphene/GaN diodes for ultraviolet and visible photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fang; Chen, Shao-Wen; Meng, Jie; Tse, Geoffrey; Fu, Xue-Wen; Xu, Fu-Jun; Shen, Bo; Liao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Da-Peng

    2014-08-01

    The Schottky diodes based on graphene/GaN interface are fabricated and demonstrated for the dual-wavelength photodetection of ultraviolet (UV) and green lights. The physical mechanisms of the photoelectric response of the diodes with different light wavelengths are different. For UV illumination, the photo-generated carriers lower the Schottky barrier and increase the photocurrent. For green light illumination, as the photon energy is smaller than the bandgap of GaN, the hot electrons excited in graphene via internal photoemission are responsible for the photoelectric response. Using graphene as a transparent electrode, the diodes show a mS photoresponse, providing an alternative route toward multi-wavelength photodetectors.

  14. Graphene/GaN diodes for ultraviolet and visible photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fang; Chen, Shaowen; Meng, Jie; Tse, Geoffrey; Fu, Xuewen; Xu, Fujun; Shen, Bo; Liao, Zhimin; Yu, Dapeng; Nanolab Team

    2015-03-01

    The Schottky diodes based on graphene/GaN interface are fabricated and demonstrated for the dual-wavelength photodetection of ultraviolet (UV) and green lights. The physical mechanisms of the photoelectric response of the diodes with different light wavelengths are different. For UV illumination, the photo-generated carriers lower the Schottky barrier and increase the photocurrent. For green light illumination, as the photon energy is smaller than the bandgap of GaN, the hot electrons excited in graphene via internal photoemission are responsible for the photoelectric response. Using graphene as a transparent electrode, the diodes show a ~ mS photoresponse, providing an alternative route toward multi-wavelength photodetectors.

  15. Graphene/GaN diodes for ultraviolet and visible photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Fang; Chen, Shao-Wen; Meng, Jie; Tse, Geoffrey; Fu, Xue-Wen; Xu, Fu-Jun; Shen, Bo; Liao, Zhi-Min E-mail: yudp@pku.edu.cn; Yu, Da-Peng E-mail: yudp@pku.edu.cn

    2014-08-18

    The Schottky diodes based on graphene/GaN interface are fabricated and demonstrated for the dual-wavelength photodetection of ultraviolet (UV) and green lights. The physical mechanisms of the photoelectric response of the diodes with different light wavelengths are different. For UV illumination, the photo-generated carriers lower the Schottky barrier and increase the photocurrent. For green light illumination, as the photon energy is smaller than the bandgap of GaN, the hot electrons excited in graphene via internal photoemission are responsible for the photoelectric response. Using graphene as a transparent electrode, the diodes show a ?mS photoresponse, providing an alternative route toward multi-wavelength photodetectors.

  16. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, B.L.; Skidmore, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost. 19 figs.

  17. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, Barry L. (Livermore, CA); Skidmore, Jay A. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost.

  18. Laser diode array pumped continuous wave Rubidium vapor laser.

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, B V; Stooke, A; Boyadjian, G; Voci, A; Knize, R J

    2008-01-21

    We have demonstrated continuous wave operation of a laser diode array pumped Rb laser with an output power of 8 Watts. A slope efficiency of 60% and a total optical efficiency of 45% were obtained with a pump power of 18 Watts. This laser can be scaled to higher powers by using multiple laser diode arrays or stacks of arrays. PMID:18542151

  19. Microcontroller interface for diode array spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguo, L.; Williams, R. R.

    An alternative to bus-based computer interfacing is presented using diode array spectrometry as a typical application. The new interface consists of an embedded single-chip microcomputer, known as a microcontroller, which provides all necessary digital I/O and analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) along with an unprecedented amount of intelligence. Communication with a host computer system is accomplished by a standard serial interface so this type of interfacing is applicable to a wide range of personal and minicomputers and can be easily networked. Data are acquired asynchronousty and sent to the host on command. New operating modes which have no traditional counterparts are presented.

  20. High extraction efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diode

    DOEpatents

    Wierer, Jonathan; Montano, Ines; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-11-24

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with tailored AlGaN quantum wells can achieve high extraction efficiency. For efficient bottom light extraction, parallel polarized light is preferred, because it propagates predominately perpendicular to the QW plane and into the typical and more efficient light escape cones. This is favored over perpendicular polarized light that propagates along the QW plane which requires multiple, lossy bounces before extraction. The thickness and carrier density of AlGaN QW layers have a strong influence on the valence subband structure, and the resulting optical polarization and light extraction of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. At Al>0.3, thinner QW layers (<2.5 nm are preferred) result in light preferentially polarized parallel to the QW plane. Also, active regions consisting of six or more QWs, to reduce carrier density, and with thin barriers, to efficiently inject carriers in all the QWs, are preferred.

  1. Microlens frames for laser diode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Skidmore, J.A.; Freitas, B.L.

    1999-07-13

    Monolithic microlens frames enable the fabrication of monolithic laser diode arrays and are manufactured inexpensively with high registration, and with inherent focal length compensation for any lens diameter variation. A monolithic substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost microlens array. The substrate is wet-etched or sawed with a series of v-grooves. The v-grooves can be created by wet-etching, by exploiting the large etch-rate selectivity of different crystal planes. The v-grooves provide a support frame for either cylindrical or custom-shaped microlenses. Because the microlens frames are formed by photolithographic semiconductor batch-processing techniques, they can be formed inexpensively over large areas with precise lateral and vertical registration. The v-groove has an important advantage for preserving the correct focus for lenses of varying diameter. 12 figs.

  2. Microlens frames for laser diode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Skidmore, Jay A. (Livermore, CA); Freitas, Barry L. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Monolithic microlens frames enable the fabrication of monolithic laser diode arrays and are manufactured inexpensively with high registration, and with inherent focal length compensation for any lens diameter variation. A monolithic substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost microlens array. The substrate is wet-etched or sawed with a series of v-grooves. The v-grooves can be created by wet-etching, by exploiting the large etch-rate selectivity of different crystal planes. The v-grooves provide a support frame for either cylindrical or custom-shaped microlenses. Because the microlens frames are formed by photolithographic semiconductor batch-processing techniques, they can be formed inexpensively over large areas with precise lateral and vertical registration. The v-groove has an important advantage for preserving the correct focus for lenses of varying diameter.

  3. Space Qualification of Laser Diode Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troupaki, Elisavet; Kashem, Nasir B.; Allan, Graham R.; Vasilyev, Aleksey; Stephen, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Laser instruments have great potential in enabling a new generation of remote-sensing scientific instruments. NASA s desire to employ laser instruments aboard satellites, imposes stringent reliability requirements under severe conditions. As a result of these requirements, NASA has a research program to understand, quantify and reduce the risk of failure to these instruments when deployed on satellites. Most of NASA s proposed laser missions have base-lined diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers that generally use quasi-constant wave (QCW), 808 nm Laser Diode Arrays (LDAs). Our group has an on-going test program to measure the performance of these LDAs when operated in conditions replicating launch and orbit. In this paper, we report on the results of tests designed to measure the effect of vibration loads simulating launch into space and the radiation environment encountered on orbit. Our primary objective is to quantify the performance of the LDAs in conditions replicating those of a satellite instrument, determine their limitations and strengths which will enable better and more robust designs. To this end we have developed a systematic testing strategy to quantify the effect of environmental stresses on the optical and electrical properties of the LDA.

  4. Diode array detection in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Heiger, D N; Kaltenbach, P; Sievert, H J

    1994-10-01

    Diode array detection (DAD) in capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers similar advantages over single-wavelength detection as it does in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Thus, confirmation of compound identity and establishment of peak purity are critical issues in CE, necessitating sensitive and specific detection. With an optimized optical system, DAD yields sensitivity comparable to that of single or variable wavelength detectors. Sensitivity can be further improved three to five times by use of expanded pathlength capillaries employing the so-called bubble cell. Optimization of optical design, as well as maintenance of spectral fidelity, will be discussed in this work. A variety of applications of CE, and specifically of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC), with emphasis on quantitative analysis, sensitivity, linearity, spectral identification, and peak purity verification will be presented. The use of spectral information for peak tracking in MEKC method development and for the assessment of purity of electrodistorted peaks will also be illustrated. PMID:7895713

  5. Rubidium vapor laser pumped by two laser diode arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, Boris V; Stooke, Adam; Boyadjian, Gregory; Voci, Adam; Knize, R J

    2008-03-01

    Scaling of alkali lasers to higher powers requires using multiple diode lasers for pumping. The first (to our knowledge) results of a cw rubidium laser pumped by two laser diode arrays are presented. A slope efficiency of 53%, total optical efficiency of 46%, and output power of 17 W have been demonstrated. PMID:18311276

  6. Confirmation of malachite green, gentian violet and their leuco analogs in catfish and trout tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography utilizing electrochemistry with ultraviolet-visible diode array detection and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Rushing, L G; Hansen, E B

    1997-10-24

    A sensitive analytical procedure for the confirmation of residues of malachite green (MG), gentian violet (GV) and their leuco analogs (LMG and LGV) in catfish and trout tissue at 10 ng/g is described. Frozen (-20 degrees C) fish fillets were cut into small pieces and homogenized in Waring blendors. The compounds of interest were extracted from 20-g amounts of homogenized fish tissue with acetonitrile-buffer, partitioned against methylene chloride, and isolated with tandem neutral alumina and propylsulfonic acid cation-exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges. Samples of 100 microl (0.8 g equiv.) were chromatographed isocratically in 10 min using an acetonitrile-buffer mobile phase on a short-chain deactivated (SCD) reversed-phase column (150x4.6 mm I.D.) in-line with a post-column oxidation coulometric electrochemical cell (EC), a UV-Vis diode array detector and a fluorescence detector. PMID:9390733

  7. Injection-seeding studies of diode laser array behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hohimer, J.P.; Hadley, G.R.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-01-01

    By optical injection seeding of diode laser arrays with the output from a narrowband tunable master oscillator, we are able to actively probe these devices and study their inter-element coupling behavior and eigenmodes.

  8. Modular package for cooling a laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Mundinger, David C.; Benett, William J.; Beach, Raymond J.

    1992-01-01

    A laser diode array is disclosed that includes a plurality of planar packages and active cooling. The laser diode array may be operated in a long duty cycle, or in continuous operation. A laser diode bar and a microchannel heat sink are thermally coupled in a compact, thin planar package having the laser diode bar located proximate to one edge. In an array, a number of such thin planar packages are secured together in a stacked configuration, in close proximity so that the laser diodes are spaced closely. The cooling means includes a microchannel heat sink that is attached proximate to the laser bar so that it absorbs heat generated by laser operation. To provide the coolant to the microchannels, each thin planar package comprises a thin inlet manifold and a thin outlet manifold connected to an inlet corridor and an outlet corridor. The inlet corridor comprises a hole extending through each of the packages in the array, and the outlet corridor comprises a hole extending through each of the packages in the array. The inlet and outlet corridors are connected to a conventional coolant circulation system. The laser diode array with active cooling has application as an optical pump for high power solid state lasers. Further, it can be incorporated in equipment such as communications devices and active sensors, and in military and space applications, and it can be useful in applications having space constraints and energy limitations.

  9. Diode-array UV solar spectroradiometer implementing a digital micromirror device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, A.; Burnitt, T.; Porrovecchio, G.; Smid, M.; Egli, L.; Gröbner, J.; Nield, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    The solar ultraviolet spectrum captured by commercially available diode-array spectroradiometers is dominated by stray light from longer wavelengths with higher intensity. The implementation of a digital micromirror device in an array spectroradiometer has the potential to enable the precise selection of desired wavelengths as well as the ability to reduce spectral intensity of some wavelengths via selective mirror modulation, both reducing long wavelength stray light. A prototype consisting of off-the-shelf components has been assembled to verify the validity of the base concept, and initial measurements have been performed to confirm the throughput and image qualities such as spectral resolution and astigmatism.

  10. Monolithic millimeter-wave diode grid frequency multiplier arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hong-Xia L.; Qin, X.-H.; Sjogren, L. B.; Wu, W.; Chung, E.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Monolithic diode frequency multiplier arrays, including barrier-N-N(+) (BNN) doubler, multi-quantum-barrier-varactor (MQBV) tripler, Schottky-quantum-barrier-varactor (SQBV) tripler, and resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) tripler arrays, have been successfully fabricated with yields between 85 and 99 percent. Frequency doubling and/or tripling have been observed for all the arrays. Output powers of 2.4-2.6 W (eta = 10-18 percent) at 66 GHz with the BNN doubler and 3.8-10 W (eta = 1.7-4 percent) at 99 GHz with the SQBV tripler have been achieved.

  11. PIN diode array x-ray imaging. Final Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, J.G.

    1996-09-01

    We have completed constructing an x-ray camera based on a solid state imaging device and have obtained images of Omega laser targets. A Si PIN diode array is used. Objective of this project is to investigate the use of a PIN diode array readout device for obtaining images of 1-20 keV x-ray emission from laser targets. The PIN array detector was successfully used for obtaining hard x-ray images in the high powered laser environment and real time images of the x-ray emission from laser targets.

  12. Phased array operation of a diode grid impedance surface

    SciTech Connect

    Sjogren, L.B.; Liu, H.X.; Qin, X.; Domier, C.W.; Luhmann, N.C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    New experimental results have been achieved with monolithic millimeter-wave Schottky varactor diode arrays. In addition to improved results for such arrays as reflected beam phase shifters, the capability of the arrays, under voltage control, to steer, focus, and change the polarization state of a beam, has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time. These new results broaden the demonstrated capabilities of millimeter wave solid state device arrays, furthering the ultimate objective of the construction of complete systems based on quasi-optical power-combining array technology.

  13. Applications of microlens-conditioned laser diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.J.; Emanuel, M.A.; Freitas, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The ability to condition the radiance of laser diodes using shaped-fiber cylindrical-microlens technology has dramatically increased the number of applications that can be practically engaged by diode laser arrays. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has actively pursued optical efficiency and engineering improvements in this technology in an effort to supply large radiance-conditioned laser diode array sources for its own internal programs. This effort has centered on the development of a modular integrated laser diode packaging technology with the goal of enabling the simple and flexible construction of high average power, high density, two-dimensional arrays with integrated cylindrical microlenses. Within LLNL, the principal applications of microlens-conditioned laser diode arrays are as high intensity pump sources for diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSLs). A simple end-pumping architecture has been developed and demonstrated that allows the radiation from microlens-conditioned, two-dimensional diode array apertures to be efficiently delivered to the end of rod lasers. To date, pump powers as high as 2.5 kW have been delivered to 3 mm diameter laser rods. Such high power levels are critical for pumping solid state lasers in which the terminal laser level is a Stark level lying in the ground state manifold. Previously, such systems have often required operation of the solid state gain medium at low temperature to freeze out the terminal laser Stark level population. The authors recently developed high intensity pump sources overcome this difficulty by effectively pumping to much higher inversion levels, allowing efficient operation at or near room temperature. Because the end-pumping technology is scalable in absolute power, the number of rare-earth ions and transitions that can be effectively accessed for use in practical DPSSL systems has grown tremendously.

  14. Stacked, filtered multi-channel X-ray diode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeil, L. P.; Dutra, E. C.; Compton, S. M.; Jacoby, B. A.; Raphaelian, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    There are many types of X-ray diodes that are used for X-ray flux or spectroscopic measurements and for estimating the spectral shape of the VUV to soft X-ray spectrum. However, a need arose for a low cost, robust X-ray diode to use for experiments in hostile environments on multiple platforms, and for experiments that utilize forces that may destroy the diode(s). Since the typical proposed use required a small size with a minimal single line-of-sight, a parallel array could not be used. So, a stacked, filtered multi-channel X-ray diode array was developed, called the MiniXRD. To achieve significant cost savings while maintaining robustness and ease of field setup, repair, and replacement, we designed the system to be modular. The filters were manufactured in-house and cover the range from 450 eV to 5000 eV. To achieve the line-of-sight accuracy needed, we developed mounts and laser alignment techniques. We modeled and tested elements of the diode design at NSTec Livermore Operations (NSTec / LO) to determine temporal response and dynamic range, leading to diode shape and circuitry changes to optimize impedance and charge storage. We fielded individual and stacked systems at several national facilities as ancillary `ride-along' diagnostics to test and improve the design usability. We present the MiniXRD system performance which supports consideration as a viable low-cost alternative for multiple-channel low-energy X-ray measurements. This diode array is currently at Technical Readiness Level (TRL) 6.

  15. Online photolytic optical gating of caged fluorophores in capillary zone electrophoresis utilizing an ultraviolet light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Elyssia S; Comi, Troy J; Braun, Kevin L; Aspinwall, Craig A

    2012-09-01

    Photolytic optical gating (POG) facilitates rapid, on-line and highly sensitive analyses, though POG utilizes UV lasers for sample injection. We present a low-cost, more portable alternative, employing an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED) array to inject caged fluorescent dyes via photolysis. Utilizing the UV-LED array, labeled amino acids were injected with nanomolar limits of detection (270 30 nM and 250 30 nM for arginine and citrulline, respectively). When normalized for the difference in light intensity, the UV-LED array provides comparable sensitivity to POG utilizing UV lasers. Additionally, the UV-LED array yielded sufficient beam quality and stability to facilitate coupling with a Hadamard transform, resulting in increased sensitivity. This work shows, for the first time, the use of an UV-LED for online POG with comparable sensitivity to conventional laser sources but at a lower cost. PMID:22911376

  16. InGaN Laser Diode Mini-Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlin, Piotr; Marona, Lucja; Holc, Katarzyna; Wisniewski, Przemek; Suski, Tadek; Leszczynski, Mike; Czernecki, Robert; Najda, Stephen; Zajac, Marcin; Kucharski, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate the operation of high-power InGaN laser diode mini-arrays consisting of three or five stripes in a common p-contact configuration and compare the results with a single stripe emitter. We observed the following sequence of maximum output powers: 1.1 W for a single emitter, 2.5 W for a three emitter array, and 0.55 W for a five emitter array. The devices emitted light at 408-412 nm wavelength range. The most promising high-power laser diode design turned out to be a three stripe solution. The five stripe mini-array suffers from overheating, which causes the device to thermally roll-over at relatively low optical power. In addition to the high power operation, the three stripe device has good spectral characteristics accompanied by very reasonable differential efficiency making it a good candidate for ultra-high optical power systems like laser projectors.

  17. High-power laser diode array phase locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, Victor V.; Derzhavin, Sergei I.; Filonenko, Vladimir A.; Kuzminov, Vitaly V.; Mashkovsky, Dmitry A.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.

    2000-04-01

    The overview of the phase-locking problem for the powerful laser diode arrays is presented. Comparison of the external Talbot cavity configuration with the other ones is held. Attention is paid to both investigation and employment of the laser diode arrays consisting of wide aperture lasers. Such arrays, placed in the external cavity, allow easier solution of the scaling up problem that results in the output lobes with both significantly increased power and low divergence. Our experiments confirm feasibility of both QCW and CW phase- locking of the LDA in the external quarter-Talbot (Lc equals ZT/4) cavity at the output power of more than 10 W with the lobes divergence of (delta) (Psi) approximately equals 0.5 mrad. Employment of the efficient porous heatexchanger along with the system that cancels both induced phase distortions arising due to heat release and existing optical imperfections has allowed a breakthrough in powerful arrays phase-locking.

  18. Reliability of High Power Laser Diode Arrays Operating in Long Pulse Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Lockard, George E.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Baker, Nathaniel R.

    2006-01-01

    Reliability and lifetime of quasi-CW laser diode arrays are greatly influenced by their thermal characteristics. This paper examines the thermal properties of laser diode arrays operating in long pulse duration regime.

  19. Method and system for homogenizing diode laser pump arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, Andy J

    2013-10-01

    An optical amplifier system includes a diode pump array including a plurality of semiconductor diode laser bars disposed in an array configuration and characterized by a periodic distance between adjacent semiconductor diode laser bars. The periodic distance is measured in a first direction perpendicular to each of the plurality of semiconductor diode laser bars. The diode pump array provides a pump output propagating along an optical path and characterized by a first intensity profile measured as a function of the first direction and having a variation greater than 10%. The optical amplifier system also includes a diffractive optic disposed along the optical path. The diffractive optic includes a photo-thermo-refractive glass member. The optical amplifier system further includes an amplifier slab having an input face and position along the optical path and separated from the diffractive optic by a predetermined distance. A second intensity profile measured at the input face of the amplifier slab as a function of the first direction has a variation less than 10%.

  20. Silicon PIN diode array hybrids for charged particle detection

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.L.; Dunwoodie, W.M.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.; Gaalema, S.

    1988-09-01

    We report on the design of silicon PIN diode array hybrids for use as charged particle detectors. A brief summary of the need for vertex detectors is presented. Circuitry, block diagrams and device specifications are included. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Chirped microlens arrays for diode laser circularization and beam expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Peter; Dannberg, Peter; Hoefer, Bernd; Beckert, Erik

    2005-08-01

    Single-mode diode lasers are well-established light sources for a huge number of applications but suffer from astigmatism, beam ellipticity and large manufacturing tolerances of beam parameters. To compensate for these shortcomings, various approaches like anamorphic prism pairs and cylindrical telescopes for circularization as well as variable beam expanders based on zoomed telescopes for precise adjustment of output beam parameters have been employed in the past. The presented new approach for both beam circularization and expansion is based on the use of microlens arrays with chirped focal length: Selection of lenslets of crossed cylindrical microlens arrays as part of an anamorphic telescope enables circularization, astigmatism correction and divergence tolerance compensation of diode lasers simultaneously. Another promising application of chirped spherical lens array telescopes is stepwise variable beam expansion for circular laser beams of fiber or solid-state lasers. In this article we describe design and manufacturing of beam shaping systems with chirped microlens arrays fabricated by polymer-on-glass replication of reflow lenses. A miniaturized diode laser module with beam circularization and astigmatism correction assembled on a structured ceramics motherboard and a modulated RGB laser-source for photofinishing applications equipped with both cylindrical and spherical chirped lens arrays demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system design approach.

  2. Photodiode arrays having minimized cross-talk between diodes

    DOEpatents

    Guckel, Henry (Madison, WI); McNamara, Shamus P. (Madison, WI)

    2000-10-17

    Photodiode arrays are formed with close diode-to-diode spacing and minimized cross-talk between diodes in the array by isolating the diodes from one another with trenches that are formed between the photodiodes in the array. The photodiodes are formed of spaced regions in a base layer, each spaced region having an impurity type opposite to that of the base layer to define a p-n junction between the spaced regions and the base layer. The base layer meets a substrate at a boundary, with the substrate being much more heavily doped than the base layer with the same impurity type. The trenches extend through the base layer and preferably into the substrate. Minority carriers generated by absorption of light photons in the base layer can only migrate to an adjacent photodiode through the substrate. The lifetime and the corresponding diffusion length of the minority carriers in the substrate is very short so that all minority carriers recombine in the substrate before reaching an adjacent photodiode.

  3. Nanostructured High Performance Ultraviolet and Blue Light Emitting Diodes for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

    2005-09-30

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the second 12 month contract period include (i) new means of synthesizing AlGaN and InN quantum dots by droplet heteroepitaxy, (ii) synthesis of AlGaInN nanowires as building blocks for GaN-based microcavity devices, (iii) progress towards direct epitaxial alignment of the dense arrays of nanowires, (iv) observation and measurements of stimulated emission in dense InGaN nanopost arrays, (v) design and fabrication of InGaN photonic crystal emitters, and (vi) observation and measurements of enhanced fluorescence from coupled quantum dot and plasmonic nanostructures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  4. Efficient photochemical generation of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides with ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rider, N. D.; Taha, Y. M.; Odame-Ankrah, C. A.; Huo, J. A.; Tokarek, T. W.; Cairns, E.; Moussa, S. G.; Liggio, J.; Osthoff, H. D.

    2015-07-01

    Photochemical sources of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) are utilized in many atmospheric measurement techniques for calibration or to deliver an internal standard. Conventionally, such sources rely on phosphor-coated low-pressure mercury (Hg) lamps to generate the UV light necessary to photo-dissociate a dialkyl ketone (usually acetone) in the presence of a calibrated amount of nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O2). In this manuscript, a photochemical PAN source in which the Hg lamp has been replaced by arrays of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) is described. The output of the UV-LED source was analyzed by gas chromatography (PAN-GC) and thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS). Using acetone, diethyl ketone (DIEK), diisopropyl ketone (DIPK), or di-n-propyl ketone (DNPK), respectively, the source produces peroxyacetic (PAN), peroxypropionic (PPN), peroxyisobutanoic (PiBN), or peroxy-n-butanoic nitric anhydride (PnBN) from NO in high yield (> 90 %). Box model simulations with a subset of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) were carried out to rationalize product yields and to identify side products. The present work demonstrates that UV-LED arrays are a viable alternative to current Hg lamp setups.

  5. Facet degradation of high-power diode laser arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomm, J. W.; Thamm, E.; Brwolff, A.; Elsaesser, T.; Luft, J.; Baeumler, M.; Mueller, S.; Jantz, W.; Rechenberg, I.; Erbert, G.

    Micro-Raman facet temperatures of high-power diode lasers with different waveguide architectures are compared. For regular operation conditions, the thermal behavior of `unaged' arrays emitting in the 808-nm wavelength region with different architectures is similar, however, with an increased load thermal behaviors differ significantly and exhibit failure events at facet temperatures typically between 150 and 450 C. From various experiments, among them facet temperature measurements for ultrahigh-power operation as well as by preparative failure analytics, we provide evidence that in arrays the front facets are significantly affected by device operation and influence the failure behavior of the whole high-power diode laser also in cases when the device failure is accompanied by dislocation creation inside the device.

  6. Highly efficient heat exchangers for laser diode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, Victor V.; Derzhavin, Sergei I.; Filonenko, Vladimir A.; Kuzminov, Vitaly V.; Mashkovsky, Dmitry A.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.; Timoshkin, Valery N.

    2000-04-01

    Highly efficient heat exchangers with uniform temperature distribution based on microchannel and porous structure are developed. The heat exchange efficiency dependence on construction peculiarities of the devices and cooling liquids properties are shown. Basing on the comparison of both experimental results and the numerical simulation, the ways to obtain the device thermal resistance about 0,2 C/W are discussed. Practical neededs for fabrication both linear diode arrays with power more than 1 kW will be observed.

  7. The visible, imaging diode arrays on Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, J.L.; Snipes, J.A.; Kurz, C. )

    1995-01-01

    A set of multichord, absolutely calibrated viewing arrays has been used to measure the distributions of H/D and C[sup +2] emissions. A total of 227 chordal views are available, with the chords separated at the plasma by [similar to]1 cm typically. The chord brightness profiles have been combined and inverted (without recourse to symmetry assumptions) to yield local volume emission rates. Because of the thickness of the superstructure surrounding Alcator C-Mod, the views are from points re-entrant to the vacuum vessel. All but one of the arrays employ 64-channel, linear diode arrays, which are read out serially, thus requiring only one digitizer channel per array. Variable frame rates ([similar to]1 Hz to [similar to]3.5 kHz) result in an extremely large dynamic range for these detectors. A 35-channel diode array which is read out in parallel and can track fast events like ELMs or pellets is also in use.

  8. Ultraviolet light emitting diodes and bio-aerosol sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davitt, Kristina M.

    Recent interest in compact ultraviolet (UV) light emitters has produced advances in material quality and device performance from aluminum-rich alloys of the nitride semiconductor system. The epitaxial growth of device structures from this material poses remarkable challenges, and state-of-the-art in semiconductor UV light sources at wavelengths shorter than 350 nm is currently limited to LEDs. A portion of the work presented in this thesis involves the design and characterization of UV LED structures, with particular focus on sub-300 nm LEDs which have only been demonstrated within the last four years. Emphasis has been placed on the integration of early devices with modest efficiencies and output powers into a practical, fluorescence-based bio-sensing instrument. The quality of AlGaInN and AlGaN-based materials is characterized by way of the performance of 340 nm and 290 nm LEDs respectively. A competitive level of device operation is achieved, although much room remains for improvement in the efficiency of light emission from this material system. A preliminary investigation of 300 nm LEDs grown on bulk AIN shows promising electrical and optical characteristics, and illustrates the numerous advantages that this native substrate offers to the epitaxy of wide bandgap nitride semiconductors. The application of UV LEDs to the field of bio-aerosol sensing is pursued by constructing an on-the-fly fluorescence detection system. A linear array of UV LEDs is designed and implemented, and the capability of test devices to excite native fluorescence from bacterial spores is established. In order to fully capitalize on the reduction in size afforded by LEDs, effort is invested in re-engineering the remaining sensor components. Operation of a prototype system for physically sorting bio-aerosols based on fluorescence spectra acquired in real-time from single airborne particles excited by a UV-LED array is demonstrated using the bio-fluorophores NADH and tryptophan. Sensor performance is shown to be ultimately linked to the material quality of high aluminum fraction nitrides, and is expected to show progress as this field matures.

  9. Deep diode arrays for X-ray detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemel, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    Temperature gradient zone melting process was used to form p-n junctions in bulk of high purity silicon wafers. These diodes were patterned to form arrays for X-ray spectrometers. The whole fabrication processes for these X-ray detectors are reviewed in detail. The p-n junctions were evaluated by (1) the dark diode I-V measurements, (2) the diode C sub I - V measurements, and (3) the MOS C-V measurements. The results showed that these junctions were linearly graded in charge distribution with low reverse bias leakage current flowing through them (few nA at -10 volts). The X-ray detection experiments showed that an FWHM of 500 eV was obtained from these diodes with a small bias of just -5 volts (for X-ray source Fe55). A theoretical model was proposed to explain the extra peaks found in the energy spectra and a very interesting point - cross talk effect was pointed out. This might be a solution to the problem of making really high resolution X-ray spectrometers.

  10. Linear laser diode arrays for improvement in optical disk recording

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alphonse, G. A.; Carlin, D. B.; Connolly, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of individually addressable laser diode arrays for multitrack magneto-optic recorders for space stations is discussed. Three multi-element channeled substrate planar (CSP) arrays with output power greater than 30 mW with linear light vs current characteristics and stable single mode spectra were delivered to NASA. These devices have been used to demonstrate for the first time the simultaneous recording of eight data tracks on a 14-inch magneto-optic erasable disk. The yield of these devices is low, mainly due to non-uniformities inherent to the LPE growth that was used to fabricate them. The authors have recently developed the inverted CSP, based on the much more uniform MOCVD growth techniques, and have made low threshold quantum well arrays requiring about three times less current than the CSP to deliver 30 mW CW in a single spatial mode. The inverted CSP is very promising for use in space flight recorder applications.

  11. Vacuum Nanohole Array Embedded Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Sohee; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Song, Young Seok; Moon, Chang-Ki; Kim, Jang-Joo; Youn, Jae Ryoun

    2015-03-01

    Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes that utilize phosphorescent materials has an internal efficiency of 100% but is limited by an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 30%. In this study, extremely high-efficiency organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with an EQE of greater than 50% and low roll-off were produced by inserting a vacuum nanohole array (VNHA) into phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs). The resultant extraction enhancement was quantified in terms of EQE by comparing experimentally measured results with those produced from optical modeling analysis, which assumes the near-perfect electric characteristics of the device. A comparison of the experimental data and optical modeling results indicated that the VNHA extracts the entire waveguide loss into the air. The EQE obtained in this study is the highest value obtained to date for bottom-emitting OLEDs.

  12. Vacuum nanohole array embedded phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sohee; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Song, Young Seok; Moon, Chang-Ki; Kim, Jang-Joo; Youn, Jae Ryoun

    2015-01-01

    Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes that utilize phosphorescent materials has an internal efficiency of 100% but is limited by an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 30%. In this study, extremely high-efficiency organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with an EQE of greater than 50% and low roll-off were produced by inserting a vacuum nanohole array (VNHA) into phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs). The resultant extraction enhancement was quantified in terms of EQE by comparing experimentally measured results with those produced from optical modeling analysis, which assumes the near-perfect electric characteristics of the device. A comparison of the experimental data and optical modeling results indicated that the VNHA extracts the entire waveguide loss into the air. The EQE obtained in this study is the highest value obtained to date for bottom-emitting OLEDs. PMID:25732061

  13. Vacuum Nanohole Array Embedded Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sohee; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Song, Young Seok; Moon, Chang-Ki; Kim, Jang-Joo; Youn, Jae Ryoun

    2015-01-01

    Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes that utilize phosphorescent materials has an internal efficiency of 100% but is limited by an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 30%. In this study, extremely high-efficiency organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with an EQE of greater than 50% and low roll-off were produced by inserting a vacuum nanohole array (VNHA) into phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs). The resultant extraction enhancement was quantified in terms of EQE by comparing experimentally measured results with those produced from optical modeling analysis, which assumes the near-perfect electric characteristics of the device. A comparison of the experimental data and optical modeling results indicated that the VNHA extracts the entire waveguide loss into the air. The EQE obtained in this study is the highest value obtained to date for bottom-emitting OLEDs. PMID:25732061

  14. A 340-nm-band ultraviolet laser diode composed of GaN well layers.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoji; Kuwabara, Masakazu; Torii, Kousuke; Yoshida, Harumasa

    2013-02-11

    We have demonstrated the laser operation of a short-wavelength ultraviolet laser diode with multiple-quantum-wells composed of GaN well layers. The laser action has been achieved in 340-nm-band far from the wavelength corresponding to GaN band gap under the pulsed current mode at room temperature. The device has been realized on the Al(0.2)Ga(0.8)N underlying layer. The AlN mole fraction of the underlying layer is 0.1 lower than that of the underlying layer which was used for the previously reported 342 nm laser diode. These results provide a chance to the next step for a shorter-wavelength ultraviolet laser diode. PMID:23481771

  15. Photon counting photodiode array detector for far ultraviolet (FUV) astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartig, G. F.; Moos, H. W.; Pembroke, R.; Bowers, C.

    1982-01-01

    A compact, stable, single-stage intensified photodiode array detector designed for photon-counting, far ultraviolet astronomy applications employs a saturable, 'C'-type MCP (Galileo S. MCP 25-25) to produce high gain pulses with a narrowly peaked pulse height distribution. The P-20 output phosphor exhibits a very short decay time, due to the high current density of the electron pulses. This intensifier is being coupled to a self-scanning linear photodiode array which has a fiber optic input window which allows direct, rigid mechanical coupling with minimal light loss. The array was scanned at a 250 KHz pixel rate. The detector exhibits more than adequate signal-to-noise ratio for pulse counting and event location. Previously announced in STAR as N82-19118

  16. Low-cost diode arrays for the LIFE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeler, Ryan; Junghans, Jeremy; Stephens, Ed

    2011-03-01

    One of the primary challenges of the Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) project is the cost and availability of the laser diode arrays needed to pump the solid-state laser gain media in the system. Current projections indicate that the arrays need to be available for approximately one cent per Watt of output power, which is one to two orders of magnitude cheaper than currently available. This work focuses on potential manufacturing approaches to meet the projected specifications of the LIFE project. Special attention will be paid to requirements related to power density (25 kW/cm2), bar pitch (150 - 400 microns), output wavelength (87x), and fast-axis divergence (+/- 4 degrees). A summary of the supply limitations and cost ramifications of each requirement is presented. Also discussed are potential supply chain limitations that are anticipated as a result of the immense size of the LIFE project.

  17. Photoluminescence performance enhancement of ZnO/MgO heterostructured nanowires and their applications in ultraviolet laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Tao; Cui, Xi-Jun; Zhuang, Shi-Wei; Wu, Bin; Chu, Xian-Wei; Dong, Xin; Zhang, Bao-Lin; Du, Guo-Tong

    2015-06-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO/MgO coaxial nanowire (NW) arrays were prepared on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition combined with a sputtering system. We present a comparative investigation of the morphological and optical properties of the produced heterostructures with different MgO layer thicknesses. Photoluminescence measurements showed that the optical performances of ZnO/MgO coaxial NWs were strongly dependent on the MgO layer thickness. The intensity of deep-level emission (DLE) decreased monotonously with the increase of MgO thickness, while the enhancement of ultraviolet (UV) emission showed a critical thickness of 15 nm, achieving a maximum intensity ratio (∼226) of IUV/IDLE at the same time. The significantly improved exciton emission efficiency of the coaxial NW structures allows us to study the surface passivation effect, photogenerated carrier confinement and transfer in terms of energy band theory. More importantly, we achieved an ultralow threshold (4.5 mA, 0.58 A cm(-2)) electrically driven UV lasing action based on the ZnO/MgO NW structures by constructing an Au/MgO/ZnO metal/insulator/semiconductor diode, and the continuous-current-driven diode shows a good temperature tolerance. The results obtained on the unique optical properties of ZnO/MgO coaxial NWs shed light on the design and development of ZnO-based UV laser diodes assembled with nanoscale building blocks. PMID:25803480

  18. Ultraviolet photodetectors and imaging arrays based on III-V nitride heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jeffrey David

    2000-10-01

    The III-V nitride class of compound semiconductors has received much attention in the last decade. These materials have a wide, direct bandgap, making them a prime candidate for optoelectronic devices in the blue, green, and ultraviolet spectral regions. These materials exhibit impressive optical, electrical, and thermal properties, even though there are fundamental materials issues that are thus far unresolved. This work explores the application of III-V nitride semiconductors to optical detectors in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy was used to synthesize thin film p-i-n photodiode structures on double side polished sapphire substrates; these films were characterized for optical, electrical and structural properties. The grown structures were designed to respond to a predetermined region of the UV spectrum when illuminated from the substrate side. These structures were fabricated into devices using generally accepted techniques for dry etching and p and n-contact metallizations. Test devices were characterized using tools developed by the author. These devices demonstrated as high as 80% quantum efficiency and extremely low dark currents; resulting in spectral detectivities as large as 6 * 1013 cmHz1/2W-1. Devices were designed and demonstrated for a series of detection regions ranging from 365 nm to 250 nm. Photolithography masks were designed to allow the fabrication of photodiode arrays that would hybridize to commercially available CMOS based readout integrated circuits (ROICs), used routinely for infrared photodiode imaging. Photodiode arrays were fabricated and indium bumps were deposited onto the diode contacts and the ROICs to provide electrical connection. The hybrid detector arrays were placed in leadless chip carriers, wirebonded, and connected to commercially available drive and readout circuitry. Images of UV scenes were focused onto the arrays using fused quartz lenses. These images and movies were successfully collected at frame rates up to 240 Hz using both 32 x 32 and 128 x 128 III-V nitride based UV photodiode imagers.

  19. V-shaped resonators for addition of broad-area laser diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Yun; Braiman, Yehuda Y.

    2012-12-25

    A system and method for addition of broad-area semiconductor laser diode arrays are described. The system can include an array of laser diodes, a V-shaped external cavity, and grating systems to provide feedback for phase-locking of the laser diode array. A V-shaped mirror used to couple the laser diode emissions along two optical paths can be a V-shaped prism mirror, a V-shaped stepped mirror or include multiple V-shaped micro-mirrors. The V-shaped external cavity can be a ring cavity. The system can include an external injection laser to further improve coherence and phase-locking.

  20. A smile insensitive method for spectral linewidth narrowing on high power laser diode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zining; Wang, Hongyan; Li, Yuandong; Lu, Qisheng; Hua, Weihong; Xu, Xiaojun; Chen, Jinbao

    2011-10-01

    To eliminate the smile effect in spectral linewidth narrowing on high power laser diode arrays, we have introduced a plane reflective mirror into a common Littrow configuration external cavity to enhance the correlation among emitters. By this way, we obtained uniform spectral distribution among emitters of a 64-elements laser diode array with 35 GHz linewidth and 41 W output laser power.

  1. Characterization of High-power Quasi-cw Laser Diode Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephen, Mark A.; Vasilyev, Aleksey; Troupaki, Elisavet; Allan, Graham R.; Kashem, Nasir B.

    2005-01-01

    NASA s requirements for high reliability, high performance satellite laser instruments have driven the investigation of many critical components; specifically, 808 nm laser diode array (LDA) pump devices. Performance and comprehensive characterization data of Quasi-CW, High-power, laser diode arrays is presented.

  2. Ruggedized microchannel-cooled laser diode array with self-aligned microlens

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, Barry L.; Skidmore, Jay A.

    2003-11-11

    A microchannel-cooled, optically corrected, laser diode array is fabricated by mounting laser diode bars onto Si surfaces. This approach allows for the highest thermal impedance, in a ruggedized, low-cost assembly that includes passive microlens attachment without the need for lens frames. The microlensed laser diode array is usable in all solid-state laser systems that require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources.

  3. Improving Reliability of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays for Pumping Solid State Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Baggott, Renee S.; Lockard, George E.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Most Lidar applications rely on moderate to high power solid state lasers to generate the required transmitted pulses. However, the reliability of solid state lasers, which can operate autonomously over long periods, is constrained by their laser diode pump arrays. Thermal cycling of the active regions is considered the primary reason for rapid degradation of the quasi-CW high power laser diode arrays, and the excessive temperature rise is the leading suspect in premature failure. The thermal issues of laser diode arrays are even more drastic for 2-micron solid state lasers which require considerably longer pump pulses compared to the more commonly used pump arrays for 1-micron lasers. This paper describes several advanced packaging techniques being employed for more efficient heat removal from the active regions of the laser diode bars. Experimental results for several high power laser diode array devices will be reported and their performance when operated at long pulsewidths of about 1msec will be described.

  4. Packaging of complete indium-free high reliable and high power diode laser array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingwei; Li, Xiaoning; Feng, Feifei; Liu, Yalong; Hou, Dong; Liu, Xingsheng

    2015-02-01

    High power diode lasers have been widely used in many fields. For many applications, a diode laser needs to be robust under on-off power-cycling as well as environmental thermal cycling conditions. To meet the requirements, the conduction cooled single bar CS-packaged diode laser arrays must have high durability to withstand thermal fatigue and long lifetime. In this paper, a complete indium-free bonding technology is presented for packaging high power diode laser arrays. Numerical simulations on the thermal behavior of CS-packaged diode laser array with different packaging structure were conducted and analyzed. Based on the simulation results, the device structure and packaging process of complete indium-free CS-packaged diode laser array were optimized. A series of high power hard solder CS (HCS) diode laser arrays were fabricated and characterized. Under the harsh working condition of 90s on and 30s off, good lifetime was demonstrated on 825nm 60W single bar CS-packaged diode laser with a lifetime test of more than 6100hours achieved so far with less 5% power degradation and less 1.5nm wavelength shift. Additionally, the measurement results indicated that the lower smile of complete indium-free CS-packaged diode laser arrays were achieved by advanced packaging process.

  5. Microtube Light-Emitting Diode Arrays with Metal Cores.

    PubMed

    Tchoe, Youngbin; Lee, Chul-Ho; Park, Jun Beom; Baek, Hyeonjun; Chung, Kunook; Jo, Janghyun; Kim, Miyoung; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2016-03-22

    We report the fabrication and characteristics of vertical microtube light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with a metal core inside the devices. To make the LEDs, gallium nitride (GaN)/indium gallium nitride (InxGa1-xN)/zinc oxide (ZnO) coaxial microtube LED arrays were grown on an n-GaN/c-aluminum oxide (Al2O3) substrate. The microtube LED arrays were then lifted-off the substrate by wet chemical etching of the sacrificial ZnO microtubes and the silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer. The chemically lifted-off LED layer was then transferred upside-down on other supporting substrates. To create the metal cores, titanium/gold and indium tin oxide were deposited on the inner shells of the microtubes, forming n-type electrodes inside the metal-cored LEDs. The characteristics of the resulting devices were determined by measuring electroluminescence and current-voltage characteristic curves. To gain insights into the current-spreading characteristics of the devices and understand how to make them more efficient, we modeled them computationally. PMID:26855251

  6. Thin planar package for cooling an array of edge-emitting laser diodes

    DOEpatents

    Mundinger, David C.; Benett, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A laser diode array is disclosed that includes a plurality of planar assemblies and active cooling of each assembly. The laser diode array may be operated in a long duty cycle, or in continuous operation. A laser diode bar and a microchannel heat sink are thermally coupled in a compact, thin planar assembly having the laser diode bar located proximate to one edge. In an array, a number of such thin planar assemblies are secured together in a stacked configuration, in close proximity so that the laser diodes are spaced closely. The cooling means includes a microchannel heat sink proximate to the laser diode bar to absorb heat generated by laser operation. To provide the coolant to the microchannels, each thin planar assembly comprises passageways that connect the microchannels to inlet and outlet corridors. Each inlet passageway may comprise a narrow slot that directs coolant into the microchannels and increases the velocity of flow therethrough. The corridors comprises holes extending through each of the assemblies in the array. The inlet and outlet corridors are connected to a conventional coolant circulation system. The laser diode array with active cooling has applications as an optical pump for high power solid state lasers, or by mating the diodes with fiber optic lenses. Further, the arrays can be useful in applications having space constraints and energy limitations, and in military and space applications. The arrays can be incorporated in equipment such as communications devices and active sensors.

  7. Mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diode detects dipicolinic acid.

    SciTech Connect

    Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Lee, Stephen Roger; Temkin, Henryk; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Li, Qingyang; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2005-06-01

    Dipicolinic acid (DPA, 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) is a substance uniquely present in bacterial spores such as that from anthrax (B. anthracis). It is known that DPA can be detected by the long-lived fluorescence of its terbium chelate; the best limit of detection (LOD) reported thus far using a large benchtop gated fluorescence instrument using a pulsed Xe lamp is 2 nM. We use a novel AlGaN light-emitting diode (LED) fabricated on a sapphire substrate that has peak emission at 291 nm. Although the overlap of the emission band of this LED with the absorption band of Tb-DPA ({lambda}{sub max} doublet: 273, 279 nm) is not ideal, we demonstrate that a compact detector based on this LED and an off-the-shelf gated photodetection module can provide an LOD of 0.4 nM, thus providing a basis for convenient early warning detectors.

  8. Application of HPLC with diode array detection in tribology

    SciTech Connect

    Lehotay, J.; Oktavec, D. . Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

    1994-01-01

    A strategy for the analysis of engine oils is described based on the correlation between previously developed methods and HPLC. The areas of some chromatographic peaks of oil samples were linearly correlated to: covered kilometers, the kinematic viscosity, the amount of insoluble compounds in heptane, Conradson's carbonized residue, the number of alkalinity and the carbonyl number. The detection is performed by a diode array detector, simultaneously providing structural information and quantitative data. The results are compared with other analytical methods, which are used for the evaluation of the oil quality. The main aim of this work was to investigate a number of parameters to find correlation between HPLC results and another parameters that characterized the properties of oil wear.

  9. Linewidth-tunable laser diode array for rubidium laser pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhiyong; Tan Rongqing; Xu Cheng; Li Lin

    2013-02-28

    To optimise the pump source for a high-power diodepumped rubidium vapour laser, we have designed a laser diode array (LDA) with a narrowed and tunable linewidth and an external cavity formed by two volume Bragg gratings (VBGs). Through controlling the temperature differences between the two VBGs, the LDA linewidth, which was 1.8 nm before mounting the two VBGs, was tunable from 100 pm to 0.2 nm, while the output power changed by no more than 4 %. By changing simultaneously the temperature in both VBGs, the centre wavelength in air of the linewidth-tunable LDA was tunable from 779.40 nm to 780.05 nm. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  10. Injection locking of a high power ultraviolet laser diode for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoya, Toshiyuki; Miranda, Martin; Inoue, Ryotaro; Kozuma, Mikio

    2015-07-01

    We developed a high-power laser system at a wavelength of 399 nm for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms with ultraviolet laser diodes. The system is composed of an external cavity laser diode providing frequency stabilized output at a power of 40 mW and another laser diode for amplifying the laser power up to 220 mW by injection locking. The systematic method for optimization of our injection locking can also be applied to high power light sources at any other wavelengths. Our system does not depend on complex nonlinear frequency-doubling and can be made compact, which will be useful for providing light sources for laser cooling experiments including transportable optical lattice clocks.

  11. Ultraviolet InAlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneissl, Michael; Treat, David W.; Teepe, Mark; Miyashita, Naoko; Johnson, Noble M.

    2003-11-01

    We report on ultraviolet InGaN, GaN and InAlGaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) laser diodes grown on sapphire substrates. Pulsed threshold current densities near 5 kA/cm2 have been achieved for InGaN MQW laser diodes with emission wavelength between 368 nm and 378 nm and continuous-wave operation of ridge-waveguide devices with threshold currents of 85 mA and output power of more than 3 mW. We also demonstrate room-temperature pulsed operation of InAlGaN MQW laser diodes emitting at a wavelength of 359.9 nm. Light output powers greater than 80 mW under pulsed current-injection conditions (pulse duration 100 ns, repetition frequency 5 kHz) and differential quantum efficiencies of 4.2% have been achieved. (

  12. Diode-pumped doubly resonant all-intracavity continuous-wave ultraviolet laser at 336 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Y. F.; Sun, G. C.; Fu, X. H.; Liu, Z. T.; Chen, J. F.

    2010-08-01

    We report for the first time a coherent ultraviolet radiation at 336 nm by intracavity sum-frequency generation of a 912 nm Nd:GdVO4 laser and a 532 nm frequency doubling Nd:YVO4 laser. The ultraviolet laser is obtained by using a doubly resonator, type-I critical phase matching CsLiB6O10 (CLBO) crystal sum-frequency mixing. With a total diode pump power of 31.8 W (13.1 W pump power for 912 nm Nd:GdVO4 laser and 18.7 W pump power for 532 nm Nd:YVO4 frequency doubling laser), TEM00 mode ultraviolet laser at 336 nm of 93 mW is obtained. The power stability is better than 3.4% and laser beam quality M2 factors are 1.52 and 1.27 in both horizontal and vertical dimensions respectively.

  13. The integration of bypass diodes with terrestrial photovoltaic modules and arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.; Sugimura, R. S.

    Bypass diodes are often required to limit the potential for reverse voltage 'hot-spot' heating in high voltage arrays or in arrays that undergo periodic operation near the short-circuit point. In addition, when properly applied, bypass diodes can minimize the effect of shadowing and various internal module failures on the array energy output. This paper discusses the mechanical and electrical integration of bypass diodes beginning with the array-level considerations which influence the selection of an implementation approach. Concepts for the mounting of these diodes, both internally within the module encapsulant and externally to the exposed rear surface of the module, are described. Factors affecting the reliability of bypass diodes, including the control of junction temperature through adequate heat sinking and the derating of reverse voltage, are discussed.

  14. The integration of bypass diodes with terrestrial photovoltaic modules and arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.; Sugimura, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Bypass diodes are often required to limit the potential for reverse voltage 'hot-spot' heating in high voltage arrays or in arrays that undergo periodic operation near the short-circuit point. In addition, when properly applied, bypass diodes can minimize the effect of shadowing and various internal module failures on the array energy output. This paper discusses the mechanical and electrical integration of bypass diodes beginning with the array-level considerations which influence the selection of an implementation approach. Concepts for the mounting of these diodes, both internally within the module encapsulant and externally to the exposed rear surface of the module, are described. Factors affecting the reliability of bypass diodes, including the control of junction temperature through adequate heat sinking and the derating of reverse voltage, are discussed.

  15. Environmental testing of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser and a set of diode-laser-arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.; Lesh, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Results of the environmental test of a compact, rigid and lightweight diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser module are discussed. All optical elements are bonded onto the module using space applicable epoxy, and two 200 mW diode laser arrays for pump sources are used to achieve 126 mW of CW output with about 7 percent electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency. This laser assembly and a set of 20 semiconductor diode laser arrays were environmentally tested by being subjected to vibrational and thermal conditions similar to those experienced during launch of the Space Shuttle, and both performed well. Nevertheless, some damage to the laser front facet in diode lasers was observed. Significant degradation was observed only on lasers which performed poorly in the life test. Improvements in the reliability of the Nd:YAG laser are suggested.

  16. Facile fabrication of a ultraviolet tunable MoS{sub 2}/p-Si junction diode

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, William; Pinto, Nicholas J.; Naylor, Carl H.; Kybert, Nicholas J.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2015-05-11

    Chemical vapor deposition grown MoS{sub 2} single crystals were transferred onto the edge of a p-Si/SiO{sub 2} wafer, forming an abrupt heterogeneous junction diode at the MoS{sub 2}/p-Si interface. When electrically characterized as a field effect transistor, MoS{sub 2} exhibits an n-type response and can be doped in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) light. As a diode, it operates satisfactorily in air, but has higher currents in vacuum with a turn on voltage of ∼1.3 V and an on/off ratio of 20 at ±2 V. UV irradiation increases the diode on state current, decreases the turn-on voltage, and reduces the ideality parameter below 2. These changes are reversible after annealing in air as desorption of electron trapping species like O{sub 2}{sup −} and H{sub 2}O{sup −} are believed responsible for this effect. A circuit integrating this diode was used to rectify a 1 kHz signal with an efficiency of 12%. Its simple design, coupled with the ability to clip AC signals, sense UV light, and reversibly tune these diodes, makes them inexpensive, multifunctional, and usable as active or passive circuit components in complex electronics.

  17. a Comparison of Different Coherent Deep Ultraviolet Generations Using Second Harmonic Generation with Blue Laser Diode Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangtrongbenchasil, C.; Nonaka, K.

    2008-11-01

    Nano-focus beam applications of short wavelength approximately 220 nm now play important roles in engineering and industrial sections. At present, light sources at approximately 220 nm are commercially available but large size, difficult to maintain, and expensive. Compact wavelength tunable and cost effective light sources at approximately 220 nm are required. Laser diode with sum-frequency generation methods are employed to generated the shorter wavelength approximately 220 nm. This paper presents comparison of second harmonic generation schemes using a nonlinear optic crystal and two types of laser diode, which are a 440 nm single mode blue laser diode and a 450 nm multimode Fabry-Perot blue laser diode, has potential to generate wide tunable coherent deep ultraviolet-c at approximately 220 nm. Using the blue laser diode with the sum-frequency technique, a high second harmonic power is hardly observed due to low conversion efficiency. The best performance of second harmonic generation using blue laser diode, nonlinear optic crystal, and an high-Q external cavity laser diode was observed as 1.1 ?W second harmonic ultraviolet-c power at 224.45 nm ultraviolet-c wavelength and 5.75 nm ultraviolet wavelength tunability. In addition, the improvement of increasing second harmonic power approximately 220 nm and the limitation of wavelength tuning of short wavelength are also theoretically discussed in this paper.

  18. Combustion exhaust measurements of nitric oxide with an ultraviolet diode-laser-based absorption sensor.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Thomas N; Lucht, Robert P; Barron-Jimenez, Rodolfo; Hanna, Sherif F; Caton, Jerald A; Walther, Thomas; Roy, Sukesh; Brown, Michael S; Gord, James R; Critchley, Ian; Flamand, Luis

    2005-03-10

    A diode-laser-based sensor has been developed for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule. The sensor is based on the sum-frequency mixing (SFM) of the output of a tunable, 395-nm external-cavity diode laser and a 532-nm diode-pumped, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser in a beta-barium borate crystal. The SFM process generates 325 +/- 75 nW of ultraviolet radiation at 226.8 nm, corresponding to the (v' = 0, v" = 0) band of the A2Sigma+-chi2II electronic transition of NO. Results from initial laboratory experiments in a gas cell are briefly discussed, followed by results from field demonstrations of the sensor for measurements in the exhaust streams of a gas turbine engine and a well-stirred reactor. It is demonstrated that the sensor is capable of fully resolving the absorption spectrum and accurately measuring the NO concentration in actual combustion environments. Absorption is clearly visible in the gas turbine exhaust even for the lowest concentrations of 9 parts per million (ppm) for idle conditions and for a path length of 0.51 m. The sensitivity of the current system is estimated at 0.23%, which corresponds to a detection limit of 0.8 ppm in 1 m for 1000 K gas. The estimated uncertainty in the absolute concentrations that we obtained using the sensor is 10%. PMID:15796251

  19. Current status of the laser diode array projector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, D. Brett; Saylor, Daniel A.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes recent developments and the current status of the Laser Diode Array Projector (LDAP) Technology. The LDAP is a state-of-the-art dynamic infrared scene projector system capable of generating high resolution in-band infrared imagery at high frame rates. Three LDAPs are now operational at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command's (AMCOM) Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (MRDEC). These projectors have been used to support multiple Hardware-in-the-Loop test entries of various seeker configurations. Seeker configurations tested include an InSb 256 X $256 focal-plane array (FPA), an InSb 512 X 512 FPA, a PtSi 640 X 480 FPA, a PtSi 256 X 256 FPA, an uncooled 320 X 240 microbolometer FPA, and two dual field- of-view (FOV) seekers. Several improvements in the projector technology have been made since we last reported in 1997. The format size has been increased to 544 X 544, and 672 X 512, and it has been proven that the LDAP can be synchronized without a signal from the unit-under test (UUT). The control software has been enhanced to provide 'point and click' control for setup, calibration, image display, image capture, and data analysis. In addition, the first long-wave infrared (LWIR) LDAP is now operational, as well as a dual field of view LDAP which can change its FOV within 0.25 seconds. The projector is interfaced to a Silicon Graphics scene generation computer which is capable of real-time 3-D scene generation. Sample images generated with the projector and captured by an InSb FPA sensor are included in the text.

  20. Enhanced out-coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using an nanostructure imprinted by an alumina nanohole array

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Kuniaki; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-03-24

    We demonstrate organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with enhanced out-coupling efficiency containing nanostructures imprinted by an alumina nanohole array template that can be applied to large-emitting-area and flexible devices using a roll-to-roll process. The nanostructures are imprinted on a glass substrate by an ultraviolet nanoimprint process using an alumina nanohole array mold and then an OLED is fabricated on the nanostructures. The enhancement of out-coupling efficiency is proportional to the root-mean-square roughness of the nanostructures, and a maximum improvement of external electroluminescence quantum efficiency of 17% is achieved. The electroluminescence spectra of the OLEDs indicate that this improvement is caused by enhancement of the out-coupling of surface plasmon polaritons.

  1. Means for phase locking the outputs of a surface emitting laser diode array

    SciTech Connect

    Lesh, J.R.

    1987-06-30

    An array of injection phase-locked diode lasers is described utilizing as a master a separate laser source, and means for coupling light from the master laser source into each diode laser of the array of diode lasers. The array is fabricated in a body of semi-conductor material. Each diode laser has a back facet on one side of the body of semiconductor material and a front facet on an opposite side of the body of semiconductor material. The light coupling means comprises a hologram prepared for producing from the output of the master laser source a set of distinct, spatially separated beams, each one directed into the back facet of each diode laser . To assure emission of phase coherent light from the array of diode lasers, the hologram is positioned between the master laser source and the one side of the body of semiconductor material. The hologram is prepared by illuminating a holographic emulsion plate with an image of the array of diode lasers using coherent light of substantially the same wavelength as the master laser source, and a coherent reference beam of substantially the same wavelength as the master laser source.

  2. Directional and controllable edge-emitting ZnO ultraviolet random laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, H. K.; Yu, S. F.; Yang, H. Y.

    2010-03-01

    Room-temperature ultraviolet random lasing action is demonstrated from a p-GaN/annealed i-ZnO:Al(3%)/n-ZnO:Al(5%) buried heterojunction diode with a 2 ?m rib waveguide. Excellent electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency is achieved by strong electrical and optical confinement of a buried heterojunction rib waveguide structure. Hence, emission intensity (threshold current) can be enhanced (reduced) by 9 times (40%). Directional emission as well as controllability on the number of the random lasing modes can also be achieved.

  3. Influence of storage causing packaging stress changes on smile effect for diode laser arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui-wu; Zhang, Yong; Fang, Yu-suo; Liu, Xiao-wen; Niu, Jiang-li; Yuan, Chun-sheng; Li, Cheng-yan; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Xiao-yan; Shen, Mu; An, Zhen-feng

    2013-09-01

    The smile effect is caused by the thermal stress in the packaging process. If packaging technology of a diode laser array is poor, smile effect will be very bad and the smile effect will vary with storage time. To accurately measure smile effect and to objectively compare the different measuring methods for smile effect, a set of optical system is designed for measuring the smile effect. By using an image amplification method, the smile effect of a diode laser array is accurately measured, and the measurement error is about +/-0.1?m. By researching, the heat sink surface flatness has little influence on smile effect. However the solder quality is a critical factor for smile effect. That is to say, there is more voids, the corresponding smile effect is more serious in this area. Reflow soldering curve has a major impact on smile effect in the packaging process of a diode laser array .During reflow soldering process, accelerated cooling before solidification and slow cooling after solidification not only can commendably reduce voids and smile effect ,but also can effectively solve the smile effect with storage time variation problem .By optimizing the reflow soldering curve of a diode laser array , the smile effect has been controlled within +/-0.5?m..As the smile effect values of a semiconductor laser array is diminished and the beam quality of a laser diode array is improved significantly. The recommended method provides favorable conditions for the beam collimation and shaping of a semiconductor laser array.

  4. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  5. Fill-factor improvement of Si CMOS single-photon avalanche diode detector arrays by integration of diffractive microlens arrays.

    PubMed

    Intermite, Giuseppe; McCarthy, Aongus; Warburton, Ryan E; Ren, Ximing; Villa, Federica; Lussana, Rudi; Waddie, Andrew J; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R; Tosi, Alberto; Zappa, Franco; Buller, Gerald S

    2015-12-28

    Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector arrays generally suffer from having a low fill-factor, in which the photo-sensitive area of each pixel is small compared to the overall area of the pixel. This paper describes the integration of different configurations of high efficiency diffractive optical microlens arrays onto a 32 32 SPAD array, fabricated using a 0.35 m CMOS technology process. The characterization of SPAD arrays with integrated microlens arrays is reported over the spectral range of 500-900 nm, and a range of f-numbers from f/2 to f/22. We report an average concentration factor of 15 measured for the entire SPAD array with integrated microlens array. The integrated SPAD and microlens array demonstrated a very high uniformity in overall efficiency. PMID:26832039

  6. Triggering GaAs lock-on switches with laser diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Buttram, M.T.; Helgeson, W.D.; McLaughlin, D.L.; O'Malley, M.W.; Zutavern, F.J. ); Rosen, A.; Stabile, P.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Laser diode arrays have been used to trigger GaAs Photoconducting Semiconductor Switches (PCSS) charged to voltages of up to 60 kV and conducting currents of 580 A. The driving forces behind the use of laser diode arrays are compactness, elimination of complicated optics, and the ability to run at high repetition rates. Laser diode arrays are compactness, elimination of complicated optics, and the ability to run at high repetition rates. Laser diode arrays can trigger GaAs at high fields as the result of a new switching mode (lock-on) with very high carrier number gain. We have achieved switching of up to 10 MW in a 60 {Omega} system, with a pulse rise time of 500 ps. At 1.2 MW we have achieved repetition rates of 1 kHz with switch rise time of 500 ps for 10{sup 5} shots. The laser diode array used for these experiments delivers a 166 W pulse. In a single shot mode we have switched 4 kA with a flash lamp pumped laser and 600 A with the 166 W array. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  7. A 2-D diode array and analysis software for verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy delivery.

    PubMed

    Jursinic, Paul A; Nelms, Ben E

    2003-05-01

    An analysis is made of a two-dimensional array of diodes that can be used for measuring dose generated in a plane by a radiation beam. This measuring device is the MapCHECK Model 1175 (Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL). This device has 445 N-type diodes in a 22 x 22 cm2 2-D array with variable spacing. The entire array of diodes is easily calibrated to allow for measurements in absolute dose. For IMRT quality assurance, each beam is measured individually with the beam central axis oriented perpendicular to the plane of diodes. Software is available to do the analytical comparison of measurements versus dose distributions calculated by a treatment planning system. Comparison criteria of percent difference and distance-to-agreement are defined by the operator. Data are presented that show the diode array has linear response when beam fluence changes by over 300-fold, which is typical of the level of modulation in intensity modulated radiation therapy, IMRT, beams. A linear dependence is also shown for a 100-fold change in monitors units delivered. Methods for how this device can be used in the clinic for quality assurance of IMRT fields are described. Measurements of typical IMRT beams that are modulated by compensators and MLCs are presented with comparisons to treatment planning system dose calculations. A time analysis is done for typical IMRT quality assurance measurements. The setup, calibration, and analysis time for the 2-D diode array are on the order of 20 min, depending on numbers of fields. This is significantly less time than required to do similar analysis with radiographic film. The 2-D diode array is ideal for per-plan quality assurance after an IMRT system is fully commissioned. PMID:12772995

  8. Aluminium nanohole arrays enhanced resonance Raman scattering spectra in the near ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, YanQing; Dong, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Aluminium nanohole arrays with fixed diameter were fabricated by focused ion beam and the periodicities were turned. Aluminium nanohole arrays enhanced resonance Raman scattering spectra in the near ultraviolet region were studied experimentally and theoretically, which revealed that the SERRS enhancement factor was as high as 6 orders.

  9. Performance of high-power laser diode arrays for space borne lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Durand, Yannig; Culoma, Alain; Meynart, Roland; Pinsard, Jean-Luc; Volluet, Gerard

    2006-08-01

    The adequacy of commercial quasi-continuous high-power laser diode arrays (HPLDAs) as pump sources for space borne lasers has been assessed by endurance tests up to 3x109 shots under various stress conditions, vacuum operation up to 0.36x109 shots, and proton radiation tests.Observations of the evolution of the electro-optic parameters and of the near-field patterns of the HPLDAs during endurance tests have revealed that some diode bars could reach the required lifetime of a multibillion shots, suggesting how to build long lifetime HPLDAs by proper selection of the diode bars. The robustness of the HPLDAs against the proton environment experienced in a typical low Earth orbit has been checked.Finally, high-power laser diode arrays have been operated under vacuum, showing a behavior similar to that of HPLDAs operating in atmospheric conditions.

  10. Performance of high-power laser diode arrays for spaceborne lasers.

    PubMed

    Durand, Yannig; Culoma, Alain; Meynart, Roland; Pinsard, Jean-Luc; Volluet, Gerard

    2006-08-01

    The adequacy of commercial quasi-continuous high-power laser diode arrays (HPLDAs) as pump sources for spaceborne lasers has been assessed by endurance tests up to 3 x 10(9) shots under various stress conditions, vacuum operation up to 0.36 x 10(9) shots, and proton radiation tests. Observations of the evolution of the electro-optic parameters and of the near-field patterns of the HPLDAs during endurance tests have revealed that some diode bars could reach the required lifetime of a multibillion shots, suggesting how to build long lifetime HPLDAs by proper selection of the diode bars. The robustness of the HPLDAs against the proton environment experienced in a typical low Earth orbit has been checked. Finally, high-power laser diode arrays have been operated under vacuum, showing a behavior similar to that of HPLDAs operating in atmospheric conditions. PMID:16855676

  11. Red-light-emitting diodes fabricated by near-ultraviolet InGaN chips with molybdate phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengliang; Liang, Hongbin; Wang, Jing; Gong, Menglian; Su, Qiang

    2006-08-01

    Phosphors Na5La(MoO4)4:xEu3+ and NaEu(MoO4)2 were prepared with a solid-state reaction technique. Their photoluminescent properties were investigated at room temperature. Bright red-light-emitting diodes were fabricated by coating the phosphors onto near-ultraviolet/violet-emitting InGaN chips, respectively. The diodes prepared with phosphor Na5Eu(MoO4)4 show appropriate CIE chromaticity coordinates (x =0.65,y=0.34) and exhibit more intensive red emission than that prepared with NaEu(MoO4)2, indicating that Na5Eu(MoO4)4 may be applied as an excellent red component for near-ultraviolet InGaN-based white diodes.

  12. Fabrication and electrical properties of axial and radial GaAs nanowire pn junction diode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun-Shuai; Zhang, Xia; Yan, Xin; Chen, Xiong; Li, Liang; Cui, Jian-Gong; Huang, Yong-Qing; Ren, Xiao-Min

    2014-12-01

    We report on the fabrications and characterizations of axial and radial GaAs nanowire pn junction diode arrays. The nanowires are grown on n-doped GaAs (111)B substrates using the Au-catalyzed vaporliquidsolid mechanism by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Diethylzinc and silane are used as p- and n-type dopant precursors, respectively. Both the axial and radial diodes exhibit diode-like JV characteristics and have similar performances under forward bias. Under backward bias, the axial diode has a large leakage current, which is attributed to the bending of the pn junction interface induced by two doping mechanisms in Au-catalyzed nanowires. The low leakage current and high rectification ratio make the radial diode more promising in electrical and optoelectronic devices.

  13. Wide-aperture laser diode array in the external V-shaped cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Svetikov, V V; Nurligareev, D Kh

    2014-09-30

    The operation of a wide-aperture laser diode array with the radiation wavelength 980 nm in external V-shaped symmetric and asymmetric cavities is experimentally studied. The regimes of stable oscillation are studied as functions of the feedback beam direction. The spectra and the intensity distribution of radiation in the far zone are presented for the laser diode in symmetric and asymmetric cavities. Tuning of the radiation wavelength is demonstrated using the Littman geometry in the asymmetric cavity. (lasers)

  14. Uniformity of pump intensity distribution in diode-array side-pumped laser rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenwen; Niu, Yanxiong; Liu, Haixia; Wang, Caili; Niu, Haisha; Man, Da

    2014-11-01

    Diode-pumped solid-state lasers are high efficiency, long lifetime, compact and reliable, so they have been covering a wide range of applications. Thermal effect is a major limiting factor in scaling the average power of high-power solid-state lasers, so it is a critical issue in designing diode-pumped solid-state lasers. The uniform pump intensity distribution in laser rod can weaken the influence of thermal effects in laser, and the research of improving the pump distribution uniformity has attracted a great deal of attention. People usually establish a model of single diode-bar pumped laser rod to calculate the distribution. However, for diode-array pumped high-power lasers, the model is limited and has deviation with the actual pump distribution, which cannot reflect the real working conditions in the laser. In this paper, the theoretical model of diode-array pumped laser rod is built. Based on the actual working environment of diode-array side-pumped Tm:YAG laser rod, the expression of pump intensity distribution in the laser medium is deduced. Additionally, the influence of total pump power, pump structure, Tm:YAG rod characteristic parameters and pump beam radius on pump intensity distribution are simulated and analyzed. Moreover, the parameters are optimized in order to obtain the optimistic results which are efficient to improve the uniformity of pump distribution. The results show that when the pumping distance from diode-array to the rod's surface is 3mm, the distance between two rows of diode-bars is 1mm, the absorption coefficient is 330m-1,the pump beam width is 2.5mm,the pump intensity distribution of five-way pumped laser rod is improved, and then the thermal effects could be weakened. The presented results can provide theoretical guidance to design and optimization of high-power lasers.

  15. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, Barry L. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver>4kW/cm2 of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources.

  16. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, B.L.

    1998-10-27

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver > 4kW/cm{sup 2} of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources. 13 figs.

  17. Improved calibration technique of the infrared imaging bolometer using ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Drapiko, E; Peterson, B; Alekseev, A; Seo, D C

    2010-10-01

    The technique used until recently utilizing the Ne-He laser for imaging bolometer foils calibration [B. J. Peterson et al., J. Plasma Fusion Res. 2, S1018 (2007)] has showed several issues. The method was based on irradiation of 1 cm spaced set of points on a foil by the laser beam moved by set of mirrors. Issues were the nonuniformity of laser power due to the vacuum window transmission nonuniformity and high reflection coefficient for the laser. Also, due to the limited infrared (IR) window size, it was very time consuming. The new methodology uses a compact ultraviolet (uv) light-emitting diodes installed inside the vacuum chamber in a fixed position and the foil itself will be moved in the XY directions by two vacuum feedthroughs. These will help to avoid the above mentioned issues due to lack of a vacuum window, fixed emitters, higher uv power absorption, and a fixed IR camera position. PMID:21033981

  18. Milliwatt power AlGaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, A.; Adivarahan, V.; Zhang, J. P.; Shatalov, M.; Wu, S.; Yang, J.; Simin, G.; Khan, M. Asif; Hu, X.; Fareed, Q.; Gaska, R.; Shur, M. S.

    2003-11-01

    We report on the development of deep ultraviolet AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes on sapphire with peak emission wavelength from 278 nm to 340 nm. The high quality of the n+-AlGaN buffer layer was achieved using a new pulsed atomic layer epitaxy growth technique to deposit a high quality AlN buffer layers followed by a strain relief AlN/AlGaN superlattice. These devices exhibited pulsed powers as high as 3 mW, 10 mW and 13 mW for 1 A of pumping current. Under pulsed pumping, the external quantum efficiencies of about 0.1% (278 nm), 0.45% (325 nm) and 0.55% (340 nm) represent record high values and the shortest LED emission wavelengths to date. (

  19. AlGaN/GaN quantum well ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Han, J.; Crawford, M.H.; Shul, R.J.; Figiel, J.J.; Banas, M.; Zhang, L.; Song, Y.K.; Zhou, H.; Nurmikko, A.V.

    1998-09-01

    We report on the growth and characterization of ultraviolet GaN quantum well light emitting diodes. The room-temperature electroluminescence emission was peaked at 353.6 nm with a narrow linewidth of 5.8 nm. In the simple planar devices, without any efforts to improve light extraction efficiency, an output power of 13 {mu}W at 20 mA was measured, limited in the present design by absorption in the GaN cap layer and buffer layer. Pulsed electroluminescence data demonstrate that the output power does not saturate up to current densities approaching 9 kA/cm{sup 2}. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Fiber optic coupling of a microlens conditioned, stacked semiconductor laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Mills, Steven T. (Antioch, CA)

    1997-01-01

    The output radiation from the two-dimensional aperture of a semiconductor laser diode array is efficiently coupled into an optical fiber. The two-dimensional aperture is formed by stacking individual laser diode bars on top of another in a "rack and stack" configuration. Coupling into the fiber is then accomplished using individual microlenses to condition the output radiation of the laser diode bars. A lens that matches the divergence properties and wavefront characteristics of the laser light to the fiber optic is used to focus this conditioned radiation into the fiber.

  1. Fiber optic coupling of a microlens conditioned, stacked semiconductor laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Beach, R.J.; Benett, W.J.; Mills, S.T.

    1997-04-01

    The output radiation from the two-dimensional aperture of a semiconductor laser diode array is efficiently coupled into an optical fiber. The two-dimensional aperture is formed by stacking individual laser diode bars on top of another in a ``rack and stack`` configuration. Coupling into the fiber is then accomplished using individual microlenses to condition the output radiation of the laser diode bars. A lens that matches the divergence properties and wavefront characteristics of the laser light to the fiber optic is used to focus this conditioned radiation into the fiber. 3 figs.

  2. Crossbar memory array of organic bistable rectifying diodes for nonvolatile data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Kamal; Li, Mengyuan; Stingelin, Natalie; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2010-11-01

    Cross-talk in memories using resistive switches in a cross-bar geometry can be prevented by integration of a rectifying diode. We present a functional cross bar memory array using a phase separated blend of a ferroelectric and a semiconducting polymer as storage medium. Each intersection acts simultaneously as a bistable rectifying diode. A logic table of a 4-bit memory and integration into a 33 cross bar array are demonstrated. The most difficult state, a high resistance bit completely surrounded by low resistance bits could be unambiguously identified.

  3. Improving Reliability of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays Operating in Long Pulse Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Lockard, George E.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Baker, Nathaniel R.

    2006-01-01

    Operating high power laser diode arrays in long pulse regime of about 1 msec, which is required for pumping 2-micron thulium and holmium-based lasers, greatly limits their useful lifetime. This paper describes performance of laser diode arrays operating in long pulse mode and presents experimental data of the active region temperature and pulse-to-pulse thermal cycling that are the primary cause of their premature failure and rapid degradation. This paper will then offer a viable approach for determining the optimum design and operational parameters leading to the maximum attainable lifetime.

  4. Improving Lifetime of Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays for Pumping 2-Micron Solid State Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Operating high power laser diode arrays in long pulse regime of about 1 msec, which is required for pumping 2-micron thulium and holmium-based lasers, greatly limits their useful lifetime. This paper describes performance of laser diode arrays operating in long pulse mode and presents experimental data on the active region temperature and pulse-to-pulse thermal cycling that are the primary cause of their premature failure and rapid degradation. This paper will then offer a viable approach for determining the optimum design and operational parameters leading to the maximum attainable lifetime.

  5. Linear laser diode arrays for improvement in optical disk recording for space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alphonse, G. A.; Carlin, D. B.; Connolly, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    The design and fabrication of individually addressable laser diode arrays for high performance magneto-optic recording systems are presented. Ten diode arrays with 30 mW cW light output, linear light vs. current characteristics and single longitudinal mode spectrum were fabricated using channel substrate planar (CSP) structures. Preliminary results on the inverse CSP structure, whose fabrication is less critically dependent on device parameters than the CSP, are also presented. The impact of systems parameters and requirements, in particular, the effect of feedback on laser design is assessed, and techniques to reduce feedback or minimize its effect on systems performance, including mode-stabilized structures, are evaluated.

  6. Defect-Enabled Electrical Current Leakage in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Moseley, Michael William; Allerman, Andrew A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Wierer, Jonathan; Smith, Michael L.; Biedermann, Laura

    2015-04-13

    The AlGaN materials system offers a tunable, ultra-wide bandgap that is exceptionally useful for high-power electronics and deep ultraviolet optoelectronics. Moseley et al. (pp. 723–726) investigate a structural defect known as an open-core threading dislocation or ''nanopipe'' that is particularly detrimental to devices that employ these materials. Furthermore, an AlGaN thin film was synthesized using metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition. Electrical current leakage is detected at a discrete point using a conductive atomic-force microscope (CAFM). However, no physical feature or abnormality at this location was visible by an optical microscope. The AlGaN thin film was then etched in hot phosphoric acid, andmore » the same location that was previously analyzed was revisited with the CAFM. The point that previously exhibited electrical current leakage had been decorated with a 1.1 μm wide hexagonal pit, which identified the site of electrical current leakage as a nanopipe and allows these defects to be easily observed by optical microscopy. Moreover, with this nanopipe identification and quantification strategy, the authors were able to correlate decreasing ultraviolet light-emitting diode optical output power with increasing nanopipe density.« less

  7. Defect-Enabled Electrical Current Leakage in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, Michael William; Allerman, Andrew A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Wierer, Jonathan; Smith, Michael L.; Biedermann, Laura

    2015-04-13

    The AlGaN materials system offers a tunable, ultra-wide bandgap that is exceptionally useful for high-power electronics and deep ultraviolet optoelectronics. Moseley et al. (pp. 723–726) investigate a structural defect known as an open-core threading dislocation or ''nanopipe'' that is particularly detrimental to devices that employ these materials. Furthermore, an AlGaN thin film was synthesized using metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition. Electrical current leakage is detected at a discrete point using a conductive atomic-force microscope (CAFM). However, no physical feature or abnormality at this location was visible by an optical microscope. The AlGaN thin film was then etched in hot phosphoric acid, and the same location that was previously analyzed was revisited with the CAFM. The point that previously exhibited electrical current leakage had been decorated with a 1.1 μm wide hexagonal pit, which identified the site of electrical current leakage as a nanopipe and allows these defects to be easily observed by optical microscopy. Moreover, with this nanopipe identification and quantification strategy, the authors were able to correlate decreasing ultraviolet light-emitting diode optical output power with increasing nanopipe density.

  8. Electronic beam steering in monolithic grating-surface-emitting diode laser arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, N.W.; Evans, G.A.; Amantea, R.; Palfrey, S.L.; Hammer, J.M.; Lurie, M.; Carr, L.A.; Hawrylo, F.Z.; James, E.A.; Kaiser, C.J.; and others

    1988-12-05

    Electronic beam steering has been demonstrated in both one- and two-dimensional injection-coupled grating-surface-emitting diode laser arrays. By appropriately varying the drive current to the electrically independent gain sections of an injection-coupled grating-surface-emitting laser array, the angular position of the far-field output can be steered. Experimental results for two-dimensional surface-emitting arrays are presented, as well as a theoretical model which shows that beam steering is a general property of injection-coupled surface-emitting arrays.

  9. Tapered gain guides in diode lasers and picosecond Q- switched bow tie laser arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitcher, Daniel John

    The use of the tapered waveguide to simultaneously expand and amplify the output of a diode laser has recently led to an order-of-magnitude increase in the continuous power and the picosecond pulsed output that can be obtained from a diode laser in a single spatial mode. The theoretical and experimental investigation of gain- guiding has been used as a basis for detailed investigation of gain guided single taper lasers. It was found that the narrow gain guide was prone to launch a spatial mode structure with highly undesirable asymmetry from a high quality beam waist which was located at the apex of the taper. Symmetry could be restored and stabilised by a ground connection to the narrow region of the taper. This avoided divergence that is normally induced by gain-guiding in the narrow region. Building on the achievements of bow tie lasers, further increases to power were sought by combination of many parallel stripes to create a novel bow tie array. Novel diode laser array structures were fabricated and measurements of the spatial mode properties of these are presented. Multiple contact laser arrays were tested with the narrow stripe regions in the centre used as a saturable absorber for Q-switching. Nanosecond current pulses were used to generate single Q-switched pulses of up to 17W peak power and down to 11ps duration (fwhm) from a monolithic diode laser. The potentially chaotic spatial and temporal nonuniformity of broad area diode lasers was observed to influence the performance of arrays within the duration of picosecond- range pulses. A trade-off of nonuniformity against pulse duration could be optimised by an external control voltage to the absorber. Optimised pulses could be generated with a subpicosecond rise time and 1.6ps relative jitter between stripes of the diode laser array.

  10. Low-leakage p-type diamond Schottky diodes prepared using vacuum ultraviolet light/ozone treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Teraji, T.; Garino, Y.; Koide, Y.; Ito, T.

    2009-06-15

    Room-temperature fabrication of Schottky diodes was demonstrated for p-type boron-doped diamond. This fabrication method's key technique is selective modification of surface termination from monohydride into oxygen groups using vacuum ultraviolet light irradiation in oxygen. The Au contacts, formed on the hydrogen-terminated surface, maintained Ohmic properties after this selective surface oxidation. The Au contacts then deposited on the oxidized surface, imparting Schottky properties. The lateral-type diodes comprising Au Schottky contacts and Au Ohmic contacts showed blocking voltage higher than 1 kV without electrode guarding. The leakage current at 1 kV was as low as 30 pA.

  11. Detection of composite resin restorations using an ultraviolet light-emitting diode flashlight during forensic dental identification.

    PubMed

    Guzy, Gerald; Clayton, Mary Ann

    2013-06-01

    With the increased use of composite resin and the decreased use of amalgam as a dental restorative material, the forensic dental identification of unidentified human remains has become more difficult. Various methods have been used to detect the presence of composite resin restorations including dyes, forensic alternative light sources, quantitative light-induced fluorescence, and ultraviolet lights. Although these methods may be helpful, the expense of the equipment, the electrical requirements, and the need for water to wash the dye from the mouth may make these methods impractical especially in a temporary morgue situation during a mass disaster. The fluorescent properties of composite resins, when exposed to ultraviolet light, are well documented. Standard tube ultraviolet lights have been used to detect the presence of composite resin, but these lights are large and bulky, and the tubes are fragile. The development of ultraviolet light emitting diode flashlights has provided forensic odontologists with a tool that is small, inexpensive, and battery operated. The two forensic dental identification cases described here demonstrate the value of ultraviolet light emitting diode flashlights as an adjunct to a careful clinical and radiographic examination. PMID:23574870

  12. High power, high efficiency, 2D laser diode arrays for pumping solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, A.; McShea, J.C.; Bogdan, A.R.; Petheram, J.C.; Rosen, A.

    1987-11-01

    This document reports the current performance of 2D laser diode arrays operating at 770 nm and 808 nm for pumping promethium and neodymium solid state lasers, respectively. Typical power densities are in excess of 2kw/cm/sup 2/ with overall efficiencies greater than 30%.

  13. Developing a long-path diode array spectrometer for tropospheric chemistry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanni, Thomas R.; Demerjian, Kenneth L.

    1991-05-01

    This is an extended abstract of a report on our ongoing development of a field instrument for long-path diode array (LPDA) differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of trace tropospheric constituents. We discuss the pros and cons of using intensified detectors and fiber optics, new spectrograph designs and a coaxial telescope arrangement for projection and reception of the analyzing beam.

  14. A Lunar Optical-Ultraviolet-Infrared Synthesis Array (LOUISA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O. (Editor); Johnson, Stewart W. (Editor); Duric, Nebojsa (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at a workshop held to consider 'optical ultraviolet infrared' interferometric observations from the moon. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 is a description of current and planned ground-based interferometers. Part 3 is a description of potential space-based interferometers. Part 4 addresses the potential for interferometry on the moon. Part 5 is the report of the workshop's working groups. Concluding remarks, summary, and conclusions are presented in Part 6.

  15. Physics of aligned arrays of single-walled NTs: From transistor to diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotkin, Slava V.; Rogers, John A.

    2011-03-01

    NTs have been originally proposed as a 1D high mobility semiconductor material for field-effect transistors (FET). This format is though appeared to be less practical due to low values of the currents through a single NT channel. On contrary, NT massive parallel arrays have already found implementation in flexible and RF electronics. Can we think of NT arrays being another semiconductor thin film materials? Where does the conventional knowledge apply for NT parallel array devices? This talk discusses specialized aspects of physics of electronic and optoelectronic device prototypes and presents recent results for NT FETs and LEDs (light-emitting diode) in parallel array geometries. Cross-talk between individual NTs in the array allows to beat the statistical ``noise'' in the device properties which appears due to randomized NT distribution in the array. Although, taking this into account, device-level characteristics should be used with a care to extract a single NT physical parameters.

  16. Progress report on the use of hybrid silicon pin diode arrays in high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.L. ); Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.F. . Space Sciences Lab.)

    1990-05-01

    We report on the successful effort to develop hybrid PIN diode arrays and to demonstrate their potential as components of vertex detectors. Hybrid pixel arrays have been fabricated by the Hughes Aircraft Co. by bump-bonding readout chips developed by Hughes to an array of PIN diodes manufactured by Micron Semiconductor Inc. These hybrid pixel arrays were constructed in two configurations. One array format has 10 {times} 64 pixels, each 120 {mu}m square; and the other format has 256 {times} 156 pixels, each 30 {mu}m square. In both cases, the thickness of the PIN diode layer is 300 {mu}m. Measurements of detector performance show that excellent position resolution can be achieved by interpolation. By determining the centroid of the charge cloud which spreads charge into a number of neighboring pixels, a spatial resolution of a few microns has been attained. The noise has been measured to be about 300 electrons (rms) at room temperature, as expected from KTC and dark current considerations, yielding a signal-to-noise ratio of about 100 for minimum ionizing particles. 4 refs., 17 figs.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of alternating-current-driven ZnO-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haoning; Long, Hao; Chen, Zhao; Mo, Xiaoming; Li, Songzhan; Zhong, Zhiyou; Fang, Guojia

    2015-07-01

    Alternating-current-driven ZnO-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an Au/ZnMgO/ZnO/ZnMgO/GaN/In structure have been fabricated. Both polarity-controlled electroluminescence (EL) and ultraviolet emission were achieved when driven by an alternating current (AC) under a much lower root-mean-square voltage than that of conventional inorganic AC thin-film electroluminescent devices. This ZnO-based LED can be regarded as a series incorporating a metal-insulator-semiconductor diode and a p- i- n diode. The EL mechanisms were discussed in terms of the band diagrams and carrier transport behavior with reference to the semiconductor heterojunction theory. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. High performance near-ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with distributed Bragg reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Il-Gyun; Jin, Geun-Mo; Park, Jun-Cheon; Jeon, Soo-Kun; Park, Eun-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    We have fabricated the near-ultraviolet (NUV) flip-chip (FC) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with the high external quantum efficiency (EQE) using distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and compared with conventional FC-LED using silver (Ag) reflector. Reflectance of Ag is very high (90 ~ 95 %) at visible spectrum region, but sharply decrease at NUV region. Therefore we used DBR composed of two different materials which have high-index contrast, such as TiO2 and SiO2. However, to achieve high-performance NUV flip-chip LEDs, we used Ta2O5 instead of TiO2 that absorbs lights of NUV region. Thus, we have designed a DBR composed of twenty pairs of Ta2O5 and SiO2 using optical coating design software. The DBR designed by our group achieves a reflectance of ~99 % in the NUV region (350 ~ 500 nm), which is much better than Ag reflector. Optical power is higher than the Ag-LED up to 22 % @ 390 nm.

  19. High-Power Genuine Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Based On Colloidal Nanocrystal Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jeonghun; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Myeongjin; Lee, Seonghoon; Char, Kookheon; Lee, Changhee

    2015-06-10

    Thin-film ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission wavelengths below 400 nm are emerging as promising light sources for various purposes, from our daily lives to industrial applications. However, current thin-film UV-emitting devices radiate not only UV light but also visible light. Here, we introduce genuine UV-emitting colloidal nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) LEDs (QLEDs) using precisely controlled NQDs consisting of a 2.5-nm-sized CdZnS ternary core and a ZnS shell. The effective core size is further reduced during the shell growth via the atomic diffusion of interior Cd atoms to the exterior ZnS shell, compensating for the photoluminescence red shift. This design enables us to develop CdZnS@ZnS UV QLEDs with pure UV emission and minimal parasitic peaks. The irradiance is as high as 2.0-13.9 mW cm(-2) at the peak wavelengths of 377-390 nm, several orders of magnitude higher than that of other thin-film UV LEDs. PMID:25961530

  20. Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S; Connie, A T; Dastjerdi, M H T; Kong, X H; Wang, Q; Djavid, M; Sadaf, S; Liu, X D; Shih, I; Guo, H; Mi, Z

    2015-01-01

    Despite broad interest in aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) optoelectronic devices for deep ultraviolet (DUV) applications, the performance of conventional Al(Ga)N planar devices drastically decays when approaching the AlN end, including low internal quantum efficiencies (IQEs) and high device operation voltages. Here we show that these challenges can be addressed by utilizing nitrogen (N) polar Al(Ga)N nanowires grown directly on Si substrate. By carefully tuning the synthesis conditions, a record IQE of 80% can be realized with N-polar AlN nanowires, which is nearly ten times higher compared to high quality planar AlN. The first 210 nm emitting AlN nanowire light emitting diodes (LEDs) were achieved, with a turn on voltage of about 6 V, which is significantly lower than the commonly observed 20 - 40 V. This can be ascribed to both efficient Mg doping by controlling the nanowire growth rate and N-polarity induced internal electrical field that favors hole injection. In the end, high performance N-polar AlGaN nanowire LEDs with emission wavelengths covering the UV-B/C bands were also demonstrated. PMID:25684335

  1. Tunnel-injection GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Jai; Kandaswamy, Prem Kumar; Protasenko, Vladimir; Verma, Amit; Grace Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-01-28

    We demonstrate a GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diode that uses tunnel injection of carriers through AlN barriers into the active region. The quantum dot heterostructure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN templates. The large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN favors the formation of GaN quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. Carrier injection by tunneling can mitigate losses incurred in hot-carrier injection in light emitting heterostructures. To achieve tunnel injection, relatively low composition AlGaN is used for n- and p-type layers to simultaneously take advantage of effective band alignment and efficient doping. The small height of the quantum dots results in short-wavelength emission and are simultaneously an effective tool to fight the reduction of oscillator strength from quantum-confined Stark effect due to polarization fields. The strong quantum confinement results in room-temperature electroluminescence peaks at 261 and 340 nm, well above the 365 nm bandgap of bulk GaN. The demonstration opens the doorway to exploit many varied features of quantum dot physics to realize high-efficiency short-wavelength light sources.

  2. NANOSTRUCTURED HIGH PERFORMANCE ULTRAVIOLET AND BLUE LIGHT EMITTING DIODES FOR SOLID STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

    2004-10-01

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the first 12 month contract period include (1) new means of synthesizing zero- and one-dimensional GaN nanostructures, (2) establishment of the building blocks for making GaN-based microcavity devices, and (3) demonstration of top-down approach to nano-scale photonic devices for enhanced spontaneous emission and light extraction. These include a demonstration of eight-fold enhancement of the external emission efficiency in new InGaN QW photonic crystal structures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  3. Optical fluence modelling for ultraviolet light emitting diode-based water treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Simons, R; Gabbai, U E; Moram, M A

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a validated optical fluence rate model optimised for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), which allow a very wide range of emission wavelengths and source geometries to be used in water treatment units. The model is based on a Monte Carlo approach, in which an incremental ray-tracing algorithm is used to calculate the local volumetric rate of energy absorption and subsequently convert it to the local fluence rate distribution for an UV-LED water treatment chamber of arbitrary design. The model includes contributions from optical reflections and scattering by treatment chamber walls and from scattering due to particulates and/or microorganisms. The model successfully predicts optical fluence rates in point-of-use water treatment units, as verified using biodosimetry with MS-2 bacteriophage at a UV-LED emission wavelength of 254 nm. The effects of chamber geometry are also modelled effectively and are consistent with the inactivation data for E. coli at 254 nm. The data indicate that this model is suitable for application in the design and optimisation of UV-LED-based water treatment systems. PMID:25222335

  4. Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, S.; Connie, A. T.; Dastjerdi, M. H. T.; Kong, X. H.; Wang, Q.; Djavid, M.; Sadaf, S.; Liu, X. D.; Shih, I.; Guo, H.; Mi, Z.

    2015-02-01

    Despite broad interest in aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) optoelectronic devices for deep ultraviolet (DUV) applications, the performance of conventional Al(Ga)N planar devices drastically decays when approaching the AlN end, including low internal quantum efficiencies (IQEs) and high device operation voltages. Here we show that these challenges can be addressed by utilizing nitrogen (N) polar Al(Ga)N nanowires grown directly on Si substrate. By carefully tuning the synthesis conditions, a record IQE of 80% can be realized with N-polar AlN nanowires, which is nearly ten times higher compared to high quality planar AlN. The first 210 nm emitting AlN nanowire light emitting diodes (LEDs) were achieved, with a turn on voltage of about 6 V, which is significantly lower than the commonly observed 20 - 40 V. This can be ascribed to both efficient Mg doping by controlling the nanowire growth rate and N-polarity induced internal electrical field that favors hole injection. In the end, high performance N-polar AlGaN nanowire LEDs with emission wavelengths covering the UV-B/C bands were also demonstrated.

  5. Structural design and optimization of near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with wide wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yen-Kuang; Chen, Fang-Ming; Chang, Jih-Yuan; Shih, Ya-Hsuan

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics of the near-ultraviolet (NUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with wide (14-nm-thick) and narrow (2-nm-thick) wells under the situations of different numbers of wells and degree of polarization are systematically investigated. The simulation results show that the Auger recombination can be efficiently suppressed with the increase of number of wells in NUV LEDs. For the LEDs with wide wells, the quantum-confined Stark effect and Shockley-Read-Hall recombination play an important role when the number of wells increases, especially when the LED is under low current injection or high degree of polarization. In order to take the advantage of using wide wells, it is proposed that the quaternary Al0.1In0.05Ga0.85N barriers be used in wide-well NUV LEDs along with the use of Al0.3Ga0.7N/Al0.1Ga0.9N superlattice electron-blocking layer to mitigate the polarization effect and electron overflow. With this band-engineering structural design, the optical performance of the wide-well NUV LEDs is much better than its thin-well counterpart even under the situation of high degree of polarization.

  6. Development of substrate-removal-free vertical ultraviolet light-emitting diode (RefV-LED)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurose, N. Aoyagi, Y.; Shibano, K.; Araki, T.

    2014-02-15

    A vertical ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) that does not require substrate removal is developed. Spontaneous via holes are formed in n-AlN layer epitaxially grown on a high conductive n+Si substrate and the injected current flows directly from the p-electrode to high doped n{sup +} Si substrate through p-AlGaN, multi-quantum wells, n-AlGaN and spontaneous via holes in n-AlN. The spontaneous via holes were formed by controlling feeding-sequence of metal-organic gas sources and NH{sub 3} and growth temperature in MOCVD. The via holes make insulating n-AlN to be conductive. We measured the current-voltage, current-light intensity and emission characteristics of this device. It exhibited a built-in voltage of 3.8 V and emission was stated at 350 nm from quantum wells with successive emission centered at 400 nm. This UV LED can be produced, including formation of n and p electrodes, without any resist process.

  7. Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, S.; Connie, A. T.; Dastjerdi, M. H. T.; Kong, X. H.; Wang, Q.; Djavid, M.; Sadaf, S.; Liu, X. D.; Shih, I.; Guo, H.; Mi, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Despite broad interest in aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) optoelectronic devices for deep ultraviolet (DUV) applications, the performance of conventional Al(Ga)N planar devices drastically decays when approaching the AlN end, including low internal quantum efficiencies (IQEs) and high device operation voltages. Here we show that these challenges can be addressed by utilizing nitrogen (N) polar Al(Ga)N nanowires grown directly on Si substrate. By carefully tuning the synthesis conditions, a record IQE of 80% can be realized with N-polar AlN nanowires, which is nearly ten times higher compared to high quality planar AlN. The first 210 nm emitting AlN nanowire light emitting diodes (LEDs) were achieved, with a turn on voltage of about 6 V, which is significantly lower than the commonly observed 20 – 40 V. This can be ascribed to both efficient Mg doping by controlling the nanowire growth rate and N-polarity induced internal electrical field that favors hole injection. In the end, high performance N-polar AlGaN nanowire LEDs with emission wavelengths covering the UV-B/C bands were also demonstrated. PMID:25684335

  8. An imaging diode array soft x-ray diagnostic for Z (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, W. W.; Porter, J. L.; Ruggles, L. E.; Wenger, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of the hohlraum wall temperature in Z-pinch driven hohlraum experiments require looking through small (2--4 mm diameter) diagnostic holes that undergo some degree of hole closure. The existing soft x-ray diagnostics on Z measure the total flux exiting this diagnostic hole and are therefore affected by this hole closure. To avoid having to measure the effective diagnostic hole area we have designed and constructed an imaging diode array (IDA) that incorporates pinhole imaging and an array of filtered silicon diodes to measure the absolute x-ray intensity from a spatially resolved region of a target. The instrument uses silicon diodes with subnanosecond time response that are sensitive to soft x rays in the range 100--3000 eV. An image of the target area is projected onto the silicon diodes using pinholes. Between each pinhole and its respective diode is a soft x-ray filter. The material and thickness of the filter are selected to allow unfolding of spectral information in the 100--3000 eV spectral region. We plan to insert a set of grazing-incidence mirrors between each of the filter/diode pairs in a future version of this instrument to better define the spectral bandpass of each diode channel. Radiation from the target region is monitored by a gated microchannel-plate-intensified image recording device that is located immediately behind the diode array. A small shadow in the recorded image corresponds to the specific area of the target that is imaged onto each silicon diode. We are presently fielding this instrument in experiments on the Z facility located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. The instrument is located on the same line-of-sight and measures the same spatial region as a filtered fast-framing x-ray pinhole camera and a transmission grating spectrometer. This article describes the design of the IDA diagnostic and presents the results of measurements obtained in hohlraum experiments conducted on Z.

  9. Wavelength tunable, 264 J laser diode array for 10 Hz/1ms Yb:YAG pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanteloup, J.-C.; Albach, D.; Assmat, F.; Bahbah, S.; Bourdet, G.; Piatti, P.; Pluvinage, M.; Vincent, B.; LeTouz, G.; Mattern, T.; Biesenbach, J.; Mntz, H.; Noeske, A.; Venohr, R.

    2008-05-01

    The Lucia [1,2] Laser program, under development at the LULI laboratory, aims at delivering a 1030 nm, 100J, 10 Hz, 10 ns pulse train. The two laser heads used in the amplification stage relies on water-cooled mm-thick Yb:YAG disks, each of them pumped by a 3413 cm2 Laser Diode Array (LDA). For each LDA, the 88 QCW diodes stacks manufactured by DILAS GmbH will be tiled in an 811 arrangement. Fine wavelength tuning is performed through bias current adjustment, water temperature control and conductivity adjustment. Wavelength homogeneity experimental verification has been validated.

  10. High power external cavity laser diode arrays for the generation of hyperpolarized noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasche, Gregory Paul

    Hyperpolarized noble gas magnetic resonance imaging promises to be a useful medical diagnostic tool due to its ability to image airways and brain function. A current limitation to widespread use is the time needed to generate gas quantities large enough for clinical patient imaging. Here I investigate line-narrowing of laser diode arrays in order to optimize the generation of hyperpolarized noble gases. Hyperpolarized noble gases are nuclear spin-½ isotopes that are polarized externally to have a large excess population of metastable spin up nuclei. When inhaled and imaged, they provide a novel tool for scientific studies and medical diagnosis in the human body. The gases are generated through a spin-exchange process via the spin-conserving hyperfine interaction of noble gas nuclei and optically pumped alkali metals. The net amount of polarized gas is limited by the optical power which is absorbed by the alkali metals as this is the first stage in the spin-exchange process. Laser diode arrays are typically used because they have a high available power for relatively low cost. Unfortunately, they are optically inefficient due to the factor of twenty larger inherent linewidth relative to the pressure broadened absorption linewidth of the alkali metal. In order to increase the efficiency of the system, I have designed and built an external cavity around the laser diode array consisting of a diffraction grating which acts as a wavelength dependent mirror tuned to the alkali metal rubidium absorption frequency. This causes the laser to operate solely at the desired wavelength, reducing the linewidth. External cavities have long been used for single element laser diodes. I extend this technique to laser diode arrays by imaging the diodes onto the grating using a set of imaging lenses forming individual cavities. I discuss the limitations on the power and linewidth achievable due to the optics of the cavity, as well as limitations caused by non-uniform heating effects. Finally, I present measurements of the nuclear polarization and absorption for Helium using our line-narrowed laser system and will compare and contrast the benefits of the line-narrowed system over the fiber-coupled laser diode arrays currently being used.

  11. Qualification Testing of Laser Diode Pump Arrays for a Space-Based 2-micron Coherent Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The 2-micron thulium and holmium-based lasers being considered as the transmitter source for space-based coherent Doppler lidar require high power laser diode pump arrays operating in a long pulse regime of about 1 msec. Operating laser diode arrays over such long pulses drastically impact their useful lifetime due to the excessive localized heating and substantial pulse-to-pulse thermal cycling of their active regions. This paper describes the long pulse performance of laser diode arrays and their critical thermal characteristics. A viable approach is then offered that allows for determining the optimum operational parameters leading to the maximum attainable lifetime.

  12. Improved performance of high-average-power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode-pumped solid state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Raymond J.; Emanuel, Mark A.; Benett, William J.; Freitas, Barry L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Carlson, Nils W.; Sutton, Steven B.; Skidmore, Jay A.; Solarz, Richard W.

    1994-06-01

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. A low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSLs). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSLs which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSLs are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

  13. Application of three-step epitaxial process to dual trench epitaxial diode array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Guan-Ping; Song, Zhi-Tang; Liu, Bo; Wang, Lian-Hong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Zuoya; Feng, Songlin

    2013-02-01

    The application of three-step Epitaxial (EPI) process to dual trench epitaxial diode array for high density phase change random access memory (PCRAM) was reported in this paper. With three-step EPI process condition, both vertical and lateral Arsenic auto-doping were suppressed effectively from Arsenic heavily-doped substrate. It was found that EPI layer (- 300 nm) with high-quality single crystalline and good thickness uniformity within 200 mm diameter wafer could be achieved. It was also found that both lateral and vertical Arsenic auto-doping concentration could be reduced by 2-3 orders by adding high temperature and low deposition rate EPI step before main EPI process, as compared to the conventional CVD EPI process. As a result, diode breakdown voltage was improved above 11 V and the On/Off current ratio of diode is greater than 9 orders of magnitude. PMID:23646599

  14. Dosimetric Characteristics of a Two-Dimensional Diode Array Detector Irradiated with Passively Scattered Proton Beams

    PubMed Central

    Liengsawangwong, Praimakorn; Sahoo, Nanayan; Ding, Xiaoning; Lii, MingFwu; Gillin, Michale T.; Zhu, Xiaorong Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric characteristics of a two-dimensional (2D) diode array detector irradiated with passively scattered proton beams. Materials and Methods: A diode array detector, MapCHECK (Model 1175, Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL, USA) was characterized in passive-scattered proton beams. The relative sensitivity of the diodes and absolute dose calibration were determined using a 250 MeV beam. The pristine Bragg curves (PBCs) measured by MapCHECK diodes were compared with those of an ion chamber using a range shift method. The water-equivalent thickness (WET) of the diode array detectors intrinsic buildup also was determined. The inverse square dependence, linearity, and other proton dosimetric quantities measured by MapCHECK were also compared with those of the ion chambers. The change in the absolute dose response of the MapCHECK as a function of accumulated radiation dose was used as an indicator of radiation damage to the diodes. 2D dose distribution with and without the compensator were measured and compared with the treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. Results: The WET of the MapCHECK diodes buildup was determined to be 1.7 cm. The MapCHECK-measured PBC were virtually identical to those measured by a parallel-plate ion chamber for 160, 180, and 250 MeV proton beams. The inverse square results of the MapCHECK were within 0.4% of the ion chamber results. The linearity of MapCHECK results was within 1% of those from the ion chamber as measured in the range between 10 and 300 MU. All other dosimetric quantities were within 1.3% of the ion chamber results. The 2D dose distributions for non-clinical fields without compensator and the patient treatment fields with the compensator were consistent with the TPS results. The absolute dose response of the MapCHECK was changed by 7.4% after an accumulated dose increased by 170 Gy. Conclusions: The MapCHECK is a convenient and useful tool for 2D dose distribution measurements using passively scattered proton beams. Variations in MapCHECKs dose response with increasing levels of total accumulated radiation dose should be carefully monitored. PMID:26264024

  15. Optimization of rod diameter in solid state lasers side pumped with multiple laser diode arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, Newton, Jr.; Chamblee, Christyl M.; Barnes, Norman P.; Lockard, George E.; Cross, Patricia L.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a study to determine the optimum laser rod diameter for maximum output energy in a solid state neodymium laser transversely pumped with multiple laser diode arrays are reported here. Experiments were performed with 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm rod radii of both neodymium doped Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) and La2Be2O5 (Nd:BeL) pumped with laser diode arrays having a maximum combined energy of 10.5 mJ. Equations were derived which predict the optimum rod radius and corresponding output mirror reflectivity for a given laser material and total pump energy. Predictions of the equations agreed well with the experiments for each of the laser materials which possessed significantly different laser properties from one another.

  16. Screening of radical scavengers in Scutellaria baicalensis using HPLC with diode array and chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Luo, Jianguang; Kong, Lingyi

    2012-09-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is a well-known medical plant widely used as a famous traditional Chinese medicine. It has been reported that S. baicalensis can protect against oxidative stress and possess anti-inflammatory effect. In the present paper, an HPLC-diode array-chemiluminescence detection method for on-line detection was successfully developed to screen antioxidants in complex S. baicalensis extracts. Using the proposed approach, eight compounds in the S. baicalensis extracts were found to possess a potential antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the effects of purified compounds on protecting RAW 264.7 cells from hydrogen peroxide injury were also investigated in vitro to confirm the established method, which were consistent with the results of HPLC-diode array-chemiluminescence detection method. These results demonstrated that this method was a useful technique for rapidly screening and identifying bioactive components from complex herbal medicines. PMID:22815263

  17. LOUISA - A lunar optical-ultraviolet-infrared synthesis array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Duric, Nebojsa; Taylor, Jeffrey; Johnson, Stewart

    1990-01-01

    The emplacement of an optical wavelength interferometric array on the lunar surface is proposed. It will consist of 42 1.5-m mirrors distributed in two concentric circles with an outer diameter of 10-km. The resolution of LOUISA will be 10 microarcsec at a wavelength of 0.5 microns - a factor of 4100 times better than the HST. With such a resolution, astronomers will be able to image earthlike extrasolar planets, active regions on other stars, and collimated outflows from young stellar objects and the nuclei of active galaxies.

  18. Dynamic characteristics of far-field radiation of current modulated phase-locked diode laser arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, R. A.; Hartnett, K.

    1987-01-01

    A versatile and powerful streak camera/frame grabber system for studying the evolution of the near and far field radiation patterns of diode lasers was assembled and tested. Software needed to analyze and display the data acquired with the steak camera/frame grabber system was written and the total package used to record and perform preliminary analyses on the behavior of two types of laser, a ten emitter gain guided array and a flared waveguide Y-coupled array. Examples of the information which can be gathered with this system are presented.

  19. Geometrical transformation of linear diode-laser arrays for longitudinal pumping of solid-state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Leger, J.R.; Goltsos, W.C.

    1992-05-26

    A 200-stripe linear diode-laser array is geometrically transformed into a two-dimensional, symmetric virtual source with symmetric divergence to end-pump a Nd:YAG laser. The geometrical transformation is performed by two planes of diffractive optical elements separated by a 2.6-cm gap. Discounting optical losses, a TEM00-mode slope efficiency of 56 percent is demonstrated. Methods of increasing the throughput efficiency of the diffractive elements (currently approximately 50 percent per element) re explored. A theoretical model for estimating the maximum useful pump array size in longitudinally pumped rod and fiber lasers shows that this pump geometry is close to optimum.

  20. A lunar rover powered by an orbiting laser diode array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, R. J.; Williams, M. D.; Walker, G. H.; Schuster, G. L.; Lee, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual design of a high-power, long-duration lunar rover powered by a laser beam is proposed. The laser transmitter in lunar orbit consists of an SP-100 nuclear reactor prime power source providing 100 kW of electricity to a laser array that emits 50 kW of laser radiation. The laser radiation is beamed to the lunar surface where it is received by a GaAlAs solid-state, laser-to-electric converter. This converter provides 22 kW of electrical power to the rover vehicle for science, locomotion, and crew needs. The mass of the laser transmitter is approximately 5000 kg, whereas the mass of the rover power supply is 520 kg. The rover power unit is significantly less massive than alternative rover power units.

  1. Robotic radiosurgery system patient-specific QA for extracranial treatments using the planar ion chamber array and the cylindrical diode array.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mu-Han; Veltchev, Iavor; Koren, Sion; Ma, Charlie; Li, Jinsgeng

    2015-01-01

    Robotic radiosurgery system has been increasingly employed for extracranial treatments. This work is aimed to study the feasibility of a cylindrical diode array and a planar ion chamber array for patient-specific QA with this robotic radiosurgery system and compare their performance. Fiducial markers were implanted in both systems to enable image-based setup. An in-house program was developed to postprocess the movie file of the measurements and apply the beam-by-beam angular corrections for both systems. The impact of noncoplanar delivery was then assessed by evaluating the angles created by the incident beams with respect to the two detector arrangements and cross-comparing the planned dose distribution to the measured ones with/without the angular corrections. The sensitivity of detecting the translational (1-3 mm) and the rotational (1°-3°) delivery errors were also evaluated for both systems. Six extracranial patient plans (PTV 7-137 cm³) were measured with these two systems and compared with the calculated doses. The plan dose distributions were calculated with ray-tracing and the Monte Carlo (MC) method, respectively. With 0.8 by 0.8 mm² diodes, the output factors measured with the cylindrical diode array agree better with the commissioning data. The maximum angular correction for a given beam is 8.2% for the planar ion chamber array and 2.4% for the cylindrical diode array. The two systems demonstrate a comparable sensitivity of detecting the translational targeting errors, while the cylindrical diode array is more sensitive to the rotational targeting error. The MC method is necessary for dose calculations in the cylindrical diode array phantom because the ray-tracing algorithm fails to handle the high-Z diodes and the acrylic phantom. For all the patient plans, the cylindrical diode array/ planar ion chamber array demonstrate 100% / > 92% (3%/3 mm) and > 96% / ~ 80% (2%/2 mm) passing rates. The feasibility of using both systems for robotic radiosurgery system patient-specific QA has been demonstrated. For gamma evaluation, 2%/2 mm criteria for cylindrical diode array and 3%/3 mm criteria for planar ion chamber array are suggested. The customized angular correction is necessary as proven by the improved passing rate, especially with the planar ion chamber array system. PMID:26219013

  2. High Power Laser Diode Arrays for 2-Micron Solid State Coherent Lidars Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra; Sudesh, Vikas; Baker, Nathaniel

    2003-01-01

    Laser diode arrays are critical components of any diode-pumped solid state laser systems, constraining their performance and reliability. Laser diode arrays (LDAs) are used as the pump source for energizing the solid state lasing media to generate an intense coherent laser beam with a high spatial and spectral quality. The solid state laser design and the characteristics of its lasing materials define the operating wavelength, pulse duration, and power of the laser diodes. The pump requirements for high pulse energy 2-micron solid state lasers are substantially different from those of more widely used 1-micron lasers and in many aspects more challenging [1]. Furthermore, the reliability and lifetime demanded by many coherent lidar applications, such as global wind profiling from space and long-range clear air turbulence detection from aircraft, are beyond the capability of currently available LDAs. In addition to the need for more reliable LDAs with longer lifetime, further improvement in the operational parameters of high power quasi-cw LDAs, such as electrical efficiency, brightness, and duty cycle, are also necessary for developing cost-effective 2-micron coherent lidar systems for applications that impose stringent size, heat dissipation, and power constraints. Global wind sounding from space is one of such applications, which is the main driver for this work as part of NASA s Laser Risk Reduction Program. This paper discusses the current state of the 792 nm LDA technology and the technology areas being pursued toward improving their performance. The design and development of a unique characterization facility for addressing the specific issues associated with the LDAs for pumping 2-micron coherent lidar transmitters and identifying areas of technological improvement will be described. Finally, the results of measurements to date on various standard laser diode packages, as well as custom-designed packages with potentially longer lifetime, will be reported.

  3. Optical frequency domain reflectometry based fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor array using sinusoidal current modulation of laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Atsushi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Takahashi, Nobuaki

    2015-09-01

    We present multipoint vibration sensing using fiber Bragg gratings and optical frequency domain refrectometry (OFDR). In OFDR based method, the maximum number of arrayed sensor can be few thousands and the measurement time is determined by wavelength scanning rate of a light source. In our sensor system, a laser diode is used as a wavelength scanning light source. Lasing wavelength of a laser diode can be modulated by changing its injection current. The injection current can be precisely modulated at high frequency up to 1 MHz using a laser-diode controller and wavelength scanning can be then easily achieved with a laser diode.

  4. Omnidirectional multiview three-dimensional display based on direction-selective light-emitting diode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Caijie; Liu, Xu; Liu, Di; Xie, Jing; Xia, Xin Xing; Li, Haifeng

    2011-03-01

    A volumetric display system based on a rotating light-emitting diode (LED) array panel can realize a three-dimensional (3-D) display truthfully in the space, but the drawback is missing the occlusion of a 3-D image. We propose an omnidirectional 3-D display with correct occlusion based on a direction-selective LED array panel, which is realized by setting a direction-convergent diaphragm array in front of the LED array. Every diaphragm restricts a light-emitting characteristic of every LED. By using direction-convergent diaphragm array, the observer around the display system can only see one image displayed by the LED array at the corresponding position. With the high-speed rotation of the LED panel, a series of views of a 3-D scene are displayed every angle patch in one circle. We set up an acquisition system to record 180 views of the 3-D scene with a rotating camera along a circle, and then the 180 images are displayed sequentially on the rotating direction-selective LED array to get a 360 deg 3-D display. This 3-D display technology has two main advantages: easy to get viewer-position-dependent correct occlusion and simplify the 3-D data preprocessing process which is helpful to real-time 3-D display.

  5. 270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandusky, James R.; Chen, Jianfeng; Gibb, Shawn R.; Mendrick, Mark C.; Moe, Craig G.; Rodak, Lee; Garrett, Gregory A.; Wraback, Michael; Schowalter, Leo J.

    2013-03-01

    In this letter, the achievement of over 60 mW output power from pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in continuous wave operation is reported. Die thinning and encapsulation improved the photon extraction efficiency to over 15%. Improved thermal management and a high characteristic temperature resulted in a low thermal rolloff up to 300 mA injection current with an output power of 67 mW, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 4.9%, and a wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 2.5% for a single-chip device emitting at 271 nm in continuous wave operation.

  6. Characteristics of deep ultraviolet AlGaN-based light emitting diodes with p-hBN layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, K. X.; Chen, D. J.; Shi, J. P.; Liu, B.; Lu, H.; Zhang, R.; Zheng, Y. D.

    2016-01-01

    The AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with p-hBN layer are investigated numerically. In comparison with the conventional AlGaN DUV LEDs, the proposed LED can significantly improve the carrier injection, radiative efficiency, as well as the electroluminescence (EL) intensity under the same applied forward bias. Simultaneously, the light extraction efficiency in the LED using p-hBN instead of p-AlGaN exhibits a more than 250% increase at the applied voltage of 7.5 V due to the smaller loss of reflection and absorption of the emitted light.

  7. Ultraviolet emission from a multi-layer graphene/MgZnO/ZnO light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Jang-Won; Choi, Yong-Seok; Goo Kang, Chang; Hun Lee, Byoung; Kim, Byeong-Hyeok; Tu, C. W.; Park, Seong-Ju

    2014-02-03

    We report on ultraviolet emission from a multi-layer graphene (MLG)/MgZnO/ZnO light-emitting diodes (LED). The p-type MLG and MgZnO in the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED are used as transparent hole injection and electron blocking layers, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED show that current transport is dominated by tunneling processes in the MgZnO barrier layer under forward bias conditions. The holes injected from p-type MLG recombine efficiently with the electrons accumulated in ZnO, and the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED shows strong ultraviolet emission from the band edge of ZnO and weak red-orange emission from the deep levels of ZnO.

  8. In-depth analysis of optical crosstalk in single-photon avalanche diode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rech, Ivan; Ingargiola, Antonino; Spinelli, Roberto; Labanca, Ivan; Marangoni, Stefano; Ghioni, Massimo; Cova, Sergio

    2007-09-01

    One of the main drawbacks of Single Photon Avalanche Diode arrays is the optical crosstalk between adjacent detectors. This phenomenon represents a fundamental limit to the density of arrays, since the crosstalk increases with reducing the distance between adjacent devices. In the past, crosstalk was mainly ascribed to the light propagating from one detector to another through a direct optical path. Accordingly, deep trenches coated with metal were introduced as optical isolation barriers between pixels. This solution, however, was unable to completely prevent the crosstalk. In this paper we present experimental evidence that a significant contribution to crosstalk comes from photons reflected internally at the bottom of the chip. These photons can bypass trenches making them ineffective. We also propose an optical model suitable to predict the dependence of crosstalk on the position within the array.

  9. 10?m pitch design of HgCdTe diode array in Sofradir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pr-Laperne, Nicolas; Rubaldo, Laurent; Kerlain, Alexandre; Carrre, Emmanuel; Dargent, Loc.; Taalat, Rachid; Berthoz, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Sofradir recently presented Daphnis, its latest 10?m pitch XGA and HD720 products. Daphnis XGA is a 10?m pitch 1024x768 mid-wave infrared focal plane array. The development of small pixel pitch is opening the way to very compact products with high spatial resolution. This new product is key contribution to the HOT technology competition allowing reductions in size, weight and power of the overall package. This paper presents the recent developments achieved at Sofradir to make this 10?m pitch HgCdTe focal plane array. Electrical and electro-optical characterizations are presented to define the appropriate design of 10?m pitch diode array. The technological tradeoffs are explained to lower the dark current, to keep high quantum efficiency with a high operability above 110K, F/4.

  10. Feasibility of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes as an Alternative Light Source for Photocatalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Langanf H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Soler, Robert; Maxik, Fred; Coutts, Janelle; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) could serve as an alternative photon source efficiently for heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO). An LED module consisting of 12 high-power UV-A LEDs was designed to be interchangeable with a UV-A fluorescent black light blue (BLB) lamp in a Silica-Titania Composite (STC) packed bed annular reactor. Lighting and thermal properties were characterized to assess the uniformity and total irradiant output. A forward current of (I(sub F)) 100 mA delivered an average irradiance of 4.0 m W cm(exp -2), which is equivalent to the maximum output of the BLB, but the irradiance of the LED module was less uniform than that of the BLB. The LED- and BLB-reactors were tested for the oxidization of 50 ppmv ethanol in a continuous flow-through mode with 0.94 sec space time. At the same irradiance, the UV-A LED reactor resulted in a lower PCO rate constant than the UV-A BLB reactor (19.8 vs. 28.6 nM CO2 sec-I), and consequently lower ethanol removal (80% vs. 91%) and mineralization efficiency (28% vs. 44%). Ethanol mineralization increased in direct proportion to the irradiance at the catalyst surface. This result suggests that reduced ethanol mineralization in the LED- reactor could be traced to uneven irradiance over the photocatalyst, leaving a portion of the catalyst was under-irradiated. The potential of UV-A LEDs may be fully realized by optimizing the light distribution over the catalyst and utilizing their instantaneous "on" and "off' feature for periodic irradiation. Nevertheless, the current UV-A LED module had the same wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 13% as that of the UV-A BLB. These results demonstrated that UV-A LEDs are a viable photon source both in terms of WPE and PCO efficiency.

  11. A digital optical phase-locked loop for diode lasers based on field programmable gate array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhouxiang; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Kaikai; Lu, Xuanhui

    2012-09-01

    We have designed and implemented a highly digital optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for diode lasers in atom interferometry. The three parts of controlling circuit in this OPLL, including phase and frequency detector (PFD), loop filter and proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, are implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip. A structure type compatible with the model MAX9382/MCH12140 is chosen for PFD and pipeline and parallelism technology have been adapted in PID controller. Especially, high speed clock and twisted ring counter have been integrated in the most crucial part, the loop filter. This OPLL has the narrow beat note line width below 1 Hz, residual mean-square phase error of 0.14 rad2 and transition time of 100 ?s under 10 MHz frequency step. A main innovation of this design is the completely digitalization of the whole controlling circuit in OPLL for diode lasers.

  12. A digital optical phase-locked loop for diode lasers based on field programmable gate array

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zhouxiang; Zhang Xian; Huang Kaikai; Lu Xuanhui

    2012-09-15

    We have designed and implemented a highly digital optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for diode lasers in atom interferometry. The three parts of controlling circuit in this OPLL, including phase and frequency detector (PFD), loop filter and proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, are implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip. A structure type compatible with the model MAX9382/MCH12140 is chosen for PFD and pipeline and parallelism technology have been adapted in PID controller. Especially, high speed clock and twisted ring counter have been integrated in the most crucial part, the loop filter. This OPLL has the narrow beat note line width below 1 Hz, residual mean-square phase error of 0.14 rad{sup 2} and transition time of 100 {mu}s under 10 MHz frequency step. A main innovation of this design is the completely digitalization of the whole controlling circuit in OPLL for diode lasers.

  13. A digital optical phase-locked loop for diode lasers based on field programmable gate array.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhouxiang; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Kaikai; Lu, Xuanhui

    2012-09-01

    We have designed and implemented a highly digital optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for diode lasers in atom interferometry. The three parts of controlling circuit in this OPLL, including phase and frequency detector (PFD), loop filter and proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, are implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip. A structure type compatible with the model MAX9382?MCH12140 is chosen for PFD and pipeline and parallelism technology have been adapted in PID controller. Especially, high speed clock and twisted ring counter have been integrated in the most crucial part, the loop filter. This OPLL has the narrow beat note line width below 1 Hz, residual mean-square phase error of 0.14 rad(2) and transition time of 100 ?s under 10 MHz frequency step. A main innovation of this design is the completely digitalization of the whole controlling circuit in OPLL for diode lasers. PMID:23020359

  14. Lateral beam steering in mutual injection coupled Y-branch grating-surface-emitting diode laser arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, J.M.; Evans, G.A.; Carlson, N.W.; Bour, D.P.; Lurie, M.; Palfrey, S.L.; Amantea, R.; Liew, S.K.; Carr, L.A.; James, E.A.; Kirk, J.B.; Reichert, W.F. )

    1990-01-15

    We have observed lateral electronic beam steering of light emitted by monolithic, two-dimensional, grating-surface-emitting, mutually injection coupled arrays of diode lasers in the AlGaAs/GaAs system. Positionally staggered Y-branch subarrays are optically connected through pumped waveguides which provide the required phase shift. These observations taken in conjunction with previously reported work on steering such arrays in the longitudinal direction now demonstrate, for the first time, monolithic, two-dimensional-coherent-diode-laser arrays that may be electronically steered in two orthogonal directions.

  15. A photon-counting photodiode array detector for far ultraviolet (FUV) astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartig, G. F.; Moos, H. W.; Pembroke, R.; Bowers, C.

    1982-01-01

    A compact, stable, single-stage intensified photodiode array detector designed for photon-counting, far ultraviolet astronomy applications employs a saturable, 'C'-type MCP (Galileo S. MCP 25-25) to produce high gain pulses with a narrowly peaked pulse height distribution. The P-20 output phosphor exhibits a very short decay time, due to the high current density of the electron pulses. This intensifier is being coupled to a self-scanning linear photodiode array which has a fiber optic input window which allows direct, rigid mechanical coupling with minimal light loss. The array was scanned at a 250 KHz pixel rate. The detector exhibits more than adequate signal-to-noise ratio for pulse counting and event location.

  16. Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of the Effect of Adding a Heat-Bypass Structure to a Laser Diode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Setsuko; Nakada, Hiroshi; Abe, Tetsuo

    1993-03-01

    Because heat transferred between closely spaced elements in a compact laser diode array shortens array lifetime and affects the elements operating characteristics, we theoretically and experimentally evaluated the effect of a heat-bypass structure by calculating and measuring the thermal resistance of array elements. Three-dimensional boundary element analysis showed that the heat bypass reduces the thermal resistance by an amount that is independent of cavity length. Measured junction voltages and wavelengths for a 50-?m-spaced 8-beam laser diode array with 600-?m-long cavities showed that the bypass structure reduces the thermal resistance resulting from simultaneous operation of all eight elements by more than 40%. And that the reduction is greatest for elements whose thermal resistance is highest. The resultant reduction in the junction temperature of array elements operating at 100 mW should increase array lifetime at least threefold.

  17. Near-infrared compressive line sensing imaging system using individually addressable laser diode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Bing; Hou, Weilin; Caimi, Frank M.; Dalgleish, Fraser R.; Vuorenkoski, Anni K.; Gong, Sue; Britton, Walter

    2015-05-01

    The compressive line sensing (CLS) active imaging system was proposed and validated through a series of test-tank experiments. As an energy-efficient alternative to the traditional line-scan serial image, the CLS system will be highly beneficial for long-duration surveillance missions using unmanned, power-constrained platforms such as unmanned aerial or underwater vehicles. In this paper, the application of an active spatial light modulator (SLM), the individually addressable laser diode array, in a CLS imaging system is investigated. In the CLS context, active SLM technology can be advantageous over passive SLMs such as the digital micro-mirror device. Initial experimental results are discussed.

  18. Self-frequency doubling of a laser diode array pumped Q-switched NYAB laser

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Fan, Q. . Dept. of Optical Engineering); Zhou, F.; Ma, J.; Xue, Q. )

    1994-04-01

    Experimental results of a Q-switched NYAB self-frequency-doubled laser end-pumped by a laser diode array (LDA) are reported. A cw 0.5-W LDA was used as an end-pumping source. An average output power of 6 mW and repetition rates of 16 kHz at 0.53 [mu]m were achieved. The pulse durations at 1.06 and 0.53 [mu]m were 45 and 25 ns, respectively, and a peak output power at 0.53 [mu]m of 20 W was achieved at the Q-switching repetition rate of 100 Hz.

  19. Emitter failure and thermal facet load in high-power laser diode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchert, R.; Tomm, J. W.; Jaeger, A.; Brwolff, A.; Luft, J.; Spth, W.

    We report on micro-Raman facet temperature measurements carried out in asymmetrically coated high-power laser diode arrays. Facet temperatures of up to 600 C are reproducibly found for high-power operation. The data are modeled using an approach based on the finite element method. Thus we are able to infer the power management of the device from the facet temperature data. Up to 7% of the total heat power is concentrated at the front facet. Furthermore, we determine the thermal load at the front facet versus the operation current, which is a key parameter for modeling high-power devices.

  20. Quantitative Detection of Combustion Species using Ultra-Violet Diode Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, J. S.; Peterson, K. A.

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Sciences is developing a new microgravity combustion diagnostic based on UV diode lasers. The instrument will allow absolute concentration measurements of combustion species on a variety of microgravity combustion platforms including the Space Station. Our approach uses newly available room temperature UV diode lasers, thereby keeping the instrument compact, rugged and energy efficient. The feasibility of the technique was demonstrated by measurement of CH radicals in laboratory flames. Further progress in fabrication technology of UV diode lasers at shorter wavelengths and higher power will result in detection of transient species in the deeper UV. High sensitivity detection of combustion radicals is provided with wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy.

  1. New silicon technologies enable high-performance arrays of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Gulinatti, Angelo; Rech, Ivan; Maccagnani, Piera; Cova, Sergio; Ghioni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    In order to fulfill the requirements of many applications, we recently developed a new technology aimed at combining the advantages of traditional thin and thick silicon Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD). In particular we demonstrated single-pixel detectors with a remarkable improvement in the Photon Detection Efficiency at the longer wavelengths (e.g. 40% at 800nm) while maintaining a timing jitter better than 100ps. In this paper we will analyze the factors the currently prevent the fabrication of arrays of SPADs by adopting such a Red-Enhanced (RE) technology and we will propose further modifications to the device structure that will enable the fabrication of high performance RE-SPAD arrays for photon timing applications. PMID:24353395

  2. Investigation of spectra unfolded for a filtered x-ray diode array with improved smoothness.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Huang, Xian-Bin; Zhang, Si-Qun; Yang, Li-Bing; Xie, Wei-Ping; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2009-06-01

    An unfolding algorithm using parabolic B-splines to smoothly reconstruct the soft x-ray spectra from the measurements of a filtered x-ray diode array is proposed. This array has been fabricated for the study of the soft x ray emitted by Z-pinch plasma. Unfolding results show that for the simulated noise-free blackbody spectra with temperature ranging from 20 to 250 eV, both the spectra and the total power are accurately recovered. Typical experimental waveforms along with the unfolded spectra and total power of x rays are presented. Possible defects due to the adoption of parabolic B-splines instead of conventionally used histograms are discussed. PMID:19566195

  3. Label-free specific detection of femtomolar cardiac troponin using an integrated nanoslit array fluidic diode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifan; Yobas, Levent

    2014-12-10

    We demonstrate here for the first time the utility of an integrated nanofluidic diode for detecting and quantifying physiologically relevant macromolecules. Troponin T, a key human cardiac protein biomarker, was selectively and rapidly detected free of labels for concentrations down to 10 fg/mL (? 0.3 fM) in buffer as well as 10 pg/mL (? 300 fM) in untreated human serum. This ultrasensitive detection arises from monolithic integration of a unique nanofluidic diode structure that is highly robust and amenable to site-specific surface modification. The structure features a planar nanoslit array where each nanoslit is defined at a nominal width of 70 nm over a micrometer-scale silicon trench without the use of high-resolution patterning techniques. Through vapor deposition, a glass layer is placed at a nonuniform thickness, tapering the trench profile upward and contributing to the triangular nanoslit structure. This asymmetric profile is essential for ionic current rectification noted here at various pH values, ionic strengths, and captured target species, which modulate the surface-charge density within the sensitive region of the nanoslit. The nanoslit, unlike nanopores, offers only 1D confinement, which appears to be adequate for reasonable rectification. The measurements are found in quantitative agreement with the diode simulations for the first time based on a pH- and salt-dependent surface-charge model. PMID:25366228

  4. Arrays of high quality SAM-based junctions and their application in molecular diode based logic.

    PubMed

    Wan, Albert; Suchand Sangeeth, C S; Wang, Lejia; Yuan, Li; Jiang, Li; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2015-12-14

    This paper describes a method to fabricate a microfluidic top-electrode that can be utilized to generate arrays of self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions. The top-electrodes consist of a liquid-metal of GaOx/EGaIn mechanically stabilized in microchannels and through-holes in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); these top-electrodes form molecular junctions by directly placing them onto the SAM supported by template-stripped (TS) Ag or Au bottom-electrodes. Unlike conventional techniques to form multiple junctions, our method does not require lithography to pattern the bottom-electrode and is compatible with TS bottom-electrodes, which are ultra-flat with large grains, free from potential contamination of photoresist residues, and do not have electrode-edges where the molecules are unable to pack well. We formed tunneling junctions with n-alkanethiolate SAMs in yields of ?80%, with good reproducibility and electrical stability. Temperature dependent J(V) measurements indicated that the mechanism of charge transport across the junction is coherent tunneling. To demonstrate the usefulness of these junctions, we formed molecular diodes based on SAMs with Fc head groups. These junctions rectify currents with a rectification ratio R of 45. These molecular diodes were incorporated in simple electronic circuitry to demonstrate molecular diode-based Boolean logic. PMID:26537895

  5. A ten-element array of individually addressable channeled-substrate-planar AlGaAs diode lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, D. B.; Goldstein, B.; Bednarz, J. P.; Harvey, M. G.; Dinkel, N. A.

    1987-01-01

    The fabrication of arrays of channeled-substrate-planar (CSP) AlGaAs diode lasers which emit up to 150 mW CW in a single spatial mode and are applicable to mulitchannel optical recording systems is described. The CSP diode lasers are incorporated in ten-array geometry, and each array is 1.95 nm in width and 100 microns in thickness and is cleaved to have a cavity length of 200 microns and coated to produce 90-percent reflectivity on the back facet and 10-percent reflectivity on the front facet. The array is attached to a thermoelectrically cooled submount. The optical output power versus input current characteristics for the array are evaluated, and the lateral far-field intensity profiles for each of the lasers (at 30 mW CW) and CW spectra of the lasers are analyzed.

  6. Development and characterisation of a silicon PIN diode array based highly sensitive portable continuous radon monitor.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, P; Sahoo, B K; Raman, Anand; Mayya, Y S

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the development and characterisation of a portable and highly sensitive continuous radon monitor (CRM) based on an array of in-house developed silicon PIN diode detectors. The development of this system was initiated in view of the limitations of the available similar radon measurement systems with regards to low sensitivity. The system utilises a hemispherical metal chamber (1L capacity) for active air sampling. A quantitative estimation of radon concentration is carried out through alpha spectroscopy of electro-deposited (222)Rn decay products on the detector surface. The system was successfully tested and characterised in laboratory conditions. The characterisation experiments included optimisation of sensitivity, calibration with respect to linearity and a study of the influence of humidity on its performance. The novel PIN diode array design yields a high sensitivity of 1.760.003countsh(-1)/(Bqm(-3)) at a relative humidity level of 10% in the sampled air, which is more than two times as high as that reported for similar commercial systems. This instrument displayed a minimum detectable activity level of 0.80Bqm(-3). PMID:24334292

  7. Optical and Thermal Analyses of High-Power Laser Diode Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilyev, Aleksey; Allan, Graham R.; Schafer, John; Stephen, Mark A.; Young, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    An important need, especially for space-borne applications, is the early identification and rejection of laser diode arrays which may fail prematurely. The search for reliable failure predictors is ongoing and has led to the development of two techniques, infrared imagery and monitoring the Temporally-resolved and Spectrally-Resolved (TSR) optical output from which temperature of the device can be measured. This is in addition to power monitoring on long term burn stations. A direct measurement of the temperature of the active region is an important parameter as the lifetime of Laser Diode Arrays (LDA) decreases exponentially with increasing temperature. We measure the temperature from time-resolving the spectral emission in an analogous method to Voss et al. In this paper we briefly discuss the measurement setup and present temperature data derived from thermal images and TSR data for two differently designed high-power 808 nanometer LDA packages of similar specification operated in an electrical and thermal environment that mimic the expected operational conditions.

  8. Calibration and linearity verification of capacitance type cryo level indicators using cryogenically multiplexed diode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunanithi, R.; Jacob, Subhash; Singh Gour, Abhay Singh; Das, M.; Nadig, D. S.; Prasad, M. V. N.

    2012-06-01

    In space application the precision level measurement of cryogenic liquids in the storage tanks is done using triple redundant capacitance level sensor, for control and safety point of view. The linearity of each sensor element depends upon the cylindricity and concentricity of the internal and external electrodes. The complexity of calibrating all sensors together has been addressed by two step calibration methodology which has been developed and used for the calibration of six capacitance sensors. All calibrations are done using Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) as a cryogenic fluid. In the first step of calibration, one of the elements of Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) level sensor is calibrated using 700mm eleven point discrete diode array. Four wire method has been used for the diode array. Thus a linearity curve for a single element of LH2 is obtained. In second step of calibration, using the equation thus obtained for the above sensor, it is considered as a reference for calibrating remaining elements of the same LH2 sensor and other level sensor (either Liquid Oxygen (LOX) or LH2). The elimination of stray capacitance for the capacitance level probes has been attempted. The automatic data logging of capacitance values through GPIB is done using LabVIEW 8.5.

  9. Spatially resolved bolometric measurement and electron temperature measurement using diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Koguchi, H.; Shimada, T.; Asai, T.; Yagi, Y.; Hirano, Y.; Sakakita, H.

    2004-10-01

    In this article, the measurement system for the total radiation and electron temperature profiles to be installed in a reversed-field pinch machine, toroidal pinch experiment, RX [TPE-RX, R/a=1.72/0.45 m, Ipdiode arrays. Each array can measure radiation along 20 lines of sight and the radial profile of the radiation. One set of the arrays is used for the bolometric measurement in the range from visible light to soft x-ray. Two sets of the arrays are used for the soft-x ray and electron temperature measurements employing a double-filter method. We will use this system to investigate the plasma-wall interaction, radiation loss, and confinement properties in the core plasma region. We will extend the use of this system for tomographic analysis of electron temperature, a concept of which is also presented.

  10. Multiple detector focal plane array ultraviolet spectrometer for the AMPS laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of meeting the requirements of the amps spectroscopic instrumentation by using a multi-element focal plane detector array in a conventional spectrograph mount was examined. The requirements of the detector array were determined from the optical design of the spectrometer which in turn depends on the desired level of resolution and sensitivity required. The choice of available detectors and their associated electronics and controls was surveyed, bearing in mind that the data collection rate from this system is so great that on-board processing and reduction of data are absolutely essential. Finally, parallel developments in instrumentation for imaging in astronomy were examined, both in the ultraviolet (for the Large Space Telescope as well as other rocket and satellite programs) and in the visible, to determine what progress in that area can have direct bearing on atmospheric spectroscopy.

  11. Efficiency of transverse pumping of a solid-state pulsed Nd:YAG laser by laser diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Abazadze, Aleksandr Yu; Zverev, Georgii M; Kolbatskov, Yurii M

    2002-03-31

    A Nd{sup 3+}:YAG laser with a cylindrical active element transversely pumped by quasi-continuous laser-diode arrays located around its side surface is studied experimentally. The developed pumping modules with symmetric and asymmetric geometries provide the differential efficiency of 48% and 55% for multimode free-running lasing upon pumping of elements of diameter 3 and 5 mm, respectively. Under the conditions corresponding to this efficiency of utilisation of radiation emitted by laser diode arrays, laser pulses with energy of 28 and 55 mJ are generated in the Q-switching mode.

  12. Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa?-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Connie, A T; Nguyen, H P T; Kibria, M G; Zhao, S; Sharif, S; Shih, I; Mi, Z

    2013-08-30

    High crystal quality, vertically aligned AlxGa1-xN nanowire based double heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs) are grown on Si substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Such AlxGa1-xN nanowires exhibit unique core-shell structures, which can significantly suppress surface nonradiative recombination. We successfully demonstrate highly efficient AlxGa1-xN nanowire array based LEDs operating at ?340 nm. Such nanowire devices exhibit superior electrical and optical performance, including an internal quantum efficiency of ?59% at room temperature, a relatively small series resistance, highly stable emission characteristics, and the absence of efficiency droop under pulsed biasing conditions. PMID:23899873

  13. New red phosphor for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with high color-purity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhengliang; He, Pei; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Jishou; Gong, Menglian

    2010-02-15

    New red phosphors, Na{sub 5}Eu(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4} doped with boron oxide were prepared by the solid-state reaction. Their structure and photo-luminescent properties were investigated. With the introduction of boron oxide, the red emission intensity of the phosphors under 395 nm excitation is strengthened, with high color-purity (x = 0.673, y = 0.327). The single red light-emitting diode was obtained by combining InGaN chip with the red phosphor, bright red light can be observed by naked eyes from the red light-emitting diodes under a forward bias of 20 mA.

  14. Feasibility study of using a Zener diode as the selection device for bipolar RRAM and WORM memory arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingtao; Fu, Liping; Tao, Chunlan; Jiang, Xinyu; Sun, Pengxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cross-bar arrays are usually used for the high density application of resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices. However, cross-talk interference limits an increase in the integration density. In this paper, the Zener diode is proposed as a selection device to suppress the sneak current in bipolar RRAM arrays. Measurement results show that the Zener diode can act as a good selection device, and the sneak current can be effectively suppressed. The readout margin is sufficiently improved compared to that obtained without the selection device. Due to the improvement for the reading disturbance, the size of the cross-bar array can be enhanced to more than 103 103. Furthermore, the possibility of using a write-once-read-many-times (WORM) cross-bar array is also demonstrated by connecting the Zener diode and the bipolar RRAM in series. These results strongly suggest that using a Zener diode as a selection device opens up great opportunities to realize high density bipolar RRAM arrays.

  15. High efficiency single Ag nanowire/p-GaN substrate Schottky junction-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Hasan, T.; Li, X.; Xu, P.; Wang, Y.; Shen, X.; Liu, X.; Yang, Q.

    2015-02-01

    We report a high efficiency single Ag nanowire (NW)/p-GaN substrate Schottky junction-based ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED). The device demonstrates deep UV free exciton electroluminescence at 362.5 nm. The dominant emission, detectable at ultralow (<1 ?A) forward current, does not exhibit any shifts when the forward current is increased. External quantum efficiency (EQE) as high as 0.9% is achieved at 25 ?A current at room temperature. Experiments and simulation analysis show that devices fabricated with thinner Ag NWs have higher EQE. However, for very thin Ag NWs (diameter < 250 nm), this trend breaks down due to heat accumulation in the NWs. Our simple device architecture offers a potentially cost-effective scheme to fabricate high efficiency Schottky junction-based UV-LEDs.

  16. Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djavid, Mehrdad; Mi, Zetian

    2016-02-01

    The performance of conventional AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes has been limited by the extremely low light extraction efficiency (<10%), due to the unique transverse magnetic (TM) polarized light emission. Here, we show that, by exploiting the lateral side emission, the extraction efficiency of TM polarized light can be significantly enhanced in AlGaN nanowire structures. Using the three-dimensional finite-difference time domain simulation, we demonstrate that the nanowire structures can be designed to inhibit the emission of guided modes and redirect trapped light into radiated modes. A light extraction efficiency of more than 70% can, in principle, be achieved by carefully optimizing the nanowire size, nanowire spacing, and p-GaN thickness.

  17. Advantages of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with a superlattice electron blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pai; Bao, Xianglong; Liu, Songqing; Ye, Chunya; Yuan, Zhaorong; Wu, Yukun; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong

    2015-09-01

    The properties of 298 nm AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) with different Al mole compositions in the conventional electron blocking layer (EBL) are discussed in this paper, the optimal Al mole composition of the conventional EBL is identified at 0.8. The improved structure with an AlGaN/AlGaN superlattice (SL) electron blocking layer (EBL) was then investigated numerically. The electrical and optical properties, band diagrams, carrier concentrations, radiative recombination rates and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) were investigated by APSYS software, and results show that the deep UV LED with superlattice EBL performed much better than the conventional EBL deep UV LED, attributed to reduced electrons leakage and increased holes injection.

  18. Optical properties of nanopillar AlGaN/GaN MQWs for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Peng; Yan, Jianchang; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Junxi; Geng, Chong; Zheng, Haiyang; Wei, Xuecheng; Yan, Qingfeng; Li, Jinmin

    2014-03-10

    Nanopillar AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by nanosphere lithography and dry-etching. The optical properties of the nanopillar LEDs were characterized by both temperature-dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Compared to an as-grown sample, the nanopillar sample has a PL emission peak blue-shift of 7 meV, a 42% enhanced internal quantum efficiency at room temperature and a reduced radiative recombination lifetime from 870 picosecond to 621 picosecond at 7K. These results are directly from the suppressed quantum confined stark effect that is due to the strain relaxation in the nanopillar MQWs, further revealed by micro-Raman measurement. Additionally, finite-difference time domain simulation also proves better light extraction efficiency in the nanopillar LEDs. PMID:24922241

  19. Optical properties of nanopillar AlGaN/GaN MQWs for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Peng; Yan, Jianchang; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Junxi; Geng, Chong; Zheng, Haiyang; Wei, Xuecheng; Yan, Qingfeng; Li, Jinmin

    2014-03-10

    Nanopillar AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by nanosphere lithography and dry-etching. The optical properties of the nanopillar LEDs were characterized by both temperature-dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Compared to an as-grown sample, the nanopillar sample has a PL emission peak blue-shift of 7 meV, a 42% enhanced internal quantum efficiency at room temperature and a reduced radiative recombination lifetime from 870 picosecond to 621 picosecond at 7K. These results are directly from the suppressed quantum confined stark effect that is due to the strain relaxation in the nanopillar MQWs, further revealed by micro-Raman measurement. Additionally, finite-difference time domain simulation also proves better light extraction efficiency in the nanopillar LEDs. PMID:24800288

  20. Characterization of biological materials by frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime measurements using ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ukauskas, A.; Vitta, P.; Kuril?ik, N.; Jur?nas, S.; Bakien?, E.

    2008-01-01

    Recently developed deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) emit at wavelengths short enough to excitate fluorescence in most biological autofluorophores. We demonstrate the possibility of harmonical modulation of the output of group-III-nitride based UV LEDs ranging from 255 to 375 nm at frequencies up to 200 MHz. This enables the application of UV LEDs for frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime sensing with subnanosecond resolution. We report on measurements of fluorescence decay time in common biofluorophores (tyrosine, tryptophan, NADPH, NADH, collagen, DPA, elastin and riboflavin) using commercially available UV LEDs. We demonstrate the capacity of a multichannel LED-based frequency-resolved measurement technique to discriminate between Bacillus globigii and a variety of ambient interferants such as diesel fuel, paper, cotton, dust, etc.

  1. Tailoring of polarization in electron blocking layer for electron confinement and hole injection in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yu-Hsuan; Pilkuhn, Manfred H.; Fu, Yi-Keng; Chu, Mu-Tao; Huang, Shyh-Jer E-mail: totaljer48@gmail.com; Su, Yan-Kuin E-mail: totaljer48@gmail.com; Wang, Kang L.

    2014-03-21

    The influence of the AlGaN electron blocking layer (EBL) with graded aluminum composition on electron confinement and hole injection in AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated. The light output power of LED with graded AlGaN EBL was markedly improved, comparing to LED with conventional EBL. In experimental results, a high increment of 86.7% can be obtained in light output power. Simulation analysis shows that via proper modification of the barrier profile from the last barrier of the active region to EBL, not only the elimination of electron overflow to p-type layer can be achieved but also the hole injection into the active region can be enhanced, compared to a conventional LED structure. The dominant factor to the performance improvement is shown to be the modulation of polarization field by the graded Al composition in EBL.

  2. Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Christoph; Guttmann, Martin; Feneberg, Martin; Wernicke, Tim; Mehnke, Frank; Kuhn, Christian; Rass, Jens; Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Knauer, Arne; Kueller, Viola; Weyers, Markus; Goldhahn, Rüdiger; Kneissl, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The optical polarization of emission from ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on (0001)-oriented AlxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) has been studied by simulations and electroluminescence measurements. With increasing aluminum mole fraction in the quantum well x, the in-plane intensity of transverse-electric (TE) polarized light decreases relative to that of the transverse-magnetic polarized light, attributed to a reordering of the valence bands in AlxGa1-xN. Using k ṡ p theoretical model calculations, the AlGaN MQW active region design has been optimized, yielding increased TE polarization and thus higher extraction efficiency for bottom-emitting LEDs in the deep UV spectral range. Using (i) narrow quantum wells, (ii) barriers with high aluminum mole fractions, and (iii) compressive growth on patterned aluminum nitride sapphire templates, strongly TE-polarized emission was observed at wavelengths as short as 239 nm.

  3. High efficiency single Ag nanowire/p-GaN substrate Schottky junction-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Li, X.; Xu, P.; Wang, Y.; Shen, X.; Liu, X.; Yang, Q.; Hasan, T.

    2015-02-02

    We report a high efficiency single Ag nanowire (NW)/p-GaN substrate Schottky junction-based ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED). The device demonstrates deep UV free exciton electroluminescence at 362.5 nm. The dominant emission, detectable at ultralow (<1 μA) forward current, does not exhibit any shifts when the forward current is increased. External quantum efficiency (EQE) as high as 0.9% is achieved at 25 μA current at room temperature. Experiments and simulation analysis show that devices fabricated with thinner Ag NWs have higher EQE. However, for very thin Ag NWs (diameter < 250 nm), this trend breaks down due to heat accumulation in the NWs. Our simple device architecture offers a potentially cost-effective scheme to fabricate high efficiency Schottky junction-based UV-LEDs.

  4. Ultraviolet laser quantum well intermixing based prototyping of bandgap tuned heterostructures for the fabrication of superluminescent diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, Romain; Moumanis, Khalid; Aimez, Vincent; Dubowski, Jan J.

    2016-04-01

    The ultraviolet laser induced quantum well intermixing process has been investigated for prototyping of multiple bandgap quantum well (QW) wafers designed for the fabrication of superluminescent diodes (SLDs). The process takes advantage of a krypton fluoride excimer laser (λ=248 nm) that by irradiating an InP layer capping GaInAs/GaInAsP QW heterostructure leads to the modification of its surface chemical composition and formation of point defects. A subsequent rapid thermal annealing step results in the selective area intermixing of the investigated heterostructures achieving a high quality bandgap tuned material for the fabrication of broad spectrum SLDs. The devices made from a 3-bandgap material are characterized by ~100 nm wide emission spectra with relatively flat profiles and emission exceeding 1 mW.

  5. Tunable absorption resonances in the ultraviolet for InP nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Aghaeipour, Mahtab; Anttu, Nicklas; Nylund, Gustav; Samuelson, Lars; Lehmann, Sebastian; Pistol, Mats-Erik

    2014-11-17

    The ability to tune the photon absorptance spectrum is an attracting way of tailoring the response of devices like photodetectors and solar cells. Here, we measure the reflectance spectra of InP substrates patterned with arrays of vertically standing InP nanowires. Using the reflectance spectra, we calculate and analyze the corresponding absorptance spectra of the nanowires. We show that we can tune absorption resonances for the nanowire arrays into the ultraviolet by decreasing the diameter of the nanowires. When we compare our measurements with electromagnetic modeling, we generally find good agreement. Interestingly, the remaining differences between modeled and measured spectra are attributed to a crystal-phase dependence in the refractive index of InP. Specifically, we find indication of significant differences in the refractive index between the modeled zinc-blende InP nanowires and the measured wurtzite InP nanowires in the ultraviolet. We believe that such crystal-phase dependent differences in the refractive index affect the possibility to excite optical resonances in the large wavelength range of 345 < ? < 390 nm. To support this claim, we investigated how resonances in nanostructures can be shifted in wavelength by geometrical tuning. We find that dispersion in the refractive index can dominate over geometrical tuning and stop the possibility for such shifting. Our results open the door for using crystal-phase engineering to optimize the absorption in InP nanowire-based solar cells and photodetectors. PMID:25402159

  6. Fabrication of an optical lens array using ultraviolet light and ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Satoki; Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro; Matsukawa, Mami

    2015-04-01

    A technique to form an optical lens array using an ultraviolet (UV)-curable resin and ultrasound was investigated. A UV-curable gel film was formed on a glass plate having four lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers. Excitation of the transducers generated a lattice flexural vibration mode on the glass plate. The acoustic radiation force acted to deform the surface of the gel film, so that a lens array could be fabricated on the gel film. The lens array was exposed to UV light under ultrasonication to cure the UV-curable film. The quality factor of the transducer resonance was decreased upon curing of the resin film because the cured resin dampened the vibration of the plate. The acoustic characteristics of the UV-curable gel film were measured by using an ultrasound pulse technique at the MHz range. The sound speed of the gel increased from 987 to 1006 m/s (increase of 1.9%) as the UV exposure time increased. The attenuation coefficient also increased and the larger attenuation of the resin caused the lens array to have a lower quality factor. PMID:25497498

  7. Far field beam pattern of one MW combined beam of laser diode array amplifiers for space power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Jin H.; Lee, Ja H.

    1989-01-01

    The far-field beam pattern and the power-collection efficiency are calculated for a multistage laser-diode-array amplifier consisting of about 200,000 5-W laser diode arrays with random distributions of phase and orientation errors and random diode failures. From the numerical calculation it is found that the far-field beam pattern is little affected by random failures of up to 20 percent of the laser diodes with reference of 80 percent receiving efficiency in the center spot. The random differences in phases among laser diodes due to probable manufacturing errors is allowed to about 0.2 times the wavelength. The maximum allowable orientation error is about 20 percent of the diffraction angle of a single laser diode aperture (about 1 cm). The preliminary results indicate that the amplifier could be used for space beam-power transmission with an efficiency of about 80 percent for a moderate-size (3-m-diameter) receiver placed at a distance of less than 50,000 km.

  8. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward I.

    2016-01-01

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].

  9. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Edward I. Cole, Jr.

    2016-01-12

    In this study, laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes(LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increasedmore » leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopyanalysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].« less

  10. A 10 10 Gb/s DFB laser diode array fabricated using a SAG technique.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Kee; Leem, Yong Ahn; Han, Young Tak; Lee, Chul Wook; Kim, Ki Soo; Oh, Su Hwan

    2014-04-21

    We present a ten-channel distributed feedback laser diode array (DFB-LDA) developed for the transmission of 100-Gb/s (10 10 Gb/s) signals separated by an 8 nm wavelength grid at a center wavelength of 1.55 ?m. For the fabrication of this type of laser array, a selective area growth (SAG) technique, electron-beam lithography, and a reverse-mesa ridge waveguide LD processing technique were adopted to offer a tailored gain spectrum to each channel, providing both accurate lasing-wavelength control and excellent single-mode yield over all channels, and reducing the fabrication cost and electrical and thermal resistances. To evaluate the operational performance of the fabricated chip systematically, we also developed a sub-assembly module containing a ten-channel ?/4-shifted DFB-LDA, ten matching resistors, flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) wiring, and a thermistor on a metal optical bench. The static and dynamic properties of all channels of the fabricated array are examined in this paper. The developed sub-assembly module shows a side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of > 50 dB, a modulation bandwidth of > 10 GHz, and a clear eye-opening before and after a 2-km transmission with dynamic extinction ratio of > 5 dB. PMID:24787795

  11. Comparison of continuous versus pulsed ultraviolet light emitting diode use for the inactivation of Bacillus globigii spores.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tho; Racz, LeeAnn; Grimaila, Michael R; Miller, Michael; Harper, Willie F

    2014-01-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the ultraviolet (UV) range offer a promising alternative for the disinfection of water. LEDs have many advantages over conventional UV lamps but there are concerns related to the operating life of the LED lamps. In this project Bacillus globigii was inactivated using UV LED technology. The experimental strategy included using pulsed ultraviolet (PUV) output rather than continuous UV (CUV) current in order to reduce the power requirements and extend the life of the lamps. The kinetic profiles for CUV experiments reached 6-log inactivation faster than PUV at 9.1% duty cycle (approx. 840 vs. 5,000 s) but the PUV required lower fluence (365 vs. 665 J/m). In addition, the inactivation rate constants associated with PUV were generally higher than those of CUV (4.6-5.1 vs. 3.6-4.4 m/J), which supports the notion that high energy bursts are more effective at causing cellular damage. Multi-target kinetics applied to most of the kinetic observations and tailing effects were generally observed. PUV LED appears to have potential to extend the lifetime of the LEDs for inactivation of spore-forming pathogens. PMID:25401310

  12. Arrays of high quality SAM-based junctions and their application in molecular diode based logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Albert; Suchand Sangeeth, C. S.; Wang, Lejia; Yuan, Li; Jiang, Li; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes a method to fabricate a microfluidic top-electrode that can be utilized to generate arrays of self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions. The top-electrodes consist of a liquid-metal of GaOx/EGaIn mechanically stabilized in microchannels and through-holes in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); these top-electrodes form molecular junctions by directly placing them onto the SAM supported by template-stripped (TS) Ag or Au bottom-electrodes. Unlike conventional techniques to form multiple junctions, our method does not require lithography to pattern the bottom-electrode and is compatible with TS bottom-electrodes, which are ultra-flat with large grains, free from potential contamination of photoresist residues, and do not have electrode-edges where the molecules are unable to pack well. We formed tunneling junctions with n-alkanethiolate SAMs in yields of ~80%, with good reproducibility and electrical stability. Temperature dependent J(V) measurements indicated that the mechanism of charge transport across the junction is coherent tunneling. To demonstrate the usefulness of these junctions, we formed molecular diodes based on SAMs with Fc head groups. These junctions rectify currents with a rectification ratio R of 45. These molecular diodes were incorporated in simple electronic circuitry to demonstrate molecular diode-based Boolean logic.This paper describes a method to fabricate a microfluidic top-electrode that can be utilized to generate arrays of self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions. The top-electrodes consist of a liquid-metal of GaOx/EGaIn mechanically stabilized in microchannels and through-holes in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); these top-electrodes form molecular junctions by directly placing them onto the SAM supported by template-stripped (TS) Ag or Au bottom-electrodes. Unlike conventional techniques to form multiple junctions, our method does not require lithography to pattern the bottom-electrode and is compatible with TS bottom-electrodes, which are ultra-flat with large grains, free from potential contamination of photoresist residues, and do not have electrode-edges where the molecules are unable to pack well. We formed tunneling junctions with n-alkanethiolate SAMs in yields of ~80%, with good reproducibility and electrical stability. Temperature dependent J(V) measurements indicated that the mechanism of charge transport across the junction is coherent tunneling. To demonstrate the usefulness of these junctions, we formed molecular diodes based on SAMs with Fc head groups. These junctions rectify currents with a rectification ratio R of 45. These molecular diodes were incorporated in simple electronic circuitry to demonstrate molecular diode-based Boolean logic. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05533d

  13. Flexible and twistable non-volatile memory cell array with all-organic one diode-one resistor architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yongsung; Zeigler, David F.; Lee, Dong Su; Choi, Hyejung; Jen, Alex K.-Y.; Ko, Heung Cho; Kim, Tae-Wook

    2013-11-01

    Flexible organic memory devices are one of the integral components for future flexible organic electronics. However, high-density all-organic memory cell arrays on malleable substrates without cross-talk have not been demonstrated because of difficulties in their fabrication and relatively poor performances to date. Here we demonstrate the first flexible all-organic 64-bit memory cell array possessing one diode-one resistor architectures. Our all-organic one diode-one resistor cell exhibits excellent rewritable switching characteristics, even during and after harsh physical stresses. The write-read-erase-read output sequence of the cells perfectly correspond to the external pulse signal regardless of substrate deformation. The one diode-one resistor cell array is clearly addressed at the specified cells and encoded letters based on the standard ASCII character code. Our study on integrated organic memory cell arrays suggests that the all-organic one diode-one resistor cell architecture is suitable for high-density flexible organic memory applications in the future.

  14. High Power Laser Diode Array Qualification and Guidelines for Space Flight Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Eegholm, Niels; Stephen, Mark; Leidecker, Henning; Plante, Jeannette; Meadows, Byron; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Jamison, Tracee; LaRocca, Frank

    2006-01-01

    High-power laser diode arrays (LDAs) are used for a variety of space-based remote sensor laser programs as an energy source for diode-pumped solid-state lasers. LDAs have been flown on NASA missions including MOLA, GLAS and MLA and have continued to be viewed as an important part of the laser-based instrument component suite. There are currently no military or NASA-grade, -specified, or - qualified LDAs available for "off-the-shelf" use by NASA programs. There has also been no prior attempt to define a standard screening and qualification test flow for LDAs for space applications. Initial reliability studies have also produced good results from an optical performance and stability standpoint. Usage experience has shown, howeve that the current designs being offered may be susceptible to catastrophic failures due to their physical construction (packaging) combined with the electro-optical operational modes and the environmental factors of space application. design combined with operational mode was at the root of the failures which have greatly reduced the functionality of the GLAS instrument. The continued need for LDAs for laser-based science instruments and past catastrophic failures of this part type demand examination of LDAs in a manner which enables NASA to select, buy, validate and apply them in a manner which poses as little risk to the success of the mission as possible.

  15. High-performance, high-reliability 880-nm diode laser bars and fiber-array packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouksman, M.; Lehconen, S.; Haapamaa, J.; Kennedy, K.; Li, J.

    2006-02-01

    The 880 nm diode laser is emerging as the source of choice for pumping Nd:YV0 4 laser crystals because it offers higher pumping efficiency than 808 nm diode lasers[1]. This paper reports on recent progress in the development of high power, high reliability, 880 nm laser bars. Specifically, high performance has been achieved based on Coherent's aluminum-free active (AAA) epitaxial structures while maintaining lifetimes greater than 10,000 hours. This includes 30% fill factor, 1 cm bars on conductively cooled packages (CCP) operating at 51 W with proven manufacturability. We observed power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 56%. These lasers have a far field fast axis divergence of 32 (FWHM), and slow axis divergence of <7 (FWHM). Typical value of the FWHM of output spectrum is 2.5 nm. These bars were used to build fiber array packages (FAPs) operating at 45 W. We have achieved FAP PCE of 50% and numerical aperture of <0.12. Reliability of both bars and FAP was shown to exceed 10000h MTBF.

  16. Far-field pattern of a coherently combined beam from large-scale laser diode arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Jin H.; Lee, Ja H.; Williams, Michael D.

    1991-01-01

    The far-field pattern of a large-scale amplifier array (LSAA) consisting of a large number (2000) of diode laser amplifiers is numerically simulated, and the power collection efficiencies are determined. Random distributions of phase mismatches, misorientations, and element failures in the LSAA system are considered. Phase mismatches and misorientations of the element amplifiers are found to be the most critical parameters of those affecting the power-collection efficiency. Errors of 0.2 wavelength and 25 percent for phase and diffraction angle, respectively, cause a 10 percent reduction in power-collection efficiency. The results are used to evaluate the concept of space-laser power transmission. It is found that an overall transmission efficiency of 80 percent could be realized with a 5-m-diam. receiver at a distance of 10,000 km when an LSAA transmitter 6 m in diam. is aimed with state-of-the-art pointing accuracy.

  17. Tm,Ho:YLF laser end-pumped by a semiconductor diode laser array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An Ho:YLF crystal including Tm as sensitizers for the activator Ho, is optically pumped with a semiconductor diode laser array to generate 2.1 micron radiation with a pump power to output power of efficiency as high as 68 percent. The prior-art dual sensitizer system of Er and Tm requires cooling, such as by LN2, but by using Tm alone and decreasing the concentrations of Tm and Ho, and decreasing the length of the laser rod to about 1 cm, it has been demonstrated that laser operation can be obtained from a temperature of 77 K with an efficiency as high as 68 percent up to ambient room temperature with an efficiency at that temperature as high as 9 percent.

  18. A Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Array for Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, David Eric; Charbon, Edoardo; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design, characterization, and demonstration of a fully integrated single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) imager for use in time-resolved fluorescence imaging. The imager consists of a 64-by-64 array of active SPAD pixels and an on-chip time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on a delay-locked loop (DLL) and calibrated interpolators. The imager can perform both standard time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) and an alternative gated-window detection useful for avoiding pulse pile-up when measuring bright signal levels. To illustrate the use of the imager, we present measurements of the decay lifetimes of fluorescent dyes of several types with a timing resolution of 350 ps. PMID:23976789

  19. Spectral Linewidth Narrowing and Tunable Two-Color Laser Operation of Two Diode Laser Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bo; Braiman, Yehuda

    2012-01-01

    We propose and implement a common external cavity to narrow spectral linewidth of two broad-area laser diode arrays (LDAs) and align their center wavelengths. The locked center wavelength of two LDAs can be tuned in the range of {approx}10 nm by tuning the tilted angle of the diffraction grating. The output beams of two LDAs are spatially overlapped through the polarization beam splitter of the common external cavity, and the total output power equals the power of two LDAs. The center wavelength of each LDA can be independently tuned by shifting the corresponding fast-axis collimation lens. As a result, the high-power two-color LDA operation is demonstrated with the tunable wavelength difference of up to 2 nm ({approx}1 THz).

  20. A superconducting focal plane array for ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared astrophysics.

    PubMed

    Mazin, Benjamin A; Bumble, Bruce; Meeker, Seth R; O'Brien, Kieran; McHugh, Sean; Langman, Eric

    2012-01-16

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors, or MKIDs, have proven to be a powerful cryogenic detector technology due to their sensitivity and the ease with which they can be multiplexed into large arrays. A MKID is an energy sensor based on a photon-variable superconducting inductance in a lithographed microresonator, and is capable of functioning as a photon detector across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as a particle detector. Here we describe the first successful effort to create a photon-counting, energy-resolving ultraviolet, optical, and near infrared MKID focal plane array. These new Optical Lumped Element (OLE) MKID arrays have significant advantages over semiconductor detectors like charge coupled devices (CCDs). They can count individual photons with essentially no false counts and determine the energy and arrival time of every photon with good quantum efficiency. Their physical pixel size and maximum count rate is well matched with large telescopes. These capabilities enable powerful new astrophysical instruments usable from the ground and space. MKIDs could eventually supplant semiconductor detectors for most astronomical instrumentation, and will be useful for other disciplines such as quantum optics and biological imaging. PMID:22274494

  1. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of coal liquefaction process streams using normal-phase separation with uv diode array detection

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, D.J.; McKinney, D.E.; Hou, Lei; Hatcher, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    This study demonstrated the considerable potential of using two-dimensional, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with normal-phase separation and ultraviolet (UV) diode array detection for the examination of filtered process liquids and the 850{degrees}F{sup {minus}} distillate materials derived from direct coal liquefaction process streams. A commercially available HPLC column (Hypersil Green PAH-2) provided excellent separation of the complex mixture of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in coal-derived process streams process. Some characteristics of the samples delineated by separation could be attributed to processing parameters. Mass recovery of the process derived samples was low (5--50 wt %). Penn State believes, however, that, improved recovery can be achieved. High resolution mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) also were used in this study to characterize the samples and the HPLC fractions. The GC/MS technique was used to preliminarily examine the GC-elutable portion of the samples. The GC/MS data were compared with the data from the HPLC technique. The use of an ultraviolet detector in the HPLC work precludes detecting the aliphatic portion of the sample. The GC/MS allowed for identification and quantification of that portion of the samples. Further development of the 2-D HPLC analytical method as a process development tool appears justified based on the results of this project.

  2. Quality assurance of asymmetric jaw alignment using 2D diode array

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Mo; Yeung, Ivan W. T.; Moseley, Douglas J.; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: A method using a 2D diode array is proposed to measure the junction gap (or overlap) and dose with high precision for routine quality assurance of the asymmetric jaw alignment.Methods: The central axis (CAX) of the radiation field was determined with a 15 × 15 cm{sup 2} photon field at four cardinal collimator angles so that the junction gap (or overlap) can be measured with respect to the CAX. Two abutting fields having a field size of 15 cm (length along the axis parallel to the junction) × 7.5 cm (width along the axis perpendicular to the junction) were used to irradiate the 2D diode array (MapCHECK2) with 100 MU delivered at the photon energy of 6 MV. The collimator was slightly rotated at 15° with respect to the beam central axis to increase the number of diodes effective on the measurement of junction gap. The junction gap and dose measured in high spatial resolution were compared to the conventional methods using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and radiochromic film, respectively. In addition, the reproducibility and sensitivity of the proposed method to the measurements of junction gap and dose were investigated.Results: The junction gap (or overlap) and dose measured by MapCHECK2 agreed well to those measured by the conventional methods of EPID and film (the differences ranged from −0.01 to 0 cm and from −1.34% to 0.6% for the gap and dose, respectively). No variation in the repeat measurements of the junction gap was found whereas the measurements of junction dose were found to vary in quite a small range over the days of measurement (0.21%–0.35%). While the sensitivity of the measured junction gap to the actual junction gap applied was the ideal value of 1 cm/cm as expected, the sensitivity of the junction dose to the actual junction gap increased as the junction gap (or overlap) decreased (maximum sensitivity: 201.7%/cm).Conclusions: The initial results suggest that the method is applicable for a comprehensive quality assurance of the asymmetric jaw alignment.

  3. InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detector for a real-time compact terahertz line scanner.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Pil; Ko, Hyunsung; Park, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Namje; Yoon, Young-Jong; Shin, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Dae Yong; Lee, Dong Hun; Park, Kyung Hyun

    2013-11-01

    We present a terahertz (THz) broadband antenna-integrated 1 20 InGaAs Schottky barrier diode (SBD) array detector with an average responsivity of 98.5 V/W at a frequency of 250 GHz, which is measured without attaching external amplifiers and Si lenses, and an average noise equivalent power (NEP) of 106.6 pW/?Hz. The 3-dB bandwidth of the SBD detector is also investigated at approximately 180 GHz. For implementing an array-type SBD detector by a simple fabrication process to achieve a high yield, a structure comprising an SiN(x) layer instead of an air bridge between the anode and the cathode is designed. THz line beam imaging using a Gunn diode emitter with a center frequency of 250 GHz and a 1 20 SBD array detector is successfully demonstrated. PMID:24216813

  4. Fast single-photon avalanche diode arrays for laser Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Maruyama, Yuki; Charbon, Edoardo; Rossman, George R

    2011-09-15

    We incorporate newly developed solid-state detector technology into time-resolved laser Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the ability to distinguish spectra from Raman and fluorescence processes. As a proof of concept, we show fluorescence rejection on highly fluorescent mineral samples willemite and spodumene using a 128128 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array with a measured photon detection efficiency of 5%. The sensitivity achieved in this new instrument architecture is comparable to the sensitivity of a technically more complicated system using a traditional photocathode-based imager. By increasing the SPAD active area and improving coupling efficiency, we expect further improvements in sensitivity by over an order of magnitude. We discuss the relevance of these results to in situ planetary instruments, where size, weight, power, and radiation hardness are of prime concern. The potential large-scale manufacturability of silicon SPAD arrays makes them prime candidates for future portable and in situ Raman instruments spanning numerous applications where fluorescence interference is problematic. PMID:21931428

  5. Optical injection and spectral filtering of high-power ultraviolet laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Schfer, V M; Ballance, C J; Tock, C J; Lucas, D M

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate injection locking of high-power laser diodes operating at 397 nm. We achieve stable operation with an injection power of ?100???W and a slave laser output power of up to 110 mW. We investigate the spectral purity of the slave laser light via photon scattering experiments on a single trapped (40)Ca(+) ion. We show that it is possible to achieve a scattering rate indistinguishable from that of monochromatic light by filtering the laser light with a diffraction grating to remove amplified spontaneous emission. PMID:26371912

  6. Proposed Use of Zero Bias Diode Arrays as Thermal Electric Noise Rectifiers and Non-Thermal Energy Harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valone, Thomas F.

    2009-03-01

    The well known built-in voltage potential for some select semiconductor p-n junctions and various rectifying devices is proposed to be favorable for generating DC electricity at "zero bias" (with no DC bias voltage applied) in the presence of Johnson noise or 1/f noise which originates from the quantum vacuum (Koch et al., 1982). The 1982 Koch discovery that certain solid state devices exhibit measurable quantum noise has also recently been labeled a finding of dark energy in the lab (Beck and Mackey, 2004). Tunnel diodes are a class of rectifiers that are qualified and some have been credited with conducting only because of quantum fluctuations. Microwave diodes are also good choices since many are designed for zero bias operation. A completely passive, unamplified zero bias diode converter/detector for millimeter (GHz) waves was developed by HRL Labs in 2006 under a DARPA contract, utilizing a Sb-based "backward tunnel diode" (BTD). It is reported to be a "true zero-bias diode." It was developed for a "field radiometer" to "collect thermally radiated power" (in other words, 'night vision'). The diode array mounting allows a feed from horn antenna, which functions as a passive concentrating amplifier. An important clue is the "noise equivalent power" of 1.1 pW per root hertz and the "noise equivalent temperature difference" of 10° K, which indicate sensitivity to Johnson noise (Lynch, et al., 2006). There also have been other inventions such as "single electron transistors" that also have "the highest signal to noise ratio" near zero bias. Furthermore, "ultrasensitive" devices that convert radio frequencies have been invented that operate at outer space temperatures (3 degrees above zero point: 3° K). These devices are tiny nanotech devices which are suitable for assembly in parallel circuits (such as a 2-D array) to possibly produce zero point energy direct current electricity with significant power density (Brenning et al., 2006). Photovoltaic p-n junction cells are also considered for possible higher frequency ZPE transduction. Diode arrays of self-assembled molecular rectifiers or preferably, nano-sized cylindrical diodes are shown to reasonably provide for rectification of electron fluctuations from thermal and non-thermal ZPE sources to create an alternative energy DC electrical generator in the picowatt per diode range.

  7. Adding a heat bypass improves the thermal characteristics of a 50-micron spaced 8-beam laser diode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Setsuko; Nakada, Hiroshi

    1992-09-01

    Because heat transfered between closely spaced elements in a compact laser diode array shortens array lifetime and affects the elements' operating characteristics, we evaluated the effect of a heat-bypass structure by measuring the thermal resistance of array elements. We estimated thermal resistance by measuring differences between junction voltage before and after injecting subthreshold current pulses. The thermal resistances due to self heating were more than 20 percent lower after adding the heat-bypass structure. This effect was greatest for elements whose thermal resistance was initially highest, and it was proportional to the number of operating elements. The bypass structure therefore also reduced the thermal resistance resulting from simultaneous operation of all eight elements by more than 40 percent. The resultant reduction in the junction temperature of array elements operating at 100 mW would increase array lifetime at least threefold.

  8. Curved focal plane extreme ultraviolet detector array for a EUV camera on CHANG E lander.

    PubMed

    Ni, Q; Song, K; Liu, S; He, L; Chen, B; Yu, W

    2015-11-30

    A novel curved focal plane extreme ultraviolet (EUV) detector array designed for a moon-based EUV camera is demonstrated. The curved focal plane detector array operating in a pulse-counting mode consists of a curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack and an induced charge wedge-strip anode (WSA). The curved MCP is fabricated by firstly thermally slumping of the MCPs, and then followed by optical polishing and core glass etching. By using this technology, curved MCPs with a length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio of 80:1 and a radius of curvature of 150 mm have been successfully achieved. The performance of the curved MCP detector is fully characterized in terms of the background noise, pulse height distribution, gain, image linearity and spatial resolution. It is measured that a spatial resolution of 7.13 lp/mm can be achieved with a background noise of less than 0.3 counts/cm2?s. The characterization results indicate that the curved focal plane detector can fulfill the requirements of the moon-based EUV camera. PMID:26698708

  9. Combinatorial fabrication and studies of intense efficient ultraviolet--violet organic light-emitting device arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, L.; Savvate'ev, V.; Booher, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Shinar, J.

    2001-10-01

    Arrays of ultraviolet--violet (indium tin oxide)/[copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)]/[4,4'-bis(9-carbazolyl)biphenyl (CBP)]/[2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4oxadiazole (Bu-PBD)]/CsF/Al organic light-emitting devices, fabricated combinatorially using a sliding shutter technique, are described. Comparison of the OLED electroluminescence and CBP photoluminescence spectra indicates that the emission originates from the bulk of that layer. In arrays of devices in which the thickness of the CuPc and Bu--PBD were varied, but that of CBP was fixed at 50 nm, the optimal radiance R was obtained at CuPc and Bu--PBD thicknesses of 15 and 18 nm, respectively. At 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, R was 0.38 mW/cm{sup 2}, i.e., the external quantum efficiency was 1.25%; R increased to {approx}1.2 mW/cm{sup 2} at 100 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  10. Enhanced performance of nitride-based ultraviolet vertical-injection light-emitting diodes by non-insulation current blocking layer and textured surface.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yen Chih; Lin, Bing Cheng; Chen, Kuo Ju; Lin, Chien Chung; Lee, Po Tsung; Kuo, Hao Chung

    2014-12-01

    For the purpose of light extraction and efficiency enhancement, the nitride-based ultraviolet vertical-injection light-emitting diodes (UV-VLEDs) with non-insulation current blocking layer (n-CBL) and optimized textured surface were fabricated. The optical and electrical characteristics were investigated in this n-CBL UV-VLED. Furthermore, the efficiency of optimized structure was improved by 5?~?6 times compared to our reference. PMID:26088992

  11. Tomographic imaging of MHD activity in tokamaks by combining diode arrays and a tangentially viewing pinhole camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, A.; Fonck, R. J.; Powell, E. T.; Sesnic, S.

    1988-08-01

    Two 32-channel side-viewing soft x-ray diode arrays will be installed on PBX-M which will provide profile information in the horizontal and vertical directions with a time resolution up to 1 ?s. The information from these arrays can be reconstructed to provide a high time-resolution poloidal emission profile using a maximum-entropy-based technique which incorporates the reconstructed profile from a tangentially viewing soft x-ray pinhole camera. The pinhole camera provides lower time-resolution (about 5 ms) shape information which has been reconstructed with the assumption of toroidal symmetry. The pinhole camera information supplements the information from the diode arrays, allowing a reconstruction which can resolve MHD fluctuations of the equilibrium profile. The pinhole camera information need only be a better approximation to the real emission profile than the assumption of a flat profile since the algorithm uses it as a first-order solution which is perturbed by the information from the diode arrays. The algorithm can also explicitly include the bean-shaped PBX-M vacuum vessel and the vignetting of some detectors by the pusher coil.

  12. Bulk gallium nitride based electronic devices: Schottky diodes, Schottky-type ultraviolet photodetectors and metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) is one of most promising semiconductor materials for high power, high temperature and high frequency applications. Due to the lack of native substrates for homoepitaxial growth, GaN electronic devices have been conventionally fabricated on epitaxial GaN layers grown on foreign substrates, mostly sapphire. This scheme complicates the fabrication process and compromises the device performance due to the large amount of native defects within the heteroepitaxial layer. In order to fabricate devices with improved performance and simplified fabrication processes, it is desirable to utilize high quality bulk GaN substrates. Recent developments in Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) technology have enabled the successful growth of free-standing GaN wafers with very low dislocation densities. This dissertation reports some developments in the device fabrication, performance and simulation based on bulk GaN substrates. We have fabricated vertical geometry Schottky diodes with a full backside ohmic contact using a bulk GaN substrate. The absence of the sapphire substrate, improved ohmic contact scheme and the vertical transport mode greatly enhance the forward current conduction of the bulk GaN Schottky diode. The device also displays a high reverse breakdown voltage and ultrafast reverse recovery characteristics. The low dislocation density of the substrate allows the fabrication of Schottky-type ultraviolet photodetectors with ultralow dark currents. The large band gap of GaN provides the intrinsic "visible blindness" of the UV photodetector. The device displays a reasonably high responsivity and a good linearity of photocurrent with UV irradiance. We have also fabricated MOS capacitors using a thermally oxidized bulk GaN substrate. The thermal gallium oxide is characterized and its oxidation mechanism and etching process are explored. The thermal grown Ga2O 3/GaN interface displays a relatively lower interface density of state as compared to the deposited insulator/GaN interfaces. Schottky diode device simulation has been carried out using Medici software. The simulation shows the utilization of a SiO2 field plate can effectively mitigate the field crowding at the Schottky contact edge and increase the device breakdown voltages.

  13. Monolithic watt-level millimeter-wave diode-grid frequency tripler array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, R. J.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Rutledge, D. B.; Hancock, B.; Lieneweg, U.

    1988-01-01

    In order to provide watt-level CW output power throughout the millimeter and submillimeter wave region, thousands of solid-state diodes have been monolithically integrated using a metal grid to produce a highly efficient frequency multiplier. Devices considered include GaAs Schottky diodes, thin MOS diodes, and GaAs Barrier-Intrinsic-N(+)diodes. The performance of the present compact low-cost device has been theoretically and experimentally validated.

  14. Improved output power of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with sputtered AlN nucleation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, C. H.; Lin, Y. W.; Tsai, M. T.; Lin, B. C.; Li, Z. Y.; Tu, P. M.; Huang, S. C.; Hsu, Earl; Uen, W. Y.; Lee, W. I.; Kuo, H. C.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) at 380 nm were grown on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) by atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (AP-MOCVD). A sputtered AlN nucleation layer was utilized on the PSS to enhance the quality of the epitaxial layer. By using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, the full-width at half-maximum of the rocking curve shows that the UV-LEDs with sputtered AlN nucleation layer had better crystalline quality when compared to conventional GaN nucleation samples. From the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, it can be observed that the tip and sidewall portion of the pattern was smooth using the sputtered AlN nucleation layer. The threading dislocation densities (TDDs) are reduced from 6107 cm-2 to 2.5107 cm-2 at the interface between the u-GaN layers for conventional and AlN PSS devices, respectively. As a result, a much higher light output power was achieved. The light output power at an injection current of 20 mA was enhanced by 30%. Further photoluminescence (PL) measurement and numerical simulation confirm that this increase of output power can be attributed to the improvement of material quality and light extraction.

  15. Performance improvement of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with double electron blocking layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhang; Sun, Hui-Qing; Xu-Na, Li; Hao, Sun; Xuan-Cong, Fan; Zhu-Ding, Zhang; Zhi-You, Guo

    2016-02-01

    The AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LED) with double electron blocking layers (d-EBLs) on both sides of the active region are investigated theoretically. They possess many excellent performances compared with the conventional structure with only a single electron blocking layer, such as a higher recombination rate, improved light output power and internal quantum efficiency (IQE). The reasons can be concluded as follows. On the one hand, the weakened electrostatic field within the quantum wells (QWs) enhances the electron–hole spatial overlap in QWs, and therefore increases the probability of radioactive recombination. On the other hand, the added n-AlGaN layer can not only prevent holes from overflowing into the n-side region but also act as another electron source, providing more electrons. Project supported by the Special Strategic Emerging Industries of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2012A080304006), the Major Scientific and Technological Projects of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2014A2FC204), and the Forefront of Technology Innovation and Key Technology Projects of Guangdong Province, China (Grant Nos. 2014B010121001 and 2014B010119004).

  16. Effects of the number of quantum wells on the performance of near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyo-Shik; Zheng, Dong-Guang; Kim, Hyunsung; Shim, Jong-In; Shin, Dong-Soo

    2015-05-01

    Near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (NUV LEDs) with different numbers of quantum wells (QWs) were grown by using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) to investigate the effects of the number of QWs on the performance of NUV LEDs. With increasing number of QWs from 5 to 7 when using the same quantum well growth process, the normalized external quantum efficiencies (EQE) of 6- and 7-QW NUV LEDs are increased by 19.7% and 30.4%, respectively at 35 A/cm2 compared with that of the 5-QW NUV LED. As the number of QWs is increased from 5 to 7, the forward voltage at 350 mA is decreased from 3.94 V to 3.78 V and 3.77 V. The red shift of the peak wavelength is also decreased with increasing number of QWs. These data suggest that the improved EQE, the reduced peak wavelength shift, and the improved electrical characteristics are due to an increase in effective active volume with increasing number of QWs in NUV LEDs.

  17. Calibration of optimal use parameters for an ultraviolet light-emitting diode in eliminating bacterial contamination on needleless connectors

    PubMed Central

    Hutchens, M.P.; Drennan, S.L.; Cambronne, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Needleless connectors may develop bacterial contamination and cause central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) despite rigorous application of best-practice. Ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LED) are an emerging, increasingly affordable disinfection technology. We tested the hypothesis that a low-power UV LED could reliably eliminate bacteria on needleless central-line ports in a laboratory model of central-line contamination. Methods and Results Needleless central-line connectors were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus. A 285 nm UV LED was used in calibrated fashion to expose contaminated connectors. Ports were directly applied to agar plates and flushed with sterile saline, allowing assessment of bacterial survival on the port surface and in simulated usage flow-through fluid. UV applied to needleless central-line connectors was highly lethal at 05 cm distance at all tested exposure times. At distances >15 cm both simulated flow-through and port surface cultures demonstrated significant bacterial growth following UV exposure. Logarithmic-phase S. aureus subcultures were highly susceptible to UV induction/maintenance dosing. Conclusions Low-power UV LED doses at fixed time and distance from needleless central-line connector ports reduced cultivable S. aureus from >106 CFU to below detectable levels in this laboratory simulation of central-line port contamination. Significance and Impact of the study Low-power UV LEDs may represent a feasible alternative to current best-practice in connector decontamination. PMID:25801979

  18. Ultraviolet-enhanced light emitting diode employing individual ZnO microwire with SiO{sub 2} barrier layers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yingtian; Xu, Li; Dai, Jun; Ma, Yan; Chu, Xianwei; Zhang, Yuantao; Du, Guotong; Zhang, Baolin; Yin, Jingzhi

    2015-05-25

    This paper details the fabrication of n-ZnO single microwire (SMW)-based high-purity ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) with an added SiO{sub 2} barrier layer on the p-Si substrate. However, the current-voltage (I-V) curve exhibited non-ideal rectifying characteristics. Under forward bias, both UV and visible emissions could be detected by electroluminescence (EL) measurement. When bias voltage reached 60?V at room temperature, a UV emission spike occurred at 390?nm originating from the n-ZnO SMW. Compared with the EL spectrum of the n-ZnO SMW/p-Si heterojunction device without the SiO{sub 2} barrier layer, we saw improved UV light extraction efficiency from the current-blocking effect of the SiO{sub 2} layer. The intense UV emission in the n-ZnO SMW/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si heterojunction indicated that the SiO{sub 2} barrier layer can restrict the movement of electrons as expected and result in effective electron-hole recombination in ZnO SMW.

  19. Photovoltaic powered ultraviolet and visible light-emitting diodes for sustainable point-of-use disinfection of drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Gough Yumu; Roser, David; Corkish, Richard; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Jagals, Paul; Stuetz, Richard

    2014-09-15

    For many decades, populations in rural and remote developing regions will be unable to access centralised piped potable water supplies, and indeed, decentralised options may be more sustainable. Accordingly, improved household point-of-use (POU) disinfection technologies are urgently needed. Compared to alternatives, ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection is very attractive because of its efficacy against all pathogen groups and minimal operational consumables. Though mercury arc lamp technology is very efficient, it requires frequent lamp replacement, involves a toxic heavy metal, and their quartz envelopes and sleeves are expensive, fragile and require regular cleaning. An emerging alternative is semiconductor-based units where UV light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) are powered by photovoltaics (PV). Our review charts the development of these two technologies, their current status, and challenges to their integration and POU application. It explores the themes of UV-C-LEDs, non-UV-C LED technology (e.g. UV-A, visible light, Advanced Oxidation), PV power supplies, PV/LED integration and POU suitability. While UV-C LED technology should mature in the next 10 years, research is also needed to address other unresolved barriers to in situ application as well as emerging research opportunities especially UV-A, photocatalyst/photosensitiser use and pulsed emission options. PMID:24946032

  20. Wearable red-green-blue quantum dot light-emitting diode array using high-resolution intaglio transfer printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Moon Kee; Yang, Jiwoong; Kang, Kwanghun; Kim, Dong Chan; Choi, Changsoon; Park, Chaneui; Kim, Seok Joo; Chae, Sue In; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Ji Hoon; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2015-05-01

    Deformable full-colour light-emitting diodes with ultrafine pixels are essential for wearable electronics, which requires the conformal integration on curvilinear surface as well as retina-like high-definition displays. However, there are remaining challenges in terms of polychromatic configuration, electroluminescence efficiency and/or multidirectional deformability. Here we present ultra-thin, wearable colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diode arrays utilizing the intaglio transfer printing technique, which allows the alignment of red-green-blue pixels with high resolutions up to 2,460 pixels per inch. This technique is readily scalable and adaptable for low-voltage-driven pixelated white quantum dot light-emitting diodes and electronic tattoos, showing the best electroluminescence performance (14,000 cd m-2 at 7 V) among the wearable light-emitting diodes reported up to date. The device performance is stable on flat, curved and convoluted surfaces under mechanical deformations such as bending, crumpling and wrinkling. These deformable device arrays highlight new possibilities for integrating high-definition full-colour displays in wearable electronics.

  1. Wearable red–green–blue quantum dot light-emitting diode array using high-resolution intaglio transfer printing

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moon Kee; Yang, Jiwoong; Kang, Kwanghun; Kim, Dong Chan; Choi, Changsoon; Park, Chaneui; Kim, Seok Joo; Chae, Sue In; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Ji Hoon; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2015-01-01

    Deformable full-colour light-emitting diodes with ultrafine pixels are essential for wearable electronics, which requires the conformal integration on curvilinear surface as well as retina-like high-definition displays. However, there are remaining challenges in terms of polychromatic configuration, electroluminescence efficiency and/or multidirectional deformability. Here we present ultra-thin, wearable colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diode arrays utilizing the intaglio transfer printing technique, which allows the alignment of red–green–blue pixels with high resolutions up to 2,460 pixels per inch. This technique is readily scalable and adaptable for low-voltage-driven pixelated white quantum dot light-emitting diodes and electronic tattoos, showing the best electroluminescence performance (14,000 cd m−2 at 7 V) among the wearable light-emitting diodes reported up to date. The device performance is stable on flat, curved and convoluted surfaces under mechanical deformations such as bending, crumpling and wrinkling. These deformable device arrays highlight new possibilities for integrating high-definition full-colour displays in wearable electronics. PMID:25971194

  2. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: Phase-locking of a linear array of high-power laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, V. V.; Derzhavin, S. I.; Kuz'minov, V. V.; Mashkovskii, D. A.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Timoshkin, V. N.; Filonenko, V. A.

    1999-10-01

    Continuous emission was obtained from a phase-locked (in an external cavity) linear array of laser diodes with a power in excess of 10 W. This was done by using an efficient heat sink based on a porous structure with a thermal resistance better than 0.3 C W-1. For a power of 1.5 W, a divergence of the lobes was ~0.1 mrad in the plane of the pn junction, corresponding to the diffraction limit at the radiation wavelength ?=0.94 ?m for an aperture of 1 cm. The promising trends in the development of technologies based on laser-diode arrays are considered.

  3. Semiconductor ultra-violet light-emitting diodes for flash photolysis.

    PubMed

    Venkataramani, Sowmya; Davitt, Kristina M; Xu, Heng; Zhang, Jiayi; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Connors, Barry W; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2007-02-15

    'Caged' compounds are biological molecules that are rendered inactive by a protecting (cage) group. Photocleaving of chemical bonds associated with the cage species with intense UV light results in the release of the active molecules. This technique, called flash photolysis, allows for real-time study of interacting biological molecules and typically involves the use of high intensity lasers or flash lamps to deliver the UV pulse to the biological specimen [Callaway EM, Katz LC. Photostimulation using caged glutamate reveals functional circuitry in living brain slices. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993;90(16):7661-5; Parpura V, Haydon PG. "Uncaging" using optical fibers to deliver UV light directly to the sample. Croat Med J 1999;40(3):340-5; Denk W. Pulsing mercury arc lamps for uncaging and fast imaging. J Neurosci Methods 1997;72(1):39-42]. Here, we introduce compact, custom-designed semiconductor UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a viable and efficient source for performing flash photolysis studies, focusing specifically on the application of these devices for uncaging neurotransmitters locally onto neurons cultured on artificial substrates. The illumination design feature incorporated in these devices allows for direct placement of the UV source in immediate proximity with the neuron of interest and provides a means for optical triggering of activity in the neuronal culture. PMID:17000008

  4. High power 7-GHz bandwidth external-cavity diode laser array and its use in optically pumping singlet delta oxygen.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lei S; Nizamov, Boris; Madasamy, Pratheepan; Brasseur, Jason K; Henshaw, Tom; Neumann, David K

    2006-10-30

    Using a 14-mm thick volume Bragg grating, spectral bandwidth of a cw-operated diode laser array is narrowed to 7 GHz (FWHM). Total output power reaches 13.5 W cw, of which 86% is in the 7-GHz band. With such a narrow bandwidth, it is possible to temperature tune laser frequency across O(2) X(3)Pi --> b(1)Sigma(+) absorption line at 763.8 nm, efficiently generating O(2)((1)Delta) molecules. PMID:19529446

  5. High-performance timing electronics for single photon avalanche diode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acconcia, G.; Crotti, M.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2015-05-01

    Time correlated photon counting techniques have been proved to be very effective, especially when very fast and faint optical signals have to be recorded with extremely high precision. Nowadays, a steadily increasing number of applications require not only high performance in terms of photon detection efficiency, time resolution and linearity but also a high number of pixels operating in parallel. In order to combine the features of the most performing detectors and state of art timing electronics, an innovative architecture has been conceived and the main circuits have been designed. The system will employ dense arrays of custom technology Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) detectors, in order to perform a truly concurrent analysis of the sample, while it will have only a small number of acquisition chains with the ultimate purpose of obtaining very high performance while limiting area occupation and power dissipation. To this aim, three main circuits have been designed: first of all, a pick-up circuit capable of directly reading the signal coming from the sensor; secondly, a timing circuit to measure the arrival time of the each photon with picoseconds resolution and very high linearity and finally, a circuit to perform a dynamic binding between the many sensors and the few conversion chains.

  6. Validated HPLC-Diode Array Detector Method for Simultaneous Evaluation of Six Quality Markers in Coffee.

    PubMed

    Gant, Anastasia; Leyva, Vanessa E; Gonzalez, Ana E; Maruenda, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acid, N-methylpyridinium ion, and trigonelline are well studied nutritional biomarkers present in coffee, and they are indicators of thermal decomposition during roasting. However, no method is yet available for their simultaneous determination. This paper describes a rapid and validated HPLC-diode array detector method for the simultaneous quantitation of caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, N-methylpyridinium ion, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural that is applicable to three coffee matrixes: green, roasted, and instant. Baseline separation among all compounds was achieved in 30 min using a phenyl-hexyl RP column (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size), 0.3% aqueous formic buffer (pH 2.4)-methanol mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and a column temperature at 30°C. The method showed good linear correlation (r2>0.9985), precision (less than 3.9%), sensitivity (LOD=0.023-0.237 μg/mL; LOQ=0.069-0.711 μg/mL), and recovery (84-102%) for all compounds. This simplified method is amenable for a more complete routine evaluation of coffee in industry. PMID:25857885

  7. High-power, low-divergence, linear array of quasi-diffraction-limited beams supplied by tapered diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdet, Gilbert L.; Hassiaoui, Imen; McBride, Roy; Monjardin, J. F.; Baker, Howard; Michel, Nicolas; Krakowski, Michel

    2007-09-01

    We describe for the first time to our knowledge the performance for a linear array of tapered laser diodes with both fast- and slow-axis collimation using a microlens for fast-axis collimation and a laser-written phase plate for slow-axis collimation and correction of the residual fast-axis errors from lens aberrations, thermal lensing, astigmatism, pointing errors, and other wavefront distortions. The phase plate leads to M2 factor reductions of 1.5 for the lensed array following the fast axis and 2.6 for the whole bar following the slow axis.

  8. Fast-to-slow axis mode imaging for brightness enhancement of a broad-area laser diode array.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew M; Gopinath, Juliet T

    2013-07-29

    Broad-area laser (BAL) diodes have found use in numerous applications requiring multi-watt powers, but remain limited by poor spatial beam quality. A novel laser cavity that enhances the brightness of a BAL array has been demonstrated. Wavelength beam combining (WBC) is used to spatially overlap output from the emitters. Improved beam quality is achieved by imaging the fast-axis mode onto the slow axis of the BAL array. The brightness is enhanced twofold over a typical Littman-Metcalf WBC cavity, reaching 47 MWcm(-2)sr(-1) at an output power of 1.16 W. PMID:23938663

  9. Injection-locking characteristics of gain-guided diode laser arrays with an on-chip'' master laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hohimer, J.P.; Myers, D.R.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E. )

    1990-04-16

    We report measurements of the injection-locking characteristics of a high-power continuous-wave diode laser array with an on-chip independently controlled master laser. This integrated injection-locked array emits a near-diffraction-limited single-lobed output beam at cw power levels up to 220 mW/facet. By controlling the current to the master laser, the single-lobed output beam can be electronically steered over a far-field angle of {gt}1.7{degree}. We also report preliminary studies of the coupling interaction in these integrated devices.

  10. Low frequency noise of gallium nitride-based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Shayla Maya Louise

    This study covers the investigation of deep UV GaN-based light emitting diodes using low frequency noise characterization. Using this technique, device improvements were analyzed as feedback to developers and practical parameters were created for system use. AlGaN LEDs emit wavelengths into the deep UV spectral region (lambda < 290 nm). These devices are an integral component for applications including biological hazard detection systems, biological experimentation, food and water sterilization, non-line-of-sight short range communication, counterfeit identification, photolithography, and general white lighting. The current technological trend demonstrates a decrease in material quality and device performance with decreasing wavelength. However, progress has allowed for its commercialization in a relatively short period of time. Characterization of material and device improvements provides feedback for changes in development. Secondly, methods to determine the reliability and stability of these devices are essential to the applications for which they are used. One such method is through optical and current low frequency noise (LFN) measurements in which both system related parameters such as a signal-to-noise ratio for light sources and insight into the fundamental physics within the devices can be determined. The quality of the device can be compared before costly integration into systems that require low noise, high reliability, and optical stability. It not only quantifies performance limiting noise levels, but it is known to be a sensitive, nondestructive measure of material quality and reliability. The research highlighted in this thesis demonstrates a new measurement technique in analyzing the light intensity fluctuations through low frequency optical noise. From this work, a proposed figure-of-merit is presented. Low frequency current noise was performed as a well known indicator of material quality. Each technique compares LEDs grown by SET Inc. LEDs of varying wavelengths along the UV spectrum, with different growth methods and device structures. The cross-correlation between optical and current noise was analyzed to further understand the physical mechanism of low frequency noise in LEDs. Finally, low frequency current noise analysis for the packaging process and electrical degradation were determined.

  11. Ultraviolet light-emitting diode irradiation-induced cell death in HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    XIE, DONG; SUN, YAN; WANG, LINGZHEN; LI, XIAOLING; ZANG, CHUANNONG; ZHI, YUNLAI; SUN, LIRONG

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is considered to be a potent cell-damaging agent in various cell lineages; however, the effect of UV light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation on human cells remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of UV LED irradiation emitting at 280 nm on cultured HL-60 human leukemia cells, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. HL-60 cells were irradiated with UV LED (8, 15, 30 and 60 J/m2) and incubated for 2 h after irradiation. The rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis, the cell cycle profiles and the mRNA expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) were detected using cell counting kit-8, multicaspase assays, propidium iodide staining and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The results showed that UV LED irradiation (8–60 J/m2) inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. UV LED at 8–30 J/m2 induced dose-dependent apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, and inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA, while UV LED at 60 J/m2 induced necrosis. In conclusion, 280 nm UV LED irradiation inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis and necrosis in cultured HL-60 cells. In addition, the cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and the downregulation of Bcl-2 mRNA expression were shown to be involved in UV LED-induced apoptosis. PMID:26820261

  12. [Saliva cotinine determination using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode - array detection].

    PubMed

    Kulza, Maksymilian; Woźniak, Anna; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Kurhańska-Flisykowska, Anna; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The use of tobacco is a very serious threat to public health. Reducing the proportion of smokers easily leads to improved health of the general population. Smoking is a proven risk factor for respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer and complications during pregnancy. To verify the level of exposure to tobacco smoke in most patients used a simple test markers of exposure. The most commonly used marker in the evaluation of exposure to tobacco products is cotinine, which is a major metabolite of nicotine contained in tobacco smoke. Biological material most commonly used in this type of study is blood, urine and saliva. In the present study Sarstedt Salivette tubes were used to samples collection. In order to determine the concentration of cotinine in saliva samples analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection after extraction of cotinine from saliva by solid phase extraction. The method was linear of 10 to 400 ng/ml. The limit of detection was the value of the signal-to-noise ratio S/N=3, it amounted to 6 ng/ml, the limit of quantification was 10 ng/ml. The intraday repeatability was 8% for lowconcentrations, for high concentrations - 3.7%. Reproducibility interdays for low concentrations was 2.4%, for high concentrations - 4.1%. We analyzed 18 samples of saliva derived from patients smoking volunteers from the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences and the Chair and Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences. Mean concentrations of cotinine in patients was 240.9 ng/ml of saliva. In this study we demonstrated the usefulness of the saliva cotinine determination method in the assessment of patient exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:23421043

  13. Performance of a cylindrical diode array for use in a 1.5 T MR-linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houweling, A. C.; de Vries, J. H. W.; Wolthaus, J.; Woodings, S.; Kok, J. G. M.; van Asselen, B.; Smit, K.; Bel, A.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2016-02-01

    At the UMC Utrecht, a linear accelerator with integrated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed, the MR-linac. Patient-specific quality assurance (QA) of treatment plans for MRI-based image guided radiotherapy requires QA equipment compatible with this 1.5 T magnetic field. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance characteristics of the ArcCHECK-MR in a transverse 1.5 T magnetic field. To this end, the short-term reproducibility, dose linearity, dose rate dependence, field size dependence, dose per pulse dependence and inter-diode dose response variation of the ArcCHECK-MR diode array were evaluated on a conventional linac and on the MR-linac. The ArcCHECK-MR diode array performed well for all tests on both linacs, no significant differences in performance characteristics were observed. Differences in the maximum dose deviations between both linacs were less than 1.5%. Therefore, we conclude that the ArcCHECK-MR can be used in a transverse 1.5 T magnetic field.

  14. Performance of a cylindrical diode array for use in a 1.5 T MR-linac.

    PubMed

    Houweling, A C; de Vries, J H W; Wolthaus, J; Woodings, S; Kok, J G M; van Asselen, B; Smit, K; Bel, A; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2016-02-01

    At the UMC Utrecht, a linear accelerator with integrated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed, the MR-linac. Patient-specific quality assurance (QA) of treatment plans for MRI-based image guided radiotherapy requires QA equipment compatible with this 1.5 T magnetic field. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance characteristics of the ArcCHECK-MR in a transverse 1.5 T magnetic field. To this end, the short-term reproducibility, dose linearity, dose rate dependence, field size dependence, dose per pulse dependence and inter-diode dose response variation of the ArcCHECK-MR diode array were evaluated on a conventional linac and on the MR-linac. The ArcCHECK-MR diode array performed well for all tests on both linacs, no significant differences in performance characteristics were observed. Differences in the maximum dose deviations between both linacs were less than 1.5%. Therefore, we conclude that the ArcCHECK-MR can be used in a transverse 1.5 T magnetic field. PMID:26767389

  15. Low-Temperature Growth of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays by Chemical Bath Deposition for Schottky Diode Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhaolin

    2015-04-01

    A well-aligned ZnO nanorod array (ZNRA) was successfully grown on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate by chemical bath deposition at low temperature. The morphology, crystalline structure, transmittance spectrum and photoluminescence spectrum of as-grown ZNRA were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and spectrophotometer, respectively. The results of these measurements showed that the ZNRA contained densely packed, aligned nanorods with diameters from 30 nm to 40 nm and a wurtzite structure. The ZNRA exhibited good optical transparency within the visible spectral range, with >80% transmission. Gold (Au) was deposited on top of the ZNRA, and the current-voltage characteristics of the resulting ITO/ZNRA/Au device in the dark were evaluated in detail. The ITO/ZNRA/Au device acted as a Schottky barrier diode with rectifying behaviour, low turn-on voltage (0.6 V), small reverse-bias saturation current (3.73 × 10-6 A), a high ideality factor (3.75), and a reasonable barrier height (0.65 V) between the ZNRA and Au.

  16. Patterning the cone mosaic array in zebrafish retina requires specification of ultraviolet-sensitive cones.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Pamela A; Colvin, Steven M; Jabeen, Zahera; Nagashima, Mikiko; Barthel, Linda K; Hadidjojo, Jeremy; Popova, Lilia; Pejaver, Vivek R; Lubensky, David K

    2014-01-01

    Cone photoreceptors in teleost fish are organized in precise, crystalline arrays in the epithelial plane of the retina. In zebrafish, four distinct morphological/spectral cone types occupy specific, invariant positions within a regular lattice. The cone lattice is aligned orthogonal and parallel to circumference of the retinal hemisphere: it emerges as cones generated in a germinal zone at the retinal periphery are incorporated as single-cell columns into the cone lattice. Genetic disruption of the transcription factor Tbx2b eliminates most of the cone subtype maximally sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and also perturbs the long-range organization of the cone lattice. In the tbx2b mutant, the other three cone types (red, green, and blue cones) are specified in the correct proportion, differentiate normally, and acquire normal, planar polarized adhesive interactions mediated by Crumbs 2a and Crumbs 2b. Quantitative image analysis of cell adjacency revealed that the cones in the tbx2b mutant primarily have two nearest neighbors and align in single-cell-wide column fragments that are separated by rod photoreceptors. Some UV cones differentiate at the dorsal retinal margin in the tbx2b mutant, although they are severely dysmorphic and are eventually eliminated. Incorporating loss of UV cones during formation of cone columns at the margin into our previously published mathematical model of zebrafish cone mosaic formation (which uses bidirectional interactions between planar cell polarity proteins and anisotropic mechanical stresses in the plane of the retinal epithelium to generate regular columns of cones parallel to the margin) reproduces many features of the pattern disruptions seen in the tbx2b mutant. PMID:24465536

  17. Instrumentation: Photodiode Array Detectors in UV-VIS Spectroscopy. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dianna G.

    1985-01-01

    A previous part (Analytical Chemistry; v57 n9 p1057A) discussed the theoretical aspects of diode ultraviolet-visual (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. This part describes the applications of diode arrays in analytical chemistry, also considering spectroelectrochemistry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC data processing, stopped flow, and…

  18. Instrumentation: Photodiode Array Detectors in UV-VIS Spectroscopy. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dianna G.

    1985-01-01

    A previous part (Analytical Chemistry; v57 n9 p1057A) discussed the theoretical aspects of diode ultraviolet-visual (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. This part describes the applications of diode arrays in analytical chemistry, also considering spectroelectrochemistry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC data processing, stopped flow, and

  19. Enhanced optical output of InGaN/GaN near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by localized surface plasmon of colloidal silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Joon; Kang, Jang-Won; Jung, Yen-Sook; Kim, Dong-Yu; Yim, Sang-Youp; Park, Seong-Ju

    2015-09-01

    We report on the characteristics of localized surface plasmon (LSP)-enhanced near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (NUV-LEDs) fabricated by using colloidal silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). Colloidal Ag NPs were deposited on the 20 nm thick p-GaN spacer layer using a spray process. The optical output power of NUV-LEDs with colloidal Ag NPs was increased by 48.7% at 20 mA compared with NUV-LEDs without colloidal Ag NPs. The enhancement was attributed to increased internal quantum efficiency caused by the resonance coupling between excitons in the multiple quantum wells and the LSPs in the Ag NPs.

  20. Generation of tunable narrowband laser pulses in the ultraviolet with a pulsed dye amplifier seeded by a near-infrared diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Kobayashi, Tohru; Matsuo, Yukari; Nakajima, Takashi

    We demonstrate the generation of narrowband laser pulses in the ultraviolet (UV) region with a continuous tunability over 10 GHz. To realize such pulses we construct a four-pass pulsed dye amplifier with an external cavity diode laser (ECDL) at the near-infrared (NIR) region as a seed laser, and do the frequency doubling. The achieved pulse energy is about 10 ?J at 369.4 nm with a 23020 MHz bandwidth and 3.30.2 ns pulse duration.

  1. Enhanced optical output of InGaN/GaN near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by localized surface plasmon of colloidal silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Joon; Kang, Jang-Won; Jung, Yen-Sook; Kim, Dong-Yu; Yim, Sang-Youp; Park, Seong-Ju

    2015-09-25

    We report on the characteristics of localized surface plasmon (LSP)-enhanced near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (NUV-LEDs) fabricated by using colloidal silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). Colloidal Ag NPs were deposited on the 20 nm thick p-GaN spacer layer using a spray process. The optical output power of NUV-LEDs with colloidal Ag NPs was increased by 48.7% at 20 mA compared with NUV-LEDs without colloidal Ag NPs. The enhancement was attributed to increased internal quantum efficiency caused by the resonance coupling between excitons in the multiple quantum wells and the LSPs in the Ag NPs. PMID:26335045

  2. Excellent nonlinearity of a selection device based on anti-series connected Zener diodes for ultrahigh-density bipolar RRAM arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingtao; Li, Rongrong; Fu, Liping; Gao, Xiaoping; Wang, Yang; Tao, Chunlan

    2015-10-01

    A crossbar array is usually used for the high-density application of a resistive random access memory (RRAM) device. However, the cross-talk interference limits the increase in the integration density. In this paper, anti-series connected Zener diodes as a selection device are proposed for bipolar RRAM arrays. Simulation results show that, by using the anti-series connected Zener diodes as a selection device, the readout margin is sufficiently improved compared to that obtained without a selection device or with anti-parallel connected diodes as the selection device. The maximum size of the crossbar arrays with anti-series connected Zener diodes as a selection device over 1 TB is estimated by theoretical simulation. In addition, the feasibility of using the anti-series connected Zener diodes as a selection device for bipolar RRAM is demonstrated experimentally. These results indicate that anti-series connected Zener diodes as a selection device opens up great opportunities to realize ultrahigh-density bipolar RRAM arrays.

  3. Miniaturized high throughput detection system for capillary array electrophoresis on chip with integrated light emitting diode array as addressed ring-shaped light source.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kangning; Liang, Qionglin; Mu, Xuan; Luo, Guoan; Wang, Yiming

    2009-03-01

    A novel miniaturized, portable fluorescence detection system for capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) on a microfluidic chip was developed, consisting of a scanning light-emitting diode (LED) light source and a single point photoelectric sensor. Without charge coupled detector (CCD), lens, fibers and moving parts, the system was extremely simplified. Pulsed driving of the LED significantly increased the sensitivity, and greatly reduced the power consumption and photobleaching effect. The highly integrated system was robust and easy to use. All the advantages realized the concept of a portable micro-total analysis system (micro-TAS), which could work on a single universal serial bus (USB) port. Compared with traditional CAE detecting systems, the current system could scan the radial capillary array with high scanning rate. An 8-channel CAE of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled arginine (Arg) on chip was demonstrated with this system, resulting in a limit of detection (LOD) of 640 amol. PMID:19224025

  4. Ultra-violet Sensing Characteristic and Field Emission Properties of Vertically Aligned Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Musa, M. Z.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2011-05-25

    Ultra-violet (UV) sensing behavior and field emission characteristic have been investigated on vertically aligned aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays prepared using sol-gel immersion method. Uniform and high coverage density of ZnO nanorod arrays have been successfully deposited on seeded-catalyst coated substrates. The synthesized nanorods have diameter sizes between 50 nm to 150 nm. The XRD spectra show Al doped ZnO nanorod array has high crystallinity properties with the dominancy of crystal growth along (002) plane or c-axis. UV photoresponse measurement indicates that Al doped ZnO nanorod array sensitively detects UV light as shown by conductance increment after UV illumination exposure. The nanorod array shows good field emission properties with low turn on field and threshold field at 2.1 V/{mu}m and 5.6 V/{mu}m, respectively. The result suggested that Al doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by low-cost sol-gel immersion method show promising result towards fabrication of multi applications especially in UV photoconductive sensor and field emission displays.

  5. Ultra-violet Sensing Characteristic and Field Emission Properties of Vertically Aligned Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, M. H.; Khusaimi, Z.; Malek, M. F.; Musa, M. Z.; Rusop, M.

    2011-05-01

    Ultra-violet (UV) sensing behavior and field emission characteristic have been investigated on vertically aligned aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays prepared using sol-gel immersion method. Uniform and high coverage density of ZnO nanorod arrays have been succesfully deposited on seeded-catalyst coated substrates. The synthesized nanorods have diameter sizes between 50 nm to 150 nm. The XRD spectra show Al doped ZnO nanorod array has high crystallinity properties with the dominancy of crystal growth along (002) plane or c-axis. UV photoresponse measurement indicates that Al doped ZnO nanorod array sensitively detects UV light as shown by conductance increment after UV illumination exposure. The nanorod array shows good field emission properties with low turn on field and threshold field at 2.1 V/?m and 5.6 V/?m, respectively. The result suggested that Al doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by low-cost sol-gel immersion method show promising result towards fabrication of multi applications especially in UV photoconductive sensor and field emission displays.

  6. Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qiming; Westlake, Karl R.; Crawford, Mary H.; Lee, Stephen R.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Figiel, Jeffery J.; Cross, Karen C.; Fathololoumi, Saeed; Mi, Zetian; Wang, George T.

    2011-12-05

    Vertically aligned InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode (LED) arrays were created from planar LED structures using a new top-down fabrication technique consisting of a plasma etch followed by an anisotropic wet etch. The wet etch results in straight, smooth, well-faceted nanorods with controllable diameters and removes the plasma etch damage. 94% of the nanorod LEDs are dislocation-free and a reduced quantum confined Stark effect is observed due to reduced piezoelectric fields. Despite these advantages, the IQE of the nanorod LEDs measured by photoluminescence is comparable to the planar LED, perhaps due to inefficient thermal transport and enhanced nonradiative surface recombination.

  7. Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiming; Westlake, Karl R; Crawford, Mary H; Lee, Stephen R; Koleske, Daniel D; Figiel, Jeffery J; Cross, Karen C; Fathololoumi, Saeed; Mi, Zetian; Wang, George T

    2011-12-01

    Vertically aligned InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode (LED) arrays were created from planar LED structures using a new top-down fabrication technique consisting of a plasma etch followed by an anisotropic wet etch. The wet etch results in straight, smooth, well-faceted nanorods with controllable diameters and removes the plasma etch damage. 94% of the nanorod LEDs are dislocation-free and a reduced quantum confined Stark effect is observed due to reduced piezoelectric fields. Despite these advantages, the IQE of the nanorod LEDs measured by photoluminescence is comparable to the planar LED, perhaps due to inefficient thermal transport and enhanced nonradiative surface recombination. PMID:22273946

  8. A Comparative Analysis for Verification of IMRT and VMAT Treatment Plans using a 2-D and 3-D Diode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dance, Michael J.

    With the added complexity of current radiation treatment dose delivery modalities such as IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy) and VMAT (Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy), quality assurance (QA) of these plans become multifaceted and labor intensive. To simplify the patient specific quality assurance process, 2D or 3D diode arrays are used to measure the radiation fluence for IMRT and VMAT treatments which can then be quickly and easily compared against the planned dose distribution. Because the arrays that can be used for IMRT and VMAT patient-specific quality assurance are of different geometry (planar vs. cylindrical), the same IMRT or VMAT treatment plan measured by two different arrays could lead to different measured radiation fluences, regardless of the output and performance of linear accelerator. Thus, the purpose of this study is to compare patient specific QA results as measured by the MapCHECK 2 and ArcCHECK diode arrays for the same IMRT and VMAT treatment plans to see if one diode array consistently provides a closer comparison to reference data. Six prostate and three thoracic spine IMRT treatment plans as well as three prostate and three thoracic spine VMAT treatment plans were produced. Radiotherapy plans for this study were generated using the Pinnacle TPS v9.6 (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, WI) using 6 MV, 6 MV FFF, and 10 MV x-ray beams from a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with a 120-millenium multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Each IMRT and VMAT therapy plan was measured on Sun Nuclear's MapCHECK 2 and ArcCHECK diode arrays. IMRT measured data was compared with planned dose distribution using Sun Nuclear's 3DVH quality assurance software program using gamma analysis and dose-volume histograms for target volumes and critical structures comparison. VMAT arc plans measured on the MapCHECK 2 and ArcCHECK were compared using beam-by-beam analysis with the gamma evaluation method with Sun Nuclear's SNC Patient (TM) analysis software. MapCHECK 2 showed a slightly better agreement with planned data for IMRT verifications with a mean pass rate of 99.4% for clinically used acceptance criteria of 3%/3mm. MapCHECK 2's 99.4% mean pass rate for IMRT verifications was 1.4% higher than ArcCHECK's mean pass rate. For VMAT verifications, the MapCHECK 2 had a mean pass rate of 99.6% and 100% for each arc respectively, resulting in a 1.25% to 1.92% higher mean passing rates than those measured by the ArcCHECK using an acceptance criteria of 3%/3mm. MapCHECK 2 showed consistently higher ROI-specific mean gamma passing rates, ranging from +0.2% to +5.6%. While neither diode array showed any advantage in regards to D95 measurements within the PTV, MapCHECK 2 again showed closer comparison data in the CTV/GTV with an absolute deviation of -1.14 Gy compared to -3.39 Gy as measured by the ArcCHECK. Lastly, while the MapCHECK 2 and ArcCHECK both closely matched with the reference doses within the PTV and CTV/GTV, the ArcCHECK consistently overestimated the maximum absolute dose to all ROI, from 0.026 Gy to 2.243 Gy. In conclusion, the MapCHECK 2 diode array measured data more closely matched with planned data compared to the ArcCHECK diode array for IMRT verifications. While MapCHECK 2 showed a marginally better gamma passing rates over the ArcCHECK diode array, the ArcCHECK's ability to simultaneously measure flatness, symmetry, output, and MLC positional accuracy as a function of gantry angle make it a more realistic and efficient measurement device for VMAT verifications.

  9. Nonlinear dynamics and synchronization of an array of single mode laser diodes in external cavity subject to current modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Braiman, Y.; Nair, N.; Lu, Y.; Guo, Y.; Colet, P.; Wardlaw, M.

    2014-08-01

    We study the dynamics of an array of single mode laser diodes subject to filtered feedback provided by an external reflection grating. Our numerical simulations show that by modulating the injection current the array can be phase synchronized leading to high power coherent emission. The output peak power density can be varied by tuning the modulation frequency and can be resonantly enhanced once the frequency matches the inverse of external cavity round trip time and mode-locking behavior is realized. Both non-resonant and resonant injection current modulation results in an excellent degree of phase synchronization and coherence at certain modulation amplitudes and frequencies that is manifested by coherent enhancement of far-field optical intensity.

  10. Tunnel-injection quantum dot deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization-induced doping in III-nitride heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Jai Islam, S. M.; Protasenko, Vladimir; Kumar Kandaswamy, Prem; Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep

    2014-01-13

    Efficient semiconductor optical emitters in the deep-ultraviolet spectral window are encountering some of the most deep rooted problems of semiconductor physics. In III-Nitride heterostructures, obtaining short-wavelength photon emission requires the use of wide bandgap high Al composition AlGaN active regions. High conductivity electron (n-) and hole (p-) injection layers of even higher bandgaps are necessary for electrical carrier injection. This approach requires the activation of very deep dopants in very wide bandgap semiconductors, which is a difficult task. In this work, an approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to counter the challenges. The active region of the heterostructure light emitting diode uses ultrasmall epitaxially grown GaN quantum dots. Remarkably, the optical emission energy from GaN is pushed from 365 nm (3.4 eV, the bulk bandgap) to below 240 nm (>5.2 eV) because of extreme quantum confinement in the dots. This is possible because of the peculiar bandstructure and band alignments in the GaN/AlN system. This active region design crucially enables two further innovations for efficient carrier injection: Tunnel injection of carriers and polarization-induced p-type doping. The combination of these three advances results in major boosts in electroluminescence in deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lays the groundwork for electrically pumped short-wavelength lasers.

  11. Efficient Nd:YAG laser end-pumped by a 1 cm aperture laser-diode bar with a GRIN lens array coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Imai, Hirofumi

    1992-04-01

    A 10-W laser-diode bar, a multistripe monolithic laser-diode array, has been used to end-pump Nd:YAG. Twenty beams emitted from 20 stripes, spaced 500 microns apart, of a 1-cm linear diode array were collimated by a 1-cm-wide lens array consisting of 20 GRIN (graded-index) lenses with a width of 500 microns to pump the Nd:YAG facet. The maximum Nd:YAG CW output power at 1064 nm of 3.24 W CW was obtained at 8.6 W incident pump power with a total electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 10.1 percent, a threshold of 0.6 W, a maximum slope efficiency of 45 percent, and a single-lobed spatial mode.

  12. Technique for Radiometer and Antenna Array Calibration with a Radiated Noise Diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Karthik; Limaye, Ashutosh; Laymon, Charles; Meyer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique to calibrate a microwave radiometer and antenna array system. This calibration technique uses a radiated noise source in addition to two calibration sources internal to the radiometer. The method accurately calibrates antenna arrays with embedded active devices (such as amplifiers) which are used extensively in active phased array antennas.

  13. Vertically p-n-junctioned GaN nano-wire array diode fabricated on Si(111) using MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Hee; Kissinger, Suthan; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays on (111) silicon substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method .The nanowires were grown by a newly developed two-step growth process. The diameter of as-grown nanowires ranges from 300-400 nm with a density of 6-7 107 cm-2. The p- and n-type doping of the nanowires is achieved with Mg and Si dopant species. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates that the nanowires are relatively defect-free. The room-temperature photoluminescence emission with a strong peak at 370 nm indicates that the n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays have potential application in light-emitting nanodevices. The cathodoluminscence (CL) spectrum clearly shows a distinct optical transition of GaN nanodiodes. The nano-n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg diodes were further completed using a sputter coating approach to deposit Au/Ni metal contacts. The polysilazane filler has been etched by a wet chemical etching process. The n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire diode was fabricated for different Mg source flow rates. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements reveal excellent rectifying properties with an obvious turn-on voltage at 1.6 V for a Mg flow rate of 5 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute).

  14. Monolithic arrays of grating-surface-emitting diode lasers and quantum well modulators for optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, N. W.; Evans, G. A.; Liew, S. K.; Kaiser, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    The electro-optic switching properties of injection-coupled coherent 2-D grating-surface-emitting laser arrays with multiple gain sections and quantum well active layers are discussed and demonstrated. Within such an array of injection-coupled grating-surface-emitting lasers, a single gain section can be operated as intra-cavity saturable loss element that can modulate the output of the entire array. Experimental results demonstrate efficient sub-nanosecond switching of high power grading-surface-emitting laser arrays by using only one gain section as an intra-cavity loss modulator.

  15. Calibration Transfer Between a Bench Scanning and a Submersible Diode Array Spectrophotometer for In Situ Wastewater Quality Monitoring in Sewer Systems.

    PubMed

    Brito, Rita S; Pinheiro, Helena M; Ferreira, Filipa; Matos, José S; Pinheiro, Alexandre; Lourenço, Nídia D

    2016-03-01

    Online monitoring programs based on spectroscopy have a high application potential for the detection of hazardous wastewater discharges in sewer systems. Wastewater hydraulics poses a challenge for in situ spectroscopy, especially when the system includes storm water connections leading to rapid changes in water depth, velocity, and in the water quality matrix. Thus, there is a need to optimize and fix the location of in situ instruments, limiting their availability for calibration. In this context, the development of calibration models on bench spectrophotometers to estimate wastewater quality parameters from spectra acquired with in situ instruments could be very useful. However, spectra contain information not only from the samples, but also from the spectrophotometer generally invalidating this approach. The use of calibration transfer methods is a promising solution to this problem. In this study, calibration models were developed using interval partial least squares (iPLS), for the estimation of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in sewage from Ultraviolet-visible spectra acquired in a bench scanning spectrophotometer. The feasibility of calibration transfer to a submersible, diode array equipment, to be subsequently operated in situ, was assessed using three procedures: slope and bias correction (SBC); single wavelength standardization (SWS) on mean spectra; and local centering (LC). The results showed that SBC was the most adequate for the available data, adding insignificant error to the base model estimates. Single wavelength standardization was a close second best, potentially more robust, and independent of the base iPLS model. Local centering was shown to be inadequate for the samples and instruments used. PMID:26798079

  16. Soft lithography microlens fabrication and array for enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Wai Y.; Park, Joong-Mok; Gan, Zhengqing; Constant, Kristen P.; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth; ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-06-03

    Provided are microlens arrays for use on the substrate of OLEDs to extract more light that is trapped in waveguided modes inside the devices and methods of manufacturing same. Light extraction with microlens arrays is not limited to the light emitting area, but is also efficient in extracting light from the whole microlens patterned area where waveguiding occurs. Large microlens array, compared to the size of the light emitting area, extract more light and result in over 100% enhancement. Such a microlens array is not limited to (O)LEDs of specific emission, configuration, pixel size, or pixel shape. It is suitable for all colors, including white, for microcavity OLEDs, and OLEDs fabricated directly on the (modified) microlens array.

  17. Coupled-mode analysis of gain and wavelength oscillation characteristics of diode laser phased arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. K.; Ettenberg, M.; Ackley, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The lasing wavelengths and gain characteristics of the modes of phase-locked arrays of channel-substrate-planar (CSP) lasers are presented. The gain values for the array modes are determined from complex coupling coefficients calculated using the fields of neighboring elements of the array. The computations show that, for index guided lasers which have nearly planar phase fronts, the highest order array mode will be preferred. The 'in-phase' or fundamental mode, which produces only one major lobe in the far-field radiation pattern, has the lowest modal gain of all array modes. The modal gain differential between the highest order and fundamental modes is less than 10/cm for weak coupling between the elements.

  18. Use of a priori spectral information in the measurement of x-ray flux with filtered diode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrs, R. E.; Widmann, K.; Brown, G. V.; Heeter, R. F.; MacLaren, S. A.; May, M. J.; Moore, A. S.; Schneider, M. B.

    2015-10-01

    Filtered x-ray diode (XRD) arrays are often used to measure x-ray spectra vs. time from spectrally continuous x-ray sources such as hohlraums. A priori models of the incident x-ray spectrum enable a more accurate unfolding of the x-ray flux as compared to the standard technique of modifying a thermal Planckian with spectral peaks or dips at the response energy of each filtered XRD channel. A model x-ray spectrum consisting of a thermal Planckian, a Gaussian at higher energy, and (in some cases) a high energy background provides an excellent fit to XRD-array measurements of x-ray emission from laser heated hohlraums. If high-resolution measurements of part of the x-ray emission spectrum are available, that information can be included in the a priori model. In cases where the x-ray emission spectrum is not Planckian, candidate x-ray spectra can be allowed or excluded by fitting them to measured XRD voltages. Examples are presented from the filtered XRD arrays, named Dante, at the National Ignition Facility and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  19. Use of a priori spectral information in the measurement of x-ray flux with filtered diode arrays.

    PubMed

    Marrs, R E; Widmann, K; Brown, G V; Heeter, R F; MacLaren, S A; May, M J; Moore, A S; Schneider, M B

    2015-10-01

    Filtered x-ray diode (XRD) arrays are often used to measure x-ray spectra vs. time from spectrally continuous x-ray sources such as hohlraums. A priori models of the incident x-ray spectrum enable a more accurate unfolding of the x-ray flux as compared to the standard technique of modifying a thermal Planckian with spectral peaks or dips at the response energy of each filtered XRD channel. A model x-ray spectrum consisting of a thermal Planckian, a Gaussian at higher energy, and (in some cases) a high energy background provides an excellent fit to XRD-array measurements of x-ray emission from laser heated hohlraums. If high-resolution measurements of part of the x-ray emission spectrum are available, that information can be included in the a priori model. In cases where the x-ray emission spectrum is not Planckian, candidate x-ray spectra can be allowed or excluded by fitting them to measured XRD voltages. Examples are presented from the filtered XRD arrays, named Dante, at the National Ignition Facility and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. PMID:26520959

  20. Temperature-controlled transfer and self-wiring for multi-color light-emitting diode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoe, Hiroaki; Nakai, Akihito; Iwase, Eiji; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2009-07-01

    We propose an integration method for arranging light-emitting diode (LED) bare chips on a flexible substrate for multi-color inorganic LED displays. The LED bare chips (240 m 240 m 75 m), which were diced on an adhesive sheet by the manufacturer, were transferred to a flexible polyimide substrate by our temperature-controlled transfer (TCT) and self-wiring (SW) processes. In these processes, low-melting point solder (LMPS) and poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) worked as adhesive layers for the LED chips during the TCT processes, and the adhesion force of the LMPS and PEG layers was controlled by changing the temperature to melt and solidify the layers. After the TCT processes, electrical connection between the transferred LED chips and the flexible substrate was automatically established via the SW process, by using the surface tension of the melted LMPS. This TCT/SW method enabled us to (i) handle arrays of commercially available bare chips, (ii) arrange multiple types of chips on the circuit substrate by simply repeating the TCT processes and (iii) establish electrical connection between the chips and the substrate automatically. Applying this transfer printing and wiring method, we experimentally demonstrated a 5-by-5 flexible LED array and a two-color (blue and green) LED array.

  1. Aspect ratio engineering of microlens arrays in thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peifen; Tan, Chee-Keong; Sun, Wei; Tansu, Nelson

    2015-12-01

    Light extraction efficiency of thin-film flip-chip InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a TiO2 microlens arrays was calculated by employing the finite-difference time-domain method. The microlens arrays, formed by embedding hexagonal close-packed TiO2 sphere arrays in a polystyrene (PS) layer, were placed on top of the InGaN LED to serve as an intermediate medium for light extraction. By tuning the thickness of the PS layer, in-coupling and out-coupling efficiencies were optimized to achieve maximum light extraction efficiency. A thicker PS layer resulted in higher in-coupling efficiency, while a thinner PS layer led to higher out-coupling efficiency. Thus, the maximum light extraction efficiency becomes a trade-off between in-coupling and out-coupling efficiency. In addition, the cavity formed by the PS layer also affects light extraction from the LED. Our study reveals that a maximum light extraction efficiency of 86% was achievable by tuning PS thickness to 75nm with maximized in-coupling and out-coupling efficiency accompanied by the optimized resonant cavity condition. PMID:26836692

  2. Triggering GaAs lock-on switches with laser diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Helgeson, W.D.; McLaughlin, D.L.; O'Malley, M.W.; Zutavern, F.J. ); Rosen, A.; Stabile, P.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Many of the applications that require the unique capabilities of Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches (PCSS) demand a compact package. We have been able to demonstrate that GaAs switches operated in the high gain mode called lock-on'' meet the required electrical switching parameters of several such applications using small switch sizes. The only light source that has enough power to trigger a PCSS and is compatible with a small package is a laser diode. This paper will describe the progress that leads to the triggering of high power PCSS switches with laser diodes. Our goal is to switch up to 5 kA in a single shot mode and up to 100 MW repetitively at up to 10 kHz. These goals are feasible since the switches can be used in parallel or in series. Low light level triggering became possible after the discovery of a high electric field, high gain switching mode in GaAs (and later in InP). At electric fields below 3 kV/cm GaAs switches are activated by creation of, at most, only one conduction electron- valence hole pair per photon absorbed in the sample. This linear mode demands high laser power and, after the light is extinguished, the carriers live for only a few nanoseconds. At higher electric fields GaAs behaves as a light activated Zener diode. The laser light generates carriers as in the linear mode and the field induces gain such that the amount of light required to trigger the switch is reduced by a factor of up to 500. The gain continues until the field across the sample drops to a material dependent lock-on field. At this point the switch will carry as much current as, and for as long as, the circuit can maintain the lock-on field. The gain in the switch allows for the use of laser diodes. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  3. DETERMINATION OF CARBENDAZIM IN WATER BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE IMMUNOAFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY ON-LINE WITH HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH DIODE-ARRAY OR MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An automated method for the determination of carbendazim in water that combines high-performance immunoaffinity chromatography (HPIAC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the reversed-phase mode, and detection by either UV-Vis diode array detector (DAD) spectroscopy...

  4. Study of the radiation divergence and energy efficiency of a pulsed Nd{sup 3+} : YAG laser transversely pumped by laser diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Abazadze, Aleksandr Yu; Zverev, Georgii M; Kolbatskov, Yurii M

    2004-06-30

    The spatial and energy characteristics of radiation from a pulsed Nd{sup 3+} : YAG laser transversely pumped by laser diode arrays are studied experimentally by varying the resonator parameters. The differential efficiencies of the laser for multimode and close to single-mode free running lasing were measured to be 48 % and 40 % - 42 %, respectively. (lasers)

  5. Optical pumping of Rb vapor using high-power Ga{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Al{sub {ital x}}As diode laser arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, W.J.; Haeusser, O.; Lorenzon, W.; Swenson, D.R.; Larson, B.

    1995-06-01

    The use of high-power Ga{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Al{sub {ital x}}As diode laser arrays for optical pumping of Rb vapor has been examined both theoretically and experimentally. Our studies show that large atomic polarizations can be obtained using the broad spectral output of a diode laser array if the Rb resonance line is collisionally broadened by several atmospheres of a buffer gas. The objective was to study the effectiveness of diode laser arrays as light sources for optically pumped spin-exchange polarized {sup 3}He targets. The average Rb polarization was deduced at three different Rb vapor pressures using the polarization induced in the {sup 3}He buffer gas. The largest {sup 3}He polarization observed was 53% using a 20-W diode array with 1.9-nm full width at half maximum spectral width in 10.5 amagat of {sup 3}He. This result compares favorably with other light sources for this target. The measured average Rb polarizations are compared to theoretical calculations.

  6. Effect of Hydrogen Post-Annealing on Transparent Conductive ITO/Ga2O3 Bi-Layer Films for Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Heon; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sang Young; Kim, Tae Geun

    2015-10-01

    The effect of hydrogen post-annealing on the electrical and optical properties of ITO/Ga2O bi-layer films, deposited by RF magnetron sputtering, is investigated for potential applications to transparent conductive electrodes of ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes. Three samples--an as-deposited sample and two samples post-annealed in N2 gas and N2-H2 gas mixture--were prepared and annealed at different temperatures ranging from 100 C to 500 C for comparison. Among these samples, the sample annealed at 300 C in a mixture of N2 and H2 gases shows the lowest sheet resistance of 301.3 ?/square and a high UV transmittance of 87.1% at 300 nm. PMID:26726411

  7. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes Fabricated on AlN/sapphire Template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Li-Wen; Qin, Zhi-Xin; Fang, Hao; Zhang, Yan-Zhao; Li, Tao; Xu, Zheng-Yu; Yang, Zhi-Jian; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Guo-Yi; Li, Shu-Ping; Yang, Wei-Huang; Chen, Hang-Yang; Liu, Da-Yi; Kang, Jun-Yong

    2009-11-01

    We report on the growth and fabrication of deep ultraviolet (DUV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on an AlN template which was grown on a pulsed atomic-layer epitaxial buffer layer. Threading dislocation densities in the AlN layer are greatly decreased with the introduction of this buffer layer. The crystalline quality of the AlGaN epilayer is further improved by using a low-temperature GaN interlayer between AlGaN and AlN. Electroluminescences of different DUV-LED devices at a wavelength of between 262 and 317 nm are demonstrated. To improve the hole concentration of p-type AlGaN, Mg-doping with trimethylindium assistance approach is performed. It is found that the serial resistance of DUV-LED decreases and the performance of DUV-LED such as EL properties is improved.

  8. Compound Ag nanocluster-graphene electrodes as transparent and current spreading electrodes for improved light output power in near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Tae Hoon; Kim, Seongjun; Jong Kim, Myung; Kim, Hyunsoo; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2014-05-01

    We introduced a two-dimensional graphene network on a Ag nanocluster as a transparent and current spreading electrode (TCSE) for a near-ultraviolet light emitting diode (NUV-LED), and compared the performance with those with graphene electrodes or conventional indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The current-voltage characteristics and electroluminescence (EL) data showed that compound Ag nanocluster-graphene (CA-G) electrodes operated well as TCSEs in NUV-LED devices. The forward voltage at an input current of 20 mA was 4.06 V for the NUV-LED of current spreading electrodes with CA-G electrodes, which is only slightly higher than the value 3.96 V with ITO electrodes as TCSEs. The EL intensity of NUV-LEDs with CA-G electrodes also showed a slight increase, compared to that of NUV-LEDs with planar ITO transparent conducting electrodes.

  9. Numerical analysis on the effects of multi-quantum last barriers in AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shengchang; Li, Yang; Tian, Wu; Zhang, Min; Li, Senlin; Wu, Zhihao; Fang, Yanyan; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2015-03-01

    The advantages of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode with AlGaN/AlGaN multi-quantum last barrier (MQLB) are investigated numerically in this work. The light output power, internal quantum efficiency, energy band diagrams, carrier concentrations, radiative recombination rate, and spontaneous emission spectra in the multi-quantum wells are investigated. The simulation results show that the structure with MQLB exhibits higher output power and smaller efficiency droop at high current as compared to the conventional one. Based on the numerical simulation and analysis, these improvements on the device characteristics are attributed to the remarkable improvement of the hole injection efficiency from p-type region, which results from the lower effective barrier height for hole transportation, the lower consumption of holes in the p-side, and the very low hole population in MQLB region.

  10. Light interaction in sapphire/MgF2/Al triple-layer omnidirectional reflectors in AlGaN-based near ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keon Hwa; Moon, Yong-Tae; Song, June-O; Kwak, Joon Seop

    2015-01-01

    This study examined systematically the mechanism of light interaction in the sapphire/MgF2/Al triple-layer omnidirectional reflectors (ODR) and its effects on the light output power in near ultraviolet light emitting diodes (NUV-LEDs) with the ODR. The light output power of NUV-LEDs with the triple-layer ODR structure increased with decreasing surface roughness of the sapphire backside in the ODR. Theoretical modeling of the roughened surface suggests that the dependence of the reflectance of the triple-layer ODR structure on the surface roughness can be attributed mainly to light absorption by the Al nano-structures and the trapping of scattered light in the MgF2 layer. Furthermore, the ray tracing simulation based upon the theoretical modeling showed good agreement with the measured reflectance of the ODR structure in diffuse mode. PMID:26010378

  11. Nitrogen doped MgxZn1-xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, K.; Akasaka, S.; Yuji, H.; Tamura, K.; Fujii, T.; Nishimoto, Y.; Takamizu, D.; Sasaki, A.; Tanabe, T.; Takasu, H.; Amaike, H.; Onuma, T.; Chichibu, S. F.; Tsukazaki, A.; Ohtomo, A.; Kawasaki, M.

    2010-07-01

    We have grown nitrogen-doped MgxZn1-xO:N films on Zn-polar ZnO single crystal substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. As N-sources, we employed NO-plasma or NH3 gas itself. As x increased, optimum growth temperature window for smooth film morphology shifted to higher temperatures, while maintaining high N-concentration (˜1×1019 cm-3). The heterosructures of MgxZn1-xO:N (0.1≤x≤0.4)/ZnO were fabricated into light emitting diodes of 500-μm-diameter. We observed ultraviolet near-band-edge emission (λ ˜382 nm) with an output power of 0.1 μW for a NO-plasma-doped LED and 70 μW for a NH3-doped one at a bias current of 30 mA.

  12. Light interaction in sapphire/MgF2/Al triple-layer omnidirectional reflectors in AlGaN-based near ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keon Hwa; Moon, Yong-Tae; Song, June-O; Kwak, Joon Seop

    2015-01-01

    This study examined systematically the mechanism of light interaction in the sapphire/MgF2/Al triple-layer omnidirectional reflectors (ODR) and its effects on the light output power in near ultraviolet light emitting diodes (NUV-LEDs) with the ODR. The light output power of NUV-LEDs with the triple-layer ODR structure increased with decreasing surface roughness of the sapphire backside in the ODR. Theoretical modeling of the roughened surface suggests that the dependence of the reflectance of the triple-layer ODR structure on the surface roughness can be attributed mainly to light absorption by the Al nano-structures and the trapping of scattered light in the MgF2 layer. Furthermore, the ray tracing simulation based upon the theoretical modeling showed good agreement with the measured reflectance of the ODR structure in diffuse mode. PMID:26010378

  13. Enhanced ultraviolet emission from Au/Ag-nanoparticles@MgO/ZnO heterostructure light-emitting diodes: A combined effect of exciton- and photon- localized surface plasmon couplings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Xu, H Y; Liu, W Z; Yang, L; Zhang, J; Zhang, L X; Wang, J N; Ma, J G; Liu, Y C

    2015-06-15

    Localized surface plasmon (LSP)-enhanced ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on a Au/MgO/ZnO metal/insulator/semi- conductor heterostructure were fabricated by embedding Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) into MgO dielectric layer. A ~6-fold electroluminescence (EL) enhancement was achieved from the Ag-NPs decorated device. Time-resolved spectroscopy studies, as well as analogue simulation and theoretical estimation based on experimental data, reveal that the internal quantum efficiency and light extraction efficiency of the heterojunction LED are increased ~3-fold and ~2-fold, respectively, as a result of the introduction of Ag LSPs. This result indicates that the observed EL enhancement originates from a combined effect of both exciton-LSP coupling and photon-LSP coupling. PMID:26193536

  14. Efficiency improvements in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using inverted-V-shaped graded Al composition electron blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuancong; Sun, Huiqing; Li, Xuna; Sun, Hao; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhuding; Guo, Zhiyou

    2015-12-01

    This paper principally presents the numerical investigation of electron blocking layers (EBL) structures with different Al concentration gradient changing in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs). Compared to conventional EBL structure with constant Al composition, the LED with inverted-V-shaped EBL structure has higher output power and carriers recombination rate, but the efficiency droop will decrease obviously while the electron leakage current can reduce much as well. Therefore, the result indicates that appropriate Al component in LED can enhance electron and hole recombination rate in the active region. The improved performance is mainly attribute the sufficient electron-barrier height and relatively higher hole injection efficiency which results from the mitigated band-bending.

  15. Design of electron blocking layers for improving internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tae Hoon; Kim, Tae Geun

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we designed and simulated InGaN/AlGaN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode (NUV LED) epi-structures to obtain high internal quantum efficiency and low efficiency droop. When the conventional epi-structure of an last quantum barrier and an electron blocking layer (EBL) was replaced with a graded last quantum barrier and multi-step EBLs, the NUV LED showed 35 % higher internal quantum efficiency and 25 % more suppression of efficiency droop than the conventional NUV LED. Furthermore, a detailed study of the grading effect of the EBL revealed that 10-step EBLs increase performance when compared to other structures. These results are attributed to the polarization-induced effect, which reduces the electron leakage and increases the hole injection efficiency.

  16. AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on High-quality AlN template using MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jianchang; Wang, Junxi; Zhang, Yun; Cong, Peipei; Sun, Lili; Tian, Yingdong; Zhao, Chao; Li, Jinmin

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we report the growth of high-quality AlN film using metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. Three layers of middle-temperature (MT) AlN were introduced during the high-temperature (HT) AlN growth. During the MT-AlN layer growth, aluminum and nitrogen sources were closed for 6 seconds after every 5-nm MT-AlN, while H2 carrier gas was always on. The threading dislocation density in an AlN epi-layer on a sapphire substrate was reduced by almost half. AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes were further fabricated based on the AlN/sapphire template. At 20 mA driving current, the emitted peak wavelength is 284.5 nm and the light output power exceeds 3 mW.

  17. Influence of optical polarization on the improvement of light extraction efficiency from reflective scattering structures in AlGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wierer, J. J. Allerman, A. A.; Montaño, I.; Moseley, M. W.

    2014-08-11

    The improvement in light extraction efficiency from reflective scattering structures in AlGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) emitting at ∼270 nm is shown to be influenced by optical polarization. Three UVLEDs with different reflective scattering structures are investigated and compared to standard UVLEDs without scattering structures. The optical polarization and therefore the direction of light propagation within the various UVLEDs are altered by changes in the quantum well (QW) thickness. The improvement in light extraction efficiency of the UVLEDs with reflective scattering structures increases, compared to the UVLEDs without scattering structures, as the fraction of emitted light propagating parallel to the QW plane increases. Additionally, the light extraction efficiency increases as the average distance to the reflective scattering structures decreases.

  18. Phase-front measurements of an injection-locked AlGaAs laser-diode array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornwell, Donald M., Jr.; Rall, Jonathan A. R.; Abshire, James B.

    1989-01-01

    The phase-front quality of the primary spatial lobe emitted from an injection-locked gain-guided AlGaAs laser-diode array is measured by using an equal-path, phase-shifting Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Root-mean-square phase errors of 0.037 + or - 0.003 wave are measured for the single spatial lobe, which contained 240-mW cw output power in a single longitudinal mode. This phase-front quality corresponds to a Strehl ratio of S = 0.947, which results in a 0.23-dB power loss from the single lobe's ideal diffraction-limited power. These values are comparable with those measured for single-stripe index-guided AlGaAs lasers.

  19. An efficient non-Lambertian organic light-emitting diode using imprinted submicron-size zinc oxide pillar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. W.; Wang, J. X.; Divayana, Y.; Dev, K.; Tan, S. T.; Demir, H. V.; Sun, X. W.

    2013-02-01

    We report phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a substantially improved light outcoupling efficiency and a wider angular distribution through applying a layer of zinc oxide periodic nanopillar arrays by pattern replication in non-wetting templates technique. The devices exhibited the peak emission intensity at an emission angle of 40 compared to 0 for reference device using bare ITO-glass. The best device showed a peak luminance efficiency of 95.5 1.5 cd/A at 0 emission (external quantum efficiencyEQE of 38.5 0.1%, power efficiency of 127 1 lm/W), compared to that of the reference device, which has a peak luminance efficiency of 68.0 1.4 cd/A (EQE of 22.0 0.1%, power efficiency of 72 1 lm/W).

  20. Design and fabrication of AlGaInP-based micro-light-emitting-diode array devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xingzhen; Liang, Jingqiu; Liang, Zhongzhu; Wang, Weibiao; Tian, Chao; Qin, Yuxin; Lü, Jinguang

    2016-04-01

    An integrated high-resolution (individual pixel size 80 μm×80 μm) solid-state self-emissive active matrix programmed with 320×240 micro-light-emitting-diode arrays structure was designed and fabricated on an AlGaInP semiconductor chip using micro electro-mechanical systems, microstructure and semiconductor fabricating techniques. Row pixels share a p-electrode and line pixels share an n-electrode. We experimentally investigated GaAs substrate thickness affects the electrical and optical characteristics of the pixels. For a 150-μm-thick GaAs substrate, the single pixel output power was 167.4 μW at 5 mA, and increased to 326.4 μW when current increase to 10 mA. The device investigated potentially plays an important role in many fields.

  1. Continuous-wave broadly tunable diode laser array-pumped mid-infrared Cr2+:CdSe laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarev, V. A.; Tarabrin, M. K.; Kovtun, A. A.; Karasik, V. E.; Kireev, A. N.; Kozlovsky, V. I.; Korostelin, Yu V.; Podmar’kov, Yu P.; Frolov, M. P.; Gubin, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a room-temperature, solid-state, broadly tunable Cr-doped CdSe single-crystal continuous-wave laser. Longitudinal pumping with a continuous-wave diode laser array at 1.94 μm produced a broadband output of 280 mW at 2.6 μm with an incident power slope efficiency of 12%. With an intracavity Brewster-cut CaF2 prism, we tuned the Cr2+:CdSe laser from 2.45 to 3.06 μm with a resolution of 10 nm and an output power up to 55 mW.

  2. High-brightness diode laser arrays integrated with a phase shifter designed for single-lobe far-field pattern.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Jianxin; Ma, Shaodong; Qi, Aiyi; Qu, Hongwei; Zhang, Yejin; Zheng, Wanhua

    2013-08-01

    High-brightness, edge-emitting diode laser arrays integrated with a phase shifter have been designed and fabricated at a wavelength of about 910 nm. Stable out-of-phase mode is generated through coupling evanescently and converted to be nearly in-phase by the phase modulation from the phase shifter. With a very simple manufacture process, stable single-lobe far-field pattern is achieved in the slow axis when the continuous wave output power exceeds 460 mW/facet, and the divergence angle is only 2.7 times the diffraction-limited value. Such device shows a promising future for high-brightness application with low cost and easy fabrication. PMID:23903137

  3. Fabrication, characterization and applications of flexible vertical InGaN micro-light emitting diode arrays.

    PubMed

    Tian, Pengfei; McKendry, Jonathan J D; Gu, Erdan; Chen, Zhizhong; Sun, Yongjian; Zhang, Guoyi; Dawson, Martin D; Liu, Ran

    2016-01-11

    Flexible vertical InGaN micro-light emitting diode (micro-LED) arrays have been fabricated and characterized for potential applications in flexible micro-displays and visible light communication. The LED epitaxial layers were transferred from initial sapphire substrates to flexible AuSn substrates by metal bonding and laser lift off techniques. The current versus voltage characteristics of flexible micro-LEDs degraded after bending the devices, but the electroluminescence spectra show little shift even under a very small bending radius 3 mm. The high thermal conductivity of flexible metal substrates enables high thermal saturation current density and high light output power of the flexible micro-LEDs, benefiting the potential applications in flexible high-brightness micro-displays and high-speed visible light communication. We have achieved ~40 MHz modulation bandwidth and 120 Mbit/s data transmission speed for a typical flexible micro-LED. PMID:26832299

  4. Rapid method for the determination of 14 isoflavones in food using UHPLC coupled to photo diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Shim, You-Shin; Yoon, Won-Jin; Hwang, Jin-Bong; Park, Hyun-Jin; Seo, Dongwon; Ha, Jaeho

    2015-11-15

    A rapid method for the determination of 14 types of isoflavones in food using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, sensitivity and linearity. The UHPLC separation was performed on a reverse-phase C18 column (particle size 2 ?m, i.d. 2 mm, length 100 mm) using a photo diode array detector that was fixed to 260 nm. The limits of detection and quantification of the UHPLC analyses ranged from 0.03 to 0.33 mg kg(-1). The intra-day and inter-day precision of the individual isoflavones were less than 11.77% and calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r(2) = 0.99) within the tested ranges. These results suggest that the rapid method used in this study could be available to determine of 14 types of isoflavones in a variety of food such as soy bean, black bean, red bean and soybean paste. PMID:25977042

  5. One joule output from a diode-array-pumped Nd:YAG laser with side-pumped rod geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasinski, Jeffrey J.; Hughes, Will; Dibiase, Don; Bournes, Patrick; Burnham, Ralph

    1992-01-01

    Output of 1.25 J per pulse (1.064 micron) with an absolute optical efficiency of 28 percent and corresponding electrical efficiency of 10 percent was demonstrated in a diode-array-pumped Nd:YAG laser using a side-pumped rod geometry in a master-oscillator/power-amplifier configuration. In Q-switched operation, an output of 0.75 J in a 17-ns pulse was obtained. The fundamental laser output was frequency doubled in KTP with 60 percent conversion efficiency to obtain 0.45 J in a 16-ns pulse at 532 nm. The output beam had high spatial quality with pointing stability better than 40 microrad and a shot-to-shot pulse energy fluctuation of less than +/-3 percent.

  6. Floral classification of honey using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinhui; Yao, Lihu; Li, Yi; Chen, Lanzhen; Wu, Liming; Zhao, Jing

    2014-02-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) method for the floral origin traceability of chaste honey and rape honey samples was firstly presented in this study. Kaempferol, morin and ferulic acid were used as floral markers to distinguish chaste honey from rape honey. Chromatographic fingerprinting at 270 nm and 360 nm could be used to characterise chaste honey and rape honey according to the analytical profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were applied to classify the honey samples according to their floral origins. The results showed that chaste honey and rape honey could be successfully classified by their floral sources with the analytical methods developed through this study and could be considered encouraging and promising for the honey traceability from unifloral or multifloral nectariferous sources. PMID:24128567

  7. Miniaturized time-resolved Raman spectrometer for planetary science based on a fast single photon avalanche diode detector array.

    PubMed

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Alerstam, Erik; Maruyama, Yuki; Cochrane, Corey J; Rossman, George R

    2016-02-01

    We present recent developments in time-resolved Raman spectroscopy instrumentation and measurement techniques for in situ planetary surface exploration, leading to improved performance and identification of minerals and organics. The time-resolved Raman spectrometer uses a 532nm pulsed microchip laser source synchronized with a single photon avalanche diode array to achieve sub-nanosecond time resolution. This instrument can detect Raman spectral signatures from a wide variety of minerals and organics relevant to planetary science while eliminating pervasive background interference caused by fluorescence. We present an overview of the instrument design and operation and demonstrate high signal-to-noise ratio Raman spectra for several relevant samples of sulfates, clays, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Finally, we present an instrument design suitable for operation on a rover or lander and discuss future directions that promise great advancement in capability. PMID:26836075

  8. Vertically p-n-junctioned GaN nano-wire array diode fabricated on Si(111) using MOCVD.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Hee; Kissinger, Suthan; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays on (111) silicon substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method .The nanowires were grown by a newly developed two-step growth process. The diameter of as-grown nanowires ranges from 300-400 nm with a density of 6-7 10(7) cm(-2). The p- and n-type doping of the nanowires is achieved with Mg and Si dopant species. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates that the nanowires are relatively defect-free. The room-temperature photoluminescence emission with a strong peak at 370 nm indicates that the n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays have potential application in light-emitting nanodevices. The cathodoluminscence (CL) spectrum clearly shows a distinct optical transition of GaN nanodiodes. The nano-n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg diodes were further completed using a sputter coating approach to deposit Au/Ni metal contacts. The polysilazane filler has been etched by a wet chemical etching process. The n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire diode was fabricated for different Mg source flow rates. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements reveal excellent rectifying properties with an obvious turn-on voltage at 1.6 V for a Mg flow rate of 5 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute). PMID:23455517

  9. Over 1000 channel nitride-based micro-light-emitting diode arrays with tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Nakajima, Keisuke; Kaga, Mitsuru; Kuwano, Yuka; Minamikawa, Daichi; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Kouji; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated nitride-based micro-LED arrays with a small number of fabrication process steps by using a combination of tunnel junctions and patterned n-GaN cathode lines. A use of the combination enables us to skip a couple of process steps required in standard LED array fabrication. A 10 10 channel matrix-addressable LED array with a 10 16 m2 emission regions and a 25 m pitch lengths showed uniform operating voltages and light output intensities, indicating good yield due to the small number of process steps used. In addition, microdisplay of over 1000 (14 72) channels was successfully demonstrated. The new array structure with the tunnel junction and n-GaN cathode line provides a high density and a high yield simultaneously.

  10. Technique for Radiometer and Antenna Array Calibration with Two Antenna Noise Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Karthik; Limaye, Ashutosh; Laymon, Charles; Meyer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique to calibrate a microwave radiometer and phased array antenna system. This calibration technique uses a radiated noise source in addition to an injected noise sources for calibration. The plane of reference for this calibration technique is the face of the antenna and therefore can effectively calibration the gain fluctuations in the active phased array antennas. This paper gives the mathematical formulation for the technique and discusses the improvements brought by the method over the existing calibration techniques.

  11. SU-F-BRE-06: Evaluation of Patient CT Dose Reconstruction From 3D Diode Array Measurements Using Anthropomorphic Phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, M; Benhabib, S; Cardan, R; Brezovich, I; Popple, R; Faught, A; Followill, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To compare 3D reconstructed dose of IMRT plans from 3D diode array measurements with measurements in anthropomorphic phantoms. Methods: Six IMRT plans were created for the IROC Houston (RPC) head and neck (H and N) and lung phantoms following IROC Houston planning protocols. The plans included flattened and unflattened beam energies ranging from 6 MV to 15 MV and both static and dynamic MLC tecH and Niques. Each plan was delivered three times to the respective anthropomorphic phantom, each of which contained thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and radiochromic films (RCFs). The plans were also delivered to a Delta4 diode array (Scandidos, Uppsala, Sweden). Irradiations were done using a TrueBeam STx (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The dose in the patient was calculated by the Delta4 software, which used the diode measurements to estimate incident energy fluence and a kernel-based pencil beam algorithm to calculate dose. The 3D dose results were compared with the TLD and RCF measurements. Results: In the lung, the average difference between TLDs and Delta4 calculations was 5% (range 2%–7%). For the H and N, the average differences were 2.4% (range 0%–4.5%) and 1.1% (range 0%–2%) for the high- and low-dose targets, respectively, and 12% (range 10%-13%) for the organ-at-risk simulating the spinal cord. For the RCF and criteria of 7%/4mm, 5%/3mm, and 3%/3mm, the average gamma-index pass rates were 95.4%, 85.7%, and 76.1%, respectively for the H and N and 76.2%, 57.8%, and 49.5% for the lung. The pass-rate in the lung decreased with increasing beam energy, as expected for a pencil beam algorithm. Conclusion: The H and N phantom dose reconstruction met the IROC Houston acceptance criteria for clinical trials; however, the lung phantom dose did not, most likely due to the inaccuracy of the pencil beam algorithm in the presence of low-density inhomogeneities. Work supported by PHS grant CA10953 and CA81647 (NCI, DHHS)

  12. Ultra high brightness laser diode arrays for pumping of compact solid state lasers and direct applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Andreas; Fillardet, Thierry; Laugustin, Arnaud; Rabot, Olivier

    2012-10-01

    High Power Laser Diodes (HPLD) are increasingly used in different fields of applications such as Industry, Medicine and Defense. Our significant improvements of performances (especially in power and efficiency) and a reproducible manufacturing process have led to reliable, highly robust components. For defense and security applications these devices are used predominantly for pumping of solid state lasers (ranging, designation, countermeasures, and sensors). Due to the drastically falling price per watt they are more and more replacing flash lamps as pump sources. By collimating the laser beam even with a bar to bar pitch of only 400μm. cutting edge brightness of our stacks.is achieved Due the extremely high brightness and high power density these stacks are an enabling technology for the development of compact highly efficient portable solid state lasers for applications as telemeters and designators on small platforms such as small UAVs and handheld devices. In combination with beam homogenizing optics their compact size and high efficiency makes these devices perfectly suited as illuminators for portable active imaging systems. For gated active imaging systems a very short pulse at high PRF operation is required. For this application we have developed a diode driver board with an efficiency several times higher than that of a standard driver. As a consequence this laser source has very low power consumption and low waste heat dissipation. In combination with its compact size and the integrated beam homogenizing optics it is therefore ideally suited for use in portable gated active imaging systems. The kWatt peak power enables a range of several hundred meters. The devices described in this paper mostly operate at wavelength between 800 nm and 980nm. Results from diodes operating between 1300 nm and 1550 nm are presented as well.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of the dose response of a novel 2D silicon diode array for use in hybrid MRI–LINAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gargett, Maegan Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Oborn, Brad; Metcalfe, Peter

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: MRI-guided radiation therapy systems (MRIgRT) are being developed to improve online imaging during treatment delivery. At present, the operation of single point dosimeters and an ionization chamber array have been characterized in such systems. This work investigates a novel 2D diode array, named “magic plate,” for both single point calibration and 2D positional performance, the latter being a key element of modern radiotherapy techniques that will be delivered by these systems. Methods: GEANT4 Monte Carlo methods have been employed to study the dose response of a silicon diode array to 6 MV photon beams, in the presence of in-line and perpendicularly aligned uniform magnetic fields. The array consists of 121 silicon diodes (dimensions 1.5 × 1.5 × 0.38 mm{sup 3}) embedded in kapton substrate with 1 cm pitch, spanning a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} area in total. A geometrically identical, water equivalent volume was simulated concurrently for comparison. The dose response of the silicon diode array was assessed for various photon beam field shapes and sizes, including an IMRT field, at 1 T. The dose response was further investigated at larger magnetic field strengths (1.5 and 3 T) for a 4 × 4 cm{sup 2} photon field size. Results: The magic plate diode array shows excellent correspondence (< ± 1%) to water dose in the in-line orientation, for all beam arrangements and magnetic field strengths investigated. The perpendicular orientation, however, exhibits a dose shift with respect to water at the high-dose-gradient beam edge of jaw-defined fields [maximum (4.3 ± 0.8)% over-response, maximum (1.8 ± 0.8)% under-response on opposing side for 1 T, uncertainty 1σ]. The trend is not evident in areas with in-field dose gradients typical of IMRT dose maps. Conclusions: A novel 121 pixel silicon diode array detector has been characterized by Monte Carlo simulation for its performance inside magnetic fields representative of current prototype and proposed MRI–linear accelerator systems. In the in-line orientation, the silicon dose is directly proportional to the water dose. In the perpendicular orientation, there is a shift in dose response relative to water in the highest dose gradient regions, at the edge of jaw-defined and single-segment MLC fields. The trend was not observed in-field for an IMRT beam. The array is expected to be a valuable tool in MRIgRT dosimetry.

  14. Lithium neodymium tetraphosphate lasers pumped via close-coupling to high-power laser diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, G.J.; Lingvay, L.S.; Jarman, R.H.

    1989-05-01

    The authors report what they believe to be the first demonstration of a LiNdP/sub 4/O/sub 12/ solid-state laser in which the active medium was close-coupled to the pump diode. With a pump power of approximately 250 mW, a TEM/sub 00/, multilongitudinal mode output power of 73 mW has been obtained from an external mirror device operating simultaneously on the two lines at 1047 and 1055 nm. Devices operating at 1317 nm have also been studied and a close-coupled, monolithic laser with an output power in excess of 28 mW has been demonstrated.

  15. Application of a diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption sensor for in situ measurements of atomic mercury in coal-combustion exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse K. Magnuson; Thomas N. Anderson; Robert P. Lucht; Udayasarathy A. Vijayasarathy; Hyukjin Oh; Kalyan Annamalai; Jerald A. Caton

    2008-09-15

    A diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption sensor was successfully demonstrated for both in situ and extractive sampling atomic mercury measurements in a laboratory-scale 29.3 kWt (100 000 BTU/h) coal combustor and in situ measurements in a flow reactor at Texas A&M University. Laser sensor measurements were compared to measurements from a commercial mercury analyzer (CMA). A 375 nm single-mode laser and a 784 nm distributed feedback (DFB) laser are sum-frequency-mixed in a nonlinear {beta}-barium borate crystal to generate a 254 nm beam. By tuning the frequency of the DFB laser, the ultraviolet beam frequency was tuned across the transition frequency of mercury at 253.7 nm. The tuning range was large enough that an off-resonant baseline was clearly visible on both sides of the Hg transition. No pretreatment is required for elemental mercury measurements, and the effects of broadband absorption can be effectively eliminated during data analysis. Extractive sampling was demonstrated to improve the detection limit of the sensor and demonstrate the feasibility of total mercury concentration measurements in the future through extractive sampling. Significant variation in the atomic mercury concentration of coal-combustion exhaust was observed over short time periods during our in situ measurements. The sensor detection limits for in situ and extractive sampling are 0.3 and 0.1 parts per billion over a 1 m path length, respectively. 34 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Planarization of High Aspect Ratio P-I-N Diode Pillar Arrays for Blanket Electrical Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, L F; Shao, Q; Reinhardt, C E; Graff, R T; Conway, A M; Nikolic, R J; Deo, N; Cheung, C L

    2009-03-05

    Two planarization techniques for high aspect ratio three dimensional pillar structured P-I-N diodes have been developed in order to enable a continuous coating of metal on the top of the structures. The first technique allows for coating of structures with topography through the use of a planarizing photoresist followed by RIE etch back to expose the tops of the pillar structure. The second technique also utilizes photoresist, but instead allows for planarization of a structure in which the pillars are filled and coated with a conformal coating by matching the etch rate of the photoresist to the underlying layers. These techniques enable deposition using either sputtering or electron beam evaporation of metal films to allow for electrical contact to the tops of the underlying pillar structure. These processes have potential applications for many devices comprised of 3-D high aspect ratio structures. Two separate processes have been developed in order to ensure a uniform surface for deposition of an electrode on the {sup 10}Boron filled P-I-N pillar structured diodes. Each uses S1518 photoresist in order to achieve a relatively uniform surface despite the non-uniformity of the underlying detector. Both processes allow for metallization of the final structure and provide good electrical continuity over a 3D pillar structure.

  17. Gun muzzle flash detection using a single photon avalanche diode array in 0.18µm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savuskan, Vitali; Jakobson, Claudio; Merhav, Tomer; Shoham, Avi; Brouk, Igor; Nemirovsky, Yael

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a CMOS Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) 2D array is used to record and sample muzzle flash events in the visible spectrum, from representative weapons. SPADs detect the emission peaks of alkali salts, potassium or sodium, with spectral emission lines around 769nm and 589nm, respectively. The alkali salts are included in the gunpowder to suppress secondary flashes ignited during the muzzle flash event. The SPADs possess two crucial properties for muzzle flash imaging: (i) very high photon detection sensitivity, (ii) a unique ability to convert the optical signal to a digital signal at the source pixel, thus practically eliminating readout noise. The sole noise sources are the ones prior to the readout circuitry (optical signal distribution, avalanche initiation distribution and nonphotonic generation). This enables high sampling frequencies in the kilohertz range without significant SNR degradation, in contrast to regular CMOS image sensors. This research will demonstrate the SPAD's ability to accurately sample and reconstruct the temporal behavior of the muzzle flash in the visible wavelength, in the presence of sunlight. The reconstructed signal is clearly distinguishable from background clutter, through exploitation of flash temporal characteristics and signal processing, which will be reported. The frame rate of ~16 KHz was chosen as an optimum between SNR degradation and temporal profile recognition accuracy. In contrast to a single SPAD, the 2D array allows for multiple events to be processed simultaneously. Moreover, a significant field of view is covered, enabling comprehensive surveillance and imaging.

  18. Ultraviolet emission from Sb-doped p-type ZnO based heterojunction light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Mandalapu, L. J.; Yang, Z.; Chu, S.; Liu, J. L.

    2008-03-24

    Heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by making Au/Ni top Ohmic contacts on Sb-doped p-type ZnO film with low specific contact resistivity and Al/Ti back Ohmic contacts on n-type Si substrate. Near-band edge and deep-level emissions were observed from the LED devices at both low temperatures and room temperature, which is due to band-to-band and band-to-deep level radiative recombinations in ZnO, respectively. The electroluminescence emissions precisely match those of photoluminescence spectra from Sb-doped p-type ZnO, indicating that the ZnO layer acts as the active region for the radiative recombinations of electrons and holes in the diode operation.

  19. A Linearly-Polarized Rubidium Vapor Laser Pumped by a Tunable Laser Diode Array with an External Cavity of a Temperature-Controlled Volume Bragg Grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Tan, Rong-Qing; Xu, Cheng; Li, Lin; Zhao, Zhi-Long

    2013-03-01

    A diode pumped alkali vapor laser has advantages in high quantum efficiency, excellent beam quality, and low thermal effect. We obtain a laser diode array (LDA) with linewidth of 0.20 nm and an external cavity of volume Bragg grating (VBG). Its central wavelength can be tuned from 779.30nm to 780.10nm by changing the VBG's temperature. Pumped by this LDA, a 2.1 W rubidium vapor laser is achieved with optical efficiency of 10.5% and slope efficiency of 22.7%.

  20. Monolithic millimeter-wave diode array beam controllers: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjogren, L. B.; Liu, H.-X. L.; Wang, F.; Liu, T.; Wu, W.; Qin, X.-H.; Chung, E.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Maserjian, J.

    1992-01-01

    In the current work, multi-function beam control arrays have been fabricated and have successfully demonstrated amplitude control of transmitted beams in the W and D bands (75-170 GHz). While these arrays are designed to provide beam control under DC bias operation, new designs for high-speed electronic and optical control are under development. These arrays will fill a need for high-speed watt-level beam switches in pulsed reflectometer systems under development for magnetic fusion plasma diagnostics. A second experimental accomplishment of the current work is the demonstration in the 100-170 GHz (D band) frequency range of a new technique for the measurement of the transmission phase as well as amplitude. Transmission data can serve as a means to extract ('de-embed') the grid parameters; phase information provides more complete data to assist in this process. Additional functions of the array beam controller yet to be tested include electronically controlled steering and focusing of a reflected beam. These have application in the areas of millimeter-wave electronic scanning radar and reflectometry, respectively.

  1. High-brightness spectral beam combining of diode laser array stack in an external cavity.

    PubMed

    Meng, Huicheng; Sun, Tangyou; Tan, Hao; Yu, Junhong; Du, Weichuan; Tian, Fei; Li, Jianming; Gao, Songxing; Wang, Xiaojun; Wu, Deyong

    2015-08-24

    We demonstrate the spectral beam combining of a diode laser stack, which contains three 970nm Mini-Bars along the fast-axis direction, in an external cavity. At the pump current of 60 A, the output power of 127 W, the spectral bandwidth of 12 nm and the Electro-optical conversion efficiency of 48.35% are achieved. The measured beam qualities after the spectral beam combining are M(2) ?10.2 along the slow axis and M(2) ?11.5 along the fast axis. Under a maximum injection current of 75A, the laser output power of more than 159W is achieved. The beam quality deteriorated slightly with the rising of the current from 60A to 75A, but it is enough to be coupled into a 50m core / 0.22NA fiber. PMID:26368158

  2. Photoelectric characteristics of diodes in prototype photosensitive pixels for a monolithic array infrared photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Sorochkin, A. V. Varavin, V. S.; Predein, A. V.; Sabinina, I. V.; Yakushev, M. V.

    2012-04-15

    Test photodiodes in the form of mesa structures with different areas from 30 Multiplication-Sign 30 to 100 Multiplication-Sign 100 {mu}m in size are fabricated based on a Cd{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Te/Si structure at x = 0.235, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). The current-voltage characteristics of the diodes are measured in the dark and under background light conditions. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations. It is found that the dependence of the photodiode photocurrent and dark current on the mesa structure size appears in the mesa size ranges from 30 Multiplication-Sign 30 to 80 Multiplication-Sign 80 {mu}m. The dark current decreases and the photocurrent increases with decreasing mesa size. The mechanisms affecting the behavior of current-voltage characteristics are discussed.

  3. Flexible one diode-one phase change memory array enabled by block copolymer self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Mun, Beom Ho; You, Byoung Kuk; Yang, Se Ryeun; Yoo, Hyeon Gyun; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Woon Ik; Yin, You; Byun, Myunghwan; Jung, Yeon Sik; Lee, Keon Jae

    2015-04-28

    Flexible memory is the fundamental component for data processing, storage, and radio frequency communication in flexible electronic systems. Among several emerging memory technologies, phase-change random-access memory (PRAM) is one of the strongest candidate for next-generation nonvolatile memories due to its remarkable merits of large cycling endurance, high speed, and excellent scalability. Although there are a few approaches for flexible phase-change memory (PCM), high reset current is the biggest obstacle for the practical operation of flexible PCM devices. In this paper, we report a flexible PCM realized by incorporating nanoinsulators derived from a Si-containing block copolymer (BCP) to significantly lower the operating current of the flexible memory formed on plastic substrate. The reduction of thermal stress by BCP nanostructures enables the reliable operation of flexible PCM devices integrated with ultrathin flexible diodes during more than 100 switching cycles and 1000 bending cycles. PMID:25826001

  4. Broadband localized surface-plasmon-enhanced green light-emitting diodes by silver nanocone array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Li, Yufeng; Huang, Yaping; Wang, Shuai; Feng, Lungang; Gong, Zhina; Wang, Jiangteng; Ding, Wen; Zhang, Ye; Yun, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with silver nanocone-shaped structures embedded in p-GaN have been demonstrated with the surface plasmon (SP) enhancement effect. The resonance frequency has been broadened and the strength of coupling has been considerably enhanced. Compared with the LED without Ag nanocones, the integrated photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the SP-enhanced LED was improved by ∼275%, and the electroluminescence (EL) enhancement ratio at a different wavelength was evaluated at an injection current of 50 mA/mm2. At the same time, a reduction in the recombination lifetime indicated an increased internal quantum efficiency of LEDs. The results of simulation using nanocones as well as nanorods indicate good correlation with the experimental observation of the broadening effect. This structure is promising for converting incident photons into the localized surface plasmon (LSP) mode, to enhance the emission of LEDs within a broad wavelength range.

  5. Feasibility of High-Power Diode Laser Array Surrogate to Support Development of Predictive Laser Lethality Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lowdermilk, W H; Rubenchik, A M; Springer, H K

    2011-01-13

    Predictive modeling and simulation of high power laser-target interactions is sufficiently undeveloped that full-scale, field testing is required to assess lethality of military directed-energy (DE) systems. The cost and complexity of such testing programs severely limit the ability to vary and optimize parameters of the interaction. Thus development of advanced simulation tools, validated by experiments under well-controlled and diagnosed laboratory conditions that are able to provide detailed physics insight into the laser-target interaction and reduce requirements for full-scale testing will accelerate development of DE weapon systems. The ultimate goal is a comprehensive end-to-end simulation capability, from targeting and firing the laser system through laser-target interaction and dispersal of target debris; a 'Stockpile Science' - like capability for DE weapon systems. To support development of advanced modeling and simulation tools requires laboratory experiments to generate laser-target interaction data. Until now, to make relevant measurements required construction and operation of very high power and complex lasers, which are themselves costly and often unique devices, operating in dedicated facilities that don't permit experiments on targets containing energetic materials. High power diode laser arrays, pioneered by LLNL, provide a way to circumvent this limitation, as such arrays capable of delivering irradiances characteristic of De weapon requires are self-contained, compact, light weight and thus easily transportable to facilities, such as the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where testing with energetic materials can be performed. The purpose of this study was to establish the feasibility of using such arrays to support future development of advanced laser lethality and vulnerability simulation codes through providing data for materials characterization and laser-material interaction models and to validate the accuracy of code predictions. This project was a Feasibility Study under the LLNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program.

  6. Quasi-isotropic VHF antenna array design study for the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a study to design a quasi-isotropic VHF antenna array for the IUE satellite are presented. A free space configuration was obtained that has no nulls deeper than -6.4 dbi in each of two orthogonal polarizations. A computer program named SOAP that analyzes the electromagnetic interaction between antennas and complicated conducting bodies, such as satellites was developed.

  7. Enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence by ordered Ag nanodot array on indium tin oxide anode in organic light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Mi E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr; Mo Yoon, Dang; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Chulki; Lee, Taikjin; Hun Kim, Jae; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deokha E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr; Lim, Si-Hyung

    2014-07-07

    We report the enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence (EL) in an organic light emitting diode (OLED) with an ordered Ag nanodot array on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode. Until now, most researches have focused on the improved performance of OLEDs by plasmonic effects of metal nanoparticles due to the difficulty in fabricating metal nanodot arrays. A well-ordered Ag nanodot array is fabricated on the ITO anode of OLED using the nanoporous alumina as an evaporation mask. The OLED device with Ag nanodot arrays on the ITO anode shows higher current density and EL enhancement than the one without any nano-structure. These results suggest that the Ag nanodot array with the plasmonic effect has potential as one of attractive approaches to enhance the hole injection and EL in the application of the OLEDs.

  8. Integrated electronics for time-resolved array of single-photon avalanche diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acconcia, G.; Crotti, M.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) technique has reached a prominent position among analytical methods employed in a great variety of fields, from medicine and biology (fluorescence spectroscopy) to telemetry (laser ranging) and communication (quantum cryptography). Nevertheless the development of TCSPC acquisition systems featuring both a high number of parallel channels and very high performance is still an open challenge: to satisfy the tight requirements set by the applications, a fully parallel acquisition system requires not only high efficiency single photon detectors but also a read-out electronics specifically designed to obtain the highest performance in conjunction with these sensors. To this aim three main blocks have been designed: a gigahertz bandwidth front-end stage to directly read the custom technology SPAD array avalanche current, a reconfigurable logic to route the detectors output signals to the acquisition chain and an array of time measurement circuits capable of recording the photon arrival times with picoseconds time resolution and a very high linearity. An innovative architecture based on these three circuits will feature a very high number of detectors to perform a truly parallel spatial or spectral analysis and a smaller number of high performance time-to-amplitude converter offering very high performance and a very high conversion frequency while limiting the area occupation and power dissipation. The routing logic will make the dynamic connection between the two arrays possible in order to guarantee that no information gets lost.

  9. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. IV - The soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Powell, Forbes R.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array uses various combinations of thin foil filters composed of Al, C, Te, Be, Mo, Rh, and phthalocyanine to achieve the requisite radiation-rejection characteristics. Such rejection is demanded by the presence of strong EUV radiation at longer wavelengths where the specular reflectivity of multilayer mirrors can cause 'contamination' of the image in the narrow band defined by the Bragg condition.

  10. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on semipolar GaN (2021) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicka, M.; Grzanka, S.; Skierbiszewski, C.; Turski, H.; Muziol, G.; Krysko, M.; Grzanka, E.; Sochacki, T.; Siekacz, M.; Kucharski, R.

    2013-03-18

    Multi-quantum well (MQW) structures and light emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown on semipolar (2021) and polar (0001) GaN substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The In incorporation efficiency was found to be significantly lower for the semipolar plane as compared to the polar one. The semipolar MQWs exhibit a smooth surface morphology, abrupt interfaces, and a high photoluminescence intensity. The electroluminescence of semipolar (2021) and polar (0001) LEDs fabricated in the same growth run peaks at 387 and 462 nm, respectively. Semipolar LEDs with additional (Al,Ga)N cladding layers exhibit a higher optical output power but simultaneously a higher turn-on voltage.

  11. Liquid Chromatography-diode Array Detector-electrospray Mass Spectrometry and Principal Components Analyses of Raw and Processed Moutan Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xian-Mei; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Ding, Meng-Jin; Zhao, Ming; Xue, Xing-Yang; Che, Chun-Tao; Wang, Shu-Mei; Zhao, Bin; Meng, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Raw Moutan Cortex (RMC), derived from the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa, and Processed Moutan Cortex (PMC) is obtained from RMC by undergoing a stir-frying process. Both of them are indicated for different pharmacodynamic action in traditional Chinese medicine, and they have been used in China and other Asian countries for thousands of years. Objective: To establish a method to study the RMC and PMC, revealing their different chemical composition by fingerprint, qualitative, and quantitative ways. Materials and Methods: High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESIMS) were used for the analysis. Therefore, the analytes were separated on an Ultimate TM XB-C18 analytical column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm) with a gradient elution program by a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid water solution. The flow rate, injection volume, detection wavelength, and column temperature were set at 1.0 mL/min, 10 μL, 254 nm, and 30°C, respectively. Besides, principal components analysis and the test of significance were applied in data analysis. Results: The results clearly showed a significant difference among RMC and PMC, indicating the significant changes in their chemical compositions before and after the stir-frying process. Conclusion: The HPLC-DAD-ESIMS coupled with chemometrics analysis could be used for comprehensive quality evaluation of raw and processed Moutan Cortex. SUMMARY The experiment study the RMC and PMC by HPLC-DAD-ESIMS couple with chemometrics analysis. The results of their fingerprints, qualitative, and quantitative all clearly showed significant changes in their chemical compositions before and after stir-frying processed. Abbreviation used: HPLC-DAD-ESIMS: High-performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector-Electrospray Mass Spectrometry, RMC: Raw moutan cortex, PMC: Processed moutan cortex, TCM: Traditional Chinese medicine, PCA: Principal components analysis, LOD: Limit of detection, LOQ: Limit of quantitation, RSD: Relative standard deviation

  12. Determination of analytes in medical herbs extracts by SPE coupled with two-dimensional planar chromatography in combination with diode array scanning densitometry and HPLC-diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Tuzimski, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an application of 2-D high-performance planar chromatography-diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-DAD after solid-phase extraction (SPE) for identification and quantitative analysis of pesticides (isoproturon, aziprotryne, hexazinone, flufenoxuron, methabenzthiazuron, procymidone, and ?-cypermethrin) in Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) samples. The procedure described for the determination of compounds is inexpensive and can be applied to routine analysis of analytes in medical herbs' samples after preliminary cleanup and concentration by SPE. Average recoveries on C18 SPE cartridges of pesticides eluted with 5 mL tetrahydrofuran by the proposed HPLC-DAD method, before and after 2-D-high-performance planar chromatography separation of analytes from M. officinalis L. samples spiked with pesticide at a concentration level of 10 ?g/g in plant material are presented. Method validation parameters for the quantification of pesticides by the proposed HPLC-DAD after SPE method are also presented. PMID:21171173

  13. Design of collimating and rearrangement systems of laser diode array beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Runmei; Fang, Tao; Fu, Rulian; Yao, Jianquan

    2015-10-01

    To improve the laser diode output beam quality, micro-cylindrical lens and the step-type lens combination are designed. The former is used to collimate beam in fast-axis direction, while the latter plays a role in the slow-axis of splitting and the rearrangement. The micro-column semi-elliptical lens is made with the drops of spherical zoom lensin electric field and with the help of the material properties of light-cured production, which can reduce the reflection of the front surface and total reflection loss of the after. The divergence angle in the fast axis is compressed to roughly the same as that in the slow-axis direction; Stepped lens splits compressed long strip beam in the slow axis, with parallelogram style of level equidistant and rearrange in the fast axis direction. The spot in the slow axis gets smaller and the spot becomes larger in the fast axis. At last divergence angle and the beam spot achieve balanced in the fast axis and slow axis, optical parameters BPP integrates approximate the same, and beam quality can be improved.

  14. Photonic Power Delivery Through Optical Fiber Using Very High Power Laser Diode Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Heino, Matthew; Saethre, Robert

    1999-05-01

    Described is a system that will provide isolated electric power for a circuit that drives the core reset of a pulsed power modulator. This can be accomplished by coupling light from a number of diode laser bars to bundles of 200 um multimode optical fibers. This is then coupled to photo-voltaic power converters that will deliver 16 V 29mA of electricity from 1 watt of optical power. Spot size at the bundle face is a Gausian ellipse with a major axis of 1.4 mm radius and a minor axis of four bundles of 12 fibers generating a total of 24 W of electrical power. Various schemes are used to maximize coupling into the optical filber while limiting the number of optical components, and comparing components such as fresnel and aspheric lenses and lens ducts for effectiveness and cost. This will provide a completely isolated low power source for high voltage, high current environments where tradional isolation techniques yield inadequate isolation or prove too cumbersome.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of p-ZnO:(P,N)/n-ZnO:Al homojunction ultra-violet (UV) light emitting diodes (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiudeen, Amiruddin; Reddy, T. Srinivasa; Cheemadan, Shaheer; Kumar, M. C. Santhosh

    2015-10-01

    ZnO possess distinctive characteristics such as low cost, wide band gap (3.36 eV) and large exciton binding energy (60meV). As the band gap lies in ultra violet (UV) region, ZnO is considered as a novel material for the fabrication of ultra violet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). However, ZnO being intrinsic n-type semiconductor the key challenge lies in realization of stable and reproducible p-type ZnO. In the present research dual acceptor group-V elements such as P and N are simultaneously doped in ZnO films to obtain the p-type characteristics. The deposition is made by programmable spray pyrolysis technique upon glass substrates at 697K. The optimum doping concentration of P and N were found to be 0.75 at% which exhibits hole concentration of 4.48 x 10^18 cm-3 and resistivity value of 9.6 ?.cm. The deposited p-ZnO were found to be stable for a period over six months. Highly conducting n-type ZnO films is made by doping aluminum (3 at%) which exhibits higher electron concentration of 1.52 x 10^19 cm-3 with lower electrical resistivity of 3.51 x 10-2 ?.cm. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the deposited n-ZnO and p-ZnO thin films are investigated. An efficient p-n homojunction has been fabricated using the optimum p-ZnO:(P,N) and n-ZnO:Al layers. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics show typical rectifying characteristics of p-n junction with a low turn on voltage. Electroluminescence (EL) studies reveals the fabricated p-n homojunction diodes exhibits strong emission features in ultra-violet (UV) region around 378 nm.

  16. Characterization and calibration of compact array spectrometers in the ultraviolet spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, Francois; Woolliams, Emma; Scott, Barry; Harris, Subrena

    2013-05-01

    Array-based spectrometers, with their compact size, low weight, low cost, and fast measurement time, are now frequently used in place of both conventional single-channel scanning monochromators, and broadband meters. Their rapid measurement capability makes them an attractive option for routine solar UV spectral measurements, where shortterm variability in signal is a challenge. However, compactness, portability, low cost and high speed are achieved at the expense of the spectrometer's optical and electronic performance. Thus such spectrometers are more prone to measurement error from environmental changes, and more prone to other intrinsic sources of error such as stray light and detector non-linearity, which significantly affect solar UV measurements, than a scanning monochromator. The effects of stray light and non-linearity can be reduced either by improved optical and detector design or by a detailed spectrometer characterization. We present in this paper our investigation of the performance of three different commercial array spectrometers: two mini-spectrometers, and a more elaborate array spectrometer with an on-board image amplifier device. These were tested for a subset of performance parameters: their wavelength accuracy and stability, electronic linearity, responsivity linearity, stray light sensitivity, and mechanical stability and repeatability. With all three spectrometers we found that these parameters, particularly but not limited to stray light, had a significant impact on the measurement of the incoming optical radiation. This meant that, without characterization, the instruments would be unable to accurately measure the UV component of any source with significant visible radiation. We discuss various simple and low-cost solutions for improving the performance of these instruments, and providing a rigorous calibration using a straightforward set-up including optical filters and the quasi-monochromatic light from a double monochromator.

  17. High-resolution pulse-counting array detectors for imaging and spectroscopy at ultraviolet wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. Gethyn; Bybee, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance characteristics of multianode microchannel array (MAMA) detector systems which have formats as large as 256 x 1024 pixels and which have application to imaging and spectroscopy at UV wavelengths are evaluated. Sealed and open-structure MAMA detector tubes with opaque CsI photocathodes can determine the arrival time of the detected photon to an accuracy of 100 ns or better. Very large format MAMA detectors with CsI and Cs2Te photocathodes and active areas of 52 x 52 mm (2048 x 2048 pixels) will be used as the UV solar blind detectors for the NASA STIS.

  18. Enhancing the far-ultraviolet sensitivity of silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor imaging arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retherford, Kurt D.; Bai, Yibin; Ryu, Kevin K.; Gregory, James A.; Welander, Paul B.; Davis, Michael W.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Winters, Gregory S.; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi; Beletic, James W.

    2015-10-01

    We report our progress toward optimizing backside-illuminated silicon P-type intrinsic N-type complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices developed by Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS) for far-ultraviolet (UV) planetary science applications. This project was motivated by initial measurements at Southwest Research Institute of the far-UV responsivity of backside-illuminated silicon PIN photodiode test structures, which revealed a promising QE in the 100 to 200 nm range. Our effort to advance the capabilities of thinned silicon wafers capitalizes on recent innovations in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) doping processes. Key achievements to date include the following: (1) representative silicon test wafers were fabricated by TIS, and set up for MBE processing at MIT Lincoln Laboratory; (2) preliminary far-UV detector QE simulation runs were completed to aid MBE layer design; (3) detector fabrication was completed through the pre-MBE step; and (4) initial testing of the MBE doping process was performed on monitoring wafers, with detailed quality assessments.

  19. In2-XO3-Y 1D perpendicular nanostructure arrays as ultraviolet detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Tamal; Mondal, Aniruddha; Singh, Pankaj; Choudhuri, Bijit

    2015-10-01

    The 1D perpendicular In2-xO3-y nanostructure arrays have been synthesized by using glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. A low deposition rate of 0.5A/S produced highly porous structure. The characteristics of junction defects and photocurrent were measured to verify the detector performance. The junction capacitance and charge retention due to presence of trap states in the device decreased with an increase in frequency. The high value of Dit? 5.5נ1017cm-2eV-1 was calculated for the device. The detector processes low ideality factor of ?2.04at 300K. The maximum photo responsivity of ?15A/W and internal gain of ?47 were measured for the 1D In2-xO3-y based detector at ?380nm in UV region. The device shows very high current density ?20A/cm2 (-2V, 300K) under dark, which deflects to 32A/cm2 due to illumination. Under white light on/off switching irradiation, the device operates with rise time of 1.9s and decay time of 2.3s. Therefore In2-xO3-y nanostructure arrays can be used as sensitive UV light detector.

  20. Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array.

    PubMed

    Tu, Charng-Gan; Liao, Che-Hao; Yao, Yu-Feng; Chen, Horng-Shyang; Lin, Chun-Han; Su, Chia-Ying; Shih, Pei-Ying; Chen, Wei-Han; Zhu, Erwin; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C C

    2014-12-15

    The growth and process of a regularly patterned nanorod (NR)- light-emitting diode (LED) array with its emission from sidewall non-polar quantum wells (QWs) are demonstrated. A pyramidal un-doped GaN structure is intentionally formed at the NR top for minimizing the current flow through this portion of the NR such that the injection current can be effectively guided to the sidewall m-plane InGaN/GaN QWs for emission excitation by a conformal transparent conductor (GaZnO). The injected current density at a given applied voltage of the NR LED device is similar to that of a planar c-plane or m-plane LED. The blue-shift trend of NR LED output spectrum with increasing injection current is caused by the non-uniform distributions of QW width and indium content along the height on a sidewall. The photoluminescence spectral shift under reversed bias confirms that the emission of the fabricated NR LED comes from non-polar QWs. PMID:25607494

  1. A simultaneous determination of principal compounds in tokishakuyakusan by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Sumino, Megumi; Saito, Yuko; Ikegami, Fumio; Namiki, Takao

    2015-02-01

    We developed a simultaneous analysis method using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) for six principal compounds (atractylenolide III, alisol A, alisol B, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid and (Z)-ligustilide) in a traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, tokishakuyakusan (TSS). The HPLC separation was conducted on a reversed-phase TSK-gel ODS-80TS column (4.6 i.d. 250 mm, 5 m) at 40C with a 0.1% phosphoric acid-acetonitrile gradient system. The DAD detection wavelength was set at 205, 232 and 330 nm. Calibration curves for the compounds showed linear regressions with correlation coefficients of >0.999. The intra- and inter-day precision (i.e., the relative standard deviation) were in the range of 0.50-1.55 and 0.70-1.80%, respectively. The average recovery yields of the compounds ranged from 98.3 to 103%. The present results will contribute to shorter analysis times with less organic solvent compared with the individual analysis of each compound for the evaluation of TSS. The application of the established method to TSS will also provide helpful information for the further pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24981981

  2. Liquid chromatographic-diode-array detection multiresidue determination of rice herbicides in drinking and paddy-field water.

    PubMed

    Roehrs, Rafael; Zanella, Renato; Pizzuti, Ionara; Adaime, Martha B; Pareja, Lucía; Niell, Silvina; Cesio, María V; Heinzen, Horacio

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive, rapid, and simple multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of six postemergence herbicides currently used in rice cultivation--metsulfuron methyl, bensulfuron methyl, pyrazosulfuron ethyl, bentazone, bispyribac sodium, and cyhalofop butyl--in drinking and paddy-field water is presented. Water samples were extracted with solid-phase extraction cartridges. Final determination was made by LC with diode-array detection. The extraction efficiencies of C18 and HLB cartridges were compared. The average recovery obtained for these compounds for the lowest spiked level (0.1 microg/L) varied from 70 to 122% for C18 and 75-119% for HLB, with RSDs of 11 and 8.3%, respectively. The method had good linearity, and the lower detection limit for the pesticides studied varied from 0.03 to 0.04 microg/L. The proposed method was also tested in paddy-field water, with recovery studies giving good results with low RSDs at 1.0 microg/L. PMID:19714989

  3. Analysis of vitamin B1 in dry-cured sausages by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Sárraga, C; Clariana, M; Regueiro, J A García; Castellari, M

    2011-03-01

    A method based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and diode array detection (DAD) was developed to quantify thiamine (vitamin B1) concentration in Spanish dry-cured sausages ("chorizo," "fuet," and "salchichón"). Samples were extracted with diluted acid (HCl 0.1M) followed by an enzymatic hydrolysis to release vitamin B1 vitamers from food matrix. Crude extracts were purified on a weak cation exchange SPE cartridge and total thiamine concentration was determined by LC-HILIC-DAD with a limit of detection better than 0.01 mg/100g. The proposed conditions, that do not require the derivatization of the extracts nor the use of fluorescence or MS detectors, are suitable to provide chromatographic separation and identification of vitamin B1 within 8 min. Selectivity, repeatability and accuracy of the method were evaluated with both spiked samples and the reference material Pig Liver BCR® 487. Quantification of vitamin B1 was also carried out for different kinds of commercial samples of Spanish dry-cured products. PMID:21078548

  4. Screening method for the determination of tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in animal drinking water by liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Patyra, E; Kowalczyk, E; Grelik, A; Przenios?o-Siwczy?ska, M; Kwiatek, K

    2015-01-01

    A liquid chromatography - diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) procedure has been developed for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), chlorotetracycline (CTC), doxycycline (DC), enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), sarafloxacin (SAR) and flumequine (FLU) residues in animal drinking water. This method was applied to animal drinking water. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up on an Oasis HLB cartridge allowed an extract suitable for liquid chromatographic analysis to be obtained. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 analytical column, using gradient elution with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid - acetonitrile - methanol at 30C. The flow-rate was 0.7 mL/min and the eluate was analysed at 330 nm. The whole procedure was evaluated according to the requirements of the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, determining specificity, decision limit (CC?), detection capacity (CC?), limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision and accuracy during validation of the method. The recoveries of TCs and FQs from spiked samples at the levels of 10, 100 and 1000 ?g/L were higher than 82%. The developed method based on HPLC-DAD has been applied for the determination of four tetracyclines and four fluoroquinolones in animal drinking water samples. PMID:26172177

  5. Low-noise low-jitter 32-pixels CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes array for single-photon counting from 300 nm to 900 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Scarcella, Carmelo; Tosi, Alberto Villa, Federica; Tisa, Simone; Zappa, Franco

    2013-12-15

    We developed a single-photon counting multichannel detection system, based on a monolithic linear array of 32 CMOS SPADs (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes). All channels achieve a timing resolution of 100 ps (full-width at half maximum) and a photon detection efficiency of 50% at 400 nm. Dark count rate is very low even at room temperature, being about 125 counts/s for 50 ?m active area diameter SPADs. Detection performance and microelectronic compactness of this CMOS SPAD array make it the best candidate for ultra-compact time-resolved spectrometers with single-photon sensitivity from 300 nm to 900 nm.

  6. Enhancement of radiative efficiencies of near-ultraviolet organic light-emitting diodes by localized surfacee Plasmon resonance enhancement effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, A.; Emoto, A.; Ohtani, N.

    2015-10-01

    Near-UV emission organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) containing silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated to improve their radiative efficiencies by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) enhancement effect. The samples studied were simple bilayer structures consisting of an active layer and a hole-transporting layer (HTL). Poly[(9,9- dihexylfluoren-2,7-diyl)-co-(1,4-dimethyl-benzene-2,5-diyl)] (PF-DMB) was used as a UV emission material, whose emission peaking-wavelength is about 395 nm. Ag NPs were inserted between ITO and HTL, whose absorption peaking wavelength is corresponding to about 395 nm. Thus, the electroluminescence (EL) intensity of UV OLEDs containing Ag NPs was enhanced to about 2.5 times as large as that without Ag NP by the LSPR enhancement effect.

  7. Absorbance detector for capillary electrophoresis based on light-emitting diodes and photodiodes for the deep-ultraviolet range.

    PubMed

    Bui, Duy Anh; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-11-20

    A new absorbance detector for capillary electrophoresis featuring relatively high intensity light-emitting diodes as radiation sources and photodiodes for the deep-UV range was developed. The direct relationship of absorbance values and concentrations was obtained by emulating Lambert-Beer's law with the application of a beam splitter to obtain a reference signal and a log-ratio amplifier circuitry. The performance of the cell was investigated at 255nm with the detection of sulfanilic, 4-nitrobenzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-aminobenzoic acid and the indirect detection of acetate, propionate, butyrate and caproate using benzoate as the displacement dye molecule. Vanillic acid, L-tyrosine and DL-tryptophan as well as the sulfonamides sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole and sulfamethazine were determined at 280nm. Good linearities over 3 orders of magnitude were obtained. The noise level recorded was as low as 50?AU and the drift typically <200?AU/5min. PMID:26091783

  8. Micro-lens array design on a flexible light-emitting diode package for indoor lighting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-10-01

    An advanced, ultra-thin, flexible LED (FLED) package technique is first proposed in this study, where a polyimide substrate was used as the lead frame package material due to its physical stability in thermal processing. The experimental results showed that the thickness of the mockup sample measured by a vernier caliper was 260 ?m and 35% thinner than the Panasonic organic LED lighting panel announced on 4 March 2014 in Tokyo. Moreover, the flexible angle of the ultra-thin LED package was 200.54 when it surrounded a disk with a 1 cm radius. A design of a micro-lens array manufactured by silicone molding on the FLED is also proposed in this study. Finally, different types of micro-lenses were applied to different lighting regions to investigate their lighting effects. PMID:26479655

  9. Electrical switching and memory behaviors in organic diodes based on polymer blend films treated by ultraviolet ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinying; Ma, Dongge

    2014-09-01

    Resistive memory devices with resistive switching characteristics were fabricated based on poly (3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) doping with polyvinyl alcohol. It has been demonstrated that the resistive switching characteristics in the memory device was strongly dependent on the treatment of the polymer blend film by ultraviolet ozone (UV-ozone). The UV-ozone treated device exhibited improved performance with the ON/OFF current ratio of more than 102, and its ON and OFF states can be maintained over 96 h without deterioration. The resistive switching behavior in the UV-ozone treated device was attributed to the formation and rupture of the PEDOT:PSS filaments as well as the narrow conducting paths through the native oxide of aluminum.

  10. Luminescent properties of Eu{sup 2+}-doped BaGdF{sub 5} glass ceramics a potential blue phosphor for ultra-violet light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weihuan; Zhang, Yuepin Ouyang, Shaoye; Zhang, Zhixiong; Wang, Qian; Xia, Haiping

    2015-01-14

    Eu{sup 2+} doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing BaGdF{sub 5} nanocrystals were successfully fabricated by melt-quenching technique under a reductive atmosphere. The structure of the glass and glass ceramics were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The luminescent properties were investigated by transmission, excitation, and emission spectra. The decay time of the Gd{sup 3+} ions at 312 nm excited with 275 nm were also investigated. The results of XRD and TEM indicated the existence of BaGdF5 nanocrystals in the transparent glass ceramics. The excitation spectra of Eu{sup 2+} doped glass ceramics showed an excellent overlap with the main emission region of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED). Compared with the as-made glass, the emission of glass ceramics is much stronger by a factor of increasing energy transfer efficiency from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} ions, the energy transfer efficiency from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} ions was discussed. In addition, the chromaticity coordinates of glass and glass ceramics specimens were also discussed, which indicated that the Eu{sup 2+} doped BaGdF{sub 5} glass ceramics may be used as a potential blue-emitting phosphor for UV-LED.

  11. Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chia-Yu; Tzou, An-Jye; Lin, Bing-Cheng; Lan, Yu-Pin; Chiu, Ching-Hsueh; Chi, Gou-Chung; Chen, Chi-Hsiang; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2014-09-01

    The flip chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (FC UV-LEDs) with a wavelength of 365 nm are developed with the ex situ reactive plasma deposited (RPD) AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) by an atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (AP MOCVD). The ex situ RPD AlN nucleation layer can significantly reduce dislocation density and thus improve the crystal quality of the GaN epitaxial layers. Utilizing high-resolution X-ray diffraction, the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve shows that the crystalline quality of the epitaxial layer with the (RPD) AlN nucleation layer is better than that with the low-temperature GaN (LT-GaN) nucleation layer. The threading dislocation density (TDD) is estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which shows the reduction from 6.8 107 cm-2 to 2.6 107 cm-2. Furthermore, the light output power (LOP) of the LEDs with the RPD AlN nucleation layer has been improved up to 30 % at a forward current of 350 mA compared to that of the LEDs grown on PSS with conventional LT-GaN nucleation layer.

  12. Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Hideki; Maeda, Noritoshi; Fujikawa, Sachie; Toyoda, Shiro; Kamata, Norihiko

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, recent advances in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated. 220-350-nm-band DUV LEDs have been realized by developing crystal growth techniques for wide-bandgap AlN and AlGaN semiconductors. Significant increases in internal quantum efficiency (IQE) have been achieved for AlGaN DUV emissions by developing low-threading-dislocation-density (TDD) AlN buffer layers grown on sapphire substrates. The electron injection efficiency (EIE) of the LEDs was also significantly increased by introducing a multiquantum barrier (MQB). We also discuss light extraction efficiency (LEE), which is the most important parameter for achieving high-efficiency DUV LEDs. We succeeded in improving LEE by developing a transparent p-AlGaN contact layer. The maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) obtained was 7% for a 279 nm DUV LED. EQE could be increased by up to several tens of percent through the improvement of LEE by utilizing transparent contact layers and photonic nanostructures in the near future.

  13. 227-261 nm AlGaN-based Deep Ultraviolet Light-emitting Diodes Fabricated on High-quality AlN Buffer on Sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Hideki; Yatabe, Tohru; Noguchi, Norimichi; Kamata, Norihiko

    We demonstrated AlGaN multi-quantum well (MQW) deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with wavelength in the range of 227-261 nm fabricated on high-quality AlN buffers on sapphire substrates. We achieved crack-free, thick AlN buffer on sapphire with low threading dislocation density (TDD) and atomically flat surface by introducing an ammonia (NH3) pulse-flow multi-layer (ML) growth method through metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The edge- and screw-type dislocation densities of AlGaN layer on AlN buffer were reduced to 7.5108 and 3.8107 cm-2, respectively, by using a ML-AlN buffer. We achieved single-peaked high-brightness operations of AlGaN deep-UV LEDs by fabricating them on the ML-AlN buffers on sapphire substrates. The maximum output power and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the 261 nm and 227.5 nm LEDs were 1.65 mW and 0.23% under room-temperature (RT) CW operation, and 0.15 mW and 0.2%, under RT pulsed operation, respectively.

  14. Electrical current leakage and open-core threading dislocations in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Michael; Allerman, Andrew; Crawford, Mary; Wierer, Jonathan J.; Smith, Michael; Biedermann, Laura

    2014-08-01

    Electrical current transport through leakage paths in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and their effect on LED performance are investigated. Open-core threading dislocations, or nanopipes, are found to conduct current through nominally insulating Al0.7Ga0.3N layers and limit the performance of DUV-LEDs. A defect-sensitive phosphoric acid etch reveals these open-core threading dislocations in the form of large, micron-scale hexagonal etch pits visible with optical microscopy, while closed-core screw-, edge-, and mixed-type threading dislocations are represented by smaller and more numerous nanometer-scale pits visible by atomic-force microscopy. The electrical and optical performances of DUV-LEDs fabricated on similar Si-doped Al0.7Ga0.3N templates are found to have a strong correlation to the density of these nanopipes, despite their small fraction (<0.1% in this study) of the total density of threading dislocations.

  15. Largely enhanced efficiency in ZnO nanowire/p-polymer hybridized inorganic/organic ultraviolet light-emitting diode by piezo-phototronic effect.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Liu, Ying; Pan, Caofeng; Chen, Jun; Wen, Xiaonan; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-02-13

    ZnO nanowire inorganic/organic hybrid ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted considerable attention as they not only combine the high flexibility of polymers with the structural and chemical stability of inorganic nanostructures but also have a higher light extraction efficiency than thin film structures. However, up to date, the external quantum efficiency of UV LED based on ZnO nanostructures has been limited by a lack of efficient methods to achieve a balance between electron contributed current and hole contributed current that reduces the nonradiative recombination at interface. Here we demonstrate that the piezo-phototronic effect can largely enhance the efficiency of a hybridized inorganic/organic LED made of a ZnO nanowire/p-polymer structure, by trimming the electron current to match the hole current and increasing the localized hole density near the interface through a carrier channel created by piezoelectric polarization charges on the ZnO side. The external efficiency of the hybrid LED was enhanced by at least a factor of 2 after applying a proper strain, reaching 5.92%. This study offers a new concept for increasing organic LED efficiency and has a great potential for a wide variety of high-performance flexible optoelectronic devices. PMID:23339573

  16. Luminescent properties of Ca3 SiO4 Cl2 co-doped with Ce(3+) and Eu(2+) for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wangqing; Zhu, Yiwen; Wang, Zhengliang

    2015-12-01

    Ca3 SiO4 Cl2 co-doped with Ce(3+) ,Eu(2+) was prepared by high temperature reaction. The structure, luminescent properties and the energy transfer process of Ca3 SiO4 Cl2 : Ce(3+) ,Eu(2+) were investigated. Eu(2+) ions can give enhanced green emission through Ce(3+)  → Eu(2+) energy transfer in these phosphors. The green phosphor Ca2.9775 SiO4 Cl2 :0.0045Ce(3+) ,0.018Eu(2+) showed intense green emission with broader excitation in the near-ultraviolet light range. A green light-emitting diode (LED) based on this phosphor was made, and bright green light from this green LED could be observed by the naked eye under 20 mA current excitation. Hence it is considered to be a good candidate for the green component of a three-band white LED. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25892443

  17. Vertically conducting deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with interband tunneling junction grown on 6H-SiC substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hongwei; Tao, Pengcheng; Xia, Xiaochuan; Chen, Yuanpeng; Zhang, Kexiong; Liu, Yang; Shen, Rensheng; Luo, Yingmin; Zhang, Yuantao; Du, Guotong

    2016-03-01

    Vertically conducting deep-ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a polarization-induced backward-tunneling junction (PIBTJ) were grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on 6H-SiC substrates. A self-consistent solution of Poisson–Schrödinger equations combined with polarization-induced theory was applied to simulate the PIBTJ structure, energy band diagrams, and free-carrier concentration distribution. AlN and graded AlxGa1‑xN interlayers were introduced between the PIBTJ and multiple quantum well layers to avoid cracking of the n-Al0.5Ga0.5N top layer. At a driving current of 20 mA, an intense DUV emission at ∼288 nm and a weak shoulder at ∼386 nm were observed from the AlGaN top layer side. This demonstrates that the PIBTJ can be used to fabricate vertically conducting DUV LED on SiC substrates.

  18. Transparent conductive oxide films mixed with gallium oxide nanoparticle/single-walled carbon nanotube layer for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We propose a transparent conductive oxide electrode scheme of gallium oxide nanoparticle mixed with a single-walled carbon nanotube (Ga2O3 NP/SWNT) layer for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using spin and dipping methods. We investigated the electrical, optical and morphological properties of the Ga2O3 NP/SWNT layers by increasing the thickness of SWNTs via multiple dipping processes. Compared with the undoped Ga2O3 films (current level 9.9??10-9 A @ 1 V, transmittance 68% @ 280 nm), the current level flowing in the Ga2O3 NP/SWNT increased by approximately 4??105 times and the transmittance improved by 9% after 15 times dip-coating (current level 4??10-4 A at 1 V; transmittance 77.0% at 280 nm). These improvements result from both native high transparency of Ga2O3 NPs and high conductivity and effective current spreading of SWNTs. PMID:24295342

  19. A facile route to realize ultraviolet emission in a nano-engineered SnO2-based light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanan; Li, Yongfeng; Yao, Bin; Ding, Zhanhui; Deng, Rui; Zhang, Ligong; Zhao, Haifeng

    2015-11-01

    We reported a facile route to fabricate a tin dioxide (SnO2)-based light-emitting diode (LED) and obtain an electrically pumped band-edge ultraviolet (UV) emission. We first investigated the photoluminescence (PL) properties of the SnO2 thin films deposited on quartz substrates annealed at various temperatures. It was found that SnO2 nanocrystals were embedded in the SnO2 amorphous matrix after annealing at 400 C to form a SnO2 nanoparticle/amorphous hybrid film; the band-edge UV emission was observed from the hybrid film due to the hybrid structure breaking the dipole-forbidden rule of bulk SnO2. This hybrid SnO2 film was then deposited on a p-type GaN substrate to form a SnO2 hybrid film-based LED and a band-edge UV electroluminescence (EL) was observed. Our results suggest that this easy and effective approach may find extensive application in the field of optoelectronics, displays and solid-state lighting.

  20. Electrical current leakage and open-core threading dislocations in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, Michael Allerman, Andrew; Crawford, Mary; Wierer, Jonathan J.; Smith, Michael; Biedermann, Laura

    2014-08-07

    Electrical current transport through leakage paths in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and their effect on LED performance are investigated. Open-core threading dislocations, or nanopipes, are found to conduct current through nominally insulating Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N layers and limit the performance of DUV-LEDs. A defect-sensitive phosphoric acid etch reveals these open-core threading dislocations in the form of large, micron-scale hexagonal etch pits visible with optical microscopy, while closed-core screw-, edge-, and mixed-type threading dislocations are represented by smaller and more numerous nanometer-scale pits visible by atomic-force microscopy. The electrical and optical performances of DUV-LEDs fabricated on similar Si-doped Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N templates are found to have a strong correlation to the density of these nanopipes, despite their small fraction (<0.1% in this study) of the total density of threading dislocations.

  1. Improved performance of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with n-AlGaN underlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Tsutsumi, Tatsuya; Miyachi, Yuta; Miyoshi, Makoto; Egawa, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate notable performance improvement of 270 nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) by inserting an n-AlGaN underlayer (UL), which was directly beneath an AlGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) active region. This DUV-LED exhibited significantly improved forward and reverse bias current-voltage characteristics, and spectral properties. As a result, the turn-on voltage was decreased from 7 to 4.6 V by introducing the n-AlGaN UL, and the maximum light output power and external quantum efficiency of DUV-LEDs with the n-AlGaN UL, obtained via on-wafer measurement, were increased by factors of 3.6 and 2.2, respectively. Further enhancements can be realized by using high-quality AlN/sapphire templates together with the n-AlGaN UL. These improvements were considered to be attributed to the introduction of the n-AlGaN UL which improved electron injection and reduced the quantum confined stark effect in the AlGaN MQWs.

  2. Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The flip chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (FC UV-LEDs) with a wavelength of 365 nm are developed with the ex situ reactive plasma deposited (RPD) AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) by an atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (AP MOCVD). The ex situ RPD AlN nucleation layer can significantly reduce dislocation density and thus improve the crystal quality of the GaN epitaxial layers. Utilizing high-resolution X-ray diffraction, the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve shows that the crystalline quality of the epitaxial layer with the (RPD) AlN nucleation layer is better than that with the low-temperature GaN (LT-GaN) nucleation layer. The threading dislocation density (TDD) is estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which shows the reduction from 6.8 × 107 cm−2 to 2.6 × 107 cm−2. Furthermore, the light output power (LOP) of the LEDs with the RPD AlN nucleation layer has been improved up to 30 % at a forward current of 350 mA compared to that of the LEDs grown on PSS with conventional LT-GaN nucleation layer. PMID:25258616

  3. Disinfection of B. SUBTILIS Cells in Suspension Using Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes (leds) in the Presence of TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Province, Dennis W.; O'Neil, Shannon; Higgins, Keri; Smith, Paul J.; Dooley, Kristin; Curtis, Joey; Grippo, Adam M.; Rino, John W.; Allen, Susan D.

    2011-06-01

    The concentration of vegetative Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) in phosphate buffered saline decreased when subjected to ultraviolet (UV) light from light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the presence of 0.01% Degussa P25 titanium dioxide (TiO2) as compared to a sample that contained bacteria only, a sample of bacteria that contained 0.01% TiO2, and bacteria that was subjected to the same UV light but no TiO2. The starting concentration of each sample was on the order of 104 colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) and the time required for complete kill was less than 100min when the peak wavelength was 370 nm for the four LED light source at a total LED power of 0.8 milliWatts (mW), decreasing to less than 75 min for a total LED power of 3 mW. Changing the peak wavelength by 7 nm to 377 nm decreased the kill of vegetative B. subtilis to less than 1 log at 100 min for 5 mW total LED power. This work was performed under Federal Contract W9113M-09-C-0136 in support of the Radiance Technologies, Inc., prime contract from US Army SMDC, Huntsville, AL.

  4. Aluminum nanopyramid array with tunable ultraviolet-visible-infrared wavelength plasmon resonances for rapid detection of carbohydrate antigen 199.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanbo; Qiu, Yongcai; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Lelun; Zhou, Zhangkai; Chen, Huanjun; Zhou, Jianhua

    2016-05-15

    Aluminum-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) holds attractive properties include low cost, high natural abundance, and ease of processing by a wide variety of methods including complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, making itself having an edge over conventional ones induced by noble metal. However, the inherent drawbacks of plasmonic mode limited on UV-green wavelength, low refractive index sensitivity, as well as heavy-shape-dependence greatly prevent aluminum plasmonics from real-life biosensing. Here, we demonstrated a uniform quasi-3-dimensional Al nanopyramid array (NPA) structure with tunable ultraviolet-visible-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) plasmon resonances for biosensing. By changing the reflection measuring angle, we could easily obtain typical peaks simultaneously exhibited on the reflectance spectrum across UV-vis-NIR wave region. The Al NPAs carried out high refractive index sensitivities which even comparable with that of noble metal, and can be used as a biosensor for directly detecting cytochrome c and carbohydrate antigen 199 in air after the sensing surface was washed cleanly and dried; the limits of detection were determined to be 800nM and 29ng/mL, respectively. Our proposed work therefore initiates the low-cost, high-performance biosensing using aluminum plasmonics, which would find wide applications in rapid diagnosis, mobile-healthcare and environmental monitoring. PMID:26748367

  5. Self-powered ultraviolet photodetectors based on selectively grown ZnO nanowire arrays with thermal tuning performance.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhiming; Chen, Xiang; Yan, Xiaoqin; Zheng, Xin; Kang, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue

    2014-05-28

    A self-powered Schottky-type ultraviolet photodetector with Al-Pt interdigitated electrodes has been fabricated based on selectively grown ZnO nanowire arrays. At zero bias, the fabricated photodetector exhibited high sensitivity and excellent selectivity to UV light illumination with a fast response time of 81 ms. By tuning the Schottky barrier height through the thermally induced variation of the interface chemisorbed oxygen, an ultrahigh sensitivity of 3.1 × 10(4) was achieved at 340 K without an external power source, which was 82% higher than that obtained at room temperature. According to the thermionic emission-diffusion theory and the solar cell theory, the changes in the photocurrent of the photodetector at zero bias with various system temperatures were calculated, which agreed well with the experimental data. This work demonstrates a promising approach to modulating the performance of a self-powered photodetector by heating and provides theoretical support for studying the thermal effect on the future photoelectric device. PMID:24728006

  6. [CCD-diode array spectrophotometry used for simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead].

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Li, Y; Yang, J; Ha, Y

    1998-09-01

    A new spectrophotometric setup for simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium has been developed. It is composed of charge coupled device (array detector), multichromatic instrument and computer. The optimum chromogenic conditions of meso-tetra (4-trimethylammoniumphenyl) porphine (TAPP) with cadmium and lead were studied and reported in this paper. The linear ranges of Pb and Cd were 0-0.50 microgram/ml and 0-0.20 microgram/ml respectively. The detection limits were 0.001 microgram/ml for both Pb and Cd. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead in the synthetic samples and the soaking solutions of ceramics and enamel. The recoveries of spiked samples ranged from 84.4%-118.6% and the average recovery was 100.8% with RSD of 1.0%-9.1%. The proposed method is more sensitive, more accurate and faster than the traditional one, it can be used to simultaneously determine multiple elements. PMID:10684109

  7. Quantification of alpha-amanitin in biological samples by HPLC using simultaneous UV- diode array and electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Juliana; Costa, Vera M; Baptista, Paula; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Carvalho, Flix

    2015-08-01

    ?-Amanitin is a natural bicyclic octapeptide, from the family of amatoxins, present in the deadly mushroom species Amanita phalloides. The toxicological and clinical interests raised by this toxin, require highly sensitive, accurate and reproducible quantification methods for pharmacokinetic studies. In the present work, a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with in-line connected diode-array (DAD) and electrochemical (EC) detection was developed and validated to quantify ?-amanitin in biological samples (namely liver and kidney). Sample pre-treatment consisted of a simple and unique deproteinization step with 5% perchloric acid followed by centrifugation at 16,000g, 4C, for 20min. The high recovery found for ?-amanitin (?96.8%) makes this procedure suitable for extracting ?-amanitin from liver and kidney homogenates. The resulting supernatant was collected and injected into the HPLC. Mobile phase was composed by 20% methanol in 50mM citric acid, and 0.46mM octanessulfonic acid, adjusted to pH 5.5. The chromatographic runs took less than 22min and no significant endogenous interferences were observed at the ?-amanitin retention time. Calibration curves were linear with regression coefficients higher than 0.994. The overall inter- and intra-assay precision did not exceed 15.3%. The present method has low interferences with simple and fast processing steps, being a suitable procedure to support in vivo toxicokinetic studies involving ?-amanitin. In fact, the validated method was successfully applied to quantify ?-amanitin in biological samples following intraperitoneal ?-amanitin administration to rats. Moreover, human plasma was also used as matrix and the purposed method was adequate for detection of ?-amanitin in that matrix. The results clearly indicate that the proposed method is suitable to investigate the pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution of ?-amanitin. Additionally, the method will be very useful in the development of novel and potent antidotes against amatoxins poisoning and to improve the knowledge of ?-amanitin toxicity. PMID:26100080

  8. Determination of pesticides in sunflower seeds by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Tuzimski, Tomasz; Rejczak, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The application of RP-HPLC with a diode array detector for identification and quantitative analysis of pesticides in sunflower seed samples is demonstrated. An HPLC procedure on C18 RP column has been developed for analysis of selected pesticides from different chemical groups: simazine, isoproturon, terbuthylazine, linuron, captan, terbutryn, procymidone, fenitrothion, clofentezine, and bromopropylate. We investigated the possibility of expanding the scope of the four analyte extraction procedures for isolation of pesticides from plant matrixes with high levels of lipids. The following procedures were tested: A, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UAE) and SPE; B, dispersive-SPE (d-SPE); C, UAE and d-SPE; and D, UAE/SPE/d-SPE. Average recoveries from spiked samples at different concentrations in the range from 0.1 to 1.40 microg/g in the plant materials and the SDs for C18 cartridges and solvents by the proposed RP-HPLC-DAD method after the extraction procedures are also presented. The efficiency of procedures A-D was evaluated using real food samples from Hungary, Bulgaria, and Poland. The quantity of terbuthylazine determined was in the range of 7.1-12.7 ng/g (n = 6), whereas the quantity of procymidone determined was in the range of 3.7-5.7 ng/g (n = 3) in plant materials. The quantities of pesticides determined in sunflower seeds were below the maximum residue levels (excluding captan) established in the European Union legislation. The method was validated for precision and accuracy. PMID:25145131

  9. Simultaneous determination of catechins, rutin, and gallic acid in Cistus species extracts by HPLC with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Santagati, Natale Alfredo; Salerno, Loredana; Attaguile, Giuseppina; Savoca, Francesca; Ronsisvalle, Giuseppe

    2008-02-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography method using a diode array detector (DAD) is developed for the simultaneous analysis of five major catechins: (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-gallocatechin (GCT), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and the phenolic plant metabolites gallic acid (GA) and rutin (RT) in lyophilized extracts of Cistus species. The optimal analytical conditions are investigated to obtain the best resolution and the highest UV sensitivity for the quantitative detection of catechins. The optimized conditions (acetonitrile-phosphate buffer 50 mM, pH 2.5, gradient elution system on a C18 reversed-phase column with a flow rate of 1 mL/min and UV absorbance at 210 nm) allowed a specific and repeatable separation of the studied analytes to be achieved. All compounds are successfully separated within 32 min. Calibration curves are linear in the 2-50 microg/mL range for GCT, C, and EGCG and in the 5-50 microg/mL range for GA, EGC, EC, and RT. The limit of detection values ranged from 0.24 to 0.74 microg/mL. The limit of quantitation limit values ranged from 0.77 to 1.94 microg/mL. The validated method is applied to the determination of the specific phytochemical markers GA, GCT, C, and RT in Cistus incanus and Cistus monspeliensis lyophilised extracts. The recovery values ranged between 78.7% and 98.2%. The described HPLC method appears suitable for the differentiation and determination of the most common catechins together with the glycoside rutin and the phenolic compound gallic acid and can be considered an effective and alternative procedure for the analyses of this important class of natural compounds. PMID:18366875

  10. Quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) products by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Cheol; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Young-Chan; Rhee, Young Kyoung; Choi, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Young-Chul; Cho, Chang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maltol, as a type of phenolic compounds, is produced by the browning reaction during the high-temperature treatment of ginseng. Thus, maltol can be used as a marker for the quality control of various ginseng products manufactured by high-temperature treatment including red ginseng. For the quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng products, an effective high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed. Materials and Methods: The HPLC-DAD method for maltol quantification coupled with a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method was developed and validated in terms of linearity, precision, and accuracy. An HPLC separation was performed on a C18 column. Results: The LLE methods and HPLC running conditions for maltol quantification were optimized. The calibration curve of the maltol exhibited good linearity (R2 = 1.00). The limit of detection value of maltol was 0.26 μg/mL, and the limit of quantification value was 0.79 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the data of the intra- and inter-day experiments were <1.27% and 0.61%, respectively. The results of the recovery test were 101.35–101.75% with an RSD value of 0.21–1.65%. The developed method was applied successfully to quantify the maltol in three ginseng products manufactured by different methods. Conclusion: The results of validation demonstrated that the proposed HPLC-DAD method was useful for the quantification of maltol in various ginseng products. PMID:26246746

  11. High power and high efficiency kW 88x-nm multi-junction pulsed diode laser bars and arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Bai, John; Dong, Weimin; Guan, Xingguo; Zhang, Shiguo; Elim, Sandrio; Bao, Ling; Grimshaw, Mike; Devito, Mark; Kanskar, Manoj

    2014-03-01

    There is great interest in the development of high-power, high-efficiency and low cost QCW 88x-nm diode laser bars and arrays for pumping solid state lasers. We report on the development of kW 88x-nm diode laser bars that are based on a bipolar cascade design, in which multiple lasers are epitaxially grown in electrical series on a single substrate. Multiple laser junctions, each of which is based on nLight's high performance 88x-nm epitaxial design, are separated by low resistance tunnel junctions with resistance as low as 8.0x10-6 ?-cm2. Optimization of bar geometry and wafer fabrication processes was explored for electrical and optical performance improvement in double-junction diode lasers. A QCW power of 630 W was demonstrated in a 3-mm wide mini-bar with 3-mm cavity length. Peak efficiency of 61% was measured with 200 ?s and 14 Hz pulses, at a heatsink temperature of 10 C. Further power scaling was demonstrated in a 1-cm wide bar with 3-mm cavity length, where a record high peak power of 1.77 kW was measured at 1 kA drive current. Ongoing work for further power scaling includes development of triple-junction diode laser bars and double-junction bar-stack that emits < 10kW optical power.

  12. Electroluminescence of ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene current spreading layer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated by introducing graphene as the current spreading layer, which exhibit improved electroluminescence performance by comparison to the LED using a conventional structure (indium-tin-oxide as the current spreading layer). In addition, by adjusting the diameter of ZnO nanorod array in use, the light emission of the ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs was enhanced further. This work has great potential applications in solid-state lighting, high performance optoelectronic devices, and so on. PACS 78.60.Fi; 85.60.Jb; 78.67.Lt; 81.10.Dn PMID:25489284

  13. Enhanced light emission in vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes with trench etching and arrayed p-electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tseng-Hsing; Wang, Shui-Jinn; Tu, Yung-Chun; Hung, Chien-Hsiung; Lin, Che-An; Lin, Yung-Cheng; You, Zong-Sian

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the effect of trench etching and arrayed p-electrodes in improving current spreading and the efficiency of light extraction of GaN-based vertical-structured light-emitting diodes (VLEDs). Both simulated and experimental results on the uniformities of current distribution and light emission are presented and discussed. For a 2 × 2 array VLED with a die size of 1020 × 1020 μm2, enhancements in light output power by 0.38% (6.03%) and wall-plug efficiency by 2.79% (2.32%) at 364.4 mA/mm2 (728.9 mA/mm2) as compared with that of regular VLED are achieved experimentally, which are attributed to improved current spreading from the arrayed p-electrode and trench designs as well as enhanced light emission from the trench region.

  14. Light-extraction efficiency control in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes: a comparison to InGaN-based visible flip-chip light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keon Hwa; Park, Hyun Jung; Kim, Seung Hwan; Asadirad, Mojtaba; Moon, Yong-Tae; Kwak, Joon Seop; Ryou, Jae-Hyun

    2015-08-10

    We study light-extraction efficiency (LEE) of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) using flip-chip (FC) devices with varied thickness in remaining sapphire substrate by experimental output power measurement and computational methods using 3-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) and Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations. Light-output power of DUV-FCLEDs compared at a current of 20 mA increases with thicker sapphire, showing higher LEE for an LED with 250-μm-thick sapphire by ~39% than that with 100-μm-thick sapphire. In contrast, LEEs of visible FCLEDs show only marginal improvement with increasing sapphire thickness, that is, ~6% improvement for an LED with 250-μm-thick sapphire. 3D-FDTD simulation reveals a mechanism of enhanced light extraction with various sidewall roughness and thickness in sapphire substrates. Ray tracing simulation examines the light propagation behavior of DUV-FCLED structures. The enhanced output power and higher LEE strongly depends on the sidewall roughness of the sapphire substrate rather than thickness itself. The thickness starts playing a role only when the sapphire sidewalls become rough. The roughened surface of sapphire sidewall during chip-separation process is critical for TM-polarized photons from AlGaN quantum wells to escape in lateral directions before they are absorbed by p-GaN and Au-metal. Furthermore, the ray tracing results show a reasonably good agreement with the experimental result of the LEE. PMID:26367889

  15. Room-temperature, continuous-wave, 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by laser-diode arrays and intracavity frequency doubling to 473 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Risk, W.P.; Lenth, W.

    1987-12-01

    We report the use of GaAlAs laser-diode arrays to pump a cw Nd:YAG laser operating on the 946-nm /sup 4/F/sub 3/2/..-->../sup 4/I/sub 9/2/ transition. At room temperature, the lasing threshold was reached with 58 mW of absorbed pump power, and, with 175 mW of absorbed pump power, 42 mW of output power at 946 nm was obtained in a TEM/sub 00/ mode by using 0.7% output coupling. In addition, pumping with an infrared dye laser operating in a pure TEM/sub 00/ mode was used to investigate the effects of reabsorption loss that are characteristic of the 946-nm laser transition. LiIO/sub 3/ was used as an intracavity doubling crystal, and 100 ..mu..W of blue light was generated by using diode-laser pumping in a nonoptimized cavity.

  16. Illumination distribution and signal transmission for indoor visible light communication with different light-emitting diode arrays and pre-equality circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Liou, Cheng-Jyun; Siao, Syuan-Ruei

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to seek the optimal design for light-emitting diode (LED) arrays and pre-equality circuits in indoor visible lighting illumination combined with communication. The optical and communicational properties of illumination distribution and signal transmission were investigated. These illumination distributions of array sources were derivate and simulated and actually can be used in free-space communication. Simulated results show the total flux size was rectangle>radial>circlearray, and real measurements also showed the total flux was rectangle>radial>circlearray. The simulated and measured results have a similarity of over 98% by normalized cross correlation. In addition, when the distance of the installed lamp from the wall was 1 m, the rectangular array had the best illumination uniformity of 77.24%, and the size of uniformity was the rectangle>radial≈circle array. Finally, the gain and constant-current pre-equality circuits were used in free-space communication with a carrier frequency from 1 KHz to 1 MHz at a distance of 1.8 m. Both the received signal intensity and divergence angle were rectangle>radial>circle array. The constant-current pre-equality circuit could add the divergence angle from ±18.6 deg to ±36.68 deg in the rectangle array at a carrier frequency of 1 MHz.

  17. Variation of the external quantum efficiency with temperature and current density in red, blue, and deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Dong Yeong; Cho, Jaehee; Schubert, E. Fred; Kim, Jungsub; Lee, Jinsub; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Youngsoo; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The temperature-dependent external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) were investigated for a 620 nm AlGaInP red light-emitting diodes (LEDs), a 450 nm GaInN blue LED, and a 285 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LED. We observed distinct differences in the variation of the EQE with temperature and current density for the three types of LEDs. Whereas the EQE of the AlGaInP red LED increases as temperature decreases below room temperature, the EQEs of GaInN blue and AlGaN DUV LEDs decrease for the same change in temperature in a low-current density regime. The free carrier concentration, as determined from the dopant ionization energy, shows a strong material-system-specific dependence, leading to different degrees of asymmetry in carrier concentration for the three types of LEDs. We attribute the EQE variation of the red, blue, and DUV LEDs to the different degrees of asymmetry in carrier concentration, which can be exacerbated at cryogenic temperatures. As for the EQE variation with temperature in a high-current density regime, the efficiency droop for the AlGaInP red and GaInN blue LEDs becomes more apparent as temperature decreases, due to the deterioration of the asymmetry in carrier concentration. However, the EQE of the AlGaN DUV LED initially decreases, then reaches an EQE minimum point, and then increases again due to the field-ionization of acceptors by the Poole-Frenkel effect. The results elucidate that carrier transport phenomena allow for the understanding of the droop phenomenon across different material systems, temperatures, and current densities.

  18. The effect of free-standing GaN substrate on carrier localization in ultraviolet InGaN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ming-Ta; Chu, Chung-Ming; Huang, Che-Hsuan; Wu, Yin-Hao; Chiu, Ching-Hsueh; Li, Zhen-Yu; Tu, Po-Min; Lee, Wei-I.; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we have grown 380-nm ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) based on InGaN/AlInGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures on free-standing GaN (FS-GaN) substrate by atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (AP-MOCVD), and investigated the relationship between carrier localization degree and FS-GaN. The micro-Raman shift peak mapping image shows low standard deviation (STD), indicating that the UV-LED epi-wafer of low curvature and MQWs of weak quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) were grown. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analyses demonstrated high-order satellite peaks and clear fringes between them for the UV-LEDs grown on the FS-GaN substrate, from which the interface roughness (IRN) was estimated. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurement confirmed that the UV-LEDs grown on the FS-GaN substrate exhibited better carrier confinement. Besides, the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) mapping images verified that the UV-LEDs on FS-GaN have fairly uniform distribution of indium and more ordered InGaN/AlInGaN MQW structure. Clearly, the FS-GaN can not only improve the light output power but also reduce the efficiency droop phenomenon at high injection current. Based on the results mentioned above, the FS-GaN can offer UV-LEDs based on InGaN/AlInGaN MQW structures with benefits, such as high crystal quality and small carrier localization degree, compared with the UV-LEDs on sapphire.

  19. Optimizing the accuracy of a helical diode array dosimeter: A comprehensive calibration methodology coupled with a novel virtual inclinometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kozelka, Jakub; Robinson, Joshua; Nelms, Benjamin; Zhang, Geoffrey; Savitskij, Dennis; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: The goal of any dosimeter is to be as accurate as possible when measuring absolute dose to compare with calculated dose. This limits the uncertainties associated with the dosimeter itself and allows the task of dose QA to focus on detecting errors in the treatment planning (TPS) and/or delivery systems. This work introduces enhancements to the measurement accuracy of a 3D dosimeter comprised of a helical plane of diodes in a volumetric phantom. Methods: We describe the methods and derivations of new corrections that account for repetition rate dependence, intrinsic relative sensitivity per diode, field size dependence based on the dynamic field size determination, and positional correction. Required and described is an accurate ''virtual inclinometer'' algorithm. The system allows for calibrating the array directly against an ion chamber signal collected with high angular resolution. These enhancements are quantitatively validated using several strategies including ion chamber measurements taken using a ''blank'' plastic shell mimicking the actual phantom, and comparison to high resolution dose calculations for a variety of fields: static, simple arcs, and VMAT. A number of sophisticated treatment planning algorithms were benchmarked against ion chamber measurements for their ability to handle a large air cavity in the phantom. Results: Each calibration correction is quantified and presented vs its independent variable(s). The virtual inclinometer is validated by direct comparison to the gantry angle vs time data from machine log files. The effects of the calibration are quantified and improvements are seen in the dose agreement with the ion chamber reference measurements and with the TPS calculations. These improved agreements are a result of removing prior limitations and assumptions in the calibration methodology. Average gamma analysis passing rates for VMAT plans based on the AAPM TG-119 report are 98.4 and 93.3% for the 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm dose-error/distance to agreement threshold criteria, respectively, with the global dose-error normalization. With the local dose-error normalization, the average passing rates are reduced to 94.6 and 85.7% for the 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm criteria, respectively. Some algorithms in the convolution/superposition family are not sufficiently accurate in predicting the exit dose in the presence of a 15 cm diameter air cavity. Conclusions: Introduction of the improved calibration methodology, enabled by a robust virtual inclinometer algorithm, improves the accuracy of the dosimeter's absolute dose measurements. With our treatment planning and delivery chain, gamma analysis passing rates for the VMAT plans based on the AAPM TG-119 report are expected to be above 91% and average at about 95% level for {gamma}(3%/3 mm) with the local dose-error normalization. This stringent comparison methodology is more indicative of the true VMAT system commissioning accuracy compared to the often quoted dose-error normalization to a single high value.

  20. Laser Diode Ignition (LDI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kass, William J.; Andrews, Larry A.; Boney, Craig M.; Chow, Weng W.; Clements, James W.; Merson, John A.; Salas, F. Jim; Williams, Randy J.; Hinkle, Lane R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the Laser Diode Ignition (LDI) program at Sandia National Labs. One watt laser diodes have been characterized for use with a single explosive actuator. Extensive measurements of the effect of electrostatic discharge (ESD) pulses on the laser diode optical output have been made. Characterization of optical fiber and connectors over temperature has been done. Multiple laser diodes have been packaged to ignite multiple explosive devices and an eight element laser diode array has been recently tested by igniting eight explosive devices at predetermined 100 ms intervals.

  1. Simultaneous determination of seven azole antifungal drugs in serum by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography and diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Mistretta, V; Dubois, N; Denooz, R; Charlier, C

    2014-01-01

    Azole antifungals are a group of fungistatic agents that can be administered orally or parenterally. The determination of the concentrations of these antifungals (miconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and its major active metabolite, hydroxy-itraconazole) in serum can be useful to adapt the doses to pharmacological ranges because of large variability in the absorption and metabolism of the drugs, multiple drug interactions, but also potential resistance or toxicity. A method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of these drugs in serum utilizing ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography and diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). After a simple and rapid liquid-liquid extraction, the pre-treated sample was analysed on an UHPLC-DAD system (Waters Corporation(®)). The chromatographic separation was carried out on an Acquity BEH C18 column (Waters Corporation) with a gradient mode of mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and aqueous ammonium bicarbonate 10·0 M pH10. The flow rate was 0·4 ml/min and the injection volume was 5 μl. The identification wavelength varied according to the drug from 210 to 260 nm. The method was validated by the total error method approach by using an analytical validation software (e•noval V3·0 Arlenda(®)). The seven azole antifungals were identified by retention time and specific UV spectra, over a 13-minute run time. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2)>0·99) in ranges considered clinically adequate. The assay was linear from 0·05 to 10 mg/l for voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, hydroxy-itraconazole, and ketoconazole, from 0·3 to 10 mg/l for fluconazole, and from 0·1 to 10 mg/l for miconazole. The bias and imprecision values for intra- and inter-assays were lower than 10% and than 15%, respectively. In conclusion, a simple, sensitive, and selective UHPLC-DAD method was developed and validated to determine seven azole antifungal drugs in human serum. This method is applicable to patient samples, and can be applied successfully to clinical applications and therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:24635400

  2. Increasing Electrochemiluminescence Intensity of a Wireless Electrode Array Chip by Thousands of Times Using a Diode for Sensitive Visual Detection by a Digital Camera.

    PubMed

    Qi, Liming; Xia, Yong; Qi, Wenjing; Gao, Wenyue; Wu, Fengxia; Xu, Guobao

    2016-01-19

    Both a wireless electrochemiluminescence (ECL) electrode microarray chip and the dramatic increase in ECL by embedding a diode in an electromagnetic receiver coil have been first reported. The newly designed device consists of a chip and a transmitter. The chip has an electromagnetic receiver coil, a mini-diode, and a gold electrode array. The mini-diode can rectify alternating current into direct current and thus enhance ECL intensities by 18 thousand times, enabling a sensitive visual detection using common cameras or smart phones as low cost detectors. The detection limit of hydrogen peroxide using a digital camera is comparable to that using photomultiplier tube (PMT)-based detectors. Coupled with a PMT-based detector, the device can detect luminol with higher sensitivity with linear ranges from 10 nM to 1 mM. Because of the advantages including high sensitivity, high throughput, low cost, high portability, and simplicity, it is promising in point of care testing, drug screening, and high throughput analysis. PMID:26669809

  3. Macroscopic Violation of Three Cauchy-Schwarz Inequalities Using Correlated Light Beams From an Infra-Red Emitting Semiconductor Diode Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. J.; Huang, X.; Li, Y. Q. (Editor); Wang, Y. Z. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    We briefly review quantum mechanical and semi-classical descriptions of experiments which demonstrate the macroscopic violation of the three Cauchy-Schwarz inequalities: g(sup 2)(sub 11)(0) greater than or equal to 1; g(sup 2)(sub 11)(0) greater than or equal to g(sup 2)(sub 11)(t), (t approaches infinity); (the absolute value of g(sup 2)(sub 11)(0))(exp 2) less than or equal to g(sup 2)(sub 11)(0) g(sup 2)(sub 11)(0). Our measurements demonstrate the violation, at macroscopic intensities, of each of these inequalities. We show that their violation, although weak, can be demonstrated through photodetector current covariance measurements on correlated sub-Poissonian Poissonian, and super Poissonian light beams. Such beams are readily generated by a tandem array of infrared-emitting semiconductor junction diodes. Our measurements utilize an electrically coupled array of one or more infrared-emitting diodes, optically coupled to a detector array. The emitting array is operated in such a way as to generate highly correlated beams of variable photon Fano Factor. Because the measurements are made on time scales long compared with the first order coherence time and with detector areas large compared with the corresponding coherence areas, first order interference effects are negligible. The first and second inequalities are violated, as expected, when a sub-Poissonian light beam is split and the intensity fluctuations of the two split beams are measured by two photodetectors and subsequently cross-correlated. The third inequality is violated by bunched (as well as anti-bunched) beams of equal intensity provided the measured cross correlation coefficient exceeds (F - 1)/F, where F is the measured Fano Factor of each beam. We also investigate the violation for the case of unequal beams.

  4. Quality assessment of crude and processed ginger by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xianmei; Yu, Jiangyong; Zhao, Ming; Zhao, Bin; Xue, Xingyang; Che, ChunTao; Meng, Jiang; Wang, Shumei

    2015-09-01

    A sensitive, simple, and validated high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and mass spectrometry detection method was developed for three ginger-based traditional Chinese herbal drugs, Zingiberis Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizome Preparatum, and Zingiberis Rhizome Carbonisata. Chemometrics methods, such as principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and analysis of variance, were also employed in the data analysis. The results clearly revealed significant differences among Zingiberis Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizome Preparatum, and Zingiberis Rhizome Carbonisata, indicating variations in their chemical compositions during the processing, which may elucidate the relationship of the thermal treatment with the change of the constituents and interpret their different clinical uses. Furthermore, the sample consistency of Zingiberis Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizome Preparatum, and Zingiberis Rhizome Carbonisata can also be visualized by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and mass spectrometry analysis followed by principal component analysis/hierarchical cluster analysis. The comprehensive strategy of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis coupled with chemometrics should be useful in quality assurance for ginger-based herbal drugs and other herbal medicines. PMID:26174663

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Iron, Copper and Cobalt in Food Samples by CCD-diode Array Detection-Flow Injection Analysis with Partial Least Squares Calibration Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Jiaping; Li, Yuanqian; Zhou, Xiaoli; Zheng, Bo; Zhou, Ying

    2006-01-01

    A flow injection-CCD diode array detection spectrophotometry with partial least squares (PLS) program for simultaneous determination of iron, copper and cobalt in food samples has been established. The method was based on the chromogenic reaction of the three metal ions and 2- (5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol, 5-Br-PADAP in acetic acid - sodium acetate buffer solution (pH5) with Triton X-100 and ascorbic acid. The overlapped spectra of the colored complexes were collected by charge-coupled device (CCD) - diode array detector and the multi-wavelength absorbance data was processed using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. Optimum reaction conditions and parameters of flow injection analysis were investigated. The samples of tea, sesame, laver, millet, cornmeal, mung bean and soybean powder were determined by the proposed method. The average recoveries of spiked samples were 91.80%~100.9% for Iron, 92.50%~108.0% for Copper, 93.00%~110.5% for Cobalt, respectively with relative standard deviation (R.S.D) of 1.1%~12.1%. The sampling rate is 45 samples h-1. The determination results of the food samples were in good agreement between the proposed method and ICP-AES.

  6. Determination of Phenolic Content in Different Barley Varieties and Corresponding Malts by Liquid Chromatography-diode Array Detection-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Daniel O.; Curto, Andreia F.; Guido, Luís F.

    2015-01-01

    A simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of nine phenolic compounds in barley and malted barley was established, using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS). The phenolic compounds can be easily detected with both systems, despite significant differences in sensitivity. Concentrations approximately 180-fold lower could be achieved by mass spectrometry analysis compared to diode array detection, especially for the flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin, which have poor absorptivity in the UV region. Malt samples were characterized by higher phenolic content comparing to corresponding barley varieties, revealing a significant increase of the levels of (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin during the malting process. Moreover, the industrial malting is responsible for modification on the phenolic profile from barley to malt, namely on the synthesis or release of sinapinic acid and epicatechin. Accordingly, the selection of the malting parameters, as well as the barley variety plays an important role when considering the quality and antioxidant stability of beer. PMID:26783844

  7. Fingerprint analysis and multi-ingredient quantitative analysis for quality evaluation of Xiaoyanlidan tablets by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dao-quan; Li, Zheng; Jiang, Xiang-lan; Li, Yin-jie; Du, Qian; Yang, Dong-zhi

    2014-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography method with diode array detection was developed for the fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of seven active compounds in Xiaoyanlidan (XYLD) tablets. The chromatographic separations were obtained on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column (50 2.1 mm id, 1.8 ?m) using gradient elution with water/formic acid (1%) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Within 63 min, 36 peaks could be selected as the common peaks for fingerprint analysis to evaluate the similarities among several samples of XYLD tablets collected from different manufacturers. In quantitative analysis, seven compounds showed good regression (R > 0.9990) within test ranges and the recovery of the method was within the range of 95.9-104.3%. The method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of seven compounds in six batches of XYLD tablets. These results demonstrate that the combination of chromatographic fingerprint analysis and simultaneous multi-ingredient quantification using the ultra high performance liquid chromatography method with diode array detection offers a rapid, efficient, and reliable approach for quality evaluation of XYLD tablets. PMID:24890779

  8. High-performance GaSb laser diodes and diode arrays in the 2.1-3.3 micron wavelength range for sensing and defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvinelis, Edgaras; Trinkūnas, Augustinas; Greibus, Mindaugas; Kauylas, Mindaugas; ukauskas, Tomas; imonyt--, Ieva; Songaila, Ramūnas; Vizbaras, Augustinas; Vizbaras, Kristijonas

    2015-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectral region (2-4 ?m) is gaining significant attention recently due to the presence of numerous enabling applications in the field of gas sensing, medical, and defense applications. Gas sensing in this spectral region is attractive due to the presence of numerous absorption lines for such gases as methane, ethane, ozone, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, etc. Sensing of the mentioned gas species is of particular importance for applications such as atmospheric LIDAR, petrochemical industry, greenhouse gas monitoring, etc. Defense applications benefit from the presence of covert atmospheric transmission window in the 2.1-2.3 micron band which is more eye-safe and offers less Rayleigh scattering than the conventional atmospheric windows in the near-infrared. Major requirement to enable these application is the availability of high-performance, continuous-wave laser sources in this window. Type-I GaSb-based laser diodes are ideal candidates for these applications as they offer direct emission possibility, high-gain and continuous wave operation. Moreover, due to the nature of type-I transition, these devices have a characteristic low operation voltage, which results in very low input powers and high wall-plug efficiency. In this work, we present recent results of 2 ?m - 3.0 ?m wavelength room-temperature CW light sources based on type-I GaSb developed at Brolis Semiconductors. We discuss performance of defense oriented high-power multimode laser diodes with < 1 W CW power output with over 30 % WPE as well as ~ 100 mW single TE00 Fabry-Perot chips. In addition, recent development efforts on sensing oriented broad gain superluminescent gain chips will be presented.

  9. GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AlN/GaN/InGaN multiple quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hung-Ming; Lai, Wei-Chih; Chen, Wei-Shou; Chang, Shoou-Jinn

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride/aluminum nitride (AlN/GaN/InGaN) multi-quantum-well (MQW) ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to improve light output power. Similar to conventional UV LEDs with AlGaN/InGaN MQWs, UV LEDs with AlN/GaN/InGaN MQWs have forward voltages (V(f)'s) ranging from 3.21 V to 3.29 V at 350 mA. Each emission peak wavelength of AlN/GaN/InGaN MQW UV LEDs presents 350 mA output power greater than that of the corresponding emission peak wavelength of AlGaN/InGaN MQW UV LEDs. The light output power at 350mA of AlN/GaN/InGaN MQWs UV LEDs with 375 nm emission wavelength can reach around 26.7% light output power enhancement in magnitude compared to the AlGaN/InGaN MQWs UV LEDs with same emission wavelength. But 350mA light output power of AlN/GaN/InGaN MQWs UV LEDs with emission wavelength of 395nm could only have light output power enhancement of 2.43% in magnitude compared with the same emission wavelength AlGaN/InGaN MQWs UV LEDs. Moreover, AlN/GaN/InGaN MQWs present better InGaN thickness uniformity, well/barrier interface quality and less large size pits than AlGaN/InGaN MQWs, causing AlN/GaN/InGaN MQW UV LEDs to have less reverse leakage currents at -20 V. Furthermore, AlN/GaN/InGaN MQW UV LEDs have the 2-kV human body mode (HBM) electrostatic discharge (ESD) pass yield of 85%, which is 15% more than the 2-kV HBM ESD pass yield of AlGaN/InGaN MQW UV LEDs of 70%. PMID:25968799

  10. Ultraviolet Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Side-by-Side Comparison Click on image for larger view

    This ultraviolet image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, also know as Messier 83 or M83. It is located 15 million light-years away in the southern constellation Hydra.

    Ultraviolet light traces young populations of stars; in this image, young stars can be seen way beyond the main spiral disk of M83 up to 140,000 light-years from its center. Could life exist around one of these far-flung stars? Scientists say it's unlikely because the outlying regions of a galaxy are lacking in the metals required for planets to form.

    The image was taken at scheduled intervals between March 15 and May 20, 2007. It is one of the longest-exposure, or deepest, images ever taken of a nearby galaxy in ultraviolet light. Near-ultraviolet light (or longer-wavelength ultraviolet light) is colored yellow, and far-ultraviolet light is blue.

    What Lies Beyond the Edge of a Galaxy The side-by-side comparison shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, or M83, as seen in ultraviolet light (right) and at both ultraviolet and radio wavelengths (left). While the radio data highlight the galaxy's long, octopus-like arms stretching far beyond its main spiral disk (red), the ultraviolet data reveal clusters of baby stars (blue) within the extended arms.

    The ultraviolet image was taken by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer between March 15 and May 20, 2007, at scheduled intervals. Back in 2005, the telescope first photographed M83 over a shorter period of time. That picture was the first to reveal far-flung baby stars forming up to 63,000 light-years from the edge of the main spiral disk. This came as a surprise to astronomers because a galaxy's outer territory typically lacks high densities of star-forming materials.

    The newest picture of M83 from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer is shown at the right, and was taken over a longer period of time. In fact, it is one of the 'deepest,' or longest-exposure, images of a nearby galaxy in ultraviolet light. This deeper view shows more clusters of stars, as well as stars in the very remote reaches of the galaxy, up to 140,000 light-years away from its core.

    The view at the left is a combination of the ultraviolet picture at the right and data taken by the telescopes of the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array in New Mexico. The radio data, colored here in red, reveal extended galactic arms of gaseous hydrogen atoms, which are raw ingredients for stars. Astronomers are excited that the remote clusters of baby stars match up with the extended arms, because this helps them better understand how stars can be created out in the boondocks of a galaxy.

    M83 is located 15 million light-years away in the southern constellation Hydra.

    In the Galaxy Evolution Explorer image on the right, near-ultraviolet light (or longer-wavelength ultraviolet light) is colored yellow and far-ultraviolet light is blue. In the combined image at the left, far-ultraviolet light is blue, near-ultraviolet light is green, and the radio emission at a wavelength of 21 centimeters is red.

  11. The feasibility study and characterization of a two-dimensional diode array in “magic phantom” for high dose rate brachytherapy quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, A.; Beeksma, B.; Petasecca, M.; Fuduli, I.; Porumb, C.; Cutajar, D.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Corde, S.; Jackson, M.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a radiation treatment technique capable of delivering large dose rates to the tumor. Radiation is delivered using remote afterloaders to drive highly active sources (commonly {sup 192}Ir with an air KERMA strength range between 20 000 and 40 000 U, where 1 U = 1 μGy m{sup 2}/h in air) through applicators directly into the patient's prescribed region of treatment. Due to the obvious ramifications of incorrect treatment while using such an active source, it is essential that there are methods for quality assurance (QA) that can directly and accurately verify the treatment plan and the functionality of the remote afterloader. This paper describes the feasibility study of a QA system for HDR brachytherapy using a phantom based two-dimensional 11 × 11 epitaxial diode array, named “magic phantom.”Methods: The HDR brachytherapy treatment plan is translated to the phantom with two rows of 10 (20 in total) HDR source flexible catheters, arranged above and below the diode array “magic plate” (MP). Four-dimensional source tracking in each catheter is based upon a developed fast iterative algorithm, utilizing the response of the diodes in close proximity to the {sup 192}Ir source, sampled at 100 ms intervals by a fast data acquisition (DAQ) system. Using a {sup 192}Ir source in a solid water phantom, the angular response of the developed epitaxial diodes utilized in the MP and also the variation of the MP response as a function of the source-to-detector distance (SDD) were investigated. These response data are then used by an iterative algorithm for source dwelling position determination. A measurement of the average transit speed between dwell positions was performed using the diodes and a fast DAQ.Results: The angular response of the epitaxial diode showed a variation of 15% within 360°, with two flat regions above and below the detector face with less than 5% variation. For SDD distances of between 5 and 30 mm the relative response of the epitaxial diodes used in the MP is in good agreement (within 8%) with radial dose function measurements found within the TG-43 protocol, with SDD of up to 70 mm showing a 40% over response. A method for four-dimensional localization of the HDR source was developed, allowing the source dwell position to be derived within 0.50 mm of the expected position. An estimation of the average transit speed for varying step sizes was determined and was found to increase from (12.8 ± 0.3) up to (38.6 ± 0.4) cm/s for a step size of 2.5 and 50 mm, respectively.Conclusions: Our characterization of the designed QA “magic phantom” with MP in realistic HDR photon fields demonstrates the promising performance for real-time source position tracking in four dimensions and measurements of transit times. Further development of this system will allow a full suite for QA in HDR brachytherapy and analysis, and for future in vivo tracking.

  12. Dosimetric verification for intensity-modulated arc therapy plans by use of 2D diode array, radiochromic film and radiosensitive polymer gel.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Naoki; Malmin, Ryan L; Watanabe, Yoichi

    2014-05-01

    Several tools are used for the dosimetric verification of intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) treatment delivery. However, limited information is available for composite on-line evaluation of these tools. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric verification of IMAT treatment plans using a 2D diode array detector (2D array), radiochromic film (RCF) and radiosensitive polymer gel dosimeter (RPGD). The specific verification plans were created for IMAT for two prostate cancer patients by use of the clinical treatment plans. Accordingly, the IMAT deliveries were performed with the 2D array on a gantry-mounting device, RCF in a cylindrical acrylic phantom, and the RPGD in two cylindrical phantoms. After the irradiation, the planar dose distributions from the 2D array and the RCFs, and the 3D dose distributions from the RPGD measurements were compared with the calculated dose distributions using the gamma analysis method (3% dose difference and 3-mm distance-to-agreement criterion), dose-dependent dose difference diagrams, dose difference histograms, and isodose distributions. The gamma passing rates of 2D array, RCFs and RPGD for one patient were 99.5%, 96.5% and 93.7%, respectively; the corresponding values for the second patient were 97.5%, 92.6% and 92.9%. Mean percentage differences between the RPGD measured and calculated doses in 3D volumes containing PTVs were -0.29 7.1% and 0.97 7.6% for the two patients, respectively. In conclusion, IMAT prostate plans can be delivered with high accuracy, although the 3D measurements indicated less satisfactory agreement with the treatment plans, mainly due to the dosimetric inaccuracy in low-dose regions of the RPGD measurements. PMID:24449714

  13. Aqueous photochemical reactions of chloride, bromide, and iodide ions in a diode-array spectrophotometer. Autoinhibition in the photolysis of iodide ions.

    PubMed

    Kalmr, Jzsef; Dka, va; Lente, Gbor; Fbin, Istvn

    2014-03-28

    The aqueous photoreactions of three halide ions (chloride, bromide and iodide) were studied using a diode array spectrophotometer to drive and detect the process at the same time. The concentration and pH dependences of the halogen formation rates were studied in detail. The experimental data were interpreted by improving earlier models where the cage complex of a halogen atom and an electron has a central role. The triiodide ion was shown to exert a strong inhibiting effect on the reaction sequence leading to its own formation. An assumed chemical reaction between the triiodide ion and the cage complex interpreted the strong autoinhibition effect. It is shown that there is a real danger of unwanted interference from the photoreactions of halide ions when halide salts are used as supporting electrolytes in spectrophotometric experiments using a relatively high intensity UV light source. PMID:24492347

  14. Determination of the anthraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin-A by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric and diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2007-01-01

    Methods using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC with diode array detection (DAD) in the UV range (LC/UV) were developed for the determination of low levels of the anthraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin-A (barbaloin) in aloe-based products. The methods were used to analyze several commercial products (liquids, semisolids, and solids) for the 2 anthraquinones. The wavelengths used for quantification of aloin-A, aloe-emodin, and emodin (internal standard) by DAD were 357, 257, and 289 nm, respectively. The on-column sensitivities were 0.25 and 0.05 ng by LC/UV and 0.01 and 0.025 ng by LC/MS for aloin-A and aloe-emodin, respectively. The methods are simple and sensitive and provide reproducible results; therefore, they are suitable for the determination of these anthraquinones in various aloe-based products. PMID:17373434

  15. High efficiency 2 micrometer laser utilizing wing-pumped Tm.sup.3+ and a laser diode array end-pumping architecture

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Wing pumping a Tm.sup.3+ doped, end pumped solid state laser generates 2 .mu.m laser radiation at high average powers with high efficiency. Using laser diode arrays to end-pump the laser rod or slab in the wing of the Tm.sup.3+ absorption band near 785 nm results in 2-for-1 quantum efficiency in Tm.sup.3+ because high Tm.sup.3+ concentrations can be used. Wing pumping allows the thermal power generated in the rod or slab to be distributed over a large enough volume to make thermal management practical in the laser gain medium even at high average power operation. The approach is applicable to CW, Q-switched, and rep-pulsed free-laser operation.

  16. Rapid screening for 100 basic drugs and metabolites in urine using cation exchange solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Logan, B K; Stafford, D T; Tebbett, I R; Moore, C M

    1990-01-01

    A system involving the combination of cation exchange solid-phase extraction and gradient elution HPLC with diode array detection was developed for the isolation and identification of basic drugs in urine. At least 100 basic drugs commonly encountered in urinary drug screening and many popular illicit drugs could be identified. Detailed study of 30 of these compounds showed that in addition to the procedure's simplicity and convenience, recoveries were close to 100% in most cases. The method was compared with an existing liquid-liquid extraction/capillary gas chromatography procedure and was at least as effective for extracting and identifying basic drugs, and especially effective at extracting problematic compounds including morphine, benzoylecgonine, temazepam, and oxazepam. Additional advantages of solid-phase extraction technology include the elimination of time-consuming shaking and centrifugation steps, elimination of reusable glassware, and reduced sample-operator contact with potentially infectious samples. PMID:2374404

  17. Characterization of Compounds in Psoralea corylifolia Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection, Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guangguo; Yang, Tiehong; Miao, Huayan; Chen, Hao; Chai, Yifeng; Wu, Hong

    2015-10-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOFMS) and quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-QITMS) were used for separation and identification of multi-components in Psoralea corylifolia. Benefiting from combining the accurate mass measurement of HPLC-TOFMS to generate elemental compositions, the complementary multilevel structural information provided by HPLC-QITMS and the characteristic UV spectra obtained from HPLC-DAD, 24 components in P. corylifolia were identified. The five groups of isomers were differentiated based on the fragmentation behaviors in QITMS and UV spectra. It can be concluded that an effective method based on the combination of HPLC-DAD, HPLC-TOFMS and HPLC-QITMS for identification of chemical components in P. corylifolia was established. The results provide essential data for further pharmacological and clinical studies of P. corylifolia and facilitate the rapid quality control of the crude drug. PMID:25903696

  18. Fast separation and determination of phenolic compounds by capillary electrophoresis-diode array detection. Application to the characterisation of alperujo after ultrasound-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Priego-Capote, F; Ruiz-Jimnez, J; de Castro, M D Luque

    2004-08-01

    A dynamic approach has been proposed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction of twenty phenolic compounds from alperujo, a semisolid waste from the olive oil industry, that is a representative example of samples with a complex matrix. Multivariate methodology was used to carry out a detailed optimisation study of both the separation-determination and extraction steps in terms of resolution-analysis time and extraction efficiency, respectively. Consequently, the proposed method was able to extract the target analytes in 13 min; then, after dilution and centrifugation, the extract was injected into the capillary electrophoresis-diode array detection system for individual separation determination in 11 min. No cleanup of the extract was required. This method is less time-consuming, more selective and provides a larger information level than the Folin-Ciocalteau spectrophotometric method. Alperujo was demonstrated to be a powerful source of phenolic compounds, particularly as compared with olive oil--8680 versus 50-1200 microg/g. PMID:15378901

  19. Process monitoring of anaerobic azo dye degradation by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection continuously coupled to membrane filtration sampling modules.

    PubMed

    Plum, Alexander; Braun, Gerd; Rehorek, Astrid

    2003-02-14

    Process integrated microfiltration and ultrafiltration based membrane sampling modules were compared by means of HPLC with diode array detection based monitoring of an anaerobic azodye biodegradation process. The sampling matrix consisted of anaerobic sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The hydrolysed azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5-H) and three products (ionic and nonionic) released from reductive cleavage under anaerobic conditions were continuously monitored by simultaneously separation by ion-pair chromatography. Microfiltration membrane-based sampling showed no retention for any compound observed. Sampling by ultrafiltration significantly retained the observed ionic compounds between 58 and 83% whereas a nonionic compound was not retained. On-line monitoring of an oxygen-sensitive compound was possible whereas off-line detection failed. Robust long time monitoring could be performed for up to 1 week without cleaning the membrane. PMID:12613834

  20. Simultaneous Detection of Sulfamethoxazole, Diclofenac, Carbamazepine, and Bezafibrate by Solid Phase Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Jiang, J.-Q.

    2014-05-01

    A method of solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was studied for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), diclofenac (DCF), carbamazepine (CBZ), and bezafi brate (BZF) in test solutions. The target compounds were extracted by SPE from samples, and the resulting elutes were analyzed using a HPLC-DAD system at wavelengths of 270, 280, 290, and 230 nm for SMX, DCF, CBZ, and BZF, respectively. This method shows good recoveries for SMX, DCF, CBZ, and BZF with mean recoveries of 89.7 9.3%, 86.1 7.6%, 95.0 6.5%, and 94.0 5.4%, respectively.

  1. High efficiency 2 micrometer laser utilizing wing-pumped Tm{sup 3+} and a laser diode array end-pumping architecture

    DOEpatents

    Beach, R.J.

    1997-11-18

    Wing pumping a Tm{sup 3+} doped, end pumped solid state laser generates 2 {micro}m laser radiation at high average powers with high efficiency. Using laser diode arrays to end-pump the laser rod or slab in the wing of the Tm{sup 3+} absorption band near 785 nm results in 2-for-1 quantum efficiency in Tm{sup 3+} because high Tm{sup 3+} concentrations can be used. Wing pumping allows the thermal power generated in the rod or slab to be distributed over a large enough volume to make thermal management practical in the laser gain medium even at high average power operation. The approach is applicable to CW, Q-switched, and rep-pulsed free-laser operation. 7 figs.

  2. Far ultraviolet sensitivity of silicon CMOS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Michael W.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Winters, Gregory S.; Bai, Yibin; Beletic, James W.

    2012-07-01

    We describe vacuum ultraviolet sensitivity measurements of a new high performance silicon-based CMOS sensor from Teledyne Imaging Sensors. These sensors do not require the high voltages of MCP detectors, making them a lower mass and power alternative to the more mature MCP technology. These devices demonstrate up to 40 percent quantum efficiency at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths, either meeting or greatly exceeding 10 percent quantum efficiency across the entire 100-200 nm wavelength region. As with similar visible sensitive devices, backside illumination results in a higher quantum efficiency than frontside illumination. Measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet sensitivity of the Teledyne silicon PIN detectors were made by directing a known intensity of ultraviolet light at discrete wavelengths onto the test detectors and reading out the resulting photocurrent. The sensitivity of the detector at a given wavelength was then calculated from the intensity and wavelength of the incoming light and the relative photodiode to NIST-traceable calibration diode active areas. A custom electromechanical interface was developed to make these measurements within the SwRI Vacuum Radiometric Calibration Chamber. While still in the single pixel stage, full 1K 1K focal plane arrays are possible using existing CMOS readout electronics and hold great promise for inclusion in future spaceflight instrument concepts.

  3. Integral diode solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardesich, N.; Gillanders, M.

    To achieve high power at minimum weight, innovative array designs are needed. In the case where shadows fall across a series element in a simple circuit, the effective power will be reduced or eliminated. The conventional method of eliminating this loss is the introduction of bypass diodes. This method increases cost and weight and reduces available surface area. An alternative solution to the shadowing problem is to use integral diode solar cells. The integral diode cell has a built-in diode on the back that protects the adjacent cell and passes the current if it is shadowed. This paper describes the effort to produce the integral diode cells in a production facility with a minimum cost impact. The electrical characterization of the cell as well as the diode is presented. These cells can be readily manufactured in a production facility using photoresist defined contacting process.

  4. High-speed GaN/GaInN nanowire array light-emitting diode on silicon(111).

    PubMed

    Koester, Robert; Sager, Daniel; Quitsch, Wolf-Alexander; Pfingsten, Oliver; Poloczek, Artur; Blumenthal, Sarah; Keller, Gregor; Prost, Werner; Bacher, Gerd; Tegude, Franz-Josef

    2015-04-01

    The high speed on-off performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown in c-plane direction is limited by long carrier lifetimes caused by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization. This work demonstrates that this limitation can be overcome by m-planar core-shell InGaN/GaN nanowire LEDs grown on Si(111). Time-resolved electroluminescence studies exhibit 90-10% rise- and fall-times of about 220 ps under GHz electrical excitation. The data underline the potential of these devices for optical data communication in polymer fibers and free space. PMID:25758029

  5. Room-temperature violet luminescence and ultraviolet photodetection of Sb-doped ZnO/Al-doped ZnO homojunction array

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A Sb-doped ZnO microrod array was fabricated on an Al-doped ZnO thin film by electrodeposition. Strong violet luminescence, originated from free electron-to-acceptor level transitions, was identified by temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements. This acceptor-related transition was attributed to substitution of Sb dopants for Zn sites, instead of O sites, to form a complex with two Zn vacancies (VZn), the SbZn-2VZn complex. This SbZn-2VZn complex has a lower formation energy and acts as a shallow acceptor which can induce the observed strong violet luminescence. The photoresponsivity of our ZnO p-n homojunction device under a negative bias demonstrated a nearly 40-fold current gain, illustrating that our device is potentially an excellent candidate for photodetector applications in the ultraviolet wavelength region. PMID:23826909

  6. Room-temperature violet luminescence and ultraviolet photodetection of Sb-doped ZnO/Al-doped ZnO homojunction array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Wu, Jen-Kai; Lin, Jheng-Cyuan; Lo, Shun-Tsung; Lin, Huang-De; Hang, Da-Ren; Shih, Ming Feng; Liang, Chi-Te; Chang, Yuan Huei

    2013-07-01

    A Sb-doped ZnO microrod array was fabricated on an Al-doped ZnO thin film by electrodeposition. Strong violet luminescence, originated from free electron-to-acceptor level transitions, was identified by temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements. This acceptor-related transition was attributed to substitution of Sb dopants for Zn sites, instead of O sites, to form a complex with two Zn vacancies (VZn), the SbZn-2VZn complex. This SbZn-2VZn complex has a lower formation energy and acts as a shallow acceptor which can induce the observed strong violet luminescence. The photoresponsivity of our ZnO p-n homojunction device under a negative bias demonstrated a nearly 40-fold current gain, illustrating that our device is potentially an excellent candidate for photodetector applications in the ultraviolet wavelength region.

  7. ZnO homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type nanowire array and n-type film for ultraviolet detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Guoping; Chu Sheng; Zhan Ning; Liu Jianlin; Lin Yuqing; Chernyak, Leonid

    2011-01-24

    ZnO p-n homojunctions based on Sb-doped p-type nanowire array and n-type film were grown by combining chemical vapor deposition (for nanowires) with molecular-beam epitaxy (for film). Indium tin oxide and Ti/Au were used as contacts to the ZnO nanowires and film, respectively. Characteristics of field-effect transistors using ZnO nanowires as channels indicate p-type conductivity of the nanowires. Electron beam induced current profiling confirmed the existence of ZnO p-n homojunction. Rectifying I-V characteristic showed a turn-on voltage of around 3 V. Very good response to ultraviolet light illumination was observed from photocurrent measurements.

  8. Spatial phase locking of linear arrays of 4 and 12 wide-aperture semiconductor laser diodes in an external cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonov, V V; Derzhavin, S I; Kislov, V I; Kuz'minov, V V; Mashkovskii, D A; Kazakov, A A; Koval', Yu P; Prokhorov, A M

    1998-03-31

    Spatial phase locking was achieved experimentally for radiation from linear arrays of 4 and 12 wide-aperture multimode semiconductor lasers. This phase locking was attained in an external cavity of 1 < L < 3 cm length with a plane mirror (R=90%) by diffractive exchange of radiation between neighbouring lasers. An analysis of all possible cavity oscillation eigenmodes (supermodes) was made for a phase-locked array of 4 coupled lasers. The output radiation of this array was characterised by a high degree of coherence (with the contrast of V=0.9). The angular width (at half-maximum) dy was 1.2 mrad for the fundamental ({nu} =1) and highest ({nu} =4) supermodes, and 0.8 mrad for the modes with {nu} =2 or 3, which corresponded to the diffraction limit. Full supermode selection was achieved in the 4-laser array as a result of the Talbot effect when the cavity length was L=Z{sub T}/4. The far-field distribution of the radiation was then characterised by the parameters V=0.98 and {delta}{psi} = 1.2 mrad. The corresponding parameters of a phase-locked 12-laser array were V=0.93 for the axial propagation zone and {delta}{psi} =0.46 mrad. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  9. Effects of double layer AlN buffer layers on properties of Si-doped AlxGa1-xN for improved performance of deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al tahtamouni, T. M.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2013-03-01

    Si-doped Al0.77Ga0.23N epilayers were grown on AlN/sapphire templates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using double AlN buffer layers. It was found that the use of double AlN buffer layers improved the overall material quality of the Si-doped Al0.77Ga0.23N epilayers, as evidenced in the decreased density of screw dislocations and surface pits and increased emission intensity ratio of the band-edge to the deep level impurity transition. Hall effect measurements also indicated improved n-type conductivity. The performance of the deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated using double buffer layers was significantly improved, as manifested by enhanced output power and reduced turn-on voltage.

  10. KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1-xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, W; Kirste, R; Bryan, I; Bryan, Z; Hussey, L; Reddy, P; Tweedie, J; Collazo, R; Sitar, Z

    2015-02-23

    A controllable and smooth potassium hydroxide-based wet etching technique was developed for the AlGaN system. High selectivity between AlN and AlxGa1-xN (up to 12 x) was found to be critical in achieving effective substrate thinning or removal for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes, thus increasing light extraction efficiency. The mechanism of high selectivity of AlGaN as a function of Al composition can be explained as related to the formation and dissolution of oxide/hydroxide on top of N-polar surface. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopic analysis served as ultimate proof that these hillocks were not related to underlying threading dislocations. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  11. Effects of Mg-doped AlN/AlGaN superlattices on properties of p-GaN contact layer and performance of deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Al tahtamouni, T. M.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2014-04-15

    Mg-doped AlN/AlGaN superlattice (Mg-SL) and Mg-doped AlGaN epilayers have been investigated in the 284 nm deep ultraviolet (DUV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) as electron blocking layers. It was found that the use of Mg-SL improved the material quality of the p-GaN contact layer, as evidenced in the decreased density of surface pits and improved surface morphology and crystalline quality. The performance of the DUV LEDs fabricated using Mg-SL was significantly improved, as manifested by enhanced light intensity and output power, and reduced turn-on voltage. The improved performance is attributed to the enhanced blocking of electron overflow, and enhanced hole injection.

  12. KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, W. Kirste, R.; Bryan, I.; Bryan, Z.; Hussey, L.; Reddy, P.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.; Tweedie, J.

    2015-02-23

    A controllable and smooth potassium hydroxide-based wet etching technique was developed for the AlGaN system. High selectivity between AlN and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N (up to 12) was found to be critical in achieving effective substrate thinning or removal for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes, thus increasing light extraction efficiency. The mechanism of high selectivity of AlGaN as a function of Al composition can be explained as related to the formation and dissolution of oxide/hydroxide on top of N-polar surface. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopic analysis served as ultimate proof that these hillocks were not related to underlying threading dislocations.

  13. Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Naoki, Tamari; Kinoshita, Toru; Obata, Toshiyuki; Yanagi, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-30

    Deep-ultraviolet (DUV) aluminum gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on transparent aluminum nitride (AlN) substrates with high light extraction efficiency and high power are proposed and demonstrated. The AlN bottom side surface configuration, which is composed of a hybrid structure of photonic crystals and subwavelength nanostructures, has been designed using finite-difference time-domain calculations to enhance light extraction. We have experimentally demonstrated an output power improvement of up to 196% as a result of the use of the embedded high-light-extraction hybrid nanophotonic structure. The DUV-LEDs produced have demonstrated output power as high as 90 mW in DC operation at a peak emission wavelength of 265 nm.

  14. Nanospherical-lens lithographical Ag nanodisk arrays embedded in p-GaN for localized surface plasmon-enhanced blue light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Tongbo Wu, Kui; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Yonghui; Chen, Yu; Huo, Ziqiang; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Junxi; Zeng, Yiping; Li, Jinmin; Lan, Ding

    2014-06-15

    Large-scale Ag nanodisks (NDs) arrays fabricated using nanospherical-lens lithography (NLL) are embedded in p-GaN layer of an InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode (LED) for generating localized surface plasmon (LSP) coupling with the radiating dipoles in the quantum-well (QWs). Based on the Ag NDs with the controlled surface coverage, LSP leads to the improved crystalline quality of regrowth p-GaN, increased photoluminescence (PL) intensity, reduced PL decay time, and enhanced output power of LED. Compared with the LED without Ag NDs, the optical output power at a current of 350 mA of the LSP-enhanced LEDs with Ag NDs having a distance of 20 and 35 nm to QWs is increased by 26.7% and 31.1%, respectively. The electrical characteristics and optical properties of LEDs with embedded Ag NPs are dependent on the distance of between Ag NPs and QWs region. The LED with Ag NDs array structure is also found to exhibit reduced emission divergence, compared to that without Ag NDs.

  15. Optical Output Power Enhancement of Gallium Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes with Microlens Array on p-GaN Layer and Wave-Patterned Sidewalls by Gas-Assisted Focused Ion Beam Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Kuo, Kwei-Kuan

    2008-04-01

    By using iodine gas-assisted focused ion beam etching, a gallium nitride light-emitting diode with wave-patterned sidewalls and a microlens array on a p-GaN layer was successfully fabricated without an additional lithography process. The gallium nitride light-emitting diode after gas-assisted focused ion beam etching on the sidewalls and p-GaN layer shows 24% enhancement from the sidewalls and 53% from the top surface in optical output power with an operating voltage increase of 0.06 V at 20 mA.

  16. High-brightness line generators and fiber-coupled sources based on low-smile laser diode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, J.; Schleuning, D.; Lavikko, P.; Alander, T.; Lee, D.; Lovato, P.; Winhold, H.; Griffin, M.; Tolman, S.; Liang, P.; Hasenberg, T.; Reed, M.

    2008-02-01

    We describe the performance of diode laser bars mounted on conductive and water cooled platforms using low smile processes. Total smile of <1?m is readily achieved on both In and AuSn based platforms. Combined with environmentally robust lensing, these mounts form the basis of multiple, high-brightness products. Free-space-coupled devices utilizing conductively-cooled bars delivering 100W from a 200?m, 0.22NA fiber at 976nm have been developed for pumping fiber lasers, as well as for materials processing. Additionally, line generators for graphics and materials processing applications have been produced. Starting from single bars mounted on water-cooled packages that do not require de-ionized or pH-controlled water, these line generators deliver over 80W of power into a line with an aspect ratio of 600:1, and have a BPP of <2mm-mrad in the direction orthogonal to the line.

  17. Self-Injection Locking Of Diode Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.

    1991-01-01

    Simple optical coupling scheme locks array of gain-guided diode lasers into oscillation in single mode and with single-lobed output beam. Selective feedback from thin etalon self-injection-locks array into desired mode. One application of new scheme for pumping of neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet lasers with diode-laser arrays.

  18. Performance of an Ultraviolet Photoconductive Sensor Using Well-Aligned Aluminium-Doped Zinc-Oxide Nanorod Arrays Annealed in an Air and Oxygen Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Mohamad Hafiz; Khusaimi, Zuraida; Zahidi, Musa Mohamed; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop

    2011-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) photoconductive sensors were fabricated using an aluminium (Al)-doped zinc-oxide (ZnO) nanorod array with a diameter between 40 and 150 nm and thickness of approximately 1.1 ?m. The nanorod arrays were prepared using a sonicated sol--gel immersion and annealed at 500 C under different ambient conditions of air and oxygen. The annealing process induced the formation of nanoholes on the nanorod surfaces, which increased the nanorod surface area. The nanoholes existed in larger quantities on the nanorod surfaces annealed in air compared with the nanorods annealed in an oxygen environment. This condition reduced the rise and decay time constants of the air-annealed UV sensor. However, the sample annealed in an oxygen ambient shows the highest responsivity of 1.55 A/W for UV light (365 nm, 5 mW/cm2) under a 10 V bias mainly due to defect reduction and improvement in stoichiometric properties. To the best of our knowledge, a UV photoconductive sensor using this ZnO nanostructure has not yet been reported.

  19. Performance of an Ultraviolet Photoconductive Sensor Using Well-Aligned Aluminium-Doped Zinc-Oxide Nanorod Arrays Annealed in an Air and Oxygen Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz Mamat, Mohamad; Khusaimi, Zuraida; Zahidi, Musa Mohamed; Rusop Mahmood, Mohamad

    2011-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) photoconductive sensors were fabricated using an aluminium (Al)-doped zinc-oxide (ZnO) nanorod array with a diameter between 40 and 150 nm and thickness of approximately 1.1 m. The nanorod arrays were prepared using a sonicated sol-gel immersion and annealed at 500 C under different ambient conditions of air and oxygen. The annealing process induced the formation of nanoholes on the nanorod surfaces, which increased the nanorod surface area. The nanoholes existed in larger quantities on the nanorod surfaces annealed in air compared with the nanorods annealed in an oxygen environment. This condition reduced the rise and decay time constants of the air-annealed UV sensor. However, the sample annealed in an oxygen ambient shows the highest responsivity of 1.55 A/W for UV light (365 nm, 5 mW/cm2) under a 10 V bias mainly due to defect reduction and improvement in stoichiometric properties. To the best of our knowledge, a UV photoconductive sensor using this ZnO nanostructure has not yet been reported.

  20. A series of color tunable yellow-orange-red-emitting SrWO4:RE (Sm3+, Eu3+-Sm3+) phosphor for near ultraviolet and blue light-based warm white light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yandong; Liu, Yonghao; Yang, Rui

    2016-03-01

    A series of wide-range-tunable light emissive SrWO4:Sm3+, SrWO4:Sm3+,Eu3+ phosphors were synthesized via the simple co-precipitation method. The charge compensation can greatly improve SrWO4: Sm3+ phosphors luminous intensity. The critical distance, ηT and energy transfer mechanism of SrWO4:0.01Sm3+,0.12Eu3+ were studied. These obtained phosphors exhibit a high luminous efficiency, purity and lower color temperature of the comfortable warm white LEDs. Hues varying have been generated by appropriately tuning the Sm3+ ions concentration, excitation wavelength or Sm3+, Eu3+ co-doping, which have the color tunable wide gamut light covering the yellow-green, greenish-yellow, yellow, yellow orange, orange, reddish orange and red chromaticity region. In particular, SrWO4:0.01Sm3+,0.12Eu3+ phosphors excited at 404 and 480 nm have higher color saturation than commercially available Y2O2S:Eu3+ red phosphor. These phosphors can be excited efficiently using commercial ultraviolet, blue laser diodes and LEDs, and can be used for developing new color light sources, fluorescent display devices, ultraviolet-sensors and tunable visible lasers.

  1. Luminescent properties of Li2 (Ca0.99, Eu0.01) SiO4: B3+ particles as a potential bluish green phosphor for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shanshan; Chen, Donghua

    2007-12-01

    In our study, the 1% mol Eu2+ doped Li2CaSiO4: B3+ phosphors were prepared by the combustion method as fluorescent material for ultraviolet, light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) used as a light source. The properties of Li2 (Ca0.99, Eu0.01) SiO4: B3+ phosphors with urea concentration, doping boric acid and a series of initiating combustion temperature were investigated. The crystallization and particle sizes of Li2 (Ca0.99, Eu0.01) SiO4: B3+ has been investigated by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Luminescence measurements showed that the phosphors can be efficiently excited by UV to the visible region, and exhibited bluish green light with a peak of 480 nm. The results showed that the boric acid was effective in improving the luminescence intensity of Li2 (Ca0.99, Eu0.01) SiO4: B3+ and the optimum molar ratio of boric acid to calcium nitrate was about 0.06. The optimized phosphors Li2 (Ca0.99, Eu0.01) SiO4: B{0.06/3+} showed 180% improved emission intensity compared with that of the Li2 (Ca0.99, Eu0.01) SiO4 phosphors under ultraviolet (?ex =287 nm) excitation.

  2. Photovoltaic module bypass diode encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The design and processing techniques necessary to incorporate bypass diodes within the module encapsulant are presented. The Semicon PN junction diode cells were selected. Diode junction to heat spreader thermal resistance measurements, performed on a variety of mounted diode chip types and sizes, have yielded values which are consistently below 1 deg C per watt, but show some instability when thermally cycled over the temperature range from -40 to 150 deg C. Three representative experimental modules, each incorporating integral bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies of various sizes, were designed. Thermal testing of these modules enabled the formulation of a recommended heat spreader plate sizing relationship. The production cost of three encapsulated bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies were compared with similarly rated externally mounted packaged diodes. It is concluded that, when proper designed and installed, these bypass diode devices will improve the overall reliability of a terrestrial array over a 20 year design lifetime.

  3. A study of the feasibility and performance of an active/passive imager using silicon focal plane arrays and incoherent continuous wave laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmerhausen, Richard H.

    This dissertation describes an active/passive imager (API) that provides reliable, nighttime, target acquisition in a man-portable package with effective visual range of about 4 kilometers. The reflective imagery is easier to interpret than currently used thermal imagery. Also, in the active mode, the API provides performance equivalent to the big-aperture, thermal systems used on weapons platforms like tanks and attack helicopters. This dissertation describes the research needed to demonstrate both the feasibility and utility of the API. Part of the research describes implementation of a silicon focal plane array (SFPA) capable of both active and passive imaging. The passive imaging mode exceeds the nighttime performance of currently fielded, man-portable sensors. Further, when scene illumination is insufficient for passive imaging, the low dark current of SFPA makes it possible to use continuous wave laser diodes (CWLD) to add an active imaging mode. CWLD have advantages of size, efficiency, and improved eye safety when compared to high peak-power diodes. Because of the improved eye safety, the API provides user-demanded features like video output and extended range gates in the active as well as passive imaging modes. Like any other night vision device, the API depends on natural illumination of the scene for passive operation. Although it has been known for decades that "starlight" illumination is actually from diffuse airglow emissions, the research described in this dissertation provides the first estimates of the global and temporal variation of ground illumination due to airglow. A third related element of the current research establishes the impact of atmospheric aerosols on API performance. We know from day experience that atmospheric scattering of sunlight into the imager line-of-sight can blind the imager and drastically degrade performance. Atmospheric scattering of sunlight is extensively covered in the literature. However, previous literature did not cover the impact of atmospheric scattering when the target is diffusely illuminated by airglow.

  4. Measurement and Simulation of the Variation in Proton-Induced Energy Deposition in Large Silicon Diode Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Christina L.; Weller, Robert A.; Reed, Robert A.; Sierawski, Brian D.; Marshall, Paul W.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    The proton induced charge deposition in a well characterized silicon P-i-N focal plane array is analyzed with Monte Carlo based simulations. These simulations include all physical processes, together with pile up, to accurately describe the experimental data. Simulation results reveal important high energy events not easily detected through experiment due to low statistics. The effects of each physical mechanism on the device response is shown for a single proton energy as well as a full proton space flux.

  5. Fully Integrated Linear Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) Array with Parallel Readout Circuit in a Standard 180 nm CMOS Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaak, S.; Bull, S.; Pitter, M. C.; Harrison, Ian.

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports on the development of a SPAD device and its subsequent use in an actively quenched single photon counting imaging system, and was fabricated in a UMC 0.18 ?m CMOS process. A low-doped p- guard ring (t-well layer) encircling the active area to prevent the premature reverse breakdown. The array is a 161 parallel output SPAD array, which comprises of an active quenched SPAD circuit in each pixel with the current value being set by an external resistor RRef = 300 k?. The SPAD I-V response, ID was found to slowly increase until VBD was reached at excess bias voltage, Ve = 11.03 V, and then rapidly increase due to avalanche multiplication. Digital circuitry to control the SPAD array and perform the necessary data processing was designed in VHDL and implemented on a FPGA chip. At room temperature, the dark count was found to be approximately 13 KHz for most of the 16 SPAD pixels and the dead time was estimated to be 40 ns.

  6. PIN Diode Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez-Jimenez, F. J.

    2008-07-02

    A review of the application of PIN diodes as radiation detectors in particle counting, X- and {gamma}-ray spectroscopy, medical applications and charged particle spectroscopy is presented. As a practical example of its usefulness, a PIN diode and a low noise preamplifier are included in a nuclear spectroscopy chain for X-ray measurements. This is a laboratory session designed to review the main concepts needed to set up the detector-preamplifier array and to make measurements of X-ray energy spectra with a room temperature PIN diode. The results obtained are compared with those obtained with a high resolution cooled Si-Li detector.

  7. A novel automated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method using diode-array detector/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of sodium risedronate and related degradation products in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Tiziana; Vicentini, Lorenza; Boschetti, Silvia; Andreatta, Paolo; Gatti, Rita

    2014-10-24

    A simple, sensitive and fast hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method using ultraviolet diode-array detector (UV-DAD)/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the automated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of sodium risedronate (SR) and its degradation products in new pharmaceuticals. The chromatographic separations were performed on Ascentis Express HILIC 2.7μm (150mm×2.1mm, i.d.) stainless steel column (fused core). The mobile phase consisted of formate buffer solution (pH 3.4; 0.03M)/acetonitrile 42:58 and 45:55 (v/v) for granules for oral solution and effervescent tablet analysis, respectively, at a flow-rate of 0.2mL/min, setting the wavelength at 262nm. Stability characteristics of SR were evaluated by performing stress test studies. The main degradation product formed under oxidation conditions corresponding to sodium hydrogen (1-hydroxy-2-(1-oxidopyridin-3-yl)-1-phosphonoethyl)phosphonate was characterized by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The validation parameters such as linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision and selectivity were found to be highly satisfactory. Linear responses were observed in standard and in fortified placebo solutions. Intra-day precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) was ≤1.1% for peak area and ≤0.2% for retention times (tR) without significant differences between intra- and inter-day data. Recovery studies showed good results for all the examined compounds (from 98.7 to 101.0%) with RSD ranging from 0.6 to 0.7%. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 1 and 3ng/mL, respectively. The high stability of standard and sample solutions at room temperature means an undoubted advantage of the method allowing the simultaneous preparation of many samples and consecutive chromatographic analyses by using an autosampler. The developed stability indicating method is suitable for the quality control of SR in new and commercial pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25242223

  8. Direct writing of micro/nano-scale patterns by means of particle lens arrays scanned by a focused diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, Ana; Wang, Zengbo; Whitehead, David; Li, Lin

    2010-11-01

    A practical approach to a well-known technique of laser micro/nano-patterning by optical near fields is presented. It is based on surface patterning by scanning a Gaussian laser beam through a self-assembled monolayer of silica micro-spheres on a single-crystalline silicon (Si) substrate. So far, the outcome of this kind of near-field patterning has been related to the simultaneous, parallel surface-structuring of large areas either by top hat or Gaussian laser intensity distributions. We attempt to explore the possibility of using the same technique in order to produce single, direct writing of features. This could be of advantage for applications in which only some areas need to be patterned (i.e. local area selective patterning) or single lines are required (e.g. a particular micro/nano-fluidic channel). A diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser system (wavelength of 532 nm, pulse duration of 8 ns, repetition rate of 30 kHz) with a computer-controlled 3 axis galvanometer beam scanner was employed to write user-defined patterns through the particle lens array on the Si substrate. After laser irradiation, the obtained patterns which are in the micro-scale were composed of sub-micro/micro-holes or bumps. The micro-pattern resolution depends on the dimension of both the micro-sphere’s diameter and the beam’s spot size. The developed technique could potentially be employed to fabricate photonic crystal structures mimicking nature’s butterfly wings and anti-reflective “moth eye” arrays for photovoltaic cells.

  9. Characterization of an Optical Device with an Array of Blue Light Emitting Diodes LEDS for Treatment of Neonatal Jaundice.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebbe, Priscilla Fres; Villaverde, Antonio G. J. Balbin; Nicolau, Renata Amadei; Barbosa, Ana Maria; Veissid, Nelson

    2008-04-01

    Phototherapy is a treatment that consists in irradiating a patient with light of high intensity, which promotes beneficial photochemical transformations in the irradiated area. The phototherapy for neonates is applied to break down the bilirubin, an organic pigment that is a sub product of the erythrocytes degradation, and to increase its excretion by the organism. Neonates should be irradiated with light of wavelength that the bilirubin can absorb, and with spectral irradiances between 4 and 16 ?W/cm2/nm. The efficiency of the treatment depends on the irradiance and the area of the body that is irradiated. A convenient source of light for treatment of neonatal jaundice is the blue Light Emitter Diode (LED), emitting in the range of 400 to 500 nm, with power of the order of 10-150 mW. Some of the advantages for using LEDS are: low cost, operating long lifetime (over 100,000 hours), narrow emission linewith, low voltage power supply requirement and low heating. The aim of this work was to build and characterize a device for phototherapy treatment of neonatal jaundice. This consists of a blanket with 88 blue LEDs (emission peak at 472 nm), arranged in an 811 matrix, all connected in parallel and powered by a 5V-2A power supply. The device was characterized by using a spectroradiometer USB2000 (Ocean Optics Inc, USA), with a sensitivity range of 339-1019 nm. For determination of light spatial uniformity was used a calibrated photovoltaic sensor for measuring light intensity and mapping of the light intensity spatial distribution. Results indicate that our device shows a uniform spatial distribution for distances from the blanket larger than 10 cm, with a maximum of irradiance at such a distance. This device presenting a large and uniform area of irradiation, efficient wavelength emission and high irradiance seems to be promising for neonates' phototherapy treatment.

  10. Study of ablation and implosion stages in wire arrays using coupled ultraviolet and X-ray probing diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A. A.; Ivanov, V. V.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Papp, D.; Wiewior, P. P.; Chalyy, O.

    2015-11-01

    Star and cylindrical wire arrays were studied using laser probing and X-ray radiography at the 1-MA Zebra pulse power generator at the University of Nevada, Reno. The Leopard laser provided backlighting, producing a laser plasma from a Si target which emitted an X-ray probing pulse at the wavelength of 6.65 Å. A spherically bent quartz crystal imaged the backlit wires onto X-ray film. Laser probing diagnostics at the wavelength of 266 nm included a 3-channel polarimeter for Faraday rotation diagnostic and two-frame laser interferometry with two shearing interferometers to study the evolution of the plasma electron density at the ablation and implosion stages. Dynamics of the plasma density profile in Al wire arrays at the ablation stage were directly studied with interferometry, and expansion of wire cores was measured with X-ray radiography. The magnetic field in the imploding plasma was measured with the Faraday rotation diagnostic, and current was reconstructed.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of 11 Components in Yinzhihuang Preparations and Their Constituent Herbs by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Han, Jie; Sun, Shi-An; Li, Zheng; Yang, Fang-Xiu; Dong, Lu-Lu; Yang, Dong-Zhi; Tang, Dao-Quan

    2016-04-01

    A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography method with diode array detector was established for simultaneous determination of 11 components (geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, geniposide, luteoloside, isochlorogenic acid C, baicalin, luteolin, wogonoside, baicalein and wogonin) in various commercial Yinzhihuang preparations and their herbs by optimizing the extraction, separation and analytical conditions. Eleven components were identified on the basis of their retention times and mass spectra. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 analytical column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid water solution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The linearity, precision and accuracy of the data obtained were acceptable. The method was used to analyze four Yinzhihuang preparations (powder, capsule, oral liquid and injection) and related herbs (Radix Scutellariae, Flos Lonicerae, Herba Artemisiae Scopariae and Fructus gardeniae). Results suggested that the optimized method could be considered as a good approach to control the quality of Yinzhihuang preparations and their herbs. PMID:26809640

  12. Metabolite profiling of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) from different locations using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Montero, Lidia; Ibáñez, Elena; Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Rastrelli, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Herrero, Miguel

    2016-03-24

    Profiling of the main metabolites from several licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) samples collected at different locations is carried out in this work by using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) coupled to diode array (DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. The optimized method was based on the application of a HILIC-based separation in the first dimension combined with fast RP-based second dimension separation. This set-up was shown to possess powerful separation capabilities allowing separating as much as 89 different metabolites in a single sample. Identification and grouping of metabolites according to their chemical class were achieved using the DAD, MS and MS/MS data. Triterpene saponins were the most abundant metabolites followed by glycosylated flavanones and chalcones, whereas glycyrrhizic acid, as expected, was confirmed as the main component in all the studied samples. LC × LC-DAD-MS/MS was able to resolve these complex licorice samples providing with specific metabolite profiles to the different licorice samples depending on their geographical origin. Namely, from 19 to 50 specific compounds were exclusively determined in the 2D-chromatograms from the different licorice samples depending on their geographical origin, which can be used as a typical pattern that could potentially be related to their geographical location and authentication. PMID:26944999

  13. Three-dimensional mesoscale heterostructures of ZnO nanowire arrays epitaxially grown on CuGaO2 nanoplates as individual diodes.

    PubMed

    Forticaux, Audrey; Hacialioglu, Salih; DeGrave, John P; Dziedzic, Rafal; Jin, Song

    2013-09-24

    We report a three-dimensional (3D) mesoscale heterostructure composed of one-dimensional (1D) nanowire (NW) arrays epitaxially grown on two-dimensional (2D) nanoplates. Specifically, three facile syntheses are developed to assemble vertical ZnO NWs on CuGaO2 (CGO) nanoplates in mild aqueous solution conditions. The key to the successful 3D mesoscale integration is the preferential nucleation and heteroepitaxial growth of ZnO NWs on the CGO nanoplates. Using transmission electron microscopy, heteroepitaxy was found between the basal planes of CGO nanoplates and ZnO NWs, which are their respective (001) crystallographic planes, by the observation of a hexagonal Moir fringes pattern resulting from the slight mismatch between the c planes of ZnO and CGO. Careful analysis shows that this pattern can be described by a hexagonal supercell with a lattice parameter of almost exactly 11 and 12 times the a lattice constants for ZnO and CGO, respectively. The electrical properties of the individual CGO-ZnO mesoscale heterostructures were measured using a current-sensing atomic force microscopy setup to confirm the rectifying p-n diode behavior expected from the band alignment of p-type CGO and n-type ZnO wide band gap semiconductors. These 3D mesoscale heterostructures represent a new motif in nanoassembly for the integration of nanomaterials into functional devices with potential applications in electronics, photonics, and energy. PMID:23952783

  14. Chemometrics-assisted high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection strategy to solve varying interfering patterns from different chromatographic columns and sample matrices for beverage analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao-Li; Wu, Hai-Long; Gu, Hui-Wen; Hu, Yong; Wang, Li; Xia, Hui; Xiang, Shou-Xia; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-02-26

    This work reports a chemometrics-assisted high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) strategy to solve varying interfering patterns from different chromatographic columns and sample matrices for the rapid simultaneous determination of six synthetic colorants in five kinds of beverages with little sample pretreatment. The investigation was performed using two types of LC columns under the same elution conditions. Although analytes using different columns have different co-elution patterns that appear more seriously in complex backgrounds, all colorants were properly resolved by alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) method and accurate chromatographic elution profiles, spectral profiles as well as relative concentrations were obtained. The results were confirmed by those obtained from traditional HPLC-UV method at a particular wavelength and the results of both methods were consistent with each other. All results demonstrated that the proposed chemometrics-assisted HPLC-DAD method is accurate, economical and universal, and can be promisingly applied to solve varying interfering patterns from different chromatographic columns and sample matrices for the analysis of complex food samples. PMID:26830638

  15. Determination of benzimidazole anthelmintics in milk and honey by monolithic fiber-based solid-phase microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Huang, Xiaojia; Yuan, Dongxing

    2015-01-01

    A porous poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic fiber (MEMF) for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of five benzimidazole anthelmintics was prepared by in-situ polymerization. The effect of polymerization conditions on SPME of the target analytes was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the monolith were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Several conditions affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and, under the optimized conditions, a simple and sensitive method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in milk and honey was established by coupling MEMF-SPME with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (MEMF-SPME-HPLC-DAD). Under the optimum experimental conditions, the limits of detection (S/N = 3) of the method were 0.11-0.30?gL(-1) for milk and 0.086-0.28?gL(-1) for honey. Evaluation of intra-day and inter-day precision showed reproducibility was satisfactory-relative standard deviations (RSD) for both were <10%. Finally, the method was successfully used for determination of benzimidazole residues in milk and honey. Recoveries obtained for determination of benzimidazole anthelmintics in spiked samples ranged from 72.3 to 121%, with RSD always <11%. PMID:25407428

  16. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of an alkaloid fraction from Piper longum L. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuiyong; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-10

    In a previous research, an alkaloid fraction and 18 alkaloid compounds were prepared from Piper longum L. by series of purification process. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS) was developed to evaluate the alkaloid fraction. Qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was firstly completed by UHPLC-DAD method and 18 amide alkaloid compounds were identified. A further qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was accomplished by UHPLC-MS/MS method. Another 25 amide alkaloids were identified according to their characteristic ions and neutral losses. At last, a quantitative method for the alkaloid fraction was established using four marker compounds including piperine, pipernonatine, guineensine and N-isobutyl-2E,4E-octadecadienamide. After the validation of this method, the contents of above four marker compounds in the alkaloid fraction were 57.5mg/g, 65.6mg/g, 17.7mg/g and 23.9mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the relative response factors of other three compounds to piperine were calculated. A comparative study between external standard quantification and relative response factor quantification proved no remarkable difference. UHPLC-DAD-MS method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the characterization of the alkaloid fraction from P. longum L. and the result proved that the quality of alkaloid fraction was efficiently improved after appropriate purification. PMID:25746504

  17. Evaluation of Drying Process on the Composition of Black Pepper Ethanolic Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography With Diode Array Detector

    PubMed Central

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Hejazi, Hoda; Ramezani, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is one of the well-known spices extensively used worldwide especially in India, and Southeast Asia. The presence of alkaloids in the pepper, namely, piperine and its three stereoisomers, isopiperine, chavicine and isochavicine are well noticed. Objectives The current study evaluated the effect of lyophilization and oven drying on the stability and decomposition of constituents of black pepper ethanolic extract. Materials and Methods In the current study ethanolic extract of black pepper obtained by maceration method was dried using two methods. The effect of freeze and oven drying on the chemical composition of the extract especially piperine and its three isomers were evaluated by HPLC analysis of the ethanolic extract before and after drying processes using diode array detector. The UV Vis spectra of the peaks at piperine retention time before and after each drying methods indicated maximum absorbance at 341.2 nm corresponding to standard piperine. Results The results indicated a decrease in intensity of the chromatogram peaks at approximately all retention times after freeze drying, indicating a few percent loss of piperine and its isomers upon lyophilization. Two impurity peaks were completely removed from the extract. Conclusions In oven dried samples two of the piperine stereoisomers were completely removed from the extract and the intensity of piperine peak was increased. PMID:24624176

  18. Online screening of nitric oxide scavengers in natural products using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem diode array and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Wang, Ting; Guo, Yujie; Hu, Yuanjia; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2015-12-18

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important cellular signaling molecule with extensive physiological and pathophysiological effects. NO scavengers have the potential to treat inflammation, septic shock and other related diseases, and numerous examples have been chemically synthesized or isolated from natural products. The chemical diversity of natural products, however, means that a huge effort is necessary to efficiently screen and identify bioactive compounds, especially NO scavengers. In this article, we propose an effective analytical method to screen for NO scavengers in three natural products using an online system that couples high performance liquid chromatography with tandem diode array and fluorescence detection (HPLC-DAD-FLD). Eighteen compounds from radix of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and green tea displayed significant NO scavenging activity whereas components of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi had no discernable activity. The structures of the active compounds were elucidated using Agilent Accurate-Mass Q-TOF LC/MS system. Preliminary analysis of structure-activity relationships indicated that, in flavonoids, a 2,3-double bond and a 3-H atom or a 3-OH group are essential for activity. In tannins, poly-hydroxyl groups are important for NO scavenging activity. Method validation indicated that the newly developed method is both reliable and repeatable. The online method that we present provides a simple, rapid and effective way to identify and characterize NO scavengers present in natural products. PMID:26607316

  19. Determination of chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostetler, K.A.; Thurman, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    Analytical methods using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) were developed for the analysis of the following chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water: alachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA); alachlor oxanilic acid; acetochlor ESA; acetochlor oxanilic acid; metolachlor ESA; and metolachlor oxanilic acid. Good precision and accuracy were demonstrated for both the HPLC-DAD and HPLC/MS methods in reagent water, surface water, and ground water. The average HPLC-DAD recoveries of the chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites from water samples spiked at 0.25, 0.5 and 2.0 ??g/l ranged from 84 to 112%, with relative standard deviations of 18% or less. The average HPLC/MS recoveries of the metabolites from water samples spiked at 0.05, 0.2 and 2.0 ??g/l ranged from 81 to 118%, with relative standard deviations of 20% or less. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for all metabolites using the HPLC-DAD method was 0.20 ??g/l, whereas the LOQ using the HPLC/MS method was at 0.05 ??g/l. These metabolite-determination methods are valuable for acquiring information about water quality and the fate and transport of the parent chloroacetanilide herbicides in water. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Characterization of constituents in Stellera chamaejasme L. by rapid-resolution liquid chromatography-diode array detection and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Lou, Zi-Yang; Zhu, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Chai, Yi-Feng

    2008-01-01

    A reliable and rapid method based on rapid-resolution liquid chromatography-diode array detection (RRLC-DAD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF/MS) has been developed for the isolation and characterization of multiple constituents in the root of Stellera chamaejasme L., which was extracted by sonication with methanol in an optimized procedure. Separation of the multiple constituents was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax XDB-C18 (50x3.0 mm i.d.; 1.8 microm) column using a gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 210 nm. Mass spectra were acquired in both positive and negative modes. A formula database of the known chemical constituents in the root of Stellera chamaejasme L. was established by an Agilent software. Twenty-two obvious peaks appeared in the total ion chromatogram and nine of them were characterized by TOF/MS. The RRLC-DAD and ESI-TOF/MS method with ultrasonic extraction would be useful for rapid and effective characterization of chemical constituents in the root of Stellera chamaejasme L. PMID:17685411

  1. Simultaneous quantitative determination of six active components in traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Cerebralcare Granule by RP-HPLC coupled with diode array detection for quality control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-yang; Ma, Xiao-hui; Li, Wei; Chu, Yang; Guo, Jia-hua; Zhou, Shui-ping; Zhu, Yong-hong

    2014-09-01

    A simple, accurate and reliable method for the simultaneous separation and determination of six active components (protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid and rosmarinic acid) in traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Cerebralcare Granule() (CG) was developed using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector detection. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypersil GOLD C18 column with aqueous formic acid (0.1%, v/v) and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min at 30 C. Because of the different UV characteristics of these components, change detection wavelength method was used for quantitative analysis. All of the analytes showed good linearity (r > 0.9992). The established method showed good precision and relative standard deviations (%) for intra-day and inter-day variations of 0.15-1.81 and 0.11-1.98%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneously determination of six active components in CG from different batches. PMID:23934038

  2. The determination of 3-nitrophenol and some other aromatic impurities in 4-nitrophenol by reversed phase HPLC with peak suppression diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Wrbel, K; Wrbel, K; Madai Colunga Urbina, E; Muoz Romero, J

    2000-03-01

    In this work the peak suppression technique is used for the determination of 3-nitrophenol and some other aromatic impurities in 4-nitrophenol by reversed phase HPLC with diode array detection. Taking into account the differences between the absorption spectra of the two compounds, two wavelengths were selected in order to obtain the maximum difference between the spectral contribution for 3-nitrophenol and to maintain a small, similar spectral contribution for 4-nitrophenol (the main compound). Then we used the wavelength corresponding to a small spectral contribution of 3-nitrophenol as the reference wavelength. It was shown that taking lambda(an) = 266 nm and lambda(ref) = 364 nm, a broad elution peak of 4-nitrophenol was suppressed deconvoluting the peak of 3-nitrophenol. Moreover, quantitation of 3-nitrophenol was achieved without chemometric tools. Under the proposed conditions the detection limits for 3-nitrophenol and other common impurities of 4-nitrophenol used in the pharmaceutical industry (4-chlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 1-chloro-2-nitrobenzene, 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene, 4,4'-bisfenilether, and 4,4'-dichloroazobenzene) were not significantly affected as compared with respective detection limits evaluated in the absence of 4-nitrophenol and using standard detection conditions (lambda(an) = 280 nm and lambda(ref) = 420 nm). PMID:10719912

  3. Development of a method for the analysis of drugs of abuse in vitreous humor by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD).

    PubMed

    Costa, Jose Luiz; Morrone, Andre Ribeiro; Resende, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Chasin, Alice Aparecida da Matta; Tavares, Marina Franco Maggi

    2014-01-15

    This work presents the development of an analytical method based on capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection for the analysis of drugs of abuse and biotransformation products in vitreous humor. Composition of the background electrolyte, implementation of an online pre-concentration strategy and sample preparation procedures were objects of study. The complete electrophoretic separation of 12 analytes (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), ketamine, cocaine, cocaethylene, lidocaine, morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine and heroin) and the internal standard N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butamine (MBDB) was obtained within 13min of run. The method was validated presenting good linearity (r(2)>0.99), recovery ≥90%, precision better than 12% RSD and acceptable accuracy in the range of 86-118% at three concentration levels (50, 100 and 500ng/mL). LODs and LOQs in the order of 1-5ng/mL and 5-10ng/mL, respectively, were obtained. After validation, the method was applied to eighty-seven vitreous humor samples and the results were compared to those obtained by a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening method, routinely used by the forensic toxicology laboratory of the Sao Paulo State Police, Brazil. Cocaine was detected in 7.1%, cocaethylene in 3.6%, lidocaine in 2.4% and ketamine in 1.2% of the total number of analyzed samples. PMID:24325829

  4. Chemical analysis of raw and processed Fructus arctii by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Kunming; Liu, Qidi; Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Lu, Tulin; Shen, Baojia; Shu, Yachun; Cai, Baochang

    2014-01-01

    Background: In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), raw and processed herbs are used to treat the different diseases. Fructus Arctii, the dried fruits of Arctium lappa l. (Compositae), is widely used in the TCM. Stir-frying is the most common processing method, which might modify the chemical compositions in Fructus Arctii. Materials and Methods: To test this hypothesis, we focused on analysis and identification of the main chemical constituents in raw and processed Fructus Arctii (PFA) by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Results: The results indicated that there was less arctiin in stir-fried materials than in raw materials. however, there were higher levels of arctigenin in stir-fried materials than in raw materials. Conclusion: We suggest that arctiin reduced significantly following the thermal conversion of arctiin to arctigenin. In conclusion, this finding may shed some light on understanding the differences in the therapeutic values of raw versus PFA in TCM. PMID:25422559

  5. Fingerprinting and simultaneous determination of alkaloids and limonins in Phellodendri amurensis cortex from different locations by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Yan, Guangli; Zhang, Aihua; Shi, Hui; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed for the quality control of Phellodendri amurensis cortex (PAC), the quality control included the simultaneous determination of seven major constituents, namely phellodendrine, magnoflorine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, berberine, obaculactone and obacunone. The chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Diamonsil-C18 column (4.6 mm × 200 mm, 5 μm) with acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid (0.02 mol sodium dihydrogen phosphate per liter) by linear gradient elution. The established method was successfully validated by acceptable linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy. The HPLC-DAD fingerprint chromatograph under 220 nm consisting of 21 peaks was constructed for the evaluation of the 11 batches of PAC. The HPLC fingerprints were analyzed by similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The results indicated that the combination of multicomponent determination method and chromatographic fingerprint analysis could be employed for the quantitative analysis and identification of PAC, as well as pharmaceutical products containing this herbal material. PMID:24872523

  6. Simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of bioactive phenols in Dendrobium aurantiacum var. denneanum by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Guangnong; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Zijia; Wang, Zhengtao; Xu, Luoshan

    2007-07-01

    A novel high-performance liquid chromatographic method with mass spectrometry and diode array detection method for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of bioactive phenols was developed. In total, nine chemically diverse phenols including five bibenzyls, three phenanthrenes and a coumarin were unambiguously identified in Dendrobium aurantiacum var. denneanum by comparison with the available references or reported data according to their retention behaviors, UV spectra and fragmentations of ESI-MS. The contents of the four main phenolic compounds, moscatilin, gigantol, moscatin and coumarin, in D. aurantiacum var. denneanum from the wild and various cultivated populations were determined by HPLC-UV. The sample preparation involved a rapid and simple procedure based on solid-phase extraction using a C(18) reversed-phase cartridge. The quantitative analysis was performed on a Beckman Coulter ODS column (5 microm, 250 x 4.6 mm) using a linear gradient elution system of acetonitrile-0.5% formic acid. The method was validated for linearity, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), precision and accuracy. Good results were obtained with respect to the overall intra- and inter-day variations (RSD less than 3.22%) and the percentage recoveries (ranging from 90.50 to 99.22%). Notable differences in the contents of phenols were observed among different cultivated populations. The samples colleted in April and May (spring), or October and November (autumn) accumulated much higher contents of phenols than those collected in other seasons. PMID:17428009

  7. Simultaneous determination of 10 active components in Baizhu Shaoyao San and its single herbs by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lijuan; Zhang, Miao; Qin, Kunming; Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Cai, Baochang

    2015-04-01

    Baizhu Shaoyao San (BSS) is a famous traditional Chinese medicinal prescription, which is composed of Rhizome atractylodis macrocephalae, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae and Radix Saposhnikovia. In this study, a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection method was established for the simultaneous determination of 10 marker compounds including atractylenolide I, gallic acid, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, narirutin, hesperidin, nobiletin, cimifugin, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin, 4'-O-?-d-glucosyl-5-O-methylvismminol in BSS and its single herbs. The chromatographic separation was performed using a YMC C18 column with a gradient elution system of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The results demonstrated that the validated method was simple, reliable and successfully applied to evaluate the selected compounds in BSS and its single herbs for quality control. Moreover, the experimental data showed that the contents of two major active components detected in BSS decoction were significantly higher than those in the single herbs, which indicated that the combination of single herbs could result in the difference in the amount of active constituents. PMID:25217704

  8. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection assay for the detection and quantification of the Beauveria metabolite oosporein from potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Seger, Christoph; Lngle, Tobias; Pernfuss, Barbara; Stuppner, Hermann; Strasser, Hermann

    2005-10-28

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) assay is described for the detection and quantification of the secreted Beauveria brongniartii metabolite oosporein from potato tubers. Analyte recovery was achieved with a Britton-Robinson buffer system at pH 5.5 diluted with methanol 3:7 (v/v) (BR5.5-MeOH). An internal standard protocol using 2-iodobenzoic acid was established to minimize analytical error. The resulting assay, using a binary solvent gradient with acidic modifiers and detecting the metabolite at 287 nm, showed a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.4 mg oosporein/kg potato tubers. The oosporein content of potato tuber samples obtained from a field trial using the biological pest control B. brongniartii formulation Melocont-Pilzgerste in up to five-fold higher doses (250 kg Melocont-Pilzgerste/ha) as recommended per year was found to be below the established LOD. PMID:16199235

  9. Analysis of alkylamides in Echinacea plant materials and dietary supplements by ultrafast liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Elizabeth; Lopes-Lutz, Daise; Brown, Paula; Schieber, Andreas

    2011-08-10

    Alkylamides are a class of compounds present in plants of the genus Echinacea (Asteraceae), which have been shown to have high bioavailability and immunomodulatory effects. Fast analysis to identify these components in a variety of products is essential to profile products used in clinical trials and for quality control of these products. A method based on ultrafast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of alkylamides from the roots of Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, and commercial dietary supplements. A total of 24 alkylamides were identified by LC-MS. The analysis time for these components is 15 min. Compared to the alkylamide profiles determined in the Echinacea root materials, the commercial products showed a more complex profile due to the blending of root and aerial parts of E. purpurea. This versatile method allows for the identification of alkylamides in a variety of Echinacea products and presents the most extensive characterization of alkylamides in E. angustifolia roots so far. PMID:21702479

  10. A simple and robust high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode-array detector method for the analysis of genistein in mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Tamames-Tabar, C; Imbuluzqueta, E; Campanero, M A; Horcajada, P; Blanco-Prieto, M J

    2013-09-15

    A simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled to a diode-array detector (DAD) of genistein (GEN) was developed in various mouse biological matrices. 7-ethoxycoumarin was used as internal standard (IS) and peaks were optimally separated using a Kinetex C18 column (2.6?m, 150mm2.10mm I.D.) at 40C with an isocratic elution of mobile phase with sodium dihydrogen phosphate 0.01M in water at pH 2.5 and methanol (55:45, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.25mL/min. The injection volume was 10?L. In all cases, the range of GEN recovery was higher than 61%. The low limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 25ng/mL. The linearity of the calibration curves was satisfactory in all cases as shown by correlation coefficients >0.996. The within-day and between-day precisions were <15% and the accuracy ranged in all cases between 90.14% and 106.05%. This method was successfully applied to quantify GEN in liver, spleen, kidney and plasma after intravenous administration of a single dose (30mg/kg) in female BALB/C mice. PMID:23939202

  11. Determination of atrazine and simazine in environmental water samples using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as the adsorbents for preconcentration prior to high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Xiao, Junping; Wang, Weidong; Liu, Guoguang; Shi, Qizeng; Wang, Jianhong

    2006-02-15

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes, a new nanoscale material, has been gained many interests for use in various fields, and has exhibited exceptional merit as SPE absorbents for enrichment of environmental pollutants. This paper focused on the enriching power of atrazine and simazine, two important widely used triazine herbicides and described a novel and sensitive method for determination of these two herbicides based on SPE using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as solid phase absorbents followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector. Factors that maybe affect the enrichment efficiency of multiwalled carbon nanotubes such as the volume of eluent, sample flow rate, sample pH, and volume of the water samples were optimized. Under the optimal procedures, multiwalled carbon nanotubes as the absorbents have obtained excellent enrichment efficiency for atrazine and simazine. The detection limits of the atrazine and simazine were 33 and 9ngl(-1), respectively. The spiked recoveries of the two analytes were over the range of 82.6-103.7% in most cases. Good analytical performance was achieved from real-world water samples such as river water, reservoir water, tap water and wastewater after primary pretreatment with proposed method. All these experimental results indicated that the developed method could be used as an alternative for the routine analysis of atrazine and simazine in many real water samples. PMID:18970465

  12. Ultrasound-assisted dispersive extraction for the high pressure liquid chromatographic determination of tetracyclines residues in milk with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Karageorgou, Eftichia; Armeni, Marina; Moschou, Ioulia; Samanidou, Victoria

    2014-05-01

    Ultrasound assisted matrix solid phase dispersive extraction was applied for the selective isolation and clean-up of tetracyclines (oxytetracycline, tetracycline, epi-chlorotetracycline, chlorotetracycline and doxycycline) from milk. Target analytes were determined by an accurate and sensitive chromatographic analytical method, which was validated to meet the European Legislation criteria. The separation was performed on a LiChroCART-LiChrospher 100 RP-18 (5?m, 2504mm) analytical column, operated at ambient temperature, followed by diode array detection. Validation included investigation of linearity, selectivity, stability, limits of detection and quantitation, decision limit, detection capability, trueness, precision and ruggedness according to the Youden's approach. Limits of quantitation of examined tetracyclines were from 14.5 to 56.6?g/kg significantly lower than respective Maximum Residue Limits, whereas recoveries ranged from 82.0% to 108%. The applicability of the method was evaluated using milk samples purchased from local market. Accuracy of the method was additionally proved by analysis of bovine milk certified reference material (BCR-492). PMID:24360458

  13. Using frequency-narrowed, tunable laser diode arrays with integrated volume holographic gratings for spin-exchange optical pumping at high resonant fluxes and xenon densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, N.; Nikolaou, P.; Eschmann, N. A.; Barlow, M. J.; Lammert, R.; Ungar, J.; Hu, W.; Vaissie, L.; Goodson, B. M.

    2012-03-01

    Next-generation laser diode arrays with integrated `on-chip' volume holographic gratings can provide high power with spectrally narrowed output that can be tuned about the rubidium D1 linewithout causing significant changes to the laser's flux or spectral profile. These properties were exploited to independently evaluate the effects of varying the laser centroid wavelength and power on batch-mode Rb/129Xe spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) as functions of xenon partial pressure and cell temperature. Locally optimized SEOP was often achieved with the laser tuned to either the red or blue side of the Rb D1 line; global optimization of SEOP was observed at lower cell temperatures and followed the D1 absorption profile, which was asymmetrically broadened and red-shifted from the nominal wavelength. The complex dependence of the optimal wavelength for laser excitation on the cell temperature and Xe density appears to result from an interplay between cell illumination and the Rb/129Xe spin-exchange rate, as well as [Xe]cell-dependent changes to the Rb absorption lineshape that are in qualitative agreement with expectations based on previous work [Romalis et al., Phys. Rev. A, 56:4569-4578, (1997)], but significantly greater in magnitude. These next-generation lasers provide a 2-3-fold improvement in 129Xe polarization compared to conventional broadband lasers.

  14. Detection of hazardous weight-loss substances in adulterated slimming formulations using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode-array detection.

    PubMed

    Rebiere, H; Guinot, P; Civade, C; Bonnet, P-A; Nicolas, A

    2012-01-01

    The presence on the market of illegal products for slimming purposes or the treatment of overweight is a public health issue. These products may contain illicit chemicals in order to improve their effectiveness. Some of these weight-loss compounds are responsible for adverse events, including fatal outcomes. A general strategy for the analysis of any suspect formulation begins with a large screening for the general search of a wide range of compounds. A methodology for the qualitative and quantitative determination of 34 compounds in slimming preparations (such as dietary supplements or medicinal products) was used for the control of slimming formulations from the market, including over the Internet. The fast liquid chromatography system (ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography) used a gradient of solvent (phosphate buffer and acetonitrile), a C18 endcapped column and a diode array detector. This system allows dual identification based on retention time and UV spectra. The analytical method is simple, fast and selective since 34 weight-loss compounds can be detected in a 15-min run time. Thus, 32 commercial slimming formulations were analysed using this method, allowing the detection and quantification of hazardous active substances: caffeine, clenbuterol, nicotinamide, phenolphthalein, rimonabant, sibutramine, didesmethylsibutramine, synephrine and yohimbine. PMID:22150438

  15. Multi-section core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array.

    PubMed

    Tu, Charng-Gan; Yao, Yu-Feng; Liao, Che-Hao; Su, Chia-Ying; Hsieh, Chieh; Weng, Chi-Ming; Lin, Chun-Han; Chen, Hao-Tsung; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C C

    2015-08-24

    The growth of a two-section, core-shell, InGaN/GaN quantum-well (QW) nanorod- (NR-) array light-emitting diode device based on a pulsed growth technique with metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. A two-section n-GaN NR is grown through a tapering process for forming two uniform NR sections of different cross-sectional sizes. The cathodoluminescence (CL), photoluminescence (PL), and electrolumines-cence (EL) characterization results of the two-section NR structure are compared with those of a single-section NR sample, which is prepared under the similar condition to that for the first uniform NR section of the two-section sample. All the CL, PL, and EL spectra of the two-section sample (peaked between 520 and 525 nm) are red-shifted from those of the single-section sample (peaked around 490 nm) by >30 nm in wavelength. Also, the emitted spectral widths of the two-section sample become significantly larger than their counterparts of the single-section sample. The PL spectral full-width at half-maximum increases from ~37 to ~61 nm. Such variations are attributed to the higher indium incorporation in the sidewall QWs of the two-section sample due to the stronger strain relaxation in an NR section of a smaller cross-sectional size and the more constituent atom supply from the larger gap volume between neighboring NRs. PMID:26368168

  16. Identification and analysis of the constituents in an aqueous extract of Tricholoma matsutake by HPLC coupled with diode array detection/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xuhui; Ma, Jinfang; Liang, Qionglin; Wang, Yiming; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guoan

    2013-08-01

    The main constituents in an aqueous extract of Tricholoma matsutake (Tm) were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/TOF-MS) and ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/Trap-MSn). The main factors in the extraction process which affect the yields of nutrients were optimized by single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiment design. In total, 12 constituents were identified from the aqueous extract of Tm, including tyrosine, cytidine, uridine, eritadenine, phenylalanine, nicotinamide, inosine, guanosine, tryptophan, adenosine, 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine and riboflavin. The optimized extraction conditions were: the ratio of water to sample was 10:1 (v/w), Tm was extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction for 10min, followed by water bath heating at 60C for 1h. Among these extraction factors, the heating temperature is significant based on analysis of variance (ANOVA). The yields of nutrients were affected dramatically at high temperature leading to the loss of nutrients, especially for nucleosides and some amino acids. PMID:23957403

  17. Ionic liquids for improving the extraction of NSAIDs in water samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Neira, Carla; lvarez-Lueje, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    A rapid, sensitive and efficient analytical method based on the use of ionic liquids for determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in water samples was developed. High-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a diode array and fluorescence detector was used for quantification of ketoprofen, ibuprofen and diclofenac in tap and river water samples. This new method relies on the use of two ionic liquids with multiple functionalities: one functions as an extraction solvent (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]), and the other changes the polarity in the aqueous medium (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, ([BMIM][BF4]). Factors such as the type and volume of the ILs and dispersive solvent, sample volume, and centrifugation time were investigated and optimized. The optimized method exhibited good precision, with relative standard deviation values between 2% and 3%, for the three NSAIDs. Limits of detection achieved for all of the analytes were between 17 and 95 ng mL(-1), and the recoveries ranged from 89% to 103%. Furthermore, the enrichment factors ranged from 49 to 57. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of NSAIDs in tap and river water samples. PMID:25618715

  18. Selective microextraction of mononucleotides from milk using alumina and stannia hollow fibers prior to their determination by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Sfakianaki, A G; Stalikas, C D

    2015-10-01

    Alumina- and stannia-based hollow fibers were synthesized via simple sol-gel procedures and characterized with respect to morphology, crystalline phase and specific surface area. Then, an optimization study was undertaken for the preconcentration of five 5'-mononucleotides using the hollow fibers. The separation and quantification of the analytes were carried out by HILIC with diode array detection, after proper optimization of the chromatographic conditions. The method demonstrated satisfactory linearities over a concentration range of 0.09-50 μg mL(-1) with regression coefficients to range from 0.9993 to 0.9997. A range of commercially available 5'-mononucleotide supplemented infant formulas and three human breast milk samples were used to apply alumina hollow fibers, as a proof of concept. Recoveries ranged from 84% to 104%, while the calculated RSDs were from 3.6% to 4.3%. The proposed preconcentration-clean-up method is environmentally friendly and convenient, indicating that alumina and stannia are suitable for the applications by immersing them into milk samples, after removal of proteins. PMID:25872443

  19. Degradation of the Adhesive Properties of MD-944 Diode Tape by Simulated Low Earth Orbit Environmental Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albyn, K.; Finckenor, M.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) solar arrays utilize MD-944 diode tape with silicone pressure-sensitive adhesive to protect the underlying diodes and also provide a high-emittance surface. On-orbit, the silicone adhesive will be exposed and ultimately convert to a glass-like silicate due to atomic oxygen (AO). The current operational plan is to retract ISS solar array P6 and leave it stored under load for a long duration (6 mo or more). The exposed silicone adhesive must not cause the solar array to stick to itself or cause the solar array to fail during redeployment. The Environmental Effects Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center, under direction from the ISS Program Office Environments Team, performed simulated space environment exposures with 5-eV AO, near ultraviolet radiation and ionizing radiation. The exposed diode tape samples were put under preload and then the resulting blocking force was measured using a tensile test machine. Test results indicate that high-energy AO, ultraviolet radiation, and electron ionizing radiation exposure all reduce the blocking force for a silicone-to-silicone bond. AO exposure produces the most significant reduction in blocking force

  20. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of anthraquinones in rhubarbs by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shao-yin; Yao, Wen-xin; Ji, Wen-yuan; Wei, Jia-qi; Peng, Shi-qi

    2013-12-01

    Rhubarb is well known in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) mainly due to its effective purgative activity. Anthraquinones, including anthraquinone derivatives and their glycosides, are thought to be the major active components in rhubarb. To improve the quality control method of rhubarb, we studied on the extraction method, and did qualitative and quantitative analysis of widely used rhubarbs, Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. and Rheum palmatum L., by HPLC-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-mass spectrum (HPLC-MS) on a Waters SymmetryShield RP18 column (250 mm 4.6 mm i.d., 5 ?m). Amount of five anthraquinones was viewed as the evaluating standard. A standardized characteristic fingerprint of rhubarb was provided. From the quantitative analysis, the rationality was demonstrated for ancestors to use these two species of rhubarb equally. Under modern extraction methods, the amount of five anthraquinones in Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. is higher than that in Rheum palmatum L. Among various extraction methods, ultrasonication with 70% methanol for 30 min is a promising one. For HPLC analysis, mobile phase consisted of methanol and 0.1% phosphoric acid in water with a gradient program, the detection wavelength at 280nm for fingerprinting analysis and 254 nm for quantitative analysis are good choices. PMID:23870882

  1. Controlling the properties of electrodeposited ZnO nanowire arrays for light emitting diode, photodetector and gas sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauport, T.; Lupan, Oleg; Viana, Bruno; Chow, Lee; Tchernycheva, Maria

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical deposition (ECD) is a versatile technique for the preparation of ZnO nanowires (NWs) and nanorods (NRs) with high structural and optical quality. The bandgap of the ZnO NWs can be engineered by doping. Depending on the doping cation and concentration, the bandgap is increased or decreased in a controlled manner. The NW arrays have been grown on various substrates. The epitaxial growth on single-crystal conducting substrates has been demonstrated. By using p-type GaN layers, heterostructures have been fabricated with a high rectifying electrical behavior. They have been integrated in low-voltage LEDs emitting in the UV or in the visible region depending on the NW composition. For visible-blind UV-photodetector application, ZnO NW ensembles, electrochemically grown on F:SnO2, have been contacted on their top with a transparent graphene sheet. The photodetector had a responsivity larger than 104 A/W at 1V in the near-UV range. ECD ZnO NWs have also been isolated and electrically connected on their both ends by Al contacts. The obtained nanodevice, made of an individual NW, was shown to be a H2 gas sensor with a high selectivity and sensitivity. Moreover, it was shown that Cd-doping of ZnO NWs significantly improved the performance of the sensor.

  2. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin; Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun

    2015-11-01

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%.

  3. Simultaneous determination of 11 active components in two well-known traditional Chinese medicines by HPLC coupled with diode array detection for quality control.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lianhong; Lu, Binan; Qi, Yan; Xu, Lina; Han, Xu; Xu, Youwei; Peng, Jinyong; Sun, Changkai

    2009-05-01

    A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was investigated for simultaneous determination of 11 components (chlorogenic acid, coptisine, epiberberine, jatrorrhizine, berberine, palmatine, baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin and chrysin) in Qinhuanghouzheng (QHHZ) capsule and Xiaoerqingre (XEQR) tablet, for quality control of these two well-known traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). The method was established using an Eclipse Plus C(18) (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm) column. The mobile phase comprising methanol (A) 3% phosphoric acid (B) (pH 2.0, adjusted by triethylamine) was used to elute the targets in gradient elution mode. Flow rate and detection wavelength were set at 0.8 mL/min and 270 nm, respectively. All calibration curves showed good linearity with R(2) > 0.9995. Inter- and intra-day precisions for all investigated components expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) ranged from 0.26% to 1.77%. Recoveries measured at three concentrations were in the range of 95.0-103.0% with R.S.D. < or = 3%. The validated method is simple, reliable, and successfully applied to determine the contents of the selected compounds in QHHZ capsule and XEQR tablet for quality evaluation and control. The 11 main active marker compounds measured occur only in 2 or 3 plant species out of 7-10 species comprising the two TCMs. Additional procedures need to be developed for the quality control of plant materials other than Coptis chinensis Franch, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Phellodendron amurense Rupr. PMID:19264437

  4. Determination of small halogenated carboxylic acid residues in drug substances by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection following derivatization with nitro-substituted phenylhydrazines.

    PubMed

    Hou, Desheng; Fan, Jingjing; Han, Lingfei; Ruan, Xiaoling; Feng, Feng; Liu, Wenyuan; Zheng, Feng

    2016-03-18

    A method for the determination of small halogenated carboxylic acid (HCA) residues in drug substances is urgently needed because of the potential of HCAs for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity in humans. We have now developed a simple method, involving derivatization followed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), for the determination of six likely residual HCAs (monochloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, 2-chloropropionic acid, 2-bromopropionic acid and 3-chloropropionic acid) in drug substances. Different nitro-substituted phenylhydrazines (NPHs) derivatization reagents were systematically compared and evaluated. 2-Nitrophenylhydrazine hydrochloride (2-NPH·HCl) was selected as the most suitable choice since its derivatives absorb strongly at 392nm, a region of the spectrum where most drug substances and impurities absorb very weakly. During the derivatization process, the commonly used catalyst, pyridine, caused rapid dechlorination or chlorine substitution of α-halogenated derivatives. To avoid these unwanted side reactions, a reliable derivatization method that did not use pyridine was developed. Reaction with 2-NPH·HCl using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride as coupling agent in acetonitrile-water (70:30) at room temperature for 2h gave complete reaction and avoided degradation products. The derivatives were analyzed, without any pretreatment, using gradient HPLC with detection in the near visible region. Organic acids commonly found in drug substances and other impurities did not interfere with the analysis. Good linearity (r>0.999) and low limits of quantitation (0.05-0.12μgmL(-1)) were obtained. The mean recoveries were in the range of 80-115% with RSD <5.81% except for 3-CPA in ibuprofen which was 78.5%. The intra- and inter-day precisons were expressed as RSD <1.98% and <4.39%, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used for the residue determination of the six HCAs in eight drug substance samples. PMID:26893023

  5. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun-Lun; Ren, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Xian-Bin; Zhang, Si-Qun; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Dan, Jia-Kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-Chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-Ping; Deng, Jian-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%. PMID:26628136

  6. Gradient HPLC-diode array detector stability-indicating determination of lidocaine hydrochloride and cetylpyridinium chloride in two combined oral gel dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Belal, Tarek S; Shaalan, Rasha A; Haggag, Rim S

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and selective HPLC-diode array detector method was developed for the simultaneous determination of lidocaine hydrochloride (LD) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in two combined pharmaceutical formulations. Effective chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax SB-C8 (4.6 x 250 mm, 5 microm particle size) column with gradient elution using a mobile phase composed of 0.05 M phosphoric acid and acetonitrile. The gradient elution started with 25% (v/v) acetonitrile, ramped up linearly to 85% in 5 min, and then was constant until the end of the run. The mobile phase was pumped at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. The multiple wavelength detector was set at 214 and 258 nm, and quantification of the analytes was based on measuring their peak areas. The retention times for LD and CPC were about 3.4 and 7.3 min, respectively. The reliability and analytical performance of the proposed HPLC procedure were statistically validated with respect to linearity, range, precision, accuracy, selectivity, robustness, LOD, and LOQ. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 5-200 and 10-400 microg/mL for LD and CPC, respectively, with correlation coefficients > 0.999. The proposed method was proven to be stability-indicating by the resolution of the two analytes from the related substance and potential impurity (2,6-dimethylaniline) as well as from forced-degradation products. The validated HPLC method was extended to the analysis of LD and CPC in two combined oral gel preparations for which the two analytes were successfully resolved from the pharmaceutical adjuvants and quantified with recoveries not less than 97.9%. PMID:21563684

  7. Separation and quantification of 15 carotenoids by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection with isosbestic wavelength approach.

    PubMed

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Vincent, Ursula; von Holst, Christoph

    2012-04-13

    The manuscript presents the development of a new reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) photo diode array detection method allowing the separation and quantification of 15 carotenoids (adonirubin, adonixanthin, astaxanthin, astaxanthin dimethyl disuccinate, asteroidenone, beta-apo-8'-carotenal, beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester, beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, capsanthin, citranaxanthin, echinenone, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin), 10 of which are feed additives authorised within the European Union. The developed method allows for the reliable determination of the total carotenoid content in one run using the corresponding E-isomer as calibration standard while taking into account the E/Z-isomers composition. This is a key criterion for the application of the method, since for most of the analytes included in this study analytical standards are only available for the E-isomers. This goal was achieved by applying the isosbestic concept, in order to identify specific wavelengths, at which the absorption coefficients are identical for all stereoisomers concerned. The second target referred to the optimisation of the LC conditions. By means of an experimental design, an optimised RP-HPLC method was developed allowing for a sufficient chromatographic separation of all carotenoids. The selected method uses a Suplex pKb-100 HPLC column and applying a gradient with a mixture of acetonitrile, tert-butyl-methyl ether and water as mobile phases. The limits of detection and limits of quantification ranged from 0.06 mg L(-1) to 0.14 mg L(-1) and from 0.20 mg L(-1) to 0.48 mg L(-1), respectively. PMID:22377469

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Marcetia DC species (Melastomataceae) and analysis of its flavonoids by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Tonny Cley Campos; de Sena, Amanda Reges; dos Santos Silva, Tnia Regina; dos Santos, Andrea Karla Almeida; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Branco, Alexsandro

    2012-01-01

    Background: Marcetia genera currently comprises 29 species, with approximately 90% inhabiting Bahia (Brazil), and most are endemic to the highlands of the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia). Among the species, only M. taxifolia (A.St.-Hil.) DC. populates Brazil (state of Roraima to Paran) and also Venezuela, Colombia, and Guyana. Objective: This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of three species of Marcetia (Marcetia canescens Naud., M. macrophylla Wurdack, and M. taxifolia A.StHil) against several microorganism. In addition, the flavonoids were analyzed in extracts by HPLC-DAD. Materials and methods: The tests were made using Gram-positive (three strains of Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (two strains of Escherichia coli, a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another of Salmonella choleraesius) bacteria resistant and nonresistant to antibiotics and yeasts (two strains of Candida albicans and one of C. parapsilosis) by the disk diffusion method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed on the above extracts to isolate flavonoids, which were subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Results: Results showed that extracts inhibited the Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. The hexane extracts possessed the lowest activity, while the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts were more active. Conclusion: Marcetia taxifolia was more effective (active against 10 microorganisms studied), and only its methanol extract inhibited Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesius). SPE and HPLC-DAD analysis showed that M. canescens and M. macrophylla contain glycosylated flavonoids, while the majority of extracts from M. taxifolia were aglycone flavonoids. PMID:23060695

  9. Fast Gradient Elution Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection as a High-throughput Screening Method for Drugs of Abuse II. Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Sarah E. G.; Stoll, Dwight R.; Paek, Changyub; Rutan, Sarah C.; Carr, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    In Part I of this work, we developed a method for the detection of drugs of abuse in biological samples based on fast gradient elution liquid-chromatography coupled with diode array spectroscopic detection (LC-DAD). In this part of the work, we apply the chemometric method of target factor analysis (TFA) to the chromatograms. This algorithm identifies the target compounds present in chromatograms based on a spectral library, resolves nearly co-eluting components, and differentiates between drugs with similar spectra. The ability to resolve highly overlapped peaks using the spectral data afforded by the DAD is what distinguishes the present method from conventional library searching methods. Our library has a mean list length of 1.255 and a discriminating power of 0.997 when both retention index and spectral factors are considered. The algorithm compares a library of 47 different compounds of toxicological relevance to unknown samples and identifies which compounds are present based on spectral and retention index matching. The application of a corrected retention index for identification rather than raw retention times compensates for long-term and column-to-column retention time shifts and allows for the use of a single library of spectral and retention data. Training data sets were used to establish the search and identification parameters of the method. A validation data set of 70 chromatograms was used to calculate the sensitivity (correct identification of positives) and specificity (correct identification of negatives) of the method, which were found to be 92 % and 94% respectively. PMID:17070534

  10. Determination of piperazine-type stimulants in human urine by means of microextraction in packed sorbent and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Moreno, I E D; da Fonseca, B M; Barroso, M; Costa, S; Queiroz, J A; Gallardo, E

    2012-03-01

    A method using microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) is described for the determination of piperazine-type stimulants in human urine. The studied compounds were 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP), 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine (mCPP) and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl) piperazine (MeOPP); 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-piperazine (oCPP) was used as internal standard (IS). The factors which might influence the extraction were screened previously using the fractional factorial design approach, and none of them influenced significantly the process. The procedure was linear for concentrations ranging from 0.1 (lower limit of quantitation--LLOQ) to 5 ?g/mL, with determination coefficients (R(2)) higher than 0.99 for all analytes in all runs. The limits of detection were 0.1 ?g/mL for BZP and TFMPP, while for MeOPP and mCPP 0.05 ?g/mL was obtained. Intra- and interday precision ranged from 1 to 14%, and accuracy was within a 15% interval for all analytes, fulfilling the criteria normally accepted in bioanalytical method validation. Under the optimized conditions, extraction efficiency was higher than 80% for all analytes, except BZP (50%). MEPS showed to be a rapid (<2 min) and simple procedure for the determination of piperazine-type stimulants in human urine, allowing reducing the handling time and costs usually associated to this type of analysis. Furthermore, the fact that only 0.1 mL of sample is required make this method a valuable and powerful tool for drug monitoring in human urine in situations where those compounds are involved, for instance in forensic scenarios. PMID:22221903

  11. Development of a rapid resolution liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the determination of three compounds in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam from different origins of Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuge; Yu, Qian; Wang, Dongdong; Upur, Halmuart

    2012-01-01

    Context: As a traditional Uygur medicinal plant, Z. clinopodioides Lam has various uses in Xinjiang. Aims: A reversed-phase rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RP-RRLC) method with diode array detector (DAD) was developed for simultaneous determination of diosmin, linarin, and pulegone from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam, a widely used in traditional Uygur medicine for treating heart disease, high blood pressure, and other diseases. Settings and Design: Compounds were separated on a XDB-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 1.8 μm) with gradient elution using methanol and 1% aqueous acetic acid (v/v) at 0.9 mL/min. he detection wavelength was set at 270 nm. Materials and Methods: Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. were collected from ten different origins in Xinjiang, including the Ban fang ditch, Tuoli, the Altay mountains, Terks, Xiata Road, Zhaosu Highway, Guozigou, Fukang, Jimsar, Wulabo. Statistical Analysis Used: The intra-day and inter-day precisions of all three compounds were less than 0.89% and the average recoveries ranged from 97.4 to 104.1%. There were highly significant linear correlations between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of three active components in Z. clinopodioides Lam. samples from different locations in Xinjiang. Conclusions: The proposed method is simple, consistent, accurate, and could be utilized as a quality control method for Z. clinopodioides Lam. PMID:24082631

  12. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds in abnormal savda munziq decoction

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Given the high-effectiveness and low-toxicity of abnormal savda munziq (ASMQ), its herbal formulation has long been used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Settings and Design: ASMQ decoction by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector was successfully developed for the simultaneous quality assessment of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin. The six phenolic compounds were separated on an Agilent TC-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) by gradient elution using 0.3% aqueous formic acid (v/v) and 0.3% methanol formic acid (v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. Materials and Methods: The plant material was separately ground and mixed at the following ratios (10): Cordia dichotoma (10.6), Anchusa italic (10.6), Euphorbia humifusa (4.9), Adiantum capillus-veneris (4.9), Ziziphus jujube (4.9), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (7.1), Foeniculum vulgare (4.9), Lavandula angustifolia (4.9), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (4.9), and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (42.3). Statistical Analysis Used: The precisions of all six compounds were <0.60%, and the average recoveries ranged from 99.39% to 104.85%. Highly significant linear correlations were found between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of six active components in ASMQ. Conclusions: Given the simplicity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the method, it can be utilized as a quality control approach to simultaneously determining the six phenolic compounds in AMSQ. PMID:25709227

  13. Determination of 13 synthetic food colorants in water-soluble foods by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector.

    PubMed

    Minioti, Katerina S; Sakellariou, Christina F; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2007-01-30

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the successful separation and determination of 13 synthetic food colorants (Tartrazine E 102, Quinoline Yellow E 104, Sunset Yellow E 110, Carmoisine E 122, Amaranth E 123, Ponceau 4R E 124, Erythrosine E 127, Red 2G E 128, Allura Red AC E 129, Patent Blue V E 131, Indigo Carmine E 132, Brilliant Blue FCF E 133 and Green S E 142) was developed. A C18 stationary phase was used and the mobile phase contained an acetonitrile-methanol (20:80 v/v) mixture and a 1% (m/v) ammonium acetate buffer solution at pH 7.5. Successful separation was obtained for all the compounds using an optimized gradient elution within 29 min. The diode-array detector was used to monitor the colorants between 350 and 800 nm. The method was thoroughly validated. Detection limits for all substances varied between 1.59 (E 142) and 22.1 (E 124) microg L(-1). The intra-day precision (as R.S.D.(r)) ranged from 0.37% (E 122 in fruit flavored drink at a concentration of 100 mg L(-1)) to 4.8% (E 142 in icing sugar at a level of 0.9 mg kg(-1)). The inter-day precision (as R.S.D.(R)) was between 0.86% for E 122 in fruit flavored drink at 100 mg L(-1) and 10% for E142 in jam at a concentration of 9 mg kg(-1). Satisfactory recoveries, ranging from 94% (E 142 in jam) to 102% (E 131 in sweets), were obtained. The method was applied to the determination of colorants in various water-soluble foods, such as fruit flavoured drinks, alcoholic drinks, jams, sugar confectionery and sweets, with simple pre-treatment (dilution or water extraction). PMID:17386533

  14. Fast extraction of amphenicols residues from raw milk using novel fabric phase sorptive extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Samanidou, Victoria; Galanopoulos, Lavrentis-Demetrios; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2015-01-15

    A simple, sensitive, reliable, and fast analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of amphenicols residues in raw milk by combining fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. FPSE, a new generation green sample preparation technique, efficiently incorporates the advanced and tunable material properties of sol-gel derived microextraction sorbents with the rich surface chemistry of a cellulose fabric substrate, resulting in a flexible, highly sensitive, and fast microextraction device capable of extracting target analytes directly from complicated sample matrices. Due to the strong chemical bonding between the sol-gel sorbent and substrate, the microextraction device demonstrates a very high chemical and solvent stability. Therefore, any organic solvent/solvent mixture can be used as the eluent/back-extraction solvent. Herein, a highly polar polymer coated FPSE media was created using short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and the applicability of this novel microextraction device to extract highly polar amphenicol antibiotics from raw milk was investigated. Due to the intense affinity of amphenicols towards the strongly polar sol-gel PEG-coated FPSE device, absolute recovery of the selected antibiotics residues were found to be 44% for thiamphenicol, 66.4% for florfenicol, and 81.4% for chloramphenicol. The developed method was validated in terms of sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and selectivity according to European Decision 657/2002/EC. Decision limit (CC?) values were 52.49 ?g kg(-1) for thiamphenicol, 55.23 ?g kg(-1) for florfenicol, and 53.8 ?g kg(-1) for chloramphenicol, while the corresponding results for detection capability (CC?) were 56.8 ?g kg(-1), 58.99 ?g kg(-1), and 55.9 ?g kg(-1), respectively. PMID:25542088

  15. An elegant route to overcome fundamentally-limited light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: Preferential outcoupling of strong in-plane emission

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Dong Yeong; Park, Jun Hyuk; Schubert, E. Fred; Kim, Jungsub; Lee, Jinsub; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Youngsoo; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    While there is an urgent need for semiconductor-based efficient deep ultraviolet (DUV) sources, the efficiency of AlGaN DUV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) remains very low because the extraction of DUV photons is significantly limited by intrinsic material properties of AlGaN. Here, we present an elegant approach based on a DUV LED having multiple mesa stripes whose inclined sidewalls are covered by a MgF2/Al omni-directional mirror to take advantage of the strongly anisotropic transverse-magnetic polarized emission pattern of AlGaN quantum wells. The sidewall-emission-enhanced DUV LED breaks through the fundamental limitations caused by the intrinsic properties of AlGaN, thus shows a remarkable improvement in light extraction as well as operating voltage. Furthermore, an analytic model is developed to understand and precisely estimate the extraction of DUV photons from AlGaN DUV LEDs, and hence to provide promising routes for maximizing the power conversion efficiency. PMID:26935402

  16. Realization of 340-nm-Band High-Output-Power (>7 mW) InAlGaN Quantum Well Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode with p-Type InAlGaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Sachie; Takano, Takayoshi; Kondo, Yukihiro; Hirayama, Hideki

    2008-04-01

    We have demonstrated 340-nm-band high-output-power InAlGaN quantum well (QW) ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) under room temperature (RT) continuous wave (CW) operation, which were deposited on sapphire (0001) substrates by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). The high-output-power UV LEDs were achieved by introducing p-type InAlGaN layers in order to obtain a high hole concentration and by optimizing the band lineup to suppress electron overflow. The output power of a UV-LED with p-InAlGaN layers was about 4.7 times larger than that of an equivalent structure containing p-AlGaN. We obtained a significant increase in output power by controlling the barrier height of the electron-blocking layer (EBL) and the depth of the quantum wells. We also obtained a marked increase in UV output power by introducing a low-threading-dislocation-density (TDD) AlN buffer layer. The maximum output power and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of LEDs containing p-InAlGaN layers were 8.4 mW and 0.9%, respectively, at an emission wavelength of 346 nm under room temperature (RT) CW operation.

  17. An elegant route to overcome fundamentally-limited light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: Preferential outcoupling of strong in-plane emission.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Dong Yeong; Park, Jun Hyuk; Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jungsub; Lee, Jinsub; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Youngsoo; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    While there is an urgent need for semiconductor-based efficient deep ultraviolet (DUV) sources, the efficiency of AlGaN DUV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) remains very low because the extraction of DUV photons is significantly limited by intrinsic material properties of AlGaN. Here, we present an elegant approach based on a DUV LED having multiple mesa stripes whose inclined sidewalls are covered by a MgF2/Al omni-directional mirror to take advantage of the strongly anisotropic transverse-magnetic polarized emission pattern of AlGaN quantum wells. The sidewall-emission-enhanced DUV LED breaks through the fundamental limitations caused by the intrinsic properties of AlGaN, thus shows a remarkable improvement in light extraction as well as operating voltage. Furthermore, an analytic model is developed to understand and precisely estimate the extraction of DUV photons from AlGaN DUV LEDs, and hence to provide promising routes for maximizing the power conversion efficiency. PMID:26935402

  18. An elegant route to overcome fundamentally-limited light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: Preferential outcoupling of strong in-plane emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Dong Yeong; Park, Jun Hyuk; Schubert, E. Fred; Kim, Jungsub; Lee, Jinsub; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Youngsoo; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2016-03-01

    While there is an urgent need for semiconductor-based efficient deep ultraviolet (DUV) sources, the efficiency of AlGaN DUV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) remains very low because the extraction of DUV photons is significantly limited by intrinsic material properties of AlGaN. Here, we present an elegant approach based on a DUV LED having multiple mesa stripes whose inclined sidewalls are covered by a MgF2/Al omni-directional mirror to take advantage of the strongly anisotropic transverse-magnetic polarized emission pattern of AlGaN quantum wells. The sidewall-emission-enhanced DUV LED breaks through the fundamental limitations caused by the intrinsic properties of AlGaN, thus shows a remarkable improvement in light extraction as well as operating voltage. Furthermore, an analytic model is developed to understand and precisely estimate the extraction of DUV photons from AlGaN DUV LEDs, and hence to provide promising routes for maximizing the power conversion efficiency.

  19. BIN Diode For Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, J.

    1989-01-01

    Diode formed by selective doping during epitaxial growth, starting with semi-insulating substrate. Use of high-mobility semiconductors like GaAs extends cutoff frequency. Either molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) or organometallic chemical-vapor deposition used to form layers of diode. Planar growth process permits subsequent fabrication of arrays of diodes by standard photolithographic techniques, to achieve quasi-optical coupling of submillimeter radiation. Useful for generation of harmonics or heterodyne mixing in receivers for atmospheric and space spectroscopy operating at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Used as frequency doublers or triplers, diodes of new type extend frequency range of present solid-state oscillators.

  20. An on-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-electrospray ionization-ion-trap-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry-total antioxidant capacity detection system applying two antioxidant methods for activity evaluation of the edible flowers from Prunus mume.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxia; Lin, Zongtao; Fang, Jinggui; Liu, Meixian; Niu, Yanyan; Chen, Shizhong; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    An on-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-electrospray ionization-ion-trap-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry-total antioxidant capacity detection (HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS-TACD) system was created for identification and evaluation of antioxidants in Prunus (P.) mume flowers. Applying this system, the HPLC fingerprint, ultraviolet (UV) spectra, mass fragmentations, active profiles against 1,1-diphenylpicryl-2-hydrazyl radical (DPPH•) scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of each complex sample were obtained simultaneously after one injection. Synchronous structure identification and activities screening of complex samples were thus accomplished. In this study, 78 compounds were identified from P. mume flowers by their chromatographic behaviors, UV spectra and MS data with the assistance of standard compounds and literature reports. The DPPH and FRAP activity of 24 samples (23 different P. mume varieties and 1 related herbal medicine) were then quantified by their detailed activity profiles from the on-line system, and by the total activity of each sample extract from off-line 96-well plate method. As a result, 21 and 32 compounds in the on-line system showed anti-oxidative effects against DPPH and FRAP, respectively. The established on-line system is efficient, sensitive and reliable to tell the DPPH and FRAP antioxidant activities of individual compound in complex samples, and therefore would be a useful and promising technique for antioxidant screening from different food and medicinal matrices. PMID:26321507

  1. Diode-pumped continuous-wave and femtosecond Cr:LiCAF lasers with high average power in the near infrared, visible and near ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Demirbas, Umit; Baali, Ilyes; Acar, Durmus Alp Emre; Leitenstorfer, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate continuous-wave (cw), cw frequency-doubled, cw mode-locked and Q-switched mode-locked operation of multimode diode-pumped Cr:LiCAF lasers with record average powers. Up to 2.54 W of cw output is obtained around 805 nm at an absorbed pump power of 5.5 W. Using intracavity frequency doubling with a BBO crystal, 0.9 W are generated around 402 nm, corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 12%. With an intracavity birefringent tuning plate, the fundamental and frequency-doubled laser output is tuned continuously in a broad wavelength range from 745 nm to 885 nm and from 375 to 440 nm, respectively. A saturable Bragg reflector is used to initiate and sustain mode locking. In the cw mode-locked regime, the Cr:LiCAF laser produces 105-fs long pulses near 810 nm with an average power of 0.75 W. The repetition rate is 96.4 MHz, resulting in pulse energies of 7.7 nJ and peak powers of 65 kW. In Q-switched mode-locked operation, pulses with energies above 150 nJ are generated. PMID:25968727

  2. Lasers solides pompés par diode émettant des impulsions picosecondes à haute cadence dans l'ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balembois, F.; Forget, S.; Papadopoulos, D.; Druon, F.; Georges, P.; Devilder, P.-J.; Lefort, L.

    2005-06-01

    De nombreuses applications requièrent des sources lasers impulsionnelles ultraviolettes, présentant des durées d'impulsion et des cadences spécifiques. Grâce à l'utilisation de structures d'oscillateurs et d'amplificateurs originales il est possible de réaliser de telles sources à partir de lasers solides pompés par diodes et de profiter ainsi de la compacité, de l'efficacité et de la robustesse de ces sources. Nous présentons ici la réalisation d'un laser à verrouillage de modes et d'un microlaser déclenché permettant d'obtenir des impulsions ultraviolettes picosecondes à une cadence de quelques MHz en vue d'application à la microscopie de fluorescence résolue en temps, ainsi que la mise en œuvre pour le traitement des matériaux d'un système oscillateur-amplificateur produisant plus de 600 mW de rayonnement UV à 266 ou 355 nm avec des impulsions sub-nanosecondes.

  3. Preparation of Phi29 DNA Polymerase Free of Amplifiable DNA Using Ethidium Monoazide, an Ultraviolet-Free Light-Emitting Diode Lamp and Trehalose

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Akanuma, Satoshi; Kanahara, Hiroko; Saito, Toshiyuki; Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Ohtani, Toshio; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Kobori, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that multiply-primed rolling circle amplification (MRPCA) using modified random RNA primers can amplify tiny amounts of circular DNA without producing any byproducts. However, contaminating DNA in recombinant Phi29 DNA polymerase adversely affects the outcome of MPRCA, especially for negative controls such as non-template controls. The amplified DNA in negative control casts doubt on the result of DNA amplification. Since Phi29 DNA polymerase has high affinity for both single-strand and double-stranded DNA, some amount of host DNA will always remain in the recombinant polymerase. Here we describe a procedure for preparing Phi29 DNA polymerase which is essentially free of amplifiable DNA. This procedure is realized by a combination of host DNA removal using appropriate salt concentrations, inactivation of amplifiable DNA using ethidium monoazide, and irradiation with visible light from a light-emitting diode lamp. Any remaining DNA, which likely exists as oligonucleotides captured by the Phi29 DNA polymerase, is degraded by the 3′-5′ exonuclease activity of the polymerase itself in the presence of trehalose, used as an anti-aggregation reagent. Phi29 DNA polymerase purified by this procedure has little amplifiable DNA, resulting in reproducible amplification of at least ten copies of plasmid DNA without any byproducts and reducing reaction volume. This procedure could aid the amplification of tiny amounts DNA, thereby providing clear evidence of contamination from laboratory environments, tools and reagents. PMID:24505243

  4. Preparation of Phi29 DNA polymerase free of amplifiable DNA using ethidium monoazide, an ultraviolet-free light-emitting diode lamp and trehalose.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Akanuma, Satoshi; Kanahara, Hiroko; Saito, Toshiyuki; Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Ohtani, Toshio; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Kobori, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that multiply-primed rolling circle amplification (MRPCA) using modified random RNA primers can amplify tiny amounts of circular DNA without producing any byproducts. However, contaminating DNA in recombinant Phi29 DNA polymerase adversely affects the outcome of MPRCA, especially for negative controls such as non-template controls. The amplified DNA in negative control casts doubt on the result of DNA amplification. Since Phi29 DNA polymerase has high affinity for both single-strand and double-stranded DNA, some amount of host DNA will always remain in the recombinant polymerase. Here we describe a procedure for preparing Phi29 DNA polymerase which is essentially free of amplifiable DNA. This procedure is realized by a combination of host DNA removal using appropriate salt concentrations, inactivation of amplifiable DNA using ethidium monoazide, and irradiation with visible light from a light-emitting diode lamp. Any remaining DNA, which likely exists as oligonucleotides captured by the Phi29 DNA polymerase, is degraded by the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of the polymerase itself in the presence of trehalose, used as an anti-aggregation reagent. Phi29 DNA polymerase purified by this procedure has little amplifiable DNA, resulting in reproducible amplification of at least ten copies of plasmid DNA without any byproducts and reducing reaction volume. This procedure could aid the amplification of tiny amounts DNA, thereby providing clear evidence of contamination from laboratory environments, tools and reagents. PMID:24505243

  5. Ultraviolet C upconversion fluorescence of trivalent erbium in BaGd2ZnO5 phosphor excited by a visible commercial light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanmin; Mi, Chao; Su, Xianyuan; Jiao, Fuyun; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Jiao; Yu, Fang; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Yanzhou; Mai, Yaohua

    2014-04-01

    Multiple ultraviolet (UV) emission bands have been obtained in Er3+ doped BaGd2ZnO5 phosphor under the excitation of a 532 nm solid-state laser, and the emission peaks at 217, 254, 278, 296, 314, 348, 374 and 394 nm were determined to stem from the high-energy states 4D(1/2), 4D(7/2), 2H(9/2), 2P(1/2), 2P(3/2), 4G(7/2), 4G(11/2), 4H(9/2) of trivalent erbium, respectively. Some UV emission bands in the UVC region can be observed when the sample was excited by commercial green (529 nm) and blue (460 nm) LED. In view of the small size, low-drive voltage and price of LED, UVC upconversion phosphor BaGd2ZnO5:Er3+ excited by visible LED has potential application in environmental sciences. PMID:24686659

  6. SU-E-T-223: Investigation of the Accuracy of Two-Dimensional Dose Distributions Measurement From High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Ir-192 Source Using Multiple-Diode-Array Detector (MapCheck2)

    SciTech Connect

    Taguenang, J; De La Fuente, T Herman; Ahmad, S; Ali, I

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric accuracy of multiple-diode-array detector (Mapcheck2) for high-dose-rate brachytherapy Ir-192 source. The two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions measured with MapCheck2 were validated with EBT2 Gafchromic film measurement and AAPM task-group- 43 (TG-43) modeling. Methods: 2D-dose distributions from Ir-192 source were measured with MapCheck2 and EBT2-films. MapCheck2 response was corrected for effects: directional dependence, diode and phantom heterogeneity. Optical density growth of the film was controlled by synchronized scanning of the film exposed to Ir-192 and calibration films exposed to 6 MV linac beams. Similarly, MapCheck2 response was calibrated to dose using 6 MV beams. An empirical model was developed for the dose distributions measured with Mapcheck2 that considered directional, diode and phantom heterogeneity corrections. The dose deposited in solid-state-detectors was modeled using a cavity theory model for the diode. This model was then validated with measurements using EBT2-films and calculations with TG-43. Results: The response of MapCheck2 has been corrected for different effects including: (a) directional dependence of 0–20% over angular range 0o–90o, (b) phantom heterogeneity (3%) and (c) diode heterogeneity (9%). The corrected dose distributions measured with MapCheck2 agreed well with the measured dose distributions from EBT2-film and with calculations using TG-43 within 5% over a wide range of dose levels and rates. The advantages of MapCheck2 include less noisy, linear and stable response compared with film. The response of MapCheck2 exposed to 192Ir-source showed no energy dependence similar to its response to MV energy beam. Detection spatial-resolution of individual diodes was 0.8×0.8 mm2, however, 2DMapCheck2 resolution is limited by distance between diodes (7.07 mm). Conclusion: The dose distribution measured with MapCheck2 agreed well within 5% with that measured using EBT2-films; and calculations with TG- 43. Considering correction of artifacts, MapCheck2 provides a compact, practical and accurate dosimetric tool for measurement of 2D-dose distributions for brachytherapy Ir-192.

  7. Combination of multivariate curve resolution and multivariate classification techniques for comprehensive high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array absorbance detection fingerprints analysis of Salvia reuterana extracts.

    PubMed

    Hakimzadeh, Neda; Parastar, Hadi; Fattahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-24

    In this study, multivariate curve resolution (MCR) and multivariate classification methods are proposed to develop a new chemometric strategy for comprehensive analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array absorbance detection (HPLC-DAD) fingerprints of sixty Salvia reuterana samples from five different geographical regions. Different chromatographic problems occurred during HPLC-DAD analysis of S. reuterana samples, such as baseline/background contribution and noise, low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), asymmetric peaks, elution time shifts, and peak overlap are handled using the proposed strategy. In this way, chromatographic fingerprints of sixty samples are properly segmented to ten common chromatographic regions using local rank analysis and then, the corresponding segments are column-wise augmented for subsequent MCR analysis. Extended multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) is used to obtain pure component profiles in each segment. In general, thirty-one chemical components were resolved using MCR-ALS in sixty S. reuterana samples and the lack of fit (LOF) values of MCR-ALS models were below 10.0% in all cases. Pure spectral profiles are considered for identification of chemical components by comparing their resolved spectra with the standard ones and twenty-four components out of thirty-one components were identified. Additionally, pure elution profiles are used to obtain relative concentrations of chemical components in different samples for multivariate classification analysis by principal component analysis (PCA) and k-nearest neighbors (kNN). Inspection of the PCA score plot (explaining 76.1% of variance accounted for three PCs) showed that S. reuterana samples belong to four clusters. The degree of class separation (DCS) which quantifies the distance separating clusters in relation to the scatter within each cluster is calculated for four clusters and it was in the range of 1.6-5.8. These results are then confirmed by kNN. In addition, according to the PCA loading plot and kNN dendrogram of thirty-one variables, five chemical constituents of luteolin-7-o-glucoside, salvianolic acid D, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid and trijuganone A are identified as the most important variables (i.e., chemical markers) for clusters discrimination. Finally, the effect of different chemical markers on samples differentiation is investigated using counter-propagation artificial neural network (CP-ANN) method. It is concluded that the proposed strategy can be successfully applied for comprehensive analysis of chromatographic fingerprints of complex natural samples. PMID:24377736

  8. HPLC determination of fumonisin mycotoxins in maize: a comparative study of naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde and o-phthaldialdehyde derivatization reagents for fluorescence and diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Ndube, Ncediwe; van der Westhuizen, Liana; Green, Ivan R; Shephard, Gordon S

    2011-08-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by various species of Fusarium and occur naturally in contaminated maize and maize-based foods. Ingestion of fumonisins has considerable health implications for humans and animals. Since fumonisins lack a useful chromophore or fluorophore, their determination in maize is routinely achieved via HPLC with fluorescence detection (FLD) after precolumn derivatization. This study optimized naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) derivatization of fumonisins in naturally contaminated maize following strong anion exchange (SAX) solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and utilizing diode array detection (DAD) as a practical alternative simultaneously to FLD. The limit of detection (LOD) for fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)), fumonisin B(2) (FB(2)) and fumonisin B(3) (FB(3)) with FLD was 0.11 ng, 0.50 ng and 0.27 ng, respectively, and with DAD it was 13.8 ng, 12.5 ng and 6.6 ng, respectively injected on column. The coefficient of variation (CV, n = 6) for FB(1), FB(2) and FB(3) in a naturally contaminated samples obtained with FLD was 2.6%, 1.8% and 5.3%, respectively, compared to 6.0%, 3.4% and 9.5%, respectively, obtained with DAD. Subsequently the optimized NDA derivatization was compared to the widely used o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) derivatization agent as well as alternative sample clean-up with immunoaffinity column (IAC) by analyzing naturally contaminated maize samples (n = 15) ranging in total fumonisin (TFB = FB(1)+FB(2)+FB(3)) levels from 106 to 6000 ?g/kg. After immunoaffinity column clean-up of extracted samples, the recoveries of spiked maize samples for NDA-FLD of FB(1), FB(2) and FB(3) were 62%, 94% and 64%, respectively. NDA proved to be an effective derivatization reagent of fumonisin in naturally contaminated maize samples following IAC clean-up, except for DAD at TFB levels below 1000 ?g/kg. In contrast NDA derivatization following SAX clean-up produced results comparable to OPA only for levels below 1000 ?g/kg. Aside from the difference in detection limits, FLD and DAD produced comparable results irrespective of the clean-up method or the derivatization agent. PMID:21727048

  9. Development and validation of a rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector method for Vitex agnus-castus.

    PubMed

    Hgner, C; Sturm, S; Seger, C; Stuppner, H

    2013-05-15

    A rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector (UHPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of all classes of non-volatile phytochemicals (iridoids, flavonoids and diterpenes) in Vitex agnus-castus (Lamiaceae) fruits, a traditional medicinal plant used against premenstrual symptoms (PMS) and other disorders. Seven marker compounds, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, agnuside, 5-hydroxykaempferol-3,6,7,4'-tetramethylether, 1,2-dibenzoic acid glucose, methoxy-vitexilactone, and vitetrifolin D were isolated from the methanol extract of V. agnus-castus to be used as reference substances. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 (50mm2.1mm) UHPLC column with 1.8?m particle size, within 20min. A solvent gradient from 0.5% acetic acid to acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min was used as mobile phase. Analyte detection and quantification was realized at 210nm and 260nm. The UHPLC-DAD assay was validated for the quantitative analysis of agnuside, isovitexin, casticin, 5-hydroxykaempferol-3,6,7,4'-tetramethylether and vitetrifolin D. It was found to be specific, accurate, precise, and reproducible for the quantification of these compound within a concentration range of 0.7-500.0?g/mL for casticin and 5-hydroxykaempferol-3,6,7,4'-tetramethylether, 1.4-1000.0?g/mL for isovitexin and agnuside, and 12.4-1000.0?g/mL for vitetrifolin D. Intra- and inter-day variations showed relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 3.9% and 6.4%, respectively. Tentatively assignment of 62 chromatographic features found in the UHPLC-DAD assay was carried out by coupling the UHPLC instrument to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer via an electrospray ionization interface (ESI-QTOF-MS) operated in positive and negative ion mode. By using the established quantitative UHPLC-DAD assay to asses agnuside, isovitexin, casticin, 5-hydroxykaempferol-3,6,7,4'-tetramethylether and vitetrifolin D in V. agnus-castus derived preparations as extracts, tinctures and tablets, the applicability of the developed assay to phytopharmaceuticals was successfully proven. PMID:23522912

  10. Simultaneous metabolite fingerprinting of hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds in Echinacea pallida by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Federica; Orlandini, Giulia; Benvenuti, Stefania

    2012-06-15

    In this study, a detailed phytochemical characterization of Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. root extracts and dietary supplements was carried out for the first time by developing advanced chromatographic techniques, based on HPLC with diode array (DAD) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection (with ion trap and triple quadrupole mass analyzers), for the simultaneous analysis of hydrophilic and lipophilic secondary metabolites. The HPLC analyses were carried out on an Ascentis C(18) column (250 mm 4.6 mm I.D., 5 ?m), with a mobile phase composed by H(2)O and ACN both containing 0.1% formic acid, under gradient elution. The UV spectra, in combination with MS and MS/MS data, allowed the identification of fourteen compounds, including caffeic acid derivatives, polyacetylenes and polyenes, in the analyzed samples. MS and MS/MS data were discussed in detail and the typical fragmentation patterns of each class of secondary metabolites were identified. For the first time, a hydroperoxide intermediate was characterized as an oxidation product of one of E. pallida monocarbonylic acetylenes, providing a confirmation of the mechanism that leads to the generation of hydroxylated derivatives. The HPLC method was fully validated in agreement with ICH guidelines and then applied to real samples. The quantitative analysis indicated that there was a great variability in the amount of the active compounds in the dietary supplements containing E. pallida root extracts: the content of total caffeic acid derivatives ranged from 2.31 to 11.45 mg/g and the amount of total polyacetylenes and polyenes from 6.38 to 30.54 mg/g. In the analyzed samples, the most abundant caffeic acid derivative was found to be echinacoside. Regarding polyacetylenes and polyenes, the most representative compounds were found to be tetradec-(8Z)-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one, pentedeca-(8Z,11Z)-dien-2-one and pentadec-(8Z)-en-2-one. The developed method can be considered suitable for metabolite fingerprinting and quality control of E. pallida plant material and natural products. PMID:22560343

  11. Aligned ZnO nanorod arrays growth on GaN QDs for excellent optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Dandan; Li, Hongdong; Wang, Qinglin

    2016-02-01

    Uniformly aligned ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays grown on GaN quantum dots (QDs) as preferred nucleation sites are imperative for designing field emission emitters, ultraviolet photodetectors and light-emitting diodes for a wide range of new optoelectronic applications. In a recent study (2015 Nanotechnology 26 415601), Qi et al reported a novel method of fabricating ZnO NRs arrays with uniform shape, the density of which is easily tunable by adjusting the density of GaN QDs. This approach opens a door to obtaining a combination of 0D and 1D structures for optoelectronic applications.

  12. Aligned ZnO nanorod arrays growth on GaN QDs for excellent optoelectronic applications.

    PubMed

    Sang, Dandan; Li, Hongdong; Wang, Qinglin

    2016-02-19

    Uniformly aligned ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays grown on GaN quantum dots (QDs) as preferred nucleation sites are imperative for designing field emission emitters, ultraviolet photodetectors and light-emitting diodes for a wide range of new optoelectronic applications. In a recent study (2015 Nanotechnology 26 415601), Qi et al reported a novel method of fabricating ZnO NRs arrays with uniform shape, the density of which is easily tunable by adjusting the density of GaN QDs. This approach opens a door to obtaining a combination of 0D and 1D structures for optoelectronic applications. PMID:26778196

  13. The effects of ultraviolet-ozone-treated ultra-thin MnO-doped ZnO film as anode buffer layer on the electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hsin-Wei; Kao, Po-Ching; Juang, Yung-Der; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was enhanced by depositing an MnO-doped ZnO film as a buffer layer between the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and the α-naphthylphenylbiphenyldiamine hole transport layer. The enhancement mechanism was systematically investigated, and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy results revealed the formation of the UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO film. With this film, the work function increased from 4.8 eV (standard ITO electrode (˜ 10 ±5 Ω/◻ )) to 5.27 eV (UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO deposited on the ITO electrode with 1 wt. % for 1 nm), while the surface roughness of the UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO film was smoother than that of the ITO electrode. The deposited UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO film increased the surface energy and polarity of the ITO surface, as determined from contact angle measurements. Further, results from admittance spectroscopy showed that the inserted UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO film increased the capacitance and conductance of the OLEDs. It was also found that the carrier injection increased in the space-charge region when the UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO buffer layer was inserted. Moreover, the turn-on voltage of the devices decreased from 3.8 V to 3.2 V, the luminance increased from 7588 cd/m2 to 20 350 cd/m2, and the current efficiency increased from 3.2 cd/A to 5.8 cd/A when a 1 nm-thick UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO film with 1 wt. % was inserted as a buffer layer in the OLEDs.

  14. Ultraviolet Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molde, Trevor

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the discovery and nature of ultraviolet light, discusses some applications for these wavelengths, and describes a number of experiments with ultraviolet radiation suitable for secondary school science classes. (JR)

  15. Cryogenic thermal diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Brandon R.; Batty, J. C.; Agren, John

    2000-01-01

    Space based cryogenic thermal management systems for advanced infrared sensor platforms are a critical failure mode to the spacecraft missions they are supporting. Recent advances in cryocooler technologies have increased the achievable cooling capacities and decreased the operating temperatures of these systems, but there is still a fundamental need for redundancy in these systems. Cryogenic thermal diodes act as thermal switches, allowing heat to flow through them when in a conduction mode and restricting the flow of heat when in an isolation mode. These diodes will allow multiple cryocoolers to cool a single infrared focal plane array. The Space Dynamics Laboratory has undertaken an internal research and development effort to develop this innovative technology. This paper briefly describes the design parameters of several prototype thermal diodes that were developed and tested. .

  16. Blanket integrated blocking diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uebele, P.; Kasper, C.; Rasch, K.-D.

    1986-11-01

    Two types of large area protection diodes for integration in solar arrays were developed in planar technology. For application in a bus voltage concept of V sub bus = 80 V a p-doped blanket integrated blocking diode (p-IBD) was developed with V sub rev = 120 V, whereas for the high voltage concept of V sub bus = 160 V a n-IBD with V sub rev = 250 V was developed. Application as blanket integrated shunt diodes is recommended. The optimized rearside diffusion provides a low forward voltage drop in the temperature range of minus 100 to plus 150 C. As a consequence of planar technology metallized coverglasses have to be used to minimize the photocurrent.

  17. The evaluation of a 2D diode array in “magic phantom” for use in high dose rate brachytherapy pretreatment quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, A.; Petasecca, M.; Fuduli, I.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Howie, A.; Bucci, J.; Corde, S.; Jackson, M.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a treatment method that is used increasingly worldwide. The development of a sound quality assurance program for the verification of treatment deliveries can be challenging due to the high source activity utilized and the need for precise measurements of dwell positions and times. This paper describes the application of a novel phantom, based on a 2D 11 × 11 diode array detection system, named “magic phantom” (MPh), to accurately measure plan dwell positions and times, compare them directly to the treatment plan, determine errors in treatment delivery, and calculate absorbed dose. Methods: The magic phantom system was CT scanned and a 20 catheter plan was generated to simulate a nonspecific treatment scenario. This plan was delivered to the MPh and, using a custom developed software suite, the dwell positions and times were measured and compared to the plan. The original plan was also modified, with changes not disclosed to the primary authors, and measured again using the device and software to determine the modifications. A new metric, the “position–time gamma index,” was developed to quantify the quality of a treatment delivery when compared to the treatment plan. The MPh was evaluated to determine the minimum measurable dwell time and step size. The incorporation of the TG-43U1 formalism directly into the software allows for dose calculations to be made based on the measured plan. The estimated dose distributions calculated by the software were compared to the treatment plan and to calibrated EBT3 film, using the 2D gamma analysis method. Results: For the original plan, the magic phantom system was capable of measuring all dwell points and dwell times and the majority were found to be within 0.93 mm and 0.25 s, respectively, from the plan. By measuring the altered plan and comparing it to the unmodified treatment plan, the use of the position–time gamma index showed that all modifications made could be readily detected. The MPh was able to measure dwell times down to 0.067 ± 0.001 s and planned dwell positions separated by 1 mm. The dose calculation carried out by the MPh software was found to be in agreement with values calculated by the treatment planning system within 0.75%. Using the 2D gamma index, the dose map of the MPh plane and measured EBT3 were found to have a pass rate of over 95% when compared to the original plan. Conclusions: The application of this magic phantom quality assurance system to HDR brachytherapy has demonstrated promising ability to perform the verification of treatment plans, based upon the measured dwell positions and times. The introduction of the quantitative position–time gamma index allows for direct comparison of measured parameters against the plan and could be used prior to patient treatment to ensure accurate delivery.

  18. Diode-pumped neodymium lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Peter

    1990-08-01

    Since the invention of diode lasers in the early 1960's there had been continuous investigations in laser diode pumped solid state lasers as has been reviewed in detail by a number of papers ( see e.g. [1] ). There are two main advantages of using diode lasers instead of flashlaraps as a pump source for solid state lasers: First the emission of the diode lasers matches well with the absorption bands of several Rare Earth ions that are doped in laser crystals ( mainly Nd3+, but also Er3, Tm3, Dy3', and others ) . This summary will report only about diode lasers at a wavelength of around BlOnm, which fits to an absorptionband of Nd3t Second diode lasers provide the possibility of longitudinally pumped configurations and therefore an excellent mode matching with the solid state laser mode. For both reasons the efficiency of a diode laser puniped solid state laser is nuch higher than of a flashlamp pumped one. Since the early 1980's a much wider interest in diode laser pumped solid state lasers arose. It was stimulated by the improved performance of the new generation of diode lasers in terms of reliability , operational lifetime and output power [21. Two important steps in direction to the diode lasers at present time were the developments of double hetero (DH) structure- and graded index separate confinement hetero (GrInSCH) structurediode lasers. In the same way the development of new production techniques were necessary to ensure the reliability of the diode lasers. Starting with the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) the (GaAl)As structures are now grown by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), mainly used for very high precision laboratory investigations, and metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), mainly used for commercial production. As a first commercial product SDL introduced a 100mW array in 1984. Since then the output power of the commercially available diode lasers increased by two orders of magnitude to lOW. These diode lasers are multi stripe bar arrays like the 5W diode laser

  19. Diode-pumped laser research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, L.; Bufton, J. L.; Chan, K.

    1988-01-01

    The Laboratory for Oceans is currently working on the development of compact laser diode array (LD) pumped Nd:YAG lasers for use in space-based altimetry and ranging. Laser diode-array pumping technology promises to increase the electrical to optical efficiency of solid state lasers by an order of magnitude with a lifetime increase of nearly three orders of magnitude relative to today's conventional flashlamp-pumped laser systems. The small size, efficiency, and ruggedness make LD-pumped solid state lasers ideal for space based applications. In an in-house RTOP effort, a novel multiple-pass LD-pumped Nd:YAG laser amplifier was designed and tested to increase the 100 microjoule output pulse energy of the Lightwave laser oscillator. Preliminary results have yielded a round trip amplifier gain of about 15 percent using 7 microjoule LD-pump energy. As a parallel activity, funding was recently obtained to investigate the possible use of custom made fiber optic arrays to obtain an efficient optical coupling mechanism between the emitting laser diode-arrays and the target solid state laser material. Fiber optic coupling arrays would allow for the easy manipulation of the spatial emitting pattern of the diode pump sources to match either an end or side pumping laser configuration.

  20. Diode-pumped laser research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, L.; Bufton, J. L.; Chan, K.

    The Laboratory for Oceans is currently working on the development of compact laser diode array (LD) pumped Nd:YAG lasers for use in space-based altimetry and ranging. Laser diode-array pumping technology promises to increase the electrical to optical efficiency of solid state lasers by an order of magnitude with a lifetime increase of nearly three orders of magnitude relative to today's conventional flashlamp-pumped laser systems. The small size, efficiency, and ruggedness make LD-pumped solid state lasers ideal for space based applications. In an in-house RTOP effort, a novel multiple-pass LD-pumped Nd:YAG laser amplifier was designed and tested to increase the 100 microjoule output pulse energy of the Lightwave laser oscillator. Preliminary results have yielded a round trip amplifier gain of about 15 percent using 7 microjoule LD-pump energy. As a parallel activity, funding was recently obtained to investigate the possible use of custom made fiber optic arrays to obtain an efficient optical coupling mechanism between the emitting laser diode-arrays and the target solid state laser material. Fiber optic coupling arrays would allow for the easy manipulation of the spatial emitting pattern of the diode pump sources to match either an end or side pumping laser configuration.

  1. Processes for design, construction and utilisation of arrays of light-emitting diodes and light-emitting diode-coupled optical fibres for multi-site brain light delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jacob G.; Allen, Brian D.; Guerra, Alexander A.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics enables light to be used to control the activity of genetically targeted cells in the living brain. Optical fibers can be used to deliver light to deep targets, and LEDs can be spatially arranged to enable patterned light delivery. In combination, arrays of LED-coupled optical fibers can enable patterned light delivery to deep targets in the brain. Here we describe the process flow for making LED arrays and LED-coupled optical fiber arrays, explaining key optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical design principles to enable the manufacturing, assembly, and testing of such multi-site targetable optical devices. We also explore accessory strategies such as surgical automation approaches as well as innovations to enable low-noise concurrent electrophysiology. PMID:26798482

  2. Analysis of the influence of processing of stir-baking with glycyrrhizae on the main components of Euodiae Fructus by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jue; Wu, Xin; Cao, Gang; Chen, Xiaocheng

    2014-01-01

    Euodiae Fructus is one of the most commonly used Chinese herbs in China. Specifically, the crude Euodiae Fructus and its processed products of Gancao Zhi Pin are used clinically for the treatment of different diseases. In order to improve the quality control standard and evaluate the crude and processed Euodiae Fructus, in this study, a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five major compounds in Euodiae Fructus. The results indicated that the five components had significant linear relation (r(2) ≥ 0.9997) between the peak area and the injected concentration. The average recoveries of the five components were in the range from 97.38% to 102.56%. Overall intra- and inter-day variations were less than 1.36%. The developed method can be applied to the intrinsic quality control of crude and processed Euodiae Fructus. PMID:25159621

  3. Characterization and quantitative analysis of phenylpropanoid amides in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Song, Yue-Lin; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Zheng; Huo, Hui-Xia; Zheng, Jiao; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yun-Fang; Li, Jun; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is a famous edible and medicinal plant. Despite being widely cultivated and used, data on certain parts other than the fruit are limited. The present study focused on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical constituents, particularly phenylpropanoid amides (PAs), in eggplant. The mass fragmentation patterns of PAs were proposed using seven authentic compounds with the assistance of a hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Thirty-seven compounds (27 PAs and 10 others) were detected and plausibly assigned in the different parts of eggplant. Afterward, a reliable method based on liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection was developed, validated, and applied for the simultaneous determination of seven PAs and three caffeoylquinic acids in 17 batches of eggplant roots with satisfactory accuracy, precision, and reproducibility, which could not only provide global chemical insight of eggplant but also offer a reliable tool for quality control. PMID:25796999

  4. {sup 129}Xe-Cs (D{sub 1},D{sub 2}) versus {sup 129}Xe-Rb (D{sub 1}) spin-exchange optical pumping at high xenon densities using high-power laser diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Nicholas; Eschmann, Neil A.; Goodson, Boyd M.; Barlow, Michael J.

    2011-05-15

    We investigate {sup 129}Xe-Cs (D{sub 1},D{sub 2}) spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) at high Xe densities ({approx}0.12-2.44 amagat) using newly available high-power (>40 W) laser diode arrays and compare with {sup 129}Xe-Rb D{sub 1} SEOP under similar conditions. At elevated Xe densities, the spin-exchange rate (per alkali-metal atom, {gamma}{sup '}) for Cs-{sup 129}Xe is {approx}1.5-fold greater than that for Rb-{sup 129}Xe. Higher spin-exchange rates and lower {sup 129}Xe spin-destruction rates for Cs-{sup 129}Xe versus Rb-{sup 129}Xe contribute to {approx}twofold improvement in {sup 129}Xe nuclear spin polarization measured at 9.4 T - with the largest gains observed at the highest Xe densities.

  5. Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, G. Ronald; Hohimer, John P.; Owyoung, Adelbert

    1991-01-01

    A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet.

  6. Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, G.R.; Hohimer, J.P.; Owyoung, A.

    1991-02-19

    A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet. 18 figures.

  7. Ultraviolet emission intensity, visible luminance, and electrical characteristics of small arrays of Al/Al2O3 microcavity plasma devices operating in Ar/N2 or Ne at high-power loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.-J.; Kim, K.-S.; Eden, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    Small arrays (33-->1010) of microcavity plasma devices, having a two-stage structure comprising multilayer stacks of nanostructured Al2O3 grown on Al foil with cylindrical microcavities 100-300 ?m in diameter, produce intense ultraviolet (UV) and visible emission when operated in Ar/3% N2 gas mixtures or Ne and excited by a sinusoidal ac voltage wave form. Near-UV (300-400 nm) intensities emitted into a solid angle of ~10-2 sr above 30 mW per cm2 of radiating area are measured for Ar/N2 gas mixture pressures of 400-800 Torr, an excitation frequency of 15 kHz, and an average current >=20 mA (rms). Two or more conjoined cylindrical microcavities of differing diameters allow for the confinement of the plasma to progressively smaller volumes as the power deposited is increased (thereby decreasing the Debye length and the spatial extent of the cathode fall region) and provides a convenient tool with which the luminosity of an array can be modulated. The transition of a microplasma from confinement in a 200-?m-diam cavity into an adjacent 100-?m-diam microcavity is accompanied by an order-of-magnitude increase in the luminance of Ne plasmas in a 33 array as the rms current is increased by ~1 mA.

  8. SiC-Based Schottky Diode Gas Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai

    1997-01-01

    Silicon carbide based Schottky diode gas sensors are being developed for high temperature applications such as emission measurements. Two different types of gas sensitive diodes will be discussed in this paper. By varying the structure of the diode, one can affect the diode stability as well as the diode sensitivity to various gases. It is concluded that the ability of SiC to operate as a high temperature semiconductor significantly enhances the versatility of the Schottky diode gas sensing structure and will potentially allow the fabrication of a SiC-based gas sensor arrays for versatile high temperature gas sensing applications.

  9. Multimode-diode-pumped gas (alkali-vapor) laser

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R H; Beach, R J; Kanz, V K

    2005-08-22

    We report the first demonstration of a multimode-diode-pumped gas laser--Rb vapor operating on the 795 nm resonance transition. Peak output of {approx}1 Watt was obtained using a volume-Bragg-grating stabilized pump diode array. The laser's output radiance exceeded the pump radiance by a factor greater than 2000. Power scaling (by pumping with larger diode arrays) is therefore possible.

  10. Multimode-diode-pumped gas (alkali-vapor) laser.

    PubMed

    Page, Ralph H; Beach, Raymond J; Kanz, V Keith; Krupke, William F

    2006-02-01

    We report what we believe to be the first demonstration of a multimode-diode-pumped gas laser: Rb vapor operating on the 795 nm D1 resonance transition. Peak output of approximately 1 W was obtained using a volume-Bragg-grating stabilized pump diode array. The laser's output radiance exceeded the pump radiance by a factor greater than 2000. Power scaling (by pumping with larger diode arrays) is therefore possible. PMID:16480206

  11. Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from rum aged in oak barrels by high-speed countercurrent chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and screening for antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Erik L; Tolle, Sebastian; Pino, Jorge A; Winterhalter, Peter; Menendez, Roberto; Morales, Ana R; Rodrguez, Jos L

    2011-10-14

    Beverages, especially wines are well-known to contain a variety of health-beneficial bioactive substances, mainly of phenolic nature which frequently exhibit antioxidant activity. Significant information is available about the separation and identification of polyphenols from some beverages by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques, but considerably poor is chemical data related to the polyphenolic content in rums. In this paper, a method involving the all-liquid chromatographic technique of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)) has been successfully applied for separation and identification of phenolic compounds in an aged rum. Besides, the phenolic fraction (PF) was assayed for its antioxidant effects using three different free radical in vitro assays (DPPH, RO(2) and spontaneous lipid peroxidation (LPO) on brain homogenates) and on ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Results showed that PF potently scavenged DPPH and strongly scavenged peroxyl radicals compared to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT); and almost equally inhibited LPO on brain homogenates subjected to spontaneous LPO when compared to quercetin. Moreover, PF also exhibited strong reducing power. This chemical analysis illustrates the rich array of phenols in the aged rum and represents a rapid and suitable method for the isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from mixtures of considerable complexity, achieving high purity and reproducibility with the use of two separation steps. PMID:21907994

  12. Data Diode

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-07

    The Data Diode is a data security technology that can be deployed within an organization's defense-in-depth computer network strategy for information assurance. For internal security, the software creates an environment within the network where an organization's approved users can work freely inside an enclave of protected data, but file transfers out of the enclave is restricted. For external security, once a network intruder has penetrated the network, the intruder is able to "see" the protected data, but is unable to download the actual data. During the time it takes for the intruder to search for a way around the obstacle created by the Data Diode, the network's intrusion detection technologies can locate and thwart the malicious intent of the intruder. Development of the Data Diode technology was made possible by funding from the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA).

  13. Data Diode

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-11-07

    The Data Diode is a data security technology that can be deployed within an organization's defense-in-depth computer network strategy for information assurance. For internal security, the software creates an environment within the network where an organization's approved users can work freely inside an enclave of protected data, but file transfers out of the enclave is restricted. For external security, once a network intruder has penetrated the network, the intruder is able to "see" the protectedmore » data, but is unable to download the actual data. During the time it takes for the intruder to search for a way around the obstacle created by the Data Diode, the network's intrusion detection technologies can locate and thwart the malicious intent of the intruder. Development of the Data Diode technology was made possible by funding from the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA).« less

  14. Perforated diode neutron sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Walter J.

    A novel design of neutron sensor was investigated and developed. The perforated, or micro-structured, diode neutron sensor is a concept that has the potential to enhance neutron sensitivity of a common solid-state sensor configuration. The common thin-film coated diode neutron sensor is the only semiconductor-based neutron sensor that has proven feasible for commercial use. However, the thin-film coating restricts neutron counting efficiency and severely limits the usefulness of the sensor. This research has shown that the perforated design, when properly implemented, can increase the neutron counting efficiency by greater than a factor of 4. Methods developed in this work enable detectors to be fabricated to meet needs such as miniaturization, portability, ruggedness, and adaptability. The new detectors may be used for unique applications such as neutron imaging or the search for special nuclear materials. The research and developments described in the work include the successful fabrication of variant perforated diode neutron detector designs, general explanations of fundamental radiation detector design (with added focus on neutron detection and compactness), as well as descriptive theory and sensor design modeling useful in predicting performance of these unique solid-state radiation sensors. Several aspects in design, fabrication, and operational performance have been considered and tested including neutron counting efficiency, gamma-ray response, perforation shapes and depths, and silicon processing variations. Finally, the successfully proven technology was applied to a 1-dimensional neutron sensor array system.

  15. New diode wavelengths for pumping solid-state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, J.A.; Emanuel, M.A.; Beach, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    High-power laser-diode arrays have been demonstrated to be viable pump sources for solid-state lasers. The diode bars (fill factor of 0.7) were bonded to silicon microchannel heatsinks for high-average-power operation. Over 12 W of CW output power was achieved from a one cm AlGaInP tensile-strained single-quantum-well laser diode bar. At 690 nm, a compressively-strained single-quantum-well laser-diode array produced 360 W/cm{sup 2} per emitting aperture under CW operation, and 2.85 kW of pulsed power from a 3.8 cm{sup 2} emitting-aperture array. InGaAs strained single-quantum-well laser diodes emitting at 900 nm produced 2.8 kW pulsed power from a 4.4 cm{sup 2} emitting-aperture array.

  16. A Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Array Spectrometer as a Selective Detector for Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography: Concept and First Results.

    PubMed

    Gröger, Thomas; Gruber, Beate; Harrison, Dale; Saraji-Bozorgzad, Mohammad; Mthembu, Makhosazana; Sutherland, Aimée; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2016-03-15

    Fast and selective detectors are very interesting for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC). This is particularly true if the detector system can provide additional spectroscopic information on the compound structure and/or functionality. Other than mass spectrometry (MS), only optical spectroscopic detectors are able to provide selective spectral information. However, until present the application of optical spectroscopy technologies as universal detectors for GC × GC has been restricted mainly due to physical limitations such as insufficient acquisition speed or high detection limits. A recently developed simultaneous-detection spectrometer working in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region of 125-240 nm overcomes these limitations and meets all the criteria of a universal detector for GC × GC. Peak shape and chromatographic resolution is preserved and unique spectral information, complementary to mass spectrometry data, is gained. The power of this detector is quickly recognized as it has the ability to discriminate between isomeric compounds or difficult to separate structurally related isobaric species; thus, it provides additional selectivity. A further promising feature of this detector is the data analysis concept of spectral filtering, which is accomplished by targeting special electronic transitions that allows for a fast screening of GC × GC chromatograms for designated compound classes. PMID:26810390

  17. Strong photonic crystal behavior in regular arrays of core-shell and quantum disc InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lewins, C. J. Le Boulbar, E. D.; Lis, S. M.; Shields, P. A.; Allsopp, D. W. E.; Edwards, P. R.; Martin, R. W.

    2014-07-28

    We show that arrays of emissive nanorod structures can exhibit strong photonic crystal behavior, via observations of the far-field luminescence from core-shell and quantum disc InGaN/GaN nanorods. The conditions needed for the formation of directional Bloch modes characteristic of strong photonic behavior are found to depend critically upon the vertical shape of the nanorod sidewalls. Index guiding by a region of lower volume-averaged refractive index near the base of the nanorods creates a quasi-suspended photonic crystal slab at the top of the nanorods which supports Bloch modes. Only diffractive behavior could be observed without this region. Slab waveguide modelling of the vertical structure shows that the behavioral regime of the emissive nanorod arrays depends strongly upon the optical coupling between the nanorod region and the planar layers below. The controlled crossover between the two regimes of photonic crystal operation enables the design of photonic nanorod structures formed on planar substrates that exploit either behavior depending on device requirements.

  18. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of vitamins D and K in foods by liquid chromatography with diode-array and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Vias, Pilar; Bravo-Bravo, Mara; Lpez-Garca, Ignacio; Hernndez-Crdoba, Manuel

    2013-10-15

    A simple and rapid method was developed using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) with both diode array (DAD) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric (APCI-MS) detection, for the simultaneous analysis of the vitamins ergocalciferol (D2), cholecalciferol (D3), phylloquinone (K1), menaquinone-4 (K2) and a synthetic form of vitamin K, menadione (K3). The Taguchi experimental method, an orthogonal array design (OAD), was used to optimize an efficient and clean preconcentration step based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). A factorial design was applied with six factors and three levels for each factor, namely, carbon tetrachloride volume, methanol volume, aqueous sample volume, pH of sample, sodium chloride concentration and time of the centrifugation step. The DLLME optimized procedure consisted of rapidly injecting 3 mL of acetonitrile (disperser solvent) containing 150 L carbon tetrachloride (extraction solvent) into the aqueous sample, thereby forming a cloudy solution. Phase separation was performed by centrifugation, and the sedimented phase was evaporated with nitrogen, reconstituted with 50 L of acetonitrile, and injected. The LC analyses were carried out using a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile, 2-propanol and water, under gradient elution. Quantification was carried out by the standard additions method. The APCI-MS spectra, in combination with UV spectra, permitted the correct identification of compounds in the food samples. The method was validated according to international guidelines and using a certified reference material. The validated method was applied for the analysis of vitamins D and K in infant foods and several green vegetables. There was little variability in the forms of vitamin K present in vegetables, with the most abundant vitamer in all the samples being phylloquinone, while menadione could not be detected. Conversely, cholecalciferol, which is present in food of animal origin, was the main form in infant foods, while ergocalciferol was not detected. PMID:24054666

  19. Schottky barrier diode and method thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid (Inventor); Franz, David (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Pt/n.sup.-GaN Schottky barrier diodes are disclosed that are particularly suited to serve as ultra-violet sensors operating at wavelengths below 200 nm. The Pt/n.sup.-GaN Schottky barrier diodes have very large active areas, up to 1 cm.sup.2, which exhibit extremely low leakage current at low reverse biases. Very large area Pt/n.sup.-GaN Schottky diodes of sizes 0.25 cm.sup.2 and 1 cm.sup.2 have been fabricated from n.sup.-/n.sup.+ GaN epitaxial layers grown by vapor phase epitaxy on single crystal c-plane sapphire, which showed leakage currents of 14 pA and 2.7 nA, respectively for the 0.25 cm.sup.2 and 1 cm.sup.2 diodes both configured at a 0.5V reverse bias.

  20. Simultaneous Extraction Optimization and Analysis of Flavonoids from the Flowers of Tabernaemontana heyneana by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Diode Array Detector and Electron Spray Ionization/Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sathishkumar, Thiyagarajan; Baskar, Ramakrishnan; Aravind, Mohan; Tilak, Suryanarayanan; Deepthi, Sri; Bharathikumar, Vellalore Maruthachalam

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are exploited as antioxidants, antimicrobial, antithrombogenic, antiviral, and antihypercholesterolemic agents. Normally, conventional extraction techniques like soxhlet or shake flask methods provide low yield of flavonoids with structural loss, and thereby, these techniques may be considered as inefficient. In this regard, an attempt was made to optimize the flavonoid extraction using orthogonal design of experiment and subsequent structural elucidation by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electron spray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) techniques. The shake flask method of flavonoid extraction was observed to provide a yield of 1.2 ± 0.13 (mg/g tissue). With the two different solvents, namely, ethanol and ethyl acetate, tried for the extraction optimization of flavonoid, ethanol (80.1 mg/g tissue) has been proved better than ethyl acetate (20.5 mg/g tissue). The optimal conditions of the extraction of flavonoid were found to be 85°C, 3 hours with a material ratio of 1 : 20, 75% ethanol, and 1 cycle of extraction. About seven different phenolics like robinin, quercetin, rutin, sinapoyl-hexoside, dicaffeic acid, and two unknown compounds were identified for the first time in the flowers of T. heyneana. The study has also concluded that L16 orthogonal design of experiment is an effective method for the extraction of flavonoid than the shake flask method. PMID:25969771