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Sample records for umbria region central

  1. Geodiversity of the Umbria region (central Italy): a GIS-based quantitative index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melelli, Laura; Pica, Alessia; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The measure of natural range related to geological bedrock, landforms and geomorphological processes is the necessary starting point to geodiversity evaluation. Geodiversity plays a strategic role in landscape management. Whereas geotourism and geosites are identified as a driving power for the scientific and economic promotion of an area, the geodiversity knowledge is required for a complete and accurate research. For example, high values of this abiotic parameter identify and support the foundation of geoparks. According to this perspective, the geodiversity is the unifying factor for these areas of interest. While a subjective and qualitative approach may be adequate for geosites definition, identification and cultural promotion, the geodiversity concept needs a different evaluation method. A quantitative procedure allows achieving an objective and repeatable process exportable in different geographic units. Geographical Information Systems and spatial analysis techniques are the base to quantitative evaluation involving topographic, geological and geomorphological data. Therefore, the assessment of a numerical index derived from the overlay of spatial parameters can be conveniently computed in GIS environment. In this study, a geodiversity index is proposed where geological, geomorphological and landcover factors deriving mainly from maps and field survey; topographic ones are employed from DEM and remote sensed data. Each abiotic parameter is modelled in a grid format; focal functions do provide neighbourhood analysis and computing variety statistics. A particular extent is dedicated to topographic information and terrain roughness, that are strictly related to efficiency of geomorphological processes and generally corresponding to the abiotic components variability. The study area is located in central Italy and is characterized by a well known natural heritage. Thirty-seven geosites are detected in the Umbria region, where seven regional and one natural parks are present. All the area shows a strong correlation between the geological setting and the relief energy associated to topography assessment. Three main outcrop complexes are present: a fluvial lacustrine, where the lowest slope values and plain area are widespread; a terrigenous one, with a medium slope value; and a calcareous complex corresponding to the mountain areas and the highest amplitude of relief. This partition matches different geomorphological processes and landforms, ensuring a widespread distribution of geodiversity. The final map is a digital data that localizes areas with, respectively, null or minimum, medium, and high geodiversity values. The highest class overlaps to geosites areas, to high values of amplitude of relief and where the geomorphological processes are more effective and various. This confirms the method accuracy. The results obtained represent an important advancement in geodiversity research and a significant instrument for economic development and conservation management.

  2. Preliminary Assessment of Rock Fall Hazard and Risk In The Central Part of The Nera Valley, Umbria Region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghigi, S.; Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Detti, R.

    Rock falls are one of the most common types of fast moving landslides in mountain areas. They represent the most abundant landslides triggered by earthquakes. Rock falls are one of the primary causes of fatalities and of damage caused by landslides. Despite being widespread and highly destructive, only a few attempts have been made to establish rock fall hazard and the associate risk along transportation corridors in mountain areas. We present a preliminary assessment of rock fall hazard and risk for the central part of the Nera River Valley, in the Umbria Region of Central Italy. The Nera River, a tributary of the Tiber River, flows across the Apennines in a deep and narrow valley. Two national roads, the SS 305 and the SS 209, and several mountain villages are located along the valley bottom. The villages and the roads are frequently affected by rock falls. On October 1997, aftershocks of the Umbria-Marche earth- quake triggered hundreds of rock falls, ranging in size from few cubic decimeters, to some tens of cubic meter. Damage was severe and the two national roads were closed for several weeks. Following the earthquake defensive measures (including scaling, rock fences, elastic fences, and artificial tunnels) were installed along the valley. These costly defensive measures were installed without any specific assessment of rock fall hazard and the associated risk. Using a 3-dimensional, spatially distributed rock falls simulation program, we have quantitatively evaluated rock fall hazard along a 20 kilo- metres section of the central part of the valley. The source areas of rock falls (i.e., the detachment zones) were identified from vertical aerial photographs and in the field. Parameters controlling the loss of energy at impact points and during rolling were ob- tained from a surface geology map prepared updating a geological map through the analysis of aerial photographs and field surveys. Maps of the expected rock fall count, a proxy for the probability of being hit by rock falls, and of the expected maximum velocity and flying height, proxies for rock fall intensity, were used to evaluate rock fall hazard. A map of the main structures (i.e., villages and single houses) and of the infrastructure (state roads and other secondary roads) was combined into a GIS with the rock fall hazard map to obtain a preliminary map of rock fall risk. The location and characteristics of the new defensive measures were compared to the rock fall hazard 1 and risk maps to evaluate their usefulness and efficacy 2

  3. Modeling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salciarini, D.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Conversini, P.; Baum, R.L.; Michael, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We model the rainfall-induced initiation of shallow landslides over a broad region using a deterministic approach, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-stability (TRIGRS) model that couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution for transient pore pressure response to rainfall infiltration. This model permits the evaluation of regional shallow landslide susceptibility in a Geographic Information System framework, and we use it to analyze susceptibility to shallow landslides in an area in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy. As shown on a landslide inventory map produced by the Italian National Research Council, the area has been affected in the past by shallow landslides, many of which have transformed into debris flows. Input data for the TRIGRS model include time-varying rainfall, topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water table depth, and material strength and hydraulic properties. Because of a paucity of input data, we focus on parametric analyses to calibrate and test the model and show the effect of variation in material properties and initial water table conditions on the distribution of simulated instability in the study area in response to realistic rainfall. Comparing the results with the shallow landslide inventory map, we find more than 80% agreement between predicted shallow landslide susceptibility and the inventory, despite the paucity of input data.

  4. 11-14 November 2012 Umbria Region (Central Italy) flood event: from prediction to management for civil protection purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Zauri, Renato; Ponziani, Francesco; Francioni, Marco; Governatori Leonardi, Federico; Formica, Alessandro; Natazzi, Loredana; Costantini, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    Following laws and regulations concerning extreme natural events management, the Italian national hydrometeorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres - CF). Umbria Region CF is located in Central Italy and provides early warning, monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) when significant flood/landslide events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. For the real time flood forecasting system, at the CF several operational hydrological and hydraulic models were developed and implemented for a "dynamic" hazard/risk scenario assessment for Civil Protection DSS, useful also for the development of Flood Risk Management Plans according to the European "Floods Directive" 2007/60. In the period 11th-14th November 2012, a significant flood event occurred in Umbria (as well as Tuscany and northern Lazio). The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 300 mm in 72 hours and, generally, values greater than the seasonal averages all over the region. In the most affected area the recorded rainfall depths correspond to centenarian return period: one-third of the annual mean precipitation occurred in 2-3 days. Almost all rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds, and several ones overflowed. Furthermore, in some cases, so high water levels have never been recorded by the hydrometric network. As in the major flood events occurred in the last years, dams (Montedoglio and Corbara dams along Tiber River and Casanuova dam along Chiascio River) and other hydraulic works for flood defense (e.g. along Chiani stream) played a very important mitigation role, storing high water volumes and avoiding the overlap of peak discharges downstream. During the event many emergency interventions were necessary. There were no casualties among the population, but many landslides and flooding occurred causing over 240 million Euros of damages (to hydraulic works, infrastructures, public and commercial facilities, residential buildings, agriculture, etc.) enough to induce the Regional Administration to request declaration of state of emergency to the National Government. The day before the beginning of the event (10th November) QPFs values were high enough to activate "Attention" Phase of Regional Civil Protection System and CF, during the critical phases, provided 24h decision support activities, also through the official web site (www.cfumbria.it), very useful for monitoring and data/info dissemination from the national to the municipality level. The thresholds presented good agreement with direct territorial presidiums observations and the alert system has been tested. The purpose of this work is to highlight what worked well and what did not, in order to improve the early warning and DSS for Civil Protection purposes.

  5. A low-angle normal fault in the Umbria region (Central Italy): a mechanical model for the related microseismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collettini, Cristiano; Barchi, Massimiliano R.

    2002-11-01

    In the Northern Apennines, the upper crust is thinned by a set of east-dipping low-angle normal faults (LANFs): the easternmost and more recent of these LANFs is the Altotiberina Fault (ATF) located in Northern Umbria. The geometry of the ATF has been reconstructed matching surface geology with seismic reflection profiles and borehole data. The fault, whose average dip is ˜20°, borders the Upper Pliocene-Quaternary Tiber basin and has a displacement of about 8 km. The deeper portion of the ATF is located below the axial zone of the Northern Apennines where the strongest instrumental and historical seismicity is recorded; the microseismicity of the region ( M<3.0), located between 4 and 14 km in depth, shows a fairly good correlation with the trajectory of the ATF. We apply frictional reactivation theory, under vertical trajectories of σ1, to evaluate the boundary conditions for the brittle activity of the ATF. The fault can be reactivated for low values of differential stress ( σ1- σ3<28 MPa), relatively high values of tensile strength of the fault surrounding rocks ( T˜10 MPa), and tensile fluid overpressure Pf> σ3 (e.g. λv>0.93). In the peculiar situation of the Northern Apennines, the deep emissions of large amounts of CO 2 documented in the area can be entrapped in their ascent by structural seals (e.g. ATF) favouring localised fluid overpressures. The impossibility of sustaining Pf> σ3 for wide fault portions, counteracted by hydraulic fracturing, increased permeability under low effective stress and load weakening behaviour for normal faulting, would prevent the nucleation of moderate ruptures along the fault. The short-lived attainment of Pf> σ3 along small fault portions can account for the microseismic activity located along the ATF, which occurs on rupture surfaces in the range of 10 -1-10 -3 km 2.

  6. Fractal scaling of landslide distribution in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liucci, Luisa; Melelli, Laura; Ponziani, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    The application of the fractal theory has made a great contribution to the understanding of surface processes governing landscape evolution. In this study we focus on landslide events, which also have critical implications in Natural Hazard assessment. Several works have shown that landslides can be described as processes characterized by self-organized criticality. Based on this, the distribution of landslides in the Umbria Region (Central Italy) was analysed by means of fractal techniques. Statistical self-similarity in space was investigated by applying the box-counting method and the Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm to the inventory map of landslide trigger points. Results showed the existence of fractal scaling and provided an estimate of the Capacity Dimension (D0) and Correlation Dimension (D2) of the sample, the latter expressed as the mean regional value. The characteristic minimum distance of landslides was extrapolated from the lower scaling limit for D0. In order to investigate the spatial pattern of landslides, artificial point maps were generated. Three different distributions were imposed on the points: i) uniform distribution, ii) random distribution and iii) cluster distribution. The box-counting method was applied to each distribution and the calculated Capacity Dimensions were compared with that of the natural sample. Results showed that landslides in the Umbria Region display spatial clustering. In addition, the D0 measured for the uniform distribution, lower than 2, highlights that the statement that a D0 equal to 2 indicates a uniform distribution of points in a 2-dimensional space must be carefully considered on a case by case basis, since the shape of the embedding space strongly affects its value. Additional analyses were carried out to address the problem of the 'edge effect' in the computation of D2, which results in the underestimation of its value and may lead to incorrect interpretations of the statistical distribution of points. We propose a GIS-based approach to estimate correlation among points in terms of density. This approach enables us to efficiently treat also points near the boundaries, thus avoiding the loss of information. By applying this method, a scaling behavior was identified in the variation of the density of landslides in their neighborhoods.

  7. Operational flood forecasting system of Umbria Region "Functional Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, N.; Pandolfo, C.; Stelluti, M.; Ponziani, F.; Viterbo, A.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrometeorological alert office (called "Decentrate Functional Centre" - CFD) of Umbria Region, in central Italy, is the office that provides technical tools able to support decisions when significant flood/landslide events occur, furnishing 24h support for the whole duration of the emergency period, according to the national directive DPCM 27 February 2004 concerning the "Operating concepts for functional management of national and regional alert system during flooding and landslide events for civil protection activities purposes" that designs, within the Italian Civil Defence Emergency Management System, a network of 21 regional Functional Centres coordinated by a central office at the National Civil Protection Department in Rome. Due to its "linking" role between Civil Protection "real time" activities and environmental/planning "deferred time" ones, the Centre is in charge to acquire and collect both real time and quasi-static data: quantitative data from monitoring networks (hydrometeorological stations, meteo radar, ...), meteorological forecasting models output, Earth Observation data, hydraulic and hydrological simulation models, cartographic and thematic GIS data (vectorial and raster type), planning studies related to flooding areas mapping, dam managing plans during flood events, non instrumental information from direct control of "territorial presidium". A detailed procedure for the management of critical events was planned, also in order to define the different role of various authorities and institutions involved. Tiber River catchment, of which Umbria region represents the main upper-medium portion, includes also regional trans-boundary issues very important to cope with, especially for what concerns large dam behavior and management during heavy rainfall. The alert system is referred to 6 different warning areas in which the territory has been divided into and based on a threshold system of three different increasing critical levels according to the expected ground effects: ordinary, moderate and high. Particularly, hydrometric and rainfall thresholds for both floods and landslides alarms were assessed. Based on these thresholds, at the Umbria Region Functional Centre an automatic phone-call and SMS alert system is operating. For a real time flood forecasting system, at the CFD several hydrological and hydraulic models were developed. Three rainfall-runoff hydrological models, using different quantitative meteorological forecasts, are available: the event based models X-Nash (based on the Nash theory) and Mike-Drift coupled with the hydraulic model Mike-11 (developed by the Danish Hydraulic Institute - DHI); and the physically-based continuous model Mobidic (MOdello di Bilancio Idrologico DIstribuito e Continuo - Distributed and Continuous Model for the Hydrological Balance, developed by the University of Florence in cooperation with the Functional Centre of Tuscany Region). Other two hydrological models, using observed data of the real time hydrometeorological network, were implemented: the first one is the rainfall-runoff hydrological model Hec-Hms coupled with the hydraulic model Hec-Ras (United States Army Corps of Engineers - USACE). Moreover, Hec-Hms, is coupled also with a continuous soil moisture model for a more precise evaluation of the antecedent moisture condition of the basin, which is a key factor for a correct runoff volume evaluation. The second one is the routing hydrological model Stafom (STage FOrecasting Model, developed by the Italian Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection of the National Research Council - IRPI-CNR). This model is an adaptive model for on-line stage forecasting for river branches where significant lateral inflow contributions occur and, up to now, it is implemented for the main Tiber River branch and it allows a forecasting lead time up to 10 hours for the downstream river section. Recently, during the period between December the 4th and the 16th 2008, Umbria region territory was interested by a severe rainfall event causing many floods and landslides. During the mainly critical phases the CFD furnished an immediate, significant 24h support for the decision support activities. The official web site (www.cfumbria.it), entirely developed with open source tools, represented a very useful device furnishing good performances for the monitoring and data dissemination to all the subjects involved, especially to the National/Regional Civil Protection offices and territorial presidium. Thresholds presented good accordance with non instrumental observations and automatic alert system was very effective. At last, during the flooding event a continuous link with the National Department, regional Civil Protection offices, territorial presidium and local public services, together with real time instrumental monitoring and now-casting hydrological activities performed by available models, represented a suitable junction between practice and science in CFD operational forecasting system at local, regional and national scale.

  8. Orbital Cyclicities Above and Below the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, Umbria-Marche Region, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, D. T., Jr.; Petruny, L. W.; Rampino, M. R.; Prokoph, A.; Pope, K.; Fischer, A. G.; Montanari, A.; Ocampo, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    In the Umbria-Marche region of central Italy, the deep basinal carbonate Scaglia Rossa Formation contains an important sequence of Cretaceous-Tertiary strata including a detailed paleomagnetic record and the distal impactoclastic Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay layer. In addition to this significant paleomagnetic and impactoclastic record, the Scaglia Rossa also contains potentially important stratigraphic evidence of relatively long-term oceanic and atmospheric consequences of the Cretaceous-Tertiary bolide catastrophe, which we will describe for the first time herein. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Qc, Qβ, Qi and Qs attenuation parameters in the Umbria-Marche (Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    The attenuation of coda and S waves has been inferred for the Umbria-Marche region (central Italy) using seismic waveforms collected during the 1997 seismic crisis. The selected dataset is composed of 343 small magnitude (1.4 < ML < 4.2) earthquakes recorded at a temporary array composed of 23 seismic stations. The Sato (1977) method, based on the assumption of single isotropic scattering has been used to infer Qc, considering three different lapse times (20, 30 and 40 s). The coda normalization method (Aki, 1980) has been used to infer Qβ. Both Qc and Qβ show a clear frequency dependence with a different frequency dependent parameter. The frequency dependence of Qc is comparable with that previously found in the same area and around it. Using the method of Wennerberg (1993), intrinsic and scattering attenuation have been separated. Intrinsic attenuation is found to be close to coda attenuation and dominates over scattering dissipation. Coda Q increases with increasing lapse time but at a rate smaller than that observed in other areas of the Earth. Coda and intrinsic attenuation in the Umbria-Marche region are very high compared to other seismic active regions of the Earth. The retrieved high values of intrinsic attenuation may be explained in terms of the previously hypothesized fluid-pressurized regime of the crust in the central Apennines (Miller et al., 2004).

  10. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In Italy, dog shelters are overcrowded because the rate of dog adoption is lower than that of abandonment. A project called “RandAgiamo” was implemented in a rescue shelter in central Italy. RandAgiamo provides training, socialization and advertising of adult shelter dogs. Official data of the Umbria regional health authorities from the year 2014 showed a higher rate of adoption in shelters involved in the project. RandAgiamo dogs had triple odds of being adopted compared to others housed in shelters of the same province. The increase in adoption rate can be beneficial for both dog welfare and shelter management. Abstract Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this “no-kill policy” has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (p < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  11. Scale-Invariance in the Spatial Development of Landslides in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liucci, Luisa; Melelli, Laura; Suteanu, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of mass movements is a major issue in the management and forecasting of landslide risk. In this context, the present study examines the most widespread types of landslide in the Umbria region (central Italy), that is, slides and flows, in order to establish if it is possible to identify a well-defined structure in their spatial pattern. By using the landslide inventory map available for the area and by resorting to the principles of fractal theory, the scaling properties of the landslide sample were investigated. The application of the box-counting algorithm to the maps of landslide triggering points and landslide areas allowed for the identification of a clear scale-invariant structure. Two distinct types of fractal behaviour were recognized, separated by a scale value of 1 km and characterized by capacity dimensions of 1.35 and 1.76, in the ranges of 25 m-1 km and 1-16 km, respectively. The comparison between the scaling exponents obtained from a map of points and one of areas, and the elaboration of the cumulative frequency distributions of landslide areas supported the interpretation of this result: the higher capacity dimension describes the spatial distribution of landslides in the Umbria region, while the lower contains additional information about their geometries, suggesting that the latter also possess scaling properties. Based on the finding of two different types of behaviour of landslides in space, the hypothesis is discussed that the contribution of each causal factor (i.e., predisposing and triggering factors) to the occurrence of landslide events and to their spatial development could be different in the two scale ranges identified, depending on its spatial variability at local and regional scale. According to this hypothesis, factors with high local variability (i.e., topographic attributes) would mainly affect the assortment of landslide geometries, while those with high regional variability (e.g., rainfalls and lithology) would mainly affect the pattern of the landslides.

  12. [Analysis of the causes of death in the Umbria Region (Italy) 1994-2008].

    PubMed

    D'Alò, Daniela; Stracci, Fabrizio; Casucci, Paola; Stabile, Marco; La Rosa, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The leading causes of death in the Umbria Region (Italy) between 1994-2008 were analysed and a comparison was made between data from three five-year time periods: 1994-1998, 1999-2003 and 2004-2008. Standardized rates of Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) at 75 years, by gender and cause of death, were also measured. Mortality data was obtained from the Umbria Registry of causes of death; diagnoses were codified according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD10). Mortality trends over time were analysed by using standardized mortality rates with the 2001 Umbria census data as the reference population . The joinpoint regression program was used to analyze rates calculated by the SEER (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results) software of the National Cancer Institute (USA). Mortality for all causes, standardised by age, show a significantly decreasing trend from 1994 to 2008 in both genders. Mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumours show a significant constant decline in both genders. Standardised rates of YPLL at 75 years declined by 32% in males and 29% in females between the five-year period 1994-1998 and the period 2004-2008. In conclusion, a generalised decline in mortality and a shift towards older age groups is observed with a consequent decline in YPLL, allowing a positive judgment to be given regarding the efficacy of preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitation interventions implemented by the regional health care system. PMID:20859307

  13. Scaling regimes in landslide patterns: applications in the Umbria region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liucci, Luisa; Suteanu, Cristian; Melelli, Laura

    2015-04-01

    In areas characterized by high slope instability, landslide events play a predominant role in shaping the landscape. In order to improve forecasting, numerous techniques are used to identify areas prone to landslides on the basis of information acquirable from past events. However, no single model has been able to fully capture the complexity of the distribution of this phenomenon in space. This paper studies the spatial distribution of landslides in the Umbria Region (central Italy). We investigate the scaling properties of patterns produced by two mechanisms, slides and flows. In the geomorphological context of the study area and due to the outcropping rocks, both landslide types are mainly triggered by rainfall and represent 80% of mass movements. The landslide inventory consists of about 24,000 events and it has been represented as two different types of maps: (i) a point map indicating the top points of landslides, and (ii) a polygon map showing the extent of each landslide event. The scaling properties of the landslides are investigated by applying the box-counting algorithm to maps (i) and (ii), respectively. The analysis reveals that the spatial development of landslides in the study area possesses a characteristic fractal structure. For map (i) a scaling domain is found within the range of 1-16 km with an exponent of 1.74 ± 0.03, while for scales below 1 km the pattern does not preserve its fractal properties. For map (ii) the result is partly different. Two scaling regimes are identified, separated by a scale threshold of 1 km. In the range of 1-16 km a scaling exponent of 1.76 ± 0.01 is observed, which is similar to the one obtained for map (i). However, for this map scaling is also found within the range of 25 m - 1 km, with an exponent of 1.35 ± 0.02. The analysis of the frequency distribution of landslide areas reveals that the sizes of boxes used for the box-counting algorithm in the lower scale range are comparable to those of 98% of landslides. Therefore, the scaling exponent of 1.35 can be interpreted as reflecting geometric features characterizing landslides: their areas, shapes, and mutual spatial relationships. On the other hand, the two scaling exponents obtained in the range of 1-16 km (1.74 and 1.76) describe the spatial distribution of the landslides, rather than the features of landslide shapes.

  14. Modelling coseismic displacements during the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunstad, Ingrid; Anzidei, Marco; Cocco, Massimo; Baldi, Paolo; Galvani, Alessandro; Pesci, Arianna

    1999-11-01

    We propose a dislocation model for the two normal faulting earthquakes that struck the central Apennines (Umbria-Marche, Italy) on 1997 September 26 at 00:33 (Mw 5.7) and 09:40 GMT (Mw 6.0). We fit coseismic horizontal and vertical displacements resulting from GPS measurements at several monuments of the IGMI (Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano) by means of a dislocation model in an elastic, homogeneous, isotropic half-space. Our best-fitting model consists of two normal faults whose mechanisms and seismic moments have been taken from CMT solutions; it is consistent with other seismological and geophysical observations. The first fault, which is 6 km long and 7 km wide, ruptured during the 00:33 event with a unilateral rupture towards the SE and an average slip of 27 cm. The second fault is 12 km long and 10 km wide, and ruptured during the 09:40 event with a nearly unilateral rupture towards the NW. Slip distribution on this second fault is non-uniform and is concentrated in its SE portion (maximum slip is 65 cm), where rupture initiated. The 00:33 fault is deeper than the 09:40 one: the top of the first rupture is deeper than 1.7 km the top of the second is 0.6 km deep. In order to interpret the observed epicentral subsidence we have also considered the contributions of two further moderate-magnitude earthquakes that occurred on 1997 October 3 (Mw 5.2) and 6 (Mw 5.4), immediately before the GPS survey, and were located very close to the 09:40 event of September 26. We compare the pattern of vertical displacements resulting from our forward modelling of GPS data with that derived from SAR interferograms: the fit to SAR data is very good, confirming the reliability of the proposed dislocation model.

  15. High resolution biogeochemistry in the Upper Cenomanian black shales of the Umbria-Marche Basin (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombardiere, L.; Farrimond, P.; Tyson, R. V.; Forster, A.; Sinninghe-Damsté, J.

    2003-04-01

    The uppermost Cenomanian "anoxic event" (i.e. OAE2) in the Umbria-Marche Basin is recorded by a 0.7-1.2 metre thick interval (the Bonarelli Level) consisting of black, organic-rich laminated mudstones ("black shales"), radiolarian layers and grey-greenish, organic-poor claystones. The occurrence of the radiolarian layers and the organic-poor claystones defines three lithological sub-units which can be correlated at basin scale. In addition, a number of thin black shales ("Bonarelli precursors") has been observed in the limestones underlying the Bonarelli Level; their occurrence appears to be tuned with Milankovitch cycles. This study investigates palaeoproductivity and preservation in the Bonarelli Level and in the precursors using a high resolution molecular biomarker analysis. The onset of the Bonarelli deposition (i.e. the lower sub-unit) is characterized by a drastic increase in the relative abundance of compounds associated with algal precursors (e.g. steranes and phytane). Equally, the same interval shows an increase in the biomarker proxies related to the intensity of oxygen depletion (e.g. homohopane index). The other two Bonarelli sub-units also reflect fluctuations in oxic-anoxic conditions and palaeoproductivity. As the molecular compounds thought to reflect qualitative changes in palaeoproductivity and anoxia do not exhibit any significant differencies between the precursor black shales and the Bonarelli Level, the palaeoenvironmental conditions leading to organic-rich sediments were presumably similar. The results from the Italian sites have been compared with two other OAE2 localities, both characterized by proximal depositional settings: Oued Bahloul (Tunisia) and Tarfaya (Morocco). This work is supported by the European Community's Improving Human Potential Programme under contract HPRN-CT-1999-00055, C/T-NET.

  16. Ultramafic intrusion triggers hydrothermal explosions at Colle Fabbri (Spoleto, Umbria), Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppa, Francesco; Rosatelli, Gianluigi

    2009-10-01

    The eroded Colle Fabbri volcano comprises intrusive and extrusive rocks which cover an area of about 10,000 m 2 in the Umbria region, Central Italy. The outcrop is located at the SW boundary of the Umbria Valley Graben (Umbria Region) on an N140 normal fault inside the Intramountain Ultra-Alkaline Province of carbonatite and melilitite rocks of central-southern Italy. A field survey of the outcrop allowed a reconstruction of igneous activity events of this unusual small-scale volcano. It is younger than 0.7 m.y. and rests on Lower Pleistocene conglomerates with intercalated clay beds. A palaeosoil marks the base of the volcanic sequence. It follows several metres of extrusive breccias composed of fragments of thermometamorphosed clay and travertine. Key features of these breccias are mud shells on blocks, plastic mud lumps, slumps, and mechanical injection from one layer into another, as well as plastic and vesiculated, micro-brecciated matrix. The breccias are cemented by a variety of silicate, sulphate, and sulphate-carbonate minerals deposited by intense hydrothermal circulation. The breccias are related to phreatic explosions triggered by the eruption of a superficial hydrothermal system. Up to 1 m thick sill and a dykelet swarm intrude the breccias. In the southern part of the outcrop there is a plug of melilitolitic composition which intrudes the breccias and deforms them upward. A variety of contact breccias is also scattered around the sill and the plug. In some places, hyaloclastite formed when melt invaded water pockets contained in the encasing rocks under hydrostatic pressure conditions. A thermal aureole, which moves up to 10 m away from the contact, is characterised by cordierite-trydimite association, thus indicating high-temperature (>>1000 °C) contact phenomena.

  17. Shear Wave Structure of Umbria and Marche, Italy, Strong Motion Seismometer Sites Affected by the 1997-98 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert; Scasserra, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Lanzo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    A long sequence of earthquakes, eight with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck the Umbria and Marche regions of central Italy between September 26, 1997 and July 1998. The earthquake swarm caused severe structural damage, particularly to masonry buildings, and resulted in the loss of twelve lives and about 150 injuries. The source of the events was a single seismogenic structure that consists of several faults with a prevailing northwest-southeast strike and crosses the Umbria-Marche border. The focal mechanism of the largest shocks indicates that the events were the product of shallow extensional normal faulting along a NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines. The network of analog seismometer stations in the Umbria and Marche regions recorded motions of the main September and October 1997 events and a dense array of mobile digital stations, installed since September 29, recorded most of the swarm. The permanent national network Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) is administered and maintained by Dipartimento delle Protezione Civile (DPC: Civil Protection Department); the temporary array was managed by Servizio Sismico Nazionale (SSN) in cooperation with small agencies and Universities. ENEA, the operator of many seismometer stations in Umbria, is the public Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment. Many of the temporary and permanent stations in the Italian seismic network have little or no characterization of seismic velocities. In this study, we investigated 17 Italian sites using an active-source approach that employs low frequency harmonic waves to measure the dispersive nature of surface waves in the ground. We used the Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) approach, coupled with an array of harmonic-wave electro-mechanical sources that are driven in-phase to excite the ground. An inversion algorithm using a non-linear least-squares best-fit method is used to compute shear wave velocities for up to 100 meters of the soil column. A draft report was published in the summer of 2008, followed by a comment period, lengthy discussions with Italian colleagues, and improved knowledge of the subsurface at the sites from soil logs. Four of the sites were reprocessed in order to correct issues with phase unwrapping of the field dispersion curves that complicated the velocity profile calculations at the lowest velocity sites. This report presents the final results from the reprocessing effort.

  18. Positive inversion tectonics in foreland fold-and-thrust belts: A reappraisal of the Umbria-Marche Northern Apennines (Central Italy) by integrating geological and geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scisciani, Vittorio; Agostini, Simone; Calamita, Fernando; Pace, Paolo; Cilli, Andrea; Giori, Italiano; Paltrinieri, Werter

    2014-12-01

    Unraveling the tectonic style in the outer zones of fold-and-thrust belts is generally puzzling because the basement-cover relationships are often hidden in the subsurface as in the outer Northern Apennines of Italy. This study aims to reconstruct the deep setting of the Northern Apennine foreland thrust belt by integrating surface structural-geological and subsurface seismic reflection profile and well data, corroborated by a gravity-magnetic modeling. A remarkable mountain ridge, the Umbria-Marche Apennine Ridge (UMAR), which corresponds to a prominent area of structural and topographic elevation, characterizes the morphology of the Northern Apennines. This mountain ridge is constituted by Meso-Cenozoic carbonates involved in Neogene compressive structures and is surrounded by wide exposures of foredeep deposits. The basement-cover relationships are poorly constrained and both thin- and thick-skinned tectonic styles have been applied. The interpretation of subsurface data allowed recognizing a thick pre-Jurassic sedimentary sequence filling a late Paleozoic(?)-Triassic symmetric fault-bounded extensional basin, lying directly below the UMAR. This deep-rooted basin underwent positive inversion during the Neogene compression and thrust-fold development. The reconstructed thick-skinned inversion tectonic model is consistent with both the modest amount of shortening and the remarkable structural elevation of the UMAR. The outcomes of this study reveal that prominent mountain ridges occurring in foreland thrust belts are most likely related to the deep-rooted basement-involved positive inversion of pre-existing extensional basins.

  19. [Use Of Hospital Services By The Immigrant Population In Umbria, Italy].

    PubMed

    Casadei, Riccardo; Angeli, Giuseppe; Casucci, Paola; Minelli, Liliana; Pasquini, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify possible inequalities in the quality of health care services for the management of conditions such as cardiovascolar diseases, psychiatric disorders, appendectomy, and hysterectomy, offered to the immigrant population in the Umbria region (central Italy). Hospital discharge data covering the period 2009-2012 were analysed and crude and standardized hospitalization rates per 100,000 calculated. Immigrants were found to have an increased risk of undergoing procedures such as appendectomy and hysterectomy for benign disease, indicating a greater degree of nonappropriateness in this category of users. In the young immigrant population, admissions were mainly due to reproductive health problems in women, and injuries/trauma in men. The results of this study confirm that, despite regional efforts to reduce social inequalities and consequently inequalities in health, through regional legislation, information to the population, training of healthcare personnel, and cultural mediation, some inequalities are present in the quality of health care delivered to foreign-born persons in the region. Hence, there is a need to strengthen information campaigns for immigrants, to keep them informed of their rights, and to strengthen training courses among healthcare and social workers. PMID:27077557

  20. Central America: A Regional Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowry, George; Lacy, Ann

    This lesson is a series of activities and multi-media presentations designed to enable students to understand the historic and geographic roots of some of the problems that Central American nations have faced. Geography, history, writing, and storytelling are used as ways of understanding a multicultural world. Creative thinking and participation

  1. Structural and morphological characterization of active intermontane basins: a case of the Gubbio captured basin (Umbria Pre-Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavitolo, Paolo; Menichetti, Marco; Nesci, Olivia; Savelli, Daniele; Troiani, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Intermontane basins characterize many orogenic chains, where they are originated either by crustal stretching or gravitational collapse of the axial zones of the chain. Extensional and/or transtensional mechanisms generate structures with geometries controlled by fault-bounded depressed areas, which in some cases are seismogenetic. The western sector of the Northern Apennines in Central Italy is characterized by several intermontane basins filled by continental Plio-Pleistocene sediments. At present, a few of these basins are depressed endorheic areas, whereas most of them have been captured by river upstream erosion. The morphotectonic characterization at both regional and local scale of these structures is crucial considering the associated geological hazards due to clustered seismicity and seismic-related slope-instability along the basin-margins. This work presents a multi-disciplinary approach based on new and existing data to define the structural geometries, landforms and processes related to the genesis and the morphoevolution of the intermountain valleys/captured-basins in Central Italy. Quantitative geomorphological analyses from Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) are compared with geological and structural data and with geophysical investigations of active and sismogenetic faults bordering the Gubbio valley in the Umbria Pre-Apennines in central Italy. This 4 km-wide valley extends for ca. 20 km in NW-SE direction and is bounded along the NE margin by a SW-dipping listric normal fault with an offset of 1500 m. The area locates along one of the main seismogenic portion of the Apennine chain and recorded historical (i.e., April 29, 1984: Ms 5.3) and many instrumental earthquakes. In this study, new data on the slope-instability along the basin-margins and the influence of active tectonics and gravitational phenomena on the streams incision and aggradation are also provided.

  2. Regional Adaptation Strategies in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge on international, national, and regional scale. It affects the scientific world as well as policymakers, representatives of economy, and the public. Consequently, the need for a dialogue between experts in climate change and the people affected is needed. However, structuring and communicating climate change information on the various scales is challenging and demands coordination. Within the Helmholtz community in Germany, four regional Helmholtz climate offices are founded. One of their major goals is to encourage the communication between science and public. Primarily, this is done by close cooperation to the Helmholtz research centers at which each climate office is hosted. Second, a continuous exchange is supported beyond the Helmholtz research centers towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. Each regional Helmholtz climate office represents regional aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting Helmholtz research institutes. In the Climate Office for central Germany, Land use changes are among the most important factors of climate change driven environmental changes which have to be managed by the society in the next years. Since 1991 UFZ scientists research the causes and consequences of far-reaching environmental changes. The Climate Office offers information about climate change effects on the environmental compartments, land use strategies as well as regional strategies of adaptation. The three federal states in Central Germany (Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia) handle adaptation to climate change very differently. The presentation focusses on alikeness and differences in the adaptation process.

  3. Modeling regional climate of southern central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulakeza, Matthew Batison

    1998-09-01

    An application of a regional model to regional climate modeling over southern central Africa has been examined. The Florida State University regional model (FSURM) employed in this study includes an improved parameterization of soil moisture availability (SMA). The model utilizes output from the Florida State University global Spectral model (FSUGSM) as its initial and lateral boundary conditions. Evaluation of the FSURM and FSUGSM reveal that regional climate modeling over the region of interest maybe feasible. The improved version of SMA uses a soil moisture parameter based on a vertically integrated moisture continuity considerations to estimate the Bowen ratio. It is expressed as a function of time varying the Normalized vegetation Index (NDVI), model predicted rainfall, surface temperature and takes into account ground characteristics through its dependence on varied albedo and surface topography. This scheme developed based on NDVI is used in conjunction with a prognostic equation for surface temperature to compute the surface energy fluxes during regional model's integrations. Using global model forecasts as boundary conditions, experiments were performed for February 1983, December 1982 and 1988. The ECMWF December 1988 analysis was used to test stability of the regional model to different boundary conditions. All the experiments were run for thirty days each. Experiments reveal that the introduction of the improved SMA scheme appears to have a positive impact on simulated rainfall through the modified soil moisture availability, sensible and latent heat fluxes. The FSURM was able to simulated realistic rain producing systems and the associated rainfall distribution and diurnal variation matched well with active stress of the systems.

  4. Central region of SKKUCY-9 compact cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, S. Y.; Kim, H. W.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Park, J. K.; Chai, J. S.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-04-01

    The development of a 9 MeV compact cyclotron for the production of radioisotopes for medical applications has been recently completed. The machine accelerates negative hydrogen ions generated from an internal PIG (Penning Ion Gauge) ion source following spiral orbits. Some of the structures designed for early beam acceleration, including a pair of center poles providing ions a circular direction, the head of the ion source, and the electrodes, are located in the center of the cyclotron. In this paper we discuss and evaluate the design of the central region that pulls the ions from the chimney of the ion source and directs them into the equilibrium orbit. The magnetic field produced by the center poles was analyzed using the magnetic solver in OPERA-3D TOSCA, and the phase error and ion equilibrium orbit, which is dependent on the kinetic energy within the designed field, were calculated using CYCLONE v8.4. The electric field produced in the acceleration gap was designed using an electrostatic solver. Then, the single beam trajectory was calculated by our own Cyclotron Beam Dynamics (CBD) code. The early orbits, vertical oscillation, acceptable RF phase and the energy gain during the early turns was evaluated. Final goal was to design the central region by the iterative optimization process and verify it with 1 MeV beam experiment.

  5. A Bibliography of Manpower Projections for the North Central Region. North Central Regional Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography contains studies of manpower projections for areas within the north central region of the United States which includes Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin. The studies are listed by state and the annotations provide a brief description of the nature of the study, primary contents, and…

  6. Kinematic analysis of recent and active faults of the southern Umbria-Marche domain, Northern Apennines, Italy: geological constraints to geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqui, Valeria; Viti, Marcello; Mantovani, Enzo

    2013-04-01

    The recent and active deformation that affects the crest zone of the Umbria-Marche belt (Northern Apennines, Italy) displays a remarkable extensional character, outlined by development of normal fault sets that overprint pre-existing folds and thrusts of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene age. The main extensional fault systems often bound intermontane depressions hosting recent, mainly continental, i.e. fluvial or lacustrine deposits, separating the latter from Triassic-Miocene, mainly carbonatic and siliciclastic marine rocks that belong to the Romagna-Umbria-Marche stratigraphic succession. Stratigraphic data indicate that the extensional strain responsible for the development of normal fault-bounded continental basins in the outer zones of the Northern Apennines was active until Middle Pleistocene time. Since Middle Pleistocene time onwards a major geodynamic change has affected the Central Mediterranean region, with local reorganization of the kinematics in the Adria domain and adjacent Apennine belt. A wide literature illustrates that the overall deformation field of the Central Mediterranean area is presently governed by the relative movements between the Eurasia and Africa plates. The complex interaction of the Africa-Adria and the Anatolian-Aegean-Balkan domains has led the Adria microplate to migrate NW-ward and to collide against Eurasia along the Eastern Southern Alps. As a consequence Adria is presently moving with a general left-lateral displacement with respect to the Apennine mountain belt. The sinistral component of active deformations is also supported by analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms. A comparison between geophysical and geological evidence outlines an apparent discrepancy: most recognized recent and active faults display a remarkable extensional character, as shown by the geometry of continental basin-bounding structutes, whereas geodetic and seismologic evidence indicates the persistency of an active strike-slip, left-lateral dominated strain field. The coexistence of extensional and strike-slip regimes, in principle difficult to achieve, may be explained in the framework of a transtensional deformation model where extensional components, normal to the main NW-directed structural trends, are associated to left-lateral strike-slip movements parallel to the main NW-directed structural trends. Critical for the evaluation of the internal consistency of a deformation model for the brittle upper crustal levels is the definition of the kinematics of active faults. In this study we illustrate the preliminary results of a kinematic analysis carried out along 20, exceptionally well exposed, recent and active fault surfaces cropping out in the southernmost portion of the Umbria-Marche belt adjacent to its termination against the the Latium-Abruzzi domain to the East. The collected data indicate that the investigated faults reflect a kinematically oblique character, and that development of these structures may be explained in the framework of a left-dominated transtensional strain field. More important, the data indicate that fault kinematic analysis is an effective tool in testing geodynamic models for actively deforming crustal domains.

  7. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  8. 12 CFR 790.2 - Central and regional office organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... responsibility for the management and administration of NCUA's information resources. This includes the... requests for releasable Agency information, and insuring all related material security and integrity risks... Central Office in Alexandria, Virginia, five Regional Offices, the Asset Management and Assistance...

  9. Central Region: A Report Identifying and Addressing the Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the deliberations of the Central Regional Advisory Committee (RAC), one of 10 RACs established under the Educational Technical Assistance Act of 2002 (20 U.S.C. sections 9601 et. seq.) to assess the educational needs of the region. The committee's report outlines the educational needs across the states of Colorado, Kansas,…

  10. MOHO ORIENTATION BENEATH CENTRAL CALIFORNIA FROM REGIONAL EARTHQUAKE TRAVEL TIMES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppenheimer, David H.; Eaton, Jerry P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines relative Pn arrival times, recorded by the U. S. Geological Survey seismic network in central and northern California from an azimuthally distributed set of regional earthquakes. Improved estimates are presented of upper mantle velocities in the Coast Ranges, Great Valley, and Sierra Nevada foothills and estimates of the orientation of the Moho throughout this region. Finally, the azimuthal distribution of apparent velocities, corrected for dip and individual station travel time effects, is then studied for evidence of upper mantle velocity anisotropy and for indications of lower crustal structure in central California.

  11. Photometry of the central region of the Andromeda Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharov, A. S.; Lyutyj, V. M.

    1980-06-01

    The photoelectric U, B, V observations of the central region of M81 made in 166 fields at distances of 54-351 arcsec from the center are used to explain the structure of the central condensation of the galaxy. The surface-brightness isophotes can be fit by ellipses varying in axial ratio from 0.9 to 0.6 and in position angle from 70 to 45 deg. The central condensation may include a bar in the form of a triaxial ellipsoid; the nucleus occupies an asymmetric position in this condensation, shifted by 22 arcsec northwest relative to the most distant U isophote at a = 368 arcsec. The apparent eccentricity with respect to the outlying isophotes is caused by distribution of dust, as shown by the colorimetric B - V, U - B color-index profiles reflecting the dust in the central condensation of M31.

  12. Photometry of the central region of the Andromeda Nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Sharov, A.S.; Liutyi, V.M.

    1980-05-01

    The photoelectric U, B, V observations of the central region of M81 made in 166 fields at distances of 54-351 arcsec from the center are used to explain the structure of the central condensation of the galaxy. The surface-brightness isophotes can be fit by ellipses varying in axial ratio from 0.9 to 0.6 and in position angle from 70 to 45 deg. The central condensation may include a bar in the form of a triaxial ellipsoid the nucleus occupies an asymmetric position in this condensation, shifted by 22 arcsec northwest relative to the most distant U isophote at a 368 arcsec. The apparent eccentricity with respect to the outlying isophotes is caused by distribution of dust, as shown by the colorimetric B - V, U - B color-index profiles reflecting the dust in the central condensation of M31.

  13. 12 CFR 790.2 - Central and regional office organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Central and regional office organization. 790.2... the analysis and development of legislative proposals and public affairs programs. (12) Office of... established pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. It has...

  14. Teacher Education Center Survey. Region V, West Central West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Education, Charleston. Bureau of Planning, Research, and Evaluation.

    This survey gathered information that would facilitate the development of a teacher education center in Region V (located in West Central West Virginia). The instrument was designed to elicit responses from those who desired to participate in the in-service component of the center and from all of the teachers relative to their recent in-service…

  15. State Agency Expectations for Assessment in the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrash, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of state higher education agencies in the North Central Region regarding current requirements on assessment, the history of assessment requirements, definitions/terminology, communication of expectations, evaluation of effectiveness of the requirements, and state and accrediting agency cooperation. (DMM)

  16. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  17. Star Formation in the Central Regions of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Mengchun

    2015-08-01

    The galactic central region connects the galactic nucleus to the host galaxy. If the central black hole co-evolved with the host galaxies, there should be some evidence left in the central region. We use the environmental properties in the central regions such as star-forming activity, stellar population and molecular abundance to figure out a possible scenario of the evolution of galaxies. In this thesis at first we investigated the properties of the central regions in the host galaxies of active and normal galaxies. We used radio emission around the nuclei of the host galaxies to represent activity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and used infrared ray (IR) emission to represent the star-forming activity and stellar population of the host galaxies. We determined that active galaxies have higher stellar masses (SMs) within the central kiloparsec radius than normal galaxies do independent of the Hubble types of the host galaxies; but both active and normal galaxies exhibit similar specific star formation rates (SSFRs). We also discovered that certain AGNs exhibit substantial inner stellar structures in the IR images; most of the AGNs with inner structures are Seyferts, whereas only a few LINERs exhibit inner structures. We note that the AGNs with inner structures show a positive correlation between the radio activity of the AGNs and the SFRs of the host galaxies, but the sources without inner structures show a negative correlation between the radio power and the SFRs. These results might be explained with a scenario of starburst-AGN evolution. In this scenario, AGN activities are triggered following a nuclear starburst; during the evolution, AGN activities are accompanied by SF activity in the inner regions of the host galaxies; at the final stage of the evolution, the AGNs might transform into LINERs, exhibiting weak SF activity in the central regions of the host galaxies. For further investigation about the inner structure, we choose the most nearby and luminous Seyfert galaxy with inner structure as an example. In this thesis, we present CO(3-2) interferometric observations of the central region of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC1068 using the Submillimeter Array, together with CO(1-0) data taken with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Millimeter Array. Both the CO(3-2) and CO(1-0) emission lines are mainly distributed within ~5 arcsec of the nucleus and along the spiral arms, but the intensity distributions show differences; the CO(3-2) map peaks in the nucleus, while the CO(1-0) emission is mainly located along the spiral arms. The CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio is about 3.1 in the nucleus, which is four times as large as the average line ratio in the spiral arms, suggesting that the molecular gas there must be affected by the radiation arising from the AGN. On the other hand, the line ratios in the spiral arms vary over a wide range from 0.24 to 2.34 with a average value around 0.75, which is similar to the line ratios of star-formation regions, indicating that the molecular gas is affected by star formation. Besides, we see a tight correlation between CO(3-2)/(1-0) ratios in the spiral arms and star formation rate surface densities derived from Spitzer 8 micron dust flux densities. We also compare the CO(3-2)/(1-0) ratio and the star formation rate at different positions within the spiral arms; both are found to decrease as the radius from the nucleus increases.

  18. Possible existence of wormholes in the central regions of halos

    SciTech Connect

    Rahaman, Farook; Salucci, P.; Kuhfittig, P.K.F.; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, Mosiur

    2014-11-15

    An earlier study (Rahaman, et al., 2014 and Kuhfittig, 2014) has demonstrated the possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of the galactic halo, based on the Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) density profile. This paper uses the Universal Rotation Curve (URC) dark matter model to obtain analogous results for the central parts of the halo. This result is an important compliment to the earlier result, thereby confirming the possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies. - Highlights: • Earlier we showed possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of halo. • We obtain here analogous results for the central parts of the galactic halo. • Our result is an important compliment to the earlier result. • This confirms possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies.

  19. Lyme disease seroprevalence in a region of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Santino, I; Nicosia, R; Sessa, R; Pustorino, R; Pastorelli, D; Isacchi, G; Del Piano, M

    1995-10-01

    The present study reports the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to B. burgdorferi by testing sera from volunteer blood donors in Latium, a region of Central Italy. All samples were tested by ELISA and the positive samples were assayed by Western blotting as a confirmatory test. A positivity rate of 4.3% was recorded by ELISA, while after the confirmatory test by Western blotting the positivity rate decreased to 1.5%. The presence of significant antibody titers to B. burgdorferi in the sera of healthy subjects shows that further investigations are necessary to clarify the real prevalence of Lyme disease in our region. PMID:8590392

  20. Unexpected spreading of G12P[8] rotavirus strains among young children in a small area of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Roberto; Ianiro, Giovanni; Camilloni, Barbara; Fiore, Lucia; Ruggeri, Franco Maria

    2015-08-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is associated mainly with the five genotypes G1,3,4,9P[8] and G2P[4] that are common worldwide, but emerging strains including G6, G8, and G12 are also reported sporadically. G12P[8] rotavirus was observed unexpectedly to spread in a limited area of Italy during the rotavirus surveillance season 2012-2013. All strains were genotyped for VP7 and VP4 and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Amino acid sequences of antigenic regions were compared with vaccine and field strains. G12P[8] strains were detected in the stools of 52 of 69 (75%) children infected with rotavirus in the central Italian region of Umbria. All G12 strains belonged to lineage III, and presented the P[8] genotype. Sequence analysis showed close nucleotide identity of both VP4 and VP7 genes among Umbria G12P[8] strains. The VP7 gene was also similar to other G12 strains circulating in different years and countries, and the VP4 gene was closely related to other local and global P[8] strains possessing different G-types. Overall findings suggest either the introduction and evolution of a G12 VP7 gene into the local Wa-like rotavirus population or the spreading of a strain novel for the area. Comparison of the VP8* and VP7 antigenic regions showed high conservation between the amino acid sequences of Umbria G12P[8] strains, and revealed various substitutions in the VP8* antigenic regions between the Italian G12P[8] strains and RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccine strains. The sudden and unexpected emergence of G12P[8] rotavirus confirms that these strains have the potential to become a sixth common genotype across the world. PMID:25758365

  1. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  3. Two possible source regions for central Greenland last glacial dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Újvári, Gábor; Stevens, Thomas; Svensson, Anders; Klötzli, Urs S.; Manning, Christina; Németh, Tibor; Kovács, János; Sweeney, Mark R.; Gocke, Martina; Wiesenberg, Guido L. B.; Markovic, Slobodan B.; Zech, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Dust in Greenland ice cores is used to reconstruct the activity of dust-emitting regions and atmospheric circulation. However, the source of dust material to Greenland over the last glacial period is the subject of considerable uncertainty. Here we use new clay mineral and <10 µm Sr-Nd isotopic data from a range of Northern Hemisphere loess deposits in possible source regions alongside existing isotopic data to show that these methods cannot discriminate between two competing hypothetical origins for Greenland dust: an East Asian and/or central European source. In contrast, Hf isotopes (<10 µm fraction) of loess samples show considerable differences between the potential source regions. We attribute this to a first-order clay mineralogy dependence of Hf isotopic signatures in the finest silt/clay fractions, due to absence of zircons. As zircons would also be absent in Greenland dust, this provides a new way to discriminate between hypotheses for Greenland dust sources.

  4. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented.

  5. Central and regional hemodynamics in prolonged space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazenko, O. G.; Shulzhenko, E. B.; Turchaninova, V. F.; Egorov, A. D.

    This paper presents the results of measuring central and regional (head, forearm, calf) hemodynamics at rest and during provocative tests by the method of tetrapolar rheography in the course of Salyut-6-Soyuz and Salyut-7-Soyuz missions. The measurements were carried out during short-term (19 man-flights of 7 days in duration) and long-term (21 man-flights of 65-237 days in duration) manned missions. At rest, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) as well as heart rate (HR) decreased insignificantly (in short-term flights) or remained essentially unchanged (in long-term flights). In prolonged flights CO increased significantly in response to exercise tests due to an increase in HR and the lack of changes in SV. After exercise tests SV and CO decreased as compared to the preflight level. During lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tests HR and CO were slightly higher than preflight. Changes in regional hemodynamics included a distinct decrease of pulse blood filling (PBF) of the calf, a reduction of the tone of large vessels of the calf and small vessels of the forearm. Head examination (in the region of the internal carotid artery) showed a decrease of PBF of the left hemisphere (during flight months 2-8) and a distinct decline of the tone of small vessels, mainly, in the right hemisphere. During LBNP tests the tone of pre- and postcapillary vessels of the brain returned to normal while PBF of the right and left hemisphere vessels declined. It has been shown that regional circulation variations depend on the area examined and are induced by a rearrangement of total hemodynamics of the human body in microgravity. This paper reviews the data concerning changes in central and regional circulation of men in space flights of different duration.

  6. Genetics/Genomics Research in the Central Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    Genetics-based research within the Biological Resources Discipline (BRD) Science Centers in the Central Region incorporates many aspects of the field of genetics. Research activities range from documenting patterns of genetic variation in order to investigate relationships among species, populations and individuals to investigating the structure, function and expression of genes and their response to environmental stressors. Research in the broad areas of genetics requires multidisciplinary expertise and specialized equipment and instrumentation. Brief summaries of the capabilities of the five BRD Centers are given below.

  7. Seismicity surveying in central and north mexico region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, J. M.; Guzmán, M.; Nieto, A.; Zúñiga, R.; Alaniz, S.; Barboza, R.

    2003-04-01

    The seismic nature of Central Mexico is poorly understood due to insufficient sampling. This region is characterized by a very low deformation rate. The seismic activity is variable and ranges from microseismicity to large earthquakes. Some large earthquakes have occurred with an unknown returning period; structural studies show this recurrence could range from hundreds to thousands of years. Some authors argue that there is not connection between ancient and recent activity. We carried out several seismic surveys in part of the TransMexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the Altiplano Central. We installed a temporal network, in order to record spatial seismic distribution. This network consists of 3-5 short period instruments, consisting of triaxial digital velocity recorders (0.01-4.5 Hz). We registered several swarms; one took place in Guanajuato and lasted for 2 weeks. Another crisis occurred at the northern limit of the TMVB at Sierra Gorda. Over five weeks several micro-earthquakes M < 2 were felt with anomaously high intensity. Relocated seismicity shows very shallow (< 10km) activity. The regional crust conditions appear to be roughly uniform even though the seismicity varies significantly. In some cases like seismic swarms, several microearthquakes are aligned, and seem to be quasi-parallel to the direction of the fault strike, some other times they are perpendicular. However, surface ruptures associated to earthquakes are not observed to confirm this. Then, a challenge is to locate the seismogenic structures, basically because of the surface structures are too old to be still active. Increased seismotectonic knowledge of this region may give further insight into the details of the interaction between surface structures driven by the regional stress field.

  8. Heat waves over Central Europe in regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, Ondřej; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) have become a powerful tool for exploring impacts of global climate change on a regional scale. The aim of the study is to evaluate the capability of RCMs to reproduce characteristics of major heat waves over Central Europe in their simulations of the recent climate (1961-2000), with a focus on the most severe and longest Central European heat wave that occurred in 1994. We analyzed 7 RCM simulations with a high resolution (0.22°) from the ENSEMBLES project, driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis. In observed data (the E-OBS 9.0 dataset), heat waves were defined on the basis of deviations of daily maximum temperature (Tmax) from the 95% quantile of summer Tmax distribution in grid points over Central Europe. The same methodology was applied in the RCM simulations; we used corresponding 95% quantiles (calculated for each RCM and grid point) in order to remove the bias of modelled Tmax. While climatological characteristics of heat waves are reproduced reasonably well in the RCM ensemble, we found major deficiencies in simulating heat waves in individual years. For example, METNOHIRHAM simulated very severe heat waves in 1996, when no heat wave was observed. Focusing on the major 1994 heat wave, considerable differences in simulated temperature patterns were found among the RCMs. The differences in the temperature patterns were clearly linked to the simulated amount of precipitation during this event. The 1994 heat wave was almost absent in all RCMs that did not capture the observed precipitation deficit, while it was by far most pronounced in KNMI-RACMO that simulated virtually no precipitation over Central Europe during the 15-day period of the heat wave. By contrast to precipitation, values of evaporative fraction in the RCMs were not linked to severity of the simulated 1994 heat wave. This suggests a possible major contribution of other factors such as cloud cover and associated downward shortwave radiation. Therefore, a more detailed analysis of individual components of the energy budget over Central Europe during and before the 1994 heat wave was performed.

  9. Seismicity Surveying in Central and North Mexico Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Samaniego, A.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. M.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Zuniga, R.; Alaniz-Alvarez, S.; Barboza, R.; Davalos, O.

    2003-12-01

    The seismic nature of Central Mexico is poorly understood due to insufficient sampling. We carried out a seismic survey in part of the TransMexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the Central Altiplano. These regions are characterized by a very low deformation rates. Seismic activity is variable and ranges from microseismicity to large earthquakes, but no large historic earthquake has been instrumentally recorded. Only few direct observations such as intensity reconstructions and recent paleoseismic studies (e.g. the Acambay-Tixmadej earthquake of 1912) are available. Large earthquakes have occurred but their recurrence period is unknown; structural studies show this recurrence could range from hundreds to thousands of years. In order to understand the regional seismic behavior, we installed a temporal network. This network consists of 3-5 short period instruments, consisting of 16-bits triaxial digital velocity recorders (0.01-4.5 Hz). We registered several seismic sequences over a period of several months. One of them took place in Guanajuato within a graben structure in the TMVB and lasted for 2 weeks. Another sequence occurred at the northern limit of the TMVB in the Sierra Gorda. Over five weeks, several micro-earthquakes M < 2 were felt with anomaously high intensity. Relocated seismicity shows very shallow (< 10km) activity. Even though the seismicity varied significantly, the regional crustal conditions appear to be roughly uniform. In some areas like Arroyo Seco, in the Sierra Gorda, the event distribution is aligned along a small valley, but perpendicular to the main structural grain imposed by the Sierra Madre Oriental range. In no instances have surface ruptures been observed; those seismogenic structures could be blind ones. A challenge is to locate this structures which are may be too old to be still active. Increased seismotectonic knowledge of this region will yield further insight into the details of the interaction between surface structures driven by the regional stress field. Our results provide evidence that the region requires more intensive seismic surveying, and in some cases that some structures have been reactivated recently.

  10. Centralization of a regional clinical microbiology service: The Calgary experience

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre L; Hall, Paula

    1999-01-01

    Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS) in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA) and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL). Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs) are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service. PMID:22346397

  11. Development assistance for health in central and eastern European Region.

    PubMed Central

    Suhrcke, Marc; Rechel, Bernd; Michaud, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify development assistance for health to countries of central and eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE-CIS). METHODS: We used the International Development Statistics database of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the database on development assistance for health compiled for the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health to quantify health development assistance to the region, compared to global and overall development assistance. We based our analysis on standard health indicators, including child mortality, life expectancy at birth and health expenditures. FINDINGS: Although total development assistance per capita to CEE-CIS was higher than that for most other regions of the world, development assistance for health was very low compared to other countries with similar levels of child mortality, life expectancy at birth and national expenditures on health. CONCLUSION: The allocation of development assistance for health on a global scale seems to be related far more to child mortality rather than adult mortality. Countries of CEE-CIS have a high burden of adult morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases, which does not appear to attract proportionate development assistance. Levels of development assistance for health should be determined in consideration of the region's particular burden of disease. PMID:16462984

  12. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  13. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  14. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  15. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  16. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  17. 40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.196 South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  18. 40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Michigan Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.195 Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  19. 40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Michigan Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.195 Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  20. 40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Michigan Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.195 Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  1. 40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.196 South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  2. 40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Michigan Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.195 Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  3. 40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Michigan Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.195 Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  4. 40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.196 South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  5. 40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.196 South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  6. 40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.196 South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  7. 40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central New York Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.127 Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  8. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  9. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions 81.236 Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  10. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions 81.236 Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  11. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions 81.236 Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  12. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions 81.236 Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  13. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions 81.236 Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  14. 40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.95 Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Florida Intrastate Air...

  15. 40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.95 Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Florida Intrastate Air...

  16. 40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.95 Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Florida Intrastate Air...

  17. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  18. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  19. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  20. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  1. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  2. 40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central New York Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.127 Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  3. 40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central New York Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.127 Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  4. 40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central New York Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.127 Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  5. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  6. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  7. Human mucin gene MUC5AC: organization of its 5'-region and central repetitive region.

    PubMed Central

    Escande, F; Aubert, J P; Porchet, N; Buisine, M P

    2001-01-01

    Human mucin gene MUC5AC is clustered with MUC2, MUC5B and MUC6 on chromosome 11p15.5. We report here the full length cDNA sequence upstream of the repetitive region of human MUC5AC. We have also determined the sequence of its large central tandem repeat array. The 5'-region reveals high degree of sequence similarity with MUC2 and MUC5B and codes for 1336 amino acids organized into a signal peptide, four pro-von Willebrand factor-like D domains (D1, D2, D' and D3) and a short domain which connects to the central repetitive region. In the central region, 17 major domains have been identified. Nine code for cysteine-rich domains (Cys-domains 1-9) and exhibit high sequence similarity to the cysteine-rich domains described in the central region of MUC2 and MUC5B. Cys-domains 1-5 are interspersed by domains enriched with serine, threonine, and proline residues. Cys-domains 1-9 are interspersed by four domains (TR1-TR4) composed of various numbers of MUC5AC-type repeats. Southern-blot analyses reveal allelic variations both in length and nucleotide sequence. The length polymorphism which is due to variable numbers of tandem repeats is located in TR1 and TR4, whereas a mutation polymorphism detected with TaqI is located in Cys-domain 6. In this study, the organization of MUC5AC has been entirely elucidated showing extensive similarity to the other chromosome 11p15 MUC genes, particularly MUC5B, and providing additional arguments for common evolution from a single ancestral gene. PMID:11535137

  8. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  9. Research on wastewater reuse planning in Beijing central region.

    PubMed

    Jia, H; Guo, R; Xin, K; Wang, J

    2005-01-01

    The need to implement wastewater reuse in Beijing is discussed. Based on the investigation of the built wastewater reuse projects in Beijing, the differences between small wastewater reuse system and large systems were analyzed according to the technical, economical and social issues. The advantages and disadvantages of the small system and the large system were then given. In wastewater reuse planning in Beijing urban region, the large system was adopted. The rations of reclaimed water for difference land use type, including industrial reuse, municipal reuse, grass irrigation, and scenes water reuse were determined. Then according to the land use information in every block in central Beijing, using GIS techniques, the amounts of the reclaimed water needed in every block were calculated, and the main pipe system of reclaimed water was planned. PMID:16104422

  10. Large cutting tools in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, central China.

    PubMed

    Kuman, Kathleen; Li, Chaorong; Li, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Handaxe-bearing sites in China are currently known to occur in a number of alluvial basins, the best known being Dingcun, Bose and Luonan. Bose in the south and Luonan in central China on the northern margin of the Qinling Mountains are most familiar to English-speaking researchers. Here we document the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR) as another major area for large cutting tools (LCTs), located in central China on the southeastern edge of the Qinling Mountains. Large cutting tools are preserved in three terraces of the Han and Dan Rivers in Hubei and Henan Provinces, with dates from ca. 0.8 Ma (millions of years ago) (Terrace 4) to the first half of the Middle Pleistocene (Terrace 3), and possibly to the Late Pleistocene (Terrace 2). This paper reports on LCTs discovered in Terraces 3 and 2, with a majority from the older terrace (and one specimen from Terrace 4). Regional environments during the Middle Pleistocene were relatively warm, humid and stable. Despite the poor quality of raw materials (predominantly quartz phyllite and trachyte for the LCTs), good examples of both handaxes and cleavers are present, plus two types of picks. The LCT technology is compared and contrasted with other Asian industries and with the Acheulean. Overall the DRR LCTs show both technological and morphological similarities with Acheulean LCTs, with some differences that are mainly attributed to raw material properties, subsistence ecology, and 'cultural drift.' The DRR LCTs expand the range of morphological variability of the East Asian material and highlight the need for greater reliance on technological analysis and raw material evaluation for best comparison of Chinese assemblages with the Acheulean tradition. PMID:25223718

  11. Shrub Encroachment and Regional Climate Change in Central New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; De Wekker, S.; D'Odorico, P.

    2011-12-01

    Shrub encroachment is a global ecological phenomenon that involves a decrease in grass cover and an increase in density and coverage of woody species in semi-desert area and is associated with a number of environmental change drivers. In Southwestern U.S., such a dramatic vegetation transition has been occurring since mid 19th century and has resulted in loss of ecosystem services. The change in vegetation cover affects the mass and energy exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere and can therefore impact local climate and contribute to regional climate change. In particular, nighttime warming has been observed in the shrub dominated landscapes near the encroaching front in winter months. This nighttime warming favors the successful establishment and survival of a certain shrub species, Larrea tridentata, because of its sensitivity to freezing induced mortality. As a result, further shrub encroachment may be facilitated by the nighttime warming, resulting in a positive vegetation-microclimate feedback. To assess the relative importance of the observed nighttime warming due to changes in vegetation cover compared to the background climate warming, we use historical climate records and output from regional climate models. Results show that the nighttime warming induced by shrub encroachment is equivalent to a change in regional climate warming over the last 40-70 years in central New Mexico. Moreover, we show results from atmospheric mesoscale model simulations with the goal to assess if the nighttime warming caused by differences in vegetation cover can be simulated. We need to ensure that the nighttime warming is simulated well, so that realistic regional climate simulations can be performed to predict the rate of shrub encroachment if facilitated only by the vegetation-microclimate feedback.

  12. Central San Juan caldera cluster: regional volcanic framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    Eruption of at least 8800 km3 of dacitic-rhyolitic magma as 9 major ash-slow sheets (individually 150-5000 km3) was accompanied by recurrent caldera subsidence between 28.3 and about 26.5 Ma in the central San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Voluminous andesitic-decitic lavas and breccias were erupted from central volcanoes prior to the ash-flow eruptions, and similar lava eruptions continued within and adjacent to the calderas during the period of explosive volcanism, making the central San Juan caldera cluster an exceptional site for study of caldera-related volcanic processes. Exposed calderas vary in size from 10 to 75 km in maximum diameter, the largest calderas being associated with the most voluminous eruptions. After collapse of the giant La Garita caldera during eruption if the Fish Canyon Tuff at 17.6 Ma, seven additional explosive eruptions and calderas formed inside the La Garita depression within about 1 m.y. Because of the nested geometry, maximum loci of recurrently overlapping collapse events are inferred to have subsided as much as 10-17 km, far deeper than the roof of the composite subvolcanic batholith defined by gravity data, which represents solidified caldera-related magma bodies. Erosional dissection to depths of as much as 1.5 km, although insufficient to reach the subvolcanic batholith, has exposed diverse features of intracaldera ash-flow tuff and interleaved caldera-collapse landslide deposits that accumulated to multikilometer thickness within concurrently subsiding caldera structures. The calderas display a variety of postcollapse resurgent uplift structures, and caldera-forming events produced complex fault geometries that localized late mineralization, including the epithermal base- and precious-metal veins of the well-known Creede mining district. Most of the central San Juan calderas have been deeply eroded, and their identification is dependent on detailed geologic mapping. In contrast, the primary volcanic morphology of the symmetrically resurgent Creede caldera, the volcanic framework for Lake Creede, has been exceptionally preserved because of rapid infilling by moat sediments of the Creede Formation, which were preferentially eroded during the past few million years. The ash-flow tuffs and caldera of the central San Juan region have been widely recognized as exceptional sites for study of explosive volcanic processes, and the results reported here provide new insights into processes of pyroclastic eruption and emplacement, geometric interrelations between caldera subsidence and resurgence, the petrologic diversity of sequential ash-flow eruptions, recurrent eruption of intermediate-composition lavas after each caldera-forming event, associated regional fault development, volume relations between ash-flow eruptions and associated calderas, the emplacement of subvolcanic batholiths, and involvement of mantle-derived mafic phases in magma-generation processes.

  13. [Shore species varieties in Lake Piediluco ((Umbria: Terni). Food and degree of parasitism of lake fish].

    PubMed

    Moretti, G P; Cianficconi, F; Corallini Sorcetti, C; Gattaponi, P; Tucciarelli, F

    1979-07-15

    Lake Piediluco is a small natural lake in Umbria, Italy, which is regulated by hydroelectricity demands. Two artificials tributaries flow into it at the north end and create a lotic zona. The lake is rich in algae and hydrophytes. There are many sponge colonies and a great number of rheophil and limnophile caddis flies (40 species), gasteropods and bivalves. In the intestinal content of fishes the trichoptera larvae are very numerous. The fishes, which have been carefully investigated for parasites, are not seriously damaged. PMID:508426

  14. Central America Regional Climate Change Program: Tools for Your Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Dan; Irving, Bill; Yeager, Carey

    2006-01-01

    USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team, in partnership with EPA, NASA, Oak Ridge National Lab, and the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), have had a significant impact on the region's ability to monitor, mitigate, and adapt to environmental threats. Environmental decision-making tools and data are posted on a website (SERVIR: http://servir.nsstc.nasa.pov/home.html)that provides satellite and geographic data and maps to anybody with an Internet connection. The SERVIR program has been identified as the model for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) - a major international effort to develop a 21st century system for environmental management and disaster response. In coordination with the USAID/EPA program, NASA has developed a GIs tool that enables countries to examine their forest cover and document changes on an annual basis. This information is used in calculating carbon emissions as part of greenhouse gas inventories, but also serves a valuable monitoring function. In addition, USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team in collaboration with EPA are helping countries meet their obligations as signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). EPA is assisting Central American governments to improve the quality of their greenhouse gas emission inventories reported to the UNFCCC through the development of tools and improvements in data quality. New EPA tools developed include software to automatically calculate greenhouse gas emissions for the agricultural and forestry sector inventories, determine key sources of greenhouse gas emissions, and document institutional arrangements. Several of these tools are state of the art and are comparable to tools currently used in the U.S.

  15. 40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.138 Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... Quality Control Region. 81.138 Section 81.138 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  16. 40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.138 Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... Quality Control Region. 81.138 Section 81.138 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  17. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by... Quality Control Region. 81.104 Section 81.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  18. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... Quality Control Region. 81.155 Section 81.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  19. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... Quality Control Region. 81.155 Section 81.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  20. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... Quality Control Region. 81.155 Section 81.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  1. 40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.138 Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... Quality Control Region. 81.138 Section 81.138 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  2. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by... Quality Control Region. 81.104 Section 81.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  3. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by... Quality Control Region. 81.104 Section 81.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  4. 40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.138 Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... Quality Control Region. 81.138 Section 81.138 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  5. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by... Quality Control Region. 81.104 Section 81.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  6. Inference of biogeographical ancestry across central regions of Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Bulbul, O; Filoglu, G; Zorlu, T; Altuncul, H; Freire-Aradas, A; Söchtig, J; Ruiz, Y; Klintschar, M; Triki-Fendri, S; Rebai, A; Phillips, C; Lareu, M V; Carracedo, Á; Schneider, P M

    2016-01-01

    The inference of biogeographical ancestry (BGA) can provide useful information for forensic investigators when there are no suspects to be compared with DNA collected at the crime scene or when no DNA database matches exist. Although public databases are increasing in size and population scope, there is a lack of information regarding genetic variation in Eurasian populations, especially in central regions such as the Middle East. Inhabitants of these regions show a high degree of genetic admixture, characterized by an allele frequency cline running from NW Europe to East Asia. Although a proper differentiation has been established between the cline extremes of western Europe and South Asia, populations geographically located in between, i.e, Middle East and Mediterranean populations, require more detailed study in order to characterize their genetic background as well as to further understand their demographic histories. To initiate these studies, three ancestry informative SNP (AI-SNP) multiplex panels: the SNPforID 34-plex, Eurasiaplex and a novel 33-plex assay were used to describe the ancestry patterns of a total of 24 populations ranging across the longitudinal axis from NW Europe to East Asia. Different ancestry inference approaches, including STRUCTURE, PCA, DAPC and Snipper Bayes analysis, were applied to determine relationships among populations. The structure results show differentiation between continental groups and a NW to SE allele frequency cline running across Eurasian populations. This study adds useful population data that could be used as reference genotypes for future ancestry investigations in forensic cases. The 33-plex assay also includes pigmentation predictive SNPs, but this study primarily focused on Eurasian population differentiation using 33-plex and its combination with the other two AI-SNP sets. PMID:26289413

  7. 40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.95 Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Florida... outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Florida: Brevard County, Lake County,...

  8. Geomorphological evidence of recent tilting in the Central Amazonia Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibanez, Delano Menecucci; Riccomini, Claudio; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon

    2014-06-01

    Geomorphometric techniques applied to remote sensing data represent powerful tools as an aid for detecting terrain features produced by recent vertical crustal movements in a variety of landscapes. In this work, geomorphometric analysis of the Central Amazonia drainage network using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data was carried out to determine surface water loading and tectonic influence on the development of the Uatumã and Urubu river basins since the Miocene. The main objective was to detect geomorphological domains of lateral stream migration and channel sinuosity changes that could indicate recent vertical crustal movement. To achieve this, the Transverse Topographic Symmetry Factor and Sinuosity Index were applied to analyze the study area drainage network. Comparison of the geomorphological domains with structural field data and records of seismicity suggests that they are influenced by subsurface fault reactivation, which coincides in space with faults mapped in outcrops that have activated since the Miocene. This interpretation is corroborated by the spatial correspondence between these faults with domain boundaries and shapes, by river sinuosity change when crossing these boundaries, and by a high concentration of seismic activity along one of these limits. The crustal movement caused by hydrological loading can also influence such geomorphological features. Such is the case of lateral stream migrations of a domain in the opposite sense to the Amazon River flow. This may be a consequence of the more pronounced expression of hydrological loading in the Negro and Solimões river confluence region.

  9. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.155 Section 81.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  10. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  11. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  12. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  13. How Did States in the Central Region Evaluate Supplemental Educational Services in 2007?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Zoe; Wegner, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    In state needs assessment meetings held in late June 2008, the leadership of two Central Region state departments of education, South Dakota and Missouri, asked Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Central to determine how the states in the region evaluate their supplemental educational service (SES) providers. Specifically, these SEA staff…

  14. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  15. Energy and development in Central America. Volume I: regional assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-02-01

    This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

  16. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  17. Determinants of deforestation in Nepal's Central Development Region.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Conway, Dennis; Yousef, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    The process of deforestation in the Central Development Region (CDR) of Nepal is diverse in space and time, with rapid deforestation still occurring in areas outside the national parks and wildlife reserves. This paper identifies the spatial driving forces (SDFs) of deforestation in the CDR for 1975-2000 using satellite data of 1975 (MSS), 1990 (TM), and 2000 (ETM+) along with socio-demographic and socioeconomic variables. Radiometrically calibrated satellite images are individually classified into seven distinct classes and merged together to cover the entire CDR. Classification accuracies are also assessed. Areas of land use and cover within the areas of each Village Development Committee (VDC) and municipality represented by GIS polygons are calculated from the classified images by overlaying vector files of 1845 polygons representing sections of VDCs and municipalities in 30-1199 m, 1200-2399 m, 2400-4999 m and >5000 m elevation levels. These elevation levels were estimated from the DEM compiled from 24 ASTER scenes taken on different dates. Only the first three elevation levels are used in the analysis because area >5000 m is under permanent snow cover where human related forestry activities are almost negligible. A transition matrix is generated for 1975-1990 using classified images of 1975 and 1990 and then this product is used to further develop another transition matrix for 1990-2000 with the classified ETM+ 2000 images as the final stage. The GIS polygon layer is overlaid on the transition matrices to calculate deforestation areas for 1975-1990 and 1990-2000. Biophysical and socioeconomic information collected from various sources is then brought into a GIS platform for statistical analyses. Six linear regression models are estimated using SAS; in effect, two models for each elevation range representing the 1975-1990 and 1990-2000 periods of change to identify SDF influences on deforestation. These regression analyses reveal that deforestation in the CDR is related to multiple factors, such as farming population, genders of various ages, migration, elevation, road, distance from road to forest, meandering and erosion of river, and most importantly the conversion of forestland into farmland. PMID:19822389

  18. Long regional magnetotelluric profile crossing geotectonic structures of central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaniuk, M.; Pokorski, J.; Wojdyla, M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction The magnetotelluric survey was made along a regional profile, which runs across Poland from south-west to north-east during 2005-2006 years. The profile crosses major geological structures of Central Poland, including the Variscan Externides and Variscan foredeep, the Transeuropean Suture Zone and the marginal zone of East European Craton. The main objectives of the project include identification of sub-Zechstein sedimentary structures and evaluation of resistivity distribution within the deep crust, especially at the contact of East European Precambrian Craton and Central Europe Paleozoic structures. The length of the profile is about 700 km; 161 deep magnetotelluric sounding sites were made with a medium spacing of about 4 km. Data acquisition and processing The recording of the components of natural electromagnetic field was made with a broad range of frequencies, varying from 0.0003 Hz up to 575 Hz with use of MT-1 system of Electromagnetic Instruments Incorporation. This frequency band allowed obtaining the information about geology ranging from a few dozen meters to approximately 100 km, depending on the vertical distribution of the resistivity inside geological medium. To reduce the electromagnetic noise, magnetic and electric remote reference was applied. A remote reference site was located at a distance of over 100 km of field sites. Processing of the recorded data included the estimation of the components of impedance tensor (Zxx, Zxy, Zyx and Zyy ), with use of robust type procedures. The components of the impedance tensor allowed in a subsequent step for calculation of field curves for two orientations of the measurement system (XY - described further as the TM mode and YX - TE mode) and additional parameters of the medium like skew, strike, pole diagrams etc. Recording of the vertical component of electromagnetic field (Hz) allowed calculation of tipper parameter T. Magnetotelluric soundings interpretation Geophysical interpretation of MT sounding data was made based on 1D and 2D inversion. The upper part of the geological section is built of relatively flat layers, hence a 1D interpretation model could be effectively applied. Starting models for 1D inversion were constructed based on results of electromagnetic well-logging and some well-documented seismic horizons. Initial models for 2D inversion were constructed with the use of results of 1D magnetotelluric sounding inversion and structural model of the upper part of cross-section based on seismic data interpretation. 2D inversion was performed in two steps with use of NLCG and SBI algorithms. At first step of inversion high-frequency range of data was used and constraints based on borehole data was applied. Inversion in second step was made with starting model constructed based on results of first one and with stabilizing resistivity distribution in upper part of cross-section. Of great interest is varied resistivity of the formation resting between the Zechstein evaporate complex, and the crystalline basement. Interpretation of results of magnetotelluric soundings provide a lot of new information. The main tectonic boundaries were distinguished and location of sediments of different lithology reflected in resistivity differentiation was defined. Some new deep tectonic elements were recognized at the zone of Fore-Sudetic Block and Fore-Sudetic Monocline. Substantial differentiation of resistivity of crystalline massif of the East European Craton basement was discovered. Zones of low resistivity are probably connected with development of metamorphic processes or reflects location of big faults. Geological cross- section based on resistivity distribution was constructed. Deep model of regional structures based on resistivity distribution was suggested as well. Acknowledgments. This paper was based on results of investigations carried out by the PBG Geophysical Exploration Company Ltd. financed by the Minister of Environment through National Found for Environment Protection and Water Resources. The authors used also results of statutory research of Department of General Geology, Environment Protection and Geotourism, UST AGH, financed by the Minister of Science and Higher Education (project no 11.11.140.447). Geophysical interpretation was carried out using softwares by EMI, and Geosystem WingLinkTM.

  19. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  20. Regional analysis of changes in snow pack in mountainous basins in the central Danube region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Gabor; Juričeková, Katarina; Gauzer, Balazs; Hlavčová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Jan; Zsideková, Beata

    2013-04-01

    Accurate estimation of the volume of water stored in the snow pack and its rate of release is essential to predict the flow during the snowmelt period. In mountainous drainage basins water stored in the snow pack represents an important component of the water budget. Two modelling tools are compared. The first, HOLV snowmelt model is developed by the Hungarian National Hydrological Forecasting Service (VITUKI NHFS) for regional assessment of snow accumulation and ablation of the central Danube. The model originates from the early 80's and it is under continuous development, while its recent distributed version over a grid with 0.1 degree resolution is in use. The snowmelt model has a flexible structure; it is able to change its own structure in function of data availability. In case when only precipitation and air temperature data are available temperature index method is used. When also other data are accessible (cloudiness, dew point, wind speed) using of energy balance model is to be preferred. If there are suitable data available for calculation of the energy terms, the energy balance method can be applied. The second semi-distributed Hron model, developed at the Slovak University of Technology was applied to a smaller sub-basin to represent spatial distribution of snow cover by simulated snow water equivalent. The upper Hron river basin with an area of 1766 km2 is located in central Slovakia. The conceptual semi-distributed tool applied contains three basic storage components with 15 calibrated parameters, as the flow routing component the cascade of linear reservoirs is used as opposed to the original simple triangular routing function. The snow sub-model uses the temperature index (degree-day) method for snow accumulation and snowmelt calculations. Uncertainty of model parameters was reduced by multi-calibration on the mean daily discharges in the basin outlet and measured stations data of snow water equivalent. Changes in the model parameters during the investigated period also were analyses. The consistency of modelled spatial distribution of snow water equivalent also was checked by the Modis sow satellite data. The results showed a decrease in snow water equivalent and snow depth, and snow duration from the past to the present. The paper also deals with the analysis of changes in depths, duration and spatial distribution of snow cover. Daily snow cover depth observations and weekly snow water equivalent data were available at 6 climatic stations for the period 1961-2010 for the upper Hron while the last two decade sporadic observations and simulated snow depths and snow water equivalent for the entire central Danube region. It is concluded that simulated qualitative information on snow pack across the Alpine-Carpathian region can provide more information on appropriate values of melt parameters than quantitative data on snow water equivalent at a single station location. These simulations appear to provide an adequate representation of snow climatology.

  1. Geospatial database for regional environmental assessment of central Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Klein, Terry L.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Adams, Monique G.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Todorov, Todor I.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McEachron, Luke; Anthony, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the future planning needs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed environmental assessment of the effects of historical mining on Forest Service lands in central Colorado. Stream sediment, macroinvertebrate, and various filtered and unfiltered water quality samples were collected during low-flow over a four-year period from 2004–2007. This report summarizes the sampling strategy, data collection, and analyses performed on these samples. The data are presented in Geographic Information System, Microsoft Excel, and comma-delimited formats. Reports on data interpretation are being prepared separately.

  2. Regional vegetation patterns at lake Son Kul reveal Holocene climatic variability in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, Marie; Sorrel, Philippe; Klotz, Stefan; Huang, Xiangtong; Oberhänsli, Hedi

    2014-04-01

    A multiproxy study was conducted on Holocene sediments from the alpine lake Son Kul (3010 m a.s.l, 41°48‧33N/75°07‧38E) in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan). The combination of high-resolution pollen, palynofacies and magnetic susceptibility data allowed reconstruction of changes in sedimentary and vegetation dynamics regionally at Son Kul between 8350 and ca 2000 cal. BP. Using pollen data to quantify climatic parameters, a quantitative reconstruction of climatic conditions was performed using the "Modern Analogue Vegetation types" (MAV) method and a ranged index of seasonality. The most temperate (e.g. moister) climate conditions occurred between 8350 and 5000-4500 cal. BP when alpine meadow vegetation was enriched in plants requiring moister conditions and trees developed regionally. Conversely, more continental and arid conditions prevailed after 4500 cal. BP with the decline of arboreal vegetation (especially Juniperus) and the extension of an alpine steppe-meadow along with a regional decrease in Poaceae. This climate transition was associated with a change in seasonality as the continentality greatly intensified after 5000-4500 cal. BP. Our results are consistent with other records from the Tien Shan range and the Chinese Province Xinjiang showing that relatively wet conditions prevailed regionally before 5000 cal. BP, whereas reduced moisture conditions were established after that time. From a more global perspective, we highlight that regional rainfall in central Tien Shan and western Central Asia is likely to be predominantly controlled by the Eastern Mediterranean cyclonic system and North Atlantic climate, as based on the close correspondence between climatic archives from western Central Asia, the Levant, the Eastern Mediterranean and Caspian Sea regions. However, the effect of monsoonal dynamics on the regional climatic system in central Tien Shan still remains dubious, since recent modelling studies have shown that no dynamic link exists between humidity in Central Asia and the Indian Summer Monsoon. This study pinpoints the need to explore the effect of remote Eurasian atmospheric circulation patterns on past climate variability in Central Asia.

  3. Phylogeography of Supralittoral Rocky Intertidal Ligia Isopods in the Pacific Region from Central California to Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Mateos, Mariana; Santamaria, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ligia isopods are widely distributed in the Pacific rocky intertidal shores from central California to central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Yet, their biological characteristics restrict them to complete their life cycles in a very narrow range of the rocky intertidal supralittoral. Herein, we examine phylogeographic patterns of Ligia isopods from 122 localities between central California and central Mexico. We expect to find high levels of allopatric diversity. In addition, we expect the phylogeographic patterns to show signatures of past vicariant events that occurred in this geologically dynamic region. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced two mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA). We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We found many divergent clades that, in general, group according to geography. Some of the most striking features of the Ligia phylogeographic pattern include: (1) deep mid-peninsular phylogeographic breaks on the Pacific and Gulf sides of Baja peninsula; (2) within the Gulf lineages, the northern peninsula is most closely related to the northern mainland, while the southern peninsula is most closely related to the central-southern mainland; and, (3) the southernmost portion of the peninsula (Cape Region) is most closely related to the southernmost portion of mainland. Conclusions/Significance Our results shed light on the phylogenetic relationships of Ligia populations in the study area. This study probably represents the finest-scale phylogeographic examination for any organism to date in this region. Presence of highly divergent lineages suggests multiple Ligia species exist in this region. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the Gulf of California and Baja peninsula are incongruent with a widely accepted vicariant scenario among phylogeographers, but consistent with aspects of alternative geological hypotheses and phylo- and biogeographic patterns of several other taxa. Our findings contribute to the ongoing debate regarding the geological origin of this important biogeographic region. PMID:20657776

  4. Oceanic Anoxic Event 1b: insights and new data from the Poggio le Guaine section (Umbria-Marche Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, Nadia; Sprovieri, Mario; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Gardin, Silvia; Baudin, François

    2015-04-01

    The upper Aptian to lower Albian interval (~114-109 Ma) represents a crucial period during Earth's history, with a major evolution in the nature of mid-Cretaceous tectonics, sea level, climate, and marine plankton communities. Interestingly, it also includes multiple prominent black shale horizons that are the sedimentary expression of oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1b. An high-resolution planktonic foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy in combination with an integrated study of multiple geochemical proxies (δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg, TOC, HI, CaCO3, trace elements/Al ratios) of the late Aptian-early Albian OAE 1b has been performed on the pelagic sedimentary sequence of Poggio le Guaine (Umbria-Marche Basin, central Italy). A comparison of the newly collected stable isotope carbon curve with the records from the Vocontian Basin (SE France), DSDP Site 545 and Hole 1049C provided a reliable and precise identification of the four main prominent black shale levels (113/Jacob, Kilian, Urbino/Paquier and Leenhardt) that definitively punctuate the OAE 1b. The studied record shows an increase in the marine organic carbon accumulation rate, in particular in the 113/Jacob and Urbino/Paquier levels. In the other black shales, TOC values are < 1%, with evidence of degraded marine organic matter. Completely anoxic conditions were never established during the sediment deposition, although evidence of oxygen depletion at the bottom of the basin is clearly documented by the distribution pattern of redox-sensitive trace metals. The results suggest an increase in organic carbon burial rates during the OAE 1b due to the effect of enhanced surface productivity, as supported by a major increase in Ba/Al, and reduced bottom water ventilation. Noteworthy, the Kilian and Urbino/Paquier levels from the PLG section are characterized by the absence of correlative shifts in δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg. The increase in the δ13Corg, values in these levels is explained by an increase in the relative contribution of δ13C enriched marine planktonic archaeal biomass, while the concomitant negative excursions recorded in the δ13Ccarb could reflect a major contribution of isotopically light terrestrial carbonate ions from increased continental runoff during documented more humid conditions.

  5. Groundwater modeling of the Calera Aquifer region in Central Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Calera Aquifer is the main source of water for irrigated agriculture, industrial, and drinking water purposes in the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 80% of the total groundwater extracted from the Calera Aquifer. In recent years, ...

  6. A seasonal perspective on regional air quality in Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ling

    California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV) suffers from serious ozone air pollution problems due to its unique trough-like geography and diverse emission sources. Control strategies for ozone precursors---nitrogen oxides (NOX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)---need to be determined to bring SJV ozone levels into compliance with increasingly stringent health-based air quality standards. Current practice is to develop control strategies by simulating several 3 or 4-day ozone episodes with the "worst case" weather conditions. There are concerns about models being tuned to perform well by adjusting input data and parameters for specific emission and meteorological conditions, and thus control strategy analyses are not fully credible in simulating ozone responses to emission reductions. More importantly, due to diverse meteorology in central California, it is not known whether control strategies developed from the worst-case episodes are effective for different meteorology and emissions. This research seeks a more comprehensive evaluation of air quality model performance and characterization of ozone variability for the SJV through application of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to central California for an entire summer season. Past evaluations of CMAQ have been focused on the eastern United States, with applications usually conducted for high-ozone episodes that last for a few days or weeks. This research provides a suite of benchmarked model inputs that describe variations in both time and space for central California for an entire summer season. A variety of evaluation methods and diagnostic tools have been applied first to refine model inputs and then to evaluate model performance. Gridded meteorological and emission inputs are developed to reflect variability occurring on diurnal, weekly, and seasonal time scales. Driven by these inputs, the model has stable performance for the entire modeling period without the need for ad hoc adjustment of input parameters. An analysis approach is developed and described to delineate SJV ozone sensitivity regimes (NOx vs VOC) in space and time, and to quantify the relative importance of emission contributions to ozone from local versus upwind air basins. This approach involves application of current sensitivity analysis tools within CMAQ. Cluster analysis techniques are used to identify various types of SJV ozone clusters for summer 2000 based upon the magnitude and spatial extent of daily 8 h ozone maxima. These ozone clusters are found to be associated with distinct meteorological conditions characterized by different temperature fields and flow patterns, which implies differences in ozone production, accumulation, and transport. SJV ozone clusters, their relationship to ozone patterns in upwind areas (i.e., Sacramento Valley and San Francisco Bay area), and the associated meteorological conditions, are compared with those derived from a historical observational data set. The ozone patterns and the associated 2 meteorology seen in previous observations are reflected in my simulation results, providing an indication that the model is able to capture ozone patterns for the right reasons. The worst-case ozone episode is not representative of other high-ozone days in summer 2000, when both ozone production and transport are different. The structured data analysis framework with cluster analysis and principal component analysis provides an effective tool to extract information associated with various types of ozone behavior captured in the summer season across different weather conditions. The ozone clusters derived here can serve as a basis for further diagnostic analyses, such as application of sensitivity analysis tools to characterize variability in ozone responses to changes in precursor emissions and intra- versus inter-basin transport of pollutants under different meteorological regimes. Such results are needed to achieve a more comprehensive and effective control strategy design for ozone in the SJV.

  7. Insect Pollination at North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station – Past and Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, or NCRPIS, is a joint venture among USDA-ARS, the Agricultural Experimental Stations of the 12 North Central States, and Iowa State University (ISU). As a component of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), NCRPIS is dedicated to the conse...

  8. Mount Chacaltaya Regional GAW Station in the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaratti, Francesco; Forno, Ricardo N.; Lolli, Simone

    2010-05-01

    The Mount Chacaltaya Laboratory (MCL), located 30 km from the city of La Paz , at 5300 m asl, is well known as a cosmic ray laboratory that made important contributions to the Elementary Particles Physics in the 40's and 50's of the last century. Since its beginnings, the MCL has also hosted instruments and experiments devoted to atmospheric research and health studies at high altitude locations. In addition, the Chacaltaya glacier has attracted the interest of worldwide climatologists, due to its dramatic retreat. In fact, this glacier does not exist almost anymore. Recently, the Atmospheric Physics Laboratory (LFA-UMSA) has begun to take permanent and field measurements of some relevant atmospheric parameters at MCL, such as carbon dioxide, aerosols and ultraviolet irradiance. In this work we show some characteristics that made Chacaltaya a Regional GAW Station (CHC), recently nominated by WMO. In addition we show some pioneering steps of this project, supported by research institutes from France, Italy, Switzerland and USA. Finally, thanks to the vigorous co-operation of the Raman lidar group at Goddard Space Flight Center, a new YAG Laser is being installed, to be operated together with the "old" Alexandrite Lidar in the study of aerosols at La Paz.

  9. Star counts and ammonia observations in the central Taurus region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungerechts, H.; Winnewisser, G.; Gaida, M.

    Maps of the visual extinction, A(V), from star counts in 4.5 x 4.5 arcmin fields for the Kutner's cloud and Barnard's cloud filaments, as well as for the L1489 and L1517 small dark clouds, are obtained for ongoing work on the Taurus molecular clouds. The analysis suggests that the large filaments are unstable and breaking into denser fragments by contracting along their major axes. High spatial resolution NH3 observations of small dense cold cores in the regions of high A(V), obtained using the Effelsberg 100-m telescope, are in close agreement with observations determined with the smaller Haystack and NRAO telescopes. The cold cloud cores in Taurus were found to have temperatures close to 10 K, densities of about 10 exp 4.5/cu cm, linewidths of 0.2-0.35 km/s, and linear sizes of 0.05-0.1 pc, implying that they are close to thermal-gravitational equilibrium.

  10. Vertigenesis in soils of the central chernozemic region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitrov, N. B.

    2012-09-01

    On the basis of soil studies along routes and on key plots, 35 new areas of soils with definite features of vertigenesis have been identified in Belgorod and Voronezh oblasts and in the northern part of Volgograd oblast (in the Don River basin). Earlier, vertic soils were not noted for these areas. In the studied region, their portion in the soil cover is much less than 1%. All the delineated areas of vertic soils are confined to the outcrops of swelling clay materials of different origins (marine, lacustrine, glacial, and colluvial sediments) and ages (Quaternary or Tertiary) that may be found in four landscape positions: (1) in the deep closed depressions within vast flat watersheds; (2) in the bottoms of wide hollows on interfluvial slopes and, sometimes, on steeper slopes of local ravines; (3) in the hydromorphic solonetzic soil complexes, and (4) on step-like interfluvial surfaces with the outcrops of Tertiary clays. Within the studied areas, soils with different degrees of expression (six grades) of vertic properties are present. These soils belong to the type of dark vertic soils proper and to vertic subtypes of different soil types according to the Russian soil classification system; according to the WRB system, they belong to Vertisols proper and to reference soil units with a Vertic prefix in the groups of Chernozems, Phaeozems, and Solonetzes. Statistical data on the morphometric indices of the vertic properties (the depth and thickness of the soil horizons with slickensides, a wedge-shaped structure, and cracks filled with material from the upper horizons) and the depth and thickness of the Vertic horizon are analyzed.

  11. U.S. Higher Education Regional Accreditation Commission Standards and the Centrality of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Valerie O.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Green, Birgit L.; Raymond, Megan; Borchardt, Melody P.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed the research question "How do regional accrediting standards apply to the central role of community engagement in U.S. institutions of higher education?" Using descriptive and qualitative methods, two sources were analyzed: published standards of the 6 regional accrediting commissions in the United States and the…

  12. A Profile of Selected Demographic, Economic and Educational Characteristics of the North Central Region, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Nancy W.; Quinn, C. William

    A detailed regional profile that compares rural and urban populations of seven North Central states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) is presented in this report. Following an overview of the report, sources, and definitions, the next eight sections discuss the region as a whole and each of the seven states by

  13. 40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES... Region. The South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  14. From the Ground Up: Growing Entrepreneurship in the North Central Region. RRD 191

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Mary

    2008-01-01

    More than 300 people in the North Central region added their voices to a discussion on the importance of entrepreneurship to rural community vitality, often traveling long distances to attend one of 11 listening sessions held throughout the region. Among those attending were local leaders, service providers, entrepreneurs, and educators. The…

  15. Rural Economic Revitalization: The Cooperative Extension Challenge in the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigg, Kenneth E.

    The difficulties presently being faced by rural communities in the North Central Extension Region are well known. Many of these communities have economies which are closely tied to farming and therefore suffer economic hardship in direct relationship to those encountered by farmers. However, a dominant characteristic of communities in the region

  16. A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

  17. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.96 Section 81.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96...

  18. REGIONAL EMISSIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN AGROECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL WEST REGION, BRAZIL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...

  19. Heat sources for tertiary metamorphism and anatexis in the Annapurna-Manaslu region, central Nepal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Philip; Le Fort, Patrick; Molnar, Peter; Pecher, Arnaud

    1992-01-01

    The metamorphic evolution of the rocks near the Main Central Thrust in the Annapurna-Manaslu region of central Nepal is examined. In this region, all three types of metamorphic features can be observed: regional metamorphism, anatectic granitoids, and inverted metamorphic isograds. In this work, each phase of metamorphism is treated separately to estimate the heat sources required for each process. This approach makes it possible to identify the important parameters for each process, to draw preliminary conclusions about the heat sources required for each of these phases, and to determine which parameters need to be measured more precisely in order to constrain these heat sources.

  20. The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies are necessary. Temporary seismic networks have been installed in several Central Asian cities (Bishkek and Karakol, Kyrgyzstan; Dushanbe, Tajikistan; Tashkent, Uzbekistan) within the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA), a regional program of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The empirically estimated site effects have already helped to improve real-time risk scenarios for Bishkek and will be applied to other major cities. - A crucial requirement for disaster risk reduction involves the analysis of the vulnerability of existing building inventories. Whereas traditional approaches are very time- and cost-consuming, and even impossible given the high rate of urbanization in Central Asian capitals, our integrated approach is based on satellite remote sensing and ground-based omni-directional imaging, providing building inventories and thus structural vulnerability over large areas (EMCA, GEM-IDCT). All mentioned activities are carried out within the framework of cooperation between GFZ and regional national institutes, in particular the Central Asian Institute for Applied Geosciences. Altogether, this comprehensive and long-term risk analyses and research program will lead to a better understanding of the coupling of endogene and exogene processes and the identification of their impact on society.

  1. Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

    The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.

  2. Urban impacts on regional carbonaceous aerosols: case study in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Tate E; Sheesley, Rebecca J

    2014-08-01

    Rural and background sites provide valuable information on the concentration and optical properties of organic, elemental, and water-soluble organic carbon (OC, EC, and WSOC), which are relevant for understanding the climate forcing potential of regional atmospheric aerosols. To quantify climate- and air quality-relevant characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in the central United States, a regional background site in central Texas was chosen for long-term measurement. Back trajectory (BT) analysis, ambient OC, EC, and WSOC concentrations and absorption parameters are reported for the first 15 months of a long-term campaign (May 2011-August 2012). BT analysis indicates consistent north-south airflow connecting central Texas to the Central Plains. Central Texas aerosols exhibited seasonal trends with increased fine particulate matter (< 2.5 microm aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) and OC during the summer (PM2.5 = 10.9 microg m(-3) and OC = 3.0 microg m(-3)) and elevated EC during the winter (0.22 microg m(-3)). When compared to measurements in Dallas and Houston, TX, central Texas OC appears to have mixed urban and rural sources. However central Texas EC appears to be dominated by transport of urban emissions. WSOC averaged 63% of the annual OC, with little seasonal variability in this ratio. To monitor brown carbon (BrC), absorption was measured for the aqueous WSOC extracts. Light absorption coefficients for EC and BrC were highest during summer (EC MAC = 11 m2 g(-1) and BRC MAE365 = 0.15 m2 g(-1)). Results from optical analysis indicate that regional aerosol absorption is mostly due to EC with summertime peaks in BrC attenuation. This study represents the first reported values of WSOC absorption, MAE365, for the central United States. Implications: Background concentration and absorption measurements are essential in determining regional potential radiative forcing due to atmospheric aerosols. Back trajectory, chemical, and optical analysis of PM2.5 was used to determine climatic and air quality implications of urban outflow to a regional receptor site, representative of the central United States. Results indicate that central Texas organic carbon has mixed urban and rural sources, while elemental carbon is controlled by the transport of urban emissions. Analysis of aerosol absorption showed black carbon as the dominant absorber, with less brown carbon absorption than regional studies in California and the southeastern United States. PMID:25185394

  3. Rainfall Induced Natural Disaster in Central America, a challenge for Regional Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estuardo Guinea Barrientos, Héctor; Swain, Ashok

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall induced natural disasters rank first among all natural disasters in Central America. According to the records of the EM-DAT international database, 248 out of 486 disasters registered in Central America were disasters triggered by rainfall invents, in countries like Belize and Honduras, rainfall-induced natural disasters, mainly floods and landslides, account for more than 90% of the total number of casualties as well as the economic damage of all the disasters. Due to the natural conditions of the Central American Isthmus, precipitation events often struck more than one country at the time, for example Hurricane Mitch in 1998 affected the entire Central American region causing more than 18,000 casualties. In this context, the Central America countries have been working on joint programs and policies aiming transboundary cooperation and management of natural disasters, a clear example of this effort is CEPREDENAC which is the intergovernmental body with the mandate of promoting activities, projects and programs towards reduction of the risks to disasters in order to avoid loss of life and economic assets in the Central America, however, transnational management face several challenges that fall mostly in the political, economical and technical areas. In this paper we described and analyzed the rainfall induced natural disasters, their impacts and the inherent management challenges in the Central American context. Key words: Central America, Natural Disasters, Risk Management, International Cooperation

  4. Projections of Future Changes in Precipitation for Central America Using PRECIS Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmalkar, A. V.; Bradley, R. S.; Diaz, H. F.

    2008-12-01

    Central America has been identified as one of the regions in the world where potential climate change impacts on the environment can be pronounced. Climate of the region shows its variability mainly in precipitation. Interactions between regional atmospheric circulation patterns, trade winds and region's complex topography not only define different precipitation regimes for the Caribbean basin (windward) and the Pacific basin (leeward) but also modify the annual cycle of precipitation. These features can only be realistically simulated and studied by a regional climate model. We use the UK Hadley Centre PRECIS (Providing REgional Climates for Impact Studies) regional model to study climate change in Central America. The comparison between a control run and the SRES A2 (doubled CO2) run enables us to examine the projected changes in climate on a regional scale. The fidelity of model simulations is assessed by comparing the control run with observations and reanalysis data. PRECIS underestimates precipitation over Central America, which is also seen in nearly all global models as a result of underestimation of sea surface temperatures and an excessive smooth representation of regional topographical features. The summer rainy season in Central America is characterized by a bimodal distribution in precipitation, with maxima in June and September and a relative minimum during July-August known as the mid-summer drought (MSD). The mechanisms controlling this precipitation cycle in the region is discussed at length in the literature. However, how this cycle would change in future at a regional scale, is yet to be investigated in great detail. The PRECIS resolution of 25km allows us to study the annual cycle separately for the Pacific and Caribbean sides. The precipitation change in future differs considerably on the Atlantic and Pacific sides of Central America and is also a function of elevation. In the SRES A2 run, both sides experience a relative decrease in precipitation in the months of July and August. However, for other months, precipitation change in future on the Atlantic side differs considerably than that on the Pacific side. The Atlantic side not only experiences a reduction in precipitation throughout the year but also sees a change in the shape of the annual cycle where the MSD feature seem to disappear. The probability distributions of precipitation for different elevations predict that high elevation regions, in general, will become drier with a reduction in precipitation variability compared to lowlands. These aspects of the rainy season are very important for planning in key sectors such as agriculture and power generation, which are an integral part of the economy of the region.

  5. Central Atlantic regional ecological test site: A prototype regional environmental information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A comparison of photomorphic regions from an uncontrolled ERTS-1 mosaic of CARETS to land use areas on a map published in the National Atlas revealed close correlations in non-urban regions. Such regional scale analysis of ERTS-1 data has the potential for providing an economical sampling strategy for selecting sites for more detailed field measurements if other environmental variables can be correlated with patterns on ERTS-1 imagery. ERTS-1 imagery has also revealed for the first time the appearance of CARETS during the winter months. Investigators have identified extensive areas of conifers, which have previously been indistinguishable from deciduous vegetation. Imagery has also shown very clearly the extent of snow cover at a particular time over the region. The evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery used for the land use mapping of the shore zone of CARETS, has shown that the presence or absence of elements of an hierarchal system of shoreline landforms can help identify areas of potential rapid change. Changes in land use class distributions on the Barrier Islands signify the environmental response to natural and man-caused processes. Both environmental vulnerability and sensitivity can be estimated from the repetitive ERTS-1 coverage of long reaches of the CARETS coast. Results indicate potential applications to land use planning, management, and regional environmental quality analysis.

  6. Spatial Distribution Of Cs-137 In Surface Soils On Some Central Rhodopes Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Hr. G.; Srentz, A. K.; Balabanov, N. P.

    2007-04-01

    The subject of investigation are soils from region around village Kiselchovo, town Smolyan, villages Narechen, Bachkovo, Laki, Kosovo, Dobralak, Central Rhodopes region. The samples have been collected from natural soils at a depth of 0-10 cm. The samples have been analyzed for the content of technogenical radionuclide Cs-137. The measurements were taken by precise gamma ray spectrometer. Based on the conducted research an inference can be made that there are radioactive contamination (up to 30 times over the background level).

  7. Early Holocene basinal sediments of the Dakhleh Oasis region, south central Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, Ian A.

    1989-09-01

    Twenty samples of artifactual ostrich eggshell and hearth charcoal, firmly to loosely associated with basinal lacustrine, playa, and sand sheet sediments in the Dakhleh Oasis region of south-central Egypt, yield radiocarbon ages between ca. 8800 and ca. 4700 yr B.P. The sediments record variable sedimentary responses to an early Holocene pluvial interval in this virtually rainless region. Differences of hydrogeology and morphometry among and within basin types complicate paleoclimatic interpretation.

  8. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.143 Section 81.143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  9. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.143 Section 81.143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  10. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.143 Section 81.143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  11. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.143 Section 81.143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  12. Orientations of central peaks in lunar craters - Implications for regional structural trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, W.

    1980-01-01

    Impact craters are dominant features on the lunar surface and all fresh craters with diameters greater than 35 km possess central peaks. Approximately half of these central peaks (54%) have either linear or arcuate geometry and display some preferential orientation. These orientations were measured for 200 lunar craters of Pre-Nectarian to Copernican age. A pervasive regional north-south trend is identified for central peak orientation, with secondary trends at + or - 20-30 deg from this axis. No evidence for regional east-west trends is found. These orientations are shown to persist in craters formed through the last 4 billion years of lunar history. A lack of coincidence between impact direction, as determined from ejecta asymmetries and peak orientation, argues for structural control by the target as a source of the linear peak morphology. This is supported by the regional and temporal persistence of preferred peak orientations. It is proposed that linear central peak orientations in lunar craters reflect a pervasive regional structural system which developed early in lunar history and has persisted through geologic time.

  13. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state

  14. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described areas (including the territorial area of...

  15. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of.... The North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial...

  16. 40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of...

  17. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial...

  18. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of...

  19. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area...

  20. 40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of...

  1. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial...

  2. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of...

  3. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  4. Cucurbit germplasm collections at the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, USA is one of four primary Plant Introduction Stations in the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), and has responsibility for maintenance, regeneration, characterization, and distribution of the NPGS Cucumis and Cucurbi...

  5. Residual Weeds of Processing Sweet Corn in the North Central Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of weed community structure in vegetable crops of the North Central Region (NCR) is poor. To characterize weed composition of species persisting in sweet corn to harvest, hereafter called residual weeds, 175 sweet corn fields were surveyed in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin from 2005 to...

  6. Best Management Practices for Remediation/Restoration of Degraded Soils in the Central Great Plains Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmlands in the Central Great Plains Region (CGPR) have lost topsoil through wind and water erosion induced by tillage and poor soil management (Wheat-fallow management). Productivity of degraded/eroded soils can be restored using organic amendment such as manure and improved crop and soil manageme...

  7. Epidemiological Peculiarity of Septoria Species on Winter Wheat in the Central Region of the Russian Federation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency of Septoria species on the host plant and development of disease were estimated during three growing seasons on five winter wheat cultivars in the Central region of the Russian Federation. Frequency of the species in the different plant growth stages varied. During the early growth sta...

  8. Making Educational Technology Work: State Policies in the North Central Region. NCREL Policy Issues. Number 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Chris

    2004-01-01

    As the responsibility for allocating resources for technology shifts from federal administrators to state and local education agencies, state and local policymakers face greater accountability for making fiscally and educationally sound decisions. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), the research and development arm of Learning…

  9. Access to Supplemental Educational Services in the Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Zoe; Wegner, Sandra K.

    2007-01-01

    The Central Region states (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) lag behind the nation in the rate of participation in supplemental educational services that schools failing to make adequate progress for three consecutive years must offer to eligible students under the No Child Left Behind Act. This study…

  10. Source Sector and Region Contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the WRF model. Predicted AOD valu...

  11. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are

  12. Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS): A prototype regional environmental information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Accomplishments have included: (1) completion of the research design for the USGS/CARETS demonstration project; (2) preparation of photomossics and land use maps at a scale of 1:100,000 for entire area; (3) demonstration of the feasibility of extracting several categories of land use information from ERTS-1 MSS data for a portion of the CARETS region; (4) demonstration of the feasibility of detecting some significant land use changes on ERTS-1 imagery; (5) demonstration of the feasibility of attaching environmental impact significance to the remote sensor-derived land use data; (6) delivery of land use information derived from high altitude aircraft data to the Maryland state planning agency for use in its statewide land use inventory; (7) demonstration of high interest by other use groups in the test region in products and services provided by investigation; and (8) determination of the viability of setting up a computerized geographic information system as part of the CARETS investigation, to facilitate handling of sensor-derived land use data in a variety of formats to suit user requirements.

  13. Atmospheric Transport of Arid Aerosol from Desert Regions of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Boris; Solomon, Paul; Sitnov, Sergei; Grechko, Evgeny; Maximenkov, Leonid; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    Investigation of atmospheric transport of arid aerosol from Central Asia was held within the ISTC project 3715. Particular attention was paid to the removal of aerosol from the Aral Sea region and its further transport, because aerosol and pollutants emission from Central Asia affect the airspace of the entire Asian continent. At the same time measurements of aerosols in the atmosphere of Central Asia are holding in a small number of stations, and currently available data are insufficient to define the initial conditions and/or verification of models of long-range transport. To identify sources of pollution transported from Central Asia, in Kyrgyzstan measurement and sampling of air were organized: at the station on the northern slope of the Kirgiz Range, 30 km south of Bishkek, at an altitude of 1700 m above sea level (Bishkek Site, 42,683N; 74,694E ), and on permanent alpine Teploklyuchenka lidar station in the Central Tien Shan at an altitude of 2000 m above sea level (Lidar Site, 42,467N; 78,533E). The chemical analysis of collected aerosol and soils samples was carried out. Measurements of aerosol at these stations have been merged with the simulation of the trajectories of air masses in the study region and with the satellite (the Terra and Aqua satellites) observations of aerosol optical thickness in this region. Satellite data for the region 43-47 N, and 58-62 E (Aral Sea) from April 2008 to September 2009 were analyzed. The moments were selected, when the value of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was greatest (more than 0.5), and the transport from the Aral Sea region to the observation sites took place. For each of these days, the forward trajectories, which started at 6 points within the region, were calculated using the HYSPLIT model. The days, on which the trajectories reached the BISHKEK and LIDAR sites, were determined from the data obtained. Calculations on the basis of the RAMS model were performed for these days. These calculations were performed using a grid of 160*120*30 points. The obtained meteorological fields were used in the HYPACT model; the source of Lagrangian particles was located over the Aral Sea region. As the result for 2008 11 days were detected when aerosol from the Aral Sea was actively transported to the observation sites. Comparative chemical analysis of aerosol samples at the stations of observation and soil samples from the Aral Sea region would confirm the presence of emissions and regional transport. It should be noted that the main source of aerosol in Central Asia is Taklamakan desert. Average value and AOT variability over it several times higher than corresponding AOT values over the rest of the region. The greatest variability aerosol over Taklamakan observed from late March to mid-May. For example, on April 22, 2008 average of the AOT in cell 5° x 5° over the western part of Taklamakan - value reached 3,171. AOT virtually throughout the region positively correlated with AOT over Taklamakan desert. The most noticeable effect makes an aerosol of Taklamakan found in the south-east Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan in the east and north of the Tibetan highlands. The impact of the Aral Sea area is restricted significantly less. In doing so, AOT in the central part of the region reveals a weak negative correlation with the AOT over the Aral Sea.

  14. Experiments with clustering of catchments in PCA-reduced space and regionalization of a hydrological model (Central Alborz region, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Mohammad; Solomatine, Dimitri; Salajegheh, Ali; Mohseni Saravi, Mohsen; Malekian, Arash; Corzo, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the possibility of simulating time series of daily streamflows in ungauged catchments based on climatic and physiographic similarity. The study area is located in central Alborz region in Iran. Fourteen (14) proper catchments, with the area ranged between 16 to 827Km2, in this region selected for testing. After applying Principal Component Analysis for selecting the most important parameters among the different climatic and physiographic parameters, five components which could explain more than 90% of variances of the data were selected and according to the values of the coefficients in selected PCA components, five parameters including: Area, Annual Rainfall, Annual temperature, gravelius compactness coefficient and mean elevation, were selected as the measures for clustering. Then mentioned parameters entered in K-means clustering analysis method to classify the catchments. Finally the catchments divided in three different clusters. Using the well known HBV model, we built a model for the closest catchment to the center of each cluster. Then, the thirteen (13) HBV model parameters were calibrated using Genetic Algorithm. We assumed that the remained catchments in each cluster are ungauged, and using the calibrated model, the daily time series of streamflows simulated in the remained catchments in the considered cluster (as the receiver catchments). Nash Sutcliffe and RMSE indices used to comparing the simulated and recorded data. The experiments with the considered case study confirmed that the model regionalization based on the physiographic and climatic characteristics could be a useful instrument in hydrological studies. Key words: Regionalization, HBV, PCA, Cluster, Catchment, central Alborz region

  15. Central New York Library Resources Council CLRC Regional Digitization Plan. Final Report for the Preparing Central New York History for the Future LSTA Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sywetz, Betsy

    The primary goal for digitization projects sponsored by the Central New York Library Resources Council (CLRC) is enhanced access for the people of the region to digital resources created from collections in Central New York's libraries, archives and museums. The CLRC Digitization Plan provides a framework for the support of digitization activities…

  16. Central regions of the early-type galaxies in the NGC 3169 group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil'chenko, O. K.; Afanasiev, V. L.

    2006-08-01

    We have investigated the central regions of the galaxies in the NGC 3169/NGC 3166/NGC 3156 group with the multipupil fiber spectrograph of the 6-m telescope; the first (central) galaxy in the group is a spiral (Sa) one and the other two galaxies are lenticular ones. The group is known to have an extended HI cloud with a size of more than 100 kpc that is associated in its position, orientation, and rotation with the central galaxy NGC 3169. The mean age of the stellar populations in the centers of all three galaxies has been found to be approximately the same, ˜1 Gyr. Since the galaxies are early-type ones and since NGC 3166 and NGC 3156 show no global star formation, we are dealing here with a synchronous star formation burst in the centers of all three galaxies.

  17. Climatic variability, fire, and vegetation modeling in the North American Central Grassland Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. )

    1994-06-01

    In developing an equilibrium vegetation model for assessing the sensitivity of natural vegetation to climatic change in the Central Grasslands, we encountered difficulties in establishing solely climatic determinants for grasslands. Under the normal climate, woody plant dominance was predicted for much of the region supporting open grassland at the time of European settlement. Climatic data for historic periods and a fire model were used to test whether grass dominance was promoted by (1) climatic periods distinct from the normal period, (2) by fire, or (3) by the interactive effect of both. Grass/woody ratios in test simulations exhibited spatio-temporal variation produced by complex interactions among PET, precipitation seasonality, competition for soil moisture, and fuel characteristics determining fire intensity. Results support concepts of plant community thresholds and multiple steady states in the Central Grassland region.

  18. Radon Concentration in Groundwater in the Central Region of Gyeongju, Korea - 13130

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, A. Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2013-07-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is a well known cause of lung cancer through inhalation. Nevertheless, stomach cancer can also occur if radon-containing water is ingested. This study measured the radon concentration in groundwater for drinking or other domestic uses in the central region of Gyeongju, Korea. The groundwater samples were taken from 11 points chosen from the 11 administrative districts in the central region of Gyeongju by selecting a point per district considering the demographic distribution including the number of tourists who visit the ancient ruins and archaeological sites. The mean radon concentrations in the groundwater samples ranged from 14.38 to 9050.73 Bq.m{sup -3}, which were below the recommendations by the U.S. EPA and WHO. (authors)

  19. A study of dirigibles for use in the Peruvian Selva Central region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    A study to evaluate dirigibles as transport vehicles in the mainly undeveloped and heavily forested Selva Central region of Peru is discussed. The basic requirements for dirigible service in the region are described, including those pertaining to cargoes and routes, airports, weather conditions, ground facilities, operations and maintenance base, hangars, ballast, and helium supply. Dirigible types, sizes, and economics were analyzed, and the analytical methods and results are reported. Total costs are determined and compared with those for other aircraft. It is concluded that dirigibles can be used as transport in the Selva Central and that conventional dirigibles in normal operation will require expansion of exisiting airfields. Conventional dirigibles are more economical as their size increases and are cost effective compared to selected aircraft.

  20. The Unconserved Groucho Central Region Is Essential for Viability and Modulates Target Gene Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Turki-Judeh, Wiam; Courey, Albert J.

    2012-01-01

    Groucho (Gro) is a Drosophila corepressor required by numerous DNA-binding repressors, many of which are distributed in gradients and provide positional information during development. Gro contains well-conserved domains at its N- and C-termini, and a poorly conserved central region that includes the GP, CcN, and SP domains. All lethal point mutations in gro map to the conserved regions, leading to speculation that the unconserved central domains are dispensable. However, our sequence analysis suggests that the central domains are disordered leading us to suspect that the lack of lethal mutations in this region reflects a lack of order rather than an absence of essential functions. In support of this conclusion, genomic rescue experiments with Gro deletion variants demonstrate that the GP and CcN domains are required for viability. Misexpression assays using these same deletion variants show that the SP domain prevents unrestrained and promiscuous repression by Gro, while the GP and CcN domains are indispensable for repression. Deletion of the GP domain leads to loss of nuclear import, while deletion of the CcN domain leads to complete loss of repression. Changes in Gro activity levels reset the threshold concentrations at which graded repressors silence target gene expression. We conclude that co-regulators such as Gro are not simply permissive components of the repression machinery, but cooperate with graded DNA-binding factors in setting borders of gene expression. We suspect that disorder in the Gro central domains may provide the flexibility that allows this region to mediate multiple interactions required for repression. PMID:22319573

  1. Linear polarization observations in selected celestial zones - the central region of our Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Bignell, R.C.; Simard-Normandin, M.; Vallee, J.P.

    1988-07-01

    The Algonquin Radio Observatory and the very large array have been used to obtain the linear polarization integrated over the angular size of a radio galaxy or quasar. All sources are located in a celestial angular zone encompassing the central region of the Galaxy. In addition to the total intensity (Stokes I) flux density, the percentage and position angle of the linear polarization (Stokes Q and U) are obtained for 14 sources at several centimetric wavelengths. 15 references.

  2. Assessment of geothermal energy potential by geophysical methods: Nevşehir Region, Central Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kıyak, Alper; Karavul, Can; Gülen, Levent; Pekşen, Ertan; Kılıç, A. Rıza

    2015-03-01

    In this study, geothermal potential of the Nevşehir region (Central Anatolia) was assessed by using vertical electrical sounding (VES), self-potential (SP), magnetotelluric (MT), gravity and gravity 3D Euler deconvolution structure analysis methods. Extensive volcanic activity occurred in this region from Upper Miocene to Holocene time. Due to the young volcanic activity Nevşehir region can be viewed as a potential geothermal area. We collected data from 54 VES points along 5 profiles, from 28 MT measurement points along 2 profiles (at frequency range between 320 and 0.0001 Hz), and from 4 SP profiles (total 19 km long). The obtained results based on different geophysical methods are consistent with each other. Joint interpretation of all geological and geophysical data suggests that this region has geothermal potential and an exploration well validated this assessment beyond doubt.

  3. Regional Hydrological Response to Climate Change in Mexico and Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmalkar, A. V.; Bradley, R. S.; Diaz, H. F.

    2009-12-01

    Future changes in precipitation amount and variability are among the most important and serious projected consequences of climate change. Central America (CAM) shows most of its climate variability in precipitation. Thus, the large hydrological response to global warming can have negative consequences on agricultural activities and the ecosystem dynamics in the region. Indeed, Central America is considered to be a climate change hot-spot in the tropics mainly due to a future decrease in precipitation and an increase in precipitation variability as projected by the IPCC models. These coarse resolution general circulation models (GCMs) do not provide climate information at spatial scales appropriate for impacts assessment. A regional climate model PRECIS was used in this study to carry out two experiments: (i) the baseline (present-day) run and (ii) the SRES A2 run, both performed at 25 km horizontal resolution. The low-level circulation in the region around Central America is controlled by the low pressure area in the Pacific (the ITCZ) and the high pressure area (North Atlantic Subtropical High, NASH) in the Atlantic. Changes in the position and magnitude of the ITCZ low and the NASH govern the low-level circulation in the region. The spatial pattern of precipitation over CAM landmass is further modified by the complex topography and the land surface properties. A large reduction in precipitation is projected during the wet season (May-Oct) for eastern Mexico (30% decrease) and the Yucatan Peninsula (40% decrease) under the A2 scenario. A small decrease in precipitation during the wet season is projected for the Caribbean slopes of southern Central America. In general, a decrease in precipitation in these regions is associated with an increase in sea level pressure that indicates extended/intensified NASH in the future scenario. Regions on the Pacific side of the CAM cordillera show up to 20-25% decrease in precipitation in the wet season which is associated with the southward displacement of the ITCZ in the SRES A2 simulation. Changes in precipitation are closely linked to changes in the atmospheric and soil moisture. The orographic clouds are an important source of moisture to the windward slopes of Central America in the dry season (Nov-Apr). An increase in temperature and a reduction in precipitation is projected for most of Central America in this season. In addition, an increase in the cloud base heights in DJF is also projected for the Pacific slopes and high elevation Caribbean slopes of Costa Rica as a result of increasing temperatures. The height of orographic cloud formation is also affected by the land surface properties. The region has experienced alarming deforestation in the recent decades. It has been demonstrated that orographic cloud formation is sensitive to the land use change and deforestation in Costa Rican lowland. With the help of a regional model, this study will attempt to shed some light on the combined effect of the land-use change and an increase in greenhouse concentrations (under the A2 scenario) on the regional hydrological changes in Central America.

  4. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties and Zoogeographical Composition of the Family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian region. 72 species belonging to seven subfamilies and 25 genera were identified. The major part of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is formed by the subfamilies Elaterinae and Cardiophorinae. The genus Cardiophorus was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is partially consistent with known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Central Anatolian region shares most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic as does the Elateridae fauna of Turkey. Detailed localities of nine species are given for the first time for Turkey, with emphasis on the Central Anatolian region. PMID:21864150

  5. Molecular Gas and Star-formation Properties in the Central and Bar Regions of NGC 6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hsi-An; Kuno, Nario; Koda, Jin; Hirota, Akihiko; Sorai, Kazuo; Kaneko, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the molecular gas and star-formation properties in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 using multiple molecular lines and star-formation tracers. A high-resolution image (100 pc) of 13CO (1-0) is created for the inner 2 kpc disk by the single-dish Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope and interferometer Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, including the central region (nuclear ring and bar) and the offset ridges of the primary bar. Single-dish HCN (1-0) observations were also made to constrain the amount of dense gas. The physical properties of molecular gas are inferred from (1) the large velocity gradient calculations using our observations and archival 12CO (1-0), 12CO(2-1) data, (2) the dense gas fraction suggested by the luminosity ratio of HCN to 12CO (1-0), and (3) the infrared color. The results show that the molecular gas in the central region is warmer and denser than that of the offset ridges. The dense gas fraction of the central region is similar to that of luminous infrared galaxies/ultraluminous infrared galaxies, whereas the offset ridges are close to the global average of normal galaxies. The coolest and least-dense region is found in a spiral-like structure, which was misunderstood to be part of the southern primary bar in previous low-resolution observations. The star-formation efficiency (SFE) changes by about five times in the inner disk. The variation of SFE agrees with the prediction in terms of star formation regulated by the galactic bar. We find a consistency between the star-forming region and the temperature inferred by the infrared color, suggesting that the distribution of subkiloparsec-scale temperature is driven by star formation.

  6. Streamflow Trend in Three Watersheds of a Mediterranean Mountain Region in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorro Lopez, A. O.; Giardino, J. R.; Vitek, J. D.; High Alpine; Arctic Research Program

    2011-12-01

    The Region of Valparaiso, Chile is one of the many semiarid mountainous regions of the world that will be impacted by water availability for future development. Located in a transition zone between arid and more humid conditions in Central Chile, this area is sensitive to desertification. Under a Mediterranean climate, hydrological processes in Valparaiso watersheds are highly variable seasonally. Seasonal variability of streamflow and precipitation are the main characteristics of the hydrological processes of the region. The presence of Los Andes modified somewhat this variability, which at present time ensures a continuous flow of water for irrigation, domestic and industrial uses because dry summers are offset by snowmelt. In our work, statistical analysis of three separate watersheds in Valparaiso was undertaken to understand precipitation trends in the last sixty years by comparing discharge values in transects from arid to more humid conditions. Although similarities at a regional scale are present, statistically significant differences in discharge associated with hypsometric parameters were found. Slight differences in the local scale climate, extension of glaciers, historical presence of productive activities and geomorphological variables could explain this response but not allow final conclusions about trends observed from the decade of 1950s to the present. But, these differences allow the identification of spatial patterns associated with the varying geomorphology of the watersheds. Thus, we developed a watershed classification scheme based on aerial photography and ground checking to improve future modeling of hydrological response in similar watersheds in Central Chile.

  7. The Sombrero galaxy. II. Colours, kinematics and line strengths of the central region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsellem, E.; Bacon, R.; Monnet, G.; Poulain, P.

    1996-08-01

    We present photometric (pre-COSTAR HST and ground-based) and new two-dimensional TIGER spectrographic data of the central region of the Sombrero galaxy (NGC 4594, M 104). This gives B-V and V-R_C_ images, as well as 2D line strengths and kinematical maps (LOSVDs). Analysis of these data lets us draw a clearer picture of the morphology of the Sombrero galaxy: it contains a massive metal-poor bulge whose outer part seems to be pressure supported, an outer stellar ring (the main disc) with a roughly solar [Fe/H], a rapidly rotating, metal-rich inner disc ([Fe/H]~0.5), and a point-like nucleus. Using the deconvolved HST image, we have detected dust structures in the central arcseconds of M 104. We also mapped the distribution of ionized gas from the [NI] doublet (TIGER spectra), which strongly peaks in the centre. The presence of the [NI] emission lines significantly affected the measurements of the Mgb line strength in the central arcseconds. The derived stellar LOSVDs exhibit strong asymmetries close to the major-axis linked to the presence of the dynamically cold inner disc. The central velocity and velocity dispersion gradients are consistent with the suggested presence of a central dark mass of ~2x10^9^Msun_ (Emsellem & Qian 1996: Paper 3). Alternatively, a nuclear end-on bar could conceivably produce these gradients. We then analysed various correlations between the colours, line strengths and kinematics of the central region. In particular, the local escape velocity is confirmed to be a significantly better indicator of the local line strength than the local velocity dispersion. We propose that the present morphology represents the end-product of the secular evolution of the galaxy due to a (now dissolved?) stellar bar. In this context, dynamical resonances are suggested to play an important role in the building of the present structures. We thus associated the outer dust and HI ring to the OLR of the presumed bar. The double stellar disc structure is then discussed in the light of the bar hypothesis, the ILR corresponding to the transition region between the two discs. This hints of the formation of the inner disc by infalling of pre-enriched gas. Different mechanisms can be responsible for the building of the bulge and halo: e.g. an early minor merger event which could have triggered the formation of a bar, or a dissipational collapse. These scenarios have to be further examined, particularly in the light of the recent observations of edge-on S0 galaxies, which show structures resembling the ones of M 104.

  8. Lithospheric structure and stress field orientations in the northern Libya and east-central Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agail, Abdusalam Ali

    This thesis is a combination of three studies including tomography using surface wave group velocities, stress orientations from focal mechanisms, and receiver functions. The study area covers northern Libya and the east central Mediterranean region. I utilized new data from the Libyan National Seismic Network to better understand the crustal thickness and stress orientation of northern Libya as well as the east central Mediterranean region. In the first study, I conducted surface wave group velocity tomography implementing the Gaussian beam method for obtaining 2-D velocity variations assuming an isotropic model. I constructed surface wave group velocity maps over a range of periods for both Love and Rayleigh waves on a 2.0° x 2.0° grid. The results resolved the main geological features in the central Mediterranean and northern Libya. Crustal thickness variation of the Libyan margins shows a gradient (South to North) interpreted as a change from continental to oceanic crust. A thinner crust was resolved in the central Mediterranean beneath the Ionian Sea and Abyssal Plan. The Hellenic subduction zone and the Calabrian Accretionary prism were imaged as zones with very low group velocities. In the second study, 10 new focal mechanism solutions are presented and a total of 26 focal mechanisms from local earthquakes in northern Libya were used in an inversion to determine the variation of principles stress of the northern Libya area. The results indicate that there are two different regional stress orientations. In Zone I (north central Libya) the maximum principal stress orientation (?1) has a strike 95° and plunge of 22°. The orientation of the greatest principal stress (?1) in Zone II (northeastern Libya, Cyrenaica region) has a strike of 327° and plunge of 13°. In Zone III (northwestern Libya), ?1 has a strike of 129° and plunge of 16°. These results show a rotation of the maximum principal stress orientation from southeast in northwestern Libya to northwest in eastern Libya. This confirms the existence of at least two different stress regimes in the area, which has been suggested by previous studies. In the third study, I analyzed waveforms from 66 teleseismic events (distances of 4000 km to 15700 km and magnitudes of 0.1 to 4.5) to compute receiver functions using a frequency - domain method that is based on the deconvolution of the vertical components. Unfortunately, due to the lack of well-recorded data I was not able to obtain viable receiver functions results. More data are required to adequately determining these receiver functions.

  9. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region-specific differences in the ecological functions performed by macroinvertebrates in forested depressional wetlands.

  10. Investigating drought over the Central Highland, Vietnam, using regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Minh Tue; Raghavan, Srivatsan V.; Pham, Duc Minh; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2015-07-01

    The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has been computed based on the monthly precipitation for different observed and modelled datasets over the Central Highland, Vietnam during the period 1990-2005. Station data from a total of 13 stations were collected from the study region and used for benchmarking to compare gridded observation data and two regional climate models (RCMs). Various characteristics of drought across the study region were analyzed using spatial and temporal distributions, number of drought events, their frequency and their deficit. The RCMs were able to capture the SPI temporal distributions of station data fairly well. The analysis from RCMs showed close estimation for the number of drought events to station data and gridded observations. In terms of Drought Deficit and frequency, the RCMs matched the station data better than gridded observations. The drought trend was carried out using a Modified Mann-Kendall trend test which yielded no clear trends that suggested the need for longer records of data. The results also highlight uncertainties in gridded data and the need for robust station data quality and record lengths. The regional climate models proved to be appropriate tools in assessing drought over the study area as they can serve as good proxies over data sparse regions, especially in developing countries, for studying detailed climate features at sub regional and local scales.

  11. A Study of Regional Wave Source Time Functions of Central Asian Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Perry, M. R.; Schult, F. R.; Wood, J.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the extensive use of seismic regional waves in seismic event identification and attenuation tomography, very little is known on how seismic sources radiate energy into these waves. For example, whether regional Lg wave has the same source spectrum as that of the local S has been questioned by Harr et al. and Frenkel et al. three decades ago; many current investigators assume source spectra in Lg, Sn, Pg, Pn and Lg coda waves have either the same or very similar corner frequencies, in contrast to local P and S spectra whose corner frequencies differ. The most complete information on how the finite source ruptures radiate energy into regional waves is contained in the time domain source time functions (STFs). To estimate the STFs of regional waves using the empirical Green's function (EGF) method, we have been substantially modifying a semi-automotive computer procedure to cope with the increasingly diverse and inconsistent naming patterns of new data files from the IRIS DMC. We are applying the modified procedure to many earthquakes in central Asia to study the STFs of various regional waves to see whether they have the same durations and pulse shapes, and how frequently source directivity occur. When applicable, we also examine the differences between STFs of local P and S waves and those of regional waves. The result of these analyses will be presented at the meeting.

  12. SALTRA: a regional program for workers' health and sustainable development in Central America.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Wesseling C; Aragón A; Elgstrand K; Flores R; Hogstedt C; Partanen T

    2011-07-01

    In 2003, the university-based Program on Work and Health in Central America, SALTRA, was launched to build national and regional capacities in occupational safety and health with the goal of preventing and reducing poverty in Central America. SALTRA has implemented 20 projects including action projects in priority sectors (e.g., construction, sugarcane, hospitals, migrant coffee workers); strengthening of surveillance (occupational health profiles, carcinogenic exposures, fatal injuries and pesticides); a participatory model for training and risk monitoring by workers; building occupational health capacity for professionals, employers, and workers, with collaborating networks between the countries; strengthening of universities in work, environment, and health; studies of serious occupational and environmental situations; communication channels; and continued efforts to raise political awareness. SALTRA has placed issues of workers' health on political, business, and academic agendas throughout the region and has laid the foundations for achieving substantial future improvements in health conditions of all workers in the region. External evaluators envisioned SALTRA as an innovative development model.

  13. Solution and Crystallographic Structures of the Central Region of the Phosphoprotein from Human Metapneumovirus

    PubMed Central

    Leyrat, Cedric; Renner, Max; Harlos, Karl; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) of the family Paramyxoviridae is a major cause of respiratory illness worldwide. Phosphoproteins (P) from Paramyxoviridae are essential co-factors of the viral RNA polymerase that form tetramers and possess long intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). We located the central region of HMPV P (Pced) which is involved in tetramerization using disorder analysis and modeled its 3D structure ab initio using Rosetta fold-and-dock. We characterized the solution-structure of Pced using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and carried out direct fitting to the scattering data to filter out incorrect models. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) and ensemble optimization were employed to select correct models and capture the dynamic character of Pced. Our analysis revealed that oligomerization involves a compact central core located between residues 169-194 (Pcore), that is surrounded by flexible regions with α-helical propensity. We crystallized this fragment and solved its structure at 3.1 Å resolution by molecular replacement, using the folded core from our SAXS-validated ab initio model. The RMSD between modeled and experimental tetramers is as low as 0.9 Å, demonstrating the accuracy of the approach. A comparison of the structure of HMPV P to existing mononegavirales Pced structures suggests that Pced evolved under weak selective pressure. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using SAXS in combination with ab initio modeling and MDS to solve the structure of small, homo-oligomeric protein complexes. PMID:24224051

  14. Regional structural controls of gold mineralisation, Bendigo and Castlemaine goldfields, Central Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willman, Clive E.

    2007-06-01

    The Bendigo and Castlemaine goldfields are classic examples of structurally controlled orogenic gold deposits in the Bendigo Zone of central Victoria, SE Australia. Detailed mapping and biostratigraphic interpretation has led to a better understanding of the regional structural controls of this type of gold-quartz mineralisation. Mineralised quartz veins are hosted by the Castlemaine Group, an Early-to-Middle Ordovician turbidite succession at least 3,000 m thick. Gold deposits are controlled by low-displacement faults that are clustered into several belts (the goldfields) indicating a regional structural control. The timing of mineralisation overlapped with that of the major period of deformation including folding, cleavage development and regional faulting. The Bendigo and Castlemaine goldfields are located in an area termed the Whitelaw thrust sheet bounded by two unmineralised, high-displacement, regional-scale faults. Mapping has revealed an interrelationship between the regional-scale faults, regional structural style and goldfield location. The goldfields lie immediately west of the boundary between the upper and lower portions of the thrust sheet and are characterised by symmetric folds with sub-horizontal to synclinal enveloping surfaces, relatively low co-axial strains and moderate cleavage development. The non-gold-bearing areas immediately east of each goldfield correspond with the lower part of the Whitelaw thrust sheet and are characterised by higher non-coaxial strains, stronger cleavage and folds with wide west-dipping limbs giving rise to easterly vergent sections and steeply west-dipping enveloping surfaces. That mineralisation was an integral part of the thin-skinned style of deformation in the central Bendigo Zone is indicated by timing relationships and the interrelationship between local-scale mineralised structures and regional-scale features such as large-displacement unmineralised faults, regional variations in fold style and overall thrust sheet geometry. The work supports previous models that suggest mineralised fluids were focussed along a linked system of deep-seated faults. The primary conduits may have been major regional-scale ‘intrazone’ faults, which are inferred to sole into detachments near the base of the Castlemaine Group. It is proposed that these structures linked with minor intrazone faults and then with networks of low-displacement mineralised faults that were strongly controlled by folds. The location of minor intrazone faults was probably controlled by internal thrust sheet geometry. The distribution of gold deposits and of gold production suggests that maximum fluid flow was concentrated along the eastern margins of networks of low-displacement faults.

  15. Convective transport over the central United States and its role in regional CO and ozone budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ellis, William G., Jr.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Scala, John R.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Mcnamara, Donna P.; Simpson, Joanne

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed a regional budget for boundary layer carbon monoxide over the central United States (32.5 deg - 50 deg N, 90 deg - 105 deg W), emphasizing a detailed evaluation of deep convective vertical fluxes appropriate for the month of June. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer (upward) dominates other components of the CO budget, e.g., downward convective transport, loss of CO by oxidation, anthropogenic emissions, and CO produced from oxidation of methane, isoprene, and anthropogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Calculations of deep convective venting are based on the method pf Pickering et al.(1992a) which uses a satellite-derived deep convective cloud climatology along with transport statistics from convective cloud model simulations of observed prototype squall line events. This study uses analyses of convective episodes in 1985 and 1989 and CO measurements taken during several midwestern field campaigns. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer over this moderately polluted region provides a net (upward minus downward) flux of 18.1 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month to the free troposphere during early summer. Shallow cumulus and synoptic-scale weather systems together make a comparable contribution (total net flux 16.2 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month). Boundary layer venting of CO with other O3 precursors leads to efficient free troposheric O3 formation. We estimate that deep convective transport of CO and other precursors over the central United States in early summer leads to a gross production of 0.66 - 1.1 Gmol O3/d in good agreement with estimates of O3 production from boundary layer venting in a continental-scale model (Jacob et al., 1993a, b). On this respect the central U.S. region acts as s `chimney' for the country, and presumably this O3 contributes to high background levels of O3 in the eastern United States and O3 export to the North Atlantic.

  16. Telemagmatic metamorphism superimposed on regional metamorphism: Evidence from coals in central China

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Coal (Lower Permian No. 1) in north-central Henan province, central China, exhibits a zoned rank distribution. The rank varies between high-volatile bituminous and anthracite. Highest rank coal occurs in a northwest-southeast trending zone that cuts across the center of the study area. Coal rank decreases from this central zone towards both the northeast and southwest. Core data indicate that the anthracite is currently overlain by over 4,600 m of sedimentary cover, which represents more or less continuous sedimentation during the Permian and Triassic. In the lower rank area to the southwest, erosion has removed all but approximately 1,000 m of strata. The rank distribution in this area has been attributed to regional metamorphism by previous workers as the higher coal rank coincides with the thicker strata. However, this study reveals that anthracite in the area has a much higher vitrinite reflectance, between 3--6% (Ro max, in oil), with some locations exhibiting reflectances greater than 6%. Petrographically, the anthracite is characterized by well developed pores (5--10 [mu]m in diameter) and mosaic structure. It is suggested that the higher heat flow is due to the presence of deep-seated plutons. It is proposed that coal metamorphism in this area involved three stages: (1) Pre-orogenic (early Permian-late Triassic). Regional metamorphism produced coals of subbituminous to high-volatile bituminous rank; (2) Orogenic (early Jurassic-late Cretaceous). Telemagmatic metamorphism resulted in zones of higher rank coal (medium volatile through anthracite rank); (3) Post-orogenic (Tertiary-Quaternary). Shallow burial depth due to the tectonic uplift followed by erosion had a negligible effect on coal rank. It is suggested, therefore, that coalification in this area is the result of regional metamorphism overprinted by telemagmatic metamorphism.

  17. Regional Groundwater Flow in Quaternary Aquifers in the Kanto Plain, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.; Sakura, Y.

    2006-12-01

    The Kanto Plain located in the Pacific side of central Japan is the largest groundwater basin in Japan. Tokyo metropolitan district is situated in this plain, and approximately 30 % of the whole population of Japan lives here. Urbanization and various human activities have affected groundwater environment in each part of the plain; e.g. land subsidence, decline of piezometric head and pollution. It is necessary to make clear the present groundwater environment and the process of environmental changes to maintain and manage groundwater environment. In this study, groundwater samples were taken in Quaternary aquifers (shallower than GL-400m) and analyzed major dissolved ions and delta-18O, D to clarify the present regional groundwater flow system. Also, long term data of piezometric head in various aquifers observed by the local administrations were collected. From the three dimensional distribution of groundwater quality and delta-18O, D, groundwater with relatively high Cl- concentration (up to about 200mg/l) and low isotopic ratios was found in the aquifer that was situated between 200m and 400m depth of the central part. This groundwater area was distributed in the direction of northwest-southeast, and boundary of it was clear. Considering the hydrogeological setting and isotopic ratios of precipitation, the groundwater was considered to have been supplied to this area by regional groundwater flow. On the other hand, the southwestern boundary was well corresponded to the location of Ayasegawa fault system that deformed Quaternary sediments approximately 100m at the depth GL-200m. In addition, piezometric head in each aquifer differed bordering on the fault. These differences strongly suggested the fault system divides the regional groundwater flow system, that is, the fault system acts as barrier to groundwater flow from southwestern part to central part of the plain. Also, this barrier was fully functioning in the period when the groundwater was pumped in large quantities.

  18. CS J = 2 yields 1 emission toward the central region of M82

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. E.; Walker, C. K.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Martin, R. N.

    1990-01-01

    M82 is an irregular (Type II) galaxy located at a distance of approximately 3.5 Mpc. Its unusual appearance and high luminosity, particularly in the infrared, has led many astronomers to classify it as a starburst galaxy. This interpretation is supported by the observation of a large number of radio continuum sources within the central arcminute of the galaxy. These sources are thought to be associated with supernova remnants. The starburst in the central region of the galaxy is believed to have been triggered by tidal interaction with either M81 or the HI cloud surrounding the M81 group. High angular resolution CO-12 J=1 to 0 maps by Nakai (1984) and Lo et al. (1987) indicate the existence of a 400 to 450 pc rotating ring of molecular material about the central region of M82. Red- and blue-shifted absorption components of the HI and OH lines measured by Weliachew et al. (1984) provided the first evidence for the presence of the ring. Many astronomers, each using a different angular resolution, have compared CO-12 J=1 to 0, J=2 to 1, and J=3 to 2 emission and concluded that a large fraction of the CO emission is optically thin. Additional observations suggest that the molecular material toward the center of M82 is clumpy and dense. Unlike the lower rotational transitions of CO, CS is excited only at relatively high densities, n sub H sub 2 greater than or equal to 10(exp 4) cm(-3). It is in clouds with these densities that stars are expected to form. This makes CS an excellent probe of star formation regions. Researchers observed the CS J=2 to 1 transition (97.981 GHz) toward 52 positions in M82 using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 12 m telescope.

  19. Gamma-rays from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Central Region of the Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2009-02-01

    In this article, we review the prospects for the FERMI satellite (formerly known as GLAST) to detect gamma-rays from dark matter annihilations in the Central Region of the Milky Way, in light of the recent observations and discoveries of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. While the existence of significant astrophysical backgrounds in this part of the sky limits FERMI's discovery potential to some degree, this can be mitigated by exploiting the peculiar energy spectrum and angular distribution of the dark matter annihilation signal relative to those of astrophysical backgrounds.

  20. Soft X-ray images of the central region of the Perseus cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Fabricant, D.; Feigelson, E.; Gorenstein, P.; Grindlay, J.; Soltan, A.; Zamorani, G.

    1981-08-15

    We report the results of 0.5--3.0 keV X-ray observations of the central region of the Perseus cluster carried out with the Imaging Proportional Counter and High Resolution Imager aboard the Einstein Observatory. In addition to the very extended thermal cluster emission and a sharply peaked component at NGC 1275 previously known, the high resolution image reveals a point source coincident with the optical nucleus of NGC 1275. The 0.5--3.0 keV luminosity of the compact source is approx.10/sup 44/ ergs s/sup -1/.

  1. Vortex flows with suspended separation regions and long-range untwisted central jets

    SciTech Connect

    Abramovich, G.N.; Trofimov, R.S.

    1988-05-01

    A study is made of possible physicoaerodynamic configurations of vortical flow with suspended separation regions and untwisted central jets. Such flows are encountered in power plants (heat exchangers, combustion chambers, and chemical reactors) and in nature (tornadoes). The basic configurations of several flows of this type are described, including the structure of a flow formed by coaxial cocurrent twisted jets, the flow in a conical swirl chamber with the formation of an untwisted long-range axial jet, the flow pattern in a gas turbine engine chamber, and some considerations regarding the aerodynamics of a tornado.

  2. Regional Geochemical Trends in Young Basalts Along the Central Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, M.; Furman, T.; Hanan, B. B.; Kurkcuoglu, B.; Sayit, K.

    2009-12-01

    The regional neotectonics and volcanism along the margins of the Anatolian microplate (Turkey) are broadly well-constrained. The African and Arabian plates currently push Anatolia against the relatively stable Eurasian plate and as a result, Anatolia has had a west-southwest movement for the last 12 Ma in what is called ‘escape tectonics’. The tectonic environments and their associated volcanism include slab rollback in Western Anatolia (post-Miocene alkaline basalts and basanites) and slab detachment in Eastern Anatolia (mid-Miocene calc-alkaline to Quaternary alkaline). However, the situation in Central Anatolia is less clear: extensional forces govern the neo-tectonic environment and Pliocene-Recent basalts through basaltic andesites and dacites form large stratovolcanoes in extensional basins as well as both small and large basalt fields. The geochemistry of these basalts requires contributions from a poorly-defined mantle source lithology that has been enriched by subduction processes. However, available plate reconstructions indicate that the leading edge of the subducted African plate did not reach Central Anatolia, suggesting that the subduction environment could be related to closure of the neo-Tethyan Ocean in Paleozoic time. Geochemical compositions of mafic lavas along the Central Anatolian Fault Zone (CAFZ) provide new clarity on the question of the extent of lithospheric melting and the influence of the subducting slab. Moving southward along the CAFZ, incompatible trace element compositions of Central Anatolian basalts increase systematically in La/Nb concentrations and other incompatible trace element indicators trend from MORB and OIB signatures to more enriched values. Small negative Nb and no Ta anomalies are present in basalts from the northern CAFZ, and increase to larger negative Nb anomalies and Ta anomalies in the north. The incompatible trace element variations along the CAFZ point to an increase in lithospheric or slab involvement toward the leading edge of the African plate, i.e., to the south. Here we present new Pb and Hf isotopic data on recent (<15 Ma) mafic lavas along the CAFZ previously analyzed for major and trace elements. Isotopic ratios show greater source heterogeneity than suggested by the trace element data and show no apparent relationship with latitude. The Pb-Pb isotope ratios define a data field similar to modern oceanic sediment, intermediate in composition to Western Anatolia SCLM and the C component and enriched Central Atlantic MORB. In the 206Pb/204Pb-ɛHf diagram the Central Anatolian lavas are consistent with mixing between a C-like component on the enriched end of the Central Atlantic MORB trend, and Western Anatolia-like SCLM. The isotopic data support a mixing model between oceanic mantle and subduction modified SCLM sources.

  3. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  4. Structural development of the central Kyrenia Range (north Cyprus) in its regional setting in the eastern Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. H. F.; Kinnaird, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed structural analysis of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic geological development of the central segment of the Kyrenia Range in its regional tectonic context is given here. The structural evidence comes from five structural traverses, outcrop observations, small-scale structures and related regional evidence. The majority of the structures are fault planes, of which a subordinate number exhibit slickenlines (fault plane data, n = 2688; with kinematics, n = 537). Additional kinematic data were obtained from C-S fabrics and folds. Small-scale structures in each stratigraphic unit were `backstripped' to reveal relative chronology. Synthesis of the structural information indicates three phases of convergence-related deformation: (1) Late Cretaceous, associated with greenschist facies metamorphism, followed by exhumation that was probably associated with WNW-ESE to ENE-WSW-trending high-angle faulting; (2) Mid-Eocene, associated with southward thrusting, coupled with ~N-S strike-slip (transfer faulting) and oblique faulting in an overall sinistral transpressive stress regime; (3) Late Miocene-earliest Pliocene, involving southward thrusting and folding, localised back-thrusting, extensive fault reactivation and large-scale segmentation of the range. Intense uplift of the Kyrenia Range took place during the Plio-Pleistocene, possibly related to the collision of the Eratosthenes Seamount with the Cyprus trench to the south of the island. The three main convergent phases relate to stages of northward subduction and diachronous continental collision affecting the northerly, active continental margin of the Southern Neotethys.

  5. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

  6. Projecting the vegetation response to climatic change in the North American Central Grasslands Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. )

    1993-06-01

    An interdisciplinary modeling effort is underway in which high-resolution climate change projections will drive the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System (MAPSS) to simulate vegetation change in the Central Grasslands Region. MAPSS calculates a complete site water balance and solves for the leaf area (LAI) of both woody and grass lifeforms in full competition for both light and water. Fire is a necessary constraint on simulated shrub LAI throughout much of the grasslands region, and incorporation of weather variability is critical for obtaining accurate tree/grass LAI ratios in the Prairie Peninsula. Initial estimates of the potential impact of climatic change include significant changes in both lifeform LAI and the distribution of subformation vegetation types, but the magnitude and even the direction of change varies with the climate scenario and with assumptions concerning wind speed and plant water-use efficiency.

  7. Spectra of double-cumulative photons in the central rapidity region at high transverse momenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, I. G.; Golubev, A. A.; Goryachev, V. S.; Dzubenko, G. B.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Zhigareva, N. M.; Kiselev, S. M.; Mikhaylov, K. R.; Morozova, E. A.; Polozov, P. A.; Prokudin, M. S.; Romanov, D. V.; Svirida, D. N.; Stavinsky, A. V.; Stolin, V. L.; Sharkov, G. B.

    2015-11-01

    The spectra of photons produced in the interaction between carbon ions of kinetic energy 2.0 and 3.2 GeV per nucleon and beryllium nuclei were measured at the FLINT facility by means of electromagnetic calorimeters that is deployed at the accelerator of the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow). The spectra in question were measured in the central rapidity region (at angles between 35° and 73° in the laboratory frame) at photon energies of 1 to 3 GeV by using a cumulative-photon trigger. An analysis of the data obtained in this way reveals that the interaction of multinucleon fluctuation in the projectile nucleus with a multinucleon fluctuation in the target nucleus is a dominant process that leads to photon production in the measured region of angles and momenta. As a development of the generally accepted terminology, an interaction of this type may be called a double cumulative interaction.

  8. Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a 6 year recharge study in the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas are statistically analyzed to regionalize the limited number of site-specific but year-round measurements. Emphasis is placed on easily measured parameters and field-measured data. The results of the statistical analysis reveal that a typical recharge event in central Kansas lasts 5-7 days, out of which 3 or 4 days are precipitation days with total precipitation of ??? 83 mm. The maximum soil-profile water storage and the maximum groundwater level resulting from the recharge event exhibit the lowest coefficients of variation, whereas the amount of recharge exhibits the highest coefficient of variation. The yearly recharge in the Great Bend Prairie ranged from 0 to 177 mm with a mean of 56 mm. Most of the recharge events occur during the months of April, May, and June, which coincide with the months of highest precipitation in the region. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the most influential variables affecting recharge are, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation average maximum soil-profile water storage during the spring months, average shallowest depth to water table during the same period, and spring rainfall rate. Classification methods, whereby relatively homogeneous hydrologic-unit areas based on the four recharge-affecting variables are identified, were combined with a Geographic Information Systems (ARC/INFO) overlay analysis to derive an area-wide map of differing recharge regions. This recharge zonation is in excellent agreement with the field-site recharge values. The resulting area-weighted average annual recharge for the region is 36 mm. ?? 1992.

  9. CHARACTER AND REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF GREAT FALLS TECTONIC ZONE, EAST-CENTRAL IDAHO AND WEST-CENTRAL MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Lopez, David A.

    1985-01-01

    The Great Falls tectonic zone, here named, is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can be traced from the Idaho batholith in the Cordilleran miogeocline, across thrust-belt structures and basement rocks of west-central and southwestern Montana, through cratonic rocks of central Montana, and into southwestern-most Saskatchewan, Canada. Geologic mapping in east-central Idaho and west-central Montana has outlined a continuous zone of high-angle faults and shear zones. Recurrent fault movement in this zone and strong structural control over igneous intrusion suggest a fundamental tectonic feature that has influenced the tectonic development of the Idaho-Montana area from a least middle Proterozoic time to the present. Refs.

  10. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning, and anthropogenic sources from Europe; South, East, and Central Asia; and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.

  11. Study of the Seismic Cycle of large Earthquakes in central Peru: Lima Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norabuena, E. O.; Quiroz, W.; Dixon, T. H.

    2009-12-01

    Since historical times, the Peruvian subduction zone has been source of large and destructive earthquakes. The more damaging one occurred on May 30 1970 offshore Peru’s northern city of Chimbote with a death toll of 70,000 people and several hundred US million dollars in property damage. More recently, three contiguous plate interface segments in southern Peru completed their seismic cycle generating the 1996 Nazca (Mw 7.1), the 2001 Atico-Arequipa (Mw 8.4) and the 2007 Pisco (Mw 7.9) earthquakes. GPS measurements obtained between 1994-2001 by IGP-CIW an University of Miami-RSMAS on the central Andes of Peru and Bolivia were used to estimate their coseismic displacements and late stage of interseismic strain accumulation. However, we focus our interest in central Peru-Lima region, which with its about 9’000,000 inhabitants is located over a locked plate interface that has not broken with magnitude Mw 8 earthquakes since May 1940, September 1966 and October 1974. We use a network of 11 GPS monuments to estimate the interseismic velocity field, infer spatial variations of interplate coupling and its relation with the background seismicity of the region.

  12. Sororin loads to the synaptonemal complex central region independently of meiotic cohesin complexes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rocío; Felipe-Medina, Natalia; Ruiz-Torres, Miguel; Berenguer, Inés; Viera, Alberto; Pérez, Sara; Barbero, José Luis; Llano, Elena; Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Alsheimer, Manfred; Pendás, Alberto M; Losada, Ana; Suja, José A

    2016-05-01

    The distribution and regulation of the cohesin complexes have been extensively studied during mitosis. However, the dynamics of their different regulators in vertebrate meiosis is largely unknown. In this work, we have analyzed the distribution of the regulatory factor Sororin during male mouse meiosis. Sororin is detected at the central region of the synaptonemal complex during prophase I, in contrast with the previously reported localization of other cohesin components in the lateral elements. This localization of Sororin depends on the transverse filaments protein SYCP1, but not on meiosis-specific cohesin subunits REC8 and SMC1β. By late prophase I, Sororin accumulates at centromeres and remains there up to anaphase II The phosphatase activity of PP2A seems to be required for this accumulation. We hypothesize that Sororin function at the central region of the synaptonemal complex could be independent on meiotic cohesin complexes. In addition, we suggest that Sororin participates in the regulation of centromeric cohesion during meiosis in collaboration with SGO2-PP2A. PMID:26951638

  13. Beam tracking simulation in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggraita, Pramudita; Santosa, Budi; Taufik, Mulyani, Emy; Diah, Frida Iswinning

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the trajectories simulation of proton beam in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron, operating with negative proton beam (for easier beam extraction using a stripper foil), 40 kV peak accelerating dee voltage at fourth harmonic frequency of 77.88 MHz, and average magnetic field of 1.275 T. The central region covers fields of 240mm × 240mm × 30mm size at 1mm resolution. The calculation was also done at finer 0.25mm resolution covering fields of 30mm × 30mm × 4mm size to see the effects of 0.55mm horizontal width of the ion source window and the halted trajectories of positive proton beam. The simulations show up to 7 turns of orbital trajectories, reaching about 1 MeV of beam energy. The distribution of accelerating electric fields and magnetic fields inside the cyclotron were calculated in 3 dimension using Opera3D code and Tosca modules for static magnetic and electric fields. The trajectory simulation was carried out using Scilab 5.3.3 code.

  14. Intraseasonal variability of organized convective systems in the Central Andes: Relationship to Regional Dynamical Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, K. I.; Slayback, D. A.; Nicholls, S.; Yager, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Andes extend from the west coast of Colombia (10N) to the southern tip of Chile (53S). In southern Peru and Bolivia, the Central Andes is split into separate eastern and western cordilleras, with a high plateau (≥ 3000 m), the Altiplano, between them. Because 90% of the Earth's tropical mountain glaciers are located in the Central Andes, our study focuses on this region, defining its zonal extent as 7S-21S and the meridional extent as the terrain 1000 m and greater. Although intense convection occurs during the wet season in the Altiplano, it is not included in the lists of regions with frequent or the most intense convection. The scarcity of in-situ observations with sufficient density and temporal resolution to resolve individual storms or even mesoscale-organized cloud systems and documented biases in microwave-based rainfall products in poorly gauged mountainous regions have impeded the development of an extensive literature on convection and convective systems in this region. With the tropical glaciers receding at unprecedented rates, leaving seasonal precipitation as an increasingly important input to the water balance in alpine valley ecosystems and streams, understanding the nature and characteristics of the seasonal precipitation becomes increasingly important for the rural economies in this region. Previous work in analyzing precipitation in the Central Andes has emphasized interannual variability with respect to ENSO, this is the first study to focus on shorter scale variability with respect to organized convection. The present study took advantage of the University of Utah's Precipitation Features database compiled from 14 years of TRMM observations (1998-2012), supplemented by field observations of rainfall and streamflow, historical gauge data, and long-term WRF-simulations, to analyze the intraseasonal variability of precipitating systems and their relationship regional dynamical features such as the Bolivian High. Through time series and wavelet analysis, we found an important 8-10 day cycle related to but lagging convective surges in the Amazon basin and enhanced upper-level cyclonic flow around the Bolivian High. The majority of the organized convection in the region tended to be weak (< 5 mm/hr rain rates) and shallow (< 12 km). The timing of response (i.e., formation and distribution of organized convection) due to changes in moisture transport around the Bolivian High was similar in the wetter eastern and drier western cordilleras of the Central Andes. The response to upper level moisture transport was modulated by local soil moisture and elevation slope and aspect, with higher elevation, eastern facing peaks having a stronger response than western-facing and lower elevation areas. Streamflow data support the hypothesis that the majority of the light rainfall infiltrates the shallow sub-surface, rather than contributing to surface channel runoff, helping to sustain the high altitude peatlands in the Andean valleys.

  15. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Impact on Elementary School Mathematics in the Central Region. Final Report. NCEE 2011-4005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randel, Bruce; Beesley, Andrea D.; Apthorp, Helen; Clark, Tedra F.; Wang, Xin; Cicchinelli, Louis F.; Williams, Jean M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted by the Central Region Educational Laboratory (REL Central) administered by Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning to provide educators and policymakers with rigorous evidence about the potential of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning (CASL) to improve student achievement. CASL is a widely used professional…

  16. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a case study on 16 October 2011 to show the first observational evidence of the influence of short period gravity waves in aerosol transport during daytime over the central Himalayan region. The Doppler lidar data has been utilized to address the daytime boundary layer evolution and related aerosol dynamics over the site. Mixing layer height is estimated by wavelet covariance transform method and found to be ~ 0.7 km, AGL. Aerosol optical depth observations during daytime revealed an asymmetry showing clear enhancement during afternoon hours as compared to forenoon. Interestingly, Fourier and wavelet analysis of vertical velocity and attenuated backscatter showed similar 50-90 min short period gravity wave signatures during afternoon hours. Moreover, our observations showed that gravity waves are dominant within the boundary layer implying that the daytime boundary layer dynamics is playing a vital role in transporting the aerosols from surface to the top of the boundary layer. Similar modulations are also evident in surface parameters like temperature, relative humidity and wind speed indicating these waves are associated with the dynamical aspects over Himalayan region. Finally, time evolution of range-23 height indicator snapshots during daytime showed strong upward velocities especially during afternoon hours implying that convective processes through short period gravity waves plays a significant role in transporting aerosols from the nearby valley region to boundary layer top over the site. These observations also establish the importance of wave induced daytime convective boundary layer dynamics in the lower Himalayan region.

  17. Evidence and effects of wrench faulting, north central Gulf Coast region

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.K.

    1995-10-01

    North central Gulf Coast Middle Mesozoic zones of crustal weakness caused by tranform faulting associated with plate separation and rifting, became ideal areas for subsequent tectonic adjustments. Several lines of evidence - manifested in wrench faulting - point toward the existence of such adjustments occurring in the Upper Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary strata of this area. Eight lines of evidence suggest that there are at least four zones of faulting in the region which have been affected by lateral (and vertical) movements and associated extension fracturing. Isopach maps, en echelon fault/fold patterns, location of time-specific igneous activity, offset basement features, anomalous saltwater incursions into freshwater aquifers, offset surface geomorphic features, surface lineaments, and regional hydrocarbon migration patterns all suggest dominant lateral motion along the affected zones in the subsurface and/or surface. Two main results of the region`s wrench faulting are evident in (1) the development of vertical pathways or conduits facilitating hydrocarbon migration from deep, thermally mature source rocks to shallower reservoirs located in non-mature source rock zones; and (2) the development of extension fractures that enhance reservoir porosity. Both results have created the potential for increasing hydrocarbon source volumes available for migration and reservoiring.

  18. Variation in biogeochemical parameters across intertidal seagrass meadows in the central Great Barrier Reef region.

    PubMed

    Mellors, Jane; Waycott, Michelle; Marsh, Helene

    2005-01-01

    This survey provides baseline information on sediment characteristics, porewater, adsorbed and plant tissue nutrients from intertidal coastal seagrass meadows in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Data collected from 11 locations, representative of intertidal coastal seagrass beds across the region, indicated that the chemical environment was typical of other tropical intertidal areas. Results using two different extraction methods highlight the need for caution when choosing an adsorbed phosphate extraction technique, as sediment type affects the analytical outcome. Comparison with published values indicates that the range of nutrient parameters measured is equivalent to those measured across tropical systems globally. However, the nutrient values in seagrass leaves and their molar ratios for Halophila ovalis and Halodule uninervis were much higher than the values from the literature from this and other regions, obtained using the same techniques, suggesting that these species act as nutrient sponges, in contrast with Zostera capricorni. The limited historical data from this region suggest that the nitrogen and phosphorus content of seagrass leaves has increased since the 1970s concomitant with changing land use practice. PMID:15757732

  19. Regional frequency analysis for mapping drought events in north-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, J. H.; Verbist, K.; Wallis, J. R.; Schaefer, M. G.; Morales, L.; Cornelis, W. M.

    2011-08-01

    SummaryDroughts are among the most important natural disasters, particularly in the arid and semiarid regions of the world. Proper management of droughts requires knowledge of the expected frequency of specific low magnitude precipitation totals for a variety of durations. Probabilistic approaches have often been used to estimate the average recurrence period of a given drought event. However, probabilistic model fitting by conventional methods, such as product moment or maximum likelihood in areas with low availability of long records often produces highly unreliable estimates. Recognizing the need for adequate estimates of return periods of severe droughts in the arid and semiarid region of Chile, a regional frequency analysis method based on L-moments (RFA-LM) was used for estimating and mapping drought frequency. Some adaptations to the existing procedures for forming homogeneous regions were found necessary. In addition, a new 3-parameter distribution, the Gaucho, which is a special case of the 4-parameter Kappa distribution, was introduced, and the analysis procedure was improved by the developments of two new software tools named L-RAP, to perform the RFA-LM analysis, and L-MAP, to map the resulting drought maps. Eight homogeneous sub-regions were delineated using the Gaucho distribution and used to construct return period maps for drought events with 80% and 40% precipitation of the normal. The study confirms the importance of a sub-regional homogeneity test, and the usefulness of the Gaucho distribution. The RFA-LM showed that droughts with a 40% precipitation of the normal have return periods that range from 4 years at the northern arid boundary of the study area to 22 years at the southern sub-humid boundary. The results demonstrate the need for different thresholds for declaring a drought than those currently in use for drought characterization in north-central Chile.

  20. 2000 resource assessment of selected coal beds and zones in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Northern and Central Appalachian Basin Coal Regions Assessment Team

    2001-01-01

    This report includes results of a digital assessment of six coal beds or zones in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions that produce over 15 percent of the Nation's coal. Other chapters include an executive summary, a report on geology and mining, a report summarizing other selected coal zones that were not assessed, and a report on USGS coal availability and recoverablity studies in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions.

  1. Physical properties of Meridiani Sinus-type units in the central equatorial region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, Edwin L., III

    1992-01-01

    Classification and mapping of surficial units in the central equatorial region of Mars (30 degrees N to 20 degrees S, 57 degrees E to 75 degrees W) using enhanced color images and Mars Consortium data identified four major color/albedo units in the dark, reddish-gray regions that form the classical dark albedo markings of Mars, including Meridiani Sinus. The darkest, least red (relatively 'blue') materials form splotches (some with dune forms) in craters, inter-crater depressions, and part of Valles Marineris. These form the 'Dark Blue' Meridiani unit. Abundant materials that have higher albedos and are somewhat redder than the 'Dark Blue' unit have uniquely high green/(violet + red) color ratios in Viking Orbiter images. These materials, named 'Green-blue' Meridiani surround and mix with 'Dark Blue' Meridiani patches and are abundant on crater rims and local elevations. Discontinuous, patchy deposits with still higher albedos and much redder colors have morphologies classified of the Type Ib bright depositional dust streaks and sheets that were classified by Thomas et al. These dust deposits, which appear to be optically thin and patchy and are darker and not as red as other Type Ib dust deposits on Mars, and their Meridiani substrates, were designated the 'Red' Meridiani unit. Distinctive deposits that form highly eroded mesas and escarpments in northern Meridiani Sinus were named 'Light Blue' Meridiani, since they are not as red as other materials with moderately high albedos. Large areas dominated by these units form Meridiani Province in the central equatorial region of Mars.

  2. Simulations of the future precipitation climate of the Central Andes using a coupled regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, S.; Mohr, K. I.

    2014-12-01

    The meridional extent and complex orography of the South American continent contributes to a wide diversity of climate regimes ranging from hyper-arid deserts to tropical rainforests to sub-polar highland regions. Global climate models, although capable of resolving synoptic-scale South American climate features, are inadequate for fully-resolving the strong gradients between climate regimes and the complex orography which define the Tropical Andes given their low spatial and temporal resolution. Recent computational advances now make practical regional climate modeling with prognostic mesoscale atmosphere-ocean coupled models, such as the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system, to climate research. Previous work has shown COAWST to reasonably simulate the both the entire 2003-2004 wet season (Dec-Feb) as validated against both satellite and model analysis data. More recently, COAWST simulations have also been shown to sensibly reproduce the entire annual cycle of rainfall (Oct 2003 - Oct 2004) with historical climate model input. Using future global climate model input for COAWST, the present work involves year-long cycle spanning October to October for the years 2031, 2059, and 2087 assuming the most likely regional climate pathway (RCP): RCP 6.0. COAWST output is used to investigate how global climate change impacts the spatial distribution, precipitation rates, and diurnal cycle of precipitation patterns in the Central Andes vary in these yearly "snapshots". Initial results show little change to precipitation coverage or its diurnal cycle, however precipitation amounts did tend drier over the Brazilian Plateau and wetter over the Western Amazon and Central Andes. These results suggest potential adjustments to large-scale climate features (such as the Bolivian High).

  3. Physical properties of Meridiani Sinus-type units in the central equatorial region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Edwin L., III

    1992-12-01

    Classification and mapping of surficial units in the central equatorial region of Mars (30 degrees N to 20 degrees S, 57 degrees E to 75 degrees W) using enhanced color images and Mars Consortium data identified four major color/albedo units in the dark, reddish-gray regions that form the classical dark albedo markings of Mars, including Meridiani Sinus. The darkest, least red (relatively 'blue') materials form splotches (some with dune forms) in craters, inter-crater depressions, and part of Valles Marineris. These form the 'Dark Blue' Meridiani unit. Abundant materials that have higher albedos and are somewhat redder than the 'Dark Blue' unit have uniquely high green/(violet + red) color ratios in Viking Orbiter images. These materials, named 'Green-blue' Meridiani surround and mix with 'Dark Blue' Meridiani patches and are abundant on crater rims and local elevations. Discontinuous, patchy deposits with still higher albedos and much redder colors have morphologies classified of the Type Ib bright depositional dust streaks and sheets that were classified by Thomas et al. These dust deposits, which appear to be optically thin and patchy and are darker and not as red as other Type Ib dust deposits on Mars, and their Meridiani substrates, were designated the 'Red' Meridiani unit. Distinctive deposits that form highly eroded mesas and escarpments in northern Meridiani Sinus were named 'Light Blue' Meridiani, since they are not as red as other materials with moderately high albedos. Large areas dominated by these units form Meridiani Province in the central equatorial region of Mars.

  4. Substantial primary production in the land-remote region of the central and northern Scotia Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M. J.; Atkinson, A.; Korb, R. E.; Venables, H. J.; Pond, D. W.; Gordon, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Scotia Sea area has high productivity relative to the Southern Ocean as a whole, but this displays strong latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Elucidating the extent of these from a single cruise is problematic, given the high variability of bloom timing and location in this region. Therefore, this study used data from transects across the central Scotia Sea in spring, summer and autumn of 2006, 2008 and 2009, combined with satellite data, to obtain a larger-scale appreciation of the latitudinal contrasts in phytoplankton standing stock and primary production across the region. Concentrations of nitrate, phosphate and particularly silicic acid increased towards the south of the transect with the latter showing a step change at the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF). Changes in seasonal nutrient concentrations indicated increasing phytoplankton uptake north of ˜57°S that peaked at ˜53°S in the Georgia Basin. Based on seasonal depletions of nitrate relative to phosphate, the highest relative nitrate uptake occurred northwest of South Georgia on the periphery of the Georgia Basin, indicating efficient nitrate use here due to iron-replete conditions. An integrative approach to examine these gradients was with the use of 10-year satellite climatology data. These showed that the lowest mean chlorophyll a (chl- a) values were in the central/northern Scotia Sea, but these were still substantial values, 67% of values within the Georgia Basin bloom. Cruise data on chl- a and on microplankton biomass from cell counts support this finding of substantial biomass in the central Scotia Sea; since these averaged half of values in the iron-fertilised bloom of the Georgia Basin downstream of South Georgia. Given that our transect was nearly 1000 km long and in parts was land remote with low iron concentrations, the relatively high production in the central and northern Scotia Sea is surprising. Iron levels may be maintained here by efficient recycling and irregular injections, possibly for example from dust deposition or shelf-derived inputs from the south. The moderate chl- a concentration across the mid-Scotia Sea and southwest of South Georgia reflect periodic, non-ice-associated blooms that occur in some years and not others. These may provide a connection between the large populations of krill inhabiting the northern and southern fringes of the Scotia Sea.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Snowfall in Central New York - A Lake Effect Dominated Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, Justin Joseph

    Central New York is located in one of the snowiest regions in the United States, with the city of Syracuse, New York the snowiest metropolis in the nation. Snowfall in the region generally begins in mid-November and lasts until late-March. Snow accumulation occurs from a multitude of conditions: frontal systems, mid-latitude cyclones, Nor'easters, and most notably lake-effect storms. Lake effect snowfall (LES) is a difficult parameter to forecast due to the isolated and highly variable nature of the storm. Consequently, studies have attempted to determine changes in snowfall for lake-effect dominated regions. Annual snowfall patterns are of particular concern as seasonal snowfall totals are vital for water resources, winter businesses, agriculture, government and state agencies, and much more. Through the use of snowfall, temperature, precipitation, and location data from the National Weather Service's Cooperative Observer Program (COOP), spatial and temporal changes in snowfall for Central New York were determined. In order to determine climatic changes in snowfall, statistical analyses were performed (i.e. least squares estimation, correlations, principal component analyses, etc.) and spatial maps analyzed. Once snowfall trends were determined, factors influencing the trends were examined. Long-term snowfall trends for CNY were positive for original stations (˜0.46 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1) and homogenously filtered stations (0.23 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1). However, snowfall trends for shorter time-increments within the long-term period were not consistent, as positive, negative, and neutral trends were calculated. Regional differences in snowfall trends were observed for CNY as typical lake-effect areas (northern counties, the Tug Hill Plateau and the Southern Hills) experienced larger snowfall trends than areas less dominated by LES. Typical lake-effect months (December - February) experienced the greatest snowfall trend in CNY compared to other winter months. The influence of teleconnections on seasonal snowfall in CNY was not pronounced; however, there was a slight significant (5%) correlation (< 0.35) with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. It was not clear if changes in air temperature or changes in precipitation were the cause of variations in snowfall trends. It was also inconclusive if the elevation or distance from Lake Ontario resulted in increased snowfall trends. Results from this study will aid in seasonal snowfall forecasts in CNY, which can be used to predict future snowfall. Even though the study area is regionally specific, the methods may be applied to other lake effect dominated areas to determine temporal and spatial variations in snowfall. This study will enhance climatologists and operational forecasters' awareness and understanding of snowfall, especially lake effect snowfall in CNY.

  6. Molecular analysis of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes in the Central-East region of Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Tunisia, country of intermediate endemicity for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, most molecular studies on the virus have been carried out in the North of the country and little is known about other regions. The aim of this study was to determine HBV genotype and subgenotypes in Central-East Tunisia. A total of 217 HBs antigen positive patients were enrolled and determination of genotype was investigated in 130 patients with detectable HBV DNA. HBV genotyping methods were: PCR-RFLP on the pre-S region, a PCR using type-specific primers in the S region (TSP-PCR) and partial sequencing in the pre-S region. Results Three genotypes (D, B and A) were detected by the PCR-RFLP method and two (D and A) with the TSP-PCR method, the concordance between the two methods was 93%. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 strains, retrieved the same genotype (D and A) for samples with concordant results and genotype D for samples with discordant results. The sequences of discordant genotypes had a restriction site in the pre-S gene which led to erroneous result by the PCR-RFLP method. Thus, prevalence of genotype D and A was 96% and 4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the predominance of two subgenotypes D1 (55%) and D7 (41%). Only one strain clustered with D3 subgenotype (3%). Conclusions Predominance of subgenotype D7 appears to occur in northern regions of Africa with transition to subgenotype D1 in the East of the continent. HBV genetic variability may lead to wrong results in rapid genotyping methods and sequence analysis is needed to clarify atypical results. PMID:21050489

  7. MAPPING THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE PPN CRL 618 AT SUBARCSECOND RESOLUTION AT 350 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Yang, Chun-Hui; Sahai, Raghvendra; Sanchez Contreras, Carmen

    2013-06-20

    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at {approx}0.''3-0.''5 resolutions. Two components are seen in the 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in a 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base; and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC{sub 3}N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain millimeter-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC{sub 3}N and HCN and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in CH{sub 2}CHCN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within {approx}630 AU (0.''7) of the central star. A simple radiative transfer model is used to derive the kinematics, physical conditions, and the chemical abundances in the dense core. The dense core is expanding and accelerating, with the velocity increasing roughly linearly from {approx}3 km s{sup -1} in the innermost part to {approx}16 km s{sup -1} at 630 AU. The mass-loss rate in the dense core is extremely high with a value of {approx}1.15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The dense core has a mass of {approx}0.47 M{sub Sun} and a dynamical age of {approx}400 yr. It could result from a recent enhanced heavy mass-loss episode that ends the asymptotic giant branch phase. The isotopic ratios of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N are 9 {+-} 4 and 150 {+-} 50, respectively, both lower than the solar values.

  8. A preliminary evaluation of regional ground-water flow in south-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Sala, A. M., Jr.; Doty, G.C.; Pearson, F.J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of regional ground-water flow were investigated in a 4,500-square-mile region of south-central Washington, centered on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Hanford Reservation. The investigation is part of the Commission's feasibility study on storing high-level radioactive waste in chambers mined in basaltic rocks at a. depth of about 3,000 feet or more below the surface. Ground-water flow., on a regional scale, occurs principally in the basalt and-in interbedded sediments of the Columbia River Group, and is controlled by topography, the structure of the basalt, and the large streams--the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers. The ground water beneath the main part of the Hanford Reservation, south and west of the Columbia River, inures southeastward from recharge areas in the uplands, including Cold Creek and Dry Creek valleys, and ultimately discharges to the Columbia River south of the reservation: East and southeast of the Columbia River, ground water flows generally southwestward and discharges to the River. The Yakima River valley contains a distinct flow system in which movement is toward the Yakima River from the topographic divides. A large southward-flowing ground-water system beneath the southern flank of the Horse Heaven Hills discharges to the Columbia River in the westward-trending reach downstream from Wallula Gap.

  9. Multiscale regression model to infer historical temperatures in a central Mediterranean sub-regional area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diodato, N.; Bellocchi, G.; Bertolin, C.; Camuffo, D.

    2010-12-01

    To reconstruct sub-regional European climate over the past centuries, several efforts have been made using historical datasets. However, only scattered information at low spatial and temporal resolution have been produced to date for the Mediterranean area. This paper has exploited, for Southern and Central Italy (Mediterranean Sub-Regional Area), an unprecedented historical dataset as an attempt to model seasonal (winter and summer) air temperatures in pre-instrumental time (back to 1500). Combining information derived from proxy documentary data and large-scale simulation, a statistical methodology in the form of multiscale-temperature regression (MTR)-model was developed to adapt larger-scale estimations to the sub-regional temperature pattern. The modelled response lacks essentially of autocorrelations among the residuals (marginal or any significance in the Durbin-Watson statistic), and agrees well with the independent data from the validation sample (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient >0.60). The advantage of the approach is not merely increased accuracy in estimation. Rather, it relies on the ability to extract (and exploit) the right information to replicate coherent temperature series in historical times.

  10. Regional tectonic synthesis of central foldbelt and Indus plain of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.R.; Russell, O.R.; Dolan, P.

    1989-03-01

    A regional tectonic synthesis based on detailed interpretation of 32 Landsat images, review of literature and maps, and integration of a regional stratigraphic analysis reveals a great deal about the development and distribution of deformational features in Pakistan and indicates a number of oil and gas exploration opportunities that may have been overlooked. It appears that the original shape of the Indian and Eurasian plates and their convergence vector through time controlled the overall pattern of deformation resulting from their collision. The details of plate convergence history, distribution of previously existing structural features, distribution of lithologic units, and their mechanical properties profoundly influence the morphology and architecture of the ranges comprising the Central foldbelt and the effects of the collision in the Indus Plain. In particular, the distribution of low-viscosity units that act as detachment zones (e.g., the Infracambrian evaporite sequence, Cretaceous and Eocene shales and evaporites) control the location of folded thrust belts, thrust duplexes, and passive-roof complexes. Taken together, the tectonic synthesis and regional stratigraphic analysis indicate a wide variety of untested exploration opportunities. These opportunities range from the obvious testing of undrilled structures within productive foldbelts such as the Potwar Plateau and Sulaiman Range to the pursuit of distal folds and the more obscure extension of foldbelts beneath the alluvial cover of the Indus Plain and delta.

  11. Geomorphological evidence for late Quaternary tectonic deformation of the Cape Region, coastal west central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Beau B.; Hengesh, James V.

    2015-07-01

    A late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage 5e) emergent marine sequence fringes the coastline of the Cape Region of coastal west central Australia and provides elevation and age control to characterize the locations and rates of crustal deformation. There is a systematic measurable change in relative paleo sea-level elevations across the Cape Region. High-precision leveling of modern and Pleistocene shoreline features indicates the minimum elevation range of MIS 5e shoreline features along the coast is 10.4 m. This compares with the 2.5 m elevation range for observed modern shoreline analogs. The lack of continuity of MIS 5e shoreline elevations along 300 km of coastline demonstrates continuing tectonic deformation along coastal anticlines in the Cape Region. Topographic expression of MIS 5e features indicates tectonic uplift consistent with late Neogene to Quaternary deformation on the Cape Cuvier and Cape Range anticlines. Post-MIS 5e tectonic uplift rates are up to 0.054 ± 0.035 mm/yr at fold axial locations. Estimated subsidence rates are - 0.013 ± 0.034 mm/yr on fold limbs. While the estimated vertical tectonic deformation is small and the rates are low, the geomorphological data also demonstrate tectonic activity, not stability.

  12. SO2 measurements at a high altitude site in the central Himalayas: Role of regional transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naja, Manish; Mallik, Chinmay; Sarangi, Tapaswini; Sheel, Varun; Lal, Shyam

    2014-12-01

    Continuous measurements of a climatically important acidic gas, SO2, were made over Nainital (29.37°N, 79.45°E; 1958 m amsl), a regionally representative site in the central Himalayas, for the first time during 2009-2011. Unlike many other sites, the SO2 levels over Nainital are higher during pre-monsoon (345 pptv) compared to winter (71 pptv). High values during pre-monsoon are attributed to the transport of air masses from regions viz. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), northern India and north-East Pakistan, which are dotted with numerous industries and power plants, where coal burning occurs. Transport from the polluted regions is evinced from good correlations of SO2 with wind speed, NOy and UV aerosol index during these periods. Daytime elevations in SO2 levels, influenced by 'valley winds' and boundary layer evolution, is a persistent feature at Nainital. SO2 levels are very much lower during monsoon compared to pre-monsoon, due to oxidation losses and wet scavenging. Despite this, SO2/NOy slopes are high (>0.4) both during pre-monsoon and monsoon, indicating impacts of point sources. The SO2 levels during winter are lower as the measurement site is cut off from the plains due to boundary layer dynamics. Further, the SO2 levels during winter nights are the lowest (lesser than 50 pptv) and resemble free tropospheric conditions.

  13. Remote sensing of regional pyroclastic deposits on the north central portion of the lunar nearside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Campbell, B. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Peterson, C. A.; Coombs, C. R.

    High-resolution 3.0-cm radar data for the Rima Bode regional pyroclastic deposit and a number of UV-visible reflectance spectra for regional pyroclastic deposits on the north-central portion of the lunar nearside are analyzed and compared to existing data. The data obtained indicate that small craters in this deposit excavated loose unwelded pyroclastic particles, suggesting that welded layers or lenses do not exist at depths within the deposit's core area. The 70-cm radar data indicate that the Roma Bode deposit is thinner than the pyroclastic unit on the Aristarchus Plateau. The surfaces of all these regional pyroclastic deposits are dominated by ilmenite-rich black spheres, and contamination by low-Ti, nonpyroclastic debris appears to be minimal. The fine-grained block-free uncontaminated Rima Bode would be ideal for lunar mining operations and for rapidly covering lunar base modules with an adequate thickness of shielding material for protection from meteorite impact and space radiation.

  14. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned. PMID:25242952

  15. Remote sensing of regional pyroclastic deposits on the north central portion of the lunar nearside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Campbell, B. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Peterson, C. A.; Coombs, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution 3.0-cm radar data for the Rima Bode regional pyroclastic deposit and a number of UV-visible reflectance spectra for regional pyroclastic deposits on the north-central portion of the lunar nearside are analyzed and compared to existing data. The data obtained indicate that small craters in this deposit excavated loose unwelded pyroclastic particles, suggesting that welded layers or lenses do not exist at depths within the deposit's core area. The 70-cm radar data indicate that the Roma Bode deposit is thinner than the pyroclastic unit on the Aristarchus Plateau. The surfaces of all these regional pyroclastic deposits are dominated by ilmenite-rich black spheres, and contamination by low-Ti, nonpyroclastic debris appears to be minimal. The fine-grained block-free uncontaminated Rima Bode would be ideal for lunar mining operations and for rapidly covering lunar base modules with an adequate thickness of shielding material for protection from meteorite impact and space radiation.

  16. Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008–July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

  17. Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

  18. Correlation between large-scale atmospheric fields and the olive pollen season in Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avolio, E.; Pasqualoni, L.; Federico, S.; Fornaciari, M.; Bonofiglio, T.; Orlandi, F.; Bellecci, C.; Romano, B.

    2008-11-01

    Olives are one of the largest crops in the Mediterranean and in central and southern Italy. This work investigates the correlation of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in Perugia, the capital city of the region of Umbria in central Italy, with atmospheric parameters. The aim of the study is twofold. First, we study the correlation between the pollen season and the surface air temperature of the spring and late spring in Perugia. Second, the correlation between the pollen season and large-scale atmospheric patterns is investigated. The average surface temperature in the spring and late spring has a clear impact on the pollen season in Perugia. Years with higher average temperatures have an earlier onset of the pollen season. In particular, a 1°C higher (lower) average surface temperature corresponds to an earlier (later) start of the pollen season of about 1 week. The correlation between the pollen season and large-scale atmospheric patterns of sea level pressure and 500-hPa geopotential height shows that the cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean is unequivocally tied to the pollen season in Perugia. A larger than average cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean Basin corresponds to a later than average pollen season. Larger than average cyclonic activity in Northern Europe and Siberia corresponds to an earlier than average pollen season. A possible explanation of this correlation, that needs further investigation to be proven, is given. These results can have a practical application by using the seasonal forecast of atmospheric general circulation models.

  19. Mesozoic Kinematic Evolution of the Central Atlantic Inferred From Regional Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labails, C.; Olivet, J.; Aslanian, D.; Sichler, B.; Roest, W.; Evain, M.

    2007-12-01

    The magnetic anomaly signature of Central Atlantic margins is well defined by the gridded data published by Verhoef et al. (1996) on the North American region. However, a gridded dataset for the West African margin (South of the Canary Islands) was lacking. We have used magnetic data from the Geodas database, an Ifremer dataset and personnal communication from H.A. Roeser and W.J.M. Van der Linden in order to produce a gridded magnetic data of the Dakhla margin and to better constrain the kinematics of Central Atlantic early opening. Our model adopts the breakup timing of 195 Ma as proposed by Sahabi et al. (2004) - 20 myr earlier than what was generally proposed in previous models. According to our interpretation of the newly compiled magnetic data, the early opening of Central Atlantic was characterized by three distinct phases. In contrast to other models, we propose that for the first 30 myr (195-165 Ma, Lias-Dogger) the oceanic accretion was extremely slow (~0.8 cm/y). At the Blake Spur time, (around 165 Ma, Callovian basis), a drastic change occurred, both in the relative plate motions (initially NNW-SSE, it becomes NO-SE) and spreading rate (that increases up to ~ 4.8 cm/y). The BSMA (Blake Spur Magnetic Anomaly) is related to a great basement topographic change. From magnetic chron M22 (150 Ma, Tithonian basis) onwards, the spreading rate slowed down to about 2.6 cm/y and remained constant until magnetic chron M0 (125 Ma, Barremian-Aptian limit).

  20. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Giantsis, Ioannis A.; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J.; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P.

    2014-01-01

    The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

  1. Functional-environmental assessment of Chernozems' technogenic changes in the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deviatova, Tatiana; Jablonskikh, Lidiia; Alaeva, Liliia; Negrobova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Long-term research revealed the significant changes in Chernozems of the recreational, urban, industrial and transport areas in the eastern part of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia. They are reflected in the soil properties and regimes disturbances that determine their environmental functions. The level of the Chernozems' anthropogenic degradation is usually determined not only by their pollutants composition and quantity but by landscape, microclimatic, hydrological and soil features too. The Chernozems strongest degradation has been observed in the industrial zone and central part of Voronezh, and also in the 20-m zone of the highway "Don" with maximum technogenic input intensity and depth. The Chernozems' resistance to contamination is determined by their texture, organic matter content and quality, microbial activity and biochemical processes, pH and redox power. The level of the pollution impact on the organic substances decomposition can be evaluated according to the extracellular biological processes changes from their standard rates: <10% - low-hazard, 10-25% - moderately hazardous, 25-50% - hazardous, > 50% - very hazardous (ecotoxicological scale). The investigated soil types and subtypes have essentially different resistance to their contamination. In case of the gray forest soils already medium input of pollutants often results in irreversible changes in their biocenosis functions. In case of the leached Chernozems 50%-drop in their biological state occurs only at high levels of pollution. The developed criteria reflect the man-made ecosystems' soil principal changes and can be useful in prediction of their environmental functions.

  2. Investment in higher order central processing regions is not constrained by brain size in social insects

    PubMed Central

    Muscedere, Mario L.; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Moreau, Corrie S.; Traniello, James F. A.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which size constrains the evolution of brain organization and the genesis of complex behaviour is a central, unanswered question in evolutionary neuroscience. Advanced cognition has long been linked to the expansion of specific brain compartments, such as the neocortex in vertebrates and the mushroom bodies in insects. Scaling constraints that limit the size of these brain regions in small animals may therefore be particularly significant to behavioural evolution. Recent findings from studies of paper wasps suggest miniaturization constrains the size of central sensory processing brain centres (mushroom body calyces) in favour of peripheral, sensory input centres (antennal and optic lobes). We tested the generality of this hypothesis in diverse eusocial hymenopteran species (ants, bees and wasps) exhibiting striking variation in body size and thus brain size. Combining multiple neuroanatomical datasets from these three taxa, we found no universal size constraint on brain organization within or among species. In fact, small-bodied ants with miniscule brains had mushroom body calyces proportionally as large as or larger than those of wasps and bees with brains orders of magnitude larger. Our comparative analyses suggest that brain organization in ants is shaped more by natural selection imposed by visual demands than intrinsic design limitations. PMID:24741016

  3. Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy

    2008-05-01

    Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?-9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon — which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" — in two distinct intervals (15,900-13,800 and 12,700-9700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Niña-like conditions).

  4. Essential and toxic elements in honeys from a region of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, M A; Desideri, D; Roselli, C; Benedetti, C; Feduzi, L

    2015-01-01

    Levels of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in several types of honey produced in a region of Central Italy were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The degree of humidity, sugar content, pH, free acidity, combined acidity (lactones), and total acidity were also measured. These elements were found to be present in honey in various proportions depending upon (1) the area foraged by bees, (2) flower type visited for collection of nectar, and (3) quality of water in the vicinity of the hive. Strong positive correlations occurred between Pb and Hg, Pb and Cd, Pb and Fe, Pb and Cr, Hg and Cd, and Hg and Fe. The honey products synthesized in Central Italy were of good quality, but not completely free of heavy metal contamination. Compared with established recommended daily intakes, heavy metals or trace element intoxication following honey consumption in Italy was found not to be a concern for human health. PMID:26039679

  5. Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China

    SciTech Connect

    Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Phillips, W.S.; Randall, G.E.

    1996-09-01

    In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5 nuclear explosions at station AAK in Kyrgyzstan. The explosions are from the Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and Lop Nor, China. The earthquakes are mostly from northwest China. They have also evaluated a single suspected chemical explosion. Event magnitudes (m{sub b}) range between 2.5 and 6.5 and maximum event-station distance is about 1,700 km. Using these measurements the authors formed phase, spectral, cross-spectral, short-period/long-period, and long-period ratios to test many possible event discriminants. All ratios were corrected for distance effects before forming ratio-versus-magnitude discrimination plots. The authors found that all five classes of these discriminants are useful for separating earthquakes from explosions in central Asia, provided the right combinations of frequency bands and phases are selected. Results are described.

  6. Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?–9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon — which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" — in two distinct intervals (15,900–13,800 and 12,700–9700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Niña-like conditions).

  7. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions

    PubMed Central

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K.; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  8. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions.

    PubMed

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  9. Regional behavior and evolution of the Edwards aquifer (South-Central Texas).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabeza Diaz de Cerio, Yoar; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús; Green, Ronald T.; Fratesi, Beth; Bertetti, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Karst aquifers are highly heterogeneous systems where flow regime is dominated by dissolution conduits. It is important to know the behavior of these conduit networks in order to being able to manage them correctly. In this work we focus on the Edwards aquifer, one of the most prolific artesian aquifers in the world, that is located in south-central Texas, USA, and included in the Trinity-Edwards system. A regional flow model for the Edwards aquifer has been developed using the code TRANSIN IV. For this purpose, It was necessary a reconceptualization of previous conceptual models of Edwards aquifer in order to include the contributing zone and evaluate the role that this area plays in the Edwards aquifer recharge. Chemical data for major and trace elements in the study area have been used for evaluating the relations between Trinity and Edwards aquifers and the evolution of dissolution within the Edwards aquifer.

  10. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases. PMID:26224563

  11. Clonal distribution of Streptococcus suis isolated from diseased pigs in the central region of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Bárbara; Ruiz, Álvaro; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of 29 Chilean field strains of Streptococcus suis recovered between 2007 and 2011 from pigs with clinical signs at different farms were studied. Serotyping with use of the coagglutination test revealed that all but 1 strain belonged to serotype 6; the remaining strain was serotype 22. All the serotype-6 strains were suilysin (hemolysin)-negative; in addition, they were found to be genotypically homogeneous by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and sensitive to ampicillin, ceftiofur, penicillin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results indicate that, in contrast to what is generally observed in other countries, a single clone of S. suis was isolated from diseased pigs in the central region of Chile. PMID:26424917

  12. Federally owned coal and Federal lands in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions

    SciTech Connect

    Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-02-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) assessed five coals beds or coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions for the National Coal Resource Assessment: the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay coal zone, the Pond Creek coal zone, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. The assessment produced stratigraphic and geochemical databases and digital coal maps, or models, which characterized the coal beds and coal zones. Using the assessment models, the USGS estimated original and remaining (unmined) resources for these coal beds or zones. The Appalachian Basin assessment was conducted in collaboration with the State geological surveys of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, Kentucky, and Virginia. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Short-term slow slip and correlated tremor episodes in the Tokai region, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Hitoshi; Obara, Kazushige

    2006-09-01

    We observe the related phenomenon of short-term slow slip event (SSE) and low-frequency nonvolcanic tremor on the deeper extension of the 1944 Tonankai and the anticipated Tokai earthquake rupture areas, central Japan. Japan nation-wide seismometer and tiltmeter array, NIED Hi-net has recorded these correlated episodes of SSE and tremor, known as episodic tremor and slip (ETS) in 2004 and 2005. The events are located on two areas in the Tokai region, one is near the Shima peninsula, and the other is around the Aichi area. Both episodes have a typical duration of 2-3 days and released seismic moment corresponding to Mw ~ 6.0. Moreover, these episodes repeatedly occur with a recurrence interval of about six months in both areas. This evidence suggests that the coincidence between the SSE and the tremor is a characteristic behavior in the whole tremor belt-like zone in the Nankai trough subduction zone.

  14. Evaluating regional water scarcity: Irrigated crop water budgets for groundwater management in the Wisconsin Central Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocco, M. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Kraft, G.

    2013-12-01

    Regional water scarcity dilemmas between agricultural and aquatic land users pervade the humid northern lake states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, where agricultural irrigation relies on groundwater drawn from shallow aquifers. As these aquifers have strong connectivity to surface waters, irrigation lowers water levels in lakes and wetlands and reduces stream discharges. Irrigation expansion has cultivated a 60-year water scarcity dilemma in The Wisconsin Central Sands, the largest irrigated region in the humid northern lake states, dedicated to potato, maize, and processing vegetable production. Irrigation has depleted Wisconsin Central Sands surface waters, lowering levels in some lakes by over 2 m and drying some coldwater trout streams. Aquatic ecosystems, property values, and recreational uses in some surface waters have been devastated. While the causal link between pumping and surface water stress is established, understanding crop-mediated processes, such as the timing and magnitude of groundwater consumption by evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater recharge, will be useful in management of groundwater, irrigated cropping systems, and surface water health. Previous modeling and field efforts have compared irrigated crop water use to a natural reference condition on a net annual basis. As a result, we presently understand that for irrigated potatoes and maize, the average annual ET is greater and therefore, the average annual recharge is less than rainfed row crops, grasslands, and both coniferous and deciduous forests. However, we have a limited understanding of the magnitude and timing of ET and recharge from irrigated cropping systems on shorter time scales that proceed with the annual cropping cycle (i.e. planting, full canopy, harvest, residue cover). We seek to understand the spatiotemporal variability of crop water budgets and associated water scarcity in the Wisconsin Central Sands through detailed measurements of drainage (potential recharge) and by inferring ET through difference, modeling, and gas exchange. In April 2013 prior to planting, we installed 10 passive capillary wick lysimeters below the effective rooting zone (z=100 cm) in potato (n=6) and maize (n=4) cropping systems to collect drainage at a 10-minute time-step under cultivation on Isherwood Farms, a sixth-generation family farm in the Wisconsin Central Sands region. Lysimeters were also instrumented to measure soil moisture and temperature at depth (z=10, 20, 40, 80 cm). Farm operators initiated center-pivot irrigation when soil moisture dropped to approximately 50% of plant available water content. Results show that drainage for May-July 2013 was 43 × 53 mm and 48 × 41 mm in irrigated potato and maize cropping systems, respectively, despite 320 mm of precipitation received during the experimental period, which was 15% above average for this region. Soil moisture consistently fluctuated in response to precipitation/irrigation events at the 10 and 20 cm soil depths, but rarely fluctuated in response to precipitation/irrigation events at the 40 and 80 cm soil depths, supporting the low drainage observed during the growing season. Future work will couple these drainage data to ongoing phenological, micrometeorological, and gas exchange observations in order to infer ET and calculate crop water budgets on a seasonal basis.

  15. Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, H.; Hou, S.; Kaspari, S.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2014-02-01

    Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu (DSP) Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER) Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the DSP and the ER ice core drilling sites is only ~ 125 km, the stable isotopic record (δ18O or δD) of the DSP core is interpreted in previous studies as a temperature proxy, while the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that remarkable discrepancy in precipitation seasonality between the two sites may account for their disparate isotopic interpretations. At the ER core site, the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) precipitation is dominating due to topographic blocking of the moisture from westerlies by the high ridges of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), which results in a negative correlation between the ER Δ18O or δD record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas in response to the "amount effect". At the DSP core site, in comparison with the ISM precipitation, the wintertime precipitation associated with the westerlies is likely more important owing to its local favorable topographic conditions for interacting with the western disturbances. Therefore, the DSP stable isotopic record may be primarily controlled by the westerlies. Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

  16. Visual function among commercial vehicle drivers in the central region of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Asare, Frederick Afum; Owusu-Ansah, Andrew; Awuah, Agnes; Darko-Takyi, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the relationship between some visual functions: colour vision defects, abnormal stereopsis, visual acuity and the occurrence of road traffic accident (RTAs) among commercial vehicle drivers in the central region of Ghana, and to assess their knowledge of these anomalies. Method A descriptive cross-sectional study employing a multi-stage random sampling approach was conducted in the major commercial towns within the central region of Ghana. Participants were taken through a comprehensive eye examination after the administration of a structured questionnaire. Results 520 male commercial vehicle drivers were enrolled for this study with a mean age of 39.23 years ±10.96 years and mean visual acuity of 0.02 ± 0.08 logMAR. Protans were more likely to be involved in RTAs (χ2 = 6.194, p = 0.034). However, there was no statistically significant association between abnormal stereopsis (OR = 0.89 95% CI: 0.44–1.80, p = 0.56), poor vision due to refractive error (χ2 = 3.090, p = 0.388) and the occurrence of RTAs. While 86.9% were aware of abnormal stereopsis, only 45% were aware of colour vision defects. There was a statistically significant association between stereopsis anomaly and colour vision defect (r = 0.371, p < 0.005). Conclusion The study found an association between protanopia and RTAs but none between stereopsis anomalies, refractive errors and the occurrence of RTAs. Drivers were less knowledgeable on colour vision defects as compared to stereopsis anomalies. PMID:26364760

  17. Ubiquity of density slope oscillations in the central regions of galaxy and cluster-sized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Anthony M.; Williams, Liliya L. R.; Hjorth, Jens

    2016-05-01

    One usually thinks of a radial density profile as having a monotonically changing logarithmic slope, such as in NFW or Einasto profiles. However, in two different classes of commonly used systems, this is often not the case. These classes exhibit non-monotonic changes in their density profile slopes which we call oscillations for short. We analyze these two unrelated classes separately. Class 1 consists of systems that have density oscillations and that are defined through their distribution function f(E), or differential energy distribution N(E), such as isothermal spheres, King profiles, or DARKexp, a theoretically derived model for relaxed collisionless systems. Systems defined through f(E) or N(E) generally have density slope oscillations. Class 1 system oscillations can be found at small, intermediate, or large radii but we focus on a limited set of Class 1 systems that have oscillations in the central regions, usually at log(r/r‑2) lesssim ‑2, where r‑2 is the largest radius where dlog(ρ)/dlog(r) = ‑2. We show that the shape of their N(E) can roughly predict the amplitude of oscillations. Class 2 systems which are a product of dynamical evolution, consist of observed and simulated galaxies and clusters, and pure dark matter halos. Oscillations in the density profile slope seem pervasive in the central regions of Class 2 systems. We argue that in these systems, slope oscillations are an indication that a system is not fully relaxed. We show that these oscillations can be reproduced by small modifications to N(E) of DARKexp. These affect a small fraction of systems' mass and are confined to log(r/r‑2) lesssim 0. The size of these modifications serves as a potential diagnostic for quantifying how far a system is from being relaxed.

  18. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).

    PubMed

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

  19. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2014-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ∼0.2) in CA vary seasonally with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ∼10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2-90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ∼0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD, and PM2.5, PM10, BC, organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in the Kyrgyz Republic (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrate that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning and anthropogenic sources from Europe, South, East and CA, and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.

  20. Assessment of carbon footprint and energy performance of the extra virgin olive oil chain in Umbria, Italy.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, S; Barbanera, M; Lascaro, E

    2014-06-01

    The cradle to grave carbon footprint (CF) and energy footprint (EF) analysis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) produced in the Province of Perugia (Umbria, Italy) is assessed. In this study, olive orchard cultivation, EVOO extraction, bottling, packaging, storage at -18°C and distribution in the main importing countries were studied from a life cycle assessment perspective, with the main objective of identifying the processes with the largest environmental impacts. The selected functional unit was 1L of EVOO, packaged for distribution. Inventory data was gathered mainly through both direct communication using questionnaires and direct measurements. To determine the CF the ISO/TS 14067:2013 was followed while the EF was evaluated according to ISO standards 14040 and 14044. Results showed that the most impacting process is the distribution, mainly due to the choice of employing air transport. The main other hot spots identified were the olive orchard fertilization, EVOO freezing during its storage at the olive mill factory and the manufacture of glass bottles. Suggested improvement opportunities included shifts in the EVOO transportation policy, the introduction of lighter glass bottles in the bottling process, the use of cooling agent with lower global warming potential and the employment of biodiesel in the farming machineries. PMID:24636888

  1. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; et al

    2015-02-18

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly valuesmore » from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning, and anthropogenic sources from Europe; South, East, and Central Asia; and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.« less

  2. Parameters of deep melts in the Sierra-Leone region, Central Atlantic (data on melt inclusions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, V. A.; Glazyrin, Yu. E.; Kovyazin, S. V.

    2003-04-01

    Samples, collected during 22 cruise of R/V "Academician Nikolaj Strakhov" in the Sierra Leone F.Z. Region, Central Atlantic (Peyve et al., 2000) were investigated. The features of geology and volcanism of this region were reviewed in the last publications (Peyve et al., 2003; Skolotnev et al., 2003). In the present report the results of melt inclusions study in olivines and in plagioclases from basalts are given. The experiments with inclusions were carried out according published procedure (Simonov, 1993; Sobolev, Danyushevsky, 1994). The compositions of inclusions were established using a "Camebax-micro" electron microprobe. Contents of trace, rare earth elements and water in inclusions were determined on ionic microprobe IMS-4f on procedure published in the work (Sobolev, 1996). The analysis of melt inclusions in olivines from basalts has shown, that the magmas of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) Rift Zone in the Sierra-Leone Region have sufficiently high temperatures of crystallization -- 1275--1340^oC. Comparison of homogenization temperatures with liquidus temperatures calculated according PETROLOG (Danyushevsky, 2001) show, that the most of data agree with limits of used thermometers. The presence of such temperature characteristics testifies that the inclusions characterize parameters of deep melts. Primary magmas in this region, according estimation on procedure (Schilling et al., 1995), were formed at parameters of mantle melting near 1340--1370^oC and 50--60 km (Simonov et al., 2001). Comparison with data on trace and rare earth elements in melt inclusions in olivines from rocks 9^o N MAR (Sobolev, 1997) demonstrates, that on an interrelation La/Sm--Zr/Y inclusions in olivines from Sierra-Leone Region are close to data on normal melts formed during melting of mantle with formation about 5% of melt. On a character of distribution of trace and rare earth elements melts in the Sierra-Leone Region are closer to magmas from north segments of MAR (8^o N), than southern (4--5^o N). The comparative data analysis on compositions of inclusions in olivines and plagioclases with the characteristics of basalts and basaltic glasses has shown, that the evolution of deep melts during raising to the upper levels goes according to NMORB trend with height of FeO/MgO and with small accumulation of alkalines. At the same time for a "ore" area of the station S2234 the given evolution more corresponds to EMORB trend. This work was supported by the grant of the Russian Foundation of Fundamental Research (02-05-64046).

  3. Functional Importance of Covalent Homodimer of Reelin Protein Linked via Its Central Region*

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Norihisa; Kitago, Yu; Beppu, Ayako; Kohno, Takao; Morishita, Shunsuke; Gomi, Hiroki; Nagae, Masamichi; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Takagi, Junichi

    2011-01-01

    Reelin is a 3461-residue secreted glycoprotein that plays a critical role in brain development through its action on target neurons. Although it is known that functional reelin protein exists as multimer formed by interchain disulfide bond(s) as well as through non-covalent interactions, the chemical nature of the multimer assembly has been elusive. In the present study, we identified, among 122 cysteines present in full-length reelin, the single critical cysteine residue (Cys2101) responsible for the covalent multimerization. C2101A mutant reelin failed to assemble into disulfide-bonded multimers, whereas it still exhibited non-covalently associated high molecular weight oligomeric states in solution. Detailed analysis of tryptic fragments produced from the purified reelin proteins revealed that the minimum unit of the multimer is a homodimeric reelin linked via Cys2101 present in the central region and that this cysteine does not connect to the N-terminal region of reelin, which had been postulated as the primary oligomerization domain. A surface plasmon resonance binding assay confirmed that C2101A mutant reelin retained binding capability toward two neuronal receptors apolipoprotein E receptor 2 and very low density lipoprotein receptor. However, it failed to show signaling activity in the assay using the cultured neurons. These results indicate that an intact higher order architecture of reelin multimer maintained by both Cys2101-mediated homodimerization and other non-covalent association present elsewhere in the reelin primary structure are essential for exerting its full biological activity. PMID:21844191

  4. The Spalt Transcription Factors Generate the Transcriptional Landscape of the Drosophila melanogaster Wing Pouch Central Region

    PubMed Central

    Organista, María F.; Martín, Mercedes; de Celis, Jesus M.; Barrio, Rosa; López-Varea, Ana; Esteban, Nuria; Casado, Mar; de Celis, Jose F.

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila genes spalt major (salm) and spalt-related (salr) encode Zn-finger transcription factors regulated by the Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signalling pathway in the wing imaginal disc. The function of these genes is required for cell survival and proliferation in the central region of the wing disc, and also for vein patterning in the lateral regions. The identification of direct Salm and Salr target genes, and the analysis of their functions, are critical steps towards understanding the genetic control of growth and patterning of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc by the Dpp pathway. To identify candidate Salm/Salr target genes, we have compared the expression profile of salm/salr knockdown wing discs with control discs in microarray experiments. We studied by in situ hybridization the expression pattern of the genes whose mRNA levels varied significantly, and uncovered a complex transcription landscape regulated by the Spalt proteins in the wing disc. Interestingly, candidate Salm/Salr targets include genes which expression is turned off and genes which expression is positively regulated by Salm/Salr. Furthermore, loss-of-function phenotypic analysis of these genes indicates, for a fraction of them, a requirement for wing growth and patterning. The identification and analysis of candidate Salm/Salr target genes opens a new avenue to reconstruct the genetic structure of the wing, linking the activity of the Dpp pathway to the development of this epithelial tissue. PMID:26241320

  5. Working solutions -- Honduras. ASHONPLAFA analyzes the management functions of central and regional managers.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    ASHONPLAFA is the principal provider of family planning services in Honduras. The organization has 260 employees, runs six medical centers and 1900 community distribution service sites in six regions of the country, and administers a social marketing program from its head office in Tegucigalpa. ASHONPLAFA has grown significantly in the last few years. To respond to the increased growth and make sure that ASHONPLAFA's programs were able to respond quickly and effectively to clients' needs, senior managers at the organization began considering ways in which the organization could increase efficiency, expand service coverage, and recover more program costs. ASHONPLAFA needed to analyze the systems they used to manage their programs as well as the various management styles of their staff and the institutional culture in which they had become accustomed to working. Throughout the process, ASHONPLAFA has consistently examined the extent to which program functions were being successfully managed by the central and regional managers, assessed the impact of the changes on program performance, and determined what additional training might be necessary for managers given their new roles. General issues are presented followed by consideration of the analysis of management functions in the following areas: strategic and operational planning, information systems, mass media communication, income generation and fund raising, marketing, new services, and service fees and clinic hours. The following initiatives were determined to be those which would directly support the achievement of ASHONPLAFA's objectives for 1995: the transfer of new responsibilities, technical assistance, new initiatives, and evaluation. PMID:12289904

  6. Modeling and mapping regional land use/land cover change in South Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranatunga, T.; Messen, D.

    2014-12-01

    Houston-Galveston Area Council (H-GAC) conducted a land use/land cover (LULC) change detection study to generate information about the LULC changes in a 15-county area of South Central Texas. Such information is essential in regional planning, natural resource management, monitoring and modeling of environmental characteristics. The objectives of this study are (1) Identification of regional spatial patterns of each LULC conversion, (2) Estimation of the area coverage of each LULC conversion, and (3) Estimation of the net gain and losses of each LULC classes. To achieve these objectives, ArcGIS Spatial analysis functions and data management tools were employed in python environment. Change detection was estimated from 1992 to 2011 using datasets from NLCD (National Land Cover Database) 1992, NLCD 2001 and NOAA C-CAP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Coastal Change Analysis Program) 2011. Through visual analysis and comparisons with aerial imagery, we established that NLCD 1992 and 2001 datasets contained more classification inaccuracies than the NOAA 2011 dataset. The misclassified cells in the 1992 and 2001 NLCD datasets were corrected to be consistent with the 2011 C-CAP dataset. The NLCD 2001 dataset was first corrected using a logical evaluation with 2011 classes in each pixel. Then the NLCD 1992 dataset was corrected using the correct 2001 dataset. After correcting 1992 dataset, a cell by cell comparison was conducted with the NOAA 2011 dataset, and individual changes were recorded.

  7. Separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation in the crust of central and eastern Alborz region, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhi, M.; Hamzehloo, H.; Rahimi, H.; Allameh Zadeh, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, more than 380 local earthquakes (2 < ML < 4.5) have been used to estimate the direct-shear waves (Qd), coda (Qc), intrinsic (Qi) and scattering quality factor (QSc) in the crust of central and eastern Alborz region. The events were recorded by one temporary and two permanent networks. The quality factors of shear and coda waves have been individually estimated at different frequency bands by using coda normalization (CNM) method and single backscattering (SBS) method, respectively. Average frequency-dependent relationships have been estimated for Qd and Qc as 111 ± 4f0.85±0.04 and 112 ± 8f1.02±0.06, respectively. The intrinsic quality factor, Qi, has been separated from the scattering quality factor QSc by using individually estimated Qc and Qd values. The average frequency-dependent relationships of Qi and QSc have been calculated in the form of 108f1.00 and 784f0.56, respectively. The results of this study suggest that S-wave's attenuation (Qd-1) is dominated by the intrinsic attenuation. The attenuation of coda waves has been observed similar to the intrinsic attenuation, which indicates, the coda decay is mostly caused by the intrinsic attenuation. It has been observed that the scattering mean free path is frequency independent at frequencies greater than 6 Hz. The results of this study are similar to the tectonically active regions.

  8. Health in the central and eastern countries of the WHO European Region: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nanda, A; Nossikov, A; Prokhorskas, R; Shabanah, M H

    1993-01-01

    The enormous social, political and economic changes that began in the CCEE/NIS in the late 1980s included the revelation and public discussion of a widening health gap between these countries and the other Member States of the European Region. The continuing economic problems and their effects on health increase the urgency of the need for assistance from the international community. Diverging trends in life expectancy became evident in the mid-1970s, and the gap continued to widen in the 1980s for all major causes of death, particularly cardiovascular diseases. The situation is worse in the NIS than in the CCEE, and worst in the central Asian countries. In 1990, the worst infant mortality rate in these countries was eight times the best rate elsewhere in the Region. Non-mortality data, while patchy, confirm the indications given by mortality data. There is no single reason for the health gap, but contributory factors include the increasing prevalence of major risk factors in lifestyles and the environment, and the low efficiency and effectiveness of health care systems. The current situation and short-term prospects are mixed, but the negative trends in mortality and morbidity patterns are likely to continue for some time. While the worst health problems of the transition period in the CCEE/NIS could largely have been avoided, there is no doubt that economizing on health today will exact large costs tomorrow. PMID:8017072

  9. eHealth for Remote Regions: Findings from Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening Project.

    PubMed

    Sajwani, Afroz; Qureshi, Kiran; Shaikh, Tehniat; Sayani, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Isolated communities in remote regions of Afghanistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan and Tajikistan lack access to high-quality, low-cost health care services, forcing them to travel to distant parts of the country, bearing an unnecessary financial burden. The eHealth Programme under Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening (CAHSS) Project, a joint initiative between the Aga Khan Foundation, Canada and the Government of Canada, was initiated in 2013 with the aim to utilize Information and Communication Technologies to link health care institutions and providers with rural communities to provide comprehensive and coordinated care, helping minimize the barriers of distance and time. Under the CAHSS Project, access to low-cost, quality health care is provided through a regional hub and spoke teleconsultation network of government and non-government health facilities. In addition, capacity building initiatives are offered to health professionals. By 2017, the network is expected to connect seven Tier 1 tertiary care facilities with 14 Tier 2 secondary care facilities for teleconsultation and eLearning. From April 2013 to September 2014, 6140 teleconsultations have been provided across the project sites. Additionally, 52 new eLearning sessions have been developed and 2020 staff members have benefitted from eLearning sessions. Ethics and patient rights are respected during project implementation. PMID:25980715

  10. Emerging trends in the seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis in the Madrid region (central Spain).

    PubMed

    Gálvez, R; Miró, G; Descalzo, M A; Nieto, J; Dado, D; Martín, O; Cubero, E; Molina, R

    2010-05-11

    This report describes a cross-sectional serological survey of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) performed in 2006 and 2007 in the Madrid region (central Spain) where the disease is endemic. The work presented here is one of the several studies conducted in different Spanish regions under the Integrated Project of the European Commission entitled Emerging Diseases in a changing European eNvironment (EDEN). The aim of this project is to identify and catalogue European ecosystems and environmental conditions that determine the spatial and temporal distributions and dynamics of several pathogenic agents including Leishmania infantum (EDEN-LEI). The study area (Madrid Autonomous Region) was selected on the grounds of its wide altitude range. This area was surveyed from NE to SW across its mountain range (Sistema Central) and plateau area. One thousand and seventy-six dogs from 32 villages were examined for clinical signs of CanL, and serum samples were obtained to determine several haematological and biochemical variables. Leishmaniasis-specific antibodies were identified using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). 87 of the 1076 dogs were seropositive for the protozoan (IFAT: cut-off>or=1/80) indicating a seroprevalence of 8.1% (0-16.1% depending on the village). On the basis of a physical examination and the biochemical/haematological status of each dog, 32 of the 87 infected dogs were described as clinically healthy (37%). Seroprevalence showed a peak in young dogs (1-2 years) and a second larger peak among the older dogs (7-8 years). Factors correlated with a higher infection risk were age (OR=1.15 [95% CI: 1.07-1.22]), weight (OR=1.10 [95% CI: 1.04-1.16]), and living outdoors as opposed to in a home (OR=3.38 [95% CI: 1.42-8.05]). According to data from studies performed in 1992 in the same area, the seroprevalence of CanL has increased 1.54-fold [95% CI: 1.04-2.29]. Given that this increasing trend cannot be attributed to differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of the dog populations, it is proposed that environmental changes could have had an impact on vector and reservoir densities and their geographical distributions. Further studies designed to explain this trend should attempt to correlate sand fly densities and CanL seroprevalences with climate, land use and human changes. PMID:20031330

  11. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring results and regional generalized data showed 1-1.5 % Corg lost during last 50 years period and active processes of CO2 emission and humus profile eluvial-illuvial redistribution too. Forest-steppe Chernozems are usually characterized by higher stability than steppe ones. The ratio between erosive and biological losses in humus supplies can be ten¬tatively estimated as fifty-fifty with strong spatial variability due to slope and land-use parameters. These processes have essentially different sets of environmental consequences and ecosystem services that we need to understand in frame of agroecological problems development prediction. A drop of Corg content below threshold "humus limiting content" values (3-4% of Corg) considerably reduces effectiveness of used fertilizers and possibility of sustainable agronomy here. This problem environmental and agroecological situation can be essentially improved by new federal law on environmentally friendly agriculture but it's draft is still in the process of deliberation. Quantitative analysis of principal ecosystem services, soil cover patterns and degradation processes in parameters of land qualities help us in developing different-scale projects for agricultural and urban land-use, taking into attention not only economical benefits but environmental functions too. The conceptions of ecosystem services and local land resource management are becoming more and more popular at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia due to innovation application of basic agroecology, ecological monitoring and soil science achievements.

  12. The flood event of 10-12 November 2013 on the Tiber River basin (central Italy): real-time flood forecasting with uncertainty supporting risk management and decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Nicola; Brocca, Luca; Barbetta, Silvia; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    The Italian national hydro-meteorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres, CF). Umbria Region (central Italy) CF provides early warning for floods and landslides, real-time monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) for the Civil Defence Authorities when significant events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. The real-time flood forecasting system is based also on different hydrological and hydraulic forecasting models. Among these, the MISDc rainfall-runoff model ("Modello Idrologico SemiDistribuito in continuo"; Brocca et al., 2011) and the flood routing model named STAFOM-RCM (STAge Forecasting Model-Rating Curve Model; Barbetta et al., 2014) are continuously operative in real-time providing discharge and stage forecasts, respectively, with lead-times up to 24 hours (when quantitative precipitation forecasts are used) in several gauged river sections in the Upper-Middle Tiber River basin. Models results are published in real-time in the open source CF web platform: www.cfumbria.it. MISDc provides discharge and soil moisture forecasts for different sub-basins while STAFOM-RCM provides stage forecasts at hydrometric sections. Moreover, through STAFOM-RCM the uncertainty of the forecast stage hydrograph is provided in terms of 95% Confidence Interval (CI) assessed by analyzing the statistical properties of model output in terms of lateral. In the period 10th-12th November 2013, a severe flood event occurred in Umbria mainly affecting the north-eastern area and causing significant economic damages, but fortunately no casualties. The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 400 mm in 72 hours. In the most affected area, the recorded rainfall depths correspond approximately to a return period of 200 years. Most rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds and causing flooding (e.g. Chiascio river). The flood event was continuously monitored at the Umbria Region CF and the possible evolution predicted and assessed on the basis of the model forecasts. The predictions provided by MISDc and STAFOM-RCM were found useful to support real-time decision-making addressed to flood risk management. Moreover, the quantification of the uncertainty affecting the deterministic forecast stages was found consistent with the level of confidence selected and had practical utility corroborating the need of coupling deterministic forecast and 'uncertainty' when the model output is used to support decisions about flood management. REFERENCES Barbetta, S., Moramarco, T., Brocca, L., Franchini, M., Melone, F. (2014). Confidence interval of real-time forecast stages provided by the STAFOM-RCM model: the case study of the Tiber River (Italy). Hydrological Processes, 28(3), 729-743. Brocca, L., Melone, F., Moramarco, T. (2011). Distributed rainfall-runoff modelling for flood frequency estimation and flood forecasting. Hydrological Processes, 25 (18), 2801-2813

  13. Attenuation Tomography Based on Strong Motion Data: Case Study of Central Honshu Region, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Verma, O. P.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional frequency dependent S-wave quality factor (Qβ(f)) value for the central Honshu region of Japan has been determined in this paper using an algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data. The method of inversion for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients is proposed by H ashida and S himazaki (J Phys Earth. 32, 299-316, 1984) and has been used and modified by J oshi (Curr Sci. 90, 581-585, 2006; Nat Hazards. 43, 129-146, 2007) and J oshi et al. (J. Seismol. 14, 247-272, 2010). Twenty-one earthquakes digitally recorded on strong motion stations of Kik-net network have been used in this work. The magnitude of these earthquake ranges from 3.1 to 4.2 and depth ranging from 5 to 20 km, respectively. The borehole data having high signal to noise ratio and minimum site effect is used in the present work. The attenuation structure is determined by dividing the entire area into twenty-five three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness having different frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor. Shear wave quality factor values have been determined at frequencies of 2.5, 7.0 and 10 Hz from record in a rectangular grid defined by 35.4°N to 36.4°N and 137.2°E to 138.2°E. The obtained attenuation structure is compared with the available geological features in the region and comparison shows that the obtained structure is capable of resolving important tectonic features present in the area. The proposed attenuation structure is compared with the probabilistic seismic hazard map of the region and shows that it bears some remarkable similarity in the patterns seen in seismic hazard map.

  14. Comprehensive evaluation of the changing drought characteristics in Bundelkhand region of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T.; Jaiswal, R. K.; Nayak, P. C.; Ghosh, N. C.

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of meteorological and hydrological drought characteristics including the dry spell analysis for planning of supplemental irrigation has been carried out for Bearma basin in Bundelkhand region of Central India. The Bundelkhand region has been under a spell of recurrent droughts. In the last decade, widespread droughts were felt during 2002-2003 and 2007-2008. The drought frequency varies between 1 in 3 years in Rehli and Deori and 1 in 5 years in Hatta. Rehli and Deori blocks falling in Sagar district have been identified to be drought prone. The meteorological drought characteristics evaluated by standardized precipitation index (SPI) indicated that drought severity has increased greatly with the drought intensity varying between -1.22 in Deori and -0.97 in Rehli. The streamflow drought characteristics have been evaluated using streamflow drought index (SDI), whereas the groundwater drought characteristics evaluated by groundwater drought index (GDI). The maximum groundwater drought intensity is observed in Rehli (-0.44). Two critical dry spells (CDS) of 14-18 days invariably occur during the principal rainy months of July and August, for which provision of life-saving supplementary irrigation is essential for the rain-fed agriculture. A drought management plan (DMP) has been developed, based on basin relevant drought indicators and drought triggers, designed and fined tuned to actual drought conditions in the basin. Based on the supply and demand scenario during droughts, an appropriate drought response plan linked to prevailing drought levels has been developed, to effectively manage the scarce water resources during persistent drought scenario. Results of the study are quite promising and the concept of DMP can be replicated to other basins in the region taking into account the basin relevant indicators as necessary.

  15. Regional Air Quality in central México and emissions inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardo Ruiz-Suarez, Luis; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Agustín García-Reynoso, José; Santos García-Yee, José; Barrera-Huertas, Hugo; Alejandro Torres-Jaramillo, Jorge; Robles-Roldán, Miguel Angel; Gutierrez López, Wilfrido; García-Espinoza, Manuel; Castro-Romero, Telma

    2014-05-01

    Four air quality field campaigns, from 2009 to 2012, during March-April were carried out in several sites in urban, rural and semi-rural sites in Central México. One of the sites was in the Chalco Gap southeast of MCMA (2011), another in the state of Morelos (2011), other two in the state of Puebla (2009 and 2012). All these sites are South and East of the Mexico Basin. The main object of those campaigns was to document regional air quality, mainly in rural and periurban sites, including the photochemical age of regional polluted plumes as they were transported away from the main metropolitan areas within the region. In this paper, we focus on comparisons between observed CO/NOx, and CO/SO2 ratios with those from the National Emissions Inventory and form local inventories reported in state air quality management programs. Comparisons were made with data between 05:00 to 08:00 h to minimize effects photochemical activity and the fast evolution of MLH occurring between 08:00 and 09:00 due to high insolation. Comparisons among observed ratios show a fairly consistent ratio, whereas ratios from emissions inventory are widely variable and only in few sites compare reasonable well with observed ones, indicating the need for homologation of emissions inventories in the country. Also Ozone, CO, NOx and NOy observed time series are compared with WRF-Chem model results for the same campaign periods to evaluate its performance outside MCMA. In addition, observed surface wind speeds and early morning MLH obtained with a tethered balloon are also compared with modeled values to help understanding discrepancies in the trace gases comparisons.

  16. Flat vs. Normal subduction, Central Chile: insights from regional seismic tomography and rock type modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marot, Marianne; Monfret, Tony; Gerbault, Muriel; Nolet, Guust; Ranalli, Giorgio; Pardo, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The Central Chilean subduction zone (27-35S) is host to a multitude of unexplained phenomena, all likely linked to one another. Here, the 35 Ma oceanic Nazca plate is subducting beneath South America with a well developed, highly seismic flat slab, very well correlated with the subducting Juan Fernandez seamount Ridge (JFR) track, and also with the absence of volcanism at the surface. The upper plate, currently under compression, is composed of a series of accreted terranes of various origins and ages. Although no general consensus on the formation of this flat slab has been yet achieved, there may have been influence of overthickened oceanic crust, delayed eclogitization and consequent fluid retain within the slab, and slab suction due to the high convergence rate with the thick Rio de Plata craton. Therefore, the main questions we address are: Does the slab dehydrate along the flat subducting segment? If so, how hydrated is the slab, at what depth does slab dehydration occur, where are the fluids transported to, and where are they stored? Is magmatism still active beneath the now inactive arc? Are accreted terranes and suture zones important attributes of this subduction zone? Do they possess their own mantle entities? To answer these questions, we analyzed recorded local seismicity and performed regional 3D seismic tomography for Vp and Vs. Combining seismic tomography with 2D instantaneous thermo-mechanical modeling for the regions of flat and normal subduction, we predict rock compositions for these two regions based on published mineral and rock elastic properties. Here, we present a comparison between the normal subduction zone to the south, reflecting typical and expected features, and the flat slab region to the north, exhibiting heterogeneities. Our results agree with other studies for a dry and cold continental mantle above the flat slab. We distinguish the Cuyania terrane with overthickened crust and/or abnormal mantle beneath it. We notice that the inactive volcanic arc crust carries an ongoing thermal signature of past magmatism with high fluid content. The downdip extent of the interface zone has seismic properties indicative of fluid saturation. The aftershock region of the Punitaqui slab earthquake (z=70 km, Mw 7.1) as well as the mantle wedge corner above the flat slab are two areas of anomalous seismic properties (particularly pronounced directly above the Punitaqui earthquake), which are unexplained by normal rock compositions or temperature variations. In addition, we observe a double seismic zone (DSZ) along the JFR track and the occurrence of a reactivated fault plane at intermediate-depth following a mainshock event.

  17. CO in late-type galaxies within the central region of Abell 1367

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, T. C.; Usero, A.; Brinks, E.; Boselli, A.; Cortese, L.; Bravo-Alfaro, H.

    2013-02-01

    We present 12CO (J = 1-0) and 12CO (J = 2-1) spectra for 19 bright, late-type galaxies (spirals) in the central region of the galaxy cluster Abell 1367 (z = 0.02) from observations made with the IRAM 30-m telescope. All 19 spirals were observed at the position of their optical centre and for a subset, at multiple positions. For each spiral the integrated CO (J = 1-0) intensity from the central pointing, in few cases supplemented with intensities from offset pointings, was used to estimate its molecular hydrogen mass and H2 deficiency. Accepting the considerable uncertainties involved in determining H2 deficiencies, spirals previously identified by us to have redder colours and higher H i deficiencies as a result of environmental influence were found to be more H2 deficient compared to members of the sample in less advanced evolutionary states. For eight of the observed spirals multiple pointing observations were made to investigate the distribution of their molecular gas. For these spirals we fitted Gaussians to the CO intensities projected in a line across the galaxy. In two cases, CGCG 097-079 and CGCG 097-102(N), the offset between the CO and optical intensity maxima was significantly larger than the pointing uncertainty, and the full width at half-maximum values of the fits were significantly greater than those of the other spirals, irrespective of optical size. Both signatures are indicators of an abnormal molecular gas distribution. In the case of CGCG 097-079, which is considered an archetype for ram-pressure stripping, our observations indicate that the CO intensity maximum lies ˜15.6 ± 8.5 arcsec (6 kpc) north-west of the optical centre at the same projected position as the H i intensity maximum.

  18. Altitude dependency of future snow cover changes over Central Japan evaluated by a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Hiroaki; Hara, Masayuki; Yoshikane, Takao; Ishizaki, Noriko N.; Uno, Fumichika; Hatsushika, Hiroaki; Kimura, Fujio

    2013-11-01

    Sea of Japan side of Central Japan is one of the heaviest snowfall areas in the world. We investigate near-future snow cover changes on the Sea of Japan side using a regional climate model. We perform the pseudo global warming (PGW) downscaling based on the five global climate models (GCMs). The changes in snow cover strongly depend on the elevation; decrease in the ratios of snow cover is larger in the lower elevations. The decrease ratios of the maximum accumulated snowfall in the short term, such as 1 day, are smaller than those in the long term, such as 1 week. We conduct the PGW experiments focusing on specific periods when a 2 K warming at 850 hPa is projected by the individual GCMs (PGW-2K85). The PGW-2K85 experiments show different changes in precipitation, resulting in snow cover changes in spite of similar warming conditions. Simplified sensitivity experiments that assume homogenous warming of the atmosphere (2 K) and the sea surface show that the altitude dependency of snow cover changes is similar to that in the PGW-2K85 experiments, while the uncertainty of changes in the sea surface temperature influences the snow cover changes both in the lower and higher elevations. The decrease in snowfall is, however, underestimated in the simplified sensitivity experiments as compared with the PGW experiments. Most GCMs project an increase in dry static stability and some GCMs project an anticyclonic anomaly over Central Japan, indicating the inhibition of precipitation, including snowfall, in the PGW experiments.

  19. A Seasonal Perspective on Regional Air Quality in CentralCalifornia - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.; Tonse, Shaheen R.; Jin, Ling

    2006-12-01

    Central California spans a wide variety of urban, agricultural, and natural terrain, including the San Francisco Bay area, the Central Valley, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Population within this region is growing rapidly, and there are persistent, serious air pollution problems including fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone. Summertime photochemical air pollution is the focus of the present study, which represents a first phase in the development and application of a modeling capability to assess formation and transport of ozone and its precursors within Central California over an entire summer season. This contrasts with past studies that have examined pollutant dynamics for a few selected high-ozone episodes each lasting 3-5 days. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) has been applied to predict air pollutant formation and transport in Central California for a 15-day period beginning on July 24, 2000. This period includes a 5-day intensive operating period (July 29 to August 2) from the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS). Day-specific meteorological conditions were modeled by research collaborators at NOAA using a mesoscale meteorological model (MM5). Pollutant emissions within the study domain were based on CARB emission inventory estimates, with additional efforts conducted as part of this research to capture relevant emissions variability including (1) temperature and sunlight-driven changes in biogenic VOC, (2) weekday/weekend and diurnal differences in light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) motor vehicle emissions, (3) effects of day-specific meteorological conditions on plume rise from point sources such as power plants. We also studied the effects of using cleaner pollutant inflow boundary conditions, lower than indicated during CCOS aircraft flights over the Pacific Ocean, but supported by other surface, ship-based, balloon and aircraft sampling studies along the west coast. Model predictions were compared with measured concentrations for O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, and CO at about 100 ground observation stations within the CCOS domain. Comparisons were made both for time series and for statistically aggregated metrics, to assess model performance over the whole modeling domain and for the individual air basins within the domain. The model tends to over-predict ozone levels along the coast where observed levels are generally low. Inland performance in the San Joaquin Valley is generally better. Model-measurement agreement for night-time ozone is improved by evaluating the sum of predicted O{sub 3} + NO{sub 2} against observations; this removes from the comparison the effect of any ozone titration that may occur. A variety of diagnostic simulations were conducted to investigate the causes for differences between predictions and observations. These included (1) enhanced deposition of O{sub 3} to the ocean, (2) reduced vertical mixing over the ocean, (3) attenuation of sunlight by coastal stratus, (4) the influence of surface albedo on photochemistry, and (5) the effects of observation nudging on wind fields. Use of advanced model probing tools such as process analysis and sensitivity analysis is demonstrated by diagnosing model sensitivity to boundary conditions and to weekday-weekend emission changes.

  20. CENTRAL REGIONS OF BARRED GALAXIES: TWO-DIMENSIONAL NON-SELF-GRAVITATING HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young; Stone, James M.; Yoon, Doosoo; Teuben, Peter J.

    2012-03-01

    The inner regions of barred galaxies contain substructures such as off-axis shocks, nuclear rings, and nuclear spirals. These substructures may affect star formation, and control the activity of a central black hole (BH) by determining the mass inflow rate. We investigate the formation and properties of such substructures using high-resolution, grid-based hydrodynamic simulations. The gaseous medium is assumed to be infinitesimally thin, isothermal, and non-self-gravitating. The stars and dark matter are represented by a static gravitational potential with four components: a stellar disk, a bulge, a central BH, and a bar. To investigate various galactic environments, we vary the gas sound speed, c{sub s} , as well as the mass of the central BH, M{sub BH}. Once the flow has reached a quasi-steady state, off-axis shocks tend to move closer to the bar major axis as c{sub s} increases. Nuclear rings shrink in size with increasing c{sub s} , but are independent of M{sub BH}, suggesting that the ring position is not determined by the Lindblad resonances. Rings in low-c{sub s} models are narrow since they are occupied largely by gas on x{sub 2}-orbits and well decoupled from nuclear spirals, while they become broad because of large thermal perturbations in high-c{sub s} models. Nuclear spirals persist only when either c{sub s} is small or M{sub BH} is large; they would otherwise be destroyed completely by the ring material on eccentric orbits. The shape and strength of nuclear spirals depend sensitively on c{sub s} and M{sub BH} such that they are leading if both c{sub s} and M{sub BH} are small, weak trailing if c{sub s} is small and M{sub BH} is large, and strong trailing if both c{sub s} and M{sub BH} are large. While the mass inflow rate toward the nucleus is quite small in low-c{sub s} models because of the presence of a narrow nuclear ring, it becomes larger than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when c{sub s} is large, providing a potential explanation of nuclear activity in Seyfert galaxies.

  1. Cluster and nebular properties of the central star-forming region of NGC 1140

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, S. L.; Mengel, S.; de Grijs, R.; Smith, L. J.; Crowther, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    We present new high spatial resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging of NGC 1140 and high spectral resolution Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph spectroscopy of its central star-forming region. The central region contains several clusters, the two brightest of which are clusters 1 and 6 from Hunter, O'Connell & Gallagher, located within star-forming knots A and B, respectively. A nebular analysis indicates that the knots have a Large Magellanic Cloud-like metallicity of 12 + logO/H = 8.29 +/-0.09. According to continuum-subtracted Hα ACS imaging, cluster 1 dominates the nebular emission of the brighter knot A. Conversely, negligible nebular emission in knot B originates from cluster 6. Evolutionary synthesis modelling implies an age of 5 +/-1 Myr for cluster 1, from which a photometric mass of (1.1 +/-0.3) × 106Msolar is obtained. For this age and photometric mass, the modelling predicts the presence of ~5900 late O stars within cluster 1. Wolf-Rayet (WR) features are observed in knot A, suggesting 550 late-type nitrogen-rich (WNL) and 200 early-type carbon-rich (WCE) stars. Therefore, N(WR)/N(O) ~ 0.1, assuming that all the WR stars are located within cluster 1. The velocity dispersions of the clusters were measured from constituent red supergiants as σ ~ 23 +/-1kms-1 for cluster 1 and σ ~ 26 +/-1kms-1 for cluster 6. Combining σ with half-light radii of 8 +/- 2 and 6.0 +/-0.2 pc measured from the F625W ACS image implies virial masses of (10 +/-3) × 106 and (9.1 +/-0.8) × 106Msolar for clusters 1 and 6, respectively. The most likely reason for the difference between the dynamical and photometric masses of cluster 1 is that the velocity dispersion of knot A is not due solely to cluster 1, as assumed, but has an additional component associated with cluster 2. E-mail: s.moll@sheffield.ac.uk Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under programme ESO 71.B-0058(A), and on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  2. Electrical conductivity of mantle in the North Central region of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiora, Daniel N.; Okeke, Francisca N.; Yumoto, K.

    2015-01-01

    The mantle electrical conductivity profile of the North Central region of Nigeria was determined using the quiet day ionospheric current variations (Sq). The employed magnetic averaged hourly data were obtained from Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) ground based observatories at two Nigerian stations located at Ilorin (8°30‧N, 4°33‧E) and Abuja (8°59‧N, 7°23‧E) for the year 2009 and 2010. The magnetometer data from Pankshin (9°20‧N, 9°27‧E) and Katsina-Ala (7°10‧N, 9°17‧E) for the same years were equally employed. The separation of both the internal and external field contributions to the Sq variations was successfully carried out employing spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). Transfer function was performed in computing the conductivity-depth profile for North Central region of Nigeria from the paired external and internal coefficients of the SHA. The conductivity value of approximately 0.039 S/m was estimated at a depth of 100 km which rose gradually to 0.087 S/m at 207 km depth and 0.142 S/m at 367 km (close to the base of upper mantle). Subsequently, the conductivity profile continued rising to a value of 0.144 S/m at 442 km, 0.164 S/m at 653 km and 0.174 S/m at 710 km. Finally, value of approximately 0.195 S/m at a depth of 881 km and 0.240 S/m at 1100 km depth were recorded at the lower mantle with no indication of leveling off. Some evidence of discontinuities near 100-214 km, 214-420 km, 420-640 km, 640-900 km and 900-1100 km were clearly obvious. The sharp increase in conductivity from about 100 km depth to 230 km was interpreted to correspond to the global seismic low velocity zone - the asthenosphere.

  3. Precipitation frequency analysis based on regional climate simulations in Central Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chun-Chao; Gan, Thian Yew; Hanrahan, Janel L.

    2014-03-01

    A Regional Climate Model (RCM), MM5 (the Fifth Generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model), is used to simulate summer precipitation in Central Alberta. MM5 was set up with a one-way, three-domain nested framework, with domain resolutions of 27, 9, and 3 km, respectively, and forced with ERA-Interim reanalysis data of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The objective is to develop high resolution, grid-based Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves based on the simulated annual maximums of precipitation (AMP) data for durations ranging from 15-min to 24-h. The performance of MM5 was assessed in terms of simulated rainfall intensity, precipitable water, and 2-m air temperature. Next, the grid-based IDF curves derived from MM5 were compared to IDF curves derived from six RCMs of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) set up with 50-km grids, driven with NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy) Reanalysis II data, and regional IDF curves derived from observed rain gauge data (RG-IDF). The analyzed results indicate that 6-h simulated precipitable water and 2-m temperature agree well with the ERA-Interim reanalysis data. However, compared to RG-IDF curves, IDF curves based on simulated precipitation data of MM5 are overestimated especially for IDF curves of 2-year return period. In contract, IDF curves developed from NARCCAP data suffer from under-estimation and differ more from RG-IDF curves than the MM5 IDF curves. The over-estimation of IDF curves of MM5 was corrected by a quantile-based, bias correction method. By dynamically downscale the ERA-Interim and after bias correction, it is possible to develop IDF curves useful for regions with limited or no rain gauge data. This estimation process can be further extended to predict future grid-based IDF curves subjected to possible climate change impacts based on climate change projections of GCMs (general circulation models) of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).

  4. A new polymorphic positions discovered in mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region HVIII from central and north-central of Iraq.

    PubMed

    Kareem, Muhanned Abdulhassan; Abdulzahra, Ameer Ibrahim; Hameed, Imad Hadi; Jebor, Mohammed Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research is to study the mitochondria non-coding region by using Sanger sequencing technique and establish the degree of variation characteristic of a fragment. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) is utilized to extract DNA. A portion of a non-coding region encompassing positions 438 to 574 for HVIII amplified in accordance with the Anderson reference sequence. PCR products purified by EZ-10 spin column were then sequenced and detected by using the ABI 3730xL DNA analyzer. The new polymorphic positions 469 and 482 that are described in this study may in future be suitable sources for identification purpose. The data obtained can be used to identify variable nucleotide positions characterized by frequent occurrence, most promising for identification variants. PMID:25703852

  5. Particulate matter source apportionment in a village situated in industrial region of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, P; Hovorka, J; Krouzek, J; Hopke, P K

    2013-12-01

    The bilinear receptor model positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to apportion particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 1-10 microm (PM1-10) sources in a village, Brezno, situated in an industrial region of northern Bohemia in Central Europe. The receptor model analyzed the data sets of 90- and 60-min integrations of PM1-10 mass concentrations and elemental composition for 27 elements. The 14-day sampling campaigns were conducted in the village in summer 2008 and winter 2010. Also, to ensure seasonal and regional representativeness of the data sets recorded in the village, the spatial-temporal variability of the 24-hr PM10 and PM1-10 within 2008-2010 in winter and summer across the multiple sites was evaluated. There were statistically significant interseasonal differences of the 24-hr PM data, but not intrasummer or intrawinter differences of the 24-hr PM1-10 data across the multiple sites. PMF resolved seven sources of PM1-10. They were high-temperature coal combustion; combustion in local heating boilers; marine aerosol; mineral dust; primary biological/wood burning; road dust, car brakes; and gypsum. The main summer factors were assigned to mineral dust (38.2%) and primary biological/wood burning (33.1%). In winter, combustion factors dominated (80%) contribution to PM1-10. The conditional probability function (CPF) helped to identified local sources of PM1-10. The source of marine aerosol from the North Sea and English Channel was indicated by the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT). PMID:24558704

  6. A sharp Moho step under the Central and Eastern Betics, Western Mediterranean region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Heit, Benjamin; Morales, Jose; Heit, Xiaohui; Molina-Aguilera, Antonio; Stich, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    We map the lithospheric structure under the central and eastern Betics (western Mediterranean region) interpreting P-receiver functions obtained from two dense seismic profiles (HIRE and Transcorbe profiles of ~120 km and 160 km of length, respectively). The goal is to study the lithospheric structure and its variations between the different geological domains, from the Alboran domain in the south (metamorphic rocks), the External zones (sedimentary rocks) and the Variscan terrains of the Iberian Massif in the north. One of the profiles (HIRE), North-South oriented, crosses the Sierra Nevada Mountains, one of the prominent features in the Western Mediterranean tectonic region with the highest topography of the Iberia peninsula (~3400 m). The spacing between stations, around 2km, allows mapping with high accuracy of the variations of the crustal structure. We observe a sharp Moho step of ~15 km under the Internal zones of the Alboran domain coinciding the thinner crust with the highest topography along the profile. This agrees with the prior hypothesis about the lack of crustal root underneath Sierra Nevada Mountains and opens a question about the source of the dynamic compensation of its topography. Previous studies showed that the Iberian crust understrust the Alboran domain under its contact with the External zones observing the presence of slab-type feature of Iberian lithosphere at the western Betics while tearing and delamination of this Iberian slab is proposed at eastern Betics. We observe that the Iberian crust undertrust the Alboran domain and terminate sharply under the contact between the Alpujarride and the Nevado-Filabre complexes (Alboran domain).

  7. Regional subsidence history and 3D visualization with MATLAB of the Vienna Basin, central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Novotny, J.; Wagreich, M.

    2013-12-01

    This study reconstructed the subsidence history by the backstripping and 3D visualization techniques, to understand tectonic evolution of the Neogene Vienna Basin. The backstripping removes the compaction effect of sediment loading and quantifies the tectonic subsidence. The amount of decompaction was calculated by porosity-depth relationships evaluated from seismic velocity data acquired from two boreholes. About 100 wells have been investigated to quantify the subsidence history of the Vienna Basin. The wells have been sorted into 10 groups; N1-4 in the northern part, C1-4 in the central part and L1-2 in the northernmost and easternmost parts, based on their position within the same block bordered by major faults. To visualize 3D subsidence maps, the wells were arranged to a set of 3D points based on their map location (x, y) and depths (z1, z2, z3 ...). The division of the stratigraphic column and age range was arranged based on the Central Paratethys regional Stages. In this study, MATLAB, a numerical computing environment, was used to calculate the TPS interpolation function. The Thin-Plate Spline (TPS) can be employed to reconstruct a smooth surface from a set of 3D points. The basic physical model of the TPS is based on the bending behavior of a thin metal sheet that is constrained only by a sparse set of fixed points. In the Lower Miocene, 3D subsidence maps show strong evidence that the pre-Neogene basement of the Vienna Basin was subsiding along borders of the Alpine-Carpathian nappes. This subsidence event is represented by a piggy-back basin developed on top of the NW-ward moving thrust sheets. In the late Lower Miocene, Group C and N display a typical subsidence pattern for the pull-apart basin with a very high subsidence event (0.2 - 1.0 km/Ma). After the event, Group N shows remarkably decreasing subsidence, following the thin-skinned extension which was regarded as the extension model of the Vienna Basin in the literature. But the subsidence in Group C decreases gradually, which demonstrates a trend of increasing thermal subsidence during the Middle to Upper Miocene. The traditional model cannot explain the thermal subsidence observed in the central part. This study supports a non-uniform extension model changing from the thin-skinned extension in the northern part to the thick-skinned extension in the central part. And 3D subsidence maps propose the existence of a decoupling between lithospheric and crustal extensions along the Steinberg Fault. Group L shows very different subsidence trends compared to Group C and N. In this Group a subsidence halt occurred in the late Lower Miocene. After the halt, Group L1 shows small tectonic and subsidence events. Some former studies presented that the area of Group L1 uplifted during the early Middle Miocene. It can be concluded that the missing sediments were eroded by the local uplift. But the subsidence of Group L2 stopped completely. It suggests that Group L2 was not influenced by the extension of the strike-slip fault system.

  8. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

  9. Sedimentary environments of the Central Region of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoffin, Terence P.; Tudhope, Alexander W.

    1985-09-01

    The sediments and calcareous organisms on the outer reefal shelf of the Central Region of the Great Barrier Reef were collected and observed by SCUBA diving and research vessel techniques (including underwater television) to understand the production and processes of deposition of the sediment. The carbonate grains are mainly sand and gravel size and solely of skeletal origin. Over the whole area the major CaCO3 producers, in order of decreasing importance are: benthic foraminiferans (chiefly Operculina, Amphistegina, Marginopora, Alveolinella and Cycloclypeus), the calcareous green alga Halimeda, molluscs and corals. Coral abundance is high only close to reefs and submerged rocky substrates. Benthic foraminiferal sands dominate the inter-reef areas i.e. the bulk of the shelf, and Halimeda gravels form an outer shelf band between 60 and 100 m depths. Seven distinct facies are recognised after quantitative analyses of the sediments. These are: A. Shelf edge slope (>120 m depth); B. Shelf edge (with rocky outcrops); C. Outer shelf with high Halimeda (>40%); D. Inter-reef I; E. Inter-reef II ( 100 m depth but >2% pelagics); F. Lee-ward reef talus wedge (<2 km from sea level reefs); G. Lagoonal.

  10. The Central Regions of Local (U)LIRGs Viewed with Big Radio Eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Torres, Miguel Ángel

    I review some of the main results obtained by our team in the last few years on high-angular resolution radio studies of nearby Luminous and Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs, respectively). These galaxies are expected to form stars at rates ≳ (10-100) M_{⊙} {year}^{-1}, and produce core-collapse supernovae at rates ≳ (0.3-3) year- 1. (U)LIRGs are also expected to be bright at radio wavelengths, thanks to the ubiquitous Far-Infrared Radio correlation, which makes high-angular resolution (≲ 0.1^'') radio observations an excellent tool for probing the inner ≃ 100 pc region of local (U)LIRGs. I justify the need for this high-angular resolution radio studies of local (U)LIRGs and, among other results, I present the impressive discovery of an extremely prolific supernova factory in the central ˜ 150 pc of the galaxy Arp 299-A (D = 45 Mpc) and the monitoring of a large number of very compact radio sources in it, the detection and precise location of the long-sought AGN in Arp 299-A and, more recently, the evidence for the existence of nuclear disks (≲ 100 pc in size) in starburst galaxies from their radial distribution of supernovae. All those results show that very-high angular resolution studies of nearby (U)LIRGs are of high relevance for the comprehension of both local and high-z starbursting galaxies.

  11. Morphological characterization of cherry rootstock candidates selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

  12. Ecological aspects of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperettii in the central region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Feeding ecology of any species can help us to understand its natural history, ecological requirements and approaches involved in searching for food. Feeding ecology and sexual dimorphism in the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperetti collected from the Al-Thumama area, central region of Saudi Arabia was described. The gut content of Cerastes c. gasperetti mainly consisted of rodents (70%) in addition to arthropods (15%) and lizards (10%). Least sexual size dimorphism was noticed in the species in terms of total length. Significant difference was noticed between males and females in terms of two correlation points vent tail length (VT) and total length (TL) with the males attaining a larger size (P < 0.05). The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventrals and subcaudals for the females was 102, 156 and 33 scales respectively which were significantly different from respective ones in males 95, 160 and 38 scales. There are many aspects of the feeding of this snake that remain unknown and further studies are clearly needed. PMID:26858550

  13. First records of Dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of Central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Penezić, Aleksandra; Pavlović, Ivan; Kulišić, Zoran; Cosić, Nada; Burazerović, Jelena; Maletić, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe, particularly in its southern part, the Mediterranean region. Many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. This paper presents the first records of adult D. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in Central Balkan countries (Serbia and Macedonia). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were examined for the presence of D. repens adults. In order to investigate their role as hosts and potential wild reservoirs of this zoonosis, 71 wolves (Canis lupus), 48 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 26 jackals (Canis aureus) were examined. Under the skin of two wolves (one from Serbia and one from Macedonia) and of a red fox from Serbia D. repens adults were found. In all three cases only one parasite was present. Further research on wild canids is needed, particularly on species widening their range (such as jackals) and those living near human settlements (foxes and jackals), which facilitates the transmission of the parasites to dogs and humans. PMID:25410390

  14. Urban contamination with zoonotic parasites in the central region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martín, Ubaldo O; Demonte, Miguel A

    2008-01-01

    Adult worms develop in dogs and their eggs are shed in the feces. Non-embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis become infectious after about 2-6 weeks in the soil and the likelihood of their transmission to humans is through ingestion. In 2004 studies were carried out in the areas of urban recreation in the central region of Argentina. A total of 393 dog excrement samples were collected in eight different cities: 59.3 per cent were positive for parasites. These areas of urban recreation are contaminated with zoonotic parasites in the cities of Paraná (19 of 24 areas), Santa Fe (20 of 26), and Santo Tomé (14 of 18). Eggs of T. canis were present in 101 of 393 (25.7%) of the excrement samples, and eggs could be found in 53 of the 68 (77.9%) areas of urban recreation studied in these cities. This contamination is greater in areas of lower socio-economic conditions. The object of this paper is to discuss markers of parasitic contamination with the aim of triggering the necessary control measures. PMID:18977705

  15. A study of dirigibles for use in the Peruvian Selva Central Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for dirigibles as transports in the Selva Central region of Peru was evaluated by means of a mission and economic analysis. A total requirement to transport over 19 million tons (t) of agricultural produce, lumber, and meat was projected by the year 2004. A primary route involving zones for loading and delivering this cargo was identified. Although dirigibles are capable of short field operation, all existing airfields must be enlarged in width to allow for all conditions of wind and weather and to provide space for overnight mooring. A maintenance base and operations headquarters, complete with hangar and other service facilities would be required. The quantities of cargo to be carried establish requirements for fleets of dirigibles of various sizes and capacities. Cargo capacities of 5 to 100 tons were identified. Fleet sizes up to 106 dirigibles (in 20 t capacities) would be required. Dirigibles were assumed to be of the nonrigid type except in the 100 t category for which rigid characteristics were assumed. A method of determining dirigible costs was developed. The values derived were then applied to an economic analysis to determine initial investment and operating costs. It was found that larger dirigibles of approximately 20 t capacities or higher could offer significant cost benefits over airplanes, provided cruise speeds were higher than 100 km/hr.

  16. A study of dirigibles for use in the Peruvian Selva Central region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for dirigibles as transports in the Selva Central region of Peru was evaluated by means of a mission and economic analysis. A total requirement to transport over 19 million tons (t) of agricultural produce, lumber and meat was projected by the year 2004. A primary route involving zones for loading and delivering this carbo was identified. Although dirigibles are capable of short field operation, all existing airfields must be enlarged in width to allow for all conditions of wind and weather and to provide space for overnight mooring. A maintenance base and operations headquarters, complete with hangar and other service facilities would be required. The quantities of cargo capacities of 5 to 100 tons were identified. Fleet sizes up to 106 dirigibles (in 20 t capacities) would be required. Dirigibles were assumed to be of the nonrigid type except in the 100 t category for which rigid characteristics were assumed. A method of determining dirigible costs was developed. The values derived were then applied to an economic analysis to determine initial investment and operating costs. It was found that larger dirigibles of approximately 20 t capacities or higher could offer significant cost benefits over airplanes, provided cruise speeds were higher than 100km/hr.

  17. Digital resource modeling of the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions: Top producing coals

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.; Wallack, R.; Jenkins, J.; Tully, J.

    1998-12-31

    The US Geological Survey is currently conducting a coal resource assessment of the coal beds and zones that are expected to provide the bulk of the Nation`s coal resources for the next few decades. In partnership with the state geologic surveys of Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Maryland, six coal beds will be digitally assessed in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal region. In ascending stratigraphic order, the beds which range from the Lower Pennsylvanian Pocahontas Formation to the Upper Pennsylvanian Monongahela Group are the Pocahontas No. 3, Pond Creek, Fire Clay, Lower Kittanning, Upper Freeport, and Pittsburgh coals. Comprehensive stratigraphic and geochemical databases have been developed for the coal beds. Maps that show the extent and mined areas of the beds, structure contour, isopach, and overburden thickness have been compiled for the Pittsburgh coal bed and are in preparation for the other coal beds. The resource model for the Pittsburgh coal bed indicates that of the original 33.6 billion short tons (30.5 billion tonnes) of Pittsburgh coal, approximately 15.9 billion short tons (14.4 billion tonnes) remain. The remaining coal is, however, higher in ash and sulfur, and generally thinner and under thicker overburden cover.

  18. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  19. Ecological aspects of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperettii in the central region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K.; Paray, Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Feeding ecology of any species can help us to understand its natural history, ecological requirements and approaches involved in searching for food. Feeding ecology and sexual dimorphism in the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperetti collected from the Al-Thumama area, central region of Saudi Arabia was described. The gut content of Cerastes c. gasperetti mainly consisted of rodents (70%) in addition to arthropods (15%) and lizards (10%). Least sexual size dimorphism was noticed in the species in terms of total length. Significant difference was noticed between males and females in terms of two correlation points vent tail length (VT) and total length (TL) with the males attaining a larger size (P < 0.05). The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventrals and subcaudals for the females was 102, 156 and 33 scales respectively which were significantly different from respective ones in males 95, 160 and 38 scales. There are many aspects of the feeding of this snake that remain unknown and further studies are clearly needed. PMID:26858550

  20. Larval trematode infections in Lymnaea glabra populations living in the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France

    PubMed Central

    Rondelaud, Daniel; Vignoles, Philippe; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Lymnaea glabra is known to be a natural intermediate host of two flukes, Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, in central France. But it can also sustain larval development of other digeneans. Adult snails were thus collected from 206 habitats in 2014 and 2015 to identify parasite species and determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the five types of snail habitats. Seven digenean species were noted in 321 infected snails (out of 17,647 L. glabra). Snails with F. hepatica or C. daubneyi were found in 14.5% and 12.6% of habitats, respectively. Percentages were lower for snails with Opisthoglyphe ranae (5.8%), Haplometra cylindracea (5.3%) and were less than 5% for those infected with Echinostoma revolutum, Notocotylus sp. or Plagiorchis sp. Prevalence noted for each parasite species varied with the type of habitat. The number of species in L. glabra was lower than that found in G. truncatula from the same region (7 instead of 10). The distribution and prevalence of each digenean species were thus dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat. PMID:26692260

  1. Childhood physical abuse predicts stressor-evoked activity within central visceral control regions.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Layla; Sheu, Lei K; Midei, Aimee J; Gianaros, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Early life experience differentially shapes later stress reactivity, as evidenced by both animal and human studies. However, early experience-related changes in the function of central visceral neural circuits that control stress responses have not been well characterized, particularly in humans. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), amygdala (Amyg) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) form a core visceral stress-responsive circuit. The goal of this study is to examine how childhood emotional and physical abuse relates to adulthood stressor-evoked activity within these visceral brain regions. To evoke acute states of mental stress, participants (n = 155) performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-adapted versions of the multi-source interference task (MSIT) and the Stroop task with simultaneous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. Regression analyses revealed that childhood physical abuse correlated positively with stressor-evoked changes in MAP, and negatively with unbiased, a priori extractions of fMRI blood-oxygen level-dependent signal change values within the sgACC, BNST, PVN and Amyg (n = 138). Abuse-related changes in the function of visceral neural circuits may reflect neurobiological vulnerability to adverse health outcomes conferred by early adversity. PMID:24847113

  2. The study on estimate historic foggy days using meteorological data at Tatachia region in central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wey, T. H.; Lai, Y. J.; Chang, C. S.; Shen, C. W.; Guan, B. T.; Lin, P. H.

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand dew point temperature and solar radiation value during foggy time based on an additional visible sensor at Lintsushan Observatory, Tatachia region, central Taiwan. The analysis showed that the deficit of air temperature and dew point temperature (DADP) were lower than 1 ℃ during foggy time. The correlative regression between measured value and estimated value was y = 0.8547x + 0.8872. The correlative coefficient was 0.8341. The historical annual foggy days from 1997 to 2008 of Guanshan Observatory (latitude: 23°30'52.74", longitude: 120°54'42.72", altitude: 1,700 m) and Lintsushan Observatory (latitude: 23°28'38.68", longitude: 120°53'18.47", altitude: 2,780 m) were estimated using Magnus Model Method. The result showed that annual foggy days decreased gradually at Guanshan Observatory located on middle altitude. The annual foggy days increased gradually at Lintsushan Observatory located on higher altitude.

  3. Differential sensitivity to regional-scale drought in six central US grasslands.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Alan K; Carroll, Charles J W; Denton, Elsie M; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Collins, Scott L; Smith, Melinda D

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems often vary dramatically in their responses to drought, but the reasons for this are unclear. With climate change forecasts for more frequent and extensive drought in the future, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms that determine differential ecosystem sensitivity to drought is needed. In 2012, the Central US experienced the fourth largest drought in a century, with a regional-scale 40% reduction in growing season precipitation affecting ecosystems ranging from desert grassland to mesic tallgrass prairie. This provided an opportunity to assess ecosystem sensitivity to a drought of common magnitude in six native grasslands. We tested the prediction that drought sensitivity is inversely related to mean annual precipitation (MAP) by quantifying reductions in aboveground net primary production (ANPP). Long-term ANPP data available for each site (mean length = 16 years) were used as a baseline for calculating reductions in ANPP, and drought sensitivity was estimated as the reduction in ANPP per millimeter reduction in precipitation. Arid grasslands were the most sensitive to drought, but drought responses and sensitivity varied by more than twofold among the six grasslands, despite all sites experiencing 40% reductions in growing season precipitation. Although drought sensitivity generally decreased with increasing MAP as predicted, there was evidence that the identity and traits of the dominant species, as well as plant functional diversity, influenced sensitivity. A more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms leading to differences in drought sensitivity will require multi-site manipulative experiments designed to assess both biotic and abiotic determinants of ecosystem sensitivity. PMID:25651805

  4. A regional paleomagnetic study of lithotectonic domains in the Central Gneiss Belt, Grenville Province, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constanzo Alvarez, Vincenzo; Dunlop, David J.

    1998-04-01

    We have made a regional paleomagnetic study of lithotectonic domains in the Central Gneiss Belt of the Grenville Province in Ontario along ten N-S and E-W traverses up to 200 km in length. Although originally intended to clarify the tectonic mechanism by which these exotic terranes were assembled and welded to the Archean Superior craton during the ˜1150-Ma Grenvillian orogeny, we actually learned much more about the timing of post-orogenic uplift of the various domains around 1000-900 Ma as they stabilized and became part of the Rodinia supercontinent. The normal (N) and reverse (R) natural remanent magnetizations (NRMs) of all domains, as well as those of reactivated regions flanking the Grenville Front (GF, the Superior-Grenville boundary) to the north and south, have paleomagnetic poles falling on the 980-920-Ma ( 40Ar/ 39Ar calibrated) portion of the Grenville apparent polar wander track for Laurentia. There is a general tendency for paleopoles to young with increasing distance of domains from the GF, implying that more southerly domains were uplifted and magnetized later, but two of the domains do not fit this pattern. Previously reported younging trends away from the GF, based on K/Ar thermochron maps and paleomagnetic 'zone poles', are untrustworthy because of hydrothermal alteration, which causes chemical remagnetization and anomalously old K/Ar ages near the GF. Another trend in our data is a regular increase in the R/N ratio with increasing distance south of the GF. In the reactivated zones flanking the GF, NRMs are overwhelmingly of N polarity, whereas well away from the GF, R/N is close to 50:50. Also, NRM intensities and susceptibility values increase 100-fold away from the GF, peaking ≈10 km south of the front, with a pulse-like pattern similar to that documented in anomalously high 40Ar/ 39Ar dates in the same region. Both the magnetic and Ar/Ar results are likely due to a 'wave' of hydrothermal alteration and remagnetization during which fluids were driven away from the GF. Since the remagnetized NRM near the GF has approximately the same direction as NRMs in domains away from the GF, hydrothermal activity along fault systems south of the GF must have continued until ˜1000 Ma, long after the collisional orogeny itself.

  5. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucchese, Fernando; Medori, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy), a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts) are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.). In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (wounds) and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation), Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises), while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules). Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread knowledge of means of conserving foodstuffs, they also led to the use of products easily available within each home. The values of E.I. (ethnobotanicity index) for the upper Molise region are considered amongst the highest in Italian areas. Nevertheless, like the values for other areas of Italy, they are lower than those of many Spanish areas, perhaps (and not only) because of the more rapid cultural erosion experienced in Italy. PMID:18334029

  6. The central California Current transition zone: A broad region exhibiting evidence for iron limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Dondra V.; Bruland, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    The transition zone (TZ) of the central California Current upwelling system (cCCS) is the boundary between the cold, saline, coastally upwelled water and the warm, less saline, oligotrophic waters of the offshore California Current (CC). The TZ is a broad region that regularly exhibits chlorophyll concentrations of 1-2 ?g L-1 throughout the spring, summer, and fall seasons. Surface transect and vertical profile data from three cruises (May 2010, June 1999, and August 2011) between 34 and 42N show residual nitrate concentrations (5-15 ?M) and low Fe concentrations (most < 0.2 nmol kg-1) in the TZ. We therefore suggest that much of the TZ of the cCCS is an Fe-limited, high nutrient, lower than expected chlorophyll (HNLC) region. The main source of Fe to the cCCS is from upwelling through the benthic boundary layer (BBL) over the continental shelf sediments. Iron and NO3- in coastally upwelled water are transported via offshore moving filaments into the TZ. However, since some coastal upwelling regions with narrow continental shelves do not have much Fe to begin with, and since Fe is drawn down more rapidly relative to NO3- due to biological assimilation and scavenging, these filaments transport low concentrations of Fe relative to NO3- into the TZ. Weak wind curl-induced upwelling and vertical mixing in the TZ also deliver Fe and NO3- to the surface but at lower concentrations (and lower Fe :NO3-) than from strong coastal upwelling. Mesoscale cyclonic eddies in the TZ are important to consider with respect to offshore surface nutrient delivery because there is a marked shoaling of isopycnals and the nutricline within these eddies allowing higher nutrient concentrations to be closer to the surface. Since wind curl-induced upwelling and/or vertical mixing occurs seaward of the continental shelf, there is not enough Fe delivered to the surface to accompany the NO3-. By using Fe :NO3- ratios and calculated specific growth rates for diatoms, we demonstrate that the TZ of the cCCS shows evidence for Fe limitation of diatom blooms. The TZ also appears to progress further into Fe limitation as the upwelling season progresses from spring into late summer. This study provides some of the first field data to suggest that Fe is a critical bottom up control on the ecosystem in the TZ of the cCCS.

  7. On the long term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air-quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air-quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The validation of the modeling system's air-quality related outputs using AirBase and EMEP surface measurements showed satisfactory reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In terms of hourly correlations, reasonable values are achieved for ozone (r around 0.5-0.8) and for NO2 (0.4-0.6), but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. EC air-quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. Further, for the case of Prague (Czech Republic capital) it is shown that the inter-urban interference between large cities does not play an important role which means that the impact on a chosen city of emissions from all other large cities is very small. The emissions perturbation experiments showed that to achieve significant ozone reduction over cities in central Europe, the emission control strategies have to focus on the reduction of NMVOC, as reducing NOx, due to suppressed titration, leads often to increased O3. The influence over rural areas remote from cities is however always in favor of improved air-quality, i.e. both NOx and/or NMVOC reduction ends up in decreased ozone pollution, mainly in terms of exceedances.

  8. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2016-02-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5-0.8 and 0.4-0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. For the case of Prague (Czech Republic capital), it is further shown that the inter-urban interference between large cities does not play an important role which means that the impact on a chosen city of emissions from all other large cities is very small. At last, it is shown that to achieve significant ozone reduction over cities in central Europe, the emission control strategies have to focus on the reduction of NMVOC, as reducing NOx (due to suppressed titration) often leads to increased O3. The influence over rural areas is however always in favor of improved air quality, i.e. both NOx and/or NMVOC reduction ends up in decreased ozone pollution, mainly in terms of exceedances.

  9. Calibration of strong motion models for Central America region and its use in seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Climent, A.; Benito, M. B.; Piedra, R.; Lindholm, C.; Gaspar-Escribano, J.

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a study aimed at choosing the more suitable strong-motion models for seismic hazard analysis in the Central America (CA) Region. After a careful revision of the state of the art, different models developed for subduction and volcanic crustal zones, in tectonic environment similar to those of CA, were selected. These models were calibrated with accelerograms recorded in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and El Salvador. The peak ground acceleration PGA and Spectral Acceleration SA (T) derived from the records were compared with the ones predicted by the models in similar conditions of magnitude, distance and soil. The type of magnitude (Ms, Mb, MW), distance (Rhyp, Rrup, etc) and ground motion parameter (maximum horizontal component, geometrical mean, etc ) was taken into account in the comparison with the real data. As results of the analysis, the models which present a best fit with the local data were identified. These models have been applied for carrying out seismic hazard analysis in the region, in the frame of the RESIS II project financed by the Norwegian Foreign Department and also by the Spanish project SISMOCAES. The methodology followed is based on the direct comparison between PGA and SA 5 % damped response values extracted from actual records with the corresponding acceleration values predicted by the selected ground-motion models for similar magnitude, distance and soil conditions. Residuals between observed and predicted values for PGA, and SA (1sec) are calculated and plotted as a function of distance and magnitude, analyzing their deviation from the mean value. Besides and most important, a statistical analysis of the normalized residuals was carry out using the criteria proposed by Scherbaum et al. (2004), which consists in categorizing ground motion models based in a likelihood parameter that reflects the goodness-of-fit of the median values as well as the shape of the underlying distribution of ground motion residuals. Considering the results of the both analysis the conclusions can be drawn in the following paragraphs. Analyses of residuals show that in some cases the best adjustments of PGA and SA values do not always favor the same equation. Consequently, the following equations that present reasonable adjustments for both parameters are finally selected: Schmidt (2010) and Zhao et al (2006) for shallow crustal sources; Schmidt (2010), Zhao et al (2006), Youngs et al. (1997) and Lin & Lee (2008) for subduction interface and Schmidt (2010), Youngs et al (1997), Zhao et al (2006) and Garcia et al (2005) for inslab subduction sources. Finally, to improve the development of proper models of attenuation of the region, it is recommended to the governmental and private institutions, to support the implementation of permanent strong ground motion networks in all Central America countries, especially in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama, including free field stations. In case of Costa Rica and El Salvador to strengthen the networks that already they operate.

  10. Active oblique extension in the central Apennines (Italy): evidence from the Fucino region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardi, Luigi; Gaudemer, Yves; Tapponnier, Paul; Boccaletti, Mario

    1999-11-01

    The Fucino Basin is a flat Quaternary depression within the central Apennines. It is surrounded by active normal faults with small oblique-slip components. Surface faulting was observed along the east side of the basin during the Ms=7.0 Avezzano earthquake of 1915. In order to understand the kinematics of recent strain better and to assess the seismic hazard of this region, we carried out a detailed geomorphic and structural study of the faults around the basin. Fault scarp heights were accurately measured with total station profiles, and vertical slip rates were estimated assuming slope offsets to post-date the end of periglacial abrasion (14+/-4 kyr BP). To the north, the most prominent fault, the Magnola fault, appears to have an average postglacial throw rate of 0.7+/-0.3 mm yr-1 and, together with the Velino fault, to be capable of generating earthquakes of maximum magnitudes of 6.9-7.3 with recurrence intervals of 1000-3000 yr. East of the basin, the Serrone, Parasano and Ventrino faults form a right-stepping horsetail of the Giovenco fault. Current vertical slip rates on the three former faults appear to be between 0.5 and 1.4, 0.5 and 1.0, and 0.3 and 1.1 mm yr-1, respectively. Infrequent maximum-magnitude earthquakes on them may also exceed 7, particularly in the case of coupled rupture, with loosely constrained recurrence intervals (up to several thousand years). The right-lateral slip components implied by the most recent slickensides and by geomorphic offsets on the NW-SE-trending normal faults of the area suggest that the blocks they bound rotate counterclockwise, consistent with oblique left slip on the NNW-SSE-trending Giovenco and Ovindoli faults to the east. Sinistral shear parallel to the latter faults, the maximum relief across the Magnola fault, and the postglacial slope offsets measured suggest that the extension rate across the central Apennines might be of the order of 6+/-3 mm yr-1 in a N20 deg+/-10 degE direction, more northerly than hitherto inferred.

  11. Regional fire monitoring and characterization using global NASA MODIS fire products in dry lands of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, Tatiana V.; Giglio, Louis; Boschetti, Luigi; Justice, Christopher O.

    2012-06-01

    Central Asian dry lands are grass- and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia. This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually. Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia. Degradation of this ecosystem through burning and overgrazing directly impacts economic growth and food supply in the region. Fire is a recurrent disturbance agent in dry lands contributing to soil erosion and air pollution. Here we provide an overview of inter-annual and seasonal fire dynamics in Central Asia obtained from remotely sensed data. We evaluate the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global fire products within Central Asian dry lands and use these products to characterize fire occurrence between 2001 and 2009. The results show that on average ˜15 million ha of land burns annually across Central Asia with the majority of the area burned in August and September in grasslands. Fire is used as a common crop residue management practice across the region. Nearly 89% of all burning occurs in Kazakhstan, where 5% and 3% of croplands and grasslands, respectively, are burned annually.

  12. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored maps provide a regional summary of the new mapping at a scale of 1:200,000, a scale that is sufficient to show the general distribution and relationships of the map units but not to distinguish the more detailed elements that are present in the database. The report is the product of cooperative work by the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, William Lettis and & Associates, Inc. (WLA), and the California Geological Survey. An earlier version was submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey by WLA as a final report for a NEHRP grant (Witter and others, 2005). The mapping has been carried out by WLA geologists under contract to the NEHRP Earthquake Program (Grant 99-HQ-GR-0095) and by the California Geological Survey.

  13. An Inter-Regional Comparison of Ozone Sensitivity to Reductions in Emissions in Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, S.; Tanrikulu, S.; Tran, C.; Jia, Y.; Beaver, S.; Matsuoka, J.; Cordova, J.

    2011-12-01

    Emissions of ozone precursors NOx and VOC have declined significantly in central California over the past 60 years due to rigorous emission control programs, with 40 to 50 percent reductions achieved from 1990 to 2010 alone. Three major air basins, however, are still designated as nonattainment areas for the federal 8-hour ozone standard: the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), Sacramento area and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Historically, ozone response to reductions in emissions varied from region to region. While the maximum hourly ozone concentrations have declined significantly in all three air basins, the locations of maximum ozone shifted. Some exceedance areas came into compliance with the standard while new areas started exceeding the standard. Some areas did not significantly respond to reductions in emissions. To meet the current ozone standard, additional emission reductions are needed. Further emission reductions above and beyond the goal of meeting the current standard will be needed if the EPA lowers the current standard. In an effort to help planners and decision makers, we have been conducting a modeling study to better understand how ozone may respond to future emission reductions in the region. In this initial phase of the study, we used the WRF-CMAQ modeling system to simulate ozone for July 12-28, 2006, a representative high ozone period for all three air basins. With the selected high grid resolution and optimum model setup, the model performance for the base case simulation was exceptionally good. Statistical agreement with observations was better than most previously applied models in the region. We performed a number of sensitivity simulations by reducing anthropogenic VOC or NOx emissions separately or together 10-60 percent at 10 percent intervals uniformly across the board and prepared EKMA diagrams at observation stations. We found that a 60 percent reduction in VOC and NOx emissions reduced the maximum ozone by 20-30 percent in the modeling domain. The largest reduction was in the SJV and the smallest reduction was in the SFBA. Ozone in the three air basins responded differently to separate reductions in VOC and NOx emissions. In the SFBA, reducing VOC emissions reduced ozone concentrations. However, reducing NOx emissions reduced ozone concentrations during some days of the episode and increased them on other days. The SFBA seems to be a NOx rich air basin under certain meteorological conditions. In the Sacramento area, ozone was insensitive to reductions in VOC emissions, possibly due to the abundance of biogenic VOC emissions, especially in the afternoon hours. Reducing NOx emissions reduced ozone concentrations in this air basin. In the SJV, ozone was sensitive to reductions in either VOC or NOx emissions. For the same percentage emission reductions, reducing NOx emissions would lead to higher reductions in ozone compared to VOC reductions in this air basin. Based upon these results, continuing to reduce anthropogenic emissions of both VOC and NOx would benefit the region. In general, ozone is more responsive to emission reductions after 40 percent reductions are achieved in all three air basins.

  14. 78 FR 37537 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Independent System Operators; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory... Transmission Organizations and Independent System Operators (RTOs/ISOs) (centralized capacity markets)....

  15. Rockfall hazard and risk assessment along a transportation corridor in the Nera Valley, central Italy.

    PubMed

    Guzzetti, Fausto; Reichenbach, Paola; Ghigi, Silvia

    2004-08-01

    Rockfalls are a common type of fast-moving slope failures, and in many countries they represent the primary cause of landslide fatalities. We present a methodology to ascertain rockfall hazard and to determine the associated risk along transportation networks. The proposed methodology is based on the combined analysis of the recurrence of rockfall events, determined from historical information, the frequency-volume statistics of rockfalls, obtained from inventories of recent rockfall triggering events, and the results of a physically based, spatially distributed rockfall simulation model used to determine rockfall hazard. The available information on rockfall hazard is combined in a Geographic Information System with a map of the transportation network to identify the road sections potentially subject to rockfalls. Information on the location and type of rockfall defensive measures, including revetment nets, elastic fences, concrete walls, and artificial tunnels, is used to estimate the efficacy of the defensive structures and to determine the level of the residual rockfall risk along the roads. To illustrate the methodology, we discuss an application in a 48-km2 area in the Nera River valley, in the Umbria Region of central Italy, where rockfalls are abundant, and where considerable investments were recently made to mitigate rockfall risk. PMID:15559944

  16. Genepool of Wild Populations of Forage and Grain Legume Crops of Northwest and Central Regions of Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An international plant collection expedition to the northwest and central regions of Russia was undertaken in 2007 to collect seed of wild-growing perennial grass and legume species that have potential for forage and turf applications. These collections are of interest in breeding and selection pro...

  17. Guidebook to Excellence 1995: A Directory of Federal Resources for Mathematics and Science Education Improvement for the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education, Columbus, OH.

    This document is a comprehensive directory of Federal offices, programs, and facilities for K-12 education in mathematics and science for the North Central Region. The purpose of this directory is to assist educators, parents, and students in attaining the National Education Goals, particularly Goal 4: "By the year 2000, U.S. students will be…

  18. Managing the Night Off-Peak Power Demand in the Central Region UPS with Newly Commissioned NPP Capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Aminov, R. Z.; Pron’, D. M.

    2014-01-15

    The use of hydrogen technologies as a controlled-load consumer based on the newly commissioned base-load nuclear power plants to level out the daily load profile is justified for the Unified Power System (UPS) of the Central Region of Russia, as an example, for the period till 2020.

  19. Teaching English Language Learner Students: Professional Standards in Elementary Education in Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 122

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apthorp, Helen; Wang, Xin; Ryan, Susan; Cicchinelli, Louis F.

    2012-01-01

    This report on professional teaching standards in the Central Region examines what K-8 general education teachers are expected to know and be able to do in order to teach English language learner students. It reviews the standards for coverage of six topics that the research literature suggests are important for improving student achievement. Key…

  20. Analysis of the State of Discipline in Kwanyarko Senior High School in the Central Region of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackey, Elizabeth; Amaniampong, Kwarteng; Abrokwa, Juliana Efua

    2016-01-01

    The general purpose of this paper was to find out the perceptions of students and teachers on the state of discipline in Senior High Schools (SHS) in Ghana using Kwanyarko SHS in the Central Region as a case study. Questionnaire was formulated to direct the research. The question focused on the perceptions, causes and remedies to discipline in the…

  1. Student Mobility in Rural and Nonrural Districts in Five Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 089

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beesley, Andrea; Moore, Laurie; Gopalani, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the extent and distribution of student mobility in five Central Region states. The study, which calculated student mobility percentages in each state and compared percentages by locale (city, suburb, town, and rural locale, and degree of rurality) within each state, found no consistent patterns across locales. Research…

  2. Urban Education Network Post-Conference Yearbook. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory's TECH EXPO and Conference 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.

    Highlights are presented from the Technology Expo and Conference held in Chicago by the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL) on October 20-22, 1990. Approximately 400 teachers, principals, administrators, school board members, state education agency personnel, and local school council members attended the conference, which was a…

  3. 2008 Update: The USDA Sunflower Collection at the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, Ames, Iowa, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An update on the status of the Helianthus L. germplasm collection in the National Plant Germplasm System of the United States is presented. The collection is held at the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station in Ames, IA administered by the USDA-ARS Plant Introduction Research Unit in co...

  4. CFD model of ITER CICC. Part VI: Heat and mass transfer between cable region and central channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanino, R.; Giors, S.; Richard, L. Savoldi

    2010-03-01

    Dual-channel cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) are used in the superconducting magnets for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). As the CICC axial/transverse size ratio is typically ˜1000, 1D axial models are customarily used for the CICC, but they require constitutive relations for the transverse fluxes. A novel approach, based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), was recently proposed by these authors to understand the complex transverse thermal-hydraulic processes in an ITER CICC from first principles. Multidimensional (2D, 3D) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes models implemented in the commercial CFD code FLUENT were validated against compact heat exchanger and ITER-relevant experimental data, and applied to compute the friction factor and the heat transfer coefficient in fully turbulent spiral rib-roughened pipes, mimicking the central channel of an ITER CICC. That analysis is extended here to the problem of heat and mass transfer through the perforated spiral separating the central channel from the cable bundle region, by combining the previously developed central channel model with a porous medium model for the cable region. The resulting 2D model is used to analyze several key features of the transport processes occurring between the two regions including the relation between transverse mass transfer and transverse pressure drop, the influence of transverse mass transfer on axial pressure drop, and the heat transfer coefficient between central channel and annular cable bundle region.

  5. Where American Indian Students Go to School: Enrollment in Seven Central Region States. REL 2016-113

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apthorp, Helen S.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides descriptive information about the location and native language use of schools in the REL Central Region with high enrollment of American Indian students, whether Bureau of Indian Education schools or non-Bureau of Indian Education high-density American Indian schools (schools with 25 percent or more American Indian student…

  6. Alternative Crop Rotations in the Semi-arid Central Great Plains Region: How Much Fallow? Evaluating the Economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The traditional crop production system in the semi-arid Central Great Plains Region (CGPR) of the U.S.A. is winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer fallow (WF) or one crop every two years. This system is not a long-term sustainable dryland system. It is conducive to soil degradation and provide...

  7. Sociological Variables Perceived in the Study of Ghanaian Languages in Central and Western Regional Colleges of Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaicoe, Kate; Adams, Francis Hull; Bersah, Vivian Adoboah; Baah, Kwabena Appiah

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted in two Colleges of Education in the Western and Central Regions of Ghana to find out how Colleges of Education students and tutors perceive the study of Ghanaian Languages. The target population comprised all staff and students of the Colleges of Education but the accessible population comprised students and tutors of the…

  8. Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

  9. The role of lithology and season on rainfall thresholds for the initiation of landslides in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruccacci, S.; Brunetti, M.; Luciani, S.; Vennari, C.; Guzzetti, F.

    2011-12-01

    We compiled a catalogue of 442 rainfall events with landslides in the Abruzzo, Marche, and Umbria regions, central Italy, in the period 2002-2010. The landslide information was obtained through the analysis of national, regional, and local newspapers, and reports of landslide events compiled by fire brigades. For each rainfall event that has resulted in one or more landslides, we calculated the cumulated rainfall E (mm) and the duration D (h) of the rainfall event, using a dense network of 150 rain gauges. Landslides were mapped as single points using Google Earth°. We exploited the catalogue to determine new cumulated event rainfall - rainfall duration (ED) thresholds. To determine the ED thresholds, we modified a Frequentist probabilistic method first proposed to determine ID thresholds. The method assumes that the threshold curve is a power law E = α × D^γ, where E is the cumulated rainfall (mm), D is the duration of the rainfall event (h), α is a scaling constant (the intercept), and γ is the slope of the power law curve. We improved the method adopting a bootstrapping statistical technique to evaluate the uncertainties in the parameters that define the threshold curve model, and the sensitivity (robustness) of the thresholds to the number of (D,E) data points in the empirical data set. We determined ED thresholds for 1% and 5% exceedance probability levels for the entire study area, and for the three individual regions that comprise the study area (Abruzzo, Marche, and Umbria). To investigate the role of lithology and season on the occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides, we segmented the rainfall ED data by the main lithological domains in the study area (i.e., Post-Orogenic sediments, Flysch deposits, and Carbonate rocks), and season of the events (May - September, October - April). Comparison of the ED thresholds indicates that the cumulated amount of rainfall necessary to trigger landslides in Flysch deposits is larger than in Post-Orogenic sediments and Carbonate rocks, and that the thresholds for Post-Orogenic sediments and Carbonate rocks were statistically indistinguishable in the study area. The seasonal thresholds are statistically different for D < 12 h, and for D > 100 h. In particular, for short rainfall periods (D < 12 h) the cumulated rainfall required to initiate landslides is higher in the summer period May - September than in the period October - April. The results obtained are applicable for landslide forecasting based on empirical rainfall thresholds, and have implications for landslide hazard and risk assessment.

  10. The PRESSCA operational early warning system for landslide forecasting: the 11-12 November 2013 rainfall event in Central Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciabatta, Luca; Brocca, Luca; Ponziani, Francesco; Berni, Nicola; Stelluti, Marco; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    The Umbria Region, located in Central Italy, is one of the most landslide risk prone area in Italy, almost yearly affected by landslides events at different spatial scales. For early warning procedures aimed at the assessment of the hydrogeological risk, the rainfall thresholds represent the main tool for the Italian Civil Protection System. As shown in previous studies, soil moisture plays a key-role in landslides triggering. In fact, acting on the pore water pressure, soil moisture influences the rainfall amount needed for activating a landslide. In this work, an operational physically-based early warning system, named PRESSCA, that takes into account soil moisture for the definition of rainfall thresholds is presented. Specifically, the soil moisture conditions are evaluated in PRESSCA by using a distributed soil water balance model that is recently coupled with near real-time satellite soil moisture product obtained from ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer) and from in-situ monitoring data. The integration of three different sources of soil moisture information allows to estimate the most accurate possible soil moisture condition. Then, both observed and forecasted rainfall data are compared with the soil moisture-based thresholds in order to obtain risk indicators over a grid of ~ 5 km. These indicators are then used for the daily hydrogeological risk evaluation and management by the Civil Protection regional service, through the sharing/delivering of near real-time landslide risk scenarios (also through an open source web platform: www.cfumbria.it). On the 11th-12th November, 2013, Umbria Region was hit by an exceptional rainfall event with up to 430mm/72hours that resulted in significant economic damages, but fortunately no casualties among the population. In this study, the results during the rainfall event of PRESSCA system are described, by underlining the model capability to reproduce, two days in advance, landslide risk scenarios in good spatial and temporal agreement with the occurred actual conditions. High-resolution risk scenarios (100mx100m), obtained by coupling PRESSCA forecasts with susceptibility and vulnerability layers, are also produced. The results show good relationship between the PRESSCA forecast and the reported landslides to the Civil Protection Service during the rainfall event, confirming the system robustness. The good forecasts of PRESSCA system have surely contributed to start well in advance the Civil Protection operations (alerting local authorities and population).

  11. Central region of talin has a unique fold that binds vinculin and actin.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Alexandre R; Bate, Neil; Goult, Benjamin T; Patel, Bipin; Kopp, Petra M; Emsley, Jonas; Barsukov, Igor L; Roberts, Gordon C K; Critchley, David R

    2010-09-17

    Talin is an adaptor protein that couples integrins to F-actin. Structural studies show that the N-terminal talin head contains an atypical FERM domain, whereas the N- and C-terminal parts of the talin rod include a series of α-helical bundles. However, determining the structure of the central part of the rod has proved problematic. Residues 1359-1659 are homologous to the MESDc1 gene product, and we therefore expressed this region of talin in Escherichia coli. The crystal structure shows a unique fold comprised of a 5- and 4-helix bundle. The 5-helix bundle is composed of nonsequential helices due to insertion of the 4-helix bundle into the loop at the C terminus of helix α3. The linker connecting the bundles forms a two-stranded anti-parallel β-sheet likely limiting the relative movement of the two bundles. Because the 5-helix bundle contains the N and C termini of this module, we propose that it is linked by short loops to adjacent bundles, whereas the 4-helix bundle protrudes from the rod. This suggests the 4-helix bundle has a unique role, and its pI (7.8) is higher than other rod domains. Both helical bundles contain vinculin-binding sites but that in the isolated 5-helix bundle is cryptic, whereas that in the isolated 4-helix bundle is constitutively active. In contrast, both bundles are required for actin binding. Finally, we show that the MESDc1 protein, which is predicted to have a similar fold, is a novel actin-binding protein. PMID:20610383

  12. Central Region of Talin Has a Unique Fold That Binds Vinculin and Actin*

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Alexandre R.; Bate, Neil; Goult, Benjamin T.; Patel, Bipin; Kopp, Petra M.; Emsley, Jonas; Barsukov, Igor L.; Roberts, Gordon C. K.; Critchley, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Talin is an adaptor protein that couples integrins to F-actin. Structural studies show that the N-terminal talin head contains an atypical FERM domain, whereas the N- and C-terminal parts of the talin rod include a series of α-helical bundles. However, determining the structure of the central part of the rod has proved problematic. Residues 1359–1659 are homologous to the MESDc1 gene product, and we therefore expressed this region of talin in Escherichia coli. The crystal structure shows a unique fold comprised of a 5- and 4-helix bundle. The 5-helix bundle is composed of nonsequential helices due to insertion of the 4-helix bundle into the loop at the C terminus of helix α3. The linker connecting the bundles forms a two-stranded anti-parallel β-sheet likely limiting the relative movement of the two bundles. Because the 5-helix bundle contains the N and C termini of this module, we propose that it is linked by short loops to adjacent bundles, whereas the 4-helix bundle protrudes from the rod. This suggests the 4-helix bundle has a unique role, and its pI (7.8) is higher than other rod domains. Both helical bundles contain vinculin-binding sites but that in the isolated 5-helix bundle is cryptic, whereas that in the isolated 4-helix bundle is constitutively active. In contrast, both bundles are required for actin binding. Finally, we show that the MESDc1 protein, which is predicted to have a similar fold, is a novel actin-binding protein. PMID:20610383

  13. Natural vectors of dirofilariasis in rural and urban areas of the Tuscan region, central Italy.

    PubMed

    Cancrini, G; Magi, M; Gabrielli, S; Arispici, M; Tolari, F; Dell'Omodarme, M; Prati, M C

    2006-05-01

    Entomological investigations by means of dog- and human-baited traps were carried out in summers 2000-2002 in urban and rural areas of the Tuscan region in central Italy. The aim of the study was to define the mosquito species involved in the transmission of Dirofilaria nematodes and to assess the risk that their presence might represent for animal and human health. Nocturnal fieldwork on host-seeking activity and feeding preferences was followed by microscopic identification of the mosquito species attracted and by molecular identification of Dirofilaria parasites in mosquitoes. In total, 3,611 mosquito females belonging to 12 species, largely represented by Culex pipiens L. and Aedes caspius (Pallas), were caught. Some females of each species collected fed on the dogs, indicating their possible role as an intermediate host, but filarial DNA was found only in Cx. pipiens, Anopheles maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), and Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi). In rural environments, the DNA evidence indicated the presence of infective larvae of Dirofilaria immitis, whereas in urban areas, infective larvae of Dirofilaria repens were present. The role of Cx. pipiens as a vector for heartworm disease and subcutaneous infections in natural and artificial environments was confirmed, whereas Ae. caspius seemed refractory to the infection. The different role of the collected species is discussed. The vector competence of An. maculipennis and Cq. richiardii needs further investigation, because the importance of these species poorly represented, and the role of species such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse), characterized by a dominant diurnal activity pattern, has to be evaluated. PMID:16739418

  14. Soil loss tolerance in the central chernozemic region of the European part of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, M. S.; Abdulkhanova, D. R.

    2013-07-01

    To calculate the soil loss tolerance for chernozems of the central chernozemic region, a linear modification of Skidmore's equation was used. The soil loss tolerance values were obtained with due account for the soil type, the degree of erodibility, and the crop rotation pattern. The maximum possible value (10 t/ha per year) was obtained for a typical noneroded chernozem in all the crop rotations. Close values were obtained for noneroded leached and typical chernozems (9.6-9.9 t/ha per year depending on the crop rotation pattern). The soil loss tolerance for the noneroded podzolized chernozem was somewhat lower: 9.1 t/ha per year in the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation and 6.3 t/ha/year in the grain-intertilled crop rotation. With an increase in the degree of the soil erosion, the soil loss tolerance decreased in all the variants of the experiment with an especially abrupt decrease in the grain-intertilled crop rotation (from 9.9-10.0 to 0.3-2.0 t/ha per year in the, respectively, noneroded and slightly eroded ordinary and typical chernozems). In the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation, these differences were much smaller: in the slightly eroded typical chernozem the soil loss tolerance was estimated at 9.7 t/ha per year, while, in the slightly eroded typical chernozem, at 8.1 t/ha per year. The moderately eroded chernozems without the addition of manure could only be used in the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation; the soil loss tolerance was estimated at 9.0 t/ha per year for the typical chernozem and 4.3 t/ha per year for the ordinary chernozem.

  15. Changes of regional climate variability in central Europe during the past 250 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, R.

    2012-05-01

    The paper uses the data potential of very long and homogenized instrumental climate time series in the south central Europe for analyzing one feature which is very dominant in the climate change debate --whether anthropogenic climate warming causes or goes along with an increase of climate extremes. The monthly resolved data of the HISTALP data collection provide 58 single series for the three climate elements, air pressure, air temperature and precipitation, that start earlier than 1831 and extend back to 1760 in some cases. Trends and long-term low frequent climate evolution is only shortly touched in the paper. The main goal is the analysis of trends or changes of high frequent interannual and interseasonal variability. In other words, it is features like extremely hot summers, very cold winters, excessively dry or wet seasons which the study aims at. The methods used are based on detrended highpass series whose variance is analyzed in discrete 30-year windows moving over the entire instrumental period. The analysis of discrete subintervals relies on the unique number of 8 (for precipitation 7) such "normal periods". The second approach is based on the same subintervals though not in fixed but moving windows over the entire instrumental period. The first result of the study is the clear evidence that there has been no increase of variability during the past 250 years in the region. The second finding is similar but concentrates on the recent three decades which are of particular interest because they are the first 30 years with dominating anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. We can show that also this recent anthropogenic normal period shows no widening of the PDF (probability density function) compared to the preceding ones. The third finding is based on the moving window technique. It shows that interannual variability changes show a clear centennial oscillating structure for all three climate elements in the region. For the time being we have no explanation for this empirical evidence. We argue that it should not be an artifact of any remaining data problems, but of course a centennial cyclic effect based on 250 years of data only is not really well consolidated in terms of sample length. But it is at least an interesting new feature and the subject is open for scientific discussion and for further studies dealing with circulation effects, long-term memories in the oceans etc.

  16. Regional hydrogeochemical groundwater characterization and Natural Arsenic occurrence in Upper Valtellina Valley (Central Italian Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Reyes, Fredy; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Basiricò, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the research is the characterization of the alpine Upper Valtellina Valley (central Italian Alps, 800 km2) aquifers by means of hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, As speciation, isotopic and whole-rock analyses. In particular, the main focus of the study was the understanding of the processes responsible for As release and mobilization into the groundwater. Historical chemical data from springs, wells, lakes, rivers and public fountains were collected from the Lombardy Region Health Agency (ASL) and implemented into a geodatabase. The available groundwater chemistry analyses (3050) from five municipalities (Bormio, Livigno, Valdidentro, Valdisotto and Valfurva) cover a relatively long time span between 1996 and 2011. Moreover, samples across the entire study area and covering one full hydrologic year 2012-2013 were collected during four different campaigns (June 2012, October 2012, May 2013, and September 2013) and analyzed . During these campaigns, water samples have been collected from both cold springs and thermal springs. The hydrogeochemistry of aquifers and superficial waters through the hydrologic year, and the long-term regional As distribution and time variability were analyzed. Although the studied springs belong to different catchments with different hydrochemical and lithological conditions, they present some typical characteristics: (1) the water types are dominated by dissolution of the main ions Ca - Mg and SO4-HCO3; (2) the Cl concentration is always very low, and poorly correlated with other ions; (3) the circulation time obtained from isotopic data ranges between 5 and 10 years for thermal springs and it is lower than 2 years for cold springs; (4) the average yearly temperatures (about 12°C for cold springs, and between 18°C and 42° for thermal springs) are nearly constant through the year; (5) dominant oxidizing environments have been observed for most of the cold springs and also for the thermal springs; (6) anthropogenic contamination is absent, while natural contamination of Arsenic affects most of the springs, with a natural background level for the entire UVV of 33 µg/L; (7) both As (V) and As (III) are present in all the springs analyzed, with a marked prevalence of As (V) among the cold springs. These conditions suggest that the cold springs in the UVV belong to recent aquifers, hydrochemically immature, where the presence of Arsenic is mostly related to alkali desorption and sulphide oxidation, while the thermal springs derive from the rapid uprise of deep-circulation water, with a high concentration of geothermal arsenic.

  17. Water Quality and Evaluation of Pesticides in Lakes in the Ridge Citrus Region of Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choquette, Anne F.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2009-01-01

    Water chemistry, including major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and pesticide compounds, was compared between seven lakes surrounded by citrus agriculture and an undeveloped lake on the Lake Wales Ridge (herein referred to as the Ridge) in central Florida. The region has been recognized for its vulnerability to the leaching of agricultural chemicals into the subsurface due to factors including soils, climate, and land use. About 40 percent of Florida's citrus cultivation occurs in 'ridge citrus' areas characterized by sandy well drained soils, with the remainder in 'flatwoods citrus' characterized by high water tables and poorly drained soils. The lakes on the Ridge are typically flow-through lakes that exchange water with adjacent and underlying aquifer systems. This study is the first to evaluate the occurrence of pesticides in lakes on the Ridge, and also represents one of the first monitoring efforts nationally to focus on regional-scale assessment of current-use pesticides in small- to moderate-sized lakes (5 to 393 acres). The samples were collected between December 2003 and September 2005. The lakes in citrus areas contained elevated concentrations of major inorganic constituents (including alkalinity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate), total nitrogen, pH, and pesticides compared to the undeveloped lake. Nitrate (as N) and total nitrogen concentrations were typically elevated in the citrus lakes, with maximum values of 4.70 and 5.19 mg/L (milligrams per liter), respectively. Elevated concentrations of potassium, nitrate, and other inorganic constituents in the citrus lakes likely reflect inputs from the surficial ground-water system that originated predominantly from agricultural fertilizers, soil amendments, and inorganic pesticides. A total of 20 pesticide compounds were detected in the lakes, of which 12 compounds exceeded the standardized reporting level of 0.06 ug/L (microgram per liter). Those most frequently detected above the 0.06-ug/L level were aldicarb sulfoxide, diuron, simazine degradates hydroxysimazine and didealkylatrazine (DDA), bromacil, norflurazon, and demethyl norflurazon which occurred at detection rates ranging from 25 to 86 percent of samples, respectively. Typically, pesticide concentrations in the lake samples were less than 1 microgram per liter. The number of targeted pesticide compounds detected per lake in the citrus areas ranged from 9 to 14 compared to 3 compounds detected at trace levels in the undeveloped lake. Consistent detections of parents and degradates in quarterly samples indicated the presence of pesticide compounds in the lakes many months or years (for example, bromacil) after their application, signaling the persistence of some pesticide compounds in the lakes and/or ground-water systems. Pesticide degradate concentrations frequently exceeded parent concentrations in the lakes. This study was the first in the Ridge citrus region to analyze for glyphosate - widely used in citrus - and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), neither of which were detected, as well as a number of triazine degradates, including hydroxysimazine, which were detected. The lake pesticide concentrations did not exceed current Federal aquatic-life benchmarks, available for 10 of the 20 detected pesticide compounds. Limited occurrences of bromacil, diuron, or norflurazon concentrations were within about 10 to 90 percent of benchmark guidelines for acute effects on nonvascular aquatic plants in one or two of the lakes. The lake pesticide concentrations for several targeted pesticides were relatively high compared to corresponding national stream-water percentiles, which is consistent with this region's vulnerability for pesticide leaching into water resources. Several factors were evaluated to gain insight into the processes controlling pesticide transport and fate, and to assess their utility for estimating th

  18. Energy and development in Central America. Volume I: Regional assessment. Final report October 1979-February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-02-01

    This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

  19. Ground deformation analysis using GNSS permanent stations: Experience on Central Italy after the l'Aquila Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, Donatella; Radicioni, Fabio; Elaiopoulos, Michael; Massimi, Vincenzo; Alicandro, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The great number of GNSS permanent stations nowadays available represents a very important tool for many surveying applications. Satellite technologies as well as dedicated software yet affirmed, have opened new horizons in the field of surveying. In particular, the construction of GNSS time series can provide interesting results regarding the ground's surface monitoring on both local and global scale. This knowledge should have interesting extensions when applied on the seismically very unsteady underground. This research aimed to understand the moving patterns caused by the seismic sequence of L'Aquila earthquake (2009) in the central Italy using various networks of permanent stations. Global IGS/EPN/RDN and the local regional networks of Abruzzo and Umbria regions have been employed on purpose. All measurements were carried out with a great number of permanent stations creating a long time series with enough information to analyze the surface movements of the territory. With the obtained results a comparison between the pre and post seismic period was possible. The test area was extended on a radius of about 50 km from the seismic epicenters. All data elaborations were made using two scientific software (BERNESE and GAMIT/GLOBK) achieving high accuracy by modeling any source of error on measurements. The results of the elaboration with both software and for all networks are being presented.

  20. Jet Production in the Central Rapidity Region in 1.8 TeV Proton and Antiproton Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Yeong-Dong; /Chicago U.

    1989-06-01

    In this thesis we study the jet production cross section in the central rapidity region in {bar p}p collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.8 TeV. The pseudo-rapidity {eta} is defined as {eta} {triple_bond} -ln(tan({theta}/2)), where {theta} is the angle between the directions of the jet momentum and the proton beam. We will call the region -0.7 < {eta} < 0.7 the 'central rapidity' region by definition. The goal of this thesis is to determine two kinds of differential cross sections for jet production: an inclusive jet Et distribution d{sigma}/dEt, and the distribution in invariant mass d{sigma}/dM{sub JJ} of two jet systems. These spectra serve to check the strong interaction theory, and thus to look for new phenomena, at the highest available energy. The strong interaction theory will be discussed.

  1. Geochemical and grain-size evidence for the provenance of loess deposits in the Central Shandong Mountains region, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shuzhen; Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Luo; Ding, Min; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanan; Guo, Zhengtang

    2016-03-01

    Widespread loess deposits in the Central Shandong Mountains yield valuable paleoclimatic records for this currently semi-humid monsoonal region of northern China. The grain-size distribution and major element composition for bulk samples and two grain-size fractions (< 20 and 20-63 μm) for the loess in the Central Shandong Mountains were compared with loess from the Chinese Loess Plateau and sediment from the Yellow River to help determine its provenance. The presence of a significant percentage of medium- and coarse-silt, and the difference in relatively immobile major element ratios of TiO2/Al2O3 and K2O/Al2O3 for the < 20 and 20-63 μm fractions, suggests that sediment that forms the loess deposits in the Central Shandong Mountains was not blown directly from the northern deserts of China as is the case for the loess deposits of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Rather, this suggests that sediments exposed during glacial times on the North China fluvial plain, including the floodplain of the Yellow River, were the major dust source for the loess in the Central Shangong Mountains. In addition, the wide distribution of perimontane loess in the Central Shandong Mountains region indicates the occurrence of strengthened local aridification during glacial times since the middle Pleistocene.

  2. Long term landscape evolution within central Apennines (Italy): Marsica and Peligna region morphotectonics and surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccadei, E.; Piacentini, T.; Berti, C.

    2010-12-01

    The relief features of the Apennines have been developed in a complex geomorphological and geological setting from Neogene to Quaternary. Growth of topography has been driven by active tectonics (thrust-related crustal shortening and high-angle normal faulting related to crustal extension), regional rock uplift, and surface processes, starting from Late Miocene(?) - Early Pliocene. At present a high-relief landscape is dominated by morphostructures including high-standing, resistant Mesozoic and early Tertiary carbonates ridges (i.e. thrust ridges, faulted homocline ridges) and intervening, erodible Tertiary siliciclastics valleys (i.e. fault line valleys) and Quaternary continental deposits filled basins (i.e. tectonic valleys, tectonic basins). This study tries to identify paleo-uplands that may be linked to paleo-base levels and aims at the reconstruction of ancient landscapes since the incipient phases of morphogenesis. It analyzes the role of tectonics and morphogenic processes in the long term temporal scale landscape evolution (i.e. Mio?-Pliocene to Quaternary). It is focused on the marsicano-peligna region, located along the main drainage divide between Adriatic side and Tyrrhenian side of Central Apennines, one of the highest average elevation area of the whole chain. The work incorporates GIS-based geomorphologic field mapping of morphostructures and Quaternary continental deposits, and plano-altimetric analysis and morphometry (DEM-, map-based) of the drainage network (i.e. patterns, hypsometry, knick points, Ks). Field mapping give clues on the definition of paleo-landscapes related to different paleo-morpho-climatic environments (i.e. karst, glacial, slope, fluvial). Geomorphological evidence of tectonics and their cross-cutting relationships with morphostructures, continental deposits and faults, provide clues on the deciphering of the reciprocal relationship of antecedence of the paleo-landscapes and on the timing of morphotectonics. Morphotectonic features are related to Neogene thrusts, reactivated or displaced by complex kinematic strike slip and followed by extensional tectonic features (present surface evidence given by fault line scarps, fault line valleys, fault scarps, fault slopes, wind gaps, etc.). Geomorphic evidence of faults is provided also by morphometry of the drainage network: highest long slope of the main streams (knick points and Ks) are located where the streams cut across or run along recent faults. Correlation of tectonic elements, paleosurfaces, Quaternary continental deposits, by means of morphotectonic cross sections, lead to the identification, in the marsicano-peligna region, of areas in which morphotectonics acted in the same period, becoming younger moving from the West to the East. In conclusion, recognition of different morphotectonic features, identification of different paleo-landscapes, and reconstruction of their migration history, contribute to define the main phases of syn and post orogenic, Apennine chain landscape evolution: it results from the link of alternating morphotectonics and surface processes, due to migrating fault activity, rock uplift processes and alternating karst, glacial, slope, fluvial processes.

  3. Sedimentation and provenance of the Antofagasta region of the southern Puna Plateau, central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Renjie; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Sobel, Edward R.; Carrapa, Barbara; Davis, Donald W.

    2014-05-01

    Stratigraphic and provenance studies of Cenozoic non-marine sedimentary basins in the Central Andean Puna Plateau provide insight into the regional development and dynamics. The southern plateau hosts several poorly exposed intramontane basins bounded by basement-involved ~N-S striking thrust faults; their origin is explained differently by contrasting geodynamic models. This study focuses on the Antofagasta region (NW Argentina). The top of the studied basin was over-thrust by basement rocks along a west-dipping thrust fault, which was likely active during exhumation of the Calalaste range to the west (25-29 Ma, Carrapa et al., 2005). We studied three sections SW of Antofagasta de la Sierra. S3 (552 m) is the lowest section and is composed of mud playa to sandflat sediments, with at least two paleosol horizons. Lower S2 (1,263 m) contains ~300 meters of proximal alluvial fan sediments. Upper S2 is composed of fluvial to shallow lacustrine sediments. The separation between the top of S2 and the bottom of S1 (1,062 m) is ~540 m. The lower ~600 m of S1 is composed of thick, distal alluvial fan and braided river sediments. In the upper S1, the depositional environment changes to fluvial-alluvial, with a paleosol developed at the top of S1. Imbricated pebbles suggest prevailing eastward paleoflow. Modal compositions of 18 sandstones plot in the mixed zone on a Qm-F-Lt plot, and the transitional continental and recycled orogenic zones on a Qt-F-L plot (Dickinson, 1985). Their compositions cluster and do not show any evolutionary trends, despite being sampled from a ~3000 m-thick sedimentary column. However, when combined with data from the Quinoas Formation (Late Eocene to Late Oligocene) and the Chacras Formation (Late Oligocene to Early Miocene), outcropped west of the study site (Carrapa et al., 2005), the Antofagasta samples mark the beginning of an evolving trend towards the dissected arc and transitional arc zones. We analyzed U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from eight samples. Four young grains from three samples near the top of S2 yield ages of 38-39.5 Ma. If these grains were derived from air-fall volcanics, they indicate a late Eocene depositional age for the studied strata, but otherwise they give a maximum age estimate. We tentatively favour the former interpretation. For all samples, detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra show significant late Cambrian to early Ordovician and Precambrian (~1000-1400 Ma, ~1700-1900 Ma) sources. The ~1000-1400 Ma cluster is well matched with ages from the Sierra de Maz, to the west. A minor Permian-Triassic source (~240-290 Ma) is also present which could reflect limited exposures of plutonic rocks west of the study site. Our work suggests that the ~3000 meter thick unit in the Antofagasta basin is time-equivalent of the Quinoas Formation and accumulated with a high sedimentation rate. The sediments were sourced primarily from the west, with little input from volcanics. The consistent western source regions and the rapid subsidence lead us to favour a foreland-type origin for the late Eocene Antofagasta Basin.

  4. Geotechnical Seismic Hazard Evaluation At Sellano (Umbria, Italy) Using The GIS Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Capilleri, P.; Maugeri, M.

    2008-07-08

    A tool that has been widely-used in civil engineering in recent years is the geographic information system (GIS). Geographic Information systems (GIS) are powerful tools for organizing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. The GIS can be used by geotechnical engineers to aid preliminary assessment through to the final geotechnical design. The aim of this work is to provide some indications for the use of the GIS technique in the field of seismic geotechnical engineering, particularly as regards the problems of seismic hazard zonation maps. The study area is the village of Sellano located in the Umbrian Apennines in central Italy, about 45 km east of Perugia and 120 km north-east of Rome The increasing importance attributed to microzonation derives from the spatial variability of ground motion due to particular local conditions. The use of GIS tools can lead to an early identification of potential barriers to project completion during the design process that may help avoid later costly redesign.

  5. Paleozoic-involving thrust array in the central Sierras Interiores (South Pyrenean Zone, Central Pyrenees): regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the structural evolution of the Sierras Interiores between the Tena and Aragon valleys. The Sierras Interiores is a WNW-trending mountain range that bounds the South Pyrenean Zone to the north and that is characterized by a thrust-fold system with a strong lithological control that places preferably decollements in Triassic evaporites. In the studied area of the Sierras Interiores Cenomanian limestones cover discordantly the Paleozoic rocks of the Axial Zone because there is a stratigraphic lacuna developed from Triassic to Late Cretaceous times. A simple lithostratigraphy of the study area is made up of Late Cenomanian to Early Campanian limestones with grey colour and massive aspect in landscape (170 m, Lower calcareous section), Campanian to Maastrichtian brown coloured sandstones (400-600 m, Marboré sandstones) and, finally, Paleocene light-coloured massive limestones (130-230 m), that often generate the higher topographic levels of the Sierras Interiores due to their greater resistance to erosion. Above the sedimentary sequence of the Sierras Interiores, the Jaca Basin flysch succession crops out discordantly. Based on a detailed mapping of the studied area of the Sierras Interiores, together with well and structural data of the Jaca Basin (Lanaja, 1987; Rodríguez and Cuevas, 2008) we have constructed a 12 km long NS cross section, approximately parallel to the movement direction deduced for this region (Rodríguez et al., 2011). The main structure is a thrust array made up of at least four Paleozoic-involving thrusts (the deeper thrust system) of similar thickness in a probably piggyback sequence, some of which are blind thrusts that generate fold-propagation-folds in upper levels. The higher thrust of the thrust array crops out duplicating the lower calcareous section all over the Sierras Interiores. The emplacement of the deeper thrust system generated the tightness of previous structures: south directed piggyback duplexes (the upper thrust system) affecting the Marboré sandstones and the Paleocene limestones, deformed by angular south-vergent folds and their related axial plane foliation. The transect explained above clearly summarizes the alpine evolution of northern part of the Sierras Interiores. Moreover, well data available indicate the presence of two thrust soled in the lower calcareous section covering Triassic evaporites at 5 km depth and 8 km to the south of the Sierras Interiores. Because the Triassic evaporites constitute a main decollement level in the South Pyrenean Zone, the deeper thrust system is associated to the emplacement of the Gavarnie nappe. Lanaja, J.M., 1987, Contribución de la exploración petrolífera al conocimiento de la Geología de España, IGME, Madrid, 465 p. Rodríguez, L., Cuevas, J., 2008. Geogaceta 44, 51-54. Rodríguez, L., Cuevas, J., Tubia, J.M., 2011. Geophysical Research Abstracts 13, 2273.

  6. August, 2002 - floods events, affected areas revitalisation and prevention for the future in the central Bohemian region, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bina, L.; Vacha, F.; Vodova, J.

    2003-04-01

    Central Bohemian Region is located in a shape of a ring surrounding the capitol of Prague. Its total territorial area is 11.014 sq.km and population of 1 130.000 inhabitants. According to EU nomenclature of regional statistical units, the Central Bohemian Region is classified as an independent NUTS II. Bohemia's biggest rivers, Vltava and Labe form the region's backbone dividing it along a north-south line, besides that there are Sazava and Berounka, the two big headwaters of Vltava, which flow through the region and there also are some cascade man made lakes and 2 important big dams - Orlik and Slapy on the Vltava River in the area of the region. Overflowing of these rivers and their feeders including cracking of high-water dams during the floods in August 2002 caused total or partial destruction or damage of more than 200 towns and villages and total losses to the extend of 450 mil. EUR. The worst impact was on damaged or destroyed human dwellings, social infrastructure (schools, kindergartens, humanitarian facilities) and technical infrastructure (roads, waterworks, power distribution). Also businesses were considerably damaged including transport terminals in the area of river ports. Flowage of Spolana Neratovice chemical works caused critical environmental havoc. Regional crisis staff with regional Governor in the lead worked continuously during the floods and a regional integrated rescue system was subordinated to it. Due to the huge extent of the floods the crisis staff coordinated its work with central bodies of state including the Government and single "power" resorts (army, interior, transport). Immediately after floods a regional - controlled management was set up including an executive body for regional revitalisation which is connected to state coordinating resort - Ministry for Local Development, EU sources and humanitarian aid. In addition to a program of regional revitalisation additional preventive flood control programs are being developed including fields of: urban planning revision, river flow measures, revision of operation mode of dams, modification of waterworks' conception in areas liable to flooding and finally a program of power sources prevention during emergency situation (this program had been started before the floods). Regional establishment puts emphasis on preparation of preventive projects and management mentioned. An international co-operation of regions affected by floods and possibly building of joint teams for prevention measures proposal would be very effective and useful.

  7. Regional chemical diversity, crustal and mantle sources and evolution of central Andean Puna plateau ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg; Coira, Beatriz L.; Caffe, Pablo J.; Chen, Chang-Hwa

    2010-12-01

    Voluminous mafic dacitic to rhyodacitic ignimbrite fields linked to giant calderas are distinctive features of the late Miocene to Quaternary magmatic record of the central Andean Altiplano-Puna plateau. The magmas erupted through a compressionally thickened crust over a generally shallow, but variably dipping subducting Nazca plate. New analyses including whole rock major and trace element concentrations (~ 175), 143Nd/ 144Nd (22) and 87Sr/ 86Sr (23) ratios and δ18O analyses on quartz phenocrysts (18) coupled with data from the literature provide a regional and temporal perspective on the chemical variability of Puna ignimbrites between 22°S and 27°S latitude. Ranges of Pb, Sr, Nd and δ18O isotopes, variability in Al/(K + Na + Ca), Na/K and trace element ratios, chemical parallels with Paleozoic magmatic rocks and published experimental constraints link crustal contributions in the ignimbrites to a more pelitic crust in the northern Puna, a more igneous gneiss-like crust in the southern Puna and a more amphibolite-like crust near the arc. Melting in the deep crust by injection of mantle-derived melts followed by magma rise, accumulation and evolution at depths near 25-20 km is supported by heavy REE evidence for deep crustal garnet-bearing residues, negative Eu anomalies superimposed on steep REE patterns, calculated bulk Sr distribution coefficients and Puna seismic images. Temporal trends towards less evolved isotopic ratios, metaluminous compositions, flatter REE patterns and less HFSE depletion in northern Puna ignimbrites suggest an evolving crustal magma source as mafic melts continued to enter the crust. Assimilation-fractional crystallization models for Sr and modeling of δ18O data are consistent with the large ignimbrites (> 500 km 3 DRE) forming as near 50-50 hybrids of enriched mantle-wedge derived ( 87Sr/ 86Sr ~ 0.7055; 143Nd/ 144Nd ~ 0.5126) basaltic melts and spatially variable lower to mid-crustal melts with 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios from 0.715 to 0.745 at 300 to 125 ppm Sr and δ18O from ~ + 12‰ to ~ + 15‰. Given a 1:1 mantle to crustal ratio, a 3:1 to 5:1 plutonic/volcanic ratio and an ignimbrite volume near 11,000 km 3, the mantle magma production rate to produce the ignimbrites is a distinctly non-flare-up-like rate of less than 20 km 3/km/Ma when averaged across the Puna over 7 Ma.

  8. Burden of Complicated Malaria in a Densely Forested Bastar Region of Chhattisgarh State (Central India)

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vidhan; Basak, Sanjay; Bhandari, Sneha; Bharti, Praveen K.; Thomas, Trilok; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Singh, Neeru

    2014-01-01

    Background A prospective study on severe and complicated malaria was undertaken in the tribal dominated area of Bastar division, Chhattisgarh (CG), Central India, with an objective to understand the clinical epidemiology of complicated malaria in patients attending at a referral hospital. Methods Blood smears, collected from the general medicine and pediatric wards of a government tertiary health care facility located in Jagdalpur, CG, were microscopically examined for malaria parasite from July 2010 to December 2013. The Plasmodium falciparum positive malaria cases who met enrollment criteria and provided written informed consent were enrolled under different malaria categories following WHO guidelines. PCR was performed to reconfirm the presence of P.falciparum mono infection among enrolled cases. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify different risk factors using STATA 11.0. Results A total of 40,924 cases were screened for malaria. The prevalence of malaria and P.falciparum associated complicated malaria (severe and cerebral both) in the hospital was 6% and 0.81%, respectively. P.falciparum malaria prevalence, severity and associated mortality in this region peaked at the age of>4–5 years and declined with increasing age. P.falciparum malaria was significantly more prevalent in children than adults (P<0.00001). Among adults, males had significantly more P.falciparum malaria than females (P<0.00001). Case fatality rate due to cerebral malaria and severe malaria was, respectively, 32% and 9% among PCR confirmed mono P.falciparum cases. Coma was the only independent predictor of mortality in multivariate regression analysis. Mortality was significantly associated with multi-organ complication score (P = 0.0003). Conclusion This study has revealed that the pattern of morbidity and mortality in this part of India is very different from earlier reported studies from India. We find that the peak morbidity and mortality in younger children regardless of seasonality. This suggests that this age group needs special care for control and clinical management. PMID:25531373

  9. Gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region, Qinling mountains, central China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mao, J.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Zhang, Z.; Xu, W.; Qiu, Y.; Deng, J.

    2002-01-01

    The gold-rich Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region in eastern Shaanxi and western Henan provinces, central China, lies about 30-50 km inland of the southern margin of the North China craton. More than 100 gold deposits and occurrences are concentrated in the Xiaoqinling (west), Xiaoshan (middle), and Xiong'ershan (east) areas. Late Archean gneiss of the Taihua Group, and Middle Proterozoic metavolcanic rocks of the Xiong'er Group are the main host rocks for the deposits. Mesozoic granitoids (ca. 178-104 Ma) are present in most gold districts, but deposits are typically hosted in the Precambrian basement rocks hundreds of meters to as far as 10 km from the intrusions and related hornfels zones. Deposits in the Xiaoqinling and Xiaoshan areas are best classified as orogenic gold deposits, with ores occurring in a number of distinct belts both in quartz veins and disseminated in altered metamorphic rocks. Alteration assemblages are dominated by quartz, sericite, pyrite, and carbonate minerals. The ore-forming fluids were low salinity, CO2-rich, and characterized by isotopically heavy ??18O. Four deposits (Dongchuang, Wenyu, Yangzhaiyu, and Dahu) in the Xiaoqinling area each contain resources of about 1 Moz Au. Some of the gold deposits in the Xiong'ershan area represent more shallowly emplaced tellurium-enriched orogenic systems, which include resources of approximately 1-1.5 Moz Au at Shanggong and Beiling (or Tantou). Others are epithermal deposits (e.g., Qiyugou and Dianfang) that are hosted in volcanic breccia pipes. Isotopic dates for all gold deposits, although often contradictory, generally cluster between 172-99 Ma and are coeval with emplacement of the post-kinematic granitoids. The gold deposits formed during a period of relaxation of far-field compressional stresses, clearly subsequent to the extensive Paleozoic-early Mesozoic accretion of are terranes and the Yangtze craton onto the southern margin of the North China craton. Hydrothermal and magmatic events occurred locally where extension-related Precambrian basement uplifting took place along the craton margin. Fluids for the orogenic gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling, Xiaoshan, and Xiong'ershan areas may have been released from evolving magmas or resulted from prograde metamorphic reactions within the uplift zones. Alternatively, for the epithermal gold deposits at shallower levels in the Xiong'ershan area, gold-transporting fluids were mainly exsolved from coeval magmas, although meteoric water was also involved in these hydrothermal systems.

  10. Morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis miescheriana from pigs in the central region of China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenchao; Qian, Weifeng; Li, Xiaojun; Wang, Tianqi; Ding, Ke; Huang, Tengfei

    2013-03-01

    Sarcocystosis is an important food-borne parasitosis in humans and various animals. Sarcocystis miescheriana and Sarcocystis suihominis are pathogenic to pigs; S. suihominis is also distinctly pathogenic to humans. Intermediate and final hosts can harbor more than one Sarcocystis species, so the exact identification for Sarcocystis infection in various hosts is essential to control sarcocystosis in humans and important economic animals including pigs. In this study, four isolates of sarcocysts from slaughtered pigs (SmJY1-SmJY4) in the central region of China, in Henan province, were collected and examined by transmission electron microscopy and 18S rRNA sequence analysis to identify the Sarcocystis species in pigs in China. The results showed that cysts in the diaphragm muscles have a thick cyst wall with a number of palisade-like protrusions up to 4.38 μm in length. Inside these protrusions, there were 13-16 fibrils per protrusion. Bradyzoites in cysts showed typical characteristics of Apicomplexa including a conoid, many micronemes, dense bodies, one big nucleus, and a number of amylopectin granules. These ultrastructural results suggest that characteristics of tissue cysts of the isolates SmJY1-SmJY4 were similar to those of S. miescheriana. The sequence similarities of SmJY1-SmJY4 with S. miescheriana were 99-99.5 %, and the sequence similarities of SmJY1-SmJY4 with S. suihominis were much lower. Results of the ultrastructural observation in combination with molecular characterization based on the 18S rRNA sequence represent the first demonstration of S. miescheriana in pigs in China. In addition, results of the histological examination showed that the cysts of S. miescheriana had two types of cyst wall, a palisade-like thick wall and another smoothly thin wall, and could cause obvious atrophy, degeneration, and necrosis of muscle fibers in the diaphragm of naturally infected pigs. These findings will provide an important reference for the examination of Sarcocystis species in the slaughter quarantine of live pigs and in the control of sarcocystosis in pigs. PMID:23224613

  11. Current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachinohe, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Kanto Plain is known as the largest plain in Japan, where a lot of huge cities are located and about 30% of population of Japan is concentrated. In the inland part of the Kanto Plain, dependence on groundwater for water requirements is relatively high; in particular around 40% of the municipal water supply is dependent on groundwater. On the other hand, various kinds of controlled substances such as arsenic, nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen, volatile organic compounds are detected in groundwater in excess of the Japanese environmental standards. Therefore, in order to evaluate current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in the central part of the Kanto Plain, we investigated around 500 wells. These wells are distributed throughout the plain area of Saitama Prefecture, stretching about 80 kilometers from east to west and about 60 kilometers from north to south. Depths of these wells range from 5m to 200m. We analyzed heavy metals and metalloids such as Fe, Mn, Al, As, Pb, using the ICP/AES and ICP/MS and also analyzed major dissolved ions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO42-, using the ion chromatograph. As a result of investigation, rate of samples exceeded the Japanese environmental standards of arsenic (0.01 mg/l) in groundwater was about 1%, and the maximum concentration was about 10 times of the environmental standards. Groundwater with a high arsenic concentration was detected in the specific area, such as in the lowlands located upstream from the former shoreline at the Holocene glacial retreat. Taking the land use of surrounding area, well depth and groundwater condition of aquifers into account, detected arsenic is considered to be of natural origin and mainly originate from natural layers. According to the previous studies, the release mechanisms of natural arsenic are summarized in some ways and in case of this research area, it was explained that natural arsenic is released with dissolution of the iron oxide in the reduction environment of groundwater. On the other hand, rate of samples exceeded the standards of nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen (10 mg/l) was about 15%, and maximum concentration was about 6 to 7 times the standard. Nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen were detected in shallow groundwater in most upland, with very intense pollution on the uplands in the northern part of the plain. Causes of the pollution were assumed as unsuitable treatments of livestock excrement, superfluous fertilization, leaking of living drainage and so on.

  12. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal lands could produce ~29 × 109 L ethanol y-1, or about 48% of the 2007 U.S. Congress legislative mandate.

  13. Prospective evaluation of regional oxygen saturation to estimate central venous saturation in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Koch, Christian; Rhrig, Rainer; Monz, Tobias; Hecker, Andreas; Uhle, Florian; Schneck, Emanuel; Weigand, Markus A; Lichtenstern, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Current treatment guidelines for sepsis claim an early goal-directed hemodynamic optimization including fluid resuscitation, use of vasopressors and inotropic agents. We investigated the correlation between the prominent treatment goal central venous saturation (ScvO2) and the frontal and the thenar regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) measured by near infrared spectroscopy. Secondary, we examined the value of ScvO2, lactate levels and rSO2 as surrogate markers of an impaired tissue oxygenation for outcome prediction in sepsis. This prospective, observational study was performed at the surgical intensive care unit of the University Hospital Giessen. A total of 50 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock were included. ScvO2, rSO2 and lactate were measured at sepsis diagnosis (baseline), 24 and 48 h, thereafter. We investigated the predictive value of frontal and thenar rSO2 for a decreased SvcO2 under 70%. For survivor and non-survivors ScvO2, rSO2 and lactate were analysed. Patients with ScvO2 >70% showed a trend to higher levels of fontal rSO2 (62.81 8.06 vs. 53.54 15.48; p = 0.058). ROC-analysis revealed a minor prediction of a decreased ScvO2 by frontal rSO2 levels at baseline (AUC = 0.687; 95% CI 0.511-0.863; p = 0.047). Combined measurements of lactate and ScvO2 showed significantly elevated mortality for patients with ScvO2 ?70% and lactate levels ?2.5 mmol/l (log rank test p = 0.004). In the group with ScvO2 <70% and lactate levels <2.5 mmol/l no patients died during the observation period. Frontal rSO2 correlates with ScvO2 but both frontal and thenar rSO2 do not exactly discriminate between patients with high or low ScvO2 in sepsis. The combination of elevated lactate >2.5 mmol/l and ScvO2 >70 % is highly associated with poor outcome in ICU patients with sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. PMID:25757404

  14. Decadal Erosion Rates Derived From An Earthquake-Induced Landslide Region, Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Y.; Lu, C.; Chang, K.; Chen, R.

    2010-12-01

    The island of Taiwan is resulted from the collision between the Philippine sea plate and the Eurasian plate. The subtropical climate and averaging four typhoons annually, combined with frequent earthquakes, influence much of the Taiwan region. Due to the factors above, not only the active orogeny of Taiwan causes the high uplift rate at about 4 mm/yr, but also drive amazing erosion rate of about 3-6 mm/yr. Previous study indicated approximately 1.9% of global suspended sediment is derived from the small island of Taiwan, which is only about 0.024% of Earth’s subaerial surface. Furthermore, modern erosion rates are strongly influenced by large earthquakes and typhoons, and the sediment fluxes after the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake of Taiwan are much higher than those before the earthquake. Here we study the Chiufenerhshan landslide, which is one of the large landslides triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake in the central Taiwan. The avalanche transported a mass of sedimentary rock about 60 m thick and 1.5 km long. Based on the high-resolution topographic data sets from LiDAR or photogrammetry at various years and rain fall data, we have reached the following conclusions: In the period of 8.5 years after the Chi-Chi earthquake, almost 4.2% of the landslide deposits were transported out of the landslide system. Comparing with the mean annual erosion rate of 3-6 mm/yr in Taiwan, the sediment brought out of Chiufenerhshan landslide area is 89.4 mm/yr, a significant amount contributed by the landslide. The mean sediment discharge from this small system is as large as 0.064% of the sediment discharge from the whole Taiwan annually; while the area is only about 0.005% of Taiwan’s subaerial surface. Thus, the landslide process has contributed much more to the surface erosion of the Taiwan mountain than other erosion processes.

  15. Variables Affecting the Gingival Embrasure Space in Aesthetically Important Regions: Differences between Central and Lateral Papillae

    PubMed Central

    Montevecchi, Marco; Checchi, Vittorio; Piana, Laura; Checchi, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated different variables to determine their role in the appearance of the central and lateral upper jaw papillae. 292 interdental embrasures were examined. Personal variables were: age, smoke, and use of interproximal hygiene devices. The clinical characteristics were: tooth shape, periodontal biotype and papilla appearance. Radiographic measurements were: root to root distance at the cemento-enamel junction (horizontal distance), and bone crest to interdental contact point distance (vertical distance). The papilla recession increased with patient age. The horizontal distance of the central papilla was always greater (up to 1 mm) than that of the other papillae. The vertical distance of the central papilla was greater (up to 2 mm) than that of the other papillae for each class except for the normal one (Nordland & Tarnow classification). For vertical distances ≤5 mm, papillae were almost always present; for distances up to 6 mm, the lateral papillae belonging to the normal class disappeared, while the central papilla remained in 11% of cases; central papillae of class 1 were present in larger proportions until a vertical distance of 8 mm. The present observational study shows that differences on clinical and radiographic determinants do exist between central and lateral papillae. This variance should be strictly taken in account for a harmonious and stable treatment outcome on this highly aesthetic area. PMID:21892365

  16. Production of gold and ruby-red lustres in Gubbio (Umbria, Italy) during the Renaissance period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padeletti, G.; Fermo, P.

    The aim of this work is to gain a further insight into the knowledge of the production process of lustre-decorated ancient majolicas. Lustre is a sophisticated technique employed in the decoration of majolicas as used in central Italy during the Renaissance period. It consists of a beautiful iridescent gold or ruby-red thin metallic film, containing silver, copper and other substances and obtained in a reducing atmosphere on a previously glazed ceramic. Nowadays, it is not possible to replicate the outstanding results obtained by the ancient ceramicists, since the original recipes were lost. It is quite interesting to study lustre-production technology by means of analytical techniques now employed for advanced research on materials (XRD, ETAAS, ICP-OES, TEM-EDX-SAED and UV-Vis). In this work, we have focussed our attention on ceramic fragments decorated with both gold and ruby-red lustres, which were difficult to obtain due to complex reduction conditions required and which were a prerogative of Gubbio production. The two lustre colours differ in their chemical composition as well in their nanostructure. The presence of bismuth was disclosed and it was ascertained to be a distinctive feature of the Italian production.

  17. Winter fog is decreasing in the fruit growing region of the Central Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Waller, Eric

    2014-05-01

    The Central Valley of California is home to a variety of fruit and nut trees. These trees account for 95% of the U.S. production, but they need a sufficient amount of winter chill to achieve rest and quiescence for the next season's buds and flowers. In prior work, we reported that the accumulation of winter chill is declining in the Central Valley. We hypothesize that a reduction in winter fog is cooccurring and is contributing to the reduction in winter chill. We examined a 33 year record of satellite remote sensing to develop a fog climatology for the Central Valley. We find that the number of winter fog events, integrated spatially, decreased 46%, on average, over 32 winters, with much year to year variability. Less fog means warmer air and an increase in the energy balance on buds, which amplifies their warming, reducing their chill accumulation more.

  18. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Nelson, Philip H.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Rouse, William A.; Saltus, Richard W.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Shah, Anjana K.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Cook Inlet region of south-central Alaska. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids remain to be found in this area.

  19. Mapping regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas using TESEBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Recent scientific studies based on large-scale climate model have highlighted the importance of the heat release from the southern side of the Himalayas for the development of South Asian Summer Monsoon. However, studies related to land surface heat fluxes are nonexistent on the southern side. In this study, we test the feasibility of deriving land surface heat fluxes on the central Himalayan region using Topographically Enhanced Surface Energy Balance System (TESEBS), which is forced by MODIS land surface products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) meteorological data. The model results were validated using the first eddy covariance measurement system established in the southern side of the central Himalayas. The derived land surface heat fluxes were close to the field measurements with mean bias of 15.97, -19.89, 8.79, and -20.39 W m-2 for net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux respectively. Land surface heat fluxes show strong contrast in pre monsoon, summer monsoon, post monsoon, and winter seasons and different land surface states among the different physiographic regions. In the central Himalayas, the latent heat flux is the dominant consumer of available energy for all physiographic regions except for the High Himalaya where the sensible heat flux is high.

  20. Changes in the area of inland lakes in arid regions of central Asia during the past 30 years.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Li, Junli; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

    2011-07-01

    Inland lakes are major surface water resource in arid regions of Central Asia. The area changes in these lakes have been proved to be the results of regional climate changes and recent human activities. This study aimed at investigating the area variations of the nine major lakes in Central Asia over the last 30 years. Firstly, multi-temporal Landsat imagery in 1975, 1990, 1999, and 2007 were used to delineate lake extents automatically based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) threshold segmentation, then lake area variations were detailed in three decades and the mechanism of these changes was analyzed with meteorological data and hydrological data. The results indicated that the total surface areas of these nine lakes had decreased from 91,402.06 km(2) to 46,049.23 km(2) during 1975-2007, accounting for 49.62% of their original area of 1975. Tail-end lakes in flat areas had shrunk dramatically as they were induced by both climate changes and human impacts, while alpine lakes remained relatively stable due to the small precipitation variations. With different water usage of river outlets, the variations of open lakes were more flexible than those of other two types. According to comprehensive analyses, different types of inland lakes presented different trends of area changes under the background of global warming effects in Central Asia, which showed that the increased human activities had broken the balance of water cycles in this region. PMID:20830516

  1. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as <100 nm) fundamentally distinct from the larger size materials. Naturally occurring mineral nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous suspension (no change in average particle size up to several months of storage). Particle surface charge (in water) ranged from -31mV to -34.5mV (pH = 5.7 - 6.2), this reflects the predominantly negative surface charge of kaolinites in soil environment effectively screening the positive charge of Fe oxides. Kaolinites appeared as single crystals (pseudo hexagonal platelets) while Fe oxides occurred mostly as micro-aggregates, with individual particles often not morphologically distinct with particle size <10nm. In addition, several anatase (TiO2) nanoparticles were also found. Both kaolinites and Fe oxides nanoparticles were crystalline, as evidenced from XRD measurements and HRTEM imaging. Distinction between different crystalline forms of Fe oxides (mainly hematite and goethite) was only possible with XRD, which revealed also subtle differences in mineralogical composition of the clay fraction (<2µm) and nanofraction (<100nm). The kaolinite's crystallite size (calculated from XRD data) was found to range 14-17nm in the nanofraction and 26-50nm in the clay fraction. For hematite, it was 13nm in the nanofraction and ranged from 21-30nm in the clay fraction. Such small particles can be expected to play an important role in soil sorption processes with implications on nutrient and contaminant cycling. Identification and understanding of the properties of naturally occurring nanoparticles in soils can therefore help soil scientists to better understand retention/mobilization of nutrients and pollutants in soils.

  2. 78 FR 65632 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... characteristics needed to meet system needs? If there is a need for additional capacity products, how should those... markets? Should the centralized capacity markets function as a mandatory market for procuring capacity or... argued are necessary for capacity investment? PJM offers LSEs the alternative to opt out of its...

  3. 78 FR 59924 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... does the changing resource mix (i.e., increased reliance on natural gas-fired generation, increasing..., state resource planning policies, emerging technologies and fuels such as shale gas, price responsive... design tools could prospectively augment, supplement or substitute for typical centralized...

  4. Cerreto di Spoleto (Umbria-Italy): Seismic amplification at the ENEA local array stations

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldis, Dario

    2008-07-08

    The Nerina valley, where Borgo Cerreto is located, is surrounded by the Apennine mount chain at the top of which lies the historical centre of Cerreto di Spoleto. The study is part of a research project aiming at analysing natural disasters and their impact on the Italian cultural heritage. Within the framework of this research project, local seismic records were analysed for both the carbonate ridge and the bordering alluvial valley. The choice of Cerreto di Spoleto as a test site derives from the analysis of Italian seismic hazard maps, obtained in terms of peak ground velocity and taking into account regional geology. The maps highlight the considerable seismic hazard which characterises the Apennine belt and its possible increase due to the effect of alluvial deposits. To this aim, ENEA installed in the 80's an accelerometric array (CODISMA up to 2000 and, in the following years, ETNA; for more detailed description see [1]. The 14 October event, was recorded both at the roof of CSM and at BCT stations. This is important to check the features observed comparing the FAS of acceleration at CSM and BCT during the 26 September events. Unfortunately the station at CSM basement did not record the above mentioned events but several aftershocks were recorded at each array station. Velocimetric records of both ambient noise and small-magnitude earthquakes were analysed in order to identify amplification conditions. The analysis was carried out in the time domain, through directional energy evaluation, and in the frequency domain, through H/V spectral ratios and spectral ratios with respect to a reference station.

  5. Cerreto di Spoleto (Umbria-Italy): Seismic amplification at the ENEA local array stations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldis, Dario

    2008-07-01

    The Nerina valley, where Borgo Cerreto is located, is surrounded by the Apennine mount chain at the top of which lies the historical centre of Cerreto di Spoleto. The study is part of a research project aiming at analysing natural disasters and their impact on the Italian cultural heritage. Within the framework of this research project, local seismic records were analysed for both the carbonate ridge and the bordering alluvial valley. The choice of Cerreto di Spoleto as a test site derives from the analysis of Italian seismic hazard maps, obtained in terms of peak ground velocity and taking into account regional geology. The maps highlight the considerable seismic hazard which characterises the Apennine belt and its possible increase due to the effect of alluvial deposits. To this aim, ENEA installed in the 80's an accelerometric array (CODISMA up to 2000 and, in the following years, ETNA; for more detailed description see [1]. The 14 October event, was recorded both at the roof of CSM and at BCT stations. This is important to check the features observed comparing the FAS of acceleration at CSM and BCT during the 26 September events. Unfortunately the station at CSM basement did not record the above mentioned events but several aftershocks were recorded at each array station. Velocimetric records of both ambient noise and small-magnitude earthquakes were analysed in order to identify amplification conditions. The analysis was carried out in the time domain, through directional energy evaluation, and in the frequency domain, through H/V spectral ratios and spectral ratios with respect to a reference station.

  6. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Transmitted Drug Resistance Mutations among Patients from the North, Central and South Regions of Angola

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Joana Morais; Bello, Gonzalo; Guimarães, Monick L.; Sojka, Marta; Morgado, Mariza G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Angola presents a very complex HIV-1 epidemic characterized by the co-circulation of several HIV-1 group M subtypes, intersubtype recombinants and unclassified (U) variants. The viral diversity outside the major metropolitan regions (Luanda and Cabinda) and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (DRM) since the introduction of HAART in 2004, however, has been barely studied. Methods One hundred and one individuals from the Central (n = 44), North (n = 35), and South (n = 22) regions of Angola were diagnosed as HIV-1 positive and had their blood collected between 2008 and 2010, at one of the National Referral Centers for HIV diagnosis, the Kifangondo Medical Center, located in the border between the Luanda and Bengo provinces. Angolan samples were genotyped based on phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses of the pol (PR/RT) gene and their drug resistance profile was analyzed. Results Among the 101 samples analyzed, 51% clustered within a pure group M subtype, 42% were classified as intersubtype recombinants, and 7% were denoted as U. We observed an important variation in the prevalence of different HIV-1 genetic variants among country regions, with high frequency of subtype F1 in the North (20%), intersubtype recombinants in the Central (42%), and subtype C in the South (45%). Statistically significant difference in HIV-1 clade distribution was only observed in subtype C prevalence between North vs South (p = 0.0005) and Central vs South (p = 0.0012) regions. DRM to NRTI and/or NNRTI were detected in 16.3% of patients analyzed. Conclusions These results demonstrate a heterogeneous distribution of HIV-1 genetic variants across different regions in Angola and also revealed an unexpected high frequency of DRM to RT inhibitors in patients that have reported no antiretroviral usage, which may decrease the efficiency of the standard first-line antiretroviral regimens currently used in the country. PMID:22952625

  7. Determining the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes of PFI data in central region Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad Kamaruddin, Saadi Bin; Md Ghani, Nor Azura; Mohamed Ramli, Norazan

    2013-04-01

    The concept of Private Financial Initiative (PFI) has been implemented by many developed countries as an innovative way for the governments to improve future public service delivery and infrastructure procurement. However, the idea is just about to germinate in Malaysia and its success is still vague. The major phase that needs to be given main attention in this agenda is value for money whereby optimum efficiency and effectiveness of each expense is attained. Therefore, at the early stage of this study, estimating unitary charges or materials price indexes in each region in Malaysia was the key objective. This particular study aims to discover the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes in construction industry by different regions in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia (Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan, and Melaka). The unitary charges indexes data used were from year 2002 to 2011 monthly data of different states in the central region Peninsular Malaysia, comprising price indexes of aggregate, sand, steel reinforcement, ready mix concrete, bricks and partition, roof material, floor and wall finishes, ceiling, plumbing materials, sanitary fittings, paint, glass, steel and metal sections, timber and plywood. At the end of the study, it was found that Backpropagation Neural Network with linear transfer function produced the most accurate and reliable results for estimating unitary charges price indexes in every states in central region Peninsular Malaysia based on the Root Mean Squared Errors, where the values for both estimation and evaluation sets were approximately zero and highly significant at p < 0.01. Therefore, artificial neural network is sufficient to forecast construction materials price indexes in Malaysia. The estimated price indexes of construction materials will contribute significantly to the value for money of PFI as well as towards Malaysian economical growth.

  8. Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2014-08-01

    A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty. PMID:24846528

  9. A multi-wavelength view of the central kiloparsec region in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Alberdi, Antxon; Hernández-García, Lorena; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Colina, Luis; Efstathiou, Andreas; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Väisänen, Petri; Packham, Christopher C.; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2014-05-10

    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ∼100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Paα, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC 1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 μm emission, as well as the Paα line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Paα map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power law for each individual region within the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum source at the very center of the galaxy, suggesting that the central source is not powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but rather by a compact (r ≲ 90 pc) starburst (SB). Chandra X-ray data also show that the central kiloparsec region is dominated by SB activity, without requiring the existence of an AGN. We also used publicly available infrared data to model-fit the spectral energy distribution of both the SB ring and a putative AGN in NGC 1614. In summary, we conclude that there is no need to invoke an AGN to explain the observed bolometric properties of the galaxy.

  10. An assessment of fire occurrence regime and performance of Canadian fire weather index in south central Siberian boreal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, T.; Guo, X.

    2014-07-01

    Wildfire is the dominant natural disturbance in Eurasian boreal region, which acts as a major driver of the global carbon cycle. An effectiveness of wildfire management requires suitable tools for fire prevention and fire risk assessment. This study aims to investigate fire occurrence patterns in relation to fire weather conditions in the remote south central Siberia region. The Canadian Fire Weather Index derived from large-scale meteorological reanalysis data was evaluated with respects to fire regimes during 14 consecutive fire seasons in south central Siberian environment. All the fire weather codes and indices, including the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), the Duff Moisture Code (DMC), the Drought Code (DC), the Buildup Index (BUI), the Initial Spread Index (ISI), and the Fire Weather Index (FWI), were highly reflected inter-annual variation of fire activity in south central Siberia. Even though human-caused fires were major events in Russian boreal forest including south central Siberia, extreme fire years were strongly correlated with ambient weather conditions (e.g. Arctic Oscillation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind), showing by in-phase (or positive linear relationship) and significant wavelet coherence between fire activity and DMC, ISI, BUI, and FWI. Time series observation of 14 fire seasons showed that there was an average of about 3 months lags between the peaks of fire weather conditions and fire activity, which should take into account when using coarse scale fire weather indices in the assessment of fire danger in the study area. The results are expected to contribute to a better reconstruction and prediction of fire activity using large-scale reanalysis data in remote regions in which station data are very few.

  11. Advective heat transport associated with regional Earth degassing in central Apennine (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, G.; Cardellini, C.; Caliro, S.; Chiarabba, C.; Frondini, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we show that the main springs of the central Apennine transport a total amount of heat of ˜2.2×109 J s-1. Most of this heat (57%) is the result of geothermal warming while the remaining 43% is due to gravitational potential energy dissipation. This result indicates that a large area of the central Apennines is very hot with heat flux values >300 mW m-2. These values are higher than those measured in the magmatic and famously geothermal provinces of Tuscany and Latium and about 1/3 of the total heat discharged at Yellowstone. This finding is surprising because the central Apennines have been thought to be a relatively cold area. Translated by CO2 rich fluids, this heat anomaly suggests the existence of a thermal source such as a large magmatic intrusion at depth. Recent tomographic images of the area support the presence of such an intrusion visible as a broad negative velocity anomaly in seismic waves. Our results indicate that the thermal regime of tectonically active areas of the Earth, where meteoric waters infiltrate and deeply circulate, should be revised on the basis of mass and energy balances of the groundwater systems.

  12. Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in martens and fishers from the Algonquin region of south-central Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Steeves, T.; Strickland, M. ); Frank, R.; Rasper, J. ); Douglas, C.W.

    1991-03-01

    Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine insecticides (OCI) has been restricted in the Province of Ontario, Canada, since 1971. This study reports on OCI and PCB levels in two carnivores, fishers (Martes pennanti) and martens (Martes americana), collected in the Algonquin Region of south-central Ontario in 1976 and 1981, and compares them to data collected for the same species in the same area in 1972-74. Algonquin Region is a forested area of 43,000 km{sup 2} on the Precambrian shield, and has no major industrial or agricultural development. Except for DDT, which was used in the 1950's and 1960's to control biting insects around tourist establishments, there has been little use of OCIs or PCBs in this area. Their occurrence in the Algonquin Region is most likely due to atmospheric transport.

  13. A Multiscale Application of the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes in the Central Mediterranean Area and Alpine Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V.; Peresan, A.; Aoudia, A.; Panza, G. F.

    2011-01-01

    We study the parameters A, B, and C of the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE) in the Central Mediterranean area and Alpine region on the basis of a variable space and time scale approach. We make use of regional and local earthquake catalogues. Accordingly, we investigate three different scales: the scale of the Central Mediterranean and Alpine region spanning different geological domains, the scale of the Alps focusing on a single geological entity, and the scale of an active fault system at the junction between the southeastern Alps and the external Dinarides in Northeastern Italy and Western Slovenia. Maps based on the varied time and location scales are compared with each other. The observed temporal variability of the A, B, C coefficients indicates significant changes of seismic activity at the time scales of a few decades. Therefore, it is highly recommended to use all the data available for long-term seismic hazard assessment in conjunction with a real-time monitoring of these characteristics for possible evaluation of time-dependent risk at the intermediate-term scales of a few years. The confirmed fractal nature of earthquakes and their distribution in space implies that the traditional estimations of seismic hazard for cities and urban agglomerations are usually underestimated. The degree of underestimation by traditional methods of seismic risk at a city is illustrated by providing estimates of hazard and related personal hazard, which are oversimplified examples of seismic risk assessment accounting for fractal properties of earthquakes in the major cities of the Central Mediterranean and Alpine region.

  14. Metal concentration and X-ray cool spectral component in the central region of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ohashi, Takaya; Fabian, Andrew C.; Canizares, Claude R.; Ikebe, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Yamashita, Koujun

    1994-01-01

    Spatially resolved energy spectra in the energy range 0.5-10 keV have been measured for the Centaurus cluster of galaxies with Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA). Within 10 min (200 kpc) from the cluster center, the helium-like iron K emission line exhibits a dramatic increase toward the center rising from an equivalent width approximately 500 eV to approximately 1500 eV corresponding to an abundance change from 0.3 to 1.0 solar. The presence of strong iron L lines indicates an additional cool component (kT approximately 1 keV) within 10 min from the center. The cool component requires absorption in excess of the galactic value and this excess absorption increases towards the central region of the cluster. In the surrounding region with radius greater than 10 min, the spectra are well described by a single temperature thermal model with kT approximately 4 keV and spatially uniform abundances at about 0.3-0.4 times solar. The detection of metal-rich hot and cool gas in the cluster center implies a complex nature of the central cluster gas which is likely to be related to the presence of the central cD galaxy NGC 4696.

  15. Geo-kinematic investigations in Slovakia and the region of Central and Southeastern Europe based on combination of permanent and epoch-wise GPS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipmanová, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The region of Central and Southeastern Europe is covered by numerous GPS networks investigating geo-kinematical behavior of this area. These activities started in early nineties within the several projects as CERGOP and CERGOP-2/Environment. In this paper we describe the process of combination of four networks located in the region of Central and Southeastern Europe using the CATREF (Combination and Analysis of Terrestrial REFerence Frame) software developed in Institute Geographique National in France. We were particularly interested in the CEPER (Central European Permanent Network), CEGRN (Central European Geodynaminc Reference Network), SGRN (Slovak Geodynamic Reference Network) and local network TATRY shortly described in this paper. Homogeneous velocity field obtained from the final combination is for the purpose of better interpretation divided into three parts: Central Europe, Slovakia and Tatra Mountains. Main interest is focused on the territory of Slovakia where the regional velocity field is not so frequently discussed in scientific community as the case of Central and Southeastern Europe.

  16. Simulations of Future Drought Conditions in Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by Using RegCM4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turp, M. T.; Ozturk, T.; An, N.; Türkeş, M.; Kurnaz, L.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, projected future changes in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology, inter-annual and seasonal variability and climatic aridity/humidity conditions for the period of 2071-2100 over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (1971 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by using two different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation almost all part of the domain. The results of our study show that surface temperatures in the region will increase from 3°C up to more than 7°C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period of 2070-2100 with respect to past period of 1970-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation and also resultant or associated increased aridity and more frequent and severe drought events very likely adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already characterised with mostly arid and semi-arid climate and ecosystems.

  17. Simulations of Future Drought Conditions in Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by Using RegCM4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent; An, Nazan

    2015-04-01

    In this work, projected future changes in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology, inter-annual and seasonal variability and climatic aridity/humidity conditions for the period 2070-2100 over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (from 1970 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by using 2 different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation almost all part of the domain. The results of our study show that surface temperatures in the region will increase from 3 °C up to more than 7 °C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period 2070-2100 with respect to past period 1970-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation and also resultant or associated increased aridity and more frequent and severe drought events very likely adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already characterised with mostly arid and semi-arid climate and ecosystems.

  18. Geologic map of the west-central Buffalo National River region, northern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a geologic map database of the map area that improves understanding of the regional geologic framework and its influence on the regional groundwater flow system. Furthermore, additional edits were made to the Ponca and Jasper quadrangles in the following ways: new control points on important contacts were obtained using modern GPS; recent higher resolution elevation data allowed further control on placement of contacts; some new contacts were added, in particular the contact separating the upper and lower Everton Formation.

  19. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of NW and central Himalayas and the adjoining region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Madan Mohan; Das, Josodhir; Kamal; Das, Ranjit

    2015-04-01

    The Himalayan region has undergone significant development and to ensure safe and secure progress in such a seismically vulnerable region there is a need for hazard assessment. For seismic hazard assessment, it is important to assess the quality, consistency, and homogeneity of the seismicity data collected from different sources. In the present study, an improved magnitude conversion technique has been used to convert different magnitude scales to moment magnitude scale. The study area and its adjoining region have been divided into 22 seismogenic zones based upon the geology, tectonics, and seismicity including source mechanism relevant to the region. Region specific attenuation equations have been used for seismic hazard assessment. Standard procedure for PSHA has been adopted for this study and peak ground motion is estimated for 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years at the bed rock level. For the 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, the PGA values vary from 0.06 to 0.36 g and 0.11 to 0.65 g, respectively considering varying b-value. Higher PGA values are observed in the southeast part region situated around Kaurik Fault System (KFS) and western parts of Nepal.

  20. Local-regional species richness relationships are linear at very small to large scales in west-central Pacific corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, H. V.; Karlson, R. H.; Hughes, T. P.

    2008-03-01

    If local communities are saturated with species, the relationship between local and regional species richness [the local species richness (LSR)-regional species richness (RSR) relationship] is predicted to become increasingly curvilinear at more local spatial scales. This study tested whether the LSR-RSR relationship for coral species was linear or curvilinear at three local scales across the west-central Pacific Ocean, along a regional biodiversity gradient that includes the worlds most diverse coral assemblages. The local scales comprised transects 100-2 m apart, sites 103-4 m apart and islands 104-6 m apart. The LSR-RSR relationship was never significantly different from linear at any scale. When the Chao1 estimator was used to predict true RSR and LSR, all relationships were also strongly linear. We conclude that local assemblages are open to regional influences even when the local scale is very small relative to the regional scale, and even in extraordinarily rich regions.

  1. Paleomagnetic evidence for the age and extent of middle Tertiary counterclockwise rotation, Dixie Valley region, west central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, M.R.; Geissman, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data obtained from Oligocene to lower Miocene igneous rocks and middle Miocene basaltic rocks of fifteen localities from a region surrounding Dixie Valley in west central Nevada indicate that parts of the area experienced counterclockwise vertical-axis rotation, and these data provide constraints on the extent and timing of rotation. Counterclockwise vertical-axis rotation probably exceeding 30?? is indicated for Oligocene to lower Miocene rocks in the central part of the study area. Paleomagnetic data indicate that Oligocene to lower Miocene rocks at some localities in the northern and southern parts of the study area (e.g., the Golconda Canyon locality) probably did not experience significant Tertiary counterclockwise rotation. -from Authors

  2. Pulpwood production in the north-central region, 1991. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Piva, R.J.

    1993-11-29

    The report includes all primary products made from reconstituted wood fiber. In addition to wood pulp, this includes particleboard products made from chips, shavings, wafers, flakes, strands, and sawdust. The report presents the production by county of the raw fiber material delivered to mills. Thus, these data report only that portion of the timber harvest used as raw material and do not necessarily reflect the volume of growing stock harvested. Pulp and particleboard mills using North Central States timber in 1991 reported their pulpwood receipts by species group and county of origin.

  3. A literature review of the regional implementation of the central Swedish government's health care reforms on choice and privatization.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Björn; Wilkens, Jens

    2015-12-01

    The introduction in 2010 of the Freedom of Choice Act represents one of the most far-reaching reforms of the Swedish health system. While it is mandatory for the regional counties to introduce choice plans for primary care it is voluntary for ambulatory specialist services. The voluntary nature of the regulations for the latter types of care generates a potential gap between the central government's reform attempts and the regional implementation of the plans. We review the regional implementation of this reform with respect to specialist services from a political economy perspective. Data on the scope of implementation show that counties of the same political ideology as the central government have introduced the most choice plans for specialist care. In particular, counties ruled by right-wing majorities have introduced the Choice Act to a considerably larger extent than left-wing counties. This creates a highly uneven situation across the various parts of the country, possibly at odds with the basic premises of the country's health law of equal access to care. The introduction of choice plans forms part of a decidedly contentious set of issues that are high on the political agenda of Sweden. The nature and impacts of these reforms are also a concern to the general public and the broader industry. Considerably more rigorous analyses will be needed to assess the impact on key policy parameters such as overall system efficiency and equitable access to services as a result of these changes to the health care markets. PMID:26650814

  4. The Great 2006 and 2007 Kuril Earthquakes, Forearc Segmentation and Seismic Activity of the Central Kuril Islands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, B. V.; Ivashchenko, A. I.; Dozorova, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a structural study of the Central Kuril Islands forearc region, where the great megathrust tsunamigenic earthquake ( M w 8.3) occurred on November 15, 2006. Based on new bathymetry and seismic profiles obtained during two research cruises of R/V Akademik Lavrentiev in 2005 and 2006, ten crustal segments with along-arc length ranging from 30 to 100 km, separated by NS- and NW-trending transcurrent faults were identified within the forearc region. The transcurrent faults may serve as barriers impeding stress transfer between the neighboring segments, so that stress accumulated within separate forearc segments is usually released by earthquakes of moderate-to-strong magnitudes. However, the great November 15, 2006 earthquake ruptured seven of the crustal segments probably following a 226-year gap since the last great earthquake in 1780. The geographic extent of earthquake rupture zones, aftershock areas and earthquake clusters correlate well with forearc crustal segments identified using the geophysical data. Based on segmented structure of the Central Kuril Islands forearc region, we consider and discuss three scenarios of a great earthquake occurrence within this area. Although the margin is segmented, we suggest that a rupture could occupy the entire seismic gap with a total length of about 500 km. In such a case, the earthquake magnitude M w might exceed 8.5, and such an event might generate tsunami waves significantly exceeding in height to those produced by the great 2006-2007 Kuril earthquakes.

  5. Airflow, transport and regional deposition of aerosol particles during chronic bronchitis of human central airways.

    PubMed

    Farkhadnia, Fouad; Gorji, Tahereh B; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the effects of airway blockage in chronic bronchitis disease on the flow patterns and transport/deposition of micro-particles in a human symmetric triple bifurcation lung airway model, i.e., Weibel's generations G3-G6 was investigated. A computational fluid and particle dynamics model was implemented, validated and applied in order to evaluate the airflow and particle transport/deposition in central airways. Three breathing patterns, i.e., resting, light activity and moderate exercise, were considered. Using Lagrangian approach for particle tracking and random particle injection, an unsteady particle tracking method was performed to simulate the transport and deposition of micron-sized aerosol particles in human central airways. Assuming laminar, quasi-steady, three-dimensional air flow and spherical non-interacting particles in sequentially bifurcating rigid airways, airflow patterns and particle transport/deposition in healthy and chronic bronchitis (CB) affected airways were evaluated and compared. Comparison of deposition efficiency (DE) of aerosols in healthy and occluded airways showed that at the same flow rates DE values are typically larger in occluded airways. While in healthy airways, particles deposit mainly around the carinal ridges and flow dividers-due to direct inertial impaction, in CB affected airways they deposit mainly on the tubular surfaces of blocked airways because of gravitational sedimentation. PMID:26541595

  6. Determining the type of orbits in the central regions of barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.; Caranicolas, Nicolaos D.

    2016-02-01

    We use a simple dynamical model which consists of a harmonic oscillator and a spherical component, in order to investigate the regular or chaotic character of orbits in a barred galaxy with a central spherically symmetric nucleus. Our aim is to explore how the basic parameters of the galactic system influence the nature of orbits, by computing in each case the percentage of chaotic orbits, as well as the percentages of different types of regular orbits. We also give emphasis to the types of regular orbits that support either the formation of nuclear rings or the barred structure of the galaxy. We provide evidence that the traditional x1 orbital family does not always dominate in barred galaxy models since we found several other types of resonant orbits which can also support the barred structure. We also found that sparse enough nuclei, fast rotating bars and high energy models can support the galactic bars. On the other hand, weak bars, dense central nuclei, slowly rotating bars and low energy models favor the formation of nuclear rings. We also compare our results with previous related work.

  7. Shore zone land use and land cover: Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolan, R.; Hayden, B.P.; Vincent, C.L.

    1974-01-01

    Anderson's 1972 United States Geological Survey classification in modified form was applied to the barrier-island coastline within the CARETS region. High-altitude, color-infrared photography of December, 1972, and January, 1973, served as the primary data base in this study. The CARETS shore zone studied was divided into six distinct geographical regions; area percentages for each class in the modified Anderson classification are presented. Similarities and differences between regions are discussed within the framework of man's modification of these landscapes. The results of this study are presented as a series of 19 maps of land-use categories. Recommendations are made for a remote-sensing system for monitoring the CARETS shore zone within the context of the dynamics of the landscapes studied.

  8. Hydrologic characteristics of soils in the High Plains, northern Great Plains, and Central Texas Carbonates Regional Aquifer Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugan, Jack T.; Hobbs, Ryne D.; Ihm, Laurie A.

    1990-01-01

    Certain physical characteristics of soils, including permeability, available water capacity, thickness, and topographic position, have a measurable effect on the hydrology of an area. These characteristics control the rate at which precipitation infiltrates or is transmitted through the soil, and thus they have an important role in determining the rates of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), groundwater recharge, and surface runoff. In studies of groundwater hydrology, it is useful to differentiate soils spatially according to their physical characteristics and to assign values that indicate their hydrologic responses.The principal purpose of this report is to describe the relation between the hydrologic characteristics of the soils in the study area and those environmental factors that affect the development and distribution of the soils. This objective will be achieved by (1) defining both qualitatively and quantitatively those soil characteristics that affect hydrology, and (2) classifying and delineating the boundaries of the soils in the study area according to these hydrologic characteristics.The study area includes the High Plains, Northern Great Plains, the Central Texas Carbonates, and parts of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer Systems as described by the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program (Sun, 1986, p.5and Sun, personal commun., June 1985) and shown in figures 1 through 5. The spatial patterns of the soils classified according to their quantifiable hydrologic characteristics will subsequently serve as an integral component in the analysis of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), consumptive irrigation requirements, and potential ground-water recharge of the study area.The classification system used to describe the soils in this report is compatible with that of Dugan (1986). Dugan described the same characteristics of soils that are immediately underlain by principal aquifers of Cretaceous or older age in adjacent parts of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer System. However, map scales and mapping detail are different between this report and the report by Dugan (1986) because of the size of the study area.

  9. Resting-State Coupling between Core Regions within the Central-Executive and Salience Networks Contributes to Working Memory Performance.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yuanchao; Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Luqi; Li, Jin; Wang, Yulin; Friston, Karl J; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the distinct roles played by different cognitive regions and suggested that the patterns of connectivity of these regions are associated with working memory (WM). However, the specific causal mechanism through which the neuronal circuits that involve these brain regions contribute to WM is still unclear. Here, in a large sample of healthy young adults, we first identified the core WM regions by linking WM accuracy to resting-state functional connectivity with the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC; a principal region in the central-executive network, CEN). Then a spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) analysis was performed to quantify the effective connectivity between these regions. Finally, the effective connectivity was correlated with WM accuracy to characterize the relationship between these connections and WM performance. We found that the functional connections between the bilateral dLPFC and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and between the right dLPFC and the left orbital fronto-insular cortex (FIC) were correlated with WM accuracy. Furthermore, the effective connectivity from the dACC to the bilateral dLPFC and from the right dLPFC to the left FIC could predict individual differences in WM. Because the dACC and FIC are core regions of the salience network (SN), we inferred that the inter- and causal-connectivity between core regions within the CEN and SN is functionally relevant for WM performance. In summary, the current study identified the dLPFC-related resting-state effective connectivity underlying WM and suggests that individual differences in cognitive ability could be characterized by resting-state effective connectivity. PMID:26941629

  10. Resting-State Coupling between Core Regions within the Central-Executive and Salience Networks Contributes to Working Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yuanchao; Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Luqi; Li, Jin; Wang, Yulin; Friston, Karl J.; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the distinct roles played by different cognitive regions and suggested that the patterns of connectivity of these regions are associated with working memory (WM). However, the specific causal mechanism through which the neuronal circuits that involve these brain regions contribute to WM is still unclear. Here, in a large sample of healthy young adults, we first identified the core WM regions by linking WM accuracy to resting-state functional connectivity with the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC; a principal region in the central-executive network, CEN). Then a spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) analysis was performed to quantify the effective connectivity between these regions. Finally, the effective connectivity was correlated with WM accuracy to characterize the relationship between these connections and WM performance. We found that the functional connections between the bilateral dLPFC and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and between the right dLPFC and the left orbital fronto-insular cortex (FIC) were correlated with WM accuracy. Furthermore, the effective connectivity from the dACC to the bilateral dLPFC and from the right dLPFC to the left FIC could predict individual differences in WM. Because the dACC and FIC are core regions of the salience network (SN), we inferred that the inter- and causal-connectivity between core regions within the CEN and SN is functionally relevant for WM performance. In summary, the current study identified the dLPFC-related resting-state effective connectivity underlying WM and suggests that individual differences in cognitive ability could be characterized by resting-state effective connectivity. PMID:26941629

  11. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

    2010-12-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and discuss the impact of climate change on future development of the region.

  12. Wood resources and utilization patterns in the North Central Region and energy needs for the manufacture of wood products

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, S.A.

    1981-03-01

    The timber resources of the North Central Region are discussed on a state-by-state basis. The discussion of standing timber growth and removal is in terms of commercial growing stock; however, the total forest biomass may be estimated by simply adding the potential logging residue to the growing stock figure. The energy needs of various wood and paper products plants, Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Codes 24 and 26, are highlighted. In addition, the ability of various wood manufacturing facilities to generate their energy needs from wood residues and by-products is explored.

  13. Paleomagnetic and structural evidence for middle Tertiary counterclockwise block rotation in the Dixie Valley region, west-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, M.R.; Geissman, J.W.

    1987-07-01

    Paleomagnetic data from late Oligocene to early Miocene ash-flow tuffs at four localities in the northern Dixie Valley region, west-central Nevada, indicate that parts of the crust have rotated counterclockwise by at least 25/sup 0/ and perhaps significantly more in late Cenozoic time. Field relations in White Rock Canyon, Stillwater Range, suggest that rotation (1) was accommodated by right-lateral slip on northwest-trending faults, (2) spanned ash-flow tuff emplacement, and (3) probably ceased before eruption of overlying middle Miocene basalts. Accurate estimates of Cenozoic extension, as well as evaluation of earlier Mesozoic structures, must include the strain partitioned into rotation in the area.

  14. Determination of fungicide resistance in Botrytis cinerea from strawberry in the Central Coast Region of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in 2013 to investigate the occurrence of fungicide resistance in Botrytis cinerea populations in California’s northern strawberry growing region; specifically in Watsonville and Salinas. In mid-May, 59 samples consisting of a single diseased fruit or plant part with gray mold s...

  15. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Air Quality Control Region and consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of all municipalities (as...

  16. 40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of all municipalities (as...

  17. 78 FR 53450 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... served by ISO New England Inc. (ISO-NE), New York Independent System Operator, Inc. (NYISO), and PJM... capacity markets in the ISO-NE, NYISO, and PJM regions. The Commission may convene conference(s) on...&Date=09/25/2013&View=Listview . Each RTO/ISO will have a representative available throughout the day...

  18. Modeling groundwater levels on the Calera Aquifer Region in Central Mexico using ModFLow.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A conceptual model for the Calera Aquifer has been created to represent the aquifer system beneath the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The CAR area was uniformly partitioned into a 500 X 500 m grid generating a high resolution model that represented the natural boundar...

  19. Climate change and the future of natural disturbances in the central hardwood region

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Hughes, M. Joseph; Hayes, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The spatial patterns and ecological processes of the southeastern upland hardwood forests have evolved to reflect past climatic conditions and natural disturbance regimes. Changes in climate can lead to disturbances that exceed their natural range of variation, and the impacts of these changes will depend on the vulnerability or resiliency of these ecosystems. Global Circulation Models generally project annual increases in temperature across the southeastern United States over the coming decades, but changes in precipitation are less consistent. Even more unclear is how climate change might affect future trends in the severity and frequency of natural disturbances, such as severe storms, fires, droughts, floods, and insect outbreaks. Here, we use a time-series satellite data record to map the spatial pattern and severity of broad classes of natural disturbances the southeast region. The data derived from this map allow analysis of regional-scale trends in natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the region over the last three decades. Throughout the region, between 5% and 25% of forest land is affected by some sort of disturbance each year since 1985. The time series reveals periodic droughts that themselves are widespread and of low severity but are associated with more localized, high-severity disturbances such as fire and insect outbreaks. The map also reveals extensive anthropogenic disturbance across the region in the form of forest conversion related to resource extraction and urban and residential development. We discuss how changes in climate and disturbance regimes might affect southeastern forests in the future via altering the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of these ecosystems. Changes in climate are highly likely to expose southeastern forests to more frequent and severe disturbances, but ultimately how vulnerable or resilient southeastern forests are to these changes will depend on their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to these novel conditions.

  20. Quantitative reconstructions of changes in regional openness in north-central Europe reveal new insights into old questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Giesecke, Thomas; Theuerkauf, Martin; Feeser, Ingo; Behre, Karl-Ernst; Beug, Hans-Jürgen; Chen, Su-Hwa; Christiansen, Jörg; Dörfler, Walter; Endtmann, Elisabeth; Jahns, Susanne; de Klerk, Pim; Kühl, Norbert; Latałowa, Małgorzata; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Rasmussen, Peter; Stockholm, Jette Raal; Voigt, Ricarda; Wiethold, Julian; Wolters, Steffen

    2012-07-01

    By applying the recently developed model REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites) (Sugita, 2007) to pollen data from a large number of sites across Northern Germany and Denmark, we construct maps of regional patterns in landscape openness and in cover abundance of key plant taxa in the cultural landscape of north-central Europe for selected time slices in the Holocene. The results indicate that the pattern of landscape openness across the regions of northern Germany and Denmark prior to the introduction of agriculture was affected by soil conditions and degree of continentality. The 8.2 ka climate event did not lead to a general decrease in tree cover, although some changes in species composition were observed. The early phases of agriculture also had little effect on landscape openness at the regional scale, but later human impact lead to large scale deforestation and development of arable areas, grasslands and of heathlands in the north-western part of the region. The timing and degree of deforestation, and the weight between arable and grazing areas varied in space, partly due to differences in natural conditions, partly due to differences in cultural impact.

  1. Energy-consumption patterns of low-income groups and minorities: a central Kentucky regional study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.S.

    1982-02-01

    Based on the primary data of a sample collected from the Central Kentucky area, several descriptive statistical analyses were performed to establish some characteristics of energy-consumption patterns of minorities and/or the poor. In doing so, the Average Percentage of Disposable Income (APDI) spent on energy was calculated and utilized for the purpose of comparisons between different sub-samples with different socio-economic and ethnic backgrounds. The APDI is also used to measure the possible impact of energy price increases on the poor. This study also indicates that the poor pay more for electricity as compared to higher-income groups for home maintenance due exclusively to the pricing policy of utility companies. The poor also seem to experience a more-severe impact from rising energy costs than higher-income groups, although the extent of this cannot be quantitatively measured.

  2. Effectiveness of traditional climatic responses in the central Texas region in maintaining thermal comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, D.; Chabannes, G.

    1982-01-01

    Traditional building responses to the Central Texas climate are compared and evaluated in a parametric study. Building parameters of size, shape, orientation, capacitance and resistance values of materials, ceiling height, porch chading devices, and ventilation strategies are simulated using the DEROB computer code. Unassisted thermal comfort parameters of air temperature and mean radiant surface temperature are tabulated by hour into temperature bins to allow comparison of the relative effect of each response. Results indicate that high capacitance materials are more effective in maintaining thermal comfort in winter, and high resistance materials are more effective in summer. Building elongation improves summer performance, but reduces winter performance. Increased ceiling height provides marginal improvement in both winter and summer performance of traditional structures. The presence of a porch shading device improves summer performance slightly, but degrades winter performance by a similar degree. Ventilation strategies also show an improvement in summer building performance.

  3. Pulpwood production in the north-central region, 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Piva, R.J.

    1995-04-18

    Pulp and particleboard mills using North Central States timber in 1993 reported their pulpwood receipts by species group and county of origin. The report presents the results of the survey, analyzes the data, compares results with those of 1992 or earlier years, and discusses trends in pulpwood production and use. The report includes all primary products made from reconstituted wood fiber. In addition to wood pulp, this includes particleboard and engineered lumber products made from chips, shavings, wafers, flakes, strands, and sawdust. This report presents the production by county of the raw fiber material delivered to mills. Thus, these data report only that a portion of the timber harvest used as raw material and do not necessarily reflect the volume of growing stock harvested.

  4. Upper crustal tomographic images of the Amiata-Vulsini geothermal region, central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarabba, C.; Amato, A.; Fiordelisi, A.

    1995-03-01

    We computed the three-dimensional P wave velocity structure of the upper crust beneath the adjacent Amiata and Vulsini Quaternary volcanoes (central Italy), inverting local earthquake arrival times. We used 676 selected earthquakes out of more than 3000 (in the M range 1.5-4.0) located between 1977 and 1992 by two contiguous microseismic networks operated by Ente Nazionale Energia Elettrica to monitor three geothermal areas (namely, Latera, Torre Alfina, and Mount Amiata). The resolving capability of the data set has been verified both with a priori synthetic tests and an a posteriori analysis of the resolution matrix. We find a 40 x 25 x 7 (h) cubic km crustal volume where we can resolve details as small as 2 to 4 km. Our analysis is favored by numerous geological and geophysical data collected for geothermal exploration.

  5. [Epilepsy and its impact in northwest region of the Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Bernet-Bernady, P; Tabo, A; Druet-Cabanac, M; Poumale, F; Ndoma, V; Lao, H; Bouteille, B; Dumas, M; Preux, P M

    1997-01-01

    In African countries, epilepsy is an important public health problem with major medical, socio-cultural, and economic implications. This study was carried out to evaluate attitudes towards epilepsy in the Central African Republic. A total of 187 epileptic patients were included. Only 20.9% of the study population were married. School attendance never exceeded the elementary level. Epilepsy was active in 98.4% of patients who continued to present attacks despite extensive treatment which was either poorly complied with or inadequate. Attitudes towards epilepsy remain rooted in belief in supernatural phenomenon and evil spirits with use of traditional therapies involving abstinence from certain foods and use of laxative agents to drive out evil forces. Epileptics are excluded from their families and not allowed to attend school but, in our study, they were not prevented from the work place since 70% held jobs. In this study, 54% of epileptics believed that the disease was contagious, 55.6% that it was incurable, and 20.9% that it was due occult or supernatural causes. While precise quantification is impossible, our experience based on interviews with patients and frequent observation of burn wounds suggests that moral and physical suffering is immense among epileptics in the Central African Republic. Epilepsy in Black Africa is a major public health problem requiring serious attention from government officials, health care specialists, and the families of patients. Better information to promote awareness of the non-contagious nature of the disease, greater support for families of patients, and improvement in treatment compliance are essential. PMID:9612785

  6. Vertical Ground Deformation Detected by the Leveling and the Tidal Observation in Tokai Region, Central Japan in 1980 - 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, K.; Kimata, F.; Fujii, N.

    2003-12-01

    Great earthquakes more than M8 have occurred along the Suruga-Nankai subduction zone of the Philippine Sea Plate (PHS), southeast Japan, every 100 to 150 years. The last events are 1944 M7.9 Tonankai and 1946 M8.0 Nankai earthquakes. Interseismic subsidence is detected along the subduction zone from the precise leveling and tide gauge. Discussion of the occurrence of great earthquake in near feature brought the expanding the measurements and observation of earthquake and ground deformation in Tokai region. Whereas nation-wide dense GPS network (GEONET) makes clear of the ground deformation of contraction in west-northwestward contraction and east-southeastward tilting in Tokai region, no northwestward horizontal displacements are observed since 2001 in the western Tokai region. Slow slip event (SSE) toward trough is discussed (Ozawa et al., 2002). Precise leveling and line length measurements also suggest the episodic changes with time interval of 4-5 years in the late 20 years (Kimata and Yamauchi, 1999; Kimata et al., 2001). Moreover pre-seismic ground tilt is suggested in the same area of the 2001 Tokai SSE from the leveling of the day in 1944 Tonankai Earthquake. Meanwhile pre-seismic slip is estimated in the SSE area from the numerical experiment of rock crusher (Kato, 2003). We discuss the episodic change of the ground deformation and the recurrence of the SSE in Tokai region with more detail from the vertical ground deformation detected by precise leveling and tide gauge in the period from 1980 to 2002. Geographical Survey Institute of Japan (GSI) has repeated the precise leveling in Tokai region every year since 1980. Tide gauge measurements have also been continued at more than 10 sites in Tokai region by GSI, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and Aichi prefecture (AP). Time series of vertical movements at the benchmarks are analyzed by spline function and Annual relative sea levels at tide stations are corrected (Savage and Thatcher, 1992). The 2001 Tokai SSE is characterized by the uplift of 3-4cm around Hamana Lake, central Tokai region, which is detected by GPS measurements, precise leveling, and tide gauge measurement (Ozawa et al., 2002; Oota et al., 2003). The same uplift is detected by precise leveling and tide gauge in late 1988, Episodic changes of tilt movements also detected by bore hall tilt meter north Hamana Lake site in 2001 and 1988 (Yamamoto et al., 2003). It is sure that Tokai SSE should be occurred in the central Tokai in 1988. We have one conclusion that SSE has repeated in Tokai region at least in last 20 years.

  7. Performance of ENSEMBLES regional climate models over Central Europe using various metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtanová, Eva; Mikšovský, Jiří; Kalvová, Jaroslava; Pišoft, Petr; Motl, Martin

    2012-05-01

    We show the evaluation of ENSEMBLES regional climate models (RCMs) driven by reanalysis ERA40 over a region centered at the Czech Republic. Attention is paid especially to the model ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ, being used as the basis of the new climate change scenarios simulation for the Czech Republic. The validation criteria used here are based on monthly or seasonal mean air temperature and precipitation. We concentrate not only on spatiotemporal mean values but also on temporal standard deviation, inter-annual variability, the mean annual cycle, and the skill of the models to represent the observed spatial patterns of these quantities. Model ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ performs quite well in comparison to the other RCMs; we find its performance satisfactory for further use for impact studies. However, it is also shown that the results of evaluation of the RCMs' skill in simulating observed climate strongly depend on the criteria incorporated for the evaluation.

  8. Seasonal pattern of regional carbon balance in the central Rocky Mountains from surface and airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Ankur R.; Moore, David J. P.; Ahue, William K. M.; Wilkes, Phillip T. V.; de Wekker, Stephan F. J.; Brooks, Bjorn G.; Campos, Teresa L.; Stephens, Britton B.; Monson, Russell K.; Burns, Sean P.; Quaife, Tristan; Aulenbach, Steven M.; Schimel, David S.

    2011-12-01

    High-elevation forests represent a large fraction of potential carbon uptake in North America, but this uptake is not well constrained by observations. Additionally, forests in the Rocky Mountains have recently been severely damaged by drought, fire, and insect outbreaks, which have been quantified at local scales but not assessed in terms of carbon uptake at regional scales. The Airborne Carbon in the Mountains Experiment was carried out in 2007 partly to assess carbon uptake in western U.S. mountain ecosystems. The magnitude and seasonal change of carbon uptake were quantified by (1) paired upwind-downwind airborne CO2 observations applied in a boundary layer budget, (2) a spatially explicit ecosystem model constrained using remote sensing and flux tower observations, and (3) a downscaled global tracer transport inversion. Top-down approaches had mean carbon uptake equivalent to flux tower observations at a subalpine forest, while the ecosystem model showed less. The techniques disagreed on temporal evolution. Regional carbon uptake was greatest in the early summer immediately following snowmelt and tended to lessen as the region experienced dry summer conditions. This reduction was more pronounced in the airborne budget and inversion than in flux tower or upscaling, possibly related to lower snow water availability in forests sampled by the aircraft, which were lower in elevation than the tower site. Changes in vegetative greenness associated with insect outbreaks were detected using satellite reflectance observations, but impacts on regional carbon cycling were unclear, highlighting the need to better quantify this emerging disturbance effect on montane forest carbon cycling.

  9. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosman, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study includes all major Cenozoic aquifer systems in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Alabama, Arkansas, westernmost Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas. Although Cenozoic deposits are not uniformly differentiated, interstate correlations of major Paleocene and Eocene units are generally established, and the altitude of the top and thickness of seven units were mapped. Younger deposits are not as well differentiated; therefore, only three of the younger units were mapped.

  10. Dog filariosis in the Lazio region (Central Italy): first report on the presence of Dirofilaria repens

    PubMed Central

    Scaramozzino, Paola; Gabrielli, Simona; Di Paolo, Michele; Sala, Marcello; Scholl, Francesco; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2005-01-01

    Background Epidemiological investigations were carried out in the Lazio Region to assess the status of canine filariosis and to evaluate the actual risk for veterinary and medical public health. Methods Since August 2001 to June 2003, a total of 972 canine blood samples, collected in public kennels and from private owners animals of the 5 Provinces of the Region, were tested. The presence of filarial parasites was evaluated by microscopy and bio-molecular techniques; the species identification was performed by means of the same diagnostic tools. Results A total of 17/972 (1.75%; 95%CI 1.06%–2.85%) blood samples were parasitized by D. repens,13 out them drawn by dogs resident in the Province of Roma, and 4 in the other provinces. Multivariate analysis was performed in order to evaluate the association between filariosis and risk factors. The origin from coastal territories seems to be a significant risk factor to acquire the infection. Conclusion This is the first report of canine filariosis in the Lazio Region, where D. repens was before reported only in foxes. The risk of human zoonotic infection is stressed, and the absence of other filarial species is discussed PMID:16185352

  11. Eruptive history of the Dieng Mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C. Dan; Sushyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location.

  12. Eruptive history of the Dieng mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.D.; Sukhyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location. 6 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Future trends of precipitation-related extremes in Central/Eastern Europe based on regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongracz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit; Kis, Anna

    2013-04-01

    For building adequate regional adaptation and mitigation strategies, global climate model (GCM) simulation results must be downscaled. Local-scale analysis requires regional climate models (RCMs) embedded in GCMs providing finer spatial and temporal resolutions, which can better serve end-users' needs. This is especially important in case of precipitation due to the large temporal and spatial variability. Furthermore, the high potential risks of drought events on agricultural production and the possible flood events in the Central/Eastern European area also highlight the importance of this issue. On the base of evaluating raw RCM precipitation outputs of ENSEMBLES model experiments for 1951-2000, simulated values usually significantly overestimate the observations in Central/Eastern Europe, except in summer when mostly underestimations were found. These biases of the raw RCM outputs are corrected using quantile matching technique when the monthly empirical distribution functions of each grid point are fitted to the observed distribution (represented by gridded E-OBS data). Then, the calculated bias correcting factors are applied to the outputs of RCM experiments for the future 2000-2100 period taking into account the SRES A1B emission scenario, according to which CO2 concentration by 2100 is estimated to exceed 700 ppm, i.e., more than twice of the preindustrial level. In order to assess precipitation tendencies in the region, several precipitation-related indices (including the number of wet days using several threshold values, e.g. 5 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm; CDD - the maximum number of consecutive dry days; RX1 - the highest 1-day precipitation amount; RX5 - the greatest 5-day rainfall total; etc.) are analyzed both on annual and seasonal scales. The results clearly suggest that consecutive dry periods in the region are likely to lengthen in the future, especially in summer. Furthermore, extreme precipitation is projected to increase in winter and autumn, especially in the northern part of the selected domain.

  14. Assessment of regional change in nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Central Valley, California, USA, 1950s-2000s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

    2013-01-01

    A regional assessment of multi-decadal changes in nitrate concentrations was done using historical data and a spatially stratified non-biased approach. Data were stratified into physiographic subregions on the basis of geomorphology and soils data to represent zones of historical recharge and discharge patterns in the basin. Data were also stratified by depth to represent a shallow zone generally representing domestic drinking-water supplies and a deep zone generally representing public drinking-water supplies. These stratifications were designed to characterize the regional extent of groundwater with common redox and age characteristics, two factors expected to influence changes in nitrate concentrations over time. Overall, increasing trends in nitrate concentrations and the proportion of nitrate concentrations above 5 mg/L were observed in the east fans subregion of the Central Valley. Whereas the west fans subregion has elevated nitrate concentrations, temporal trends were not detected, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of the water quality in this area and geologic sources of nitrate, combined with sparse and uneven data coverage. Generally low nitrate concentrations in the basin subregion are consistent with reduced geochemical conditions resulting from low permeability soils and higher organic content, reflecting the distal portions of alluvial fans and historical groundwater discharge areas. Very small increases in the shallow aquifer in the basin subregion may reflect downgradient movement of high nitrate groundwater from adjacent areas or overlying intensive agricultural inputs. Because of the general lack of regionally extensive long-term monitoring networks, the results from this study highlight the importance of placing studies of trends in water quality into regional context. Earlier work concluded that nitrate concentrations were steadily increasing over time in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, but clearly those trends do not apply to other physiographic subregions within the Central Valley, even where land use and climate are similar.

  15. There's No Place Like Home: Crown-of-Thorns Outbreaks in the Central Pacific Are Regionally Derived and Independent Events

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Molly A.; Bird, Christopher E.; Skillings, Derek J.; Smouse, Peter E.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significant biological disturbances on a tropical coral reef is a population outbreak of the fecund, corallivorous crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci. Although the factors that trigger an initial outbreak may vary, successive outbreaks within and across regions are assumed to spread via the planktonic larvae released from a primary outbreak. This secondary outbreak hypothesis is predominantly based on the high dispersal potential of A. planci and the assertion that outbreak populations (a rogue subset of the larger population) are genetically more similar to each other than they are to low-density non-outbreak populations. Here we use molecular techniques to evaluate the spatial scale at which A. planci outbreaks can propagate via larval dispersal in the central Pacific Ocean by inferring the location and severity of gene flow restrictions from the analysis of mtDNA control region sequence (656 specimens, 17 non-outbreak and six outbreak locations, six archipelagos, and three regions). Substantial regional, archipelagic, and subarchipelagic-scale genetic structuring of A. planci populations indicate that larvae rarely realize their dispersal potential and outbreaks in the central Pacific do not spread across the expanses of open ocean. On a finer scale, genetic partitioning was detected within two of three islands with multiple sampling sites. The finest spatial structure was detected at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, between the lagoon and forereef habitats (<10 km). Despite using a genetic marker capable of revealing subtle partitioning, we found no evidence that outbreaks were a rogue genetic subset of a greater population. Overall, outbreaks that occur at similar times across population partitions are genetically independent and likely due to nutrient inputs and similar climatic and ecological conditions that conspire to fuel plankton blooms. PMID:22363570

  16. Agroecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in Chernozems at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Sergey; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The ecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in soil cover of the agroecosystems is the important issue of the regional agroecological monitoring which results are actively used for landscape-adaptive land-use design with rational, environmental friendly fertilizing systems. The virgin forest-steppe plots without anthropogenous impacts are usually used as background data of microelements content in dominated zonal Chernozems. The average background content of zinc, copper, cobalt and manganese mobile forms (extracted with рН 4,8 buffer) in 10-20 cm layer of virgin Leached Chernozem at the federal reserve «Belogorye» (monitoring site «Jamskaya Steppe») are accordingly 0.75, 0.19, 0.14 and 12.8 mg/kg. According to RF actual evaluation scale for arable soils the background microelements content in the investigated virgin Chernozems have been corresponded to low level for mobile forms of zinc, copper and cobalt, and to middle level - for manganese ones that essentially limits their natural fertility. The results of carried out in the Belgorod Region in 2010-2014 agroecological monitoring have shown, that most of the arable soils are characterized by low content of the mobile forms of manganese (60 %) zinc (99,2 % of total area), cobalt (94,1 %) and copper (100 %) too that became a serious problem for intensive farming active development in the region. During active agroecological monitoring period since 1990-1994 to 2010-2014 the average regional contents of the principal microelements mobile forms have been essentially decreased: from 1,44 to 0,53 mg/kg in case of zinc, from 17,5 to 9,2 mg/kg in case of manganese - due to low level of micronutrient fertilizers and manure application. It determined the current priority in the agrochemical service development in the region with new DSS-supported agrotechnologies design and essentially increased level of profitable application of traditional and non-traditional organic and mineral-organic fertilizers.

  17. Isotopic Ratios of 18O/17O in the Galactic Central Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. S.; Sun, L. L.; Riquelme, D.; Henkel, C.; Lu, D. R.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, M.; Li, J.

    2015-08-01

    The 18O/17O isotopic ratio of oxygen is a crucial measure of the secular enrichment of the interstellar medium by ejecta from high-mass versus intermediate-mass stars. So far, however, there is a lack of data, particularly from the Galactic center (GC) region. Therefore, we have mapped typical molecular clouds in this region in the J = 1-0 lines of C18O and C17O with the Delingha 13.7 m telescope (DLH). Complementary pointed observations toward selected positions throughout the GC region were obtained with the IRAM 30 m and Mopra 22 m telescopes. C18O/C17O abundance ratios reflecting the 18O/17O isotope ratios were obtained from integrated intensity ratios of C18O and C17O. For the first time, C18O/C17O abundance ratios are determined for Sgr C (V -58 km s-1), Sgr D (V 80 km s-1), and the 1.3 complex (V 80 km s-1). Through our mapping observations, abundance ratios are also obtained for Sgr A (0 and 50 km s-1 component) and Sgr B2 (60 km s-1), which are consistent with the results from previous single-point observations. Our frequency-corrected abundance ratios of the GC clouds range from 2.58 0.07 (Sgr D, V 80 km s-1, DLH) to 3.54 0.12 (Sgr A, 50 km s-1). In addition, strong narrow components (line width less than 5 km s-1) from the foreground clouds are detected toward Sgr D (-18 km s-1), the 1.3 complex (-18 km s-1), and M+5.3-0.3 (22 km s-1), with a larger abundance ratio around 4.0. Our results show a clear trend of lower C18O/C17O abundance ratios toward the GC region relative to molecular clouds in the Galactic disk. Furthermore, even inside the GC region, ratios appear not to be uniform. The low GC values are consistent with an inside-out formation scenario for our Galaxy.

  18. Canadian groundwater inventory: Regional hydrogeological characterization of the south-central part of the maritimes basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivard, C.; Michaud, Y.; Deblonde, C.; Boisvert, V.; Carrier, C.; Morin, R.H.; Calvert, T.; Vigneault, H.; Conohan, D.; Castonguay, S.; Lefebvre, R.; Rivera, A.; Parent, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Maritimes Groundwater Initiative (MGWI) is a large, integrated, regional hydrogeological study focusing on a representative area of the Maritimes Basin in eastern Canada. The study area covers a land surface of 10 500 km2, of which 9 400 km2 are underlain by sedimentary rocks. This sedimentary bedrock is composed of a sequence of discontinuous strata of highly variable hydraulic properties, and is generally overlain by a thin layer of glacial till(mostly 4-8 m thick, but can reach 20 m). Depending on the area, 46 to 100% of the population relieson groundwater for water supply, either from municipal wells or from private residential wells. The main objectives of this project were to improve the general understanding of groundwater-flow dynamics and to provide baseline information and tools for a regional groundwater-resource assessment. This bulletin presents the current state of understanding of this hydrogeological system, along with the methodology used to characterize and analyze its distinct behaviour at three different scales. This regional bedrock aquifer system contains confined and unconfined zones, and each of its lenticular permeable strata extends only a few kilometres. Preferential groundwater recharge occurs where sandy till is present. The mean annual recharge rate to the bedrock is estimated to range between 130 and 165 mm/a. Several geological formations of this basin provide good aquifers, with hydraulic conductivity in the range 5x10-6 to 10-4m/s. Based on results of numerical flow modelling, faults were interpreted to have a key role in the regional flow. Pumping-test results revealed that the fractured aquifers can locally be very heterogeneous and anisotropic, but behave similarly to porous media. Work performed at the local scale indicated that most water-producing fractures seem to be subhorizontal and generally oriented in a northeasterly direction, in agreement with regional structures and pumping-test results. Almost all residential wells are shallow (about 20 m) open holes that are cased only through the surficial sediments.

  19. Advective heat transport associated to regional Earth degassing in central Apennine (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Chiarabba, Claudio; Frondini, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    The main springs of central Italy Apennines were investigated, in order to compute the amount of heat transported by groundwaters and to compute the fraction of heat due to the geothermal heat flux. The 46 investigated springs represent a significant portion of the permeable structures of the Apennine being characterised by a cumulative flow rate of 130 m3/s, i.e. ~ 50% of the water discharged in this sector of the Apennines. The groundwaters are characterised by relatively low temperatures, but the occurrence of an heat anomaly is evident when the differences between the temperatures of springs and recharge waters are compared with the corresponding altitude difference. A total amount of heat of ~ 2.1 × 109 J/s has been estimated to be transported by these groundwaters. Most of this heat (57%) is given by geothermal warming while the remaining 43% is due to gravitational potential energy dissipation. The computed geothermal warming implies very high heat flux, with values higher than 300 mW/m2, in a large sector of the Apennines which was considered to date be characterised by normal to low conductive heat flux. The same area is affected by high fluxes of CO2 from a deep source and the strict correlation between the geothermal warming and the input of deep CO2-rich fluids is testified by the fact that all the thermally anomalous groundwaters are also affected by the input of deeply derived CO2 contrary to those not thermally anomalous which display any input of deeply derived CO2. This correspondence reasonably suggest the geothermal heat is transported from depth by CO2 rich fluids, which enter the aquifers and mix with infiltrating waters. The amount of geothermal heat transported by central Apennine cold groundwaters is in absolute very high. It results the double than the hydrothermal heat discharge of the US Cascade Range (~1×103 MW) and is about the half of the total heat discharged at Yellowstone, one of the largest hydrothermal system of the world (5-6 × 103 MW). The large heat flux anomaly highlighted by this study opens a new vision of the Apennines belt and requires the existence of a thermal source such as a large magmatic intrusion at depth. Recent tomographic images of the area confirm the presence of such intrusion visible as a broad negative velocity of seismic waves. In addition, our results indicate that the thermal regime of tectonically active areas of the Earth, where meteoric waters infiltrate and deeply circulate, should be revised on the base of mass and energy balances of the groundwater systems.

  20. Late Quaternary Magmatism in the Three Sisters Region, Central Oregon Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. F.; Price, J. D.; Ren, M.

    2012-12-01

    The intersection of the Cascade trend with the Brothers Fault Zone in Central Oregon has been marked by extensive Quaternary magmatism. Three magmatic systems, represented by the shield, cinder cone, and composite volcanoes of the Mount Bachelor Chain, the large South Sister composite volcano and the youngest mafic and silicic lavas of the Newberry shield volcano, illustrate contrasting means of magmatic evolution. Mount Bachelor chain volcanoes (~18 - 8 Ka) produced basalt, basaltic andesite and andesite. Variation from basaltic andesite to andesite can be modeled by ~24 wt.% fractionation of observed phenocrysts (pc, ol, cpx, mt), but the trends to lower K/Rb and Ba/Rb with differentiation is unexplained by fractionation and is best modeled through assimilation-fractional crystallization involving assimilation of ~20 wt.% of a silicic component. South Sister volcano produced basaltic andesite to rhyolite magma over a span of ~50 Ka. In contrast with the Mount Bachelor Chain, magma evolution may be explained by fractional crystallization, with rhyolite produced by ~75 wt.% fractionation of observed phenocrysts (pc, ol, cpx, opx, mt, il). Magma chambers were maintained at relatively high temperature, as indicated by two-pyroxene thermometry (andesite ~1036 +/-116 and dacite 1005 +/- 51 oC) two-oxide thermometry (dacite ~823 +/- 72 and rhyolite 815 +/- 84 oC) and the absence of alkali feldspar phenocrysts. Newberry volcano is a broad shield comprised of abundant basaltic lava and cinder cones with a summit caldera marked by rhyolitic lava and pumice cones. Its youngest basaltic eruptions (~7 Ka) of the northwest fissure zone produced lava ranging from basalt to andesite. Variation diagrams suggest strong control by magma mixing between basalt and rhyolite to form basaltic andesite and andesite, although such mixing requires a potentially excessive proportion of rhyolite (up to ~40 wt.%). Estimated depths and temperatures of segregation calculated assuming fractionation of olivine for basaltic rocks (wt.% MgO>8.00) from the northwest rift of Newberry and the Mount Bachelor Chain suggest depths of 71-78 km (ToC 1454-1473) for the Newberry basalt and 51-78 km (ToC 1416-1494) for Bachelor Chain basalt. Although these depths and temperatures are similar, Nb/La versus Ba/La suggests that the Mount Bachelor Chain and other Central Oregon Cascade basaltic rocks were derived from subduction modified continental lithosphere, whereas the Newberry northwest rift basaltic rocks were derived from OIB-modified continental lithosphere.

  1. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it`s new marketing plan.

  2. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: multiresistant tick.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fabrício Amadori; Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti; Ferreira, Maiara Sanitá Tafner; Gregorio, Fabiano de Vargas; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; Sangioni, Luís Antônio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the acaricide resistance of tick populations in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), which has not previously been reported. Fifty-four cattle farms were visited and specimens of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were collected and subjected to the adult immersion test, using nine commercial acaricides in the amidine, pyrethroid and organophosphate groups. Climatic data, including monthly precipitation, were recorded. The results from the present study demonstrated that seven of the acaricides analyzed presented mean efficacy values of less than 95%, with large differences among the products tested. Nine of them exhibited satisfactory and unsatisfactory acaricide results on at least one farm. In conclusion, the farms located in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, exhibited populations of R. (Boophilus) microplus with variable degrees of susceptibility to different acaricides, thus suggesting that resistance to the active compounds exists. It is suggested that treatment protocols should be implemented at the beginning of winter and summer, using the acaricides that showed efficacy in the adult immersion test. PMID:25271453

  3. Structural Rearrangements of the Central Region of the Morbillivirus Attachment Protein Stalk Domain Trigger F Protein Refolding for Membrane Fusion*

    PubMed Central

    Ader, Nadine; Brindley, Melinda A.; Avila, Mislay; Origgi, Francesco C.; Langedijk, Johannes P. M.; Örvell, Claes; Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plemper, Richard K.; Plattet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown how receptor binding by the paramyxovirus attachment proteins (HN, H, or G) triggers the fusion (F) protein to fuse with the plasma membrane for cell entry. H-proteins of the morbillivirus genus consist of a stalk ectodomain supporting a cuboidal head; physiological oligomers consist of non-covalent dimer-of-dimers. We report here the successful engineering of intermolecular disulfide bonds within the central region (residues 91–115) of the morbillivirus H-stalk; a sub-domain that also encompasses the putative F-contacting section (residues 111–118). Remarkably, several intersubunit crosslinks abrogated membrane fusion, but bioactivity was restored under reducing conditions. This phenotype extended equally to H proteins derived from virulent and attenuated morbillivirus strains and was independent of the nature of the contacted receptor. Our data reveal that the morbillivirus H-stalk domain is composed of four tightly-packed subunits. Upon receptor binding, these subunits structurally rearrange, possibly inducing conformational changes within the central region of the stalk, which, in turn, promote fusion. Given that the fundamental architecture appears conserved among paramyxovirus attachment protein stalk domains, we predict that these motions may act as a universal paramyxovirus F-triggering mechanism. PMID:22431728

  4. Bio-optical characterization in an ultra-oligotrophic region: the North central Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheireddine, Malika; Jones, Burton

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, satellite-derived ocean color observations have been the only means of evaluating optical variability of the Red Sea. During a cruise in autumn 2014, we investigated the variability of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) in the North Central Red Sea (NCRS) with a particular focus on the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, and colored dissolved organic matter, CDOM, absorption. To our knowledge, these are some of the measurements of these properties in the Red Sea. The IOPs are derived from the concentration and physical properties of suspended particles in the ocean. They provide a simple description of the influence of these particles on the light within the water column. Bio-optical relationships found for ultra-oligotrophic waters of the six stations sampled significantly depart from the mean standard relationships provided for the global ocean, showing the peculiar character of the Red Sea. These optical anomalies relate to the specific biological and environmental conditions occurring in the Red Sea ecosystem. Specifically, the surface specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships due to a high proportion of relatively large sized phytoplankton. Conversely, bbp values are much higher than the mean standard values for a given chlorophyll-a concentration, Chl a. This presumably results from the influence of highly refractive submicrometer particles of Saharan origin in the surface layer of the water column.

  5. Evolution of mantle sources in the Black Hills region of the central Arizona Transition Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, S. . Dept. of Geology); Wittke, J.H. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Two principal Tertiary basaltic units occur in the central Arizona Transition Zone: [1] the Hickey Formation (10--15 Ma) and [2] the Perkinsville and Verde Formations (3--8 Ma). Lavas in these units were extruded before and after local Basin and Range extensional faulting. Middle Miocene Hickey volcanic centers are spaced across the Transition Zone, in a line roughly perpendicular to the edge of the Colorado Plateau. Early Hickey flows are commonly alkaline and include both potassic (shoshonite, trachybasalt, tephrite) and sodic lavas (basanite, alkali olivine basalt, hawaiite). Production of alkaline lavas was followed by the extrusion of subalkaline lavas (tholeite, basaltic andesite). Early Pliocene Perkinsville and Verde lavas are mostly subalkaline with subordinate alkaline flows that are less alkalic than the Hickey flow. Detailed trace-element and isotopic data reveal a systematic transition from lithospheric to mixed, to asthenospheric lavas. These data suggest that the size of the lithospheric component in Transition Zone magmas decreased with time as asthenospheric liquids stripped the lithosphere of its easily fusible components. Basin and Range extension of the thermally-worked lithosphere permitted eruption of essentially unmodified asthenospheric melts. The transition from lithosphere-dominated magmas to asthenosphere-dominated magmas took about 10 Ma in this area.

  6. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. V - Deconvolution of the central highlands region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, A. E.; Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Haines, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of thorium in the lunar central highlands measured from orbit by the Apollo 16 gamma-ray spectrometer is subjected to a deconvolution analysis to yield improved spatial resolution and contrast. Use of two overlapping data fields for complete coverage also provides a demonstration of the technique's ability to model concentrations several degrees beyond the data track. Deconvolution reveals an association between Th concentration and the Kant Plateau, Descartes Mountain and Cayley plains surface formations. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains model with Th less than 1 part per million, which is typical of farside highlands but is infrequently seen over any other nearside highland portions of the Apollo 15 and 16 ground tracks. It is noted that, if the Cayley plains are the result of basin-forming impact ejecta, the distribution of Th concentration with longitude supports an origin from the Imbrium basin rather than the Nectaris or Orientale basins. Nectaris basin materials are found to have a Th concentration similar to that of the Descartes Mountains, evidence that the latter may have been emplaced as Nectaris basin impact deposits.

  7. Review of the Ordovician stratigraphy and fauna of the Anarak Region in Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Leonid E.; Hairapetian, Vachik; Evans, David H.; Pour, Mansoureh Ghobadi; Holmer, Lars E.; Baars, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The Ordovician sedimentary succession of the Pol-e Khavand area, situated on the northern margin of the Yazd block, has important differences from those in other parts of Central Iran. It has been established that the presumably terminal Cambrian to Lower Ordovician volcano-sedimentary Polekhavand Formation, exposed in the Pol-e Khavand area, has non-conformable contact with greenschists of the Doshakh Metamorphic Complex. The succeeding, mainly siliciclastic Chahgonbad Formation contains low to moderately diverse faunal assemblages, including brachiopods, cephalopods, trilobites and tentaculitids. The Darriwilian age of the lower part of the formation is well established by the co-occurrence of brachiopod genera Camerella, Phragmorthis, Tritoechia and Yangtzeella. The associated rich cephalopod fauna is different from the Darriwilian cephalopod associations of the Alborz terrane and may show some affinity with warm water faunas of North China and South Korea. It is likely that the Mid Ordovician fauna recovered from the lower part of the Chahgonbad Formation settled in the area sometime during a warming episode in the late Darriwilian. By contrast the low diversity mid Katian brachiopod association includes only three taxa, which occur together with the trilobite Vietnamia cf. teichmulleri and abundant, but poorly preserved tentaculitids questionably assigned to the genus Costatulites. This faunal association bears clear signatures linking it to the contemporaneous cold water faunas of the Arabian, Mediterranean and North African segments of Gondwana. Four brachiopod species recovered from the Chahgonbad Formation, including Hibernodonta lakhensis, Hindella prima, Lomatorthis? multilamellosa and Yangtzeella chupananica are new to science.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from the Central-Himalaya region: Distribution, sources, and risks to humans and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiang; Luo, Wei; Gao, Jiajia; Xu, Lan; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Romesh, Kumar Y; Giesy, John P; Kang, Shichang; de Boer, Jacob

    2016-06-15

    The Central Himalayas are not only a natural boundary between China and Nepal but also a natural barrier for transport of air masses from South Asia. In this study, 99 samples of surface soil were collected from five regions of Nepal on the southern side of the Central Himalayas, and 65 samples of surface soil were obtained from the northern side on the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, China (TPC). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils were measured to determine their distribution, potential for accumulation, and sources, as well as risks to humans and the environment. Mean concentrations of Σ16PAHs were 2.4×10(2) and 3.3×10(2)ng/g dry mass (dm) in soils collected from the TPC and Nepal, respectively. Significant correlations between concentrations of lower molecular weight PAHs (LMW-PAHs) in soils and altitude were found. Total organic carbon (TOC) in soil was positively but weakly correlated with concentrations of PAHs in the study area, which suggested little role of TOC in adsorption of PAHs. The cities of Kathmandu and Pokhara in Nepal and Nyemo (especially Zhangmu Port), Shigatse, and Lhasa on the TPC, were areas with relatively great concentrations of PAHs in soils. The main sources of PAHs identified by positive matrix factorization were emissions from motor vehicles and combustion of coal and biomass in the Central Himalayas. Calculated total benzo[a]pyrene potency equivalents of 0.23-44ng/gdm and index of additive cancer risk of 3.8×10(-3)-9.2×10(-1) indicated that PAHs in almost all soils investigated posed de minimis risk of additional cancer to residents via direct contact and had no significant risk of additional cancers through consumption of potable water. Mean risk quotient values indicated that 39% of soils had a slight risk to wildlife and the ambient environment of the Central Himalayas. PMID:26971206

  9. Development of regional skews for selected flood durations for the Central Valley Region, California, based on data through water year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamontagne, Jonathan R.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Berenbrock, Charles; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ferris, Justin C.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    Flood-frequency information is important in the Central Valley region of California because of the high risk of catastrophic flooding. Most traditional flood-frequency studies focus on peak flows, but for the assessment of the adequacy of reservoirs, levees, other flood control structures, sustained flood flow (flood duration) frequency data are needed. This study focuses on rainfall or rain-on-snow floods, rather than the annual maximum, because rain events produce the largest floods in the region. A key to estimating flood-duration frequency is determining the regional skew for such data. Of the 50 sites used in this study to determine regional skew, 28 sites were considered to have little to no significant regulated flows, and for the 22 sites considered significantly regulated, unregulated daily flow data were synthesized by using reservoir storage changes and diversion records. The unregulated, annual maximum rainfall flood flows for selected durations (1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 15-day, and 30-day) for all 50 sites were furnished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Station skew was determined by using the expected moments algorithm program for fitting the Pearson Type 3 flood-frequency distribution to the logarithms of annual flood-duration data. Bayesian generalized least squares regression procedures used in earlier studies were modified to address problems caused by large cross correlations among concurrent rainfall floods in California and to address the extensive censoring of low outliers at some sites, by using the new expected moments algorithm for fitting the LP3 distribution to rainfall flood-duration data. To properly account for these problems and to develop suitable regional-skew regression models and regression diagnostics, a combination of ordinary least squares, weighted least squares, and Bayesian generalized least squares regressions were adopted. This new methodology determined that a nonlinear model relating regional skew to mean basin elevation was the best model for each flood duration. The regional-skew values ranged from -0.74 for a flood duration of 1-day and a mean basin elevation less than 2,500 feet to values near 0 for a flood duration of 7-days and a mean basin elevation greater than 4,500 feet. This relation between skew and elevation reflects the interaction of snow and rain, which increases with increased elevation. The regional skews are more accurate, and the mean squared errors are less than in the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data's National skew map of Bulletin 17B.

  10. Effects of fire on regional evapotranspiration in the central Canadian boreal forest

    SciTech Connect

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Peckham, Scott D.; Gower, Stith T.; Ewers, Brent

    2009-04-08

    Changes in fire regimes are driving the carbon balance of much of the North American boreal forest, but few studies have examined fire-driven changes in evapotranspiration (ET) at a regional scale. This study used a version of the Biome-BGC process model with dynamic and competing vegetation types, and explicit spatial representation of a large (106 km2) region, to simulate the effects of wildfire on ET and its components from 1948 to 2005 by comparing the fire dynamics of the 1948-1967 period with those of 1968-2005. Simulated ET averaged, over the entire temporal and spatial modeling domain, 323 mm yr-1; simulation results indicated that changes in fire in recent decades decreased regional ET by 1.4% over the entire simulation, and by 3.9% in the last ten years (1996-2005). Conifers dominated the transpiration (EC) flux (120 mm yr-1) but decreased by 18% relative to deciduous broadleaf trees in the last part of the 20th century, when increased fire resulted in increased soil evaporation, lower canopy evaporation, lower EC and a younger and more deciduous forest. Well- and poorly-drained areas had similar rates of evaporation from the canopy and soil, but EC was twice as high in the well-drained areas. Mosses comprised a significant part of the evaporative flux to the atmosphere (22 mm yr-1). Modeled annual ET was correlated with net primary production, but not with temperature or precipitation; ET and its components were consistent with previous field and modeling studies. Wildfire is thus driving significant changes in hydrological processes, changes that may control the future carbon balance of the boreal forest.

  11. Timing of Proterozoic regional deformation in the southern Manzano Mountains, central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, P.W. ); Bowring, S.A. . Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences); Karlstrom, K.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Early Proterozoic supracrustal and plutonic rocks of the Manzano Mtns have sustained a remarkably complex history of ductile deformation, metamorphism, and plutonism. A comparison of field relations and deformational features between the two southernmost plutons suggests that they differ greatly in timing of intrusion with respect to regional deformation. The Monte Largo pluton consists of medium-grained granodiorite and quartz monzonite that is bounded on three sides by strongly deformed quartzite and phyllite. An S1 foliation is folded by upright, N-trending folds (F2). S2, axial planar to F2, is mylonitic along the E pluton margin. The degree of deformation in the pluton is comparable to that in the country rock. The Monte Largo pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.66 Ga. The Priest pluton is a 10-km-long, N-S elongate, megacrystic quartz monzonite that is intrusive into quartzite sand schists. Large microcline crystals define a magmatic foliation. The body contains a weakly to moderately well-developed NE-striking tectonic foliation defined by flattened quartz grains, best developed along the W margin. On the N end of the pluton, map-scale folds in quartzite and schist have been cross-cut, and a contact metamorphic aureole cross-cuts country rock structures. The degree of deformation in the pluton is significantly less than that of country rock quartzites, some of which are mylonitic. The Priest Pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.45 Ga. These data suggest that the ca. 1.66 Ga Monte Largo pluton is syntectonic with respect to regional deformation, whereas the ca. 1.45 Ga priest pluton is post-tectonic with respect to the regional deformation.

  12. Annual variation of (7)Be soil inventory in a semiarid region of central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lohaiza, F; Velasco, H; Juri Ayub, J; Rizzotto, M; Di Gregorio, D E; Huck, H; Valladares, D L

    2014-04-01

    Reliable information on environmental radionuclides atmospheric entrance, and their distribution along the soil profile, is a necessary condition for using these soil and sediment tracers to investigate key environmental processes. To address this need, (7)Be content in rainwater and the wet deposition in a semiarid region at San Luis Province, Argentina, were studied. Following these researches, in the same region, we have assessed the (7)Be content along a soil profile, during 2.5 years from September 2009 to January 2012. As expected, the specific activity values in soil samples in the wet period (November-April) were higher than in the dry period (May-October). During the investigated period (2009 - beginning 2012) and for all sampled points, the maximum value of the (7)Be specific activity (Bq kg(-1)) was measured at the surface level. A typical decreasing exponential function of (7)Be areal activity (Bq m(-2)) with soil mass depth (kg m(-2)) was found and the key distribution parameters were determined for each month. The minimum value of areal activity was 51 Bq m(-2) in August, and the maximum was 438 Bq m(-2) in February. The relaxation mass depth ranges from 2.9 kg m(-2) in March to 1.3 kg m(-2) in August. (7)Be wet deposition can explain in a very significant proportion the (7)Be inventory in soil. During the period of winds in the region (September and October), the (7)Be content in soil was greater than the expected contribution from wet deposition, situation that is compatible with a higher relative contribution of dry deposition at this period of the year. PMID:24487256

  13. Large Earthquakes in Low-Strain Regions of Central Asia, Mongolia, and Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, A.

    2014-12-01

    Although often characterized by an apparent low level of seismicity, areas of low-strain accumulation are subjected to considerable seismic and associated natural hazards. However, we are often unaware of these hazards, because in contrast to active plate boundaries, recurrence intervals of ground-rupturing earthquakes are typically on the order of thousands of years. Geodetic or seismicity records may thus not yet reflect full seismic cycles. Low-strain regions may occur in stable continental interiors or tectonically active intracontinental mountain belts, which often comprise areas of spatially disparate reverse and strike-slip faulting, up to thousands of kilometers away from plate boundaries. These regions may be shortened at rates on the order of centimeters per year, with no clear spatiotemporal pattern of seismicity, and single fault-slip rates may attain less than one to a few millimeters per year. The Kyrgyz and Kazakh Tien Shan, the Mongolian Hangay or the Iranian Alborz mountains are prime examples that share these characteristics. These regions are located along the northern rim of the ongoing Indian-Eurasian or Arabian-Eurasian collision, but are hundreds of kilometers away from the corresponding plate boundaries. Historical earthquakes M > 7 are known from the Alborz mountains and several events with M > 8 are known from the northern Tien Shan and Mongolia - all with poorly constrained recurrence rates. We review our ongoing tectonic studies of these areas, which differ in faulting mechanisms, the preservation potential of primary and secondary rupture evidence, and the level of population density and value concentrations. We use paleoseismic trenching, geomorphic and terrestrial LiDAR data analysis, and geochronology to gain insights into the complex deformation processes that govern these areas to better understand how present-day deformation is accommodated in areally extensive deformation zones in continental interiors.

  14. Spatio-temporal stress states estimated from seismicity rate changes in the Tokai region, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, S.; Matsumura, S.

    2004-12-01

    Since unprecedented large-scale silent slip was detected by GPS in 2001 in the Tokai region, evaluating whether such movement is uniquely connected to the expected Tokai earthquake or repeatedly occurs in this area becomes vitally important. Because of short history of GPS observations and the limited areal coverage surrounding the Suruga trough, we take advantage of continuously recorded seismicity that is presumed to be sensitive to the deformation of the seismogenic depth. Together with the well-maintained NIED earthquake data, we employ the seismicity-to-stress inversion approach of rate/state friction to infer the spatio-temporal stress changes in and around the presumed hypocentral zone of the future Tokai earthquake. Mapping stress changes inverted from microseismicity year by year, we find that the stress under Lake Hamana, the western future Tokai source, has been decreasing since 1999, during which the GPS data showed a normal trend. In contrast, stresses in the surrounding regions are calculated to have increased by transfer from Lake Hamana region. We interpret that this continuous process is associated with the 2000-2004 Tokai slow slip event. The characteristic patterns related to aseismic stress-release are also identified in the early 1980s and during 1987-1989, when slow events are inferred to have occurred on the basis of conventional geodetic measurements. Revisiting the seismotectonics and taking into account the mechanical implications of the inversion results, we argue that the transition zone situated between a deep stable creeping zone and a locked zone undergoes episodic creep and plays an important role in the transfer of stress to the locked zone. Consequently, even though we speculate that the current (2000-to-present-day) silent slip event might be one of the repeating events, the inferred enlargement of the stress releasing area is significant and possibly raises the likelihood of the next Tokai earthquake.

  15. Geology and hydrocarbon habitat of the Amu-Darya region (central Asia)

    SciTech Connect

    Stoecklin, J.; Orassianou, T. )

    1991-08-01

    The Amu-Darya region, shared by the Soviet Republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tadzhikistan, is the second-largest gas province of the USSSR after western Siberia both production and reserves. Its more than 180 gas, gas-condensate, and minor oil fields include 6 giants with reserves of over 3 tcf, such as the Sovietabad field of eastern Turkmenistan, which in 1989 produced nearly 1 tcf of gas and which had an initial recoverable reserve of 38 tcf of gas. oil in addition to gas is produced mainly in the eastern Uzbekian and Tadzhikian parts. The region represents a large depression covering the southeastern portion of the epi-Hercynian Turan platform to the north of the Alpine-Himalayan fold belts of northeastern Iran and northern Afghanistan. Continental, paralic, lagoonal, and shallow-marine environments characterized Mesozoic-Tertiary platform sedimentation, with maximum sediment thicknesses of about 10 km in the Alpine foredeeps at the southern platform margin. Large amounts of essentially gas-prone organic matter accumulated in the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic. Main hydrocarbon reservoirs are Callovian-Oxfordian shelf-platform and reefal carbonates under cover of thick Kimmeridgian-Tithonian salt, and shale-sealed Lower Cretaceous continental and near-shore deltaic sandstones. In the Tadzhik basin in the extreme east, oil is contained in Lower Tertiary fractured carbonates interbedded with bituminous shales. Synsedimentary differential movements and gently folding in the Miocene to Pliocene were the main trap mechanisms. The region has still a considerable undrilled future potential, particularly in its deeper southern parts.

  16. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, K. Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-10-01

    Doppler Lidar and Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) observations are utilized to show wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth (AOD) during daytime boundary layer evolution over the Himalayan region. Fourier analysis depicted 60-80 min periods dominant during afternoon hours, implying that observed modulations could be plausible reason for the AOD forenoon-afternoon asymmetry which was previously reported. Inclusion of wave amplitude in diurnal variation of aerosol radiative forcing estimates showed ~40% additional warming in the atmosphere relative to mean AOD. The present observations emphasize the importance of wave induced variations in AOD and radiation budget over the site.

  17. [Index Copernicus: The Central and Eastern European Journals Ranking System. Why indexing needed in the region?] .

    PubMed

    Graczynski, M R

    2000-09-10

    Index Copernicus is ranking system set up by members of the medical community in the Region. There were created five groups of parameters like scientific, editorial and technical quality, circulation and frequency-market stability, which allow for the generation of such a ranking system. The Authors of the Ranking System are aware of the deficiencies of parametrical analysis of science, however they believe the numbers at least set up clear, objective and just rules for all. Index Copernicus could be said the primary objectives of the system for which it has been created for. PMID:11037614

  18. Numerical calculation of the three dimensional electrical field in the central region of a cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.; Lind, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    To provide detailed and accurate electric fields in the ion source-puller region and at the dee dummy-dee gap for a cyclotron, a relaxation method solution of Laplace's equation has been used. A conventional difference equation with variation in mesh size and relaxation factor as well as different schemes for boundary corrections have been developed to achieve roughly 1 percent accuracy for a thre-dimensional domain with 10/sup 6/ mesh points. Although the computation requires considerable computer time, it is much less expensive than electrolytic tank analogue methods for measuring field distributions around complex electrode configurations.

  19. A Fresh Look at the Copernicus Crater Central Peak Region Through High-Resolution NIR Data from the SIR-2 Instrument on Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugiolacchi, R.; Mall, U.; Bhatt, M.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.

    2010-03-01

    We looked at the NIR reflectance spectral characteristics of surface materials in the central peaks region of the Copernicus crater using high spectral and spatial resolution data from the SIR-2 instrument on board of the Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission.

  20. Regional paleotopographic trends and production, Muddy Sandstone (Lower Cretaceous), central and northern Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Dolson, J. ); Muller, D.; Stein, J.A. ); Evetts, M.J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Muddy Sandstone and equivalent strata have produced more than 1.5 billion bbl of oil-equivalent hydrocarbons. Production is controlled principally by unconformities formed during a relative sea level low-stand. Reservoirs are found in paleohills of older marine sandstones, younger valley fills and associated alluvial plain channel sandstones, and transgressive marine deposits. At least ten paleodrainage basins existed at maximum lowstand. A regional drainage divide formed in southern Wyoming and separated southeast-flowing from north-west-flowing alluvial systems. Local tributaries stripped drainage divides of fine-grained detritus derived from the underlying Skull Creek Shale and older marine sandstones. In contrast, trunk streams carried medium- and coarse grained-sands eroded from eastern, southern, and western provenances of Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. The best fluvial reservoirs are developed within these coarser grained trunk systems. Reservoir data display little or no correlation between depth and porosity due to secondary dissolution porosity developed at all depths. Valley fill and channel reservoirs have produced at least 359 MMBOE, onlap cycles another 315+ MMBOE, and older marine buried-hill reservoirs more than 268 MMBOE. The best per-field reserves are from marine sandstones. Regional production patterns reflect proximity to mature Skull Creek and Mowry shale source beds and favorable trapping conditions within individual paleodrainages. Future hydrocarbon exploration successes will require drilling to the Muddy Sandstone in deeper basin settings and a better understanding of the role of unconformities and diagenesis in controlling hydrocarbon accumulations.

  1. A comparison of single-station backazimuth estimates with regional event locations in the Central Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Martin C.; Huang, Shaosong; Snoke, J. A.

    1993-06-01

    The study examines the accuracy of single-station backazimuth measurements from polarization analysis of near regional P wave arrivals. The data set consists of 37 signals from mining explosions in the distance range 100 to 300 km, recorded at station BLA, Blacksburg, Virginia. The station-source backazimuth estimates derived from the three-component station are compared with results derived from independent information, primarily from regional network epicenter locations. For signal/noise ratios in excess of 2.0, the mean backazimuth error of the single-station estimate is 6 degrees (for sources in the northwest quadrant) and the standard deviation is 21 degrees. Generally, only the initial (1 second or less) portion of the P wave arrival is polarized in the source-station azimuth. Off-azimuth arrivals consisting of converted and scattered energy appear early in the P coda. Emergent P wave arrivals from the delay-fired explosions, combined with steep apparent angles of incidence (averaging 22 degrees) complicate the single-station, three-component location problem.

  2. Regional trends in the oxygen isotopic compositions of granitoid plutons, central and southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Wesolowski, D.; Sans, J.R.; Thornton, C.P.; Ohmoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    Whole-rock oxygen isotope analyses of 125 samples from 87 plutons, together with average values from 20 additional plutons reported by Wenner (1981) and Casadevall and Rye (1980), representing nearly every major post-Grenville pluton of the crystalline Appalachians of Maryland-Alabama, are summarized. The high-/sup 18/O granitoids of the Blue Ridge, Ashland-Wedowee, and Inner Piedmont belts are indicative of source regions with a substantial metasedimentary component. The absence of high-/sup 18/O granitoids in the Slate Belt throughout its Precambrian-Hercynian intrusive history suggests an oceanic crust beneath this terrane, although meteoric water-rock interaction may have affected many of these plutons. The Charlotte and Raleigh belts contain plutons with /delta//sup 18/O/sub wr/ ranges intermediate between these two extremes. High-/sup 18/O Hercynian plutons of the Kiokee (Clouds Creek, Edgefield) and '' '' belts (terrane east of the Raleigh and north of the Eastern Slate Belt containing the Petersburg, Fallmouth and Gunpowder intrusives) suggest a significant metasedimentary component in the source regions of the youngest and eastern most of the Southern Appalachian intrusives.

  3. A survey and a molecular dynamics study on the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiapu; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases which are serious neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals occur in various of species. Unlike many other neurodegenerative diseases affected by amyloid, prion diseases can be highly infectious. Prion diseases occur in many species. In humans, prion diseases include the fatal human neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI), Gerstmann-Strussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and Kuru etc. In animals, prion diseases are related to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or 'mad-cow' disease) in cattle, the chronic wasting disease (CWD) found in deer and elk, and scrapie seen in sheep and goats, etc. More seriously, the fact that transmission of the prion diseases across the species barrier to other species such as humans has caused a major public health concern worldwide. For example, the BSE in Europe, the CWD in North America, and variant CJDs (vCJDs) in young people of UK. Fortunately, it is discovered that the hydrophobic region of prion proteins (PrP) controls the formation of diseased prions (PrP(Sc)), which provide some clues in control of such diseases. This article provides a detailed survey of recent studies with respect to the PrP hydrophobic region of human PrP(110-136) using molecular dynamics studies. PMID:25373387

  4. Structure and tectonic evolution of the transitional region between the central Appalachian foreland and interior cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Samuel; Onasch, Charles M.

    1999-05-01

    The transitional region between the central Appalachian foreland basin and Michigan and Illinois interior cratonic basins is characterized by first and second order structures related to plate convergent processes at the Laurentian plate margin. The first order structures are the Waverly and Cincinnati arches believed to be forebulges associated with the Taconic and Alleghanian orogenies, respectively. The second order structures are basement faults that exhibit a protracted history of recurrent displacements. First and second order structures are linked in that the basement faults have had a major effect in controlling the location and uplift history of the arches. The Waverly and Cincinnati arches share many similarities that suggest a common process of arch development. The Waverly arch developed over the low density rocks in the Central Metasedimentary belt of the Grenville province near its structural contact with the Central Gneiss belt. Uplift on the arch commenced during passive margin development in the Cambrian, but reached its maximum development at the end of the Middle Ordovician Taconic orogeny. Reactivation of faults along the arch continued as late as the Pennsylvanian. The Cincinnati arch as expressed in the Precambrian basement surface is coincident with the underlying Grenville front on a regional scale. The front is a major crustal suture which served to localize and control the history of the Cincinnati arch. Local deviations between the location of the arch and front are explained by the presence of Proterozoic rift basins filled with low density sedimentary rocks, by interactions between the developing Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois basins, and by a northward decrease in Alleghanian tectonic loading. In a pattern similar to the Waverly arch, the Cincinnati arch began its history with a period of regional uplift as early as the Middle to Late Ordovician followed by maximum arch development in the Pennsylvanian in response to the Alleghanian orogeny. Neither arch showed significant migration following initial development as predicted by general models of forebulge development. We attribute this to the effect of preexisting basement anisotropies, such as lithotectonic boundaries, which served to control the initial location of the forebulge and affect its subsequent history. A third major arch, the Kankakee arch, occurs in the western part of the transitional region and is oriented at right angles to the other arches. Unlike the Waverly and Cincinnati arches, this arch owes its development to subsidence in the adjacent Michigan and Illinois basins rather than orogenic activity in the Appalachians.

  5. Sedimentary Processes Observed on Offshore of Zonguldak-Kozlu Region, Central Black SEA*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küçük, H. M.; Dondurur, D.; ćifçi, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Black Sea has a narrow shelf and steepy continental slope at southern side. Recent studies show the active sedimentary processes sediment transportation from shelf to abyssal depths. Study area is located in the central Black Sea Turkish continental slope and is under compressional tectonic regime of Western Pontides. A total of 1950 km of high resolution multichannel seismic reflection, Chirp sub-bottom profiler and multibeam bathymetry data were collected offshore of Zonguldak from continental shelf to abyssal plain of Black Sea along the margin. We used 216 channel 1350 m long digital streamer and a 45+45 cubic inch Generator-Injector (GI) gun fired at every 25 m. Chirp sub-bottom profiler system has 9 transducers operating at 2,7-6,7 kHz frequency band with 3,5 kHz central frequency. Side mounted multibeam bathymetry system has 50 kHz transducers with 153 degrees max. swath width. Southern Black Sea has a very narrow shelf and a very steep continental slope. Both seismic and bathymetry data show that the shelf break in the study area is located at a water depth of about 100 m and continental slope deepens to 2200 m maximum water depths of the abyssal plain with a maximum slope of about 27 degrees. The acoustic data also show that there are significant erosional structures along the margin especially on the continental slope and rise offshore of Zonguldak. An unstable area in the NW consisting of relatively larger slides and buried debris lobes is named Amasra mass failure zone. Different type of sliding with varying sizes including sliding in the steep slope zones, smaller-scale slides on the canyon walls, and relatively larger slides exist in the Amasra mass failure zone. We suggest that the slides in the Amasra mass failure zone is possibly triggered by excess pore pressures in shallow sediments due to the submarine fluid flow possibly produced from gas hydrate dissociation. Warmer Mediterranean water transportation during the rapid transgression period after the last glacial maximum in the Black Sea together with the rapid sedimentation possibly resulted in a destabilization of gas hydrates, which caused excess pore pressures in shallow sediments followed by sediment failures. A conceptual model together with phase curves for the gas hydrate stability in the area is produced to explain the formation of larger slides in the Amasra mass failure zone by excess pore pressures due to local gas hydrate dissociation and fluid flow. Small-scale normal faults around these type of sedimentary structures are also observed and we suggest that these faults are also secondary factor promoting the failures providing the suitable pathways for fluid flow as well as the suitable weak surfaces for the sliding. Several small-scale debris lobes are observed on the apron side and abyssal plain of the study area. Seismic data also show slab-type sliding on the upper continental slope to the south, whereas block-type sliding is formed by rotational faults on the canyon walls. Both types of mass wasting occur in the area due to gravitational loading on the steep slope zones possibly triggered by local seismic activity. * This presentation was supported by the EUROCORES programme TOPO-EUROPE of the European Science Foundation

  6. Regional winter climate of the southern central Andes: Assessing the performance of ERA-Interim for climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusticucci, Matilde; Zazulie, Natalia; Raga, Graciela B.

    2014-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of using reanalysis (ERA-Interim) for climate studies over the southern central Andes in South America, we have compared the most recent version of different data sets available to the community. The data sets include gridded in situ observations: Climate Research Unit (CRU), Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), and University of Delaware; merged satellite and in situ data: Global Precipitation Climatology Project; and satellite estimates: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. We pay particular attention to the region between 30° and 37°S and also the period 1970-1976 to evaluate the data sets. This is the period of maximum availability of meteorological stations in the region. Whereas all data sets provide an adequate representation of mean winter, GPCC provides the best for winter precipitation due to the large number of stations included in gridding. The CRU data set has fewer observations throughout the period. Although it cannot reproduce the localized maxima in the Andes, it provides a better representation of the regional precipitation and is best suited to evaluate trends. The temperature in the region is best estimated by CRU. We evaluate the ERA-Interim reanalysis to determine potential shortcomings. The trends in the region were analyzed during the period 1979-2010, and while CRU indicates a significant decrease in winter precipitation, ERA-Interim shows virtually no significant trends. Interannual variability is well represented by ERA-Interim, and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, which has been proven to be the principal source of year to year precipitation variability in the region, is highly correlated there.

  7. Regional expression of P2Y(4) receptors in the rat central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Song, Xianmin; Guo, Wei; Yu, Qiang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Zhenghua; He, Cheng; Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2011-12-01

    P2Y receptors are G protein-coupled receptors composed of eight known subunits (P2Y(1, 2, 4, 6, 11, 12, 13, 14)), which are involved in different functions in neural tissue. The present study investigates the expression pattern of P2Y(4) receptors in the rat central nervous system (CNS) using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The specificity of the immunostaining has been verified by preabsorption, Western blot, and combined use of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Neurons expressing P2Y(4) receptors were distributed widely in the rat CNS. Heavy P2Y(4) receptor immunostaining was observed in the magnocellular neuroendocrine neurons of the hypothalamus, red nucleus, pontine nuclei, mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, motor trigeminal nucleus, ambiguous nucleus, inferior olive, hypoglossal nucleus, and dorsal motor vagus nucleus. Both neurons and astrocytes express P2Y(4) receptors. P2Y(4) receptor immunostaining signals were mainly confined to cell bodies and dendrites of neurons, suggesting that P2Y(4) receptors are mainly involved in regulating postsynaptic events. In the hypothalamus, all the vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) neurons and all the orexin A neurons were immunoreactive for P2Y(4) receptors. All the neurons expressing P2Y(4) receptors were found to express N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptor 1 (NR1). These data suggest that purines and pyrimidines might be involved in regulation of the release of the neuropeptides VP, OT, and orexin in the rat hypothalamus via P2Y(4) receptors. Further, the physiological and pathophysiological functions of the neurons may operate through coupling between P2Y(4) receptors and NR1. PMID:21769584

  8. Isopach Map and Regional Correlations of the Fire Clay Tonstein, Central Appalachian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Outerbridge, William F.

    2003-01-01

    A tonstein that occurs within the Middle Pennsylvanian Fire Clay coal zone is a widespread marker bed that has been used for correlation purposes since the early 1900?s. Seiders (1965) first demonstrated that this tonstein is an altered volcanic air-fall ash deposit. Lyons and others (1992) have correlated the tonstein across Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia, and Tennessee on the basis of mineralogical and geochemical ?fingerprinting?. The correlation of the tonstein, herein often referred to as the Fire Clay tonstein over this four-state area, and the abundance of thickness data on this tonstein permit construction of an isopach map that depicts its distribution. In general, the tonstein thins from Tennessee, where it is up to 12 inches (30 cm) thick, northeastward to central West Virginia, where it is less than 4 in. (10 cm) thick, and its preserved area is about 14,300 sq. mi. (37,000 sq. km). The preserved volume is 0.90 cu. mi or 3.7 cu. km. The compaction ratio of ash to rock is 6:1, so the original ash volume deposited in this area was 5.4 cubic miles (22.2 cubic kilometers). The trends in thickness suggest the source of the ash was a volcano in the Yucatan tectonic plate, which, had it not moved relative to the North American Plate since the Pennsylvanian, would be located in the present Gulf of Mexico, south of Louisiana. The thickness and extent of the tonstein appears to have been controlled partly by winds and partly by the surface on which it landed. Its absence in some areas indicates that the ash was not preserved, probably because it floated downstream as pumice.

  9. Natural foci of Borrelia lusitaniae in a mountain region of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tarageľová, Veronika Rusňáková; Mahríková, Lenka; Selyemová, Diana; Václav, Radovan; Derdáková, Markéta

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. It is caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex and transmitted to humans by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana are the most common genospecies in Central Europe. In contrast, Borrelia lusitaniae predominates in Mediterranean countries such as Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Slovakia, its prevalence is low and restricted to only a few sites. The aim of our research was to study the expansion of ticks into higher altitudes in the ecosystem of the Malá Fatra mountains (north Slovakia) and their infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. pathogens. Questing ticks were collected by flagging in seven years (2004, 2006-2011) at three different altitudes: low (630-660m above sea level (ASL)), intermediate (720-750m ASL), and high (1040-1070m ASL). Tick abundance was highest at the lowest altitude and lowest at the highest altitude. The average infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in nymphs and adults was 16.8% and 36.2%, respectively. The number of infected ticks decreased from 38.5% at the lowest altitude to 4.4% at the highest altitude. B. lusitaniae was the most frequently found genospecies (>60% of the ticks found positive for B. burgdorferi s.l.) in all sites in all the studied years with the exception of 2008 when B. afzelii predominated (62%). Our study confirms the spread of Ixodes ricinus ticks to higher altitudes in Slovakia. The discovery that our mountain study sites were a natural foci of B. lusitaniae was unexpected because this genospecies is usually associated with lizards and xerothermic habitats. PMID:26711673

  10. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M.; Hassan, Loutfy M.; Galal, Tarek M.; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2–5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of Hail Flora by some foreign weeds such as Solanum nigrum, Lactuca serriola and Amaranthus lividus. The presence of these weeds points out the need to monitor the vegetation change in Hail region, and also other regions of Saudi Arabia, in order to elucidate the human impact on the wild plants diversity as human activities change with the fast development in the kingdom. PMID:23961067

  11. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic growth increases the risk of AIDS transmission and violence. Highways connect secluded localities and may threaten local populations. This region has been undergoing rapid localized development booms, thus creating outposts of rapid and temporary migration, which may introduce health risks to remote areas. PMID:20553625

  12. Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in salami manufactured in the Marche Region (Central Italy).

    PubMed

    Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Blasi, Giuliana; Masini, Laura; Calza, Laura; Duranti, Anna; Santarelli, Sabrina; Fisichella, Stefano; Pezzotti, Giovanni; Aquilanti, Lucia; Osimani, Andrea; Tonucci, Franco

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in salami samples collected from production plants of the Marche Region, and to assess the end-product acceptability based on the former Italian regulations and European Commission (EC) Regulation No 2073/2005. Based on the limits specified in the former Italian regulations, the percentage of non-acceptable samples was 34.3%, whereas based on the limits specified in EC Regulation N degrees 2073/2005, a lower percentage (17.1%) was seen. A similar trend was seen also when only the Ciauscolo salami were considered, with 45.2 and 27.4% of non-acceptable samples, respectively. No correlations were identified between occurrence of L. monocytogenes and the main parameters or the manufacturing processes. PMID:20035114

  13. A summary of the Cenozoic stratigraphy and geologic history of the Coalinga region, central California

    SciTech Connect

    Bartow, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Cenozoic strata along the southwest side of the San Joaquin Valley provide a nearly complete record of the depositional history and structural evolution of this large sedimentary basin. The diverse sedimentary facies represented are evidence of repeated cycles of transgression and regression that are due to relative changes in sea level. These changes, in turn, can be interpreted in terms of either tectonic activity - that is, uplift or subsidence - or eustatic sea-level change. This chapter briefly describes the stratigraphy and outlines the geologic history of the region surrounding Coalinga and the epicenter of the May 2, 1983, earthquake, concentrating on Cenozoic time, during which tectonic relations most relevant to the existing stress field were established. This paper describes the geologic setting; Paleogene history; and Neogene and Quaternary history.

  14. Miocene to Recent structural evolution of the Nevado de Toluca volcano region, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Palomo, A.; Macías, J. L.; Garduño, V. H.

    2000-03-01

    Based on aerial photography, satellite imagery, and detailed field work, a geological and structural model of Nevado de Toluca and its surroundings is presented. The Nevado de Toluca volcano is built upon the intersection of three complex fault systems of different age, orientation, and kinematics. These systems from the older to the younger are: (a) The Taxco-Querétaro Fault System (NNW-SSE) with clear expression south of the volcano; (b) The San Antonio Fault System (NE-SW) that runs between the San Antonio and Nevado de Toluca volcanoes; and (c) The Tenango Fault System (E-W) located to the east of Nevado de Toluca volcano. Our field data, supported by previous studies, suggest that these systems have coexisted since the late Miocene. In addition, the stratigraphy, chronology, and kinematics of fault planes point to the existence of at least three main deformation events that have affected the region since the late Miocene. During the early Miocene, an extensional phase with the same deformation style as the Basin and Range tectonics of northern Mexico caused the formation of horsts and grabens south of Nevado de Toluca and allowed the intrusion of sub-vertical dikes oriented NW-SE and NNW-SSE. During the middle Miocene, a transcurrent episode generated NE-SW faults that presented two main motions: the first movement was left-lateral with a σ3 oriented NW-SE and later turned into normal through a counter-clockwise rotation of σ3 up to a N-S position. The latest deformation phase started during the late Pliocene and produced oblique extension ( σ3 oriented NE-SW) along E-W-trending faults that later changed to pure extension by shifting of σ3 to a N-S orientation. These faults appear to control the late Pleistocene to Holocene monogenetic volcanism, the flank collapses of Nevado de Toluca volcano and the seismic activity of the region.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the central region of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1808

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, Dinalva A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Riffel, R.; Winge, Cláudia

    2013-03-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1808, obtained with the Gemini's Thermal-Region Camera Spectrograph at a spatial resolution of ˜26 pc. The high spatial resolution allowed us to detect bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions at 8.6 and 11.3 μm in the galaxy centre (˜26 pc) up to a radius of 70 pc from the nucleus. The spectra also present [Ne II]12.8 μm ionic lines, and H2 S(2) 12.27 μm molecular gas line. We found that the PAHs profiles are similar to Peeters's A class, with the line peak shifted towards the blue. The differences in the PAH line profiles also suggest that the molecules in the region located 26 pc north-east of the nucleus are more in the neutral than in the ionized state, while at 26 pc south-west of the nucleus, the molecules are mainly in ionized state. After removal of the underlying galaxy contribution, the nuclear spectrum can be represented by a Nenkova's CLUMPY torus model, indicating that the nucleus of NGC 1808 hosts a dusty toroidal structure with an angular cloud distribution of σ = 70°, observer's view angle i = 90° and an outer radius of R0 ˜ 0.55 pc. The derived column density along the line of sight is NH = 1.5 × 1024 cm2, which is sufficient to block the hard radiation from the active nucleus, and would explain the presence of PAH molecules near to the NGC 1808's active nucleus.

  16. Larval trematode infections in Galba truncatula (Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae) from the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France.

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2016-05-01

    Adult Galba truncatula ( ≥ 4 mm in shell height) were collected from 135 habitats for 3 years (2012-2014) to identify parasite species via the study of cercariae, and to determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the type of snail habitat (six types). A total of 323 infected snails and ten digenean species were noted in the bodies of 11,025 G. truncatula after their dissection. Snails with Calicophoron daubneyi and/or Fasciola hepatica were found in 20.7% and 12.5% of the habitats, respectively, and most of these infected snails were collected from rainwater-draining furrows and pools in meadows. The percentages were lower for snails with Echinostoma revolutum (9.6% of habitats) and Haplometra cylindracea (7.4%), and were less than 5% for those parasitized by any of the other five species of digenean. The highest prevalence of all digenean infections was noted in pools (9.4%), followed by furrows located in meadows (8.3%) and ponds (5.1%). The prevalence noted for each digenean infection varied with the type of habitat. In furrows located in meadows, the infection rate of C. daubneyi in snails (3.5%) was significantly higher than that of F. hepatica (2.2%). In pools, values greater than 1.5% were noted for C. daubneyi, H. cylindracea and Opistoglyphe ranae. In ponds, E. revolutum was the dominant species (prevalence, 2.5%). Parasite species richness in G. truncatula was greater in the Brenne Natural Regional Park than in the nearby region of Limousin (ten instead of eight). The distribution and prevalence of each parasite species were dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat. PMID:25804319

  17. Climate and glacier changes in Mt. Everest region in Central Southern Himalaya (Nepal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakuri, Sudeep; Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Guyennon, Nicolas; D'Agata, Carlo; Smiraglia, Claudio; Tartari, Gianni

    2013-04-01

    Mount Everest region influenced by monsoon-dominated climate system is characterized by dense distribution of debris-covered glaciers. Very low number of papers has addressed on the interdisciplinary linkage of hydro-meteorological process and the glacier dynamics in high elevation areas. Here we present the glacier changes from 1958 to 2011 and the meteorological observations from 1992 to 2011 with the aim of understanding coupled climate-glacier dynamics using satellite imagery, historical maps and insitu field measurements. We developed reconstructed single series for temperature and precipitation through the monthly quantile mapping and expectation maximization techniques from the insitu observations in different automatic weather stations located in the Mt. Everest region. Multi-temporal satellite products and topographic maps were used for glacier terminus, surface and snowline altitude (SLA) analysis from 1958 to 2011. We observed the continuous shrinkage of glaciers since 1958 to 2011 with accelerated rate in the recent years. The average terminus retreatment of analyzed 29 glaciers was about 372±37 m (7.0 m a-1) in 1958 to 2011 with retreat rate of 6.1±1.9 m a-1 in 1958-75 and nearly its double in 2008-11. The glacier surface area had loss of 14.3±5.9 % (0.27 % a-1) from 396.2 km2 to 339.5 km2 in 53 years with the loss by 0.12 %a-1 in 1958-75 to 0.70 % a-1 in recent years. The smaller glaciers with

  18. Factors associated with low birth weight among neonates born at Olkalou District Hospital, Central Region, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Muchemi, Onesmus Maina; Echoka, Elizabeth; Makokha, Anselimo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ninety-two percent of Low Birth Weight(LBW) infants are born in developing countries, 70% in Asia and 22% in Africa. WHO and UNICEF estimate LBW in Kenya as11% and 6%by 2009 Kenya Demographic Health Survey. The same survey estimated LBW to be 5.5% in Central Province, Kenya. Data in Olkalou hospital indicated that prevalence of LBW was high. However, factors giving rise to the problem remained unknown. Methods A cross-sectional analytic study was therefore conducted to estimate prevalence and distribution and determine the factors associated with LBW in the hospital. LBW was defined as birth of a live infant less than 2500g. We collected data using a semi-structured questionnaire and review of health records. A total 327 women were randomly selected from 500mothers. Data was managed using Epi Info 3.3.2. Results The prevalence of LBW was 12.3% (n=40). The mean age of mothers was 25.6±6.2 years. Mean birth weight was 2928±533 grams. There were 51.1% (n=165) male neonates and 48.9% (n=158) females. The following factors were significantly associated with LBW:LBW delivery in a previous birth (OR=4.7, 95%C.I.=1.53-14.24), premature rapture of membranes (OR=2.95, 95%C.I.=1.14-7.62), premature births (OR=3.65, 95%C.I.=1.31-10.38), and female newborn (OR=2.32, 95%C.I.=1.15-4.70). On logistic regression only delivery of LBW baby in a previous birth (OR=5.07, 95%C.I.=1.59-16.21) and female infant (OR=3.37, 95%C.I.=1.14-10.00)were independently associated with LBW. Conclusion Prevalence of LBW in the hospital was higher than national estimates. Female infant and LBW baby in a previous birth are independent factors. Local prevention efforts are necessary to mitigate the problem. Population-based study is necessary to provide accurate estimates in the area. PMID:26090056

  19. Definition of a Sinkhole hazard methodology in the Pontina Plain (Latium Region, Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoli, Pamela; Mazza, Roberto; Capelli, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The work presented here is the continuation of " Sinkhole Project of Latium Region" (2002), carried out by Researchers of the Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology of the Department of Geological Sciences of the University "Roma Tre", Rome (Italy), through which were found, in different plain of the whole Region, Sinkhole prone areas, using a methodology based on the superimposition of thematic layers corresponding to geological and anthropogenic breaking factors. In the last years several specific investigations have been conducted by Researchers of the Laboratory in the Pontina Plain, that is located in the south west of the Latium Region, concerning the geological-stratigraphic setting, the sketch of flow in the aquifers located in the Pontine depression, the chemiphysical groundwater characheteristics, the density of wells, the amount of well pumping and piezometric changes. This required the implementation of several piezometric and chemiphysical surveys, the collection and validation of a large number of stratigraphic and geophysical data. All data in the archive have been computerized and the maps vectorized. This makes it possible today to address the analysis with Geographical Information Systems and to start numerical flow simulations, regarding both the heavily drained deep confined aquifer, and the areas subject to the presence of an important water exchange between the recharge area in the Lepini Mountains (carbonatic ridge) and terrigenous aquifers of the plain. Among the main causes that trigger the catastrophic collapses there are, in fact, all the phenomena that cause the mass density reduction through erosion, leaching, dissolution. All these agents are associated with water circulation: flow, velocity, CO2 saturation rate, carbonates saturation rate. The spread in the Pontina plain of deep and high pumping wells, wrongly built without the correct way of progress, and without the realization of cemented portions properly located, can lead to the rise of the artesian groundwater that flows into sandy horizons scarcely thickened, carrying out liquefaction and collapse phenomena. Thus, thanks to the numerous piezometric surveys, different areas have been identified in the plain: artesian wells areas with full water rise, areas with few artesian wells and areas with partial water lift. The analysis of geophysical data has allowed to draw deep profiles that show how along the axis of the plain the roof of carbonates has very changeable heights, due to a complex tectonic evolution. In correspondence to one of the most senior buried structural heights in the carbonate substratum of the plain, a karst cave was intercepted during a drilling on the vertical of a sinkhole opened in 1989, which could be interpreted as a paleospring. The right application of technologies for drilling and completion of the hole, however, has prevented against the recurrence of the phenomenon of collapse. This poster illustrates a matrix calculus implemented by the authors, by which you can come to an assessment of the distribution of Sinkhole hazard in the Pontina Plain. The matrix takes into account different parameters that are related to the breaking causes of the phenomenon. Each parameter is assigned a value (index) representing its variation. The area studied was divided into 150 m square cells, each cell is assigned the value of the Sinkhole hazard index, that is the sum of the various indices assigned to that cell. Such a methodology widely used in other scientific research must be improved by optimizing the values and weights that were assigned to each parameter and implementing the matrix by adding more parameters that influence the phenomenon. A discussion about the importance of these characterizing parameters is presented for further development of the methodology.

  20. Proposed modification on attenuation relationships in central east of Iran with special respect to Kerman region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzadafshar, K.; Abbaszadeh Shahri, A.

    2010-12-01

    As a routine procedure, the estimation of source parameters such as focal mechanism and magnitude is known and usual for moderate to great earthquakes, however some of them such as directivity effect and filing step are rarely estimated and taking into account. According to the radiation pattern, directivity effect is a source parameter which causes significant spatial variations in near field strong ground motion. Its significant variations could be obtained on strike normal component of strong motion parameters in forward and backward directions. Due to presence of several active faults and the recent events, Kerman region is prone to high seismic risk for moderate to great interaplate earthquakes. This study has an attempt on estimation of a modification factor which can define the effect of directivity in empirical attenuation relationships in this region. In order to model unilateral and bilateral rupturing, ANSYS which is work on base of Finite Elements Method (FEM) is applied to achieve reliable functions. These functions indicate relation between directivity angle and ground acceleration. Three basic models were conducted to compute variation of maximum velocity and acceleration with directivity angle, its cosine and directivity model parameters. The authors used Somerville et al. (1997) directivity model parameter with some changes to R/LCos2?,where R indicates epicenteral distance,L refers to rupture length and ? shows the directivity angel, as variable parameters. To obtain modified ground motion parameters, these models were applied to the source of two happened earthquakes in Kerman province (26th December 2003 Bam and 22nd February 2005 Zarand). These parameters consist of fault normal component to fault parallel component of velocity and acceleration ratios (Vn/Vp and an/ap), fault normal component to average horizontal velocity and acceleration ratios(Vn/V and an/a). Vn/Vp and an/ap are large in the both of forward directivity direction, where velocity and acceleration are larger, and backward directivity direction, where theses strong motion parameters are smaller. Fault normal to average horizontal velocity and acceleration ratios which are defined from earthquake modeling are large in both of the forward and backward directions. These ratios have close correlation with studied ground motion data. The obtained results of this study proved the proposed modification on the attenuation relationship and its application on the mentioned earthquakes verified the obtained correction factor for east of Iran.

  1. Reproductive biology of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperettii in the central region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadoon, M.K.; Kandeal, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperettii, in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia was investigated over a period of one year. Study of reproductive cycle of male and female C. c. gasperettii revealed that the breeding season is relatively short (April and May). Thereafter females laid eggs by mid of July and hatching probably had taken place by the end of September. No activity was observed during winter, this may indicate just a single clutch per year. Relative testis weight to body weight was drastically increased (X¯ = 0.88%) during the peak of reproductive activity (May) where maximal expansion of seminiferous tubules was also attained during April and May (X¯ = 209 μm and 191 μm, respectively). Likewise, the ovarian activity was the highest during May where ovarian parameters were greater in terms of relative ovarian weight to body weight and ova diameter being 0.46% and 2.29 mm, respectively. Fat body weight was increased drastically just before the peak of reproductive activity then started to decline during June. It could be concluded that the harsh desert conditions and similar environments certainly affect reproductive activity of Saudi Arabian reptiles including snakes. PMID:25972758

  2. Genotyping Mycobacterium bovis from cattle in the Central Pampas of Argentina: temporal and regional trends.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ernesto; Macías, Analía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Magnano, Gabriel; Zapata, Laura; Fernández, Analía; Canal, Ana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Cataldi, Angel; Caimi, Karina; Zumárraga, Martín

    2014-04-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentinean cattle. Among the molecular methods for genotyping, the most convenient are spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). A total of 378 samples from bovines with visible lesions consistent with TB were collected at slaughterhouses in three provinces, yielding 265 M. bovis spoligotyped isolates, which were distributed into 35 spoligotypes. In addition, 197 isolates were also typed by the VNTR method and 54 combined VNTR types were detected. There were 24 clusters and 27 orphan types. When both typing methods were combined, 98 spoligotypes and VNTR types were observed with 27 clusters and 71 orphan types. By performing a meta-analysis with previous spoligotyping results, we identified regional and temporal trends in the population structure of M. bovis. For SB0140, the most predominant spoligotype in Argentina, the prevalence percentage remained high during different periods, varying from 25.5-57.8% (1994-2011). By contrast, the second and third most prevalent spoligotypes exhibited important fluctuations. This study shows that there has been an expansion in ancestral lineages as demonstrated by spoligotyping. However, exact tandem repeat typing suggests dynamic changes in the clonal population of this microorganism. PMID:24676658

  3. Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season

    SciTech Connect

    Andreae, M.O.; Talbot, R.W.; Andreae, T.W.; Harriss, R.C.

    1988-02-20

    We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both acids at ground level and their vertical distribution in the forest canopy point to the existence of vegetative sources as well as to production by chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Dry deposition of the gaseous acids appears to be a major sink. The concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase were about 2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations of the corresponding species in the atmospheric aerosol. About 50--60%/sub 0/ of the aerosol (total) formate and acetate were in the size fraction below 1.0 ..mu..m diameter.

  4. Genotyping Mycobacterium bovis from cattle in the Central Pampas of Argentina: temporal and regional trends

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Ernesto; Macías, Analía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Magnano, Gabriel; Zapata, Laura; Fernández, Analía; Canal, Ana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Cataldi, Angel; Caimi, Karina; Zumárraga, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentinean cattle. Among the molecular methods for genotyping, the most convenient are spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). A total of 378 samples from bovines with visible lesions consistent with TB were collected at slaughterhouses in three provinces, yielding 265 M. bovis spoligotyped isolates, which were distributed into 35 spoligotypes. In addition, 197 isolates were also typed by the VNTR method and 54 combined VNTR types were detected. There were 24 clusters and 27 orphan types. When both typing methods were combined, 98 spoligotypes and VNTR types were observed with 27 clusters and 71 orphan types. By performing a meta-analysis with previous spoligotyping results, we identified regional and temporal trends in the population structure of M. bovis. For SB0140, the most predominant spoligotype in Argentina, the prevalence percentage remained high during different periods, varying from 25.5-57.8% (1994-2011). By contrast, the second and third most prevalent spoligotypes exhibited important fluctuations. This study shows that there has been an expansion in ancestral lineages as demonstrated by spoligotyping. However, exact tandem repeat typing suggests dynamic changes in the clonal population of this microorganism. PMID:24676658

  5. Modeling water balance distribution in a natural semiarid region of central Mexico using a SVAT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Braud, I.; Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Centro de Investigaciones Del Agua de Querétaro

    2010-12-01

    Around the world water is becoming insufficient, especially in the semiarid regions where there is a high inter-annual variability in the amount and distribution of the rainfall. Studies on this kind of environments would allow us to understand the mechanisms that determine the spatial and temporal distribution of the water balance components. The study was carried out from October 2005 to October 2008 in two semiarid sites located in the south of the Mexican Plateau: El Carmen in Guanajuato State and Cadereyta in Queretaro State. The work aim was to provide a better understanding of the hydrological processes that occur in semiarid ecosystems, quantifying and modeling the water balance in order to define the distribution of the water and energy balance components in El Carmen and Cadereyta. For this purpose, the SiSPAT (Simple Soil Plant Atmosphere Transfer) model was used based on a parameterization of the soil, plants and atmosphere components. It was found that, using SiSPAT, the water balance components were particularly sensitive to parameters associated with the soil and the leaf area index. The model results showed that during the studied period, the annual evapotranspiration in Cadereyta was less than PG (-10 and -5%) and above PG for El Carmen (10 y 30%). Runoff and percolation at 5m were null. Finally in both sites there was a simulated loss of water stored in the soil.

  6. Regional reconstruction of flash flood history in the Guadarrama range (Central System, Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Morata, C; Ballesteros-Cánovas, J A; Trappmann, D; Beniston, M; Stoffel, M

    2016-04-15

    Flash floods are a common natural hazard in Mediterranean mountain environments and responsible for serious economic and human disasters. The study of flash flood dynamics and their triggers is a key issue; however, the retrieval of historical data is often limited in mountain regions as a result of short time series and the systematic lack of historical data. In this study, we attempt to overcome data deficiency by supplementing existing records with dendrogeomorphic techniques which were employed in seven mountain streams along the northern slopes of the Guadarrama Mountain range. Here we present results derived from the tree-ring analysis of 117 samples from 63 Pinus sylvestris L. trees injured by flash floods, to complement existing flash flood records covering the last ~200years and comment on their hydro-meteorological triggers. To understand the varying number of reconstructed flash flood events in each of the catchments, we also performed a comparative analysis of geomorphic catchment characteristics, land use evolution and forest management. Furthermore, we discuss the limitations of dendrogeomorphic techniques applied in managed forests. PMID:26845178

  7. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosman, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Although Cenozoic deposits are not uniformly differentiated, interstate correlations of major Paleocene and Eocene units are generally established throughout the area. Younger deposits are not as well differentiated. Some stratigraphic designations made at surface exposures cannot be extended into the sub-surface, and the scarcity of distinct geologic horizons has hampered differentiation on a regional scale. The complexities of facies development in Oligocene and younger coastal deposits preclude the development of extensive recognizable horizons needed for stratigraphic applications. Coastal deposits are a heterogeneous assemblage of deltaic, lagoonal, lacustrine, palustrine, eolian, and fluvial clastic facies and local calcareous reef facies. Even major time boundaries, as between geologic series, are not fully resolved. Surficial Quaternary deposits overlie the truncated subcrops of Tertiary strata and generally are distinguishable, although some contacts between Pleistocene and underlying Pliocene deposits have been a ?lstoncal source of controversy. Glacially related terraces are characteristic of the Pleistocene Epoch, and alluvium of aggrading streams typifies the Holocene. 

  8. Disease Mutations in the Ryanodine Receptor Central Region: Crystal Structures of a Phosphorylation Hot Spot Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Lau, Kelvin; Van Petegem, Filip

    2015-02-09

    Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) are huge Ca{sup 2+} release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and form targets for phosphorylation and disease mutations. We present crystal structures of a domain in three RyR isoforms, containing the Ser2843 (RyR1) and Ser2808/Ser2814 (RyR2) phosphorylation sites. The RyR1 domain is the target for 11 disease mutations. Several of these are clustered near the phosphorylation sites, suggesting that phosphorylation and disease mutations may affect the same interface. The L2867G mutation causes a drastic thermal destabilization and aggregation at room temperature. Crystal structures for other disease mutants show that they affect surface properties and intradomain salt bridges. In vitro phosphorylation experiments show that up to five residues in one long loop of RyR2 can be phosphorylated by PKA or CaMKII. Docking into cryo-electron microscopy maps suggests a putative location in the clamp region, implying that mutations and phosphorylation may affect the allosteric motions within this area.

  9. Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    Bundelkhand region of Central India is a hot spot of water scarcity, land degradation, poverty and poor socio-economic status. Impacts of integrated watershed development (IWD) interventions on water balance and different ecosystem services are analyzed in one of the selected watershed of 850 ha in Bundelkhand region. Improved soil, water and crop management interventions in Garhkundar-Dabar (GKD) watershed of Bundelkhand region in India enhanced ET to 64% as compared to 58% in untreated (control) watershed receiving 815 mm annual average rainfall. Reduced storm flow (21% vs. 34%) along with increased base flow (4.5% vs. 1.2%) and groundwater recharge (11% vs. 7%) of total rainfall received were recorded in treated watershed as compared to untreated control watershed. Economic Water productivity and total income increased from 2.5 to 5.0 INR m-3 and 11,500 to 27,500 INR ha-1 yr-1 after implementing integrated watershed development interventions in GKD watershed, respectively. Moreover IWD interventions helped in reducing soil loss more than 50% compared to control watershed. The results demonstrated that integrated watershed management practices addressed issues of poverty in GKD watershed. Benefit to cost ratio of project interventions was found three and pay back period within four years suggest economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in Bundelkhend region. Scaling-up of integrated watershed management in drought prone rainfed areas with enabling policy and institutional support is expected to promote equity and livelihood along with strengthening various ecosystem services, however, region-specific analysis is needed to assess trade-offs for downstream areas along with onsite impact.

  10. Quantification and regionalization of groundwater recharge in South-Central Kansas: Integrating field characterization, statistical analysis, and GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    2000-01-01

    A practical methodology for recharge characterization was developed based on several years of field-oriented research at 10 sites in the Great Bend Prairie of south-central Kansas. This methodology combines the soil-water budget on a storm-by-storm year-round basis with the resulting watertable rises. The estimated 1985-1992 average annual recharge was less than 50mm/year with a range from 15 mm/year (during the 1998 drought) to 178 mm/year (during the 1993 flood year). Most of this recharge occurs during the spring months. To regionalize these site-specific estimates, an additional methodology based on multiple (forward) regression analysis combined with classification and GIS overlay analyses was developed and implemented. The multiple regression analysis showed that the most influential variables were, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation, average maximum springtime soil-profile water storage, average shallowest springtime depth to watertable, and average springtime precipitation rate. Therefore, four GIS (ARC/INFO) data "layers" or coverages were constructed for the study region based on these four variables, and each such coverage was classified into the same number of data classes to avoid biasing the results. The normalized regression coefficients were employed to weigh the class rankings of each recharge-affecting variable. This approach resulted in recharge zonations that agreed well with the site recharge estimates. During the "Great Flood of 1993," when rainfall totals exceeded normal levels by -200% in the northern portion of the study region, the developed regionalization methodology was tested against such extreme conditions, and proved to be both practical, based on readily available or easily measurable data, and robust. It was concluded that the combination of multiple regression and GIS overlay analyses is a powerful and practical approach to regionalizing small samples of recharge estimates.

  11. The basin structure imaged by teleseismic virtual-source profiling - a case study in Three Gorges region, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Z.; Zhou, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) region is situated near the northern margin of the Yangtze platform and it is bounded at north by the Qinling-Dabie Orogenic Belt. As one of the oldest blocks in central China, the collision between the Yangtze platform and the Qinling-Dabie Orogenic Belt has resulted in a complex geologic history and a highly heterogeneous distribution of lithological units, with a combination of igneous intrusions and sedimentary basins in the TGR region. To study the crustal structure and the geodynamics beneath the TGR region a lot of studies have been conducted for many years using the geologic and the geophysical data. However, many details on the crustal structure and the geodynamic history of the TGR cannot be resolved well in part due to current limit in the distribution of seismologic stations in the TGR and surrounding regions. Aiming to study the detail of the crustal structure under the TGR, we deployed the dense seismic networks instrumented with the short-period seismometers in the TGR region during the four summers from 2008 to 2011. These networks were able to record the local micro-earthquakes as small as ML0.1 and many teleseismic events with the magnitudes over M5.5 and the distances less than 90 degrees. Due to the high local noises from the human activity and the water current in rivers, and the scatters from the shallow small-scale structures it's hard to estimate the reflection structures, especially for the shallow structures, using only the local earthquake records. For the consistent waveforms and the low-frequency energy of the teleseismic P-coda waves the virtual-source imaging method of using the short-period teleseismic records is suitable to image the upper-crust reflectors of the TGR region. The reflections of the crustal interfaces are generated by deconvolving the source wavelet from the teleseismic data. Here we demonstrate a case of using the teleseismic array data to image the upper crustal structure around the TGR region. The bottoms of two basins and the major reflectors of the upper curst are imaged directly for the first time. The surface locations and the cross sections of the imaged basins match well with the surface distribution of the geological units and the seismic velocity cross section inverted by the seismic tomography, respectively. The results of this study are important for the interpretation of the interactions between the big Three Gorges reservoir and the upper crustal structure, and the research on the geological/geodynamic evolution of the TGR region.

  12. Genetic diversity in the block 2 region of the merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium falciparum in central India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria continues to be a significant health problem in India. Several of the intended Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens are highly polymorphic. The genetic diversity of P. falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) has been extensively studied from various parts of the world. However, limited data are available from India. The aim of the present study was a molecular characterization of block 2 region of MSP-1 gene from the tribal-dominated, forested region of Madhya Pradesh. Methods DNA sequencing analysis was carried out in 71 field isolates collected between July 2005 to November 2005 and in 98 field isolates collected from July 2009 to December 2009. Alleles identified by DNA sequencing were aligned with the strain 3D7 and polymorphism analysis was done by using Edit Sequence tool (DNASTAR). Results The malaria positivity was 26% in 2005, which rose to 29% in 2009 and P. falciparum prevalence was also increased from 72% in 2005 to 81% in 2009. The overall allelic prevalence was higher in K1 (51%) followed by MAD20 (28%) and RO33 (21%) in 2005 while in 2009, RO33 was highest (40%) followed by K1 (36%) and MAD20 (24%). Conclusions The present study reports extensive genetic variations and dynamic evolution of block 2 region of MSP-1 in central India. Characterization of antigenic diversity in vaccine candidate antigens are valuable for future vaccine trials as well as understanding the population dynamics of P. falciparum parasites in this area. PMID:22439658

  13. Serological markers and risk factors related to hepatitis B virus in dentists in the Central West region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Paiva, Enilza Maria Mendonça; Tiplle, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; de Paiva Silva, Eliane; de Paula Cardoso, Divina das Dores

    2008-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered the major occupational risk agent for dentists. The Central West region of Brazil is considered an intermediate endemic pattern area, but currently there is no information about the HBV prevalence in dentists of Goiânia, Goiás. This study aimed at the detection of the HBV infection rate and risk factors for dentists of Goiânia and the comparison of the obtained data with the general population and other groups. A randomized sample of 680 professionals participated in this study. All dentists gave written consent for the procedure and filled out a questionnaire about risk factors. The HBV serological markers were analyzed using ELISA test and the presence of anti-HBc was observed in 41 (6.0%) of the dentists. None of them was HBsAg positive. Significant relationships with HBV positivity were observed with gender, the time working as a dentist and the use of incomplete personal protective equipment (PPE). The HBV prevalence found in this group of dentists was lower than the endemic pattern of the general population, other health care workers of the region and the dentists from other regions in Brazil. These results may indicate a positive impact of vaccination considering the high adherence of the dentists to the immunization program (98.4%). Finally, the use of complete PPE by the majority as well as other standard precautions recommended for health care workers could be responsible for the low HBV seroprevalence. PMID:24031211

  14. Spatial dependence of the star formation history in the central regions of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Pino, Andrés; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio; Gallart, Carme; Carrera, Ricardo; Monelli, Matteo; Buonanno, Roberto; Marconi, Gianni

    2013-08-01

    We present the star formation history (SFH) and the age-metallicity relation (AMR) in three fields of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. They sample a region spanning from the centre of the galaxy to beyond one core radius, which allows studying galactocentric gradients. In all the cases, we found stars as old as 12 Gyr, together with intermediate-age and young stellar populations. The last star formation events, as young as 1 Gyr old, are mainly located in the central region, which may indicate that the gas reservoir in the outer parts of the galaxy would have been exhausted earlier than in the centre or removed by tidal interactions. The AMR is smoothly increasing in the three analysed regions and similar to each other, indicating that no significant metallicity gradient is apparent within and around the core radius of Fornax. No significant traces of global UV-reionization or local SNe feedback are appreciated in the early SFH of Fornax. Our study is based on VLT photometry as deep as I ˜ 24.5 and the IAC-STAR/IAC-POP/MINNIAC suite of codes for the determination of the SFH in resolved stellar populations.

  15. Surficial geology of the Safsaf region, south-central Egypt, derived from remote-sensing and field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, P.A.; Breed, C.S.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    We used a decorrelation-stretched image of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Bands 1, 4, and 7 and field data to map and describe the main surficial units in the hyperarid Safsaf region in south-central Egypt. We show that the near-infrared bands on Landsat TM, which are sensitive to very subtle changes in mineralogy common to arid regions, significantly improve the geologist's capability to discriminate geologic units in desert regions. These data also provide the spatial and spectral information necessary to determine the migration patterns and provenance of eolian materials. The Safsaf area was the focus of our post flight field studies using Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data following the discovery of buried paleochannels in North Africa. Most of the channels discernible on SIR images are not expressed in TM data, but traces of a few channels are present in both the SIR and the TM data within the Wadi Safsaf area. Here we present a detailed digital examination of the SIR and the TM-band reflectance and reflectance-ratio data at three locations of the more obvious surface expressions of the buried channels. Our results indicate that the TM expressions of the channels are not purely topographic but are more compositional in nature. Two possibilities may account for the TM expressions of the buried channels: 1) concentrations of windblown, iron-rich materials that accumulated along subtle curvilinear topograpohic traps, or 2) curvilinear exposures of an iron-rich underlying unit of the flat sand sheet. ?? 1993.

  16. Occurrence of drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines in river waters from the Madrid Region (Central Spain).

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; López de Alda, M; González-Alonso, S; Mastroianni, N; Barceló, D; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates, for the first time, the occurrence of 10 drugs of abuse, six metabolites, and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain and one of the most densely populated in Europe. The results of this study have shown the presence of 14 out of the 19 compounds analyzed at concentrations ranging from 1.45 to 1020 ng L(-1). The most ubiquitous compounds, found in 100% of the samples, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-like compound ephedrine (EPH), the opioids morphine (MOR), methadone (METH), and the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three investigated benzodiazepines alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). Meanwhile, the largest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (up to 1020 ng L(-1)), BE (823 ng L(-1)), EDDP (151 ng L(-1)), and LOR (167 ng L(-1)). The only not detected compounds were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (OH-LSD), and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Overall, the levels measured are comparatively higher than those previously reported in Europe. Comparison of the results obtained for samples collected on different days (Thursday and Sunday) did not show meaningful differences between weekdays and weekends. The lack of (eco)toxicological data does not permit to predict or disregard potential adverse effects on wildlife. Risk assessment in humans would require further knowledge, not currently available, on exposure to these compounds through other routes like drinking water and/or food. PMID:24083902

  17. Cattle ticks in Cameroon: is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus absent in Cameroon and the Central African region?

    PubMed

    Awa, D N; Adakal, H; Luogbou, N D D; Wachong, K H; Leinyuy, I; Achukwi, M D

    2015-03-01

    In most parts of the world, ticks are rapidly developing resistance to commonly used acaricides thus rendering control difficult. This constraint is further compounded by the introduction of new species in areas where they did not exist before. Such is the case with the introduction into and rapid spread of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in some countries of West Africa. With the looming threat of its further spread in the region, the objective of the present study was to update knowledge on cattle ticks in Cameroon. Among 19,189 ticks collected monthly from 60 animals in 5 herds from March 2012 to February 2013, Rh. (B.) decoloratus was the most abundant species with a relative prevalence of 62.2%, followed by Amblyomma variegatum (28.4%), Rh. (B.) annulatus (0.2%), Rh. (B.) geigyi (0.03%), other Rhipicephalus spp. (8.4%) and Hyalomma spp. (0.3%). Rh. (B.) decoloratus and A. variegatum were also the most widely distributed in space. Infestation rate was generally high, with average tick count/animal of about 80 during peak periods. Tick distribution and abundance in the different sites was as varied as the underlying factors, among which the most important were management systems and climatic factors. The effects of rainfall and temperature were confounded by other factors and difficult to evaluate. However, it appears tick development depends among other factors, on a humidity threshold, above which there is not much more effect. Rh. microplus was not found during this study, but more extensive tick collections have to be done to confirm this. In conclusion, cattle tick infestation in Cameroon remains an important cause for concern. Farmers need assistance in the use and management of acaricides in order to increase their efficiency and reduce the development of resistance. Although Rh. microplus was not found, its introduction from other West African countries is imminent if adequate measures, especially in the control and limitation of animal movements, are not taken. PMID:25575435

  18. CHANDRA IDENTIFICATION OF 26 NEW BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF M31

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-06-20

    We have previously identified 10 M31 black hole candidates (BHCs) in M31 from their X-ray properties alone. They exhibit ''hard state'' emission spectra that are seen at luminosities {approx}<10% Eddington in X-ray binaries (XBs) containing a neutron star (NS) or black hole, at luminosities that significantly exceed the NS threshold. Nine of these are associated with globular clusters (GCs); hence, these are most likely low mass X-ray binaries; eight are included in this survey. We have recently discovered that analysis of the long term 0.5-4.5 keV variability of XBs via structure functions allows us to separate XBs from active galactic nuclei, even though the emission spectra are often similar; this has enabled us to search for BHCs outside of GCs. We have identified 26 new BHCs (12 strong, 14 plausible) within 20' of the M31 nucleus (M31*), using 152 Chandra observations spaced over {approx}13 yr; some of our classifications were enhanced with XMM-Newton observations. Of these, seven appear within 100'' of M31*; this supports the theory suggesting that this region experiences enhanced XB production via dynamical processes similar to those seen in GCs. We have found a parameter space where our BHCs are separated from Galactic NS binaries: we show that modeling a simulated hard state spectrum with a disk blackbody + blackbody model yields parameters that lie outside the space occupied by NS binaries that are modeled this way. The probability that our BHCs all lie within the NS parameter space is {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -29}.