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1

Geodiversity of the Umbria region (central Italy): a GIS-based quantitative index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measure of natural range related to geological bedrock, landforms and geomorphological processes is the necessary starting point to geodiversity evaluation. Geodiversity plays a strategic role in landscape management. Whereas geotourism and geosites are identified as a driving power for the scientific and economic promotion of an area, the geodiversity knowledge is required for a complete and accurate research. For example, high values of this abiotic parameter identify and support the foundation of geoparks. According to this perspective, the geodiversity is the unifying factor for these areas of interest. While a subjective and qualitative approach may be adequate for geosites definition, identification and cultural promotion, the geodiversity concept needs a different evaluation method. A quantitative procedure allows achieving an objective and repeatable process exportable in different geographic units. Geographical Information Systems and spatial analysis techniques are the base to quantitative evaluation involving topographic, geological and geomorphological data. Therefore, the assessment of a numerical index derived from the overlay of spatial parameters can be conveniently computed in GIS environment. In this study, a geodiversity index is proposed where geological, geomorphological and landcover factors deriving mainly from maps and field survey; topographic ones are employed from DEM and remote sensed data. Each abiotic parameter is modelled in a grid format; focal functions do provide neighbourhood analysis and computing variety statistics. A particular extent is dedicated to topographic information and terrain roughness, that are strictly related to efficiency of geomorphological processes and generally corresponding to the abiotic components variability. The study area is located in central Italy and is characterized by a well known natural heritage. Thirty-seven geosites are detected in the Umbria region, where seven regional and one natural parks are present. All the area shows a strong correlation between the geological setting and the relief energy associated to topography assessment. Three main outcrop complexes are present: a fluvial lacustrine, where the lowest slope values and plain area are widespread; a terrigenous one, with a medium slope value; and a calcareous complex corresponding to the mountain areas and the highest amplitude of relief. This partition matches different geomorphological processes and landforms, ensuring a widespread distribution of geodiversity. The final map is a digital data that localizes areas with, respectively, null or minimum, medium, and high geodiversity values. The highest class overlaps to geosites areas, to high values of amplitude of relief and where the geomorphological processes are more effective and various. This confirms the method accuracy. The results obtained represent an important advancement in geodiversity research and a significant instrument for economic development and conservation management.

Melelli, Laura; Pica, Alessia; Del Monte, Maurizio

2014-05-01

2

Modeling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We model the rainfall-induced initiation of shallow landslides over a broad region using a deterministic approach, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-stability (TRIGRS) model that couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution for transient pore pressure response to rainfall infiltration. This model permits the evaluation of regional shallow landslide susceptibility in a Geographic Information System framework, and we use it to analyze susceptibility to shallow landslides in an area in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy. As shown on a landslide inventory map produced by the Italian National Research Council, the area has been affected in the past by shallow landslides, many of which have transformed into debris flows. Input data for the TRIGRS model include time-varying rainfall, topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water table depth, and material strength and hydraulic properties. Because of a paucity of input data, we focus on parametric analyses to calibrate and test the model and show the effect of variation in material properties and initial water table conditions on the distribution of simulated instability in the study area in response to realistic rainfall. Comparing the results with the shallow landslide inventory map, we find more than 80% agreement between predicted shallow landslide susceptibility and the inventory, despite the paucity of input data.

Salciarini, D.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Conversini, P.; Baum, R.L.; Michael, J.A.

2006-01-01

3

11-14 November 2012 Umbria Region (Central Italy) flood event: from prediction to management for civil protection purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following laws and regulations concerning extreme natural events management, the Italian national hydrometeorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres - CF). Umbria Region CF is located in Central Italy and provides early warning, monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) when significant flood/landslide events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. For the real time flood forecasting system, at the CF several operational hydrological and hydraulic models were developed and implemented for a "dynamic" hazard/risk scenario assessment for Civil Protection DSS, useful also for the development of Flood Risk Management Plans according to the European "Floods Directive" 2007/60. In the period 11th-14th November 2012, a significant flood event occurred in Umbria (as well as Tuscany and northern Lazio). The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 300 mm in 72 hours and, generally, values greater than the seasonal averages all over the region. In the most affected area the recorded rainfall depths correspond to centenarian return period: one-third of the annual mean precipitation occurred in 2-3 days. Almost all rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds, and several ones overflowed. Furthermore, in some cases, so high water levels have never been recorded by the hydrometric network. As in the major flood events occurred in the last years, dams (Montedoglio and Corbara dams along Tiber River and Casanuova dam along Chiascio River) and other hydraulic works for flood defense (e.g. along Chiani stream) played a very important mitigation role, storing high water volumes and avoiding the overlap of peak discharges downstream. During the event many emergency interventions were necessary. There were no casualties among the population, but many landslides and flooding occurred causing over 240 million Euros of damages (to hydraulic works, infrastructures, public and commercial facilities, residential buildings, agriculture, etc.) enough to induce the Regional Administration to request declaration of state of emergency to the National Government. The day before the beginning of the event (10th November) QPFs values were high enough to activate "Attention" Phase of Regional Civil Protection System and CF, during the critical phases, provided 24h decision support activities, also through the official web site (www.cfumbria.it), very useful for monitoring and data/info dissemination from the national to the municipality level. The thresholds presented good agreement with direct territorial presidiums observations and the alert system has been tested. The purpose of this work is to highlight what worked well and what did not, in order to improve the early warning and DSS for Civil Protection purposes.

Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Zauri, Renato; Ponziani, Francesco; Francioni, Marco; Governatori Leonardi, Federico; Formica, Alessandro; Natazzi, Loredana; Costantini, Sandro

2013-04-01

4

Operational flood forecasting system of Umbria Region "Functional Centre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrometeorological alert office (called "Decentrate Functional Centre" - CFD) of Umbria Region, in central Italy, is the office that provides technical tools able to support decisions when significant flood/landslide events occur, furnishing 24h support for the whole duration of the emergency period, according to the national directive DPCM 27 February 2004 concerning the "Operating concepts for functional management of national and regional alert system during flooding and landslide events for civil protection activities purposes" that designs, within the Italian Civil Defence Emergency Management System, a network of 21 regional Functional Centres coordinated by a central office at the National Civil Protection Department in Rome. Due to its "linking" role between Civil Protection "real time" activities and environmental/planning "deferred time" ones, the Centre is in charge to acquire and collect both real time and quasi-static data: quantitative data from monitoring networks (hydrometeorological stations, meteo radar, ...), meteorological forecasting models output, Earth Observation data, hydraulic and hydrological simulation models, cartographic and thematic GIS data (vectorial and raster type), planning studies related to flooding areas mapping, dam managing plans during flood events, non instrumental information from direct control of "territorial presidium". A detailed procedure for the management of critical events was planned, also in order to define the different role of various authorities and institutions involved. Tiber River catchment, of which Umbria region represents the main upper-medium portion, includes also regional trans-boundary issues very important to cope with, especially for what concerns large dam behavior and management during heavy rainfall. The alert system is referred to 6 different warning areas in which the territory has been divided into and based on a threshold system of three different increasing critical levels according to the expected ground effects: ordinary, moderate and high. Particularly, hydrometric and rainfall thresholds for both floods and landslides alarms were assessed. Based on these thresholds, at the Umbria Region Functional Centre an automatic phone-call and SMS alert system is operating. For a real time flood forecasting system, at the CFD several hydrological and hydraulic models were developed. Three rainfall-runoff hydrological models, using different quantitative meteorological forecasts, are available: the event based models X-Nash (based on the Nash theory) and Mike-Drift coupled with the hydraulic model Mike-11 (developed by the Danish Hydraulic Institute - DHI); and the physically-based continuous model Mobidic (MOdello di Bilancio Idrologico DIstribuito e Continuo - Distributed and Continuous Model for the Hydrological Balance, developed by the University of Florence in cooperation with the Functional Centre of Tuscany Region). Other two hydrological models, using observed data of the real time hydrometeorological network, were implemented: the first one is the rainfall-runoff hydrological model Hec-Hms coupled with the hydraulic model Hec-Ras (United States Army Corps of Engineers - USACE). Moreover, Hec-Hms, is coupled also with a continuous soil moisture model for a more precise evaluation of the antecedent moisture condition of the basin, which is a key factor for a correct runoff volume evaluation. The second one is the routing hydrological model Stafom (STage FOrecasting Model, developed by the Italian Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection of the National Research Council - IRPI-CNR). This model is an adaptive model for on-line stage forecasting for river branches where significant lateral inflow contributions occur and, up to now, it is implemented for the main Tiber River branch and it allows a forecasting lead time up to 10 hours for the downstream river section. Recently, during the period between December the 4th and the 16th 2008, Umbria region territory was interested

Berni, N.; Pandolfo, C.; Stelluti, M.; Ponziani, F.; Viterbo, A.

2009-04-01

5

Orbital Cyclicities Above and Below the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, Umbria-Marche Region, Italy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Umbria-Marche region of central Italy, the deep basinal carbonate Scaglia Rossa Formation contains an important sequence of Cretaceous-Tertiary strata including a detailed paleomagnetic record and the distal impactoclastic Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay layer. In addition to this significant paleomagnetic and impactoclastic record, the Scaglia Rossa also contains potentially important stratigraphic evidence of relatively long-term oceanic and atmospheric consequences of the Cretaceous-Tertiary bolide catastrophe, which we will describe for the first time herein. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

King, D. T., Jr.; Petruny, L. W.; Rampino, M. R.; Prokoph, A.; Pope, K.; Fischer, A. G.; Montanari, A.; Ocampo, A. C.

2000-01-01

6

Qc, Q?, Qi and Qs attenuation parameters in the Umbria-Marche (Italy) region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation of coda and S waves has been inferred for the Umbria-Marche region (central Italy) using seismic waveforms collected during the 1997 seismic crisis. The selected dataset is composed of 343 small magnitude (1.4 < ML < 4.2) earthquakes recorded at a temporary array composed of 23 seismic stations. The Sato (1977) method, based on the assumption of single isotropic scattering has been used to infer Qc, considering three different lapse times (20, 30 and 40 s). The coda normalization method (Aki, 1980) has been used to infer Q?. Both Qc and Q? show a clear frequency dependence with a different frequency dependent parameter. The frequency dependence of Qc is comparable with that previously found in the same area and around it. Using the method of Wennerberg (1993), intrinsic and scattering attenuation have been separated. Intrinsic attenuation is found to be close to coda attenuation and dominates over scattering dissipation. Coda Q increases with increasing lapse time but at a rate smaller than that observed in other areas of the Earth. Coda and intrinsic attenuation in the Umbria-Marche region are very high compared to other seismic active regions of the Earth. The retrieved high values of intrinsic attenuation may be explained in terms of the previously hypothesized fluid-pressurized regime of the crust in the central Apennines (Miller et al., 2004).

de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca

2013-05-01

7

[Analysis of the causes of death in the Umbria Region (Italy) 1994-2008].  

PubMed

The leading causes of death in the Umbria Region (Italy) between 1994-2008 were analysed and a comparison was made between data from three five-year time periods: 1994-1998, 1999-2003 and 2004-2008. Standardized rates of Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) at 75 years, by gender and cause of death, were also measured. Mortality data was obtained from the Umbria Registry of causes of death; diagnoses were codified according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD10). Mortality trends over time were analysed by using standardized mortality rates with the 2001 Umbria census data as the reference population . The joinpoint regression program was used to analyze rates calculated by the SEER (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results) software of the National Cancer Institute (USA). Mortality for all causes, standardised by age, show a significantly decreasing trend from 1994 to 2008 in both genders. Mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumours show a significant constant decline in both genders. Standardised rates of YPLL at 75 years declined by 32% in males and 29% in females between the five-year period 1994-1998 and the period 2004-2008. In conclusion, a generalised decline in mortality and a shift towards older age groups is observed with a consequent decline in YPLL, allowing a positive judgment to be given regarding the efficacy of preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitation interventions implemented by the regional health care system. PMID:20859307

D'Alò, Daniela; Stracci, Fabrizio; Casucci, Paola; Stabile, Marco; La Rosa, Francesco

2010-01-01

8

Seismic response of the Gubbio basin during the 26 September 1997 (Mw 6), Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the Umbria-Marche seismic sequence (Central Italy) of September-October 1997, the alluvial basin of Gubbio was deeply investigated in order to better understand and define the 3D structure of the shallow soft-soil deposits and of the underlying bedrock (Italian Project S3 DPC-INGV). In this contribution we first present and summarize the most recent results regarding the geological structure of the Gubbio sedimentary plain. Based on these data we constructed an updated numerical model of the basin with respect to previous studies carried out in the framework of the Italian Project S5 DPC-INGV, to simulate the strong-motion time histories recorded at two accelerometric stations during the main shock (Mw 6.0) of the Umbria-Marche seismic sequence (1997). Ground-motion waveforms were computed using the spectral element method (SEM) based GeoELSE code (Stupazzini et al., 2009; http://geoelse.stru.polimi.it). The source parameters and the slip distribution of the fault plane were taken from Hernandez et al. (2004). The crustal velocity model adopted combines the description given by the same authors, with that suggested in Mirabella et al. (2004); a smooth decrease in the rock properties with decreasing depth was also introduced to properly account for near-surface alteration (Cotton et al., 2006). The numerical simulations account for 3D variations of seismic wave speeds and density, topography and attenuation. The combination of a detailed sedimentary basin model and an accurate numerical technique is capable to compute numerical time histories up to 3.0 Hz inside the basin. Peak ground displacement, velocity, and acceleration maps illustrate that significant amplification occurs in the basin, showing a good agreement with observed waveforms, especially in terms of long period spectral ordinates, that would not have been excited by standard 1D approaches for seismic wave propagation analysis. Similar results were found by the analysis of weak motion records obtained during the monitoring activity carried out in the framework of the S3 Project. Cotton, F., F. Scherbaum, J.J. Bommer et H. Bungum (2006). Criteria for selecting and adjusting ground motion models for specific target regions: application to central Europe and rock site. Journal of Seismology, online, 9 May 2006. Hernandez, B., M. Cocco, F. Cotton, S. Stramondo, O. Scotti, F. Courboulex et M. Campillo (2004). Rupture history of the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) main shocks from the inversion of GPS, DInSAR and near field strong motion data. Annals of Geophysics 47 (4), 1355-1376. Mirabella, F., M. G. Ciaccio, M. R. Barchi et S. Merlini (2004). The Gubbio normal fault (Central Italy): geometry, displacement distribution and tectonic evolution. Journal of Structural Geology 26, 2233-2249. Stupazzini M., R. Paolucci, H. Igel (2009), Near-fault earthquake ground motion simulation in the Grenoble Valley by a high-performance spectral element code, accepted for publication in Bull. of the Seism. Soc. of America.

Stupazzini, M.; Pilz, M.; Luzi, L.; Pacor, F.; Paolucci, R.; Parolai, S.; Pucci, S.; Smerzini, C.

2009-04-01

9

Modelling coseismic displacements during the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake (central Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a dislocation model for the two normal faulting earthquakes that struck the central Apennines (Umbria-Marche, Italy) on 1997 September 26 at 00:33 (Mw 5.7) and 09:40 GMT (Mw 6.0). We fit coseismic horizontal and vertical displacements resulting from GPS measurements at several monuments of the IGMI (Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano) by means of a dislocation model in an elastic, homogeneous, isotropic half-space. Our best-fitting model consists of two normal faults whose mechanisms and seismic moments have been taken from CMT solutions; it is consistent with other seismological and geophysical observations. The first fault, which is 6 km long and 7 km wide, ruptured during the 00:33 event with a unilateral rupture towards the SE and an average slip of 27 cm. The second fault is 12 km long and 10 km wide, and ruptured during the 09:40 event with a nearly unilateral rupture towards the NW. Slip distribution on this second fault is non-uniform and is concentrated in its SE portion (maximum slip is 65 cm), where rupture initiated. The 00:33 fault is deeper than the 09:40 one: the top of the first rupture is deeper than 1.7 km the top of the second is 0.6 km deep. In order to interpret the observed epicentral subsidence we have also considered the contributions of two further moderate-magnitude earthquakes that occurred on 1997 October 3 (Mw 5.2) and 6 (Mw 5.4), immediately before the GPS survey, and were located very close to the 09:40 event of September 26. We compare the pattern of vertical displacements resulting from our forward modelling of GPS data with that derived from SAR interferograms: the fit to SAR data is very good, confirming the reliability of the proposed dislocation model.

Hunstad, Ingrid; Anzidei, Marco; Cocco, Massimo; Baldi, Paolo; Galvani, Alessandro; Pesci, Arianna

1999-11-01

10

Characterisation of secondary metabolites in saffron from central Italy (Cascia, Umbria).  

PubMed

Saffron's quality depends on the concentration of secondary metabolites, such as crocins, picrocrocin and safranal. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of drying conditions on the secondary metabolite contents of saffron produced in the area of Cascia, in central Italy. Different aliquots of the same saffron sample were subjected to various dehydration conditions and analysed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry to determine crocins, picrocrocin and safranal.. Safranal was also analysed by high resolution gas chromatography, while the crocins and picrocrocin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detectors. The results of chromatographic analyses showed that the samples dried in the milder conditions had the lowest content of secondary metabolites. Moreover the sample dried at 60°C for 55min presented the highest contents of trans-crocin-4 and picrocrocin, while safranal was most represented in saffron dried at 55°C for 95min. PMID:24054265

Cossignani, Lina; Urbani, Eleonora; Simonetti, Maria Stella; Maurizi, Angela; Chiesi, Claudia; Blasi, Francesca

2014-01-15

11

Architecture and seismotectonics of a regional low-angle normal fault zone in central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information from surface geology, subsurface geology (boreholes, seismic reflection, and refraction profiles), and seismicity are used to depict the geometry and the possible seismogenic role of the Altotiberina Fault (AF), a low-angle normal fault in central Italy. The AF extends along the inner Umbria region, for a length of ~70 km, with an average dip of ~30° and a horizontal

Paolo Boncio; Francesco Brozzetti; Giusy Lavecchia

2000-01-01

12

Quaternary basin evolution and present tectonic regime in the area of the 1997 1998 Umbria Marche seismic sequence (central Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological and geomorphological surveys have been performed in the area affected by the 1997-1998 Umbria-Marche seismic sequence ( Mmax=6.0) aimed at defining the Quaternary tectonic history and the characteristics of the present tectonic regime. Data have been collected from: (1) the analysis of the remnant landsurfaces by means of aerial photos and field surveys; (2) geological surveys in the Cesi-San Martino basin and in the easternmost sector of the Colfiorito basin in order to identify deformative features affecting the Quaternary deposits; (3) the analysis of boreholes and geo-electrical data (derived from previous surveys performed in the 1960s) in order to reconstruct the top of the pre-Quaternary substratum in the Colfiorito basin. Two different successions of remnant landsurfaces have been identified along the faults bounding the basins to the east, in the hangingwall and the footwall, respectively. The difference accounts for a fault-controlled evolution of the landscape at least during the Upper Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. The deformation affecting the Quaternary deposits and landforms in the investigated basins indicates a decreasing tectonic activity along the master faults since the Middle Pleistocene. Surface deformation due to tectonics is faint and displayed by gentle warping of the landforms during the late Quaternary. As for the basin geometry, subsurface data show that two minor depressions formed in the Colfiorito Basin during the Quaternary, the oldest one close to the fault bounding the basin, while the youngest (and deepest) formed in the inner portion of the basin. Therefore, the present geometry is different from that of other fault-bounded Quaternary depressions of the central Apennines (typically half-graben basins), showing the maximum depth of the substratum in the area close to the master fault. Tectonic history may be summarised as follows: (1) origin of the Quaternary fault-bounded Colfiorito and Cesi-San Martino basins; (2) evolution of the basins with a half-graben style; (3) significant reduction of tectonic activity since the Middle Pleistocene. During the third phase, the evolution of the basins is no longer related to a half-graben style. In the case of the Colfiorito basin, a new depression is superimposed to on the previous half-graben whose evolution is related to the lowering of the inner portion of the basin through warping. Moreover, present activity does not result in fault-related surficial displacements but only in "continuous" deformation spread over the basins. These conclusions have fundamental implications for the seismotectonic framework of the 1997-1998 earthquake sequence. This deformation style is, indeed, in agreement with the coseismic deformation modelled by means of the SAR interferometry analyses carried out by other institutions during the seismic sequence, and with the lack of evident surface faulting related to the mentioned events in the investigated area. This evidence indicates that the evolution of the investigated area since the Middle Pleistocene resulted from the summation of deformative episodes similar to that which occurred during the recent seismic sequence. As a consequence, no earthquakes with magnitude larger than 6 are expected in the area.

Messina, Paolo; Galadini, Fabrizio; Galli, Paolo; Sposato, Andrea

2002-01-01

13

[Hospital-territorial services and integration of health care: the Protected Discharge program in the Umbria Region from 2005 to 2010].  

PubMed

In order to address the management of patients with chronic diseases, national and international regulatory guidelines have developed policies and operational tools aimed at integration and implementation of pathways of continuity of health care between different healthcare settings. "Protected Discharge" programs have been developed for the organized transfer of patients from one setting of care (hospital) to another (territory) in order to ensure their continuity of care and assistance. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of implementation the program in the context of continuity of healthcare in the Umbria region (Italy). An analysis of the regional archive of hospital discharge records was performed to examine trends of the various types of hospital discharges during the years 2005 to 2010. A slow but steady increase of protected discharges was observed from 2005 (0.9%) to 2010 (1.9%). The percentages observed are higher than those at the national level (except for transfer to RSA); however, results indicate insufficient implementation of hospital-territorial services integration and hence of the principle of continuity of health and social care. PMID:23532163

Pasquini, Rossana; Angeli, Giuseppe; Marzulli, Tiziana; Duca, Emilio; Minelli, Liliana

2013-01-01

14

Ultramafic intrusion triggers hydrothermal explosions at Colle Fabbri (Spoleto, Umbria), Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eroded Colle Fabbri volcano comprises intrusive and extrusive rocks which cover an area of about 10,000 m 2 in the Umbria region, Central Italy. The outcrop is located at the SW boundary of the Umbria Valley Graben (Umbria Region) on an N140 normal fault inside the Intramountain Ultra-Alkaline Province of carbonatite and melilitite rocks of central-southern Italy. A field survey of the outcrop allowed a reconstruction of igneous activity events of this unusual small-scale volcano. It is younger than 0.7 m.y. and rests on Lower Pleistocene conglomerates with intercalated clay beds. A palaeosoil marks the base of the volcanic sequence. It follows several metres of extrusive breccias composed of fragments of thermometamorphosed clay and travertine. Key features of these breccias are mud shells on blocks, plastic mud lumps, slumps, and mechanical injection from one layer into another, as well as plastic and vesiculated, micro-brecciated matrix. The breccias are cemented by a variety of silicate, sulphate, and sulphate-carbonate minerals deposited by intense hydrothermal circulation. The breccias are related to phreatic explosions triggered by the eruption of a superficial hydrothermal system. Up to 1 m thick sill and a dykelet swarm intrude the breccias. In the southern part of the outcrop there is a plug of melilitolitic composition which intrudes the breccias and deforms them upward. A variety of contact breccias is also scattered around the sill and the plug. In some places, hyaloclastite formed when melt invaded water pockets contained in the encasing rocks under hydrostatic pressure conditions. A thermal aureole, which moves up to 10 m away from the contact, is characterised by cordierite-trydimite association, thus indicating high-temperature (>>1000 °C) contact phenomena.

Stoppa, Francesco; Rosatelli, Gianluigi

2009-10-01

15

Shear Wave Structure of Umbria and Marche, Italy, Strong Motion Seismometer Sites Affected by the 1997-98 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A long sequence of earthquakes, eight with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck the Umbria and Marche regions of central Italy between September 26, 1997 and July 1998. The earthquake swarm caused severe structural damage, particularly to masonry buildings, and resulted in the loss of twelve lives and about 150 injuries. The source of the events was a single seismogenic structure that consists of several faults with a prevailing northwest-southeast strike and crosses the Umbria-Marche border. The focal mechanism of the largest shocks indicates that the events were the product of shallow extensional normal faulting along a NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines. The network of analog seismometer stations in the Umbria and Marche regions recorded motions of the main September and October 1997 events and a dense array of mobile digital stations, installed since September 29, recorded most of the swarm. The permanent national network Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) is administered and maintained by Dipartimento delle Protezione Civile (DPC: Civil Protection Department); the temporary array was managed by Servizio Sismico Nazionale (SSN) in cooperation with small agencies and Universities. ENEA, the operator of many seismometer stations in Umbria, is the public Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment. Many of the temporary and permanent stations in the Italian seismic network have little or no characterization of seismic velocities. In this study, we investigated 17 Italian sites using an active-source approach that employs low frequency harmonic waves to measure the dispersive nature of surface waves in the ground. We used the Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) approach, coupled with an array of harmonic-wave electro-mechanical sources that are driven in-phase to excite the ground. An inversion algorithm using a non-linear least-squares best-fit method is used to compute shear wave velocities for up to 100 meters of the soil column. A draft report was published in the summer of 2008, followed by a comment period, lengthy discussions with Italian colleagues, and improved knowledge of the subsurface at the sites from soil logs. Four of the sites were reprocessed in order to correct issues with phase unwrapping of the field dispersion curves that complicated the velocity profile calculations at the lowest velocity sites. This report presents the final results from the reprocessing effort.

Kayen, Robert; Scasserra, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Lanzo, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

16

Positive inversion tectonics in foreland fold-and-thrust belts: A reappraisal of the Umbria-Marche Northern Apennines (Central Italy) by integrating geological and geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unraveling the tectonic style in the outer zones of fold-and-thrust belts is generally puzzling because the basement-cover relationships are often hidden in the subsurface as in the outer Northern Apennines of Italy. This study aims to reconstruct the deep setting of the Northern Apennine foreland thrust belt by integrating surface structural-geological and subsurface seismic reflection profile and well data, corroborated by a gravity-magnetic modeling. A remarkable mountain ridge, the Umbria-Marche Apennine Ridge (UMAR), which corresponds to a prominent area of structural and topographic elevation, characterizes the morphology of the Northern Apennines. This mountain ridge is constituted by Meso-Cenozoic carbonates involved in Neogene compressive structures and is surrounded by wide exposures of foredeep deposits. The basement-cover relationships are poorly constrained and both thin- and thick-skinned tectonic styles have been applied. The interpretation of subsurface data allowed recognizing a thick pre-Jurassic sedimentary sequence filling a late Paleozoic(?)-Triassic symmetric fault-bounded extensional basin, lying directly below the UMAR. This deep-rooted basin underwent positive inversion during the Neogene compression and thrust-fold development. The reconstructed thick-skinned inversion tectonic model is consistent with both the modest amount of shortening and the remarkable structural elevation of the UMAR. The outcomes of this study reveal that prominent mountain ridges occurring in foreland thrust belts are most likely related to the deep-rooted basement-involved positive inversion of pre-existing extensional basins.

Scisciani, Vittorio; Agostini, Simone; Calamita, Fernando; Pace, Paolo; Cilli, Andrea; Giori, Italiano; Paltrinieri, Werter

2014-12-01

17

Earthquake effects on tourism in central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach to economic assessment of the impact on tourist flows of the earthquake that hit the Umbria region in Central Italy on September 26, 1997. Local arrivals in Assisi fell drastically the month following the main shock, compared to the same month of the previous year. The event study methodology, frequently applied in finance, is employed

Mario Mazzocchi; Anna Montini

2001-01-01

18

[Evaluation of the healthcare continuity quality in Umbria (Italy)].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of hospital-territorial services relationship and community care to ensure continuity of care and to avoid, or reduce, the risk of hospitalization for complications or problems in the Health Districts of Umbria region (Italy). They are considered some of the outcome indicators proposed by the Assessment Document on Determinants of Health and the Strategies of the SSR, sponsored by the Region of Umbria in 2004 and based on Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Indicators : the rate of unplanned readmission to hospital within 28 days after hospitalization for hip fracture, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, asthma, and the rate of hospitalization for chronic complications of diabetes, pneumonia and influenza. The most significant feature is the marked variability between different districts of the region. This variability requires careful verification, as well as the quality of intra-hospital, also the quality of the relationship hospital-territorial services and the different skills and ways of taking care of patients by the health district. To reduce the risk of rehospitalization/readmission not programmed for specific diseases, even considering that this risk is influenced by various determinants, it is desirable to improve the quality of community services. PMID:25008223

Pasquini, Rossana; Angeli, Giuseppe; Duca, Emilio; Minelli, Liliana

2014-01-01

19

[Trends in mortality due to the main causes of death in Umbria (Italy), 1994-2004].  

PubMed

In order to obtain information regarding the efficacy of healthcare services in the region of Umbria (Italy), trends in mortality due to the main causes of death in this region, between 1994-2004, were analysed. Mortality data was collected from the Nominal Registry of Causes of Death. Standardized mortality and years of potential life lost (YPLL) rates, and cumulative death risk were used as indicators. Joinpoint regression was used to determine whether temporal changes in indicator trends were statistically significant. The joinpoint analysis of mortality trends has shown that general mortality, as well as specific mortality due to malignant tumors, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease and accidental causes declined over the examined time period. Statistically significant decreases in the indicators used were constant over time: in fact, joinpoints were found only for YPLL and cumulative risk trends for cardiovascular disease-related mortality. These results have provided important information regarding healthcare in the Umbria region. PMID:17206222

Canosa, Antonio; Stracci, Fabrizio; Cassetti, Tiziana; Minelli, Liliana; Romagnoli, Carlo; La Rosa, Francesco

2006-01-01

20

Anomalies of mantle-derived helium during the 1997-1998 seismic swarm of Umbria-Marche, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 100 3He\\/4He isotope ratios were measured in CO2-dominated gas samples collected during the 1997-1998 seismic crisis that shook the Umbria-Marche, Central Apennines, Italy. Although the gas emissions were located in a typical ``crustal'' environment the measured values delineate variable mixing proportions between mantle-derived and crustal helium. During the monitoring period anomalous 3He\\/4He ratios were observed, together with a

F. Italiano; G. Martinelli; P. M. Nuccio

2001-01-01

21

A structural model for active extension in Central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a structural model for earthquake faulting in the Umbria-Marche Apennines (Central Italy). The model is derived by an integrated analysis of geological, geophysical and seismological data. At regional scale, the distribution and character of the seismicity appear to be mainly controlled by a low-angle east-dipping normal fault (Altotiberina fault, AF). The latter is the lower boundary of

Paolo Boncio; Giusy Lavecchia

2000-01-01

22

Central Region Drought Outlook March 21, 2013  

E-print Network

Central Region Drought Outlook March 21, 2013 Pat Guinan Extension/State Climatologist University Midwest and High Plains Regional Climate Centers National Drought Mitigation Center Next Climate/Drought Outlook Webinar April 18th, 2013 (1 PM CDT) Access to Future Climate Webinars and Information http://www.drought.gov/drought

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

23

Central Region Drought Outlook August 2, 2012  

E-print Network

Central Region Drought Outlook ­ August 2, 2012 Dr. Jim Angel Illinois State Climatologist Illinois University, National Drought Mitigation Center Next Climate/Drought Outlook Webinar ­ August 16 Access to Climate/Drought Webinars and information http://mrcc.isws.illinois.edu/webinars.htm http

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

24

Plant for the Production of Chips and Pellet: Technical and Economic Aspects of an Case Study in the Central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This work is the result of a technical and economic analysis about the process of transformation of forest wood in biofuels,\\u000a pellets and wood chips. The experimental pilot plant is managed by a forest consortium located in the province of Terni, Umbria\\u000a Region (central Italy), near the Mountain Community “Valle del Nera” and Mountain San Pancrazio. The structure and all

Danilo Monarca; Massimo Cecchini; Andrea Colantoni

25

Central region of SKKUCY-9 compact cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a 9 MeV compact cyclotron for the production of radioisotopes for medical applications has been recently completed. The machine accelerates negative hydrogen ions generated from an internal PIG (Penning Ion Gauge) ion source following spiral orbits. Some of the structures designed for early beam acceleration, including a pair of center poles providing ions a circular direction, the head of the ion source, and the electrodes, are located in the center of the cyclotron. In this paper we discuss and evaluate the design of the central region that pulls the ions from the chimney of the ion source and directs them into the equilibrium orbit. The magnetic field produced by the center poles was analyzed using the magnetic solver in OPERA-3D TOSCA, and the phase error and ion equilibrium orbit, which is dependent on the kinetic energy within the designed field, were calculated using CYCLONE v8.4. The electric field produced in the acceleration gap was designed using an electrostatic solver. Then, the single beam trajectory was calculated by our own Cyclotron Beam Dynamics (CBD) code. The early orbits, vertical oscillation, acceptable RF phase and the energy gain during the early turns was evaluated. Final goal was to design the central region by the iterative optimization process and verify it with 1 MeV beam experiment.

Jung, S. Y.; Kim, H. W.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Park, J. K.; Chai, J. S.; Kim, S. H.

2014-04-01

26

Development of organic sheep farming systems in Umbria (Central Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Organic agriculture has been developing rapidly in recent years in Europe, particularly in Italy. About 23.6% of the lands in Europe are organically managed, while in Italy almost one million hectares are involved in organic agriculture (Willer and Yussefi, 2001) with an almost 50% growth rate of per-capita spending from 1997 to 2000. The EC Regulation 1804\\/99 regarding

L. Morbidini; M. Pauselli; P. Burini; P. Papa

27

The Central Regions of NGC 1068  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the central regions of a classic Seyfert galaxy, NGC 1068 via high-resolution images obtained with NICMOS on HST. As the closest Seyfert 2 galaxy it offers an excellent opportunity for resolving small-scale structure. In the NICMOS images the location of the nucleus is easily observed. Images in Paschen ? and [Si vi] show the structure of the galaxy at two different excitation levels. The author would like to acknowledge the large efforts by Ranga-Ram Chary, Michael Corbin, and Harland Epps who are co-authors on the work in preparation. This work is supported in part by NASA grant NAG 5-3042. This article is based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Thompson, Rodger I.

28

North Central Texas Regional Public Transportation Coordination Plan  

E-print Network

North Central Texas Council of Governments North Central Texas Regional Public Transportation Coordination Plan Final Report December 21, 2006 North Central Texas Council of Governments North Central Texas Regional Public Transportation... Ken Shetter County Judge, Kaufman County Councilmember, City of Fort Worth Mayor, City of Burleson REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION COUNCIL 2006 ? 2007 Cynthia White, Chair Bill Hale, P.E. Chuck Silcox Commissioner, Denton County District Engineer...

North Central Texas Council of Governments

2006-12-21

29

Kinematic analysis of recent and active faults of the southern Umbria-Marche domain, Northern Apennines, Italy: geological constraints to geodynamic models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent and active deformation that affects the crest zone of the Umbria-Marche belt (Northern Apennines, Italy) displays a remarkable extensional character, outlined by development of normal fault sets that overprint pre-existing folds and thrusts of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene age. The main extensional fault systems often bound intermontane depressions hosting recent, mainly continental, i.e. fluvial or lacustrine deposits, separating the latter from Triassic-Miocene, mainly carbonatic and siliciclastic marine rocks that belong to the Romagna-Umbria-Marche stratigraphic succession. Stratigraphic data indicate that the extensional strain responsible for the development of normal fault-bounded continental basins in the outer zones of the Northern Apennines was active until Middle Pleistocene time. Since Middle Pleistocene time onwards a major geodynamic change has affected the Central Mediterranean region, with local reorganization of the kinematics in the Adria domain and adjacent Apennine belt. A wide literature illustrates that the overall deformation field of the Central Mediterranean area is presently governed by the relative movements between the Eurasia and Africa plates. The complex interaction of the Africa-Adria and the Anatolian-Aegean-Balkan domains has led the Adria microplate to migrate NW-ward and to collide against Eurasia along the Eastern Southern Alps. As a consequence Adria is presently moving with a general left-lateral displacement with respect to the Apennine mountain belt. The sinistral component of active deformations is also supported by analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms. A comparison between geophysical and geological evidence outlines an apparent discrepancy: most recognized recent and active faults display a remarkable extensional character, as shown by the geometry of continental basin-bounding structutes, whereas geodetic and seismologic evidence indicates the persistency of an active strike-slip, left-lateral dominated strain field. The coexistence of extensional and strike-slip regimes, in principle difficult to achieve, may be explained in the framework of a transtensional deformation model where extensional components, normal to the main NW-directed structural trends, are associated to left-lateral strike-slip movements parallel to the main NW-directed structural trends. Critical for the evaluation of the internal consistency of a deformation model for the brittle upper crustal levels is the definition of the kinematics of active faults. In this study we illustrate the preliminary results of a kinematic analysis carried out along 20, exceptionally well exposed, recent and active fault surfaces cropping out in the southernmost portion of the Umbria-Marche belt adjacent to its termination against the the Latium-Abruzzi domain to the East. The collected data indicate that the investigated faults reflect a kinematically oblique character, and that development of these structures may be explained in the framework of a left-dominated transtensional strain field. More important, the data indicate that fault kinematic analysis is an effective tool in testing geodynamic models for actively deforming crustal domains.

Pasqui, Valeria; Viti, Marcello; Mantovani, Enzo

2013-04-01

30

Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These initiatives are important because substantial improvements in the COR air quality must be made to avoid significant deterioration in the respiratory health of the population.

Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.

2004-12-01

31

Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

Jones, Peter

2010-01-01

32

Regional Transit Plan for the Central Texas State Planning Region  

E-print Network

Council of Governments Hill Country Transit District Hill Country Transit District Central Texas Council of Governments, MPO Heart of Central Texas Independent Living Center Central Texas Workforce Bell County Human Services, Killeen Bell County... Human Services, Temple The ARC of Texas Community Development, Killeen TxDOT - Medical Transportation TxDOT - Waco District Agencies and Organizations Represented Public Transportation Hill Country Transit District Funding Sources Texas...

Central Texas Regional Transportation Advisory Group

33

Indiana University's Center for Languages of the Central Asian Region's  

E-print Network

Languages Teacher Training Summer 2011 The Center for Languages of the Central Asian Region is hosting a teacher-training seminar from July 15 through July 29. This intensive two-week seminar is designed for Languages of the Central Asian Region's Summer Workshop for Afghan Languages Teacher Training Summer 2011

Indiana University

34

Acupuncture Produces Central Activations in Pain Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acupuncture is largely used for pain control in several pathological conditions. Its effects on the central nervous system are not well defined. We investigated the effect of the application of acupuncture to 13 normal subjects (males, 21–32 years). H215O bolus PET scans were read before the application of the needles (Rest, R) and after 25 min of needle insertion. Data

Gabriele Biella; Maria Luisa Sotgiu; Giulio Pellegata; Eraldo Paulesu; Isabella Castiglioni; Ferruccio Fazio

2001-01-01

35

Central Region: A Report Identifying and Addressing the Educational Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the deliberations of the Central Regional Advisory Committee (RAC), one of 10 RACs established under the Educational Technical Assistance Act of 2002 (20 U.S.C. sections 9601 et. seq.) to assess the educational needs of the region. The committee's report outlines the educational needs across the states of Colorado, Kansas,…

US Department of Education, 2011

2011-01-01

36

Spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity before the Umbria-Marche September 26, 1997 earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial and temporal distribution of seismicityoccurring prior to the Umbria-Marche earthquake ofSeptember 26, 1997, are studied. By applying the RTLprognostic parameter, a quiescence stage followed bya period of foreshock activation is observed beforethe event. The main shock occurred soon after therecovery of the RTL parameter to its normal backgroundlevel. An investigation of the clustering process isperformed on the earthquakes with M 3.5,occurred since 1989 in the area of the epicenter ofthe September 26, 1997 event. In comparison to theaverage background of the previous period, theincrease of the area of rupture activated during thetwelve months leading up to the Umbria-Marcheconcentrates in the vicinity of the main shock. Someresults of application of the time-to-failure model toseismicity before the Umbria-Marche main shock, arealso discussed.

di Giovambattista, R.; Tyupkin, Yu S.

37

40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2010-07-01

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40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

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40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2011-07-01

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40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2014-07-01

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40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

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40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.195 Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality...

2011-07-01

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40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.195 Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

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40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.196 South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality...

2010-07-01

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40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.195 Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality...

2010-07-01

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40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.196 South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality...

2014-07-01

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40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.196 South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality...

2011-07-01

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40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.195 Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

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40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.196 South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

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40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.195 Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality...

2014-07-01

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40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.196 South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

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40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

2011-07-01

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40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

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40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

... 2014-07-01 false Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

2014-07-01

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40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 false South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.105 South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

2014-07-01

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40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.105 South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

2011-07-01

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40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.105 South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

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40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.105 South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

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40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

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40 CFR 81.250 - North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.250 North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2011-07-01

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40 CFR 81.250 - North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.250 North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2013-07-01

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40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2013-07-01

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40 CFR 81.250 - North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.250 North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2012-07-01

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40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2011-07-01

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40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2014-07-01

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40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2012-07-01

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40 CFR 81.250 - North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.250 North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2010-07-01

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40 CFR 81.250 - North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 false North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.250 North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2014-07-01

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40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

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40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

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40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality...

2010-07-01

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40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality...

2014-07-01

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40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality...

2011-07-01

74

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region  

SciTech Connect

The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1981-02-01

75

Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC) is a non-governmental agency dedicated to solving environmental problems in Central and Eastern Europe. Established in 1990 by the US, the European Commission, and Hungary, and based in Hungary, REC fulfils its mission "through encouraging cooperation among non-governmental organizations, governments and businesses, supporting the free exchange of information and promoting public participation in environmental decision-making." The Website is straightforward and simple to navigate; content includes background information on the REC, a summary of REC programs, publications, and searchable databases of contacts in the environmental field.

76

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2012-07-01

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40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2013-07-01

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40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2014-07-01

79

Imaging of the Central Region of IC 1805  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central regions of OB Associations are suitable for the study of the initial mass function since the constituent stars have not had sufficient time to migrate far from their formation site or to evolve from the main sequence. This paper reports on CCD observations of the central 7' x 7' region of the OB cluster Ocl 352, located in the H ii region IC 1805, that is within the association Cas 0B6, which is in turn part of the molecular cloud W4. Colors were determined for 160 stars in IC 1805 and this information allowed the initial mass function for the region to be determined. A weighted linear least-squares fit to this mass function in the mass range 2.5-30 Msun, yields a slope of ?=-1.38±0.19. This is similar to the slope (-1.2S±0.17) determined using the brighter stars identified in a larger region (50' x50') of IC 1805 by Joshi & Sagar [JRASC, 77, 40 (1983)]. It is also close to the slope of the IMF determined by other modern studies of select OB clusters. A roll off in the number of low-mass stars is observed but this is attributed to incompleteness in this study's inventory of stars of mass less than 2.5 Msun.

Ninkov, Zoran; Bretz, David R.; Easton, Roger L., Jr.; Shure, Mark A.

1995-11-01

80

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region  

SciTech Connect

This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1981-03-01

81

Genetics/Genomics Research in the Central Region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Genetics-based research within the Biological Resources Discipline (BRD) Science Centers in the Central Region incorporates many aspects of the field of genetics. Research activities range from documenting patterns of genetic variation in order to investigate relationships among species, populations and individuals to investigating the structure, function and expression of genes and their response to environmental stressors. Research in the broad areas of genetics requires multidisciplinary expertise and specialized equipment and instrumentation. Brief summaries of the capabilities of the five BRD Centers are given below.

U.S. Geological Survey

2006-01-01

82

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

2010-07-01

83

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

2011-07-01

84

40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.143 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.143 Central...

2010-07-01

85

40 CFR 81.219 - Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.219 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.219 Central...

2010-07-01

86

40 CFR 81.271 - Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.271 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.271 Central...

2010-07-01

87

40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.231 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central...

2011-07-01

88

A REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF METHYLMERCURY DISCHARGES FROM MUNICIPAL TREATMENT PLANTS IN CALIFORNIA'S CENTRAL VALLEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This regional study of methylmercury in effluent and receiving waters of Central Valley dischargers was initiated by Central Valley Clean Water Association (CVCWA) in response to an order issued by California's Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (Water Board). The order requires Central Valley NPDES permit holders to monitor for methylmercury in their effluent discharges. According to the order,

K. E. Abu-Saba; J. Leng; W. Tellefson; J. McCall; A. O'Brien; Tony Pirondini; M. Paulucci; V. Fry; S. Gittings; C. Hartinger; T. Grovhoug; T. Dunham

89

12 CFR 790.2 - Central and regional office organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...staff and conducting research and development...matters. (15) NCUA Central Liquidity Facility...agency; acts as the central liaison on consumer...Virgin Islands 7000 Central Parkway, Suite 1600...30328-4598. IV Arkansas, Illinois,...

2012-01-01

90

Large cutting tools in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, central China.  

PubMed

Handaxe-bearing sites in China are currently known to occur in a number of alluvial basins, the best known being Dingcun, Bose and Luonan. Bose in the south and Luonan in central China on the northern margin of the Qinling Mountains are most familiar to English-speaking researchers. Here we document the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR) as another major area for large cutting tools (LCTs), located in central China on the southeastern edge of the Qinling Mountains. Large cutting tools are preserved in three terraces of the Han and Dan Rivers in Hubei and Henan Provinces, with dates from ca. 0.8 Ma (millions of years ago) (Terrace 4) to the first half of the Middle Pleistocene (Terrace 3), and possibly to the Late Pleistocene (Terrace 2). This paper reports on LCTs discovered in Terraces 3 and 2, with a majority from the older terrace (and one specimen from Terrace 4). Regional environments during the Middle Pleistocene were relatively warm, humid and stable. Despite the poor quality of raw materials (predominantly quartz phyllite and trachyte for the LCTs), good examples of both handaxes and cleavers are present, plus two types of picks. The LCT technology is compared and contrasted with other Asian industries and with the Acheulean. Overall the DRR LCTs show both technological and morphological similarities with Acheulean LCTs, with some differences that are mainly attributed to raw material properties, subsistence ecology, and 'cultural drift.' The DRR LCTs expand the range of morphological variability of the East Asian material and highlight the need for greater reliance on technological analysis and raw material evaluation for best comparison of Chinese assemblages with the Acheulean tradition. PMID:25223718

Kuman, Kathleen; Li, Chaorong; Li, Hao

2014-11-01

91

Regional Air Quality in central México and emissions inventories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four air quality field campaigns, from 2009 to 2012, during March-April were carried out in several sites in urban, rural and semi-rural sites in Central México. One of the sites was in the Chalco Gap southeast of MCMA (2011), another in the state of Morelos (2011), other two in the state of Puebla (2009 and 2012). All these sites are South and East of the Mexico Basin. The main object of those campaigns was to document regional air quality, mainly in rural and periurban sites, including the photochemical age of regional polluted plumes as they were transported away from the main metropolitan areas within the region. In this paper, we focus on comparisons between observed CO/NOx, and CO/SO2 ratios with those from the National Emissions Inventory and form local inventories reported in state air quality management programs. Comparisons were made with data between 05:00 to 08:00 h to minimize effects photochemical activity and the fast evolution of MLH occurring between 08:00 and 09:00 due to high insolation. Comparisons among observed ratios show a fairly consistent ratio, whereas ratios from emissions inventory are widely variable and only in few sites compare reasonable well with observed ones, indicating the need for homologation of emissions inventories in the country. Also Ozone, CO, NOx and NOy observed time series are compared with WRF-Chem model results for the same campaign periods to evaluate its performance outside MCMA. In addition, observed surface wind speeds and early morning MLH obtained with a tethered balloon are also compared with modeled values to help understanding discrepancies in the trace gases comparisons.

Gerardo Ruiz-Suarez, Luis; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Agustín García-Reynoso, José; Santos García-Yee, José; Barrera-Huertas, Hugo; Alejandro Torres-Jaramillo, Jorge; Robles-Roldán, Miguel Angel; Gutierrez López, Wilfrido; García-Espinoza, Manuel; Castro-Romero, Telma

2014-05-01

92

Identification plate for the millipede orders populating the neotropical region south of Central Mexico (Myriapoda, Diplopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pictorial key in English and Portuguese is given to 11 orders of the class Diplopoda currently known to populate the neotropical region, viz. Central America south of central Mexico, the Caribbean, and entire South America.

Sergei I. Golovatch; Richard L. Hoffman; Joachim Adis; José Wellington de Morais

1995-01-01

93

Geomorphological evidence of recent tilting in the Central Amazonia Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphometric techniques applied to remote sensing data represent powerful tools as an aid for detecting terrain features produced by recent vertical crustal movements in a variety of landscapes. In this work, geomorphometric analysis of the Central Amazonia drainage network using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data was carried out to determine surface water loading and tectonic influence on the development of the Uatumã and Urubu river basins since the Miocene. The main objective was to detect geomorphological domains of lateral stream migration and channel sinuosity changes that could indicate recent vertical crustal movement. To achieve this, the Transverse Topographic Symmetry Factor and Sinuosity Index were applied to analyze the study area drainage network. Comparison of the geomorphological domains with structural field data and records of seismicity suggests that they are influenced by subsurface fault reactivation, which coincides in space with faults mapped in outcrops that have activated since the Miocene. This interpretation is corroborated by the spatial correspondence between these faults with domain boundaries and shapes, by river sinuosity change when crossing these boundaries, and by a high concentration of seismic activity along one of these limits. The crustal movement caused by hydrological loading can also influence such geomorphological features. Such is the case of lateral stream migrations of a domain in the opposite sense to the Amazon River flow. This may be a consequence of the more pronounced expression of hydrological loading in the Negro and Solimões river confluence region.

Ibanez, Delano Menecucci; Riccomini, Claudio; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon

2014-06-01

94

Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition  

SciTech Connect

The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

2011-03-01

95

THE COLLE CURTI MAMMAL SITE IN THE COLFIORITO AREA (UMBRIA-MARCHEAN APENNINE, ITALY): GEOMORPHOLOGY, STRATIGRAPHY, PALEOMAGNETISM AND PALYNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approximately 90m thick sequence has been studied in the Colle Curti basin (Colfiorito area, Umbria-Marchean Apennine). It was deposited in a drainage system characterized by a ‘mature’ landscape without a clear watershed separating the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian sides. Close to the end of the Early Pleistocene this landscape was dismembered by the activation of extensional faults, linked to an

M. Coltorti; A. Albianelli; A. Bertini; G. Ficcarelli; M. A. Laurenzi; G. Napoleone; D. Torre

1998-01-01

96

40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South...

2011-07-01

97

40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South...

2010-07-01

98

40 CFR 81.257 - North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.257 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.257 North...

2011-07-01

99

40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.263 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.263 East...

2011-07-01

100

40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.166 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.166 South...

2010-07-01

101

Determinants of deforestation in Nepal's Central Development Region.  

PubMed

The process of deforestation in the Central Development Region (CDR) of Nepal is diverse in space and time, with rapid deforestation still occurring in areas outside the national parks and wildlife reserves. This paper identifies the spatial driving forces (SDFs) of deforestation in the CDR for 1975-2000 using satellite data of 1975 (MSS), 1990 (TM), and 2000 (ETM+) along with socio-demographic and socioeconomic variables. Radiometrically calibrated satellite images are individually classified into seven distinct classes and merged together to cover the entire CDR. Classification accuracies are also assessed. Areas of land use and cover within the areas of each Village Development Committee (VDC) and municipality represented by GIS polygons are calculated from the classified images by overlaying vector files of 1845 polygons representing sections of VDCs and municipalities in 30-1199 m, 1200-2399 m, 2400-4999 m and >5000 m elevation levels. These elevation levels were estimated from the DEM compiled from 24 ASTER scenes taken on different dates. Only the first three elevation levels are used in the analysis because area >5000 m is under permanent snow cover where human related forestry activities are almost negligible. A transition matrix is generated for 1975-1990 using classified images of 1975 and 1990 and then this product is used to further develop another transition matrix for 1990-2000 with the classified ETM+ 2000 images as the final stage. The GIS polygon layer is overlaid on the transition matrices to calculate deforestation areas for 1975-1990 and 1990-2000. Biophysical and socioeconomic information collected from various sources is then brought into a GIS platform for statistical analyses. Six linear regression models are estimated using SAS; in effect, two models for each elevation range representing the 1975-1990 and 1990-2000 periods of change to identify SDF influences on deforestation. These regression analyses reveal that deforestation in the CDR is related to multiple factors, such as farming population, genders of various ages, migration, elevation, road, distance from road to forest, meandering and erosion of river, and most importantly the conversion of forestland into farmland. PMID:19822389

Bhattarai, Keshav; Conway, Dennis; Yousef, Mahmoud

2009-01-01

102

Research on Interactive Relationship between Agricultural Insurance and Rural Financial Development in Central and Western Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

By selecting the panel data from 2001 to 2008 in central and western regions, I adopt the methods of covariance analysis test, Hausman test, panel unit root test and co-integration test to conduct empirical research on the interactive relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development in central and western regions. The results show that there is a long-term balanced

Chunling Gao

2011-01-01

103

40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists...section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 1857h...Garland County, Grant County, Hot Spring County, Jefferson County,...

2011-07-01

104

40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

... Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists...section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 1857h...Garland County, Grant County, Hot Spring County, Jefferson County,...

2014-07-01

105

40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists...section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 1857h...Garland County, Grant County, Hot Spring County, Jefferson County,...

2013-07-01

106

40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists...section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 1857h...Garland County, Grant County, Hot Spring County, Jefferson County,...

2010-07-01

107

40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists...section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 1857h...Garland County, Grant County, Hot Spring County, Jefferson County,...

2012-07-01

108

Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it’s important to provide regional climate change\\u000a information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central\\u000a America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal\\u000a variability of temperature and precipitation

Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

2011-01-01

109

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region  

SciTech Connect

This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1980-01-01

110

Regional analysis of changes in snow pack in mountainous basins in the central Danube region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate estimation of the volume of water stored in the snow pack and its rate of release is essential to predict the flow during the snowmelt period. In mountainous drainage basins water stored in the snow pack represents an important component of the water budget. Two modelling tools are compared. The first, HOLV snowmelt model is developed by the Hungarian National Hydrological Forecasting Service (VITUKI NHFS) for regional assessment of snow accumulation and ablation of the central Danube. The model originates from the early 80's and it is under continuous development, while its recent distributed version over a grid with 0.1 degree resolution is in use. The snowmelt model has a flexible structure; it is able to change its own structure in function of data availability. In case when only precipitation and air temperature data are available temperature index method is used. When also other data are accessible (cloudiness, dew point, wind speed) using of energy balance model is to be preferred. If there are suitable data available for calculation of the energy terms, the energy balance method can be applied. The second semi-distributed Hron model, developed at the Slovak University of Technology was applied to a smaller sub-basin to represent spatial distribution of snow cover by simulated snow water equivalent. The upper Hron river basin with an area of 1766 km2 is located in central Slovakia. The conceptual semi-distributed tool applied contains three basic storage components with 15 calibrated parameters, as the flow routing component the cascade of linear reservoirs is used as opposed to the original simple triangular routing function. The snow sub-model uses the temperature index (degree-day) method for snow accumulation and snowmelt calculations. Uncertainty of model parameters was reduced by multi-calibration on the mean daily discharges in the basin outlet and measured stations data of snow water equivalent. Changes in the model parameters during the investigated period also were analyses. The consistency of modelled spatial distribution of snow water equivalent also was checked by the Modis sow satellite data. The results showed a decrease in snow water equivalent and snow depth, and snow duration from the past to the present. The paper also deals with the analysis of changes in depths, duration and spatial distribution of snow cover. Daily snow cover depth observations and weekly snow water equivalent data were available at 6 climatic stations for the period 1961-2010 for the upper Hron while the last two decade sporadic observations and simulated snow depths and snow water equivalent for the entire central Danube region. It is concluded that simulated qualitative information on snow pack across the Alpine-Carpathian region can provide more information on appropriate values of melt parameters than quantitative data on snow water equivalent at a single station location. These simulations appear to provide an adequate representation of snow climatology.

Balint, Gabor; Juri?eková, Katarina; Gauzer, Balazs; Hlav?ová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Jan; Zsideková, Beata

2013-04-01

111

Regional vegetation patterns at lake Son Kul reveal Holocene climatic variability in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiproxy study was conducted on Holocene sediments from the alpine lake Son Kul (3010 m a.s.l, 41°48?33N/75°07?38E) in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan). The combination of high-resolution pollen, palynofacies and magnetic susceptibility data allowed reconstruction of changes in sedimentary and vegetation dynamics regionally at Son Kul between 8350 and ca 2000 cal. BP. Using pollen data to quantify climatic parameters, a quantitative reconstruction of climatic conditions was performed using the "Modern Analogue Vegetation types" (MAV) method and a ranged index of seasonality. The most temperate (e.g. moister) climate conditions occurred between 8350 and 5000-4500 cal. BP when alpine meadow vegetation was enriched in plants requiring moister conditions and trees developed regionally. Conversely, more continental and arid conditions prevailed after 4500 cal. BP with the decline of arboreal vegetation (especially Juniperus) and the extension of an alpine steppe-meadow along with a regional decrease in Poaceae. This climate transition was associated with a change in seasonality as the continentality greatly intensified after 5000-4500 cal. BP. Our results are consistent with other records from the Tien Shan range and the Chinese Province Xinjiang showing that relatively wet conditions prevailed regionally before 5000 cal. BP, whereas reduced moisture conditions were established after that time. From a more global perspective, we highlight that regional rainfall in central Tien Shan and western Central Asia is likely to be predominantly controlled by the Eastern Mediterranean cyclonic system and North Atlantic climate, as based on the close correspondence between climatic archives from western Central Asia, the Levant, the Eastern Mediterranean and Caspian Sea regions. However, the effect of monsoonal dynamics on the regional climatic system in central Tien Shan still remains dubious, since recent modelling studies have shown that no dynamic link exists between humidity in Central Asia and the Indian Summer Monsoon. This study pinpoints the need to explore the effect of remote Eurasian atmospheric circulation patterns on past climate variability in Central Asia.

Mathis, Marie; Sorrel, Philippe; Klotz, Stefan; Huang, Xiangtong; Oberhänsli, Hedi

2014-04-01

112

Variation in biogeochemical parameters across intertidal seagrass meadows in the central Great Barrier Reef region  

E-print Network

in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Data collected from 11 loca- tions reserved. Keywords: Seagrass; Nutrients; Water quality; Great Barrier Reef region 1. Introduction Most et al., 1996). Studies of seagrass meadows in the Great Barrier Reef region have largely been limited

Marsh, Helene

113

Subduction, volcanism, collision, orogenesis and faults: How do they shape the central Mediterranean region?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a geological and geodynamical point of view, the central Mediterranean area represents one of the most intriguing and enigmatic regions in the world and it still continues to capture Earth scientists' attention. The region is characterized by spectacular surface geological features due to the complex mechanisms in the lithosphere and mantle of this fascinating region.

Baccheschi, Paola; D'Amico, Sebastiano

2014-12-01

114

Phylogeography of Supralittoral Rocky Intertidal Ligia Isopods in the Pacific Region from Central California to Central Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Ligia isopods are widely distributed in the Pacific rocky intertidal shores from central California to central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Yet, their biological characteristics restrict them to complete their life cycles in a very narrow range of the rocky intertidal supralittoral. Herein, we examine phylogeographic patterns of Ligia isopods from 122 localities between central California and central Mexico. We expect to find high levels of allopatric diversity. In addition, we expect the phylogeographic patterns to show signatures of past vicariant events that occurred in this geologically dynamic region. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced two mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA). We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We found many divergent clades that, in general, group according to geography. Some of the most striking features of the Ligia phylogeographic pattern include: (1) deep mid-peninsular phylogeographic breaks on the Pacific and Gulf sides of Baja peninsula; (2) within the Gulf lineages, the northern peninsula is most closely related to the northern mainland, while the southern peninsula is most closely related to the central-southern mainland; and, (3) the southernmost portion of the peninsula (Cape Region) is most closely related to the southernmost portion of mainland. Conclusions/Significance Our results shed light on the phylogenetic relationships of Ligia populations in the study area. This study probably represents the finest-scale phylogeographic examination for any organism to date in this region. Presence of highly divergent lineages suggests multiple Ligia species exist in this region. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the Gulf of California and Baja peninsula are incongruent with a widely accepted vicariant scenario among phylogeographers, but consistent with aspects of alternative geological hypotheses and phylo- and biogeographic patterns of several other taxa. Our findings contribute to the ongoing debate regarding the geological origin of this important biogeographic region. PMID:20657776

Hurtado, Luis A.; Mateos, Mariana; Santamaria, Carlos A.

2010-01-01

115

Strengthening techniques tested on masonry structures struck by the Umbria–Marche earthquake of 1997–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of experiments carried out on structures damaged in the Umbria–Marche earthquake of 1997–1998 are presented. These tests were carried out in situ on masonry panels of various dimensions, which had been strengthened with either traditional or innovative materials and techniques. Concerning traditional methods, panels injected with new limed-based mixes were tested. Other tests were realized by gluing to

M. Corradi; A. Borri; A. Vignoli

2002-01-01

116

Rhyolitic ignimbrites in the region of Afyon (Central Anatolia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence and field relations of an extensive ignimbrite sheet near Afyon in Central Anatolia are described.\\u000a \\u000a These rhyolitic ignimbrites are part of the important Neogene volcanic activity in Turkey and belong to the alignment of volcanic\\u000a complexes along the inner border of the Taurian ranges.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In close stratigraphical connection and in the same tectonic position as the rhyolites there occurs

J. Keller; L. Villari

1972-01-01

117

Groundwater modeling of the Calera Aquifer region in Central Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Calera Aquifer is the main source of water for irrigated agriculture, industrial, and drinking water purposes in the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 80% of the total groundwater extracted from the Calera Aquifer. In recent years, ...

118

A History of Salmon and People in the Central Valley Region of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) formerly occurred in great abundance within the California Central Valley drainage and were a correspondingly important part of the subsistence economics and cultures of the indigenous peoples of that region. Salmon and other fishery resources on the Central Valley floor were part of a resource base that enabled resident Native American groups to attain some of

Ronald M. Yoshiyama

1999-01-01

119

Accumulations of soluble salts and gypsum in soils of the Central Region, Spain  

E-print Network

Accumulations of soluble salts and gypsum in soils of the Central Region, Spain Jo& GUMUZZIO (1) et the characteristics of secondary enrichments in gypsum and soluble salts. For this study four soil profiles of central refilling of the s-matrix by gypsum ; cristalline growing in voids and channels ; the progressive tendency

Ahmad, Sajjad

120

Power-law correlations of landslide areas in central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the frequency–area statistics of landslides in central Italy. We consider two data sets. Data set A contains 16?809 landslide areas in the Umbria–Marche area of central Italy; they represent a reconnaissance inventory of very old, old, and recent (modern) landslides. The noncumulative frequency–area distribution of these landslides correlates well with a power-law relation, exponent ?2.5, over the

Fausto Guzzetti; Bruce D Malamud; Donald L Turcotte; Paola Reichenbach

2002-01-01

121

Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprised of numerous scientific and advocacy partners, and funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), CARPE seeks to help identify and establish conditions and practices which will reduce deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Congo Basin. CARPE arose in response to both local and international concern about the consequences of the current pattern of unsustainable resource use in the region. Main sections at this site include: Briefing Sheet, Partners, Activities, Products, Donor Coordination and related sites. Users can join a discussion group or link to related sites.

1997-01-01

122

Trends and discontinuities in regional rainfall of West and Central Africa: 1951-1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standardized regional mean annual rainfall series are analysed over the period 1951-1989 from a data set of 891 rainfall stations which covers 23 countries of West and Central Africa. Missing values are estimated by using regionalized indexes computed on the basis of a morpho-climatic delimitation of 44 homogeneous climatic units. Searches for statistical discontinuities in rainfall series show no discontinuity

GIL MAHE; GEOFFROY WOTLING

2001-01-01

123

New Orleans and Hurricane Katrina. II: The Central Region and the Lower Ninth Ward  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure of the New Orleans regional flood protection systems, and the resultant catastrophic flooding of much of New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina, represents the most costly failure of an engineered system in U.S. history. This paper presents an overview of the principal events that unfolded in the central portion of the New Orleans metropolitan region during this hurricane, and

R. B. Seed; R. G. Bea; A. Athanasopoulos-Zekkos; G. P. Boutwell; J. D. Bray; C. Cheung; D. Cobos-Roa; L. Ehrensing; L. F. Harder Jr.; J. M. Pestana; M. F. Riemer; J. D. Rogers

2008-01-01

124

The Importance of Local and Regional Factors on the Vegetation of Created Wetlands in Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the relative importance of regional and local processes to wetland plant diversity in created depressional wetlands\\u000a in Central Europe (Košské mokrade wetlands, central Slovakia). Twelve wetlands were sampled for vegetation, water chemistry,\\u000a morphological, and hydrological data in 2008. A total of 39 plant species were found in the wetlands, dominated by Typha latifolia L. The results support the

Marek Svitok; Richard Hrivnák; Helena O?ahe?ová; Daniela Dúbravková; Peter Pa?ove-Balang; Vladimír Slobodník

125

The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies are necessary. Temporary seismic networks have been installed in several Central Asian cities (Bishkek and Karakol, Kyrgyzstan; Dushanbe, Tajikistan; Tashkent, Uzbekistan) within the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA), a regional program of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The empirically estimated site effects have already helped to improve real-time risk scenarios for Bishkek and will be applied to other major cities. - A crucial requirement for disaster risk reduction involves the analysis of the vulnerability of existing building inventories. Whereas traditional approaches are very time- and cost-consuming, and even impossible given the high rate of urbanization in Central Asian capitals, our integrated approach is based on satellite remote sensing and ground-based omni-directional imaging, providing building inventories and thus structural vulnerability over large areas (EMCA, GEM-IDCT). All mentioned activities are carried out within the framework of cooperation between GFZ and regional national institutes, in particular the Central Asian Institute for Applied Geosciences. Altogether, this comprehensive and long-term risk analyses and research program will lead to a better understanding of the coupling of endogene and exogene processes and the identification of their impact on society.

Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

2012-12-01

126

Stock allocation among a central warehouse and identical regional warehouses in a particular push inventory control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-echeleon inventory system with one central warehouse and n regional warehouses is considered. Customer demand is satisfied from the regional warehouses. A push type control system is used, implying that the allocation of stock is coordinated by the central unit. Given an initial system stock, a fixed planning horizon and two shipping possibilities from the central warehouse until the

HENRIK JÖNSSON; EDWARD A. SILVER

1987-01-01

127

Central collisions between heavy nuclei at extremely high energies: The fragmentation region  

SciTech Connect

We discuss central collisions between heavy nuclei of equal baryon number at extremely high energies. We make a crude estimation of the energy deposited in the fragmentation regions of the nuclei. We argue that the fragmentation-region fragments thermalize, and two hot fireballs are formed. These fireballs would have rapidities close to the rapidities of the original nuclei. We discuss the possible formation of hot, dense quark plasmas in the fireballs.

Anishetty, R.; Koehler, P.; McLerran, L.

1980-12-01

128

Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophocleous, M., 1992. Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics. J. Hydrol., 137: 113-140. The results of a 6 year recharge st,dy in the Great Bend Prairie of t:entral Kansas are statistically analyzed to regionalize the limited number of site-specific but year-round measurements. Emphasis is placed on easily measured parameters and

Marios Sophocleous

1992-01-01

129

Intraspecific Phylogeography of Red Squirrels ( Tamiasciurus hudsonicus ) in the Central Rocky Mountain Region of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used variation in a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region to examine phylogeography of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, a boreal-adapted small mammal in the central Rocky Mountain region. AMOVA revealed that 65.66% of genetic diversity was attributable to variation within populations, 16.93% to variation among populations on different mountain ranges, and 17.41% to variation among populations within mountain ranges. Nested

Gregory M. Wilson; Ronald A. Den Bussche; Karen McBee; Lacrecia A. Johnson; Cheri A. Jones

2005-01-01

130

NWS Central Region Service Assessment Joplin, Missouri, Tornado May 22, 2011  

E-print Network

NWS Central Region Service Assessment Joplin, Missouri, Tornado ­ May 22, 2011 U.S. DEPARTMENT Headquarters Kansas City, MO July 2011 #12;Cover Photographs Left: NOAA Radar image of Joplin Tornado. Right: Aftermath of Joplin, MO, tornado courtesy of Jennifer Spinney, Research Associate, University of Oklahoma

131

Historical Abundance and Decline of Chinook Salmon in the Central Valley Region of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Valley drainage of California formerly produced immense numbers of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Four seasonal runs occur in this system—fall, late-fall, winter, and spring runs. Differences in life history timing and spatial distribution enabled the four runs to use the drainage to the fullest possible extent and once made it one of the richest regions in the world

Ronald M. Yoshiyama; Frank W. Fisher; Peter B. Moyle

1998-01-01

132

North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

2012-01-01

133

Sedimentary environments of the Central Region of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sediments and calcareous organisms on the outer reefal shelf of the Central Region of the Great Barrier Reef were collected and observed by SCUBA diving and research vessel techniques (including underwater television) to understand the production and processes of deposition of the sediment. The carbonate grains are mainly sand and gravel size and solely of skeletal origin. Over the

Terence P. Scoffin; Alexander W. Tudhope

1985-01-01

134

PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF THE CENTRAL GRASSLAND REGION OF THE UNITED STATES1,3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboveground net primary production of grasslands is strongly influenced by the amount and distribution of annual precipitation. Analysis of data collected at 9500 sites throughout the central United States confirmed the overwhelming importance of water availability as a control on production. The regional spatial pattern of production reflected the east-west gradient in annual precipitation. Lowest values of aboveground net primary

O. E. SALA; W. J. PARTON; L. A. JOYCE; W. K. LAUENROTH

1988-01-01

135

Remediation/Restoration of Degraded Soil to Improve Productivity In The Central Great Plains Region  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The quality and productivity of some farmlands in the central Great Plains Region (CGPR) have been lost through wind and water erosion induced by tillage and poor soil management. Productivity of degraded/eroded soils can be restored using organic amendments such as manure and improved crop and soil...

136

Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy), a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications

Paolo Maria Guarrera; Fernando Lucchese; Simone Medori

2008-01-01

137

Heavy Metal Pollution of Agricultural Soils in Central Regions of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to establish databases for the heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils in the central regions of Korea, we have measured the HCl-extractable concentrations of six metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, and As) from a total of 260 surface soil samples collected during the spring seasons of 1994 and 1995. All of our measurements were made from

Ki-Hyun Kim; Se-Hyun Kim

1999-01-01

138

Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

139

Modeling of stress transfer in the Coquimbo region of central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the seismicity and stress transfer in the Coquimbo region of central Chile, where an exceptional series of more than 12 earthquakes of magnitudes from 6 to 7.6 has occurred since July 1997. In this area, the oceanic Nazca plate is subducted under the continental lithosphere of South America. Below 50 km, the downgoing slab slips aseismically with respect

A. Gardi; A. Lemoine; R. Madariaga; J. Campos

2006-01-01

140

Airborne aerosols over central Africa during the Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO) conducted over central Africa in November 1996, 24 airborne aerosol samples were obtained and further analyzed for black and organic carbon (BC and OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), soluble ions, elemental composition, and morphology. Particles were collected in the different atmospheric layers either

Stéphane Ruellan; Hélène Cachier; Annie Gaudichet; Pierre Masclet; Jean-Pierre Lacaux

1999-01-01

141

Best Management Practices for Remediation/Restoration of Degraded Soils in the Central Great Plains Region  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmlands in the Central Great Plains Region (CGPR) have lost topsoil through wind and water erosion induced by tillage and poor soil management (Wheat-fallow management). Productivity of degraded/eroded soils can be restored using organic amendment such as manure and improved crop and soil manageme...

142

ccsd00000779 THE DARK MATTER DISTRIBUTION IN THE CENTRAL REGIONS OF  

E-print Network

ccsd­00000779 (version 1) : 23 Oct 2003 THE DARK MATTER DISTRIBUTION IN THE CENTRAL REGIONS 91125, USA Cosmological N-body simulations predict that dark matter halos should have a universal shape gravitational arcs we were able to measure precisely the inner slope of the dark matter halo and compare

143

A COMPREHENSIVE ECHINACEA GERMPLASM COLLECTION LOCATED AT THE NORTH CENTRAL REGIONAL PLANT INTRODUCTION STATION, AMES, IA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Echinacea is a well-established, high value crop, both as an ornamental and dietary supplement. A comprehensive collection of Echinacea germplasm is currently held at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa and is available via seed distribution for res...

144

Making Educational Technology Work: State Policies in the North Central Region. NCREL Policy Issues. Number 15  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the responsibility for allocating resources for technology shifts from federal administrators to state and local education agencies, state and local policymakers face greater accountability for making fiscally and educationally sound decisions. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), the research and development arm of Learning…

Dede, Chris

2004-01-01

145

A COMPREHENSIVE ECHINACEA GERMPLASM COLLECTION LOCATED AT THE NORTH CENTRAL REGIONAL PLANT INTRODUCTION STATION, AMES, IOWA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Echinacea is a well-established, high value crop, both as an ornamental and dietary supplement. A comprehensive collection of Echinacea germplasm is currently held at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa and is available via seed distribution for res...

146

Deposition, clearance, and translocation of chrysotile asbestos from peripheral and central regions of the rat lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the pulmonary deposition, clearance, and translocation of chrysotile asbestos in the context of their previously developed model of asbestos in the rat. Adult male rats were exposed for 3 hr to an aerosol of chrysotile asbestos. Subgroups were sacrificed up to 29 days postexposure and the lungs of the animals fixed. Peripheral and central regions of the

P. G. Coin; V. L. Roggli; A. R. Brody

1992-01-01

147

On the continuing stellar formation in the central regions of some globular clusters and their relation to the pulsars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discrepancy between the predicted and observed quantities of gas in the central regions of massive globular clusters is discussed. It is hypothesized that star formation continues in the central regions by means of gas released during stellar evolution or trapped by the central region when the globular clusters pass through the center of the galaxy. Nine globular clusters are indicated at distances less than 1000 ps from which radio pulsars or X-ray sources are observed. It is argued that they could have formed relatively recently in closed pairs in the central regions and then ejected at the stage of supernova bursts with velocities over 100 ks/s.

Komberg, B. V.

1979-01-01

148

Reproduction of links between circulation types and precipitation in Central Europe in regional climate model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study evaluates relationships between large-scale atmospheric circulation (represented by circulation indices and circulation types derived from gridded mean sea level pressure) and daily precipitation amounts over three regions in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) with different precipitation regimes. We examine how ENSEMBLES regional climate model (RCM) simulations driven by re-analysis reproduce the observed links and capture differences in the links between the regions (lowlands vs. highlands) and seasons. We study the links of circulation to (i) mean precipitation over the regions, (ii) probability of wet days, and (iii) probability of extreme daily precipitation (exceeding threshold defined by a high quantile of precipitation distribution in a given season). Relatively strong links between atmospheric circulation and the precipitation characteristics are found in the observed data. The links are generally more pronounced for highland than lowland regions. More wet days and higher precipitation amounts are found for cyclonic and stronger flows, and for westerly and north-easterly flows. The RCMs are generally able to capture basic features of the links; nevertheless, they have difficulties to reproduce some more specific features and differences in the links between the regions. The results also suggest that good performance in some precipitation characteristics may be due to compensating errors rather than model's perfection. Reference: Plavcová E., Kyselý J., Št?pánek P., 2014: Links between circulation types and precipitation in Central Europe in the observed data and regional climate model simulations. International Journal of Climatology, doi 10.1002/joc.3882.

Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan; Št?pánek, Petr

2014-05-01

149

Deposition, clearance, and translocation of chrysotile asbestos from peripheral and central regions of the rat lung  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated the pulmonary deposition, clearance, and translocation of chrysotile asbestos in the context of their previously developed model of asbestos in the rat. Adult male rats were exposed for 3 hr to an aerosol of chrysotile asbestos. Subgroups were sacrificed up to 29 days postexposure and the lungs of the animals fixed. Peripheral and central regions of the left lung were resected, digested, and analyzed for fiber content by scanning electron microscopy. Pulmonary deposition did not differ between peripheral and central regions. There was no evidence of translocation of fibers from central to peripheral regions. The average diameter of retained fibers decreased over time, consistent with longitudinal splitting. The average length of retained fibers increased over time, consistent with longitudinal splitting. The average length of retained fibers increased over time, consistent with slower clearance of longer fibers. A novel counting scheme to ensure accurate fiber number measurements, allowing the calculation of clearance rates for fibers 0.5 {ge} 16 {mu}m in length. Fibers of length {ge}16 {mu}m were cleared slowly, if at all. These findings could have important implications for the pathogenesis of asbestos-related pleural disease. Many fibers are deposited in the peripheral region, and the longest ({ge}16 {mu}m) will persist there for extended periods.

Coin, P.G. (National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States) Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States) Durham Veterans Administration Medical Centers, NC (United States)); Roggli, V.L. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States) Durham Veterans Administration Medical Centers, NC (United States)); Brody, A.R. (National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1992-06-01

150

Microsurgical Treatment for Central Gyrus Region Meningioma With Epilepsy as Primary Symptom  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this article was to investigate the operation outcome, complications, and the patient’s quality of life after surgical therapy for central gyrus region meningioma with epilepsy as the primary symptom. Methods All patients get at least 6 months of follow-up (range, 6–34 mo) after surgery. They underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and video electroencephalography, and their clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, microsurgical methods, and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed. Results The meningioma was located in the front and back of the central sulcus vein in 3 and 2 patients, respectively; in the compressed precentral gyrus and central sulcus vein in 3 patients; and in the precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus each in 1 patient; beside the right sagittal sinus and invaded a thick draining vein on the brain surface in 1 patient and beside the right sagittal sinus and close to the precentral gyrus in 2 patients; invaded the superior sagittal sinus in 8 patients; crossed the cerebral falx and compressed cortex gyrus veins in 1 patient; invaded duramater and irritated skull hyperplasia in 3 patients; invaded duramater and its midline infiltrated into the superior sagittal sinus, was located behind the precentral gyrus, and enveloped the central sulcus vein. They were resected and classified by Simpson standards: 17 of the 26 patients had grade I, 6 patients had in grade II, and 3 patients had in grade III. Conclusions Resection of central gyrus region meningioma by microsurgical technique avoids injury to the cerebral cortex, central sulcus vein, and other draining veins. Microsurgery improves the total resection rate, reduces recurrence rate, and lowers disability or death rate. PMID:24999673

Deng, Wen-shuai; Zhou, Xiao-yang; Li, Zhao-jian; Xie, Hong-wei; Fan, Ming-chao; Sun, Peng

2014-01-01

151

Climatic variability, fire, and vegetation modeling in the North American Central Grassland Region  

SciTech Connect

In developing an equilibrium vegetation model for assessing the sensitivity of natural vegetation to climatic change in the Central Grasslands, we encountered difficulties in establishing solely climatic determinants for grasslands. Under the normal climate, woody plant dominance was predicted for much of the region supporting open grassland at the time of European settlement. Climatic data for historic periods and a fire model were used to test whether grass dominance was promoted by (1) climatic periods distinct from the normal period, (2) by fire, or (3) by the interactive effect of both. Grass/woody ratios in test simulations exhibited spatio-temporal variation produced by complex interactions among PET, precipitation seasonality, competition for soil moisture, and fuel characteristics determining fire intensity. Results support concepts of plant community thresholds and multiple steady states in the Central Grassland region.

Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

1994-06-01

152

Radon Concentration in Groundwater in the Central Region of Gyeongju, Korea - 13130  

SciTech Connect

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is a well known cause of lung cancer through inhalation. Nevertheless, stomach cancer can also occur if radon-containing water is ingested. This study measured the radon concentration in groundwater for drinking or other domestic uses in the central region of Gyeongju, Korea. The groundwater samples were taken from 11 points chosen from the 11 administrative districts in the central region of Gyeongju by selecting a point per district considering the demographic distribution including the number of tourists who visit the ancient ruins and archaeological sites. The mean radon concentrations in the groundwater samples ranged from 14.38 to 9050.73 Bq.m{sup -3}, which were below the recommendations by the U.S. EPA and WHO. (authors)

Lee, Jung Min; Lee, A. Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk University, Seokjangdong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)] [Dongguk University, Seokjangdong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

153

“Asiaregio”An Institutional Model to Deepen Integration in Central Asia’s Border Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the high level of movement of people and goods among Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, laws governing cross-border movements neither accord preferential treatment to residents of bordering regions nor provide institutional structures that would foster cross-border cooperation. Such laws constitute barriers to deepening cross-border cooperation. Moreover, decisions concerning cross-border movements of people, goods, and services are controlled by central

Bartlomiej Kaminski; Matin Kholmatov; Saumya Mitra; Gaël Raballand

2010-01-01

154

Gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region, Qinling Mountains, central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gold-rich Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region in eastern Shaanxi and western Henan provinces, central China, lies about 30-50 km inland of the southern margin of the North China craton. More than 100 gold deposits and occurrences are concentrated in the Xiaoqinling (west), Xiaoshan (middle), and Xiong'ershan (east) areas. Late Archean gneiss of the Taihua Group, and Middle Proterozoic metavolcanic rocks of the

Jingwen Mao; Richard J. Goldfarb; Zhengwei Zhang; Wenyi Xu; Yumin Qiu; Jun Deng

2002-01-01

155

Convective transport over the central United States and its role in regional CO and ozone budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a regional budget for boundary layer carbon monoxide over the central United States (32.5°-50°N, 90°-105°W), emphasizing a detailed evaluation of deep convective vertical fluxes appropriate for the month June. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer (upward) dominates other components of the CO budget, e.g., downward convective transport, loss of CO by oxidation, anthropogenic emissions, and CO

Anne M. Thompson; Kenneth E. Pickering; Russell R. Dickerson; William G. Ellis; Daniel J. Jacob; John R. Scala; Wei-Kuo Tao; Donna P. McNamara; Joanne Simpson

1994-01-01

156

Mechanism of formation of a dipole magnetic field in the central regions of active galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of the formation of large-scale magnetic fields of dipole configuration in the central regions (r ? 100 pc) of active galaxies is studied. It is assumed that these regions contain a rapidly rotating, highly ionized gas (? ? 5·10-15 sec, Ne ? 103 cm-3). Ionized matter escapes from the center of the region with a velocity of several hundred km/sec and is entrained by the rotation of the surrounding medium. Biermann's "battery" effect [L. Biermann, Z. Naturforsch., 5a, 65 (1950)] operates under such conditions, and circular electric currents are formed in the medium, which amplify the dipole magnetic fields. During the active phase of a galaxy, about 108 years, the magnetic field strength at the boundary of this region may reach 10-4 10-3 G.

Andreasyan, R. R.

1996-01-01

157

Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties and Zoogeographical Composition of the Family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey  

PubMed Central

The focus of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian region. 72 species belonging to seven subfamilies and 25 genera were identified. The major part of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is formed by the subfamilies Elaterinae and Cardiophorinae. The genus Cardiophorus was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is partially consistent with known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Central Anatolian region shares most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic as does the Elateridae fauna of Turkey. Detailed localities of nine species are given for the first time for Turkey, with emphasis on the Central Anatolian region. PMID:21864150

Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

2011-01-01

158

Regional Hydrological Response to Climate Change in Mexico and Central America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future changes in precipitation amount and variability are among the most important and serious projected consequences of climate change. Central America (CAM) shows most of its climate variability in precipitation. Thus, the large hydrological response to global warming can have negative consequences on agricultural activities and the ecosystem dynamics in the region. Indeed, Central America is considered to be a climate change hot-spot in the tropics mainly due to a future decrease in precipitation and an increase in precipitation variability as projected by the IPCC models. These coarse resolution general circulation models (GCMs) do not provide climate information at spatial scales appropriate for impacts assessment. A regional climate model PRECIS was used in this study to carry out two experiments: (i) the baseline (present-day) run and (ii) the SRES A2 run, both performed at 25 km horizontal resolution. The low-level circulation in the region around Central America is controlled by the low pressure area in the Pacific (the ITCZ) and the high pressure area (North Atlantic Subtropical High, NASH) in the Atlantic. Changes in the position and magnitude of the ITCZ low and the NASH govern the low-level circulation in the region. The spatial pattern of precipitation over CAM landmass is further modified by the complex topography and the land surface properties. A large reduction in precipitation is projected during the wet season (May-Oct) for eastern Mexico (30% decrease) and the Yucatan Peninsula (40% decrease) under the A2 scenario. A small decrease in precipitation during the wet season is projected for the Caribbean slopes of southern Central America. In general, a decrease in precipitation in these regions is associated with an increase in sea level pressure that indicates extended/intensified NASH in the future scenario. Regions on the Pacific side of the CAM cordillera show up to 20-25% decrease in precipitation in the wet season which is associated with the southward displacement of the ITCZ in the SRES A2 simulation. Changes in precipitation are closely linked to changes in the atmospheric and soil moisture. The orographic clouds are an important source of moisture to the windward slopes of Central America in the dry season (Nov-Apr). An increase in temperature and a reduction in precipitation is projected for most of Central America in this season. In addition, an increase in the cloud base heights in DJF is also projected for the Pacific slopes and high elevation Caribbean slopes of Costa Rica as a result of increasing temperatures. The height of orographic cloud formation is also affected by the land surface properties. The region has experienced alarming deforestation in the recent decades. It has been demonstrated that orographic cloud formation is sensitive to the land use change and deforestation in Costa Rican lowland. With the help of a regional model, this study will attempt to shed some light on the combined effect of the land-use change and an increase in greenhouse concentrations (under the A2 scenario) on the regional hydrological changes in Central America.

Karmalkar, A. V.; Bradley, R. S.; Diaz, H. F.

2009-12-01

159

Streamflow Trend in Three Watersheds of a Mediterranean Mountain Region in Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Region of Valparaiso, Chile is one of the many semiarid mountainous regions of the world that will be impacted by water availability for future development. Located in a transition zone between arid and more humid conditions in Central Chile, this area is sensitive to desertification. Under a Mediterranean climate, hydrological processes in Valparaiso watersheds are highly variable seasonally. Seasonal variability of streamflow and precipitation are the main characteristics of the hydrological processes of the region. The presence of Los Andes modified somewhat this variability, which at present time ensures a continuous flow of water for irrigation, domestic and industrial uses because dry summers are offset by snowmelt. In our work, statistical analysis of three separate watersheds in Valparaiso was undertaken to understand precipitation trends in the last sixty years by comparing discharge values in transects from arid to more humid conditions. Although similarities at a regional scale are present, statistically significant differences in discharge associated with hypsometric parameters were found. Slight differences in the local scale climate, extension of glaciers, historical presence of productive activities and geomorphological variables could explain this response but not allow final conclusions about trends observed from the decade of 1950s to the present. But, these differences allow the identification of spatial patterns associated with the varying geomorphology of the watersheds. Thus, we developed a watershed classification scheme based on aerial photography and ground checking to improve future modeling of hydrological response in similar watersheds in Central Chile.

Chamorro Lopez, A. O.; Giardino, J. R.; Vitek, J. D.; High Alpine; Arctic Research Program

2011-12-01

160

Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.  

SciTech Connect

Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region-specific differences in the ecological functions performed by macroinvertebrates in forested depressional wetlands.

Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

2005-02-12

161

Study of attenuation structure for central Anatolia region, Turkey based on Keskin seismic array data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Anatolia is bounded in the north by the well-known north Anatolian fault system (NAFS) and on the south-southwest is bounded by the east Anatolian fault system (EAFS). The central area does not have major faults and acts as a single block moving westward. This region is not considered as seismically active as the NAFS or EAFS but the recent moderate-size Bala earthquakes (Ml=5.7, Ml= 5.5) on 20 and 27 December 2007 near the Tuz golu fault may be an indication of future seismic activity. In order to get a better picture of the crustal structure of this region we applied Coda Normalization method for the measurement of Qs-1 as a function of frequency for the frequencies 1.5, 3, 6, 8 Hz. 20 and 27 December 2007 Bala earthquakes (Ml magnitude 5.6 an 5.5) and their aftershocks recorded by the Keskin seismic array (International Monitoring System code BRTR) is analyzed in this study. Keskin seismic array has a small aperture circular design with 6 vertical short period and 1 broadband borehole seismometers. In addition, Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) method was applied to the data for the separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation inm the region at the same frequencies. MLTWA method allowed a separation between the intrinsic attenuation and scattering attenuation. Preliminary results show a relatively low attenuation compared to western and eastern anatolia regions. This might be explained by the less seismicity in the region. A study of the regional and site attenuation of seismic waves of earthquakes in this area will contribute in predicting earthquake generated ground-motion and becomes vital in making decisions for earthquake regulations, building codes and to monitoring nuclear explosions.

Semin, K. U.; Ozel, N. M.

2011-12-01

162

A Near-IR Spectroscopic Survey of the Central Regions of Field Ellipticals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to obtain central region K-band spectra for a sample of N ~ 30 field elliptical galaxies. An analysis of the central near-IR colors of these galaxies suggests that some of these galaxies may contain first-ascent giant branches (FGB) similar to the unusual FGB seen in the metal-rich Galactic globular clusters Liller 1 and NGC 6440. We wish to test this hypothesis by measuring the equivalent widths of the Na I 2.207(micron) and Ca I 2.263(micron) as well as the CO 2.36(micron) index. These new EW and CO index measurements will be compared to previously published data for K and M giants in the Local Solar Neighborhood, Baade's Window, and the Liller 1 and NGC 6440 clusters.

Silva, David; Bothun, Gregory

1999-02-01

163

Amino Acids That Centrally Influence Blood Pressure and Regional Blood Flow in Conscious Rats  

PubMed Central

Functional roles of amino acids have increasingly become the focus of research. This paper summarizes amino acids that influence cardiovascular system via the brain of conscious rats. This paper firstly describes why amino acids are selected and outlines how the brain regulates blood pressure and regional blood flow. This section includes a concise history of amino acid neurotransmitters in cardiovascular research and summarizes brain areas where chemical stimulations produce blood pressure changes mainly in anesthetized animals. This is followed by comments about findings regarding several newly examined amino acids with intracisternal stimulation in conscious rats that produce changes in blood pressure. The same pressor or depressor response to central amino acid stimulations can be produced by distinct mechanisms at central and peripheral levels, which will be briefly explained. Thereafter, cardiovascular actions of some of amino acids at the mechanism level will be discussed based upon findings of pharmacological and regional blood flow measurements. Several examined amino acids in addition to the established neurotransmitter amino acids appear to differentially activate brain structures to produce changes in blood pressure and regional blood flows. They may have physiological roles in the healthy brain, but pathological roles in the brain with cerebral vascular diseases such as stroke where the blood-brain barrier is broken. PMID:22690328

Takemoto, Yumi

2012-01-01

164

SALTRA: a regional program for workers' health and sustainable development in Central America.  

PubMed

In 2003, the university-based Program on Work and Health in Central America, SALTRA, was launched to build national and regional capacities in occupational safety and health with the goal of preventing and reducing poverty in Central America. SALTRA has implemented 20 projects including action projects in priority sectors (e.g., construction, sugarcane, hospitals, migrant coffee workers); strengthening of surveillance (occupational health profiles, carcinogenic exposures, fatal injuries and pesticides); a participatory model for training and risk monitoring by workers; building occupational health capacity for professionals, employers, and workers, with collaborating networks between the countries; strengthening of universities in work, environment, and health; studies of serious occupational and environmental situations; communication channels; and continued efforts to raise political awareness. SALTRA has placed issues of workers' health on political, business, and academic agendas throughout the region and has laid the foundations for achieving substantial future improvements in health conditions of all workers in the region. External evaluators envisioned SALTRA as an innovative development model. PMID:21905390

Wesseling, Catharina; Aragón, Aurora; Elgstrand, Kaj; Flores, Reinaldo; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo

2011-01-01

165

Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

2011-01-01

166

Telemagmatic metamorphism superimposed on regional metamorphism: Evidence from coals in central China  

SciTech Connect

Coal (Lower Permian No. 1) in north-central Henan province, central China, exhibits a zoned rank distribution. The rank varies between high-volatile bituminous and anthracite. Highest rank coal occurs in a northwest-southeast trending zone that cuts across the center of the study area. Coal rank decreases from this central zone towards both the northeast and southwest. Core data indicate that the anthracite is currently overlain by over 4,600 m of sedimentary cover, which represents more or less continuous sedimentation during the Permian and Triassic. In the lower rank area to the southwest, erosion has removed all but approximately 1,000 m of strata. The rank distribution in this area has been attributed to regional metamorphism by previous workers as the higher coal rank coincides with the thicker strata. However, this study reveals that anthracite in the area has a much higher vitrinite reflectance, between 3--6% (Ro max, in oil), with some locations exhibiting reflectances greater than 6%. Petrographically, the anthracite is characterized by well developed pores (5--10 [mu]m in diameter) and mosaic structure. It is suggested that the higher heat flow is due to the presence of deep-seated plutons. It is proposed that coal metamorphism in this area involved three stages: (1) Pre-orogenic (early Permian-late Triassic). Regional metamorphism produced coals of subbituminous to high-volatile bituminous rank; (2) Orogenic (early Jurassic-late Cretaceous). Telemagmatic metamorphism resulted in zones of higher rank coal (medium volatile through anthracite rank); (3) Post-orogenic (Tertiary-Quaternary). Shallow burial depth due to the tectonic uplift followed by erosion had a negligible effect on coal rank. It is suggested, therefore, that coalification in this area is the result of regional metamorphism overprinted by telemagmatic metamorphism.

Tang, Y. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1993-02-01

167

Crustal structure of the Pannonian-Carpathian region, Central Europe, from ambient noise tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pannonian Basin of Central Europe is a major extensional basin surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains. During the evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region, extension of the crust and lithosphere created several inter-related basins of which the Pannonian basin is the largest. Imaging the seismic velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle may help us understand the structure and geodynamic evolution of this part of central Europe. Here, we use ambient noise tomography to investigate the crust and uppermost mantle structure in the region. We have collected and processed continuous data from 56 temporary stations deployed in the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) for 16 months (2005-2007) and 41 permanent broadband stations; this dataset enables the most well-resolved images of the S-wave structure of the region yet obtained. We computed the cross-correlation between vertical component seismograms from pairs of stations and stacked the correlated waveforms over 1-2 years to estimate the Rayleigh wave Green’s function. Frequency-time analysis is used to measure the group velocity dispersion curves, which are then inverted for the group velocity maps. Our 4-10 s group velocity maps exhibit low velocity anomalies which clearly defined the major sediment depo-centers in the Carpathian region. A broad low velocity anomaly in the center of the 5 s group velocity map can be associated with the Pannonian Basin, whereas an anomaly in the southeastern region is related to the Moesian platform. Further east, the Vienna Basin can also be seen on our maps. A fast anomaly in the central region can be associated with the Mid-Hungarian line. At periods from 18 to 24 seconds, group velocities become increasingly sensitive to crustal thickness. The maps also reveal low-velocity anomalies associated with the Carpathians. The low velocity anomalies are probably caused by deeper crustal roots beneath the mountain ranges which occur due to isostatic compensation. CBP working group: G. Houseman, G. Stuart, Y. Ren, B. Dando, P. Lorinczi, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, UK; E. Hegedus, A. Kovács, I. Török, I. László, R. Csabafi, Eötvös Loránd Geophysical Institute, Budapest, Hungary; E. Brüeckl, H. Hausmann, W. Loderer, T-U Wien, Vienna, Austria; S. Radovanovic, V. Kovacevic, D. Valcic, S. Petrovic-Cacic, G. Krunic, Seismological Survey of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; A. Brisbourne, D. Hawthorn, A. Horleston, V. Lane, SEIS-UK, Leicester University, UK.

Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Carpathian Basins Project Working Group

2010-12-01

168

Gamma-rays from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Central Region of the Galaxy  

SciTech Connect

In this article, we review the prospects for the FERMI satellite (formerly known as GLAST) to detect gamma-rays from dark matter annihilations in the Central Region of the Milky Way, in light of the recent observations and discoveries of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. While the existence of significant astrophysical backgrounds in this part of the sky limits FERMI's discovery potential to some degree, this can be mitigated by exploiting the peculiar energy spectrum and angular distribution of the dark matter annihilation signal relative to those of astrophysical backgrounds.

Serpico, Pasquale Dario; /CERN; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

2009-02-01

169

[Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle farms in Algeria's central northern region].  

PubMed

As there has been little research into the epidemiological status of bovine neosporosis in Algeria, the main aims of this study were to confirm the circulation of Neospora caninum in the country and to determine its seroprevalence in dairy cattle in five provinces of Algeria's central northern region by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence. A serological study of 186 dairy cattle declared brucellosis-free established an overall seroprevalence of 12.37%, confirming that N. caninum is circulating in dairy cattle and underlining the need to introduce systematic serological screening for neosporosis to limit its spread and prevent it from being perpetuated on Algerian farms. PMID:23520748

Achour, K; Ben-Mahdi, M-H; Akkou, M; Teniou, R

2012-12-01

170

Vortex flows with suspended separation regions and long-range untwisted central jets  

SciTech Connect

A study is made of possible physicoaerodynamic configurations of vortical flow with suspended separation regions and untwisted central jets. Such flows are encountered in power plants (heat exchangers, combustion chambers, and chemical reactors) and in nature (tornadoes). The basic configurations of several flows of this type are described, including the structure of a flow formed by coaxial cocurrent twisted jets, the flow in a conical swirl chamber with the formation of an untwisted long-range axial jet, the flow pattern in a gas turbine engine chamber, and some considerations regarding the aerodynamics of a tornado.

Abramovich, G.N.; Trofimov, R.S.

1988-05-01

171

Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada  

SciTech Connect

We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

2009-04-01

172

Projecting the vegetation response to climatic change in the North American Central Grasslands Region  

SciTech Connect

An interdisciplinary modeling effort is underway in which high-resolution climate change projections will drive the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System (MAPSS) to simulate vegetation change in the Central Grasslands Region. MAPSS calculates a complete site water balance and solves for the leaf area (LAI) of both woody and grass lifeforms in full competition for both light and water. Fire is a necessary constraint on simulated shrub LAI throughout much of the grasslands region, and incorporation of weather variability is critical for obtaining accurate tree/grass LAI ratios in the Prairie Peninsula. Initial estimates of the potential impact of climatic change include significant changes in both lifeform LAI and the distribution of subformation vegetation types, but the magnitude and even the direction of change varies with the climate scenario and with assumptions concerning wind speed and plant water-use efficiency.

Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. (Environmental Research Lab., Corvallis, OR (United States))

1993-06-01

173

Depth dependent seismic scattering attenuation in the Nuevo Cuyo region (southern central Andes)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we separated intrinsic from scattering attenuation coefficients both for the crust and the upper mantle in the tectonically highly active areas of the Southern-Central Andes - Nuevo Cuyo region, analyzing two groups of earthquakes, well separated in depth. This region is characterized by the presence of flat subduction. We apply MLTWA (Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis), coda normalization and Q-coda techniques to measure the scattering and intrinsic attenuation coefficient and the total Q for S waves. We find that intrinsic attenuation does not decrease with depth whereas scattering attenuation is higher in the crust than in the upper mantle, and that intrinsic attenuation predominates over scattering attenuation. We interpret this observation in terms of the release of water and other fluids into the overlying lithosphere due to the dynamics of the subduction process, in agreement with most of the prevalent geodynamic models.

Badi, G.; Del Pezzo, E.; Ibanez, J. M.; Bianco, F.; Sabbione, N.; Araujo, M.

2009-12-01

174

Intraspecific phylogeography of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in the central Rocky Mountain region of North America.  

PubMed

We used variation in a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region to examine phylogeography of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, a boreal-adapted small mammal in the central Rocky Mountain region. AMOVA revealed that 65.66% of genetic diversity was attributable to variation within populations, 16.93% to variation among populations on different mountain ranges, and 17.41% to variation among populations within mountain ranges. Nested clade analysis revealed two major clades that likely diverged in allopatry during the Pleistocene: a southern clade from southern Colorado and a northern clade comprising northern Colorado, Wyoming, eastern Utah, and eastern Idaho. Historically restricted gene flow as a result of geographic barriers was indicated between populations on opposite sides of the Green River and Wyoming Basin and among populations in eastern Wyoming. In some instances genetic structure indicated isolation by distance. PMID:16247688

Wilson, Gregory M; Den Bussche, Ronald A; McBee, Karen; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Jones, Cheri A

2005-11-01

175

2000 resource assessment of selected coal beds and zones in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report includes results of a digital assessment of six coal beds or zones in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions that produce over 15 percent of the Nation's coal. Other chapters include an executive summary, a report on geology and mining, a report summarizing other selected coal zones that were not assessed, and a report on USGS coal availability and recoverablity studies in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions.

Northern and Central Appalachian Basin Coal Regions Assessment Team

2001-01-01

176

Clustering Regional Ozone Concentrations to Reveal Meteorological Regimes Influencing Air Quality in California's Central Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California's central valley suffers from serious ozone air pollution problems due to its unique geography as well as diverse emission sources from both local and upwind areas. The primary flows in the region are produced by the thermal contrast between the ocean and land, and between the valley and surrounding mountains. On typical summer days, westerly winds are funneled into the valley through gaps in the coastal range, along with the Bay area pollutants. During the day, the flow is directed up the Sierra Nevada Mountain slope, while at night it reverses and recirculates the local pollutants. Meteorological factors are important in governing the spatial distribution and variation of air pollutants in this region. Such knowledge is mainly obtained in previous studies using multi-year historical observations at limited measurement sites. There are concerns about spatial representativeness of these measurement locations, and confounding effects from changes in anthropogenic emissions over the analysis period. While modeling studies can control and minimize these limitations, the short simulation period usually makes temporally representative patterns difficult to discern. Our study simulates ozone formation in central California for the entire summer of 2000, with wide meteorological and air quality variations seen in both space and time, and thus provides a good opportunity to examine meteorological regimes that lead to different ozone production, transport, and accumulation in the Central valley. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis, we determined distinctive meteorological regimes that are associated with different ozone spatial patterns in the Central Valley. In general, average ozone levels in the valley increase with temperature, while their spatial distribution depend on flow regimes, in particular, the strength of sea breezes and upslope flows. The regional meteorological effects are shown to explain the different ozone patterns in the valley, their dynamic relationship with each other, and their relationship to those in the upwind air basins. Our results can serve as a basis to study variability in ozone responses to emission controls and inter-basin pollutant transport under and across different temperature and flow regimes.

Jin, L.; Brown, N. J.; Harley, R. A.

2008-12-01

177

Evidence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Infection in Water Frogs of the Rana esculenta Complex in Central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (phylum Chytridiomycota, order Chytridiales) is the causative organism of chytridiomycosis in amphibians, a disease associated\\u000a with their population decline worldwide. In this work, we report a cutaneous infection in water frogs of the Rana esculenta complex in agricultural areas of Umbria, central Italy. Histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular\\u000a analyses demonstrated for the first time the presence of the

Francesca Simoncelli; Anna Fagotti; Raffaele Dall’Olio; Daniela Vagnetti; Rita Pascolini; Ines Di Rosa

2005-01-01

178

Simulating Climate Change in Central America Using PRECIS Regional Modeling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highland tropical forests are rich in endemic species and crucial in maintaining freshwater resources in many regions. Much of their remarkable biodiversity is due to the steep climate gradients found on tropical mountains. These gradients are significantly altered due to warming, affecting many species living on the mountain slopes. Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest shows biological changes associated with changes in climatic patterns. Our goal is to understand climate change at areas of high relief in the tropics and its potential impacts on ecosystem dynamics. We address this question by focusing on Central America, which is considered to be a biodiversity hotspot. The model used is the UK Hadley Center PRECIS(Providing REgional Climates for Impact Studies) model. The model is based on HadAM3H, an improved version of the atmospheric component of the latest Hadley Center coupled AOGCM, HadCM3 and is forced at the lateral boundaries by HadAM3P GCM. The surface boundary conditions include observed SSTs and sea-ice. We carried out a baseline run (1961-1990) and a doubled CO2 run (SRES A2 2071-2100) at a resolution of 25 km (0.22°) over the region of Central America that includes several biodiversity hotspots. Model verification is performed by comparing control run results with observations and reanalysis data. Preliminary analysis shows that PRECIS has successfully captured present-day spatial and temporal climate variability that has been observed in Central America. Elevation dependency of temperature is one of the important results of this study and will be investigated in great detail. The SRES A2 run shows average warming of about 3K, with more warming at higher altitudes in general. Precipitation and relative humidity analysis shows drier conditions in the region in 2 × CO2 world. Additional techniques are being developed to better quantify model performance in areas of high relief. We plan to expand this project to other models, and to additional questions related to the impacts of climate change.

Karmalkar, A. V.; Bradley, R. S.; Diaz, H. F.

2006-12-01

179

CHARACTER AND REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF GREAT FALLS TECTONIC ZONE, EAST-CENTRAL IDAHO AND WEST-CENTRAL MONTANA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Falls tectonic zone, here named, is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can be traced from the Idaho batholith in the Cordilleran miogeocline, across thrust-belt structures and basement rocks of west-central and southwestern Montana, through cratonic rocks of central Montana, and into southwestern-most Saskatchewan, Canada. Geologic mapping in east-central Idaho and west-central Montana has outlined a continuous zone of high-angle faults and shear zones. Recurrent fault movement in this zone and strong structural control over igneous intrusion suggest a fundamental tectonic feature that has influenced the tectonic development of the Idaho-Montana area from a least middle Proterozoic time to the present. Refs.

O'Neill, J. Michael; Lopez, David A.

1985-01-01

180

Bias in the centroid moment tensor for central Asian earthquakes: Evidence from regional surface wave data  

SciTech Connect

Surface waves recorded on the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) station Urumqi (WMQ) are analyzed for 26 centroid moment tensor (CMT) earthquakes located within an epicentral distance of 1300 km. Applying a simple grid search method for source parameter retrieval, I obtain revised estimates of the focal depth, fault strike, and seismic moment (M{sub 0}) from amplitude spectra of Love and Rayleigh waves and compare these estimates with the CMT best double-couple solutions. The comparisons show that residuals are unbiased for focal depth and fault strike, where population spreads are {plus_minus}13 km and {plus_minus}17{degree}, respectively. On the other hand, M{sub 0} estimates are found to be biased, with CMT M{sub 0} larger than regional estimates by an average of 0.27{plus_minus}0.04 log units. The results for focal depth and strike are consistent with previous global and regional studies comparing independent estimates with CMT results. Recent full-waveform modeling studies for central Asian earthquakes support the findings of bias in M{sub 0} estimates. I suggest that causes for M{sub 0} bias may be related to great thicknesses of continental crust in Hindu Kush and Tien Shan regions and to data censoring practices at small magnitudes. M{sub 0}:m{sub b} scaling relationships for central Asian earthquakes show better agreement with western U.S. scaling when M{sub 0} estimates determined in this study are used. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

Patton, H.J. [Geophysics Group, Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)] [Geophysics Group, Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

1998-11-01

181

Spatial and Temporal Trends of Snowfall in Central New York - A Lake Effect Dominated Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central New York is located in one of the snowiest regions in the United States, with the city of Syracuse, New York the snowiest metropolis in the nation. Snowfall in the region generally begins in mid-November and lasts until late-March. Snow accumulation occurs from a multitude of conditions: frontal systems, mid-latitude cyclones, Nor'easters, and most notably lake-effect storms. Lake effect snowfall (LES) is a difficult parameter to forecast due to the isolated and highly variable nature of the storm. Consequently, studies have attempted to determine changes in snowfall for lake-effect dominated regions. Annual snowfall patterns are of particular concern as seasonal snowfall totals are vital for water resources, winter businesses, agriculture, government and state agencies, and much more. Through the use of snowfall, temperature, precipitation, and location data from the National Weather Service's Cooperative Observer Program (COOP), spatial and temporal changes in snowfall for Central New York were determined. In order to determine climatic changes in snowfall, statistical analyses were performed (i.e. least squares estimation, correlations, principal component analyses, etc.) and spatial maps analyzed. Once snowfall trends were determined, factors influencing the trends were examined. Long-term snowfall trends for CNY were positive for original stations (˜0.46 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1) and homogenously filtered stations (0.23 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1). However, snowfall trends for shorter time-increments within the long-term period were not consistent, as positive, negative, and neutral trends were calculated. Regional differences in snowfall trends were observed for CNY as typical lake-effect areas (northern counties, the Tug Hill Plateau and the Southern Hills) experienced larger snowfall trends than areas less dominated by LES. Typical lake-effect months (December - February) experienced the greatest snowfall trend in CNY compared to other winter months. The influence of teleconnections on seasonal snowfall in CNY was not pronounced; however, there was a slight significant (5%) correlation (< 0.35) with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. It was not clear if changes in air temperature or changes in precipitation were the cause of variations in snowfall trends. It was also inconclusive if the elevation or distance from Lake Ontario resulted in increased snowfall trends. Results from this study will aid in seasonal snowfall forecasts in CNY, which can be used to predict future snowfall. Even though the study area is regionally specific, the methods may be applied to other lake effect dominated areas to determine temporal and spatial variations in snowfall. This study will enhance climatologists and operational forecasters' awareness and understanding of snowfall, especially lake effect snowfall in CNY.

Hartnett, Justin Joseph

182

Correlation between large-scale atmospheric fields and the olive pollen season in Central Italy.  

PubMed

Olives are one of the largest crops in the Mediterranean and in central and southern Italy. This work investigates the correlation of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in Perugia, the capital city of the region of Umbria in central Italy, with atmospheric parameters. The aim of the study is twofold. First, we study the correlation between the pollen season and the surface air temperature of the spring and late spring in Perugia. Second, the correlation between the pollen season and large-scale atmospheric patterns is investigated. The average surface temperature in the spring and late spring has a clear impact on the pollen season in Perugia. Years with higher average temperatures have an earlier onset of the pollen season. In particular, a 1 degrees C higher (lower) average surface temperature corresponds to an earlier (later) start of the pollen season of about 1 week. The correlation between the pollen season and large-scale atmospheric patterns of sea level pressure and 500-hPa geopotential height shows that the cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean is unequivocally tied to the pollen season in Perugia. A larger than average cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean Basin corresponds to a later than average pollen season. Larger than average cyclonic activity in Northern Europe and Siberia corresponds to an earlier than average pollen season. A possible explanation of this correlation, that needs further investigation to be proven, is given. These results can have a practical application by using the seasonal forecast of atmospheric general circulation models. PMID:18618152

Avolio, E; Pasqualoni, L; Federico, S; Fornaciari, M; Bonofiglio, T; Orlandi, F; Bellecci, C; Romano, B

2008-11-01

183

MAPPING THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE PPN CRL 618 AT SUBARCSECOND RESOLUTION AT 350 GHz  

SciTech Connect

CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at {approx}0.''3-0.''5 resolutions. Two components are seen in the 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in a 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base; and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC{sub 3}N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain millimeter-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC{sub 3}N and HCN and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in CH{sub 2}CHCN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within {approx}630 AU (0.''7) of the central star. A simple radiative transfer model is used to derive the kinematics, physical conditions, and the chemical abundances in the dense core. The dense core is expanding and accelerating, with the velocity increasing roughly linearly from {approx}3 km s{sup -1} in the innermost part to {approx}16 km s{sup -1} at 630 AU. The mass-loss rate in the dense core is extremely high with a value of {approx}1.15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The dense core has a mass of {approx}0.47 M{sub Sun} and a dynamical age of {approx}400 yr. It could result from a recent enhanced heavy mass-loss episode that ends the asymptotic giant branch phase. The isotopic ratios of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N are 9 {+-} 4 and 150 {+-} 50, respectively, both lower than the solar values.

Lee, Chin-Fei; Yang, Chun-Hui [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sahai, Raghvendra [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sanchez Contreras, Carmen [Astrobiology Center (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain)

2013-06-20

184

Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil.  

PubMed

Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned. PMID:25242952

Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

2014-01-01

185

Analysis of drought in the region of Abruzzo (Central Italy) by the Standardized Precipitation Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of drought phenomena in the Region of Abruzzo (Central Italy) using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) computed at different time scales (3, 6, 12, 24 months). The study is based on monthly precipitation data collected from 1951 to 2009 at 69 climatic stations uniformly distributed over the region. According to the trend analysis, most stations are characterized by increments in both drought severity and variability, particularly at the longer time scales. A principal component analysis applied to SPI time series enabled to identify two main patterns: the first more correlated to the coastal areas, the second more correlated to the inland, mountainous areas. However, the spatial patterns become less defined as the time scale increases, making more uncertain the definition of homogenous areas to be used in drought management plans. In most cases, the identified drought patterns have similar negative overall tendencies, but different trend directions in some sub-periods. In particular, the first drought pattern is clearly characterized by a trend reversal (from decreasing to increasing) during the last decade. This temporal evolution, consistent with that observed by large-scale analyses in the corresponding (or near) grid points, was not detected for the second pattern, which is probably influenced by local topographic and/or orographic factors. The results confirm the complexity of drought phenomenon in a typical Mediterranean region and the necessity of high-resolution datasets to capture its temporal and spatial variability.

Di Lena, B.; Vergni, L.; Antenucci, F.; Todisco, F.; Mannocchi, F.

2014-01-01

186

Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned. PMID:25242952

Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

2014-01-01

187

A preliminary evaluation of regional ground-water flow in south-central Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The characteristics of regional ground-water flow were investigated in a 4,500-square-mile region of south-central Washington, centered on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Hanford Reservation. The investigation is part of the Commission's feasibility study on storing high-level radioactive waste in chambers mined in basaltic rocks at a. depth of about 3,000 feet or more below the surface. Ground-water flow., on a regional scale, occurs principally in the basalt and-in interbedded sediments of the Columbia River Group, and is controlled by topography, the structure of the basalt, and the large streams--the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers. The ground water beneath the main part of the Hanford Reservation, south and west of the Columbia River, inures southeastward from recharge areas in the uplands, including Cold Creek and Dry Creek valleys, and ultimately discharges to the Columbia River south of the reservation: East and southeast of the Columbia River, ground water flows generally southwestward and discharges to the River. The Yakima River valley contains a distinct flow system in which movement is toward the Yakima River from the topographic divides. A large southward-flowing ground-water system beneath the southern flank of the Horse Heaven Hills discharges to the Columbia River in the westward-trending reach downstream from Wallula Gap.

La Sala, A. M., Jr.; Doty, G.C.; Pearson, F.J., Jr.

1973-01-01

188

SO2 measurements at a high altitude site in the central Himalayas: Role of regional transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous measurements of a climatically important acidic gas, SO2, were made over Nainital (29.37°N, 79.45°E; 1958 m amsl), a regionally representative site in the central Himalayas, for the first time during 2009-2011. Unlike many other sites, the SO2 levels over Nainital are higher during pre-monsoon (345 pptv) compared to winter (71 pptv). High values during pre-monsoon are attributed to the transport of air masses from regions viz. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), northern India and north-East Pakistan, which are dotted with numerous industries and power plants, where coal burning occurs. Transport from the polluted regions is evinced from good correlations of SO2 with wind speed, NOy and UV aerosol index during these periods. Daytime elevations in SO2 levels, influenced by 'valley winds' and boundary layer evolution, is a persistent feature at Nainital. SO2 levels are very much lower during monsoon compared to pre-monsoon, due to oxidation losses and wet scavenging. Despite this, SO2/NOy slopes are high (>0.4) both during pre-monsoon and monsoon, indicating impacts of point sources. The SO2 levels during winter are lower as the measurement site is cut off from the plains due to boundary layer dynamics. Further, the SO2 levels during winter nights are the lowest (lesser than 50 pptv) and resemble free tropospheric conditions.

Naja, Manish; Mallik, Chinmay; Sarangi, Tapaswini; Sheel, Varun; Lal, Shyam

2014-12-01

189

Regional tectonic synthesis of central foldbelt and Indus plain of Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

A regional tectonic synthesis based on detailed interpretation of 32 Landsat images, review of literature and maps, and integration of a regional stratigraphic analysis reveals a great deal about the development and distribution of deformational features in Pakistan and indicates a number of oil and gas exploration opportunities that may have been overlooked. It appears that the original shape of the Indian and Eurasian plates and their convergence vector through time controlled the overall pattern of deformation resulting from their collision. The details of plate convergence history, distribution of previously existing structural features, distribution of lithologic units, and their mechanical properties profoundly influence the morphology and architecture of the ranges comprising the Central foldbelt and the effects of the collision in the Indus Plain. In particular, the distribution of low-viscosity units that act as detachment zones (e.g., the Infracambrian evaporite sequence, Cretaceous and Eocene shales and evaporites) control the location of folded thrust belts, thrust duplexes, and passive-roof complexes. Taken together, the tectonic synthesis and regional stratigraphic analysis indicate a wide variety of untested exploration opportunities. These opportunities range from the obvious testing of undrilled structures within productive foldbelts such as the Potwar Plateau and Sulaiman Range to the pursuit of distal folds and the more obscure extension of foldbelts beneath the alluvial cover of the Indus Plain and delta.

Everett, J.R.; Russell, O.R.; Dolan, P.

1989-03-01

190

The Diversity of Coolia spp. (Dinophyceae Ostreopsidaceae) in the Central Great Barrier Reef Region  

PubMed Central

Background Dinoflagellates are important primary producers, crucial in marine food webs. Toxic strains, however, are the main causative agents of non-bacterial seafood poisoning, a major concern for public health worldwide. Despite their importance, taxonomic uncertainty within many genera of dinoflagellates is still high. The genus Coolia includes potentially harmful species and the diversity within the genus is just starting to become apparent. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, cultures were established from strains of Coolia spp. isolated from the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Cultures were identified based on thecal plate morphology and analyses of sequences (18S, ITS and 28S) from the nuclear rRNA operon. We report that the central GBR harbors a high diversity of Coolia species, including two species known to be capable of toxin production (C. tropicalis and C. malayensis), as well as the non-toxic C. canariensis. The strain of C. canariensis isolated from the GBR may in fact be a cryptic species, closely related but nevertheless phylogenetically distinct from the strain on which the holotype of C. canariensis was based. We also found evidence of the occurrence of a cryptic species morphologically very similar to both C. malayensis and C. monotis. The consequences of taxonomic confusion within the genus are discussed. Conclusion/Significance The central GBR region harbors a previously unreported high diversity of Coolia spp., including two species known to potentially produce toxins. The presence of a cryptic species of unknown toxicity highlights the importance of cryptic diversity within dinoflagellates. PMID:24194962

Momigliano, Paolo; Sparrow, Leanne; Blair, David; Heimann, Kirsten

2013-01-01

191

Gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region of Saudi schoolchildren aged 10-15 years.  

PubMed

Incidence of gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region was examined in a sample of 1336 male and female Saudi schoolchildren aged from 10-15 yr. Gingival recession was found in 9.88% with no significant difference in the affected teeth by age (p greater than 0.8361). There was a significant difference in the mean clinical crown length between the affected and adjacent teeth (p less than 0.0001). The highest significant association of gingival recession was found with inflammation (p less than 0.0001), anterior crowding (p less than 0.0009) and frenal involvement (p less than 0.0001). The results of this investigation suggest that future studies should be made to evaluate the effect of miswak as a cleansing agent for the gingival tissues among the Saudi population. PMID:6576884

Younes, S A; El Angbawi, M F

1983-08-01

192

Evaluating regional water scarcity: Irrigated crop water budgets for groundwater management in the Wisconsin Central Sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional water scarcity dilemmas between agricultural and aquatic land users pervade the humid northern lake states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, where agricultural irrigation relies on groundwater drawn from shallow aquifers. As these aquifers have strong connectivity to surface waters, irrigation lowers water levels in lakes and wetlands and reduces stream discharges. Irrigation expansion has cultivated a 60-year water scarcity dilemma in The Wisconsin Central Sands, the largest irrigated region in the humid northern lake states, dedicated to potato, maize, and processing vegetable production. Irrigation has depleted Wisconsin Central Sands surface waters, lowering levels in some lakes by over 2 m and drying some coldwater trout streams. Aquatic ecosystems, property values, and recreational uses in some surface waters have been devastated. While the causal link between pumping and surface water stress is established, understanding crop-mediated processes, such as the timing and magnitude of groundwater consumption by evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater recharge, will be useful in management of groundwater, irrigated cropping systems, and surface water health. Previous modeling and field efforts have compared irrigated crop water use to a natural reference condition on a net annual basis. As a result, we presently understand that for irrigated potatoes and maize, the average annual ET is greater and therefore, the average annual recharge is less than rainfed row crops, grasslands, and both coniferous and deciduous forests. However, we have a limited understanding of the magnitude and timing of ET and recharge from irrigated cropping systems on shorter time scales that proceed with the annual cropping cycle (i.e. planting, full canopy, harvest, residue cover). We seek to understand the spatiotemporal variability of crop water budgets and associated water scarcity in the Wisconsin Central Sands through detailed measurements of drainage (potential recharge) and by inferring ET through difference, modeling, and gas exchange. In April 2013 prior to planting, we installed 10 passive capillary wick lysimeters below the effective rooting zone (z=100 cm) in potato (n=6) and maize (n=4) cropping systems to collect drainage at a 10-minute time-step under cultivation on Isherwood Farms, a sixth-generation family farm in the Wisconsin Central Sands region. Lysimeters were also instrumented to measure soil moisture and temperature at depth (z=10, 20, 40, 80 cm). Farm operators initiated center-pivot irrigation when soil moisture dropped to approximately 50% of plant available water content. Results show that drainage for May-July 2013 was 43 × 53 mm and 48 × 41 mm in irrigated potato and maize cropping systems, respectively, despite 320 mm of precipitation received during the experimental period, which was 15% above average for this region. Soil moisture consistently fluctuated in response to precipitation/irrigation events at the 10 and 20 cm soil depths, but rarely fluctuated in response to precipitation/irrigation events at the 40 and 80 cm soil depths, supporting the low drainage observed during the growing season. Future work will couple these drainage data to ongoing phenological, micrometeorological, and gas exchange observations in order to infer ET and calculate crop water budgets on a seasonal basis.

Nocco, M. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Kraft, G.

2013-12-01

193

African American Funeral Programs from the East Central Georgia Regional Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the East Central Georgia Regional Library, the African American Funeral Programs collection consists of over 1,000 funeral programs dated from 1933 to 2008. Most of the programs are from churches in Augusta, Georgia, and the surrounding area, with a few outliers coming from New York and Florida. These materials are tremendously important historical resources, as most programs contain a photograph of the deceased, an obituary, and a list of surviving relatives. Visitors can browse the collection by name, year of death, city, or funeral site. Additionally, they may wish to use the advanced search feature on the homepage. First-time visitors may wish to click on the featured obituary on the "From the collection" graphic. It's a remarkable collection and one that is worth passing along to friends and colleagues.

2012-07-06

194

Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea  

PubMed Central

The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ?ST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

Giantsis, Ioannis A.; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J.; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P.

2014-01-01

195

Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?–9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon — which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" — in two distinct intervals (15,900–13,800 and 12,700–9700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Niña-like conditions).

Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy

2008-01-01

196

A Near-IR Spectroscopic Survey of the Central Regions of Field Ellipticals: Continued  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to obtain central region K-band spectra for a sample of N ~ 30 field elliptical galaxies. An analysis of the central near-IR colors of these galaxies suggests that some of these galaxies may contain first-ascent giant branches (FGB) similar to the unusual FGB seen in the metal-rich Galactic globular clusters Liller 1 and NGC 6440. We wish to test this hypothesis by measuring the equivalent widths of the Na I 2.207(micron) and Ca I 2.263(micron) as well as the CO 2.36(micron) index. These new EW and CO index measurements will be compared to previously published data for K and M giants in the Local Solar Neighborhood, Baade's Window, and the Liller 1 and NGC 6440 clusters. These spectra can also be used to assess cosmic dispersion in the elliptical galaxy stellar population properties, which has important implications for SBF distance measurements and the study of high- redshift galaxies.

Silva, David; Bothun, Gregory

2000-02-01

197

Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China  

SciTech Connect

In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5 nuclear explosions at station AAK in Kyrgyzstan. The explosions are from the Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and Lop Nor, China. The earthquakes are mostly from northwest China. They have also evaluated a single suspected chemical explosion. Event magnitudes (m{sub b}) range between 2.5 and 6.5 and maximum event-station distance is about 1,700 km. Using these measurements the authors formed phase, spectral, cross-spectral, short-period/long-period, and long-period ratios to test many possible event discriminants. All ratios were corrected for distance effects before forming ratio-versus-magnitude discrimination plots. The authors found that all five classes of these discriminants are useful for separating earthquakes from explosions in central Asia, provided the right combinations of frequency bands and phases are selected. Results are described.

Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Phillips, W.S.; Randall, G.E.

1996-09-01

198

Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ∼0.2) in CA vary seasonally with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ∼10 ?g m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2-90 ?g m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ∼0.1 ?g m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD, and PM2.5, PM10, BC, organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in the Kyrgyz Republic (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrate that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning and anthropogenic sources from Europe, South, East and CA, and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.

Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

2014-05-01

199

Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).  

PubMed

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

2012-01-01

200

Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)  

PubMed Central

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

2012-01-01

201

Electrical conductivity of mantle in the North Central region of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mantle electrical conductivity profile of the North Central region of Nigeria was determined using the quiet day ionospheric current variations (Sq). The employed magnetic averaged hourly data were obtained from Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) ground based observatories at two Nigerian stations located at Ilorin (8°30?N, 4°33?E) and Abuja (8°59?N, 7°23?E) for the year 2009 and 2010. The magnetometer data from Pankshin (9°20?N, 9°27?E) and Katsina-Ala (7°10?N, 9°17?E) for the same years were equally employed. The separation of both the internal and external field contributions to the Sq variations was successfully carried out employing spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). Transfer function was performed in computing the conductivity-depth profile for North Central region of Nigeria from the paired external and internal coefficients of the SHA. The conductivity value of approximately 0.039 S/m was estimated at a depth of 100 km which rose gradually to 0.087 S/m at 207 km depth and 0.142 S/m at 367 km (close to the base of upper mantle). Subsequently, the conductivity profile continued rising to a value of 0.144 S/m at 442 km, 0.164 S/m at 653 km and 0.174 S/m at 710 km. Finally, value of approximately 0.195 S/m at a depth of 881 km and 0.240 S/m at 1100 km depth were recorded at the lower mantle with no indication of leveling off. Some evidence of discontinuities near 100-214 km, 214-420 km, 420-640 km, 640-900 km and 900-1100 km were clearly obvious. The sharp increase in conductivity from about 100 km depth to 230 km was interpreted to correspond to the global seismic low velocity zone - the asthenosphere.

Obiora, Daniel N.; Okeke, Francisca N.; Yumoto, K.

2015-01-01

202

The Butana Region of Central Sudan: Sahara Craton or Arabian-Nubian Shield?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Butana region lies 250 km south east of Khartoum and is one of the few exposures of Proterozoic basement in Central Sudan. The area is characterized by a flat surface and isolated basement exposures. Various authors have allocated the region to part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield or to part of the reworked Sahara Craton. Although the area is indeed located in the rough region of this transition, little information exists on the details of the basement geology in Butana. Field work indicates that the geology of the study area is similar to the other parts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The area consists of low-grade metavolcanic rocks (arc assemblage), pre- and syn-tectonic granitic intrusions. In particular the presence of serpentinites, ophiolitic metagabbro and high-grade metamorphic rocks may identify it as part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The main metamorphic foliation trend in the low-grade rocks is northeast-southwest with steep foliation plains and sub-horizontal lineation. In the high-grade rocks, at least three deformation phases were observed in the field. D1 associates with northeast-southwest foliation planes and D2 associates with high temperature folding mechanism which gave the high-grade rocks domal pattern. While D3 is a faulting phase with brittle features. The peak metamorphism most probably occurred after the D2 as indicated by the migmatic features. Geochronological work is in progress in order to identify uniquely if the region should be allocated to the Arabian-Nubian Shield or the Sahara Craton.

Abu-Alam, T.; Stüwe, K.

2012-04-01

203

Community Velocity Model for the New Madrid Region, Central U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1811-1812, a series of three major earthquakes struck the Central United States in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. Having magnitudes near 7.5 and being located within the relatively stable interior of the North American Continent, these events produced widespread strong shaking. If these events were to occur today, there would be substantial devastation to people, buildings and transportation and communication infrastructure. To better understand this threat and in preparation for the upcoming bicentennial, the US Geological Survey is planning to produce and support sophisticated numerical simulations of earthquake rupture and seismic wave propagation due to a repeat of these events. To kick off this effort, the USGS began the development and construction of a community seismic velocity model for use in these numerical simulations. We have collected existing research regarding the p- and s-wave velocities, impedance contrasts and densities of the lithosphere in the New Madrid region and synthesized these results into a single model that can be used in earthquake simulations. We have identified areas of missing or incomplete information for further study. The region covers an area of approximately 600,000 km2 from Little Rock, Arkansas across to Nashville Tennessee, up to St Louis, Missouri. The model has currently been gridded at 3 km lateral resolution and from 5-m resolution near the surface to 10-km resolution at 100 km depth. Less but still substantial uncertainty exists for the Mississippi Embayment where a majority of the research has been done. Newer regional models such as those by van der Lee and others and Liang and Langston have improved regional resolution beyond a 1-dimensional model, but for ground motion simulations, greater resolution outside the Embayment is desired.

Boyd, O. S.

2008-12-01

204

Development and Delivery of Ecologically-based IPM Packages in Central Asia Central Asia Regional IPM Program Year 2 Workplans  

E-print Network

, Tashkent, Uzbekistan Wheat IPM Package: Dr. Nurali Saidov, IPM CRSP Coordinator, Tajikistan Dr. Doug Landis countries include - Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The technical objectives of the Central Asia approaches and technologies for IPM packages for Wheat, Potato and Tomato in three host countries (Tajikistan

205

Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies  

EPA Science Inventory

The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008?July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

206

Lithological and seasonal control on rainfall thresholds for the possible initiation of landslides in central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compiled a catalogue of 442 rainfall events with landslides in the Abruzzo, Marche, and Umbria regions, central Italy, between February 2002 and August 2010. For each event, we determined the duration D (in hours) and the cumulated (total) event rainfall E (in mm), using rainfall measurements obtained from a dense network of 150 rain gauges. Landslides were mapped as single points using Google Earth®, and were attributed a level of mapping accuracy P, in four classes ( P1 < 1 km 2, P10 < 10 km 2, P100 < 100 km 2, P300 < 300 km 2). Using this information, we determined cumulated event rainfall-rainfall duration ( ED) thresholds, which are entirely equivalent to rainfall intensity-duration ( ID) thresholds, and avoid unnecessary conversions. To determine the ED thresholds, we modified a statistical method first proposed to determine ID thresholds. Adopting a bootstrapping statistical technique, we expanded the method to determine the uncertainty associated with the parameters that define the power law threshold model, and the sensitivity of the thresholds to the number of ( D, E) data points in the empirical data set. We determined ED thresholds for 1% and 5% exceedance probability levels: (i) for the entire study area, and for the three individual regions in the study area (Abruzzo, Marche, and Umbria); (ii) for three main lithological domains in the study area (post-orogenic sediments, flysch deposits, carbonate rocks); and (iii) for two seasonal periods (May-September, October-April). Comparison of the ED thresholds indicates that the cumulated amount of rainfall necessary to trigger landslides in flysch deposits is larger than in post-orogenic sediments and carbonate rocks. However, the ED thresholds for post-orogenic sediments and carbonate rocks were statistically indistinguishable in the study area. Also, the seasonal thresholds were statistically different for rainfall durations shorter than 12 h and longer than 100 h, but were indistinguishable in the range 12 < D < 100 h. The results obtained are directly applicable to landslide forecasting based on empirical rainfall thresholds, and have implications for landslide hazard and risk assessment, as well as for landslide erosion and landscape evolution studies, both in the study area and in the neighboring regions.

Peruccacci, Silvia; Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Luciani, Silvia; Vennari, Carmela; Guzzetti, Fausto

2012-02-01

207

The Central Regions of Early-Type Galaxies in Nearby Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remarkably, the central regions of galaxies are very important in shaping and influencing galaxies as a whole. As such, galaxy cores can be used for classification, to determine which processes may be important in galaxy formation and evolution. Past studies, for example, have found a dichotomy in the inner slopes of early-type galaxy surface brightness profiles. Using deprojections of the galaxies from the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Surveys (ACSVCS/FCS), we show that, in fact, this dichotomy does not exist. Instead, we demonstrate that the brightest early-type galaxies tend to have central light deficits, a trend which gradually transitions to central light excesses -- also known as compact stellar nuclei -- as we go to fainter galaxies. This effect is quantified, and can be used to determine what evolutionary factors are important as we move along the galaxy luminosity function. The number of stellar nuclei that we observe is, in fact, an unexpected result emerging from the ACSVCS/FCS. Being three times more common than previously thought, they are present in the vast majority of intermediate and low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, it has been known for over a decade that there is likely a supermassive black hole weighing millions to billions of solar masses at the center of virtually every galaxy of sufficient size. These black holes are known to follow scaling relations with their host galaxies. Using the ACSVCS, along with new kinematical data from long-slit spectroscopy, we measure the dynamical masses of 83 galaxies, and show that supermassive black holes and nuclei appear to fall along the same scaling relation with host mass. Both represent approximately 0.2% of their host's mass, implying an important link between the two types of central massive objects. Finally, we extract elliptical isophotes and fit parameterized models to the surface brightness profiles of new Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the ACSVCS galaxies, observed in infrared and ultraviolet bandpasses. Taken together, the two surveys represent an unprecedented collection of isophotal and structural parameters of early-type galaxies, and will allow us to learn a great deal about the stellar populations and formation histories of galaxy cores.

Glass, Lisa Anne

208

Parameters of deep melts in the Sierra-Leone region, Central Atlantic (data on melt inclusions)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples, collected during 22 cruise of R/V "Academician Nikolaj Strakhov" in the Sierra Leone F.Z. Region, Central Atlantic (Peyve et al., 2000) were investigated. The features of geology and volcanism of this region were reviewed in the last publications (Peyve et al., 2003; Skolotnev et al., 2003). In the present report the results of melt inclusions study in olivines and in plagioclases from basalts are given. The experiments with inclusions were carried out according published procedure (Simonov, 1993; Sobolev, Danyushevsky, 1994). The compositions of inclusions were established using a "Camebax-micro" electron microprobe. Contents of trace, rare earth elements and water in inclusions were determined on ionic microprobe IMS-4f on procedure published in the work (Sobolev, 1996). The analysis of melt inclusions in olivines from basalts has shown, that the magmas of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) Rift Zone in the Sierra-Leone Region have sufficiently high temperatures of crystallization -- 1275--1340^oC. Comparison of homogenization temperatures with liquidus temperatures calculated according PETROLOG (Danyushevsky, 2001) show, that the most of data agree with limits of used thermometers. The presence of such temperature characteristics testifies that the inclusions characterize parameters of deep melts. Primary magmas in this region, according estimation on procedure (Schilling et al., 1995), were formed at parameters of mantle melting near 1340--1370^oC and 50--60 km (Simonov et al., 2001). Comparison with data on trace and rare earth elements in melt inclusions in olivines from rocks 9^o N MAR (Sobolev, 1997) demonstrates, that on an interrelation La/Sm--Zr/Y inclusions in olivines from Sierra-Leone Region are close to data on normal melts formed during melting of mantle with formation about 5% of melt. On a character of distribution of trace and rare earth elements melts in the Sierra-Leone Region are closer to magmas from north segments of MAR (8^o N), than southern (4--5^o N). The comparative data analysis on compositions of inclusions in olivines and plagioclases with the characteristics of basalts and basaltic glasses has shown, that the evolution of deep melts during raising to the upper levels goes according to NMORB trend with height of FeO/MgO and with small accumulation of alkalines. At the same time for a "ore" area of the station S2234 the given evolution more corresponds to EMORB trend. This work was supported by the grant of the Russian Foundation of Fundamental Research (02-05-64046).

Simonov, V. A.; Glazyrin, Yu. E.; Kovyazin, S. V.

2003-04-01

209

Geological and archaeological evidence of active faulting on the Martana Fault (Umbria-Marche Apennines, Italy) and its geodynamic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the morphotectonic and structural-geological characteristics of the Quaternary Martana Fault in the Umbria-Marche Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. This structure is more than 30 km long and comprises two segments: a N-NNW-trending longer segment and a 100°N-trending segment. After developing as a normal fault in Early Pleistocene times, the N-NNW Martana Fault segment experienced a phase of dextral faulting extending from the Early to Middle Pleistocene boundary until around 0.39 Ma, the absolute age of volcanics erupted in correspondence to releasing bends. The establishment of a stress field with a NE-ENE-trending 3 axis and NW-NNW 1 axis in Late Pleistocene to Holocene times resulted in a strong component of sinistral faulting along N-NNW-trending fault segments and almost pure normal faulting on newly formed NW-SE faults. Fresh fault scarps, the interaction of faulting with drainage systems and displacement of alluvial fan apexes provide evidence of the ongoing activity of this fault. The active left-lateral kinematic along N-NNW-trending fault segments is also revealed by the 1.8 m horizontal offset of the E-W-trending Decumanus road, at the Roman town of Carsulae. We interpret the present-day kinematics of the Martana Fault as consistent with a model connecting surface structures to the inferred north-northwest trending lithospheric shear zone marking the western boundary of the Adria Plate. Copyright

Bonini, Marco; Tanini, Chiara; Moratti, Giovanna; Piccardi, Luigi; Sani, Federico

2003-12-01

210

Assessment of carbon footprint and energy performance of the extra virgin olive oil chain in Umbria, Italy.  

PubMed

The cradle to grave carbon footprint (CF) and energy footprint (EF) analysis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) produced in the Province of Perugia (Umbria, Italy) is assessed. In this study, olive orchard cultivation, EVOO extraction, bottling, packaging, storage at -18°C and distribution in the main importing countries were studied from a life cycle assessment perspective, with the main objective of identifying the processes with the largest environmental impacts. The selected functional unit was 1L of EVOO, packaged for distribution. Inventory data was gathered mainly through both direct communication using questionnaires and direct measurements. To determine the CF the ISO/TS 14067:2013 was followed while the EF was evaluated according to ISO standards 14040 and 14044. Results showed that the most impacting process is the distribution, mainly due to the choice of employing air transport. The main other hot spots identified were the olive orchard fertilization, EVOO freezing during its storage at the olive mill factory and the manufacture of glass bottles. Suggested improvement opportunities included shifts in the EVOO transportation policy, the introduction of lighter glass bottles in the bottling process, the use of cooling agent with lower global warming potential and the employment of biodiesel in the farming machineries. PMID:24636888

Rinaldi, S; Barbanera, M; Lascaro, E

2014-06-01

211

Investigation of regional geokinematics of central Europe using permanent GPS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2009 the Centre of Applied Geomatics of the Military University of Technology acts as one of the 18 Local Analysis Centers within EPN (EUREF Permanent Network). The duty of the LAC is to process a subnetwork of EPN stations and deliver weekly free network solutions to the Combination Centre as well as make research aimed at interpretation of obtained sites' coordinates. We have used satellite data from more than 300 permanent sites located in Europe, incorporated to EPN and supplemented by the sites operated within Polish GBAS (Ground-Based Augmentation System) called ASG-EUPOS for investigation of the regional geokinematic effects. These observations were processed by means of combining the normal equations using BERNESE 5.0 software. The velocities of permanent sites were determined from time series (geocentric coordinates) in two ways: using robust estimation using M-estimators and with CATREF software with no significant differences obtained. The several methods of interpolation of velocities into regular grid were tested. The research on regional kinematics was done by scientific description of continuous velocity model in comparison with different discontinuous models with geological structure taken into consideration. Finally the strain rates of Central Europe were elaborated using GRID_STRAIN software and compared to the previously determined empirical models.

Bogusz, J.; Figurski, M.; Kontny, B.; Jarosinski, M.; Klos, A.; Grzempowski, P.

2012-12-01

212

A survey and a molecular dynamics study on the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins  

E-print Network

Prion diseases are invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals. Unlike most other amyloid forming neurodegenerative diseases, these can be highly infectious. Prion diseases occur in a variety of species. They include the fatal human neurodegenerative diseases Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI), Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), Kuru, the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or 'mad-cow' disease) in cattle, the chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep and goats, etc. Transmission across the species barrier to humans, especially in the case of BSE in Europe, CWD in North America, and variant CJDs (vCJDs) in young people of UK, is a major public health concern. Fortunately, scientists reported that the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins (PrP) controls the formation of diseased prions. This article gives a detailed survey on PrP hydrophobic region and does molecular dynamics studies of human PrP(110-136...

Zhang, Jiapu

2014-01-01

213

Emerging trends in the seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis in the Madrid region (central Spain).  

PubMed

This report describes a cross-sectional serological survey of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) performed in 2006 and 2007 in the Madrid region (central Spain) where the disease is endemic. The work presented here is one of the several studies conducted in different Spanish regions under the Integrated Project of the European Commission entitled Emerging Diseases in a changing European eNvironment (EDEN). The aim of this project is to identify and catalogue European ecosystems and environmental conditions that determine the spatial and temporal distributions and dynamics of several pathogenic agents including Leishmania infantum (EDEN-LEI). The study area (Madrid Autonomous Region) was selected on the grounds of its wide altitude range. This area was surveyed from NE to SW across its mountain range (Sistema Central) and plateau area. One thousand and seventy-six dogs from 32 villages were examined for clinical signs of CanL, and serum samples were obtained to determine several haematological and biochemical variables. Leishmaniasis-specific antibodies were identified using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). 87 of the 1076 dogs were seropositive for the protozoan (IFAT: cut-off>or=1/80) indicating a seroprevalence of 8.1% (0-16.1% depending on the village). On the basis of a physical examination and the biochemical/haematological status of each dog, 32 of the 87 infected dogs were described as clinically healthy (37%). Seroprevalence showed a peak in young dogs (1-2 years) and a second larger peak among the older dogs (7-8 years). Factors correlated with a higher infection risk were age (OR=1.15 [95% CI: 1.07-1.22]), weight (OR=1.10 [95% CI: 1.04-1.16]), and living outdoors as opposed to in a home (OR=3.38 [95% CI: 1.42-8.05]). According to data from studies performed in 1992 in the same area, the seroprevalence of CanL has increased 1.54-fold [95% CI: 1.04-2.29]. Given that this increasing trend cannot be attributed to differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of the dog populations, it is proposed that environmental changes could have had an impact on vector and reservoir densities and their geographical distributions. Further studies designed to explain this trend should attempt to correlate sand fly densities and CanL seroprevalences with climate, land use and human changes. PMID:20031330

Gálvez, R; Miró, G; Descalzo, M A; Nieto, J; Dado, D; Martín, O; Cubero, E; Molina, R

2010-05-11

214

Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring results and regional generalized data showed 1-1.5 % Corg lost during last 50 years period and active processes of CO2 emission and humus profile eluvial-illuvial redistribution too. Forest-steppe Chernozems are usually characterized by higher stability than steppe ones. The ratio between erosive and biological losses in humus supplies can be ten¬tatively estimated as fifty-fifty with strong spatial variability due to slope and land-use parameters. These processes have essentially different sets of environmental consequences and ecosystem services that we need to understand in frame of agroecological problems development prediction. A drop of Corg content below threshold "humus limiting content" values (3-4% of Corg) considerably reduces effectiveness of used fertilizers and possibility of sustainable agronomy here. This problem environmental and agroecological situation can be essentially improved by new federal law on environmentally friendly agriculture but it's draft is still in the process of deliberation. Quantitative analysis of principal ecosystem services, soil cover patterns and degradation processes in parameters of land qualities help us in developing different-scale projects for agricultural and urban land-use, taking into attention not only economical benefits but environmental functions too. The conceptions of ecosystem services and local land resource management are becoming more and more popular at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia due to innovation application of basic agroecology, ecological monitoring and soil science achievements.

Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

2013-04-01

215

Numerical modeling of neotectonic movements and state of stresses in the central Seismic Gap region, Garhwal Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents finite element modeling (FEM) to simulate the present-day stress field and crustal deformation using NE-SW\\u000a structural section in the central Seismic Gap region of the Garhwal Himalaya. Our study deals with the effect of geometrical\\u000a characteristics and rock layer parameters on the upper crust. Modeling results show that two types of tectonic regimes developed\\u000a in the central

Ganesh Raj Joshi; Daigoro Hayashi

2008-01-01

216

Attenuation Tomography Based on Strong Motion Data: Case Study of Central Honshu Region, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional frequency dependent S-wave quality factor (Q?(f)) value for the central Honshu region of Japan has been determined in this paper using an algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data. The method of inversion for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients is proposed by H ashida and S himazaki (J Phys Earth. 32, 299-316, 1984) and has been used and modified by J oshi (Curr Sci. 90, 581-585, 2006; Nat Hazards. 43, 129-146, 2007) and J oshi et al. (J. Seismol. 14, 247-272, 2010). Twenty-one earthquakes digitally recorded on strong motion stations of Kik-net network have been used in this work. The magnitude of these earthquake ranges from 3.1 to 4.2 and depth ranging from 5 to 20 km, respectively. The borehole data having high signal to noise ratio and minimum site effect is used in the present work. The attenuation structure is determined by dividing the entire area into twenty-five three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness having different frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor. Shear wave quality factor values have been determined at frequencies of 2.5, 7.0 and 10 Hz from record in a rectangular grid defined by 35.4°N to 36.4°N and 137.2°E to 138.2°E. The obtained attenuation structure is compared with the available geological features in the region and comparison shows that the obtained structure is capable of resolving important tectonic features present in the area. The proposed attenuation structure is compared with the probabilistic seismic hazard map of the region and shows that it bears some remarkable similarity in the patterns seen in seismic hazard map.

Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Verma, O. P.

2013-12-01

217

A SEARCH FOR RR LYRAE VARIABLES IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF M54  

SciTech Connect

We have analyzed archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) observations of the central region of the globular cluster M54. The 12 irregularly timed observations (6 F555W, 6 F814W) were reduced using the HSTphot stellar photometry package. Our statistical analysis of the HSTphot photometry yielded 50 variable stars that are likely RR Lyrae candidates. These candidates were missed by previous ground-based searches for RR Lyraes due to the extreme crowding in the core of M54. We performed two checks on our sample of RR Lyrae candidates to determine how different they were from the other variable candidates. The first test was a numerical analysis comparing the ratio of variable candidates to the total number of stars within the blue horizontal branch, the RR Lyrae region, and the red giant branch. We found ratios of 0.61%, 13%, and 1.1% in these regions, respectively. Our next test was a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, which allowed us to find out how different our 50 RR Lyrae candidates were from the 50 brightest other variable candidates. According to the K-S test, there is only a 0.0004% probability that these two populations are similar, indicating that our RR Lyrae candidates do indeed exhibit some real fluctuation in their brightness. We sampled the light curves of confirmed RR Lyrae light curves to simulate the HST observing conditions and found that a signature of variability in 2911 out of the 4000 (72%) generated 'stars'. We estimate that there maybe as many as 19 more RR Lyrae candidates that were undetected in the WFPC2 field of view. The presence of additional RR Lyraes has implications into the current Oosterhoff classification for the cluster.

Montiel, Edward J. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mighell, Kenneth J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2010-11-15

218

Tectono-sedimentary evolution and new sections across the western Gran Sasso d'Italia (Central Apennines)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During Jurassic-Cretaceous times, the area of the central Apennines was part of a large, Bahamian-type carbonate platform-basin system, whereby the area of the Gran Sasso was situated between the carbonate platform of Latium and the Abruzzi in the west and the deep basinal area of Marche-Umbria to the east. This transitional area experienced 1. Early Jurassic rifting of the Adriatic

Giovanni Luca Cardello; Daniel Bernoulli; Carlo Doglioni

2010-01-01

219

A Seasonal Perspective on Regional Air Quality in CentralCalifornia - Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

Central California spans a wide variety of urban, agricultural, and natural terrain, including the San Francisco Bay area, the Central Valley, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Population within this region is growing rapidly, and there are persistent, serious air pollution problems including fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone. Summertime photochemical air pollution is the focus of the present study, which represents a first phase in the development and application of a modeling capability to assess formation and transport of ozone and its precursors within Central California over an entire summer season. This contrasts with past studies that have examined pollutant dynamics for a few selected high-ozone episodes each lasting 3-5 days. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) has been applied to predict air pollutant formation and transport in Central California for a 15-day period beginning on July 24, 2000. This period includes a 5-day intensive operating period (July 29 to August 2) from the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS). Day-specific meteorological conditions were modeled by research collaborators at NOAA using a mesoscale meteorological model (MM5). Pollutant emissions within the study domain were based on CARB emission inventory estimates, with additional efforts conducted as part of this research to capture relevant emissions variability including (1) temperature and sunlight-driven changes in biogenic VOC, (2) weekday/weekend and diurnal differences in light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) motor vehicle emissions, (3) effects of day-specific meteorological conditions on plume rise from point sources such as power plants. We also studied the effects of using cleaner pollutant inflow boundary conditions, lower than indicated during CCOS aircraft flights over the Pacific Ocean, but supported by other surface, ship-based, balloon and aircraft sampling studies along the west coast. Model predictions were compared with measured concentrations for O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, and CO at about 100 ground observation stations within the CCOS domain. Comparisons were made both for time series and for statistically aggregated metrics, to assess model performance over the whole modeling domain and for the individual air basins within the domain. The model tends to over-predict ozone levels along the coast where observed levels are generally low. Inland performance in the San Joaquin Valley is generally better. Model-measurement agreement for night-time ozone is improved by evaluating the sum of predicted O{sub 3} + NO{sub 2} against observations; this removes from the comparison the effect of any ozone titration that may occur. A variety of diagnostic simulations were conducted to investigate the causes for differences between predictions and observations. These included (1) enhanced deposition of O{sub 3} to the ocean, (2) reduced vertical mixing over the ocean, (3) attenuation of sunlight by coastal stratus, (4) the influence of surface albedo on photochemistry, and (5) the effects of observation nudging on wind fields. Use of advanced model probing tools such as process analysis and sensitivity analysis is demonstrated by diagnosing model sensitivity to boundary conditions and to weekday-weekend emission changes.

Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.; Tonse, Shaheen R.; Jin, Ling

2006-12-01

220

Inter-regional Response of Central California Fine Particulate Matter to Emissions Reductions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several air basins and counties in central California have been designated as nonattainment areas for the 24-hour PM2.5 federal standard (currently 35 ?g/m3). Preliminary PM2.5 simulations have been conducted to better understand PM2.5 formation in the region and to estimate the response of emission controls. This information will be used to help prepare for an upcoming PM2.5 SIP for bringing the region into compliance. We have simulated PM2.5 for the representative 2-month period December-January of 2006-07 using the MM5-CMAQ couple. Then, a 5-day episodic period was selected for sensitivity analysis for both directly emitted PM2.5 and precursor emissions. The sensitivity of PM2.5 levels was explored using a brute force approach. Primary PM2.5 as well as secondary PM2.5 precursor emissions for NOx and VOC together (denoted NOx+VOC) and ammonia were reduced by 10-60 percent in 10 percent increments. These levels of emissions reductions reflect historical and projected central California emissions trends. Primary PM2.5 levels always responded with 1:1 proportionality to direct PM2.5 emissions reductions, independent of model inputs such as meteorology. We have developed a novel approach for evaluating the model response to precursor emissions. A cluster analysis was applied to the sensitivity simulation outputs to determine contiguous areas of the simulation domain that responded similarly to emissions reductions. With this approach, areas responding similarly to secondary precursor emissions were selected objectively, independent of political boundaries. For all subsequent analyses, model results were spatially averaged across the grid cells within each homogeneous area identified by the cluster analysis. The sensitivity of secondary PM2.5 levels were plotted as isopleths (contours) as a function of both NOx+VOC and ammonia emissions reductions. The 5-day time-averaged sensitivity indicated significant differences for coastal versus inland and urban versus rural locations. For all locations, evolution of the sensitivity over the 5-day period indicated greater sensitivity to NOx+VOC reductions toward the beginning of the episode. Sensitivity to ammonia reductions increased toward the end of the episode as the air mass aged. The results were interpreted to rank the various homogeneous areas in terms of the response of secondary PM2.5 levels to various combinations of NOx+VOC and ammonia emission reductions.

Beaver, S.; Tanrikulu, S.; Tran, C.

2011-12-01

221

Precipitation frequency analysis based on regional climate simulations in Central Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Regional Climate Model (RCM), MM5 (the Fifth Generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model), is used to simulate summer precipitation in Central Alberta. MM5 was set up with a one-way, three-domain nested framework, with domain resolutions of 27, 9, and 3 km, respectively, and forced with ERA-Interim reanalysis data of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The objective is to develop high resolution, grid-based Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves based on the simulated annual maximums of precipitation (AMP) data for durations ranging from 15-min to 24-h. The performance of MM5 was assessed in terms of simulated rainfall intensity, precipitable water, and 2-m air temperature. Next, the grid-based IDF curves derived from MM5 were compared to IDF curves derived from six RCMs of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) set up with 50-km grids, driven with NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy) Reanalysis II data, and regional IDF curves derived from observed rain gauge data (RG-IDF). The analyzed results indicate that 6-h simulated precipitable water and 2-m temperature agree well with the ERA-Interim reanalysis data. However, compared to RG-IDF curves, IDF curves based on simulated precipitation data of MM5 are overestimated especially for IDF curves of 2-year return period. In contract, IDF curves developed from NARCCAP data suffer from under-estimation and differ more from RG-IDF curves than the MM5 IDF curves. The over-estimation of IDF curves of MM5 was corrected by a quantile-based, bias correction method. By dynamically downscale the ERA-Interim and after bias correction, it is possible to develop IDF curves useful for regions with limited or no rain gauge data. This estimation process can be further extended to predict future grid-based IDF curves subjected to possible climate change impacts based on climate change projections of GCMs (general circulation models) of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).

Kuo, Chun-Chao; Gan, Thian Yew; Hanrahan, Janel L.

2014-03-01

222

Central Nervous System PET-CT Imaging Reveals Regional Impairments in Pediatric Patients with Wolfram Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is inherited as an autosomal recessive disease with main clinical features of diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, diabetes insipidus and deafness. However, various neurological defects may also be detected. The aim of this study was to evaluate aspects of brain structure and function using PET-CT (positron emission tomography and computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) in pediatric patients with WFS. Regional changes in brain glucose metabolism were measured using standardized uptake values (SUVs) based on images of (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in 7 WFS patients aged 10.1–16.0 years (mean 12.9±2.4) and in 20 healthy children aged 3–17.9 years (mean 12.8±4.1). In all patients the diagnosis of WFS was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the WFS1 gene. Hierarchical clustering showed remarkable similarities of glucose uptake patterns among WFS patients and their differences from the control group. SUV data were subsequently standardized for age groups <13 years old and>13 years old to account for developmental differences. Reduced SUVs in WFS patients as compared to the control group for the bilateral brain regions such as occipital lobe (?1.24±1.20 vs. ?0.13±1.05; p?=?0.028) and cerebellum (?1.11±0.69 vs. ?0.204±1.00; p?=?0.036) were observed and the same tendency for cingulate (?1.13±1.05 vs. ?0.15±1.12; p?=?0.056), temporal lobe (?1.10±0.98 vs. ?0.15±1.10; p?=?0.057), parietal lobe (?1.06±1.20 vs. ?0.08±1.08; p?=?0.058), central region (?1.01±1.04 vs. ?0.09±1.06; p?=?0.060), basal ganglia (?1.05±0.74 vs. ?0.20±1.07; p?=?0.066) and mesial temporal lobe (?1.06±0.82 vs. ?0.26±1.08; p?=?0.087) was also noticed. After adjusting for multiple hypothesis testing, the differences in glucose uptake were non-significant. For the first time, regional differences in brain glucose metabolism among patients with WFS were shown using PET-CT imaging. PMID:25542043

Fendler, Wojciech; Borowiec, Maciej; Antosik, Karolina; Gnys, Piotr; Baranska, Dobromila; Mlynarski, Wojciech

2014-01-01

223

Patient satisfaction with the endoscopy experience and willingness to return in a central Canadian health region  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Patient experiences with endoscopy visits within a large central Canadian health region were evaluated to determine the relationship between the visit experience and the patients’ willingness to return for future endoscopy, and to identify the factors associated with patients’ willingness to return. METHODS: A self-report survey was distributed to 1200 consecutive individuals undergoing an upper and/or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy at any one of the six hospital-based endoscopy facilities in the region. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the association between the patients’ overall rating of the visits and willingness to return for repeat procedures under similar medical circumstances. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with willingness to return for repeat endoscopy and overall satisfaction (rating) of the visit. RESULTS: A total of 529 (44%) individuals returned the questionnaire, with 45% rating the visit as excellent and 56% indicating they were extremely likely to return for repeat endoscopy. There was a low moderate correlation between overall rating of the visit and patients’ willingness to return for repeat endoscopy (r=0.30). The factors independently associated with patient willingness to return for repeat endoscopy included perceived technical skills of the endoscopists (OR 2.7 [95% CI 1.3 to 5.5]), absence of pain during the procedure (OR 2.2 [95% CI 1.3 to 3.6]) and history of previous endoscopy (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.4 to 4.1]). In contrast, the independent factors associated with the overall rating of the visit included information provided pre- and postprocedure, wait time before and on the day of the visit, and the physical environment. CONCLUSIONS: To facilitate patient return for needed endoscopy, it is important to assess patients’ willingness to return because positive behavioural intent is not simply a function of satisfaction with the visit. PMID:23712300

Loftus, Russell; Nugent, Zoann; Graff, Lesley A; Schumacher, Frederick; Bernstein, Charles N; Singh, Harminder

2013-01-01

224

Particulate matter source apportionment in a village situated in industrial region of Central Europe.  

PubMed

The bilinear receptor model positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to apportion particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 1-10 microm (PM1-10) sources in a village, Brezno, situated in an industrial region of northern Bohemia in Central Europe. The receptor model analyzed the data sets of 90- and 60-min integrations of PM1-10 mass concentrations and elemental composition for 27 elements. The 14-day sampling campaigns were conducted in the village in summer 2008 and winter 2010. Also, to ensure seasonal and regional representativeness of the data sets recorded in the village, the spatial-temporal variability of the 24-hr PM10 and PM1-10 within 2008-2010 in winter and summer across the multiple sites was evaluated. There were statistically significant interseasonal differences of the 24-hr PM data, but not intrasummer or intrawinter differences of the 24-hr PM1-10 data across the multiple sites. PMF resolved seven sources of PM1-10. They were high-temperature coal combustion; combustion in local heating boilers; marine aerosol; mineral dust; primary biological/wood burning; road dust, car brakes; and gypsum. The main summer factors were assigned to mineral dust (38.2%) and primary biological/wood burning (33.1%). In winter, combustion factors dominated (80%) contribution to PM1-10. The conditional probability function (CPF) helped to identified local sources of PM1-10. The source of marine aerosol from the North Sea and English Channel was indicated by the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT). PMID:24558704

Pokorná, P; Hovorka, J; Krouzek, J; Hopke, P K

2013-12-01

225

Crustal P-wave velocity model for the central-western region of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies require a p-wave velocity model to obtain accurate results moreover such models could provide an insight of the tectonic structure of the study area. Accordingly, in this study we estimate the crustal 3D p-wave velocity model for the Jalisco Block located at the central-western region of Mexico. The Jalisco Block is limited on its eastern side by the Colima and Tepic-Zacoalcos Rifts, and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt; while on its western side it is limited by the Mesoamerican Trench. Cocos and Rivera plates are subducting beneath the Jalisco Block conforming a tectonically complex region. We used earthquakes occurring within the limits of lithosphere volume from which we want to estimate the velocity model. Such events were registered by the Mapping the Rivera Subduction Zone experiment (MARS) and the Seismic and Acelerometric Network of Jalisco (RESAJ). During MARS experiment 51broadband stations active from January 2006 to June 2007 were deployed while RESAJ by July of 2012consists of nine active stations however more stations will be deployed until reach 30 stations. The velocity model is estimated using the Fast Marching Tomography (FMTOMO) software. FMTOMO uses the Fast Marching Method (FMM) in order to solve the forward problem; the FMM is a numerical algorithm that tracks the interfaces evolution along a nodes narrow band, and travel times are updated solving the eikonal equation. Finally , the inverse problem is about adjusting the model parameters (interface depth, velocity, hypocenter location) in order to try to satisfy the observed data (travel times). We perform a resolution test using several events that show good resolution results up to a 60 km depth. We present a 3D p-wave velocity model, we compare our results within the MARS data with previous results for greater depths, approximately the upper mantle, finally we also present studies towards the northern portion of the Jalisco Block using the RESAJ data.

Ochoa, J.; Escudero, C. R.; Perez, O. G.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.

2012-12-01

226

Regional subsidence history and 3D visualization with MATLAB of the Vienna Basin, central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reconstructed the subsidence history by the backstripping and 3D visualization techniques, to understand tectonic evolution of the Neogene Vienna Basin. The backstripping removes the compaction effect of sediment loading and quantifies the tectonic subsidence. The amount of decompaction was calculated by porosity-depth relationships evaluated from seismic velocity data acquired from two boreholes. About 100 wells have been investigated to quantify the subsidence history of the Vienna Basin. The wells have been sorted into 10 groups; N1-4 in the northern part, C1-4 in the central part and L1-2 in the northernmost and easternmost parts, based on their position within the same block bordered by major faults. To visualize 3D subsidence maps, the wells were arranged to a set of 3D points based on their map location (x, y) and depths (z1, z2, z3 ...). The division of the stratigraphic column and age range was arranged based on the Central Paratethys regional Stages. In this study, MATLAB, a numerical computing environment, was used to calculate the TPS interpolation function. The Thin-Plate Spline (TPS) can be employed to reconstruct a smooth surface from a set of 3D points. The basic physical model of the TPS is based on the bending behavior of a thin metal sheet that is constrained only by a sparse set of fixed points. In the Lower Miocene, 3D subsidence maps show strong evidence that the pre-Neogene basement of the Vienna Basin was subsiding along borders of the Alpine-Carpathian nappes. This subsidence event is represented by a piggy-back basin developed on top of the NW-ward moving thrust sheets. In the late Lower Miocene, Group C and N display a typical subsidence pattern for the pull-apart basin with a very high subsidence event (0.2 - 1.0 km/Ma). After the event, Group N shows remarkably decreasing subsidence, following the thin-skinned extension which was regarded as the extension model of the Vienna Basin in the literature. But the subsidence in Group C decreases gradually, which demonstrates a trend of increasing thermal subsidence during the Middle to Upper Miocene. The traditional model cannot explain the thermal subsidence observed in the central part. This study supports a non-uniform extension model changing from the thin-skinned extension in the northern part to the thick-skinned extension in the central part. And 3D subsidence maps propose the existence of a decoupling between lithospheric and crustal extensions along the Steinberg Fault. Group L shows very different subsidence trends compared to Group C and N. In this Group a subsidence halt occurred in the late Lower Miocene. After the halt, Group L1 shows small tectonic and subsidence events. Some former studies presented that the area of Group L1 uplifted during the early Middle Miocene. It can be concluded that the missing sediments were eroded by the local uplift. But the subsidence of Group L2 stopped completely. It suggests that Group L2 was not influenced by the extension of the strike-slip fault system.

Lee, E.; Novotny, J.; Wagreich, M.

2013-12-01

227

The dust distribution in the central region of AGNs: New results from the MAGNUM telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multicolor Active Galactic Nuclei Monitoring (MAGNUM) 2-meter dedicated telescope was commissioned in early 2001 in the University of Hawaii's Lure Observatory in the Haleakala Observatories, and several tens of AGNs have been monitored since then in the optical and near-infrared wave-bands simultaneously. As the initial results from the MAGNUM telescope, the most intense monitoring observations yet made for two Seyfert 1 galaxies such as NGC 4151 and 5548 are presented. A delayed response of light variations in the V (0.55?m) band to those in the K (2.2?m) band was detected for each galaxy, and the lag time was measured by a cross-correlation analysis. The measured lag time is interpreted as the light-travel time from the central energy source to the surrounding dust torus. Compared with lag measurements of the broad emission lines in the literature, our results for such dust reverberation indicate that the broad emission-line region is well within the inner hole of the dust torus.

Yoshii, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Minezaki, T.

2004-10-01

228

The Frequency of Exfoliation Syndrome in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of exfoliation syndrome in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey and to evaluate its relationship with cardiovascular and ocular diseases. Methods. Patients over the age of 45 years who presented to the clinic were included in the study. All cases underwent a comprehensive ophthalmology examination. Exfoliation syndrome was diagnosed with the presence of exfoliative material on the lens anterior capsule or iris on slit lamp examination. The patients were divided into two groups as the exfoliation syndrome group and nonexfoliation syndrome group according to the presence of exfoliative material. Results. Exfoliative material was found in one or both eyes of 212 of the 2103 patients (10.1%) evaluated within the scope of the study. A significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and increasing age and male gender. A significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and glaucoma, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and phacodonesis. While no relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and hypertension or diabetes mellitus, a significant relationship was found with coronary artery disease. Conclusion. The unilateral or bilateral exfoliation syndrome frequency was 10.1% in this hospital-based study. A statistically significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and advancing age, gender, and coronary artery disease. PMID:25165574

K?l?ç, Ra?it; Sezer, Hafize; Çomçal?, Sebile Ü.; Bayraktar, Serdar; Göktolga, Gökay; Çakmak, Yasin; Çetin, Abdi B.; Cumurcu, Tongabay

2014-01-01

229

Electromagnetic interference from transmission lines located in central region of Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by transmission lines operating in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia. These lines have operating voltages of 132, 230 and 380 kV and are located in a hot, dry arid desert land where precipitation is very low. Measurements of typical EMI characteristics such as frequency spectrum, lateral profile and statistical variation are performed for each type of line and results are analyzed. It is found that general noise characteristic of these lines are similar to those reported in the literature for other lines which are located in relatively wet environment. The results further show that if operating gradients are low, the increase of EMI due to rain is lower than 20 dB value usually observed. The presence of sand and dust storms does not increase EMI level in any appreciable manner. The fair weather EMI level of these lines can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by using the CIGRE formula. Results are also presented for power line carrier related EMI.

Al-Arainy, A.A.; Malik, N.H.; Abdul-Aal, L.N.

1989-01-01

230

Electromagnetic interference from transmission lines located in central region of Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by transmission lines operating in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia. These lines have operating voltages of 132, 230 and 380 kV and are located in a hot, dry arid desert land where precipitaton is very low. Measurements of typical EMI characteristics such as frequency spectrum, lateral profile and statistical variation are performed for each type of line and results are analyzed. It is found that general noise characteristic of these lines are similar to those reported in the literature for other lines which are located in relatively wet environment. The results further show that if operating gradients are low, the increase of EMI due to rain is lower than 20 dB value usually observed. The presence of sand and dust storms does not increase EMI level in any appreciable manner. The fair weather EMI level of these lines can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by using the CIGRE formula. Results are also presented for power line carrier related EMI.

Al-Arainy, A.A.; Malik, N.H.; Abdul-Aal, L.N.

1988-01-01

231

Treponematosis in regional and chronological perspective from central Gulf Coast Florida.  

PubMed

Examination of five central Gulf Coast Florida archaeological skeletal series (n = 547) from the late prehistoric and early historic periods reveals the presence of pathological lesions characteristic of treponemal infection. These skeletal remains of native American populations represent a crucial time regarding hypotheses about the exchange of syphilis between the Old and New World or the mutation of one treponemal infection into another. Comparison of the lesions with those observed in modern studies of treponemal infection does not support an interpretation of venereal syphilis. The data from this study and from other archaeological skeletal series indicate the presence of a treponemal disease prior to European contact. The skeletal elements from Florida do not suggest that the disease changed dramatically following contact with Europeans. It is possible that cases of nonspecific postcranial pathology can be explained by the presence of this disease in the Florida populations. This study indicates that a treponemal disease was endemic throughout the region by at least A.D. 1000. PMID:8291617

Hutchinson, D L

1993-11-01

232

Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.  

PubMed

Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

2012-01-01

233

Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

2009-01-01

234

Agrophysical assessment of alluvial calcareous soils of the Çumra region of Central Anatolia in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some physical (density, coefficient of filtration, particle-size composition, etc.) and chemical (contents of carbonates, organic carbon, nitrogen, etc.) properties of an alluvial calcareous soil were studied in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra region). These heavy-textured (medium clay) soils with a low content of organic carbon (less than 1%) have favorable agrophysical properties due to the stable structure of the pore space. The studies of the water regime of soils under drop irrigation confirm the favorable hydrological properties of these soils. The use of the known agrophysical estimates (after Medvedev, the index of the optimal water regime, etc.) has revealed the high dispersal of the data related to the low humus content in these heavy-textured soils. The favorable structure of the pore space is suggested to be stipulated by the active activity of the numerous and diverse representatives of soil biota. Four phyla predominate in the microbio-logical composition of the soils studied; among them, Actinobacteria is the dominant. The composition of this phylum is dominated by the elevated number of both higher ( Streptomyces) and lower (three species of Rhodococcus) actinobacteria. The high biodiversity of bacteria against the background of their great total number and the developed trophic interactions in the microbial community promote the well-balanced production of specific metabolites, including gaseous ones (CO2, H2). This circumstance allows this clayey soil to function rather actively while protecting the pore space against compaction and maintaining the optimal density, porosity, and hydrological properties.

Shein, E. V.; Erol, S. A.; Milanovskii, E. Yu.; Verkhovtseva, N. V.; Mikayilov, F. D.; Er, F.; Ersahin, S.

2014-07-01

235

Pollen Analysis of Natural Honeys from the Central Region of Shanxi, North China  

PubMed Central

Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010–2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000–100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000–500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

2012-01-01

236

Morphological characterization of cherry rootstock candidates selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey.  

PubMed

The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

2013-01-01

237

Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey  

PubMed Central

The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05?C 002 and 08?C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05?C 002 and 55?S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

2013-01-01

238

pharmacotherapy patterns in a hypertensive population of Eastern Central Region of Portugal  

E-print Network

Background: Interventions to improve blood pressure control in hypertension have had limited success in clinical practice despite evidence of cardiovascular disease prevention in randomised controlled trials. The objectives of this study were to evaluate blood pressure control and antihypertensive pharmacotherapy patterns in a population of Eastern Central Region of Portugal, attending a hospital outpatient clinic (ambulatory setting) for routine follow-up. Methods: Medical data of all patients that attended at least two medical appointments of hypertension/ dyslipidemia in a university hospital over a one and a half year period (from January 2008 to June 2009) were retrospectively analysed. Demographic variables, clinical data and blood pressure values of hypertensive patients included in the study, as well as prescribing metrics were examined on a descriptive basis and expressed as the mean ± SD, frequency and percentages. Student’s test and Mann-Whitney rank sum test were used to compare continuous variables and c 2 test and Fisher exact probability test were used to test for differences between categorical variables. Results: In all, 37 % of hypertensive patients (n = 76) had their blood pressure controlled according to international guidelines. About 45.5 % of patients with a target blood pressure <140/90 mmHg (n = 156) were controlled,

Blood Pressure Control; Manuel P Morgado; Ra A Rolo; Luísa Pereira; Miguel Castelo-branco

239

Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy)  

PubMed Central

Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy), a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts) are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.). In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (wounds) and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation), Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises), while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules). Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread knowledge of means of conserving foodstuffs, they also led to the use of products easily available within each home. The values of E.I. (ethnobotanicity index) for the upper Molise region are considered amongst the highest in Italian areas. Nevertheless, like the values for other areas of Italy, they are lower than those of many Spanish areas, perhaps (and not only) because of the more rapid cultural erosion experienced in Italy. PMID:18334029

Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucchese, Fernando; Medori, Simone

2008-01-01

240

The central California Current transition zone: A broad region exhibiting evidence for iron limitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transition zone (TZ) of the central California Current upwelling system (cCCS) is the boundary between the cold, saline, coastally upwelled water and the warm, less saline, oligotrophic waters of the offshore California Current (CC). The TZ is a broad region that regularly exhibits chlorophyll concentrations of 1-2 ?g L-1 throughout the spring, summer, and fall seasons. Surface transect and vertical profile data from three cruises (May 2010, June 1999, and August 2011) between 34 and 42°N show residual nitrate concentrations (5-15 ?M) and low Fe concentrations (most < 0.2 nmol kg-1) in the TZ. We therefore suggest that much of the TZ of the cCCS is an Fe-limited, high nutrient, lower than expected chlorophyll (HNLC) region. The main source of Fe to the cCCS is from upwelling through the benthic boundary layer (BBL) over the continental shelf sediments. Iron and NO3- in coastally upwelled water are transported via offshore moving filaments into the TZ. However, since some coastal upwelling regions with narrow continental shelves do not have much Fe to begin with, and since Fe is drawn down more rapidly relative to NO3- due to biological assimilation and scavenging, these filaments transport low concentrations of Fe relative to NO3- into the TZ. Weak wind curl-induced upwelling and vertical mixing in the TZ also deliver Fe and NO3- to the surface but at lower concentrations (and lower Fe:NO3-) than from strong coastal upwelling. Mesoscale cyclonic eddies in the TZ are important to consider with respect to offshore surface nutrient delivery because there is a marked shoaling of isopycnals and the nutricline within these eddies allowing higher nutrient concentrations to be closer to the surface. Since wind curl-induced upwelling and/or vertical mixing occurs seaward of the continental shelf, there is not enough Fe delivered to the surface to accompany the NO3-. By using Fe:NO3- ratios and calculated specific growth rates for diatoms, we demonstrate that the TZ of the cCCS shows evidence for Fe limitation of diatom blooms. The TZ also appears to progress further into Fe limitation as the upwelling season progresses from spring into late summer. This study provides some of the first field data to suggest that Fe is a critical bottom up control on the ecosystem in the TZ of the cCCS.

Biller, Dondra V.; Bruland, Kenneth W.

2014-01-01

241

Calibration of strong motion models for Central America region and its use in seismic hazard assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a study aimed at choosing the more suitable strong-motion models for seismic hazard analysis in the Central America (CA) Region. After a careful revision of the state of the art, different models developed for subduction and volcanic crustal zones, in tectonic environment similar to those of CA, were selected. These models were calibrated with accelerograms recorded in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and El Salvador. The peak ground acceleration PGA and Spectral Acceleration SA (T) derived from the records were compared with the ones predicted by the models in similar conditions of magnitude, distance and soil. The type of magnitude (Ms, Mb, MW), distance (Rhyp, Rrup, etc) and ground motion parameter (maximum horizontal component, geometrical mean, etc ) was taken into account in the comparison with the real data. As results of the analysis, the models which present a best fit with the local data were identified. These models have been applied for carrying out seismic hazard analysis in the region, in the frame of the RESIS II project financed by the Norwegian Foreign Department and also by the Spanish project SISMOCAES. The methodology followed is based on the direct comparison between PGA and SA 5 % damped response values extracted from actual records with the corresponding acceleration values predicted by the selected ground-motion models for similar magnitude, distance and soil conditions. Residuals between observed and predicted values for PGA, and SA (1sec) are calculated and plotted as a function of distance and magnitude, analyzing their deviation from the mean value. Besides and most important, a statistical analysis of the normalized residuals was carry out using the criteria proposed by Scherbaum et al. (2004), which consists in categorizing ground motion models based in a likelihood parameter that reflects the goodness-of-fit of the median values as well as the shape of the underlying distribution of ground motion residuals. Considering the results of the both analysis the conclusions can be drawn in the following paragraphs. Analyses of residuals show that in some cases the best adjustments of PGA and SA values do not always favor the same equation. Consequently, the following equations that present reasonable adjustments for both parameters are finally selected: Schmidt (2010) and Zhao et al (2006) for shallow crustal sources; Schmidt (2010), Zhao et al (2006), Youngs et al. (1997) and Lin & Lee (2008) for subduction interface and Schmidt (2010), Youngs et al (1997), Zhao et al (2006) and Garcia et al (2005) for inslab subduction sources. Finally, to improve the development of proper models of attenuation of the region, it is recommended to the governmental and private institutions, to support the implementation of permanent strong ground motion networks in all Central America countries, especially in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama, including free field stations. In case of Costa Rica and El Salvador to strengthen the networks that already they operate.

Climent, A.; Benito, M. B.; Piedra, R.; Lindholm, C.; Gaspar-Escribano, J.

2013-05-01

242

THE EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM EXCLOSURES ON RANGE PLANTS IN THE CENTRAL ANATOLIAN REGION OF TURKEY.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the last fifty years, almost half of the steppe rangeland in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey (CAR) has been converted to cropping land without an equivalent reduction in grazing animals. This has led to heavy grazing pressure on rangeland vegetation. A study was initiated in June 2003 ...

243

Building a Digital Soil Data Base of the Solim˜ oes River Region in the Brazilian Central Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The region near the Solimoes river in the Brazilian Central Amazon re- ceives much attention because of oil and gas transport from the Urucu river Province to the refinery in Manaus. Information about soil characteristics and its spatial dis- tribution is important to allow secure intervention in the case of an accident (oil spill). The objectives of this chapter is

W. G. Teixeira; W. Arruda; H. N. Lima; S. A. Iwata; G. C. Martins

244

Are the regional variations in Central American arc lavas due to differing basaltic versus peridotitic slab sources of fluids?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central American arc volcanism shows strong regional trends in lava chemistry that result from differing slab contributions to arc melting. However, the mechanism that transfers slab-derived trace elements into the mantle wedge remains largely unknown. By using a dynamic model for mantle flow and fluid release, we model the fate of three different slab-fluid sources: sediment, ocean crust, and serpentinized

Lars H. Rüpke; Jason Phipps Morgan; Matthias Hort; James A. D. Connolly

2002-01-01

245

Transport mechanisms and the potential movement of planktonic larvae in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that considerable inter-reef dispersal of reef fishes and many benthic invertebrates is likely in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef. Larvae are most abundant in spring-summer when currents on the outer shelf, where most of the coral reefs occur, are almost entirely unidirectional and southeastward (longshore). Net drift on the outer shelf at this time

D. Mc B. Williams; E. Wolanski; J. C. Andrews

1984-01-01

246

Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

2011-01-01

247

Alternative Crop Rotations in the Semi-arid Central Great Plains Region: How Much Fallow? Evaluating the Economics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The traditional crop production system in the semi-arid Central Great Plains Region (CGPR) of the U.S.A. is winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer fallow (WF) or one crop every two years. This system is not a long-term sustainable dryland system. It is conducive to soil degradation and provide...

248

A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7%) of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. PMID:24031914

Prediger, Karoline deCampos; Pereira, Renata da Silva; Winckler Neto, Carlos Hugo Del Priore; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Fadel-Picheth, Cyntia Maria Telles; Vizzotto, Bruno Stefanello

2012-01-01

249

Asking the Presidents: The Most Pressing Issues at Community Colleges in the North Central Region. AIR 1988 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 350 presidents at two-year colleges in the North Central Accreditation Region generated a list of their perceptions of the currently most pressing issues related to accreditation, academic transfer and vocational/technical education. A total of 162 usable responses was received. Results included the finding that the most pressing issue…

Budig, Jeanne E.

250

Comparative study of Regional Urban Growth (RUG) model projections for new EU members in central Europe and the Baltic States   

E-print Network

Urban modelling and land-cover changes are well discussed in literature and are in a focal point of many researches. Regional urban growth (RUG) model for central Europe and the Baltic States projects land-cover changes and their volume...

Langner, Pawel

2009-11-26

251

CFD model of ITER CICC. Part VI: Heat and mass transfer between cable region and central channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual-channel cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) are used in the superconducting magnets for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). As the CICC axial/transverse size ratio is typically ˜1000, 1D axial models are customarily used for the CICC, but they require constitutive relations for the transverse fluxes. A novel approach, based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), was recently proposed by these authors to understand the complex transverse thermal-hydraulic processes in an ITER CICC from first principles. Multidimensional (2D, 3D) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes models implemented in the commercial CFD code FLUENT were validated against compact heat exchanger and ITER-relevant experimental data, and applied to compute the friction factor and the heat transfer coefficient in fully turbulent spiral rib-roughened pipes, mimicking the central channel of an ITER CICC. That analysis is extended here to the problem of heat and mass transfer through the perforated spiral separating the central channel from the cable bundle region, by combining the previously developed central channel model with a porous medium model for the cable region. The resulting 2D model is used to analyze several key features of the transport processes occurring between the two regions including the relation between transverse mass transfer and transverse pressure drop, the influence of transverse mass transfer on axial pressure drop, and the heat transfer coefficient between central channel and annular cable bundle region.

Zanino, R.; Giors, S.; Richard, L. Savoldi

2010-03-01

252

Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the north-central Brooks Range by large-scale crustal shortening (>300 km) between the Valanginian and Albian (??135 to ??112 Ma). This orogenic event significantly postdates early stages of Brooks Range orogeny but predates later stages of orogeny documented by stratigraphic and apatite fission-track data. These relations reduce the magnitude of shortening inferred at the triangle zone at the Brooks Range mountain front. The outcrop data suggest that some of the strata preserved at a structurally low level north of the mountain front and visible in the seismic data of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) may consist of clastic sedimentary rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

Mull, C.G.; Glenn, R.K.; Adams, K.E.

1997-01-01

253

Regional climate model assessment of the urban land-surface forcing over central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the climate impact of cities and urban surfaces in general on climate of central Europe, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been extended with the Single-layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM). A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005-2009 for central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces or with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer) as well as on the boundary layer height (increases up to 50 m). Urbanization further influences surface wind with a winter decrease up to -0.6 m s-1, though both increases and decreases were detected in summer depending on the location relative to the cities and daytime (changes up to 0.3 m s-1). Urban surfaces significantly reduce the humidity over the surface. This impacts the simulated summer precipitation rate, showing a decrease over cities of up to -2 mm day-1. Significant temperature increases are simulated over higher altitudes as well, not only within the urban canopy layer. With the urban parameterization, the climate model better describes the diurnal temperature variation, reducing the cold afternoon and evening bias of RegCM4. Sensitivity experiments were carried out to quantify the response of the meteorological conditions to changes in the parameters specific to the urban environment, such as street width, building height, albedo of the roofs and anthropogenic heat release. The results proved to be rather robust and the choice of the key SLUCM parameters impacts them only slightly (mainly temperature, boundary layer height and wind velocity). Statistically significant impacts are modelled not only over large urbanized areas, but the influence of the cities is also evident over rural areas without major urban surfaces. It is shown that this is the result of the combined effect of the distant influence of the cities and the influence of the minor local urban surface coverage.

Huszar, P.; Halenka, T.; Belda, M.; Zak, M.; Sindelarova, K.; Miksovsky, J.

2014-11-01

254

Regional climate model assessment of the urban land-surface forcing over central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the climate impact of cities and urban surfaces in general on climate of central Europe, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been extended with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM). A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005-2009 for central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces or with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer) as well as on the boundary layer height (increases up to 50 m). Urbanization further influences surface wind with a winter decrease up to -0.6 m s-1, though both increases and decreases were detected in summer depending on the location relative to the cities and daytime (changes up to 0.3 m s-1). Urban surfaces significantly reduce evaporation and thus the humidity over the surface. This impacts the simulated summer precipitation rate, showing decrease over cities up to -2 mm day-1. Significant temperature increases are simulated over higher elevations as well, not only within the urban canopy layer. With the urban parameterization, the climate model better describes the diurnal temperature variation, reducing the cold afternoon and evening bias of RegCM4. Sensitivity experiments were carried out to quantify the response of the meteorological conditions to changes in the parameters specific to the urban environment such as street width, building height, albedo of the roofs and anthropogenic heat release. The results proved to be rather robust and the choice of the key SLUCM parameters impacts them only slightly (mainly temperature, boundary layer height and wind velocity). Statistically significant impacts are modeled not only over large urbanized areas, but the influence of the cities is also evident over rural areas without major urban surfaces. It is shown that this is the result of the combined effect of the distant influence of the cities and the influence of the minor local urban surface coverage.

Huszar, P.; Halenka, T.; Belda, M.; Zak, M.; Sindelarova, K.; Miksovsky, J.

2014-07-01

255

The PRESSCA operational early warning system for landslide forecasting: the 11-12 November 2013 rainfall event in Central Italy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Umbria Region, located in Central Italy, is one of the most landslide risk prone area in Italy, almost yearly affected by landslides events at different spatial scales. For early warning procedures aimed at the assessment of the hydrogeological risk, the rainfall thresholds represent the main tool for the Italian Civil Protection System. As shown in previous studies, soil moisture plays a key-role in landslides triggering. In fact, acting on the pore water pressure, soil moisture influences the rainfall amount needed for activating a landslide. In this work, an operational physically-based early warning system, named PRESSCA, that takes into account soil moisture for the definition of rainfall thresholds is presented. Specifically, the soil moisture conditions are evaluated in PRESSCA by using a distributed soil water balance model that is recently coupled with near real-time satellite soil moisture product obtained from ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer) and from in-situ monitoring data. The integration of three different sources of soil moisture information allows to estimate the most accurate possible soil moisture condition. Then, both observed and forecasted rainfall data are compared with the soil moisture-based thresholds in order to obtain risk indicators over a grid of ~ 5 km. These indicators are then used for the daily hydrogeological risk evaluation and management by the Civil Protection regional service, through the sharing/delivering of near real-time landslide risk scenarios (also through an open source web platform: www.cfumbria.it). On the 11th-12th November, 2013, Umbria Region was hit by an exceptional rainfall event with up to 430mm/72hours that resulted in significant economic damages, but fortunately no casualties among the population. In this study, the results during the rainfall event of PRESSCA system are described, by underlining the model capability to reproduce, two days in advance, landslide risk scenarios in good spatial and temporal agreement with the occurred actual conditions. High-resolution risk scenarios (100mx100m), obtained by coupling PRESSCA forecasts with susceptibility and vulnerability layers, are also produced. The results show good relationship between the PRESSCA forecast and the reported landslides to the Civil Protection Service during the rainfall event, confirming the system robustness. The good forecasts of PRESSCA system have surely contributed to start well in advance the Civil Protection operations (alerting local authorities and population).

Ciabatta, Luca; Brocca, Luca; Ponziani, Francesco; Berni, Nicola; Stelluti, Marco; Moramarco, Tommaso

2014-05-01

256

Jet Production in the Central Rapidity Region in 1.8 TeV Proton and Antiproton Collisions  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis we study the jet production cross section in the central rapidity region in {bar p}p collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.8 TeV. The pseudo-rapidity {eta} is defined as {eta} {triple_bond} -ln(tan({theta}/2)), where {theta} is the angle between the directions of the jet momentum and the proton beam. We will call the region -0.7 < {eta} < 0.7 the 'central rapidity' region by definition. The goal of this thesis is to determine two kinds of differential cross sections for jet production: an inclusive jet Et distribution d{sigma}/dEt, and the distribution in invariant mass d{sigma}/dM{sub JJ} of two jet systems. These spectra serve to check the strong interaction theory, and thus to look for new phenomena, at the highest available energy. The strong interaction theory will be discussed.

Tsai, Yeong-Dong; /Chicago U.

1989-06-01

257

Analysis of Regionally Detected Icequakes Using the STEEP Network, South-Central AK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers produce seismic energy that is detectable from local to teleseismic distances. Glaciolgical processes including calving, surface crevassing, basal sliding and other, yet unresolved source processes are capable of producing recordable seismicity. Twenty-two broadband sensors deployed in south-central Alaska during the SainT Elias TEctonics and Erosion Project (STEEP) provide an excellent means to study glacier-generated seismicity at regional distances. These instruments surround over 7500 km2 of glacier area including the Bering Glacier, Bagley Icefield and the tidewater calving glaciers of Icy Bay (Yahtse, Guyot, Tyndal). Our analysis shows that icequakes nominally occur several times hourly, and can be separated from tectonic seismicity using their unique spectral characteristics and hypocenter locations. The events typically propagate over 50-75 km distances, but occasionally are recorded at stations over 150 km away from the energy source. Hypocenters for more than 1000 events were manually calculated through a 26-day interval during October 2006, and suggest that a majority of the icequakes are associated with calving at tidewater glaciers that terminate in Icy Bay. Events with similar time and frequency domain characteristics also occur at locations away from calving fronts, but less often, and their mechanical origin remains undetermined. Automated detections from a frequency domain event detector exhibit strong correlation with the handpicked time series, and extend our analysis to all available data collected during 2006. We present the time distribution of several categories of icequakes and compare these distributions to environmental variables such as precipitation, temperature and tides to explore potential forcing for observed variability in icequake occurrence.

O'Neel, S.; Leblanc, L.; Larsen, C.; Truffer, M.; Hansen, R.; Rupert, N.; Pavlis, G.; None, N.

2007-12-01

258

Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg) speciation - reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), elemental Hg (Hg°), and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5), were determined from June to November 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1) a 1114 megawatt (MW) coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2) a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3) a smaller (465 MW) coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of RGM, Hg° and Hg-PM2.5, were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m-3) measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.41 ppbv; measured at 50 km site). The finding that RGM, Hg°, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1) the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2) the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3) RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg°. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

Kolker, A.; Olson, M. L.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Tate, M. T.; Engle, M. A.

2010-01-01

259

Burden of Complicated Malaria in a Densely Forested Bastar Region of Chhattisgarh State (Central India)  

PubMed Central

Background A prospective study on severe and complicated malaria was undertaken in the tribal dominated area of Bastar division, Chhattisgarh (CG), Central India, with an objective to understand the clinical epidemiology of complicated malaria in patients attending at a referral hospital. Methods Blood smears, collected from the general medicine and pediatric wards of a government tertiary health care facility located in Jagdalpur, CG, were microscopically examined for malaria parasite from July 2010 to December 2013. The Plasmodium falciparum positive malaria cases who met enrollment criteria and provided written informed consent were enrolled under different malaria categories following WHO guidelines. PCR was performed to reconfirm the presence of P.falciparum mono infection among enrolled cases. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify different risk factors using STATA 11.0. Results A total of 40,924 cases were screened for malaria. The prevalence of malaria and P.falciparum associated complicated malaria (severe and cerebral both) in the hospital was 6% and 0.81%, respectively. P.falciparum malaria prevalence, severity and associated mortality in this region peaked at the age of>4–5 years and declined with increasing age. P.falciparum malaria was significantly more prevalent in children than adults (P<0.00001). Among adults, males had significantly more P.falciparum malaria than females (P<0.00001). Case fatality rate due to cerebral malaria and severe malaria was, respectively, 32% and 9% among PCR confirmed mono P.falciparum cases. Coma was the only independent predictor of mortality in multivariate regression analysis. Mortality was significantly associated with multi-organ complication score (P?=?0.0003). Conclusion This study has revealed that the pattern of morbidity and mortality in this part of India is very different from earlier reported studies from India. We find that the peak morbidity and mortality in younger children regardless of seasonality. This suggests that this age group needs special care for control and clinical management. PMID:25531373

Jain, Vidhan; Basak, Sanjay; Bhandari, Sneha; Bharti, Praveen K.; Thomas, Trilok; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Singh, Neeru

2014-01-01

260

Two-dimensional Kinematics of the Central Region of NGC 2110  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a two-dimensional mapping of the central region of the active galaxy NGC 2110, using K-band integral field spectroscopy with the Gemini NIFS at a spatial resolution of ? 25 pc. We present flux distributions and kinematics for the molecular and ionized gas emission lines, as well as the stellar kinematics. The maps for the kinematics and flux distributions of the emitting gas for NGC 2110 were obtained by fitting the H_{2} ? 2.1218 ? m and H I? 2.1661 ? m emission-line profiles by Gauss-Hermite series. The H_{2} presents extended emission in the whole field of observation, while the Br? is extended only to the southeast - northwest direction. The H_{2} emission is consistent with emission of gas excited by thermal processes, such as gas heated by X-rays from the AGN or shocks. We estimated an excitation temperature of ? 2100-2700 K for H_{2} emitting gas. The gas velocity fields present a similar rotation pattern than those observed for the stars. In addition, the H_{2} velocity field presents other kinematic components. Two spiral structures are observed in blueshifts to the north of the nucleus and redshifts to the south of it. If these kinematic structures are originated from emission of gas located in the plane of the galaxy, they can be interpreted as gas flows towards the nucleus (inflows) of the galaxy. In this case, the mass inflow rate is estimated to be ? 4.1 × 10^{-4} M_{odot} yr^{-1}. Another kinematic component observed for H_{2} emitting gas was interpreted as an ejection of gas from the nucleus (outflows) within a bi-cone with a mass outflow rate of ? 4.6 × 10^{-4} M_{odot} yr^{-1}.

Diniz, M. R.; Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

2014-10-01

261

Hydrops fetalis in the stillborn: a series from the central region of Thailand.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the cause of hydrops fetalis (HF) among fetal deaths in the central region of Thailand. Autopsy reports diagnosed as HF from 1999 to 2008 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were retrieved, and the pathologic findings, clinical information, fetal ultrasonographic studies, and laboratory investigations were reviewed. There were 78 stillborn autopsies during this 10-year period; the mean gestational age was 28 weeks. The causes of fetal hydrops were identified in 88.5%; no cases of immune hydrops were detected. Anemia was the predominant cause of HF (n ?=? 33; 42.2%): related to homozygous ?-thalassemia (n ?=? 17; 21.8%), twin-twin transfusion syndrome (n ?=? 8; 10.2%), hemoglobin H (n ?=? 3; 3.8%), lung hemorrhage (n ?=? 1; 1.3%), adrenal hemorrhage (n ?=? 1; 1.3%), and 3 cases of unspecified etiology (3.8%). Other causes of high-output failure included mass lesions resulting in vascular shunting (n ?=? 2; 2.6%) and 1 case each (1.3% each) of maternal diabetes mellitus, intestinal lymphangiectasia, and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Causes resulting in low-output cardiac failure were congenital heart disease (n ?=? 16; 20.5%) and thoracic space-occupying lesions (n ?=? 7; 9%). The remaining causes included fetal infection (n ?=? 5; 6.4%), congenital abnormalities suggestive of a chromosomal or genetic basis (n ?=? 2; 2.6%), and 1 case (1.3%) of placental vascular thrombosis. Nine cases (11.5%) had no identifiable cause. Thus, the most common cause of HF in this series was homozygous ?-thalassemia, reflecting the geographic location of this series. PMID:20233068

Taweevisit, Mana; Thorner, Paul Scott

2010-01-01

262

Water Quality and Evaluation of Pesticides in Lakes in the Ridge Citrus Region of Central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water chemistry, including major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and pesticide compounds, was compared between seven lakes surrounded by citrus agriculture and an undeveloped lake on the Lake Wales Ridge (herein referred to as the Ridge) in central Florida. The region has been recognized for its vulnerability to the leaching of agricultural chemicals into the subsurface due to factors including soils, climate, and land use. About 40 percent of Florida's citrus cultivation occurs in 'ridge citrus' areas characterized by sandy well drained soils, with the remainder in 'flatwoods citrus' characterized by high water tables and poorly drained soils. The lakes on the Ridge are typically flow-through lakes that exchange water with adjacent and underlying aquifer systems. This study is the first to evaluate the occurrence of pesticides in lakes on the Ridge, and also represents one of the first monitoring efforts nationally to focus on regional-scale assessment of current-use pesticides in small- to moderate-sized lakes (5 to 393 acres). The samples were collected between December 2003 and September 2005. The lakes in citrus areas contained elevated concentrations of major inorganic constituents (including alkalinity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate), total nitrogen, pH, and pesticides compared to the undeveloped lake. Nitrate (as N) and total nitrogen concentrations were typically elevated in the citrus lakes, with maximum values of 4.70 and 5.19 mg/L (milligrams per liter), respectively. Elevated concentrations of potassium, nitrate, and other inorganic constituents in the citrus lakes likely reflect inputs from the surficial ground-water system that originated predominantly from agricultural fertilizers, soil amendments, and inorganic pesticides. A total of 20 pesticide compounds were detected in the lakes, of which 12 compounds exceeded the standardized reporting level of 0.06 ug/L (microgram per liter). Those most frequently detected above the 0.06-ug/L level were aldicarb sulfoxide, diuron, simazine degradates hydroxysimazine and didealkylatrazine (DDA), bromacil, norflurazon, and demethyl norflurazon which occurred at detection rates ranging from 25 to 86 percent of samples, respectively. Typically, pesticide concentrations in the lake samples were less than 1 microgram per liter. The number of targeted pesticide compounds detected per lake in the citrus areas ranged from 9 to 14 compared to 3 compounds detected at trace levels in the undeveloped lake. Consistent detections of parents and degradates in quarterly samples indicated the presence of pesticide compounds in the lakes many months or years (for example, bromacil) after their application, signaling the persistence of some pesticide compounds in the lakes and/or ground-water systems. Pesticide degradate concentrations frequently exceeded parent concentrations in the lakes. This study was the first in the Ridge citrus region to analyze for glyphosate - widely used in citrus - and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), neither of which were detected, as well as a number of triazine degradates, including hydroxysimazine, which were detected. The lake pesticide concentrations did not exceed current Federal aquatic-life benchmarks, available for 10 of the 20 detected pesticide compounds. Limited occurrences of bromacil, diuron, or norflurazon concentrations were within about 10 to 90 percent of benchmark guidelines for acute effects on nonvascular aquatic plants in one or two of the lakes. The lake pesticide concentrations for several targeted pesticides were relatively high compared to corresponding national stream-water percentiles, which is consistent with this region's vulnerability for pesticide leaching into water resources. Several factors were evaluated to gain insight into the processes controlling pesticide transport and fate, and to assess their utility for estimating th

Choquette, Anne F.; Kroening, Sharon E.

2009-01-01

263

August, 2002 - floods events, affected areas revitalisation and prevention for the future in the central Bohemian region, Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Bohemian Region is located in a shape of a ring surrounding the capitol of Prague. Its total territorial area is 11.014 sq.km and population of 1 130.000 inhabitants. According to EU nomenclature of regional statistical units, the Central Bohemian Region is classified as an independent NUTS II. Bohemia's biggest rivers, Vltava and Labe form the region's backbone dividing it along a north-south line, besides that there are Sazava and Berounka, the two big headwaters of Vltava, which flow through the region and there also are some cascade man made lakes and 2 important big dams - Orlik and Slapy on the Vltava River in the area of the region. Overflowing of these rivers and their feeders including cracking of high-water dams during the floods in August 2002 caused total or partial destruction or damage of more than 200 towns and villages and total losses to the extend of 450 mil. EUR. The worst impact was on damaged or destroyed human dwellings, social infrastructure (schools, kindergartens, humanitarian facilities) and technical infrastructure (roads, waterworks, power distribution). Also businesses were considerably damaged including transport terminals in the area of river ports. Flowage of Spolana Neratovice chemical works caused critical environmental havoc. Regional crisis staff with regional Governor in the lead worked continuously during the floods and a regional integrated rescue system was subordinated to it. Due to the huge extent of the floods the crisis staff coordinated its work with central bodies of state including the Government and single "power" resorts (army, interior, transport). Immediately after floods a regional - controlled management was set up including an executive body for regional revitalisation which is connected to state coordinating resort - Ministry for Local Development, EU sources and humanitarian aid. In addition to a program of regional revitalisation additional preventive flood control programs are being developed including fields of: urban planning revision, river flow measures, revision of operation mode of dams, modification of waterworks' conception in areas liable to flooding and finally a program of power sources prevention during emergency situation (this program had been started before the floods). Regional establishment puts emphasis on preparation of preventive projects and management mentioned. An international co-operation of regions affected by floods and possibly building of joint teams for prevention measures proposal would be very effective and useful.

Bina, L.; Vacha, F.; Vodova, J.

2003-04-01

264

Geotechnical Seismic Hazard Evaluation At Sellano (Umbria, Italy) Using The GIS Technique  

SciTech Connect

A tool that has been widely-used in civil engineering in recent years is the geographic information system (GIS). Geographic Information systems (GIS) are powerful tools for organizing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. The GIS can be used by geotechnical engineers to aid preliminary assessment through to the final geotechnical design. The aim of this work is to provide some indications for the use of the GIS technique in the field of seismic geotechnical engineering, particularly as regards the problems of seismic hazard zonation maps. The study area is the village of Sellano located in the Umbrian Apennines in central Italy, about 45 km east of Perugia and 120 km north-east of Rome The increasing importance attributed to microzonation derives from the spatial variability of ground motion due to particular local conditions. The use of GIS tools can lead to an early identification of potential barriers to project completion during the design process that may help avoid later costly redesign.

Capilleri, P.; Maugeri, M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Catania, viale A. Doria no 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

2008-07-08

265

Sedimentation and provenance of the Antofagasta region of the southern Puna Plateau, central Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic and provenance studies of Cenozoic non-marine sedimentary basins in the Central Andean Puna Plateau provide insight into the regional development and dynamics. The southern plateau hosts several poorly exposed intramontane basins bounded by basement-involved ~N-S striking thrust faults; their origin is explained differently by contrasting geodynamic models. This study focuses on the Antofagasta region (NW Argentina). The top of the studied basin was over-thrust by basement rocks along a west-dipping thrust fault, which was likely active during exhumation of the Calalaste range to the west (25-29 Ma, Carrapa et al., 2005). We studied three sections SW of Antofagasta de la Sierra. S3 (552 m) is the lowest section and is composed of mud playa to sandflat sediments, with at least two paleosol horizons. Lower S2 (1,263 m) contains ~300 meters of proximal alluvial fan sediments. Upper S2 is composed of fluvial to shallow lacustrine sediments. The separation between the top of S2 and the bottom of S1 (1,062 m) is ~540 m. The lower ~600 m of S1 is composed of thick, distal alluvial fan and braided river sediments. In the upper S1, the depositional environment changes to fluvial-alluvial, with a paleosol developed at the top of S1. Imbricated pebbles suggest prevailing eastward paleoflow. Modal compositions of 18 sandstones plot in the mixed zone on a Qm-F-Lt plot, and the transitional continental and recycled orogenic zones on a Qt-F-L plot (Dickinson, 1985). Their compositions cluster and do not show any evolutionary trends, despite being sampled from a ~3000 m-thick sedimentary column. However, when combined with data from the Quinoas Formation (Late Eocene to Late Oligocene) and the Chacras Formation (Late Oligocene to Early Miocene), outcropped west of the study site (Carrapa et al., 2005), the Antofagasta samples mark the beginning of an evolving trend towards the dissected arc and transitional arc zones. We analyzed U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from eight samples. Four young grains from three samples near the top of S2 yield ages of 38-39.5 Ma. If these grains were derived from air-fall volcanics, they indicate a late Eocene depositional age for the studied strata, but otherwise they give a maximum age estimate. We tentatively favour the former interpretation. For all samples, detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra show significant late Cambrian to early Ordovician and Precambrian (~1000-1400 Ma, ~1700-1900 Ma) sources. The ~1000-1400 Ma cluster is well matched with ages from the Sierra de Maz, to the west. A minor Permian-Triassic source (~240-290 Ma) is also present which could reflect limited exposures of plutonic rocks west of the study site. Our work suggests that the ~3000 meter thick unit in the Antofagasta basin is time-equivalent of the Quinoas Formation and accumulated with a high sedimentation rate. The sediments were sourced primarily from the west, with little input from volcanics. The consistent western source regions and the rapid subsidence lead us to favour a foreland-type origin for the late Eocene Antofagasta Basin.

Zhou, Renjie; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Sobel, Edward R.; Carrapa, Barbara; Davis, Donald W.

2014-05-01

266

78 FR 45521 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulations, renewable portfolio standards, state resource planning policies, emerging technologies and fuels such as shale gas, price responsive demand and electric storage) and address their impacts on centralized capacity markets. 2:45...

2013-07-29

267

Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg) speciation- reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), elemental Hg (Hg°), and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5), were determined from June to November, 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1) a 1114 megawatt (MW) coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2) a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3) a smaller (465 MW) coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of Hg°, Hg-PM2.5, and RGM were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. Median concentrations of Hg°, Hg-PM2.5, and RGM were 1.3-1.4 ng m-3, 2.6-5.0 pg m-3, and 0.6-0.8 pg m-3, respectively. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m-3) measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.4 ppbv; measured at 50 km site). The finding that RGM, Hg°, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1) the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2) the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3) RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg°. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

Kolker, A.; Olson, M. L.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Tate, M. T.; Engle, M. A.

2010-05-01

268

Current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kanto Plain is known as the largest plain in Japan, where a lot of huge cities are located and about 30% of population of Japan is concentrated. In the inland part of the Kanto Plain, dependence on groundwater for water requirements is relatively high; in particular around 40% of the municipal water supply is dependent on groundwater. On the other hand, various kinds of controlled substances such as arsenic, nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen, volatile organic compounds are detected in groundwater in excess of the Japanese environmental standards. Therefore, in order to evaluate current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in the central part of the Kanto Plain, we investigated around 500 wells. These wells are distributed throughout the plain area of Saitama Prefecture, stretching about 80 kilometers from east to west and about 60 kilometers from north to south. Depths of these wells range from 5m to 200m. We analyzed heavy metals and metalloids such as Fe, Mn, Al, As, Pb, using the ICP/AES and ICP/MS and also analyzed major dissolved ions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO42-, using the ion chromatograph. As a result of investigation, rate of samples exceeded the Japanese environmental standards of arsenic (0.01 mg/l) in groundwater was about 1%, and the maximum concentration was about 10 times of the environmental standards. Groundwater with a high arsenic concentration was detected in the specific area, such as in the lowlands located upstream from the former shoreline at the Holocene glacial retreat. Taking the land use of surrounding area, well depth and groundwater condition of aquifers into account, detected arsenic is considered to be of natural origin and mainly originate from natural layers. According to the previous studies, the release mechanisms of natural arsenic are summarized in some ways and in case of this research area, it was explained that natural arsenic is released with dissolution of the iron oxide in the reduction environment of groundwater. On the other hand, rate of samples exceeded the standards of nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen (10 mg/l) was about 15%, and maximum concentration was about 6 to 7 times the standard. Nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen were detected in shallow groundwater in most upland, with very intense pollution on the uplands in the northern part of the plain. Causes of the pollution were assumed as unsuitable treatments of livestock excrement, superfluous fertilization, leaking of living drainage and so on.

Hachinohe, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.

2012-12-01

269

Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal lands could produce ~29 × 109 L ethanol y-1, or about 48% of the 2007 U.S. Congress legislative mandate.

Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

2010-12-01

270

Variables Affecting the Gingival Embrasure Space in Aesthetically Important Regions: Differences between Central and Lateral Papillae  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated different variables to determine their role in the appearance of the central and lateral upper jaw papillae. 292 interdental embrasures were examined. Personal variables were: age, smoke, and use of interproximal hygiene devices. The clinical characteristics were: tooth shape, periodontal biotype and papilla appearance. Radiographic measurements were: root to root distance at the cemento-enamel junction (horizontal distance), and bone crest to interdental contact point distance (vertical distance). The papilla recession increased with patient age. The horizontal distance of the central papilla was always greater (up to 1 mm) than that of the other papillae. The vertical distance of the central papilla was greater (up to 2 mm) than that of the other papillae for each class except for the normal one (Nordland & Tarnow classification). For vertical distances ?5 mm, papillae were almost always present; for distances up to 6 mm, the lateral papillae belonging to the normal class disappeared, while the central papilla remained in 11% of cases; central papillae of class 1 were present in larger proportions until a vertical distance of 8 mm. The present observational study shows that differences on clinical and radiographic determinants do exist between central and lateral papillae. This variance should be strictly taken in account for a harmonious and stable treatment outcome on this highly aesthetic area. PMID:21892365

Montevecchi, Marco; Checchi, Vittorio; Piana, Laura; Checchi, Luigi

2011-01-01

271

Strongly Localized Potential Profile Measurements Through Stark Effects in the Central Core Region of an Inertial Electrostatic Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

Strongly localized electric fields were measured in the central cathode helium plasma core region of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) by the degree of polarization and by the longitudinal alignment methods. Both results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center in excellent agreement. The decay time of the excited states is found to indicate least effects by the collisions to ensure the LIF method.

Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Takiyama, Ken [Hiroshima University (Japan); Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

272

Arsenic in geothermal sources at the north-central Andean region of Ecuador: concentrations and mechanisms of mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arsenic content of geothermal hot springs and their sediments in the north-central Andean region of Ecuador has been investigated.\\u000a The area of study is located between parallels 1°11?N and 1°30?S and includes five provinces. The area is rich in geothermal\\u000a surface manifestations that are mainly used for medicinal baths in recreational complexes. Unfortunately, water residuals\\u000a without treatment are released

Luis Cumbal; Paulina Vallejo; Brigida Rodriguez; Dina Lopez

2010-01-01

273

Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Cook Inlet region of south-central Alaska. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids remain to be found in this area.

Stanley, Richard G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Nelson, Philip H.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Rouse, William A.; Saltus, Richard W.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Shah, Anjana K.; Valin, Zenon C.

2011-01-01

274

Populus tremuloides Michx. postfire stand dynamics in the northern boreal-cordilleran ecoclimatic region of central Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postfire vegetation development among 8–185-year-old stand was assessed based on 100 relevés from the northern boreal-cordilleran ecoclimatic region (61–63°N) in the central Yukon Territory, Canada. Vegetation sampling included only stands thought to have originated from postfire Populus tremuloides Michx. regeneration that occurred on well drained and low gradient sites. Seven vegetation types were recognized based on cluster analysis and Kruskal–Wallis

W. L Strong

2009-01-01

275

Local seismicity observed by a temporal network in the Villarrica-Valdivia region, South-Central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the processes behind subduction-related hazards is an important responsibility and major challenge for Earth scientists. Few areas demonstrate this as clearly as south-central Chile, where the largest instrumentally-recorded earthquake occurred (the 1960 Mw 9.5 Valdivia earthquake) in the same region as one of South America's most active volcanoes, Villarrica. The geometry and geophysical characteristics of the subduction system are

Y. Dzierma; M. M. Thorwart; C. Siegmund; W. Rabbel; D. Comte; K. Bataille; M. Iglesia; C. Prezzi

2010-01-01

276

The Effects of Long-Term Grazing Exclosures on Range Plants in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last fifty years, almost half of the steppe rangeland in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey (CAR) has been converted\\u000a to cropland without an equivalent reduction in grazing animals. This shift has led to heavy grazing pressure on rangeland\\u000a vegetation. A study was initiated in June 2003 using 6 multiscale Modified-Whittaker plots to determine differences in plant\\u000a composition

Hüseyin K. F?r?nc?o?lu; Steven S. Seefeldt; Bilal ?ahin

2007-01-01

277

The vegetation of metalliferous and non-metalliferous grasslands in two former mine regions in Central Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the composition of the vegetation in two former mining regions in Central Slovakia: Banská Štiavnica with\\u000a predominant Pb-Zn contamination and Staré Hory with a very high Cu content in the soil. Old heaps rich in heavy metals are\\u000a covered with specific vegetation. On the Cu-rich spoil heaps, species-poor plant communities with prevailing Agrostis stolonifera, Avenella flexuosa, Acetosella vulgaris,

Viera Banásová; Othmar Horak; Milada ?iamporová; Miriam Nadubinská; Irene Lichtscheidl

2006-01-01

278

Residues of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of Alpine and Saanen goats from the central region of Mexico.  

PubMed

This study investigated a suite of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of two breeds of goats raised in the central region of Mexico, where this agricultural production is of national (Mexican) economic importance. Forty milk samples from Alpine and Saanen goats were assessed. It was found that the concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were lower than those stipulated in Mexican and international regulation. The values in both breeds of goat exceeded the upper permissible limits of Codex Alimentarius for delta hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) (17.3 of samples of Saanen) and heptachlor plus heptachlor epoxide (50 % and 13 % of samples). It may be concluded that milk from these goat breeds from central Mexico showed some risks of contamination in certain times of the year (dry season). However, under further assessment and use of pesticides the goat's milk will likely be safe for human consumption and for use in products such as cheeses, regional candies and desserts (cajeta). In recent years, goat milk production has increased in the central regions and it is an economic alternative to milk from livestock. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of goat's milk to assess the presence and control of HCHs through best management practices. PMID:23689930

Schettino, Beatriz; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Urban, Georgina; Ramírez, Acacia

2013-08-01

279

Winter fog is decreasing in the fruit growing region of the Central Valley of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Valley of California is home to a variety of fruit and nut trees. These trees account for 95% of the U.S. production, but they need a sufficient amount of winter chill to achieve rest and quiescence for the next season's buds and flowers. In prior work, we reported that the accumulation of winter chill is declining in the Central Valley. We hypothesize that a reduction in winter fog is cooccurring and is contributing to the reduction in winter chill. We examined a 33 year record of satellite remote sensing to develop a fog climatology for the Central Valley. We find that the number of winter fog events, integrated spatially, decreased 46%, on average, over 32 winters, with much year to year variability. Less fog means warmer air and an increase in the energy balance on buds, which amplifies their warming, reducing their chill accumulation more.

Baldocchi, Dennis; Waller, Eric

2014-05-01

280

Determining the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes of PFI data in central region Peninsular Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of Private Financial Initiative (PFI) has been implemented by many developed countries as an innovative way for the governments to improve future public service delivery and infrastructure procurement. However, the idea is just about to germinate in Malaysia and its success is still vague. The major phase that needs to be given main attention in this agenda is value for money whereby optimum efficiency and effectiveness of each expense is attained. Therefore, at the early stage of this study, estimating unitary charges or materials price indexes in each region in Malaysia was the key objective. This particular study aims to discover the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes in construction industry by different regions in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia (Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan, and Melaka). The unitary charges indexes data used were from year 2002 to 2011 monthly data of different states in the central region Peninsular Malaysia, comprising price indexes of aggregate, sand, steel reinforcement, ready mix concrete, bricks and partition, roof material, floor and wall finishes, ceiling, plumbing materials, sanitary fittings, paint, glass, steel and metal sections, timber and plywood. At the end of the study, it was found that Backpropagation Neural Network with linear transfer function produced the most accurate and reliable results for estimating unitary charges price indexes in every states in central region Peninsular Malaysia based on the Root Mean Squared Errors, where the values for both estimation and evaluation sets were approximately zero and highly significant at p < 0.01. Therefore, artificial neural network is sufficient to forecast construction materials price indexes in Malaysia. The estimated price indexes of construction materials will contribute significantly to the value for money of PFI as well as towards Malaysian economical growth.

Ahmad Kamaruddin, Saadi Bin; Md Ghani, Nor Azura; Mohamed Ramli, Norazan

2013-04-01

281

HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Transmitted Drug Resistance Mutations among Patients from the North, Central and South Regions of Angola  

PubMed Central

Background Angola presents a very complex HIV-1 epidemic characterized by the co-circulation of several HIV-1 group M subtypes, intersubtype recombinants and unclassified (U) variants. The viral diversity outside the major metropolitan regions (Luanda and Cabinda) and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (DRM) since the introduction of HAART in 2004, however, has been barely studied. Methods One hundred and one individuals from the Central (n?=?44), North (n?=?35), and South (n?=?22) regions of Angola were diagnosed as HIV-1 positive and had their blood collected between 2008 and 2010, at one of the National Referral Centers for HIV diagnosis, the Kifangondo Medical Center, located in the border between the Luanda and Bengo provinces. Angolan samples were genotyped based on phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses of the pol (PR/RT) gene and their drug resistance profile was analyzed. Results Among the 101 samples analyzed, 51% clustered within a pure group M subtype, 42% were classified as intersubtype recombinants, and 7% were denoted as U. We observed an important variation in the prevalence of different HIV-1 genetic variants among country regions, with high frequency of subtype F1 in the North (20%), intersubtype recombinants in the Central (42%), and subtype C in the South (45%). Statistically significant difference in HIV-1 clade distribution was only observed in subtype C prevalence between North vs South (p?=?0.0005) and Central vs South (p?=?0.0012) regions. DRM to NRTI and/or NNRTI were detected in 16.3% of patients analyzed. Conclusions These results demonstrate a heterogeneous distribution of HIV-1 genetic variants across different regions in Angola and also revealed an unexpected high frequency of DRM to RT inhibitors in patients that have reported no antiretroviral usage, which may decrease the efficiency of the standard first-line antiretroviral regimens currently used in the country. PMID:22952625

Afonso, Joana Morais; Bello, Gonzalo; Guimarães, Monick L.; Sojka, Marta; Morgado, Mariza G.

2012-01-01

282

The Large-Scale Oscillations Influence Over the Interdecadal Climate Variability in Mexico's Central Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate in the highlands of Mexico displays high variability due to its complex terrain and elevation. The knowledge to elucidate the principal forcings of these variations can be useful for forecasting annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation over this area. Due to its complexity a small area in the highlands was delimited with defined physical boundaries, encompassing several states of Mexico. The study area was defined as Mexico's Central Region (MCR), which is located between 19.5 ° - 22.5 ° N and 98.5 ° - 104 ° W. Most of this area overlies the plateau of Anahuac, whose physical boundaries extend to the north from the "Sierras Transversales" (composed by the "Sierra de Zacatecas", the "Sierra de la "Breña" and the "Sierra de San Luis") to the "Eje Neovolcánico" to the south; east and west boundaries are confined by the "Sierra Madre Oriental" and the "Sierra Madre Occidental", respectively. Daily data of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation series from a total of 112 weather stations were obtained from CLICOM and ERICIII databases. Several climatic indices with average periods of phase oscillations greater than five years, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDOI), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMOI), The Arctic Oscillation (AOI), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAOI), and Aleutian Low Pressure (ALPI) on a monthly basis for all series, except the ALPI series which is on annual rate, were also used in this study. Indices data were obtained from the web site http://www.cicimar.ipn.mx/oacis/Indices_Climaticos.php/. The common period of all series was 1961-2000. We applied Principal Component Analysis to precipitation and temperature series to identify the principal modes of variation of the series. The first mode explained more than 68% of the variance in the original series and corresponds to annual variations. Contour maps were useful to elucidate that temperature variations are highly correlated with the terrain elevation, and that the variation of precipitation results from a combined effect between altitude and distance from the seaboard. Correlations between climatic indices and standardized anomalies of temperature and precipitation series were computed. Correlation analysis was applied first with no time lag between the series, and then until the lag offsetting was equal to half the average of each oscillation period of the series. In all cases the climatic index preceded the temperature and precipitation series. Significant correlations were found through the calculations. The strongest correlations were found between the ALPI and temperature, and precipitation series; Correlation between climatic indices and the maximum temperature was stronger than correlation between climatic indices and the other variables. The NAOI displays low correlation with temperature and precipitation series, so we conclude that North Atlantic Oscillation does not influence significantly to the climate variability of MCR.

Jofre, R.; Brito-Castillo, L.; Tereshchenko, I.; Atmospheric Sciences Climatology Climate Variability

2013-05-01

283

Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.  

PubMed

A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty. PMID:24846528

Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

2014-08-01

284

An assessment of fire occurrence regime and performance of Canadian fire weather index in south central Siberian boreal region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is the dominant natural disturbance in Eurasian boreal region, which acts as a major driver of the global carbon cycle. An effectiveness of wildfire management requires suitable tools for fire prevention and fire risk assessment. This study aims to investigate fire occurrence patterns in relation to fire weather conditions in the remote south central Siberia region. The Canadian Fire Weather Index derived from large-scale meteorological reanalysis data was evaluated with respects to fire regimes during 14 consecutive fire seasons in south central Siberian environment. All the fire weather codes and indices, including the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), the Duff Moisture Code (DMC), the Drought Code (DC), the Buildup Index (BUI), the Initial Spread Index (ISI), and the Fire Weather Index (FWI), were highly reflected inter-annual variation of fire activity in south central Siberia. Even though human-caused fires were major events in Russian boreal forest including south central Siberia, extreme fire years were strongly correlated with ambient weather conditions (e.g. Arctic Oscillation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind), showing by in-phase (or positive linear relationship) and significant wavelet coherence between fire activity and DMC, ISI, BUI, and FWI. Time series observation of 14 fire seasons showed that there was an average of about 3 months lags between the peaks of fire weather conditions and fire activity, which should take into account when using coarse scale fire weather indices in the assessment of fire danger in the study area. The results are expected to contribute to a better reconstruction and prediction of fire activity using large-scale reanalysis data in remote regions in which station data are very few.

Chu, T.; Guo, X.

2014-07-01

285

Deglacial pattern of circulation and marine productivity in the upwelling region off central-south Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution sea surface temperature and paleoproductivity reconstruction on a sedimentary record collected at 36°S off central-south Chile (GeoB 7165-1, 36°33'S, 73°40'W, 797 m water depth, core length 750 cm) indicates that paleoceanographic conditions changed abruptly between 18 and 17 ka. Comparative analysis of several cores along the Chilean continental margin (30°-41°S) suggests that the onset and the pattern of deglacial warming was not uniform off central-south Chile due to the progressive southward migration of the Southern Westerlies and local variations in upwelling. Marine productivity augmented rather abruptly at 13-14 ka, well after the oceanographic changes. We suggest that the late deglacial increase in paleoproductivity off central-south Chile reflects the onset of an active upwelling system bringing nutrient-rich, oxygen-poor Equatorial Subsurface Water to the euphotic zone, and a relatively higher nutrient load of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. During the Last Glacial Maximum, when the Southern Westerlies were located further north, productivity off central-south Chile, in contrast to off northern Chile, was reduced due to direct onshore-blowing winds that prevented coastal upwelling and export production.

Mohtadi, Mahyar; Rossel, Pamela; Lange, Carina B.; Pantoja, Silvio; Böning, Philipp; Repeta, Daniel J.; Grunwald, Maik; Lamy, Frank; Hebbeln, Dierk; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

2008-07-01

286

Mineralogy of Latosols along a regional toposequence across the Central Plateau (Brazil): First results.  

E-print Network

. Latosols cover about 40% of the Central Plateau surface area. Most Latosols in the Brazilian Soil Taxonomy correspond to Oxisols in the Soil Taxonomy and to Ferralsols in the International Reference Base System (L5 to L10). Samples were collected in the diagnostic horizon (Bw) of these Latosols. Basic soil

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Regional Variation in Epiphytic Macrolichen Communities in Northern and Central California Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied epiphytic macrolichen communities in northern and central California to 1) describe how gradients in community composition relate to climate, topography, and stand structure and 2) define subregions of relatively homogeneous lichen communities and environ- mental conditions. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was used to characterize landscape-level trends in lichen community composition from 211 plots. We found two gradients in lichen

Sarah Jovan; Bruce McCune

2004-01-01

288

The Case Low-Dispersion Northern Sky Survey. XIII - A region in central Bootes and Corona Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positions, estimated magnitudes, and finding charts (when necessary) are provided for 138 blue and/or emission-line galaxies, four H II regions in two galaxies, 83 unresolved blue and/or emission-line objects, including QSO candidates, and 36 known and suspected blue stars in a about 100 sq deg region in central Bootes and Corona Borealis encompassed primarily in the region R.A. between 14h 08m and 16h 10m and Decl. between 29 deg 30 min and 33 deg 30 min (1950). The objects, whose blue magnitudes are mostly within the range 15-18, were identified on low-dispersion objective-prism plates taken with the Burrell Schmidt telescope at Kitt Peak.

Stephenson, C. B.; Pesch, Peter; MacConnell, D. J.

1992-10-01

289

Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in martens and fishers from the Algonquin region of south-central Ontario  

SciTech Connect

Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine insecticides (OCI) has been restricted in the Province of Ontario, Canada, since 1971. This study reports on OCI and PCB levels in two carnivores, fishers (Martes pennanti) and martens (Martes americana), collected in the Algonquin Region of south-central Ontario in 1976 and 1981, and compares them to data collected for the same species in the same area in 1972-74. Algonquin Region is a forested area of 43,000 km{sup 2} on the Precambrian shield, and has no major industrial or agricultural development. Except for DDT, which was used in the 1950's and 1960's to control biting insects around tourist establishments, there has been little use of OCIs or PCBs in this area. Their occurrence in the Algonquin Region is most likely due to atmospheric transport.

Steeves, T.; Strickland, M. (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Parry Sound, Ontario (Canada)); Frank, R.; Rasper, J. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)); Douglas, C.W.

1991-03-01

290

Regional status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and

André Zoli; Oliver Shey-Njila; Emmanuel Assana; Jean-Pierre Nguekam; Pierre Dorny; Jef Brandt; Stanny Geerts

2003-01-01

291

Metal concentration and X-ray cool spectral component in the central region of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spatially resolved energy spectra in the energy range 0.5-10 keV have been measured for the Centaurus cluster of galaxies with Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA). Within 10 min (200 kpc) from the cluster center, the helium-like iron K emission line exhibits a dramatic increase toward the center rising from an equivalent width approximately 500 eV to approximately 1500 eV corresponding to an abundance change from 0.3 to 1.0 solar. The presence of strong iron L lines indicates an additional cool component (kT approximately 1 keV) within 10 min from the center. The cool component requires absorption in excess of the galactic value and this excess absorption increases towards the central region of the cluster. In the surrounding region with radius greater than 10 min, the spectra are well described by a single temperature thermal model with kT approximately 4 keV and spatially uniform abundances at about 0.3-0.4 times solar. The detection of metal-rich hot and cool gas in the cluster center implies a complex nature of the central cluster gas which is likely to be related to the presence of the central cD galaxy NGC 4696.

Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ohashi, Takaya; Fabian, Andrew C.; Canizares, Claude R.; Ikebe, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Yamashita, Koujun

1994-01-01

292

Resolving the central region of a very luminous galaxy cluster at z~ 0.7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to image Xclass 2305, a bright galaxy cluster newly discovered in XMM archival data and located at zphot = 0.7. The derived temperature and luminosity correspond to a total cluster mass 5 x 10^14 M _sun assuming standard scaling relations. No hint of a S-Z decrement is seen in Planck data, which may indicate either contamination of XMM data by an X-ray point-source or a central luminosity excess due a cool core. Validation of either one or the other hypothesis will make this object particularly interesting as it belongs to the few known high-redshift, luminous X-ray clusters that will play a major role in the eROSITA era. The observation will exploit Chandra angular resolution to detect a point-source within the central cluster emission down to 10% contamination level.

Predehl, Peter

2014-09-01

293

Geologic map of the west-central Buffalo National River region, northern Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides a geologic map database of the map area that improves understanding of the regional geologic framework and its influence on the regional groundwater flow system. Furthermore, additional edits were made to the Ponca and Jasper quadrangles in the following ways: new control points on important contacts were obtained using modern GPS; recent higher resolution elevation data allowed further control on placement of contacts; some new contacts were added, in particular the contact separating the upper and lower Everton Formation.

Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

2014-01-01

294

Disparities in gingival height in the mandibular central incisor region of children aged 6--12 years.  

PubMed

An investigation of disparate gingival heights of the mandibular central incisor region in 93 children aged from 6 to 12 years was undertaken. Unaffected paired teeth demonstrated an age-associated increase in clinical crown length, similar to previous reports, suggesting a gradual remodelling of soft tissues. Affected teeth displayed a rapid increase in clinical crown length suggesting that by age 10 years true recession had occurred. Significant associations with gingival inflammation (at the 0.1% level), and with anterior crowding (at the 0.2% level), occurred. Frenal involvement did not influence the position of the gingival margin. PMID:6941875

Powell, R N; McEniery, T M

1981-02-01

295

Quantitative reconstructions of changes in regional openness in north-central Europe reveal new insights into old questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By applying the recently developed model REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites) (Sugita, 2007) to pollen data from a large number of sites across Northern Germany and Denmark, we construct maps of regional patterns in landscape openness and in cover abundance of key plant taxa in the cultural landscape of north-central Europe for selected time slices in the Holocene. The results indicate that the pattern of landscape openness across the regions of northern Germany and Denmark prior to the introduction of agriculture was affected by soil conditions and degree of continentality. The 8.2 ka climate event did not lead to a general decrease in tree cover, although some changes in species composition were observed. The early phases of agriculture also had little effect on landscape openness at the regional scale, but later human impact lead to large scale deforestation and development of arable areas, grasslands and of heathlands in the north-western part of the region. The timing and degree of deforestation, and the weight between arable and grazing areas varied in space, partly due to differences in natural conditions, partly due to differences in cultural impact.

Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Giesecke, Thomas; Theuerkauf, Martin; Feeser, Ingo; Behre, Karl-Ernst; Beug, Hans-Jürgen; Chen, Su-Hwa; Christiansen, Jörg; Dörfler, Walter; Endtmann, Elisabeth; Jahns, Susanne; de Klerk, Pim; Kühl, Norbert; Lata?owa, Ma?gorzata; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Rasmussen, Peter; Stockholm, Jette Raal; Voigt, Ricarda; Wiethold, Julian; Wolters, Steffen

2012-07-01

296

The Central Regions Of Low-dispersion Early-type Galaxies With The GMOS IFU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the 2D stellar kinematics, gas kinematics, line strengths, and stellar population analysis of four low-dispersion early-type galaxies taken with the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph between May and June of 2005 with both Gemini North and Gemini South telescopes. The stellar and gas kinematics were derived using a direct fitting method developed by Emsellem et al. 2003. The line strengths were measured using the Lick indices. We connect the nuclear properties with their global counterparts from the wider field observations of the SAURON survey. The higher spatial and spectral resolution as well as the longer optical wavelength range of the GMOS data provide better constraints for age of the central stellar population as well as providing a detailed look at the central kinematic features like kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs), double disk structures, and counter rotating gas. The detailed population analysis of the sub-kiloparsec KDCs in the sample supports the evidence found in the SAURON sample for younger stellar populations in the disky sample.

Maier, Millicent; Davies, R. L.; Krajnovic, D.

2008-03-01

297

Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against Theileria equi in team roping horses from central-western region of Paraná.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Theileria equi in horses from central western region of Paraná state, Brazil. The presence of antibodies IgG against T. equi was determined in serum samples obtained from 400 team roping horses of the district of Guarapuava by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that 242 (61%) animals were positive which demonstrates that equine piroplasmosis is widespread and therefore it might be a contributing factor for the irregular performance among athletes horses in the region studied. No association regarding age and sex were observed (p>0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a serological survey on equine piroplasmosis in the state of Paraná, Brazil. PMID:24728366

Prochno, Hanna Carolina; Scorsin, Lucas Milléo; De Melo, Fatiane Rodrigues; Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Falbo, Margarete Kimie; de Aquino, Lucia Cury Thomaz; Lemos, Karen Regina

2014-03-01

298

The central region of M83: massive star formation, kinematics, and the location and origin of the nucleus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report new near-IR integral field spectroscopy of the central starburst region of the barred spiral galaxy M83 obtained with Cambridge Infra-Red Panoramic Survey Spectrograph (CIRPASS) on Gemini-South, which we analyse in conjunction with GH?FaS Fabry-Perot data, an Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) IRIS2 Ks-band image, and near- and mid-IR imaging from the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes. The bulk of the current star formation activity is hidden from optical view by dust extinction, but is seen in the near- and mid-IR to the north of the nucleus. This region is being fed by inflow of gas through the bar of M83, traced by the prominent dust lane entering into the circumnuclear region from the north. An analysis of stellar ages confirms that the youngest stars are indeed in the north-west. A gradual age gradient, with older stars further to the south, characterizes the well-known star-forming arc in the central region of M83, and is consistent with a stable scenario where gas inflow into the central regions is facilitated by the galactic bar. Detailed analyses of the Pa? ionized gas kinematics and near-IR imaging confirm that the kinematic centre coincides with the photometric centre of M83, and that these are offset significantly, by about 3arcsec or 60pc, from the visible nucleus of the galaxy. We discuss two possible options, the first of which postulates that the kinematic and photometric centre traces a galaxy nucleus hidden by a substantial amount of dust extinction, in the range AV = 3-10mag. By combining this information with kinematic results and using arguments from the literature, we conclude that such a scenario is, however, unlikely, as is the existence of other `hidden' nuclei in M83. We thus concur with recent authors and favour a second option, in which the nucleus of the galaxy is offset from its kinematic and photometric centre. This is presumably a result of some past interaction, possibly related to the event which lies at the origin of the disturbance of the outer disc of the galaxy. We find some indications for a disturbance in the H? velocity field which would confirm the influence of the m = 1 perturbation in the gravitational potential, but note that further high-quality stellar kinematic data are needed to confirm this scenario.

Knapen, J. H.; Sharp, R. G.; Ryder, S. D.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Fathi, K.; Gutiérrez, L.

2010-10-01

299

A Fresh Look at the Copernicus Crater Central Peak Region Through High-Resolution NIR Data from the SIR-2 Instrument on Chandrayaan-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We looked at the NIR reflectance spectral characteristics of surface materials in the central peaks region of the Copernicus crater using high spectral and spatial resolution data from the SIR-2 instrument on board of the Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission.

Bugiolacchi, R.; Mall, U.; Bhatt, M.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.

2010-03-01

300

Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes

Christovam Barcellos; Patrícia Feitosa; Giseli N Damacena; Marco A Andreazzi

2010-01-01

301

Intraplate earthquakes, regional stress and fault mechanics in the Central and Eastern U.S. and Southeastern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilizing 75 high quality individual earthquake focal plane mechanisms and 10 formal stress inversions we investigate the consistency of regional stress orientations in the central and eastern United States and southeastern Canada, the variation of relative stress magnitudes across the region and the compatibility of slip on optimally-oriented nodal planes with frictional faulting theory. To map faulting styles and relative stress magnitudes across the region of study, we utilize the high quality focal plane mechanisms to calculate the A? parameter (following Angelier, 1979; Simpson, 1997) that ranges from 0 (uniform horizontal extension with SV > > SHmax = Shmin) to 1.5 (strike-slip faulting with SHmax > SV > Shmin) to 3 (uniform horizontal compression with SHmax = Shmin > SV). We find that horizontal stresses become increasingly more compressive with respect to the vertical stress from the south-central United States (characterized predominantly by strike-slip focal mechanisms) toward the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada (predominantly thrust mechanisms). In a manner similar to the study by M.L. Zoback (1992a), which used a much smaller data set, we utilize the Mohr-Coulomb criterion to calculate the difference in orientation between the theoretically-optimal orientation of a fault plane (for various coefficients of friction, ?) and the focal mechanism nodal planes assuming that pore pressure in the brittle crust is hydrostatic. For the 75 focal plane mechanisms utilized in our study, the preferred (better fitting) nodal planes deviate on average only 7° in strike and dip from the theoretically-optimal planes for ? = 0.6. As such minor differences could represent small variations in the stress field (or uncertainties in the focal plane mechanisms), we conclude that nearly all earthquakes in the study region slip in a manner compatible with shear failure on pre-existing faults in the local stress field.

Hurd, Owen; Zoback, Mark D.

2012-12-01

302

Assessment of regional change in nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Central Valley, California, USA, 1950s-2000s  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A regional assessment of multi-decadal changes in nitrate concentrations was done using historical data and a spatially stratified non-biased approach. Data were stratified into physiographic subregions on the basis of geomorphology and soils data to represent zones of historical recharge and discharge patterns in the basin. Data were also stratified by depth to represent a shallow zone generally representing domestic drinking-water supplies and a deep zone generally representing public drinking-water supplies. These stratifications were designed to characterize the regional extent of groundwater with common redox and age characteristics, two factors expected to influence changes in nitrate concentrations over time. Overall, increasing trends in nitrate concentrations and the proportion of nitrate concentrations above 5 mg/L were observed in the east fans subregion of the Central Valley. Whereas the west fans subregion has elevated nitrate concentrations, temporal trends were not detected, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of the water quality in this area and geologic sources of nitrate, combined with sparse and uneven data coverage. Generally low nitrate concentrations in the basin subregion are consistent with reduced geochemical conditions resulting from low permeability soils and higher organic content, reflecting the distal portions of alluvial fans and historical groundwater discharge areas. Very small increases in the shallow aquifer in the basin subregion may reflect downgradient movement of high nitrate groundwater from adjacent areas or overlying intensive agricultural inputs. Because of the general lack of regionally extensive long-term monitoring networks, the results from this study highlight the importance of placing studies of trends in water quality into regional context. Earlier work concluded that nitrate concentrations were steadily increasing over time in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, but clearly those trends do not apply to other physiographic subregions within the Central Valley, even where land use and climate are similar.

Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

2013-01-01

303

Hydrologic implications of errors in bias-corrected regional reanalysis data for west central Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the limitations associated with using dynamically-downscaled, bias-corrected reanalysis data (i.e. regional reanalysis data) to predict hydrologic behavior of low-relief rainfall driven systems using an integrated surface/groundwater model. Four different sets of global reanalysis data (NCEP/NCAR-R1, NCEP-DOE-R2, ERA40, and 20CR) that were previously downscaled using two RCMs (MM5 and RSM) were obtained, bias-corrected on a daily basis using the CDF-mapping approach, and used to drive an integrated hydrologic model (INTB) that was previously calibrated and verified for the Tampa Bay region. All raw dynamically-downscaled reanalysis datasets accurately estimated the annual cycle of daily maximum and minimum temperature, except the NCEP/NCAR R1+MM5 data which consistently underestimated daily maximum temperature. All raw regional reanalysis precipitation data significantly overestimated precipitation, particularly for the dry season. Bias-correction using the CDF-mapping approach effectively removed biases in the temporal mean and standard deviation of both the daily precipitation and temperature predictions. Biases in the mean monthly and mean annual precipitation totals were removed by CDF-mapping on a daily basis, but the standard deviation of the monthly and annual precipitation totals were not accurately reproduced. Furthermore inaccuracies in actual daily precipitation time series aggregated into monthly and annual rainfall total time series that showed significant and temporally persistent errors. Precipitation timing errors produced by regional reanalysis data were propagated and enhanced by non-linear streamflow generation, groundwater flow and storage processes in the hydrologic model and produced significant errors in both actual and mean daily, monthly and annual streamflow and groundwater level predictions. These results show that improvement in large-scale reanalysis products and regional climate models may be required before dynamically downscaled bias-corrected reanalysis data can be used as a surrogate for observational data in hydrologic model applications for low-relief, rainfall driven systems.

Hwang, Syewoon; Graham, Wendy D.; Geurink, Jeffrey S.; Adams, Alison

2014-03-01

304

Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it`s new marketing plan.

Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

1996-11-01

305

Relict nebkhas (pimple mounds) record prolonged late Holocene drought in the forested region of south-central United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin and significance of pimple mounds (low, elliptical to circular dune-like features found across much of the south-central United States) have been debated for nearly two centuries. We cored pimple mounds at four sites spanning the Ozark Plateau, Arkansas River Valley, and Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and found that these mounds have a regionally consistent textural asymmetry such that there is a significant excess of coarse-grained sediment within their northwest flanks. We interpret this asymmetry as evidence of an eolian depositional origin of these mounds and conclude they are relict nebkhas (coppice dunes) deposited during protracted middle to late Holocene droughts. These four mounds yield optically stimulated luminescence ages between 2400 and 700 yr that correlate with well-documented periods of eolian activity and droughts on the southern Great Plains, including the Medieval Climate Anomaly. We conclude vegetation loss during extended droughts led to local eolian deflation and pimple mound deposition. These mounds reflect landscape response to multi-decadal droughts for the south-central U.S. The spatial extent of pimple mounds across this region further underscores the severity and duration of late Holocene droughts, which were significantly greater than historic droughts.

Seifert, Christopher L.; Cox, Randel Tom; Forman, Steven L.; Foti, Tom L.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.; McColgan, Andrew T.

2009-05-01

306

Structural rearrangements of the central region of the morbillivirus attachment protein stalk domain trigger F protein refolding for membrane fusion.  

PubMed

It is unknown how receptor binding by the paramyxovirus attachment proteins (HN, H, or G) triggers the fusion (F) protein to fuse with the plasma membrane for cell entry. H-proteins of the morbillivirus genus consist of a stalk ectodomain supporting a cuboidal head; physiological oligomers consist of non-covalent dimer-of-dimers. We report here the successful engineering of intermolecular disulfide bonds within the central region (residues 91-115) of the morbillivirus H-stalk; a sub-domain that also encompasses the putative F-contacting section (residues 111-118). Remarkably, several intersubunit crosslinks abrogated membrane fusion, but bioactivity was restored under reducing conditions. This phenotype extended equally to H proteins derived from virulent and attenuated morbillivirus strains and was independent of the nature of the contacted receptor. Our data reveal that the morbillivirus H-stalk domain is composed of four tightly-packed subunits. Upon receptor binding, these subunits structurally rearrange, possibly inducing conformational changes within the central region of the stalk, which, in turn, promote fusion. Given that the fundamental architecture appears conserved among paramyxovirus attachment protein stalk domains, we predict that these motions may act as a universal paramyxovirus F-triggering mechanism. PMID:22431728

Ader, Nadine; Brindley, Melinda A; Avila, Mislay; Origgi, Francesco C; Langedijk, Johannes P M; Örvell, Claes; Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plemper, Richard K; Plattet, Philippe

2012-05-11

307

Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important, particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients.

Rapalee, Gloria; Steyaert, Louis T.; Hall, Forrest G.

2001-12-01

308

Cigarette smoking behavior among male secondary school students in the Central region of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Qassim region, KSA during March 2003. Randomly selected was 14 out of 110 government male secondary schools. In the sample section, care

Saleh A. Al-Damegh; Mahmoud A. Saleh; Mohammed A. Al-Alfi

2004-01-01

309

Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both

M. O. Andreae; R. W. Talbot; T. W. Andreae; R. C. Harriss

1988-01-01

310

Seasonal pattern of regional carbon balance in the central Rocky Mountains from surface and airborne measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-elevation forests represent a large fraction of potential carbon uptake in North America, but this uptake is not well constrained by observations. Additionally, forests in the Rocky Mountains have recently been severely damaged by drought, fire, and insect outbreaks, which have been quantified at local scales but not assessed in terms of carbon uptake at regional scales. The Airborne Carbon in the Mountains Experiment was carried out in 2007 partly to assess carbon uptake in western U.S. mountain ecosystems. The magnitude and seasonal change of carbon uptake were quantified by (1) paired upwind-downwind airborne CO2 observations applied in a boundary layer budget, (2) a spatially explicit ecosystem model constrained using remote sensing and flux tower observations, and (3) a downscaled global tracer transport inversion. Top-down approaches had mean carbon uptake equivalent to flux tower observations at a subalpine forest, while the ecosystem model showed less. The techniques disagreed on temporal evolution. Regional carbon uptake was greatest in the early summer immediately following snowmelt and tended to lessen as the region experienced dry summer conditions. This reduction was more pronounced in the airborne budget and inversion than in flux tower or upscaling, possibly related to lower snow water availability in forests sampled by the aircraft, which were lower in elevation than the tower site. Changes in vegetative greenness associated with insect outbreaks were detected using satellite reflectance observations, but impacts on regional carbon cycling were unclear, highlighting the need to better quantify this emerging disturbance effect on montane forest carbon cycling.

Desai, Ankur R.; Moore, David J. P.; Ahue, William K. M.; Wilkes, Phillip T. V.; de Wekker, Stephan F. J.; Brooks, Bjorn G.; Campos, Teresa L.; Stephens, Britton B.; Monson, Russell K.; Burns, Sean P.; Quaife, Tristan; Aulenbach, Steven M.; Schimel, David S.

2011-12-01

311

Eruptive history of the Dieng mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions  

SciTech Connect

The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location. 6 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Miller, C.D.; Sukhyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

1983-01-01

312

Dog filariosis in the Lazio region (Central Italy): first report on the presence of Dirofilaria repens  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological investigations were carried out in the Lazio Region to assess the status of canine filariosis and to evaluate the actual risk for veterinary and medical public health. Methods Since August 2001 to June 2003, a total of 972 canine blood samples, collected in public kennels and from private owners animals of the 5 Provinces of the Region, were tested. The presence of filarial parasites was evaluated by microscopy and bio-molecular techniques; the species identification was performed by means of the same diagnostic tools. Results A total of 17/972 (1.75%; 95%CI 1.06%–2.85%) blood samples were parasitized by D. repens,13 out them drawn by dogs resident in the Province of Roma, and 4 in the other provinces. Multivariate analysis was performed in order to evaluate the association between filariosis and risk factors. The origin from coastal territories seems to be a significant risk factor to acquire the infection. Conclusion This is the first report of canine filariosis in the Lazio Region, where D. repens was before reported only in foxes. The risk of human zoonotic infection is stressed, and the absence of other filarial species is discussed PMID:16185352

Scaramozzino, Paola; Gabrielli, Simona; Di Paolo, Michele; Sala, Marcello; Scholl, Francesco; Cancrini, Gabriella

2005-01-01

313

Eruptive history of the Dieng Mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location.

Miller, C. Dan; Sushyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

1983-01-01

314

Canadian groundwater inventory: Regional hydrogeological characterization of the south-central part of the maritimes basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Maritimes Groundwater Initiative (MGWI) is a large, integrated, regional hydrogeological study focusing on a representative area of the Maritimes Basin in eastern Canada. The study area covers a land surface of 10 500 km2, of which 9 400 km2 are underlain by sedimentary rocks. This sedimentary bedrock is composed of a sequence of discontinuous strata of highly variable hydraulic properties, and is generally overlain by a thin layer of glacial till(mostly 4-8 m thick, but can reach 20 m). Depending on the area, 46 to 100% of the population relieson groundwater for water supply, either from municipal wells or from private residential wells. The main objectives of this project were to improve the general understanding of groundwater-flow dynamics and to provide baseline information and tools for a regional groundwater-resource assessment. This bulletin presents the current state of understanding of this hydrogeological system, along with the methodology used to characterize and analyze its distinct behaviour at three different scales. This regional bedrock aquifer system contains confined and unconfined zones, and each of its lenticular permeable strata extends only a few kilometres. Preferential groundwater recharge occurs where sandy till is present. The mean annual recharge rate to the bedrock is estimated to range between 130 and 165 mm/a. Several geological formations of this basin provide good aquifers, with hydraulic conductivity in the range 5x10-6 to 10-4m/s. Based on results of numerical flow modelling, faults were interpreted to have a key role in the regional flow. Pumping-test results revealed that the fractured aquifers can locally be very heterogeneous and anisotropic, but behave similarly to porous media. Work performed at the local scale indicated that most water-producing fractures seem to be subhorizontal and generally oriented in a northeasterly direction, in agreement with regional structures and pumping-test results. Almost all residential wells are shallow (about 20 m) open holes that are cased only through the surficial sediments.

Rivard, C.; Michaud, Y.; Deblonde, C.; Boisvert, V.; Carrier, C.; Morin, R.H.; Calvert, T.; Vigneault, H.; Conohan, D.; Castonguay, S.; Lefebvre, R.; Rivera, A.; Parent, M.

2008-01-01

315

Regional winter climate of the southern central Andes: Assessing the performance of ERA-Interim for climate studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

order to determine the feasibility of using reanalysis (ERA-Interim) for climate studies over the southern central Andes in South America, we have compared the most recent version of different data sets available to the community. The data sets include gridded in situ observations: Climate Research Unit (CRU), Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), and University of Delaware; merged satellite and in situ data: Global Precipitation Climatology Project; and satellite estimates: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. We pay particular attention to the region between 30° and 37°S and also the period 1970-1976 to evaluate the data sets. This is the period of maximum availability of meteorological stations in the region. Whereas all data sets provide an adequate representation of mean winter, GPCC provides the best for winter precipitation due to the large number of stations included in gridding. The CRU data set has fewer observations throughout the period. Although it cannot reproduce the localized maxima in the Andes, it provides a better representation of the regional precipitation and is best suited to evaluate trends. The temperature in the region is best estimated by CRU. We evaluate the ERA-Interim reanalysis to determine potential shortcomings. The trends in the region were analyzed during the period 1979-2010, and while CRU indicates a significant decrease in winter precipitation, ERA-Interim shows virtually no significant trends. Interannual variability is well represented by ERA-Interim, and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, which has been proven to be the principal source of year to year precipitation variability in the region, is highly correlated there.

Rusticucci, Matilde; Zazulie, Natalia; Raga, Graciela B.

2014-07-01

316

Timing of Proterozoic regional deformation in the southern Manzano Mountains, central New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Early Proterozoic supracrustal and plutonic rocks of the Manzano Mtns have sustained a remarkably complex history of ductile deformation, metamorphism, and plutonism. A comparison of field relations and deformational features between the two southernmost plutons suggests that they differ greatly in timing of intrusion with respect to regional deformation. The Monte Largo pluton consists of medium-grained granodiorite and quartz monzonite that is bounded on three sides by strongly deformed quartzite and phyllite. An S1 foliation is folded by upright, N-trending folds (F2). S2, axial planar to F2, is mylonitic along the E pluton margin. The degree of deformation in the pluton is comparable to that in the country rock. The Monte Largo pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.66 Ga. The Priest pluton is a 10-km-long, N-S elongate, megacrystic quartz monzonite that is intrusive into quartzite sand schists. Large microcline crystals define a magmatic foliation. The body contains a weakly to moderately well-developed NE-striking tectonic foliation defined by flattened quartz grains, best developed along the W margin. On the N end of the pluton, map-scale folds in quartzite and schist have been cross-cut, and a contact metamorphic aureole cross-cuts country rock structures. The degree of deformation in the pluton is significantly less than that of country rock quartzites, some of which are mylonitic. The Priest Pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.45 Ga. These data suggest that the ca. 1.66 Ga Monte Largo pluton is syntectonic with respect to regional deformation, whereas the ca. 1.45 Ga priest pluton is post-tectonic with respect to the regional deformation.

Bauer, P.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Bowring, S.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences); Karlstrom, K.E. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

317

Annual variation of (7)Be soil inventory in a semiarid region of central Argentina.  

PubMed

Reliable information on environmental radionuclides atmospheric entrance, and their distribution along the soil profile, is a necessary condition for using these soil and sediment tracers to investigate key environmental processes. To address this need, (7)Be content in rainwater and the wet deposition in a semiarid region at San Luis Province, Argentina, were studied. Following these researches, in the same region, we have assessed the (7)Be content along a soil profile, during 2.5 years from September 2009 to January 2012. As expected, the specific activity values in soil samples in the wet period (November-April) were higher than in the dry period (May-October). During the investigated period (2009 - beginning 2012) and for all sampled points, the maximum value of the (7)Be specific activity (Bq kg(-1)) was measured at the surface level. A typical decreasing exponential function of (7)Be areal activity (Bq m(-2)) with soil mass depth (kg m(-2)) was found and the key distribution parameters were determined for each month. The minimum value of areal activity was 51 Bq m(-2) in August, and the maximum was 438 Bq m(-2) in February. The relaxation mass depth ranges from 2.9 kg m(-2) in March to 1.3 kg m(-2) in August. (7)Be wet deposition can explain in a very significant proportion the (7)Be inventory in soil. During the period of winds in the region (September and October), the (7)Be content in soil was greater than the expected contribution from wet deposition, situation that is compatible with a higher relative contribution of dry deposition at this period of the year. PMID:24487256

Lohaiza, F; Velasco, H; Juri Ayub, J; Rizzotto, M; Di Gregorio, D E; Huck, H; Valladares, D L

2014-04-01

318

Effects of fire on regional evapotranspiration in the central Canadian boreal forest  

SciTech Connect

Changes in fire regimes are driving the carbon balance of much of the North American boreal forest, but few studies have examined fire-driven changes in evapotranspiration (ET) at a regional scale. This study used a version of the Biome-BGC process model with dynamic and competing vegetation types, and explicit spatial representation of a large (106 km2) region, to simulate the effects of wildfire on ET and its components from 1948 to 2005 by comparing the fire dynamics of the 1948-1967 period with those of 1968-2005. Simulated ET averaged, over the entire temporal and spatial modeling domain, 323 mm yr-1; simulation results indicated that changes in fire in recent decades decreased regional ET by 1.4% over the entire simulation, and by 3.9% in the last ten years (1996-2005). Conifers dominated the transpiration (EC) flux (120 mm yr-1) but decreased by 18% relative to deciduous broadleaf trees in the last part of the 20th century, when increased fire resulted in increased soil evaporation, lower canopy evaporation, lower EC and a younger and more deciduous forest. Well- and poorly-drained areas had similar rates of evaporation from the canopy and soil, but EC was twice as high in the well-drained areas. Mosses comprised a significant part of the evaporative flux to the atmosphere (22 mm yr-1). Modeled annual ET was correlated with net primary production, but not with temperature or precipitation; ET and its components were consistent with previous field and modeling studies. Wildfire is thus driving significant changes in hydrological processes, changes that may control the future carbon balance of the boreal forest.

Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Peckham, Scott D.; Gower, Stith T.; Ewers, Brent

2009-04-08

319

Inflammatory bowel diseases and the general practitioner’s role in a region of Central Italy  

PubMed Central

Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a serious burden for both patients and health care providers because of the young age at which they occur and their chronic course. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess how general practitioners (GPs) in the area of Camerino-Matelica, Marche (Central Italy) manage their patients with IBD. Materials and methods: Before providing an educational course about IBD to GPs, we administered a simple questionnaire containing 10 multiple-choice questions, allowing for only one possible answer, to GPs in the target area. After the educational course we administered a satisfaction questionnaire and evaluated the hospitalization rates for IBD in the catchment area in the year following the course. Results: In our GP sample, 71.8% indicated that they needed better instruction regarding IBD to enable them to diagnose the conditions given the difficulties posed by nonspecific symptoms and the need to use invasive diagnostic methods such as colonoscopy. Early results after the educational course for GPs indicate a reduced rate of hospitalization for IBD but these data must be confirmed by future research. Conclusions: If specialists and GPs managed IBD patients more carefully, their patients would probably suffer from fewer relapses and would have a better quality of life, which would be likely to mean considerable cost savings for the public health care system and society in general. PMID:21694843

Sossai, Paolo; Filippetti, Fabio; Muselmani, Ali Ahmad; Catalini, Giambattista

2010-01-01

320

GABAergic neurons in the central region of the spinal cord: a novel substrate for sympathetic inhibition.  

PubMed

Homeostatic maintenance of widespread functions is critically dependent on the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. This activity is generated by the CNS acting on the sole output cells in the spinal cord, sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs). SPNs are subject to control from both supraspinal and spinal inputs that exert effects through activation of direct or indirect pathways. A high proportion of indirect control is attributable to activation of spinal interneurons in a number of locations. However, little is known about the different groups of interneurons with respect to their neurochemistry or function. In this study, we report on a novel group of GABAergic interneurons located in the spinal central autonomic area (CAA) that directly inhibit SPN activity. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated a group of neurons that contained mRNA for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GAD67 within the CAA. Combining in situ hybridization with trans-synaptic labeling from the adrenal gland using pseudorabies virus identified presympathetic GABAergic neurons in the CAA. Electrical stimulation of the CAA elicited monosynaptic IPSPs in SPNs located laterally in the intermediolateral cell column. IPSPs were GABAergic, because they reversed at the chloride reversal potential and were blocked by bicuculline. Chemical activation of neurons in the CAA hyperpolarized SPNs, an effect that was also bicuculline sensitive. We conclude that the CAA contains GABAergic interneurons that impinge directly onto SPNs to inhibit their activity and suggest that these newly identified interneurons may play an essential role in the regulation of sympathetic activity and thus homeostasis. PMID:15689541

Deuchars, Susan A; Milligan, Carol J; Stornetta, Ruth L; Deuchars, Jim

2005-02-01

321

Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary and paleovegetation history of the eastern Solimões Basin, central Amazon region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palynological and stratigraphical analyses were carried out on the outcrops of the Solimões River to present new information about freshwater paleoenvironments of a fluvial-deltaic and meandering river system, evaluate the vegetation changes in the upper Solimões and Içá Formations in the eastern Solimões Basin, and the role of the Purus Arc in the evolution of central Amazon during the upper Neogene. The upper Miocene to Pliocene Solimões Formation is related to a fluvial-deltaic system, with fine-grained sediments of the prodelta-lacustrine environment supplied by meandering distributaries and delta front environment. The lake and distributaries were surrounded by extensive deltaic and floodplains colonized by lowland freshwater forests under wet climate conditions, persisting until the Pliocene. The Içá Formation started to deposit unconformably on the Solimões Formation during the Pleistocene, following the development of extensive meandering channels surrounded by floodplains of an essentially fluvial system linked to development of the present eastward direction of the Amazon River until the Atlantic coast. These floodplains were colonized by few palm species and pteridophytes of lowland freshwater forests during the Pleistocene. Additionally, no algae and fungi were observed, which may be related to drier climate conditions and/or different morphological conditions than the upper Solimões Formation.

Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Silveira, Rosemery; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix

2013-10-01

322

Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. V - Deconvolution of the central highlands region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The distribution of thorium in the lunar central highlands measured from orbit by the Apollo 16 gamma-ray spectrometer is subjected to a deconvolution analysis to yield improved spatial resolution and contrast. Use of two overlapping data fields for complete coverage also provides a demonstration of the technique's ability to model concentrations several degrees beyond the data track. Deconvolution reveals an association between Th concentration and the Kant Plateau, Descartes Mountain and Cayley plains surface formations. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains model with Th less than 1 part per million, which is typical of farside highlands but is infrequently seen over any other nearside highland portions of the Apollo 15 and 16 ground tracks. It is noted that, if the Cayley plains are the result of basin-forming impact ejecta, the distribution of Th concentration with longitude supports an origin from the Imbrium basin rather than the Nectaris or Orientale basins. Nectaris basin materials are found to have a Th concentration similar to that of the Descartes Mountains, evidence that the latter may have been emplaced as Nectaris basin impact deposits.

Metzger, A. E.; Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Haines, E. L.

1982-01-01

323

[Index Copernicus: The Central and Eastern European Journals Ranking System. Why indexing needed in the region?] .  

PubMed

Index Copernicus is ranking system set up by members of the medical community in the Region. There were created five groups of parameters like scientific, editorial and technical quality, circulation and frequency-market stability, which allow for the generation of such a ranking system. The Authors of the Ranking System are aware of the deficiencies of parametrical analysis of science, however they believe the numbers at least set up clear, objective and just rules for all. Index Copernicus could be said the primary objectives of the system for which it has been created for. PMID:11037614

Graczynski, M R

2000-09-10

324

A comparison of single-station backazimuth estimates with regional event locations in the Central Appalachians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examines the accuracy of single-station backazimuth measurements from polarization analysis of near regional P wave arrivals. The data set consists of 37 signals from mining explosions in the distance range 100 to 300 km, recorded at station BLA, Blacksburg, Virginia. The station-source backazimuth estimates derived from the three-component station are compared with results derived from independent information, primarily from regional network epicenter locations. For signal/noise ratios in excess of 2.0, the mean backazimuth error of the single-station estimate is 6 degrees (for sources in the northwest quadrant) and the standard deviation is 21 degrees. Generally, only the initial (1 second or less) portion of the P wave arrival is polarized in the source-station azimuth. Off-azimuth arrivals consisting of converted and scattered energy appear early in the P coda. Emergent P wave arrivals from the delay-fired explosions, combined with steep apparent angles of incidence (averaging 22 degrees) complicate the single-station, three-component location problem.

Chapman, Martin C.; Huang, Shaosong; Snoke, J. A.

1993-06-01

325

[Chagas disease in the central region of Honduras: knowledge, beliefs, and practices].  

PubMed

From November to December 1991 and in March 1993 a survey was conducted in 17 rural communities located in Central Honduras. The communities belonged to two areas where Chagas' disease is endemic. In one of them, disease control activities had been conducted. A total of 849 adults, one in each of an equal number of households, was interviewed. The objective of the survey was to investigate and compare in both locations knowledge about Chagas' disease and its routes of transmission, measures aimed at avoiding the presence of triatomines within households, beliefs surrounding the vector and its control, and the population's sources of information about the disease. A 23-item questionnaire was tested and precoded. Almost 100% of the subjects who were surveyed were able to identify the vector and to describe its habits, but only 30.1% knew that Triatoma is the vector for the disease and only about 6% associated it with a chronic heart condition. Around 47.9% of survey subjects indicated that eliminating triatomines from households is a personal responsibility, although 78% identified as the control measure the institutional application of insecticides. Personal contact between a health worker and community members was the chief source of information for those who mentioned having heard of Chagas' disease (41.0%). These results suggest that health education should be included as a component in the planification of control programs. The role played by triatomines in disease transmission should be emphasized, as well as the importance of carrying out household improvements, with community participation, as an effective and sustainable measure. To achieve greater impact, this component should be developed through interpersonal communication channels. PMID:9567649

Avila Montes, G; Martínez Hernández, M; Ponce, C; Ponce, E; Soto Hernández, R

1998-03-01

326

Isopach Map and Regional Correlations of the Fire Clay Tonstein, Central Appalachian Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A tonstein that occurs within the Middle Pennsylvanian Fire Clay coal zone is a widespread marker bed that has been used for correlation purposes since the early 1900?s. Seiders (1965) first demonstrated that this tonstein is an altered volcanic air-fall ash deposit. Lyons and others (1992) have correlated the tonstein across Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia, and Tennessee on the basis of mineralogical and geochemical ?fingerprinting?. The correlation of the tonstein, herein often referred to as the Fire Clay tonstein over this four-state area, and the abundance of thickness data on this tonstein permit construction of an isopach map that depicts its distribution. In general, the tonstein thins from Tennessee, where it is up to 12 inches (30 cm) thick, northeastward to central West Virginia, where it is less than 4 in. (10 cm) thick, and its preserved area is about 14,300 sq. mi. (37,000 sq. km). The preserved volume is 0.90 cu. mi or 3.7 cu. km. The compaction ratio of ash to rock is 6:1, so the original ash volume deposited in this area was 5.4 cubic miles (22.2 cubic kilometers). The trends in thickness suggest the source of the ash was a volcano in the Yucatan tectonic plate, which, had it not moved relative to the North American Plate since the Pennsylvanian, would be located in the present Gulf of Mexico, south of Louisiana. The thickness and extent of the tonstein appears to have been controlled partly by winds and partly by the surface on which it landed. Its absence in some areas indicates that the ash was not preserved, probably because it floated downstream as pumice.

Outerbridge, William F.

2003-01-01

327

Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2–5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of Hail Flora by some foreign weeds such as Solanum nigrum, Lactuca serriola and Amaranthus lividus. The presence of these weeds points out the need to monitor the vegetation change in Hail region, and also other regions of Saudi Arabia, in order to elucidate the human impact on the wild plants diversity as human activities change with the fast development in the kingdom. PMID:23961067

El-Ghanim, Wafaa M.; Hassan, Loutfy M.; Galal, Tarek M.; Badr, Abdelfattah

2010-01-01

328

Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bundelkhand region of Central India is a hot spot of water scarcity, land degradation, poverty and poor socio-economic status. Impacts of integrated watershed development (IWD) interventions on water balance and different ecosystem services are analyzed in one of the selected watershed of 850 ha in Bundelkhand region. Improved soil, water and crop management interventions in Garhkundar-Dabar (GKD) watershed of Bundelkhand region in India enhanced ET to 64% as compared to 58% in untreated (control) watershed receiving 815 mm annual average rainfall. Reduced storm flow (21% vs. 34%) along with increased base flow (4.5% vs. 1.2%) and groundwater recharge (11% vs. 7%) of total rainfall received were recorded in treated watershed as compared to untreated control watershed. Economic Water productivity and total income increased from 2.5 to 5.0 INR m-3 and 11,500 to 27,500 INR ha-1 yr-1 after implementing integrated watershed development interventions in GKD watershed, respectively. Moreover IWD interventions helped in reducing soil loss more than 50% compared to control watershed. The results demonstrated that integrated watershed management practices addressed issues of poverty in GKD watershed. Benefit to cost ratio of project interventions was found three and pay back period within four years suggest economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in Bundelkhend region. Scaling-up of integrated watershed management in drought prone rainfed areas with enabling policy and institutional support is expected to promote equity and livelihood along with strengthening various ecosystem services, however, region-specific analysis is needed to assess trade-offs for downstream areas along with onsite impact.

Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.

2014-02-01

329

Quantification and regionalization of groundwater recharge in South-Central Kansas: Integrating field characterization, statistical analysis, and GIS  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A practical methodology for recharge characterization was developed based on several years of field-oriented research at 10 sites in the Great Bend Prairie of south-central Kansas. This methodology combines the soil-water budget on a storm-by-storm year-round basis with the resulting watertable rises. The estimated 1985-1992 average annual recharge was less than 50mm/year with a range from 15 mm/year (during the 1998 drought) to 178 mm/year (during the 1993 flood year). Most of this recharge occurs during the spring months. To regionalize these site-specific estimates, an additional methodology based on multiple (forward) regression analysis combined with classification and GIS overlay analyses was developed and implemented. The multiple regression analysis showed that the most influential variables were, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation, average maximum springtime soil-profile water storage, average shallowest springtime depth to watertable, and average springtime precipitation rate. Therefore, four GIS (ARC/INFO) data "layers" or coverages were constructed for the study region based on these four variables, and each such coverage was classified into the same number of data classes to avoid biasing the results. The normalized regression coefficients were employed to weigh the class rankings of each recharge-affecting variable. This approach resulted in recharge zonations that agreed well with the site recharge estimates. During the "Great Flood of 1993," when rainfall totals exceeded normal levels by -200% in the northern portion of the study region, the developed regionalization methodology was tested against such extreme conditions, and proved to be both practical, based on readily available or easily measurable data, and robust. It was concluded that the combination of multiple regression and GIS overlay analyses is a powerful and practical approach to regionalizing small samples of recharge estimates.

Sophocleous, M.

2000-01-01

330

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF G331.5-0.1: THE LUMINOUS CENTRAL REGION OF A GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

We report molecular line and dust continuum observations toward the high-mass star-forming region G331.5-0.1, one of the most luminous regions of massive star formation in the Milky Way, located at the tangent region of the Norma spiral arm, at a distance of 7.5 kpc. Molecular emission was mapped toward the G331.5-0.1 GMC in the CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) and C{sup 18}O(J = 1 {yields} 0) lines with NANTEN, while its central region was mapped in CS(J = 2 {yields} 1 and J = 5 {yields} 4) with SEST, and in CS(J = 7 {yields} 6) and {sup 13}CO(J = 3 {yields} 2) with ASTE. Continuum emission mapped at 1.2 mm with SIMBA and at 0.87 mm with LABOCA reveal the presence of six compact and luminous dust clumps, making this source one of the most densely populated central regions of a GMC in the Galaxy. The dust clumps are associated with molecular gas and they have the following average properties: size of 1.6 pc, mass of 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }, molecular hydrogen density of 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, dust temperature of 32 K, and integrated luminosity of 5.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} L{sub Sun }, consistent with values found toward other massive star-forming dust clumps. The CS and {sup 13}CO spectra show the presence of two velocity components: a high-velocity component at {approx} - 89 km s{sup -1}, seen toward four of the clumps, and a low-velocity component at {approx} - 101 km s{sup -1} seen toward the other two clumps. Radio continuum emission is present toward four of the molecular clumps, with spectral index estimated for two of them of 0.8 {+-} 0.2 and 1.2 {+-} 0.2. A high-velocity molecular outflow is found at the center of the brightest clump, with a line width of 26 km s{sup -1} (FWHM) in CS(J = 7 {yields} 6). Observations of SiO(J = 7 {yields} 6 and J = 8 {yields} 7), and SO(J{sub K} = 8{sub 8} {yields} 7{sub 7} and J{sub K} = 8{sub 7} {yields} 7{sub 6}) lines provide estimates of the gas rotational temperature toward this outflow >120 K and >75 K, respectively.

Merello, Manuel; Bronfman, Leonardo; Garay, Guido [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Nyman, Lars-Ake [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Evans, Neal J. II [University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Walmsley, C. Malcolm [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

2013-09-01

331

Rational design of antigens to improve the serodiagnosis of tick-borne borreliosis in central regions of Russia.  

PubMed

Tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme disease-LD) is caused by pathogenic Borrelia spirochetes that is transmitted through bite of Ixodes ticks to humans and animals. In the Russian Federation, borreliosis registered with an index of 6-7 per 100,000 people annually. In reality, LD morbidity in Russia is much higher because Russian strains develop less erythematous rashes compared to North American strains, thus missed by physicians in most of the early cases, and current serology tests have insufficient sensitivity as well. The aim of this work was to improve the sensitivity and specificity of serology tests for LD in Russia using rationale-designed Borrelia antigens. It was anticipated that sensitivity of LD sero-diagnosis will be higher if antigen for test-systems are derived from a strain that is circulated in a geographical region of test application. A large portion of the Russian population lives in the Central region. Thus, effort has been made to create a serological test using antigens from Moscow region, Tula and Ul'janovsk areas. In this study we included wild strains (ultrasonic-treated spirochetes B. garinii H19, B. afzelii P1, B. afzelii P1H13, B. burgdorferi s.s. 39/40, B. burgdorferi s.s. B31), recombinant (expressed in E.coli DbpA, Bgp, Bbk B. garinii, and B. afzelii) antigens and some of their combinations were produced and tested against LD patients and donors serum collected in hospitals of Central regions of Russia by ELISA and Western blotting. Considering sensitivity and specificity, DbpA B. afzelii and DbpA B. garinii recombinant antigens were selected among all probed antigens for regional serology test. As long as DbpA B. afzelii and DbpA B. garinii antigens interacted with LD patient's serum in a complementary mode, it is possible to combine epitopes DbpA B. afzelii and B. garinii in a single antigen for improving sensitivity. We created recombinant fusion protein DbpA B. afzelii/B using dbpA genes from Russian isolates of B. afzelii and B. garinii in E. coli. Fusion DbpA A + G protein was then used for formulation of fast immunochromatographic serodiagnosis test (LF) in a "deep-stick" format. The trials of LF-test were conducted separately at Institute of Rheumatology Russian Academy of Medical Science (using 325 sera) and at the Borreliosis Reference Center of Ministry of Health RF (using 120 reference sera). The average sensitivity and specificity of LF-test was 80.5 and 100 %, respectively. PMID:24619615

Baranova, Evgenia; Solov Ev, Pavel; Panfertsev, Evgeny; Baranova, Anastasia; Feduykina, Galina; Kolombet, Liubov; Morshed, Muhammad G; Biketov, Sergey

2014-01-01

332

A link between North Atlantic cooling and dry events in the core SW monsoon region in Lonar Lake, central India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sediment core from Lonar Lake in central India covers the complete Holocene and was used to reconstruct the monsoon history of the core SW-monsoon region. We compare C/N ratios, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, grain size, as well as amino acid derived degradation proxies with climatically sensitive proxies of other records from South Asia and the North Atlantic region. The comparison reveals some more or less contemporaneous climate shifts. At Lonar Lake, a general long term climate transition from wet conditions during the early Holocene to drier conditions during the late Holocene, delineating the insolation curve, can be reconstructed. Several phases of shorter term climate alteration that superimpose the general climate trend correlate with cold phases in the North Atlantic region. The most pronounced climate deteriorations indicated by our data occurred between 6.2 - 5.2, 4.65 - 3.9, and 2.05 - 0.55 cal ka BP. The strong dry phase between 4.65 - 3.9 cal ka BP at Lonar Lake corroborates the hypothesis that severe climate deterioration contributed to the decline of the Indus Civilisation about 3.9 ka BP.

Menzel, Philip; Gaye, Birgit; Prasad, Sushma; Plessen, Birgit; Stebich, Martina; Anoop, Ambili; Riedel, Nils; Basavaiah, Nathani

2014-05-01

333

Reduction of Risk in Exploration and Prospect Generation through a Multidisciplinary Basin-Analysis Program in the South-Central Mid-Continent Region  

SciTech Connect

This report will discuss a series of regional studies that were undertaken within the South-Central Mid-Continent region of the U.S. Coverage is also provided about a series of innovative techniques that were used for this assessment.

Banerjee, S.; Barker, C.; Fite, J.; George, S.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.; Jordan, J., Szpakiewicz, M.; Person, M.; Reeves, T.K.; Safley, E.; Swenson, J.B.; Volk, L.; and Erickson, R.

1999-04-02

334

NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking is a major problem in many countries as it causes health related problems. Most often infants are affected by the intake of high nitrate in drinking water and food. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the nitrate concentration in groundwater and determining the causes for nitrate in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district in India which is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from forty six representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to March 2009. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during the study. Soil samples were collected from fifteen locations during May 2009 and the denitrifying bacteria were isolated from the soil using spread plate method. The nitrate concentration in groundwater samples were analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration of nitrate recorded during the sampling period was 879.65mg/l and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. The maximum permissible limit of nitrate for drinking water as per Bureau of Indian Standards is 45mg/l. About 13% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond this limit. The nitrate concentration was high in the southeastern part of the study area. This implies that the nitrate concentration in groundwater tends to increase along the flow direction. Application of fertilizers is one of the sources for nitrate in groundwater. The recharge of rainwater through the indiscriminately dumped animal wastes also adds to nitrate in groundwater. As the population of denitrifying microbes (Agrobacterium sp.) in the topsoil increased, the nitrate concentration in groundwater decreased. The wells in the investigated region have been demarcated into safe and unsafe wells for consumption of water with respect to nitrate. The quality of groundwater in this region must be improved by denitrifying the groundwater before using it for consumption. Reduced dependence on nitrogen-rich fertilizers can also lower the influx of nitrates to a large extent. As the dumping of animal waste is also a reason behind high nitrate in groundwater, it would be better to use them as a biofertilizer. Due to the detrimental biological effects of nitrate, treatment and prevention methods must be considered to protect groundwater aquifers from nitrate leaching. Moreover, it is also important to educate the local population about keeping their surroundings clean, alternate use of the animal waste (as fuel) and to follow hygienic sanitation practices.

Brindha, K.; Rajesh, R.; Murugan, R.; Elango, L.

2009-12-01

335

Identification of Members in the Central and Outer Regions of Galaxy Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The caustic technique measures the mass of galaxy clusters in both their virial and infall regions and, as a byproduct, yields the list of cluster galaxy members. Here we use 100 galaxy clusters with mass M 200 >= 1014 h -1 M ? extracted from a cosmological N-body simulation of a ?CDM universe to test the ability of the caustic technique to identify the cluster galaxy members. We identify the true three-dimensional members as the gravitationally bound galaxies. The caustic technique uses the caustic location in the redshift diagram to separate the cluster members from the interlopers. We apply the technique to mock catalogs containing 1000 galaxies in the field of view of 12 h -1 Mpc on a side at the cluster location. On average, this sample size roughly corresponds to 180 real galaxy members within 3r 200, similar to recent redshift surveys of cluster regions. The caustic technique yields a completeness, the fraction of identified true members, fc = 0.95 ± 0.03, within 3r 200. The contamination, the fraction of interlopers in the observed catalog of members, increases from f_i=0.020^{+0.046}_{-0.015} at r 200 to f_i=0.08^{+0.11}_{-0.05} at 3r 200. No other technique for the identification of the members of a galaxy cluster provides such large completeness and small contamination at these large radii. The caustic technique assumes spherical symmetry and the asphericity of the cluster is responsible for most of the spread of the completeness and the contamination. By applying the technique to an approximately spherical system obtained by stacking the individual clusters, the spreads decrease by at least a factor of two. We finally estimate the cluster mass within 3r 200 after removing the interlopers: for individual clusters, the mass estimated with the virial theorem is unbiased and within 30% of the actual mass; this spread decreases to less than 10% for the spherically symmetric stacked cluster.

Serra, Ana Laura; Diaferio, Antonaldo

2013-05-01

336

IDENTIFICATION OF MEMBERS IN THE CENTRAL AND OUTER REGIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

The caustic technique measures the mass of galaxy clusters in both their virial and infall regions and, as a byproduct, yields the list of cluster galaxy members. Here we use 100 galaxy clusters with mass M{sub 200} {>=} 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} extracted from a cosmological N-body simulation of a {Lambda}CDM universe to test the ability of the caustic technique to identify the cluster galaxy members. We identify the true three-dimensional members as the gravitationally bound galaxies. The caustic technique uses the caustic location in the redshift diagram to separate the cluster members from the interlopers. We apply the technique to mock catalogs containing 1000 galaxies in the field of view of 12 h {sup -1} Mpc on a side at the cluster location. On average, this sample size roughly corresponds to 180 real galaxy members within 3r{sub 200}, similar to recent redshift surveys of cluster regions. The caustic technique yields a completeness, the fraction of identified true members, f{sub c} = 0.95 {+-} 0.03, within 3r{sub 200}. The contamination, the fraction of interlopers in the observed catalog of members, increases from f{sub i}=0.020{sup +0.046}{sub -0.015} at r{sub 200} to f{sub i}=0.08{sup +0.11}{sub -0.05} at 3r{sub 200}. No other technique for the identification of the members of a galaxy cluster provides such large completeness and small contamination at these large radii. The caustic technique assumes spherical symmetry and the asphericity of the cluster is responsible for most of the spread of the completeness and the contamination. By applying the technique to an approximately spherical system obtained by stacking the individual clusters, the spreads decrease by at least a factor of two. We finally estimate the cluster mass within 3r{sub 200} after removing the interlopers: for individual clusters, the mass estimated with the virial theorem is unbiased and within 30% of the actual mass; this spread decreases to less than 10% for the spherically symmetric stacked cluster.

Serra, Ana Laura [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Torino (Italy); Diaferio, Antonaldo, E-mail: serra@ph.unito.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

2013-05-10

337

[The primary role of central region of HC-pro of potato Y potyvirus in synergism of plant viruses].  

PubMed

Five deleted mutants of HC-Pro gene of Chinese isolate of potato Y potyvirus (PVY-C) were obtained by PCR mutation, and their plant expression vectors were constructed. They were transformed into tobacco K326 (Nicotina tabacum cv. K326) mediated by Agrobacterium. PCR and Southern blot analysis revealed that PVY-C HC-Pro gene and its deleted mutants were integrated into tobacco genome, and Western blot analysis showed that they were all expressed in transgenic tobacco plants. Furthermore, infection test demonstrated that the central region of PVY-C HC-Pro can mediate synergism of PVY-C/cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) and PVY-C/potato X potexvirus (PVX), identifying that it is functional domain in synergism. PMID:11517597

Lu, R F; Li, W M; Wang, H Y; Guo, M; Peng, X X

2001-05-01

338

Modeling water balance distribution in a natural semiarid region of central Mexico using a SVAT model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the world water is becoming insufficient, especially in the semiarid regions where there is a high inter-annual variability in the amount and distribution of the rainfall. Studies on this kind of environments would allow us to understand the mechanisms that determine the spatial and temporal distribution of the water balance components. The study was carried out from October 2005 to October 2008 in two semiarid sites located in the south of the Mexican Plateau: El Carmen in Guanajuato State and Cadereyta in Queretaro State. The work aim was to provide a better understanding of the hydrological processes that occur in semiarid ecosystems, quantifying and modeling the water balance in order to define the distribution of the water and energy balance components in El Carmen and Cadereyta. For this purpose, the SiSPAT (Simple Soil Plant Atmosphere Transfer) model was used based on a parameterization of the soil, plants and atmosphere components. It was found that, using SiSPAT, the water balance components were particularly sensitive to parameters associated with the soil and the leaf area index. The model results showed that during the studied period, the annual evapotranspiration in Cadereyta was less than PG (-10 and -5%) and above PG for El Carmen (10 y 30%). Runoff and percolation at 5m were null. Finally in both sites there was a simulated loss of water stored in the soil.

Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Braud, I.; Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Centro de Investigaciones Del Agua de Querétaro

2010-12-01

339

Pre-Wisconsin glacial stratigraphy of the central plains region in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryRecent investigations have documented the presence of several tills and interglacial paleosols that were not recognized in the simple Kansan—Aftonian—Nebraskan stratigraphic sequence. Also, the single 'Pearlette ash' recognized by early workers now is known to be three different Pearlette family ash beds of greatly contrasting ages. The complexity of the stratigraphy, as it is currently understood, and the miscorrelations of early work necessitate abandonment of the archaic terms Kansan, Aftonian, and Nebraskan in stratigraphic terminology. Continued use of those terms will only promote confusion of stratigraphic nomenclature and erroneous correlations of stratigraphic units. The limited chronometric control available within the early and middle Pleistocene stratigraphic sequence is provided directly by dating or by correlation of buried soils and volcanic ash beds and it is provided inferentially by interpretation of magnetic polarity data. These controls provide, at best, a general time framework to begin a new synthesis of the Quaternary history of the region. New methods of dating are needed to facilitate long-distance correlation of early and middle Pleistocene deposits.

Hallberg, George R.

340

Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season  

SciTech Connect

We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both acids at ground level and their vertical distribution in the forest canopy point to the existence of vegetative sources as well as to production by chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Dry deposition of the gaseous acids appears to be a major sink. The concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase were about 2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations of the corresponding species in the atmospheric aerosol. About 50--60%/sub 0/ of the aerosol (total) formate and acetate were in the size fraction below 1.0 ..mu..m diameter.

Andreae, M.O.; Talbot, R.W.; Andreae, T.W.; Harriss, R.C.

1988-02-20

341

Genotyping Mycobacterium bovis from cattle in the Central Pampas of Argentina: temporal and regional trends.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentinean cattle. Among the molecular methods for genotyping, the most convenient are spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). A total of 378 samples from bovines with visible lesions consistent with TB were collected at slaughterhouses in three provinces, yielding 265 M. bovis spoligotyped isolates, which were distributed into 35 spoligotypes. In addition, 197 isolates were also typed by the VNTR method and 54 combined VNTR types were detected. There were 24 clusters and 27 orphan types. When both typing methods were combined, 98 spoligotypes and VNTR types were observed with 27 clusters and 71 orphan types. By performing a meta-analysis with previous spoligotyping results, we identified regional and temporal trends in the population structure of M. bovis. For SB0140, the most predominant spoligotype in Argentina, the prevalence percentage remained high during different periods, varying from 25.5-57.8% (1994-2011). By contrast, the second and third most prevalent spoligotypes exhibited important fluctuations. This study shows that there has been an expansion in ancestral lineages as demonstrated by spoligotyping. However, exact tandem repeat typing suggests dynamic changes in the clonal population of this microorganism. PMID:24676658

Shimizu, Ernesto; Macías, Analía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Magnano, Gabriel; Zapata, Laura; Fernández, Analía; Canal, Ana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Cataldi, Angel; Caimi, Karina; Zumárraga, Martín

2014-04-01

342

Genotyping Mycobacterium bovis from cattle in the Central Pampas of Argentina: temporal and regional trends  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentinean cattle. Among the molecular methods for genotyping, the most convenient are spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). A total of 378 samples from bovines with visible lesions consistent with TB were collected at slaughterhouses in three provinces, yielding 265 M. bovis spoligotyped isolates, which were distributed into 35 spoligotypes. In addition, 197 isolates were also typed by the VNTR method and 54 combined VNTR types were detected. There were 24 clusters and 27 orphan types. When both typing methods were combined, 98 spoligotypes and VNTR types were observed with 27 clusters and 71 orphan types. By performing a meta-analysis with previous spoligotyping results, we identified regional and temporal trends in the population structure of M. bovis. For SB0140, the most predominant spoligotype in Argentina, the prevalence percentage remained high during different periods, varying from 25.5-57.8% (1994-2011). By contrast, the second and third most prevalent spoligotypes exhibited important fluctuations. This study shows that there has been an expansion in ancestral lineages as demonstrated by spoligotyping. However, exact tandem repeat typing suggests dynamic changes in the clonal population of this microorganism. PMID:24676658

Shimizu, Ernesto; Macías, Analía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Magnano, Gabriel; Zapata, Laura; Fernández, Analía; Canal, Ana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Cataldi, Angel; Caimi, Karina; Zumárraga, Martín

2014-01-01

343

Morphological variation in the ear region of pleistocene elephantimorpha (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from central Texas.  

PubMed

A large sample of isolated elephantimorph petrosal bones was recovered from Pleistocene deposits in Friesenhahn Cave, Bexar County, Texas. Morphology of the middle and inner ear of the elephantimorphs is described and variation within the sample is identified. Observed variations occur in the stapedial ratio, morphology of the aquaeductus Fallopii, and connection of the crista interfenestralis to the tympanohyal on the posterior portion of the petrosal to form a foramen for passage of the stapedius muscle. The morphology of the aquaeductus Fallopii supports an ontogenetic explanation for some variation, and a sequence of ossification surrounding the aquaeductus Fallopii, from the anterior end of the canal to the posterior, is hypothesized. The stapedial ratio varies to a high degree across the sample, and such variation should be considered when the ratio is used in phylogenetic analyses. Within the inner ear, the absence of the secondary lamina suggests evolution of low-frequency hearing in extinct proboscideans, which is known for extant elephants. The morphology of the petrosals from Friesenhahn Cave is compared to published descriptions of the ear regions of other extinct proboscideans, and the distribution and evolution of morphologic characters are discussed. J. Morphol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21284018

Ekdale, Eric G

2011-04-01

344

Distribution of pediatric bone and soft tissue tumors in the central Black Sea region.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate pediatric cases treated surgically for an initial diagnosis of bone and soft tissue tumor between January 1987 and January 2012. This retrospective study evaluated 328 patients with pathologically confirmed tumor from a total of 374 patients hospitalized with an initial diagnosis of tumor. The cases were analyzed with respect to frequency, age, gender, and localization. One hundred and eighty (54.8%) males and 148 (45.2%) females, with a mean age of 13 years (range: 1-18 years), were included in the study. The tumors were determined as 258 (78.6%) bone tumors and 70 (21.4%) soft tissue tumors. The most common benign bone tumor was observed to be osteochondroma (n=61, 30.7%), and the most common malignant bone tumor was osteosarcoma (n=31, 52.6%). The most common benign soft tissue tumor was hemangioma, which is a vascular tumor (n=28, 43.8%), and the most common malignant soft tissue tumor was rhabdomyosarcoma (n=5, 83.3%). It is thought that similar studies will serve to form larger series and facilitate inter-regional comparisons by collecting data from centers that surgically treat bone and soft tissue tumors, thereby benefitting both pediatric and public health. PMID:25341592

Ç?rakl?, Alper; Dabak, Nevzat; Ç?rakl?, Sevgi; Sezgin, Hicabi; Göçer, Hasan; Bar??, Sancar

2014-01-01

345

Stress distribution in the cervical region of an upper central incisor in a 3D finite element model.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution in the cervical region of a sound upper central incisor in two clinical situations, standard and maximum masticatory forces, by means of a 3D model with the highest possible level of fidelity to the anatomic dimensions. Two models with 331,887 linear tetrahedral elements that represent a sound upper central incisor with periodontal ligament, cortical and trabecular bones were loaded at 45 masculine in relation to the tooth's long axis. All structures were considered to be homogeneous and isotropic, with the exception of the enamel (anisotropic). A standard masticatory force (100 N) was simulated on one of the models, while on the other one a maximum masticatory force was simulated (235.9 N). The software used were: PATRAN for pre- and post-processing and Nastran for processing. In the cementoenamel junction area, tensile forces reached 14.7 MPa in the 100 N model, and 40.2 MPa in the 235.9 N model, exceeding the enamel's tensile strength (16.7 MPa). The fact that the stress concentration in the amelodentinal junction exceeded the enamel's tensile strength under simulated conditions of maximum masticatory force suggests the possibility of the occurrence of non-carious cervical lesions such as abfractions. PMID:19684951

Poiate, Isis Andréa Venturini Pola; Vasconcellos, Adalberto Bastos de; Poiate Junior, Edgard; Dias, Kátia Regina Hostílio Cervantes

2009-01-01

346

Sequence analysis for detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from the Central Region of Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background The potential of genetic testing to rapidly diagnose drug resistance has lead to the development of new diagnostic assays. However, prior to implementation in a given setting, the association of specific mutations with specific drug resistance phenotypes should be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate molecular markers in predicting drug resistance in the Central Region of Cameroon. Results From April 2010 and March 2011, 725 smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were enrolled and all positive cultures were tested for drug susceptibility. A total of 63 drug resistant and 100 drug sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex clinical isolates were screened for genetic mutations in katG, inhA, ahpC, rpoB, rpsL, rrs, gidB and embCAB loci using DNA sequencing. Of the 44 isoniazid resistant (INHR) isolates (24 high level, 1 ?g/ml and 20 low level, 0.2 ?g/ml), 73% (32/44) carried the katG315 and/or the -15 inhA promoter mutations. Of the 24 high level INHR, 17 (70.8%) harbored katG315 mutation, 1 a point mutation (-15C???T) in the inhA promoter and 6 were (25.0%) wild types. Thus, for INHR high level detection, katG315 mutation had a specificity and a sensitivity of 100% and 70.8% respectively. Of the 20 low level INHR, 10 (50.0%) had a -15C???T mutation in the inhA promoter region, and 1 (2.2%) a -32G???A mutation in the ahpC promoter region. All of the 7 rifampicin resistant (RIFR) isolates carried mutations in the rpoB gene (at codons Ser531Leu (71.4%), His526Asp (14.3%), and Asp516Val (14.3%)). Of the 27 streptomycin resistant (SMR) isolates, 7 carried mutations at the rpsL and the gidB genes. 1 of the 2 ethambutol resistant (EMBR) isolates displayed a mutation in embB gene. Conclusion This study provided the first molecular investigation assessing the correlation of phenotypic to genotypic characteristics on MTB isolates from the Central Region of Cameroon using DNA sequencing. Mutations on rpoB, katG315 and -15 point mutations in inhA promoter loci could be used as markers for RIF and INH -resistance detection respectively. PMID:24884632

2014-01-01

347

Occurrence of drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines in river waters from the Madrid Region (Central Spain).  

PubMed

This work investigates, for the first time, the occurrence of 10 drugs of abuse, six metabolites, and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain and one of the most densely populated in Europe. The results of this study have shown the presence of 14 out of the 19 compounds analyzed at concentrations ranging from 1.45 to 1020 ng L(-1). The most ubiquitous compounds, found in 100% of the samples, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-like compound ephedrine (EPH), the opioids morphine (MOR), methadone (METH), and the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three investigated benzodiazepines alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). Meanwhile, the largest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (up to 1020 ng L(-1)), BE (823 ng L(-1)), EDDP (151 ng L(-1)), and LOR (167 ng L(-1)). The only not detected compounds were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (OH-LSD), and ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Overall, the levels measured are comparatively higher than those previously reported in Europe. Comparison of the results obtained for samples collected on different days (Thursday and Sunday) did not show meaningful differences between weekdays and weekends. The lack of (eco)toxicological data does not permit to predict or disregard potential adverse effects on wildlife. Risk assessment in humans would require further knowledge, not currently available, on exposure to these compounds through other routes like drinking water and/or food. PMID:24083902

Mendoza, A; López de Alda, M; González-Alonso, S; Mastroianni, N; Barceló, D; Valcárcel, Y

2014-01-01

348

Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms  

SciTech Connect

Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

1984-03-01

349

Assessment of land cover changes in Lake Olbolossat region of the Central Kenyan highlands using Landsat satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region around Lake Olbolossat located in the central Kenyan highlands has witnessed significant land-use changes, which are today believed to be major cause of the dwindling Lake volumes. Very few studies have been carried out in the region due to limited observed in-situ data important for monitoring purposes. It is thus urgent that contemporary cost effective techniques are explored to asses the space and time land cover changes with a view to provide information required for appropriate land and water resource management. In this preliminary study, the land cover changes around Lake Olbolossat region were investigated using remotely sensed data obtained from Landsat satellites. Two imageries for 1989 and 2010 when significant changes were witnessed in the area were selected for the study. The maximum-Likelihood function of the supervised classification technique was applied to classify and discern the changes. Five predominant land cover classes that included forest land, built-up area, water body, flood plain and farmland were selected for the study. From the results obtained, the area of the Lake (water body) was noted to have shrunk significantly by 68%. Farmlands in the region were noted to have increased by about 31% largely due to the favorable humid climatic conditions for commercial and subsistence agriculture. The study also revealed that built-up areas increased by about 33% consequent of the rise in the human population. The flood plain area was noted to have reduced by about 26% as most of the area were gradually been turned to farmland. The study also revealed intense deforestation in the upstream Aberdare forest, which was noted to have reduced in area by about 30% during the study period. In general, the study revealed significant land cover changes worth provoking the need for a better land-use planning system to avoid further decline and extinction of Lake Olbolossat. Keywords: Lake Olbolossat; Landsat satellite; Maximum-Likelihood; Supervised classification.

Muriithi, Zacharia; Olang, Luke

2013-04-01

350

Topography of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary below the Upper Rhine Graben Rift and the volcanic Eifel region, Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries (Moho and LAB) in Central Europe, specifically below the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) rift, the Eifel volcanic region and their surrounding areas. Teleseismic recordings at permanent and mobile stations are analysed to search for shear (S) wave to compressional (P) wave converted phases. After a special processing these phases are identified in shear wave receiver functions (S-RFs). Conversions from the Moho at 2.9-3.3 s arrival time are the clearest signals in the S-RFs and indicate a relatively flat Moho at 27-30 km depth. A negative polarity conversion signal at 7-9 s arrival time can be explained with a low shear wave velocity zone (LVsZ) in the upper mantle. We use forward S-RF waveform modelling and Monte-Carlo techniques to determine shear wave velocity (vs)-depth (z) profiles which explain the observed S-RF and which outline variations of the lithospheric thickness in the study region. Across the URG rift and its surrounding mountain ranges (Black Forest, Odenwald etc.) the LAB is at a depth of about 60 ± 5 km. This depth is found for the rift itself as well as for the rift shoulders. Southeast and southwest of the URG, in the regions of the Swabian Alb and Vosges Mountains, the LAB dips to about 78 ± 5 km depth. In the volcanic Eifel region the LAB is at a much shallower depth of just 41 ± 5 km. There an upwelling mantle plume thermally eroded the lower lithosphere. The reduction of vs is about 2%-4% in the upper asthenosphere compared to the lower lithosphere. This vs contrast may be explained with a low portion of partial melt or hydrous minerals in the asthenosphere.

Seiberlich, C. K. A.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Wawerzinek, B.

2013-09-01

351

Magnitude and extent of land subsidence in central Mexico revealed by regional InSAR ALOS time-series survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive groundwater extraction is very common in Mexico and is well known to result in land subsidence. However, most surveys dedicated to land subsidence focus on one single city, mainly Mexico City, and thus fail to provide a comprehensive picture of the problem. Here we use a space-based radar remote sensing technique, known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to detect land subsidence in the entire central Mexico area. We used data from the Japanese satellite ALOS, processed over 600 SAR images acquired between 2007-2011 and produced over 3000 interferograms to cover and area of 200,000 km2 in central Mexico. We identify land subsidence in twenty-one areas, including seventeen cities, namely from east to west, Puebla, Mexico city, Toluca de Lerdo, Queretaro, San Luis de la Paz, south of San Luis de la Paz, Celaya, south of Villa de Reyes, San Luis Potosi, west of Villa de Arista, Morelia, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon, Aguascalientes, north of Aguascalientes, Zamora de Hidalgo, Guadalajara, Ahuacatlan, and Tepic. Subsidence rates of 30 cm/yr are observed in Mexico City, while in the other locations typical rates of 5-10 cm/yr are noticed. Regional surveys of this type are necessary for the development of hazard mitigation plans and efficient use of ground-based monitoring. We additionally correlate subsidence with land use, surface geology, and faults distribution and suggest that groundwater extraction for agricultural, urban, and industrial uses are the main causes of land subsidence. We also reveal that the limits of the subsiding areas often correlate with existing faults, motion on these faults being driven by water extraction rather than by tectonic activity. In all the subsiding locations we observe high ground velocity gradients emphasizing the significant risks associated with land subsidence in central Mexico. Averaged 2007-2011 ground velocity map from ALOS InSAR time-series in central Mexico, revealing land subsidence in 21 locations. The color scale shows red colors as subsidence and blue colors as uplift. The emplacement of subsiding cities are shown by black diamonds and labeled for reference, the ones included in the UNESCO World Heritage list are shown with an asterisk.

Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Amelung, F.; Cabral-Cano, E.

2013-05-01

352

Source mechanisms of the 2000 earthquake swarm in the West Bohemia/Vogtland region (Central Europe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earthquake swarm of magnitudes up to ML = 3.2 occurred in the region of West Bohemia/Vogtland (border area between Czech Republic and Germany) in autumn 2000. This swarm consisted of nine episodic phases and lasted 4 months. We retrieved source mechanisms of 102 earthquakes with magnitudes between ML = 1.6 and 3.2 applying inversion of the peak amplitudes of direct P and SH waves, which were determined from ground motion seismograms. The investigated events cover the whole swarm activity in both time and space. We use data from permanent stations of seismic network WEBNET and from temporal stations, which were deployed in the epicentral area during the swarm; the number of stations varied from 7 to 18. The unconstrained moment tensor (MT) expression of the mechanism, which describes a general system of dipoles, that is both double-couple (DC) and non-DC sources, was applied. MTs of each earthquake were estimated by inversion of three different sets of data: P-wave amplitudes only, P- and SH-wave amplitudes and P-wave amplitudes along with the SH-wave amplitudes from a priori selected four `base' WEBNET stations, the respective MT solutions are nearly identical for each event investigated. The resultant mechanisms of all events are dominantly DCs with only insignificant non-DC components mostly not exceeding 10 per cent. We checked reliability of the MTs in jackknife trials eliminating some data; we simulated the mislocation of hypocentre or contaminated the P- and SH-wave amplitudes by accidental errors. These tests proved stable and well constrained MT solutions. The massive dominance of the DC in all investigated events implies that the 2000 swarm consisted of a large number of pure shears along a fault plane. The focal mechanisms indicate both oblique-normal and oblique-thrust faulting, however, the oblique-normal faulting prevails. The predominant strikes and dips of the oblique-normal events fit well the geometry of the main fault plane Nový Kostel (NK) and also match the strike, dip and rake of the largest ML = 4.6 earthquake of a strong swarm in 1985/86. On the contrary, the 2000 source mechanisms differ substantially from those of the 1997-swarm (which took place in two fault segments at the edge of the main NK fault plane) in both the faulting and the content of non-DC components. Further, we found that the scalar seismic moment M0 is related to the local magnitude ML used by WEBNET as M0 ? 101.12ML, which differs from the scaling law using moment magnitude Mw, that is M0 ? 101.5Mw.

Horálek, Josef; Šílený, Jan

2013-08-01

353

Regional metamorphism in the Condrey Mountain Quadrangle, north-central Klamath Mountains, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A subcircular area of about 650 km 2 in northern California and southwestern Oregon is occupied by rocks of the greenschist metamorphic facies called the Condrey Mountain Schist. This greenschist terrane is bordered on the east and west by rocks belonging to the amphibolite metamorphic facies that structurally overlie and are thrust over the Condrey Mountain Schist. The amphibolite facies is succeeded upward by metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks belonging to the greenschist metamorphic facies. The Condrey Mountain Schist is composed predominantly of quartz-muscovite schist and lesser amounts of actinolite-chlorite schist formed by the metamorphism of graywacke and spilitic volcanic rocks that may have belonged to the Galice Formation of Late Jurassic age. Potassium-argon age determinations of 141?4 m.y. and 155?5 m.y. obtained on these metamorphic rocks seem to be incompatible with the Late Jurassic age usually assigned the Galice. The rocks that border the amphibolite facies are part of an extensive terrane of metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks belonging to the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt. The metavolcanic rocks include some unmetamorphosed spilite but are mostly of the greenschist metamorphic facies composed of oligoclase (An15-20) and actinolite with subordinate amounts of chlorite and clinozoisiteepidote. The interbedded sedimentary rocks are predominantly argillite and slaty argillite, less commonly siliceous argillite and chert, and a few lenticular beds of marble. On the south, high-angle faults and a tabular granitic pluton separate the greenschist metavolcanic terrane from the amphibolite facies rocks; on the east, nonfoliated amphibolite is succeeded upward, apparently conformably, by metasedimentary rocks belonging to the greenschist metavolcanic terrane. In the southern part of Condrey Mountain quadrangle, an outlier of a thrust plate composed of the Stuart Fork Formation overlies the metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. The Stuart Fork in this region is composed of siliceous phyllite and phyllitic quartzite and is believed to be the metamorphosed equivalent of rocks over which it is thrust. In the Yreka-Fort Jones area, potassium-argon determinations on mica from the blueschist facies in the Stuart Fork gave ages of approximately 220 m.y. (Late Triassic) for the age of metamorphism. Rocks of the amphibolite facies structurally overlie the Condrey Mountain Schist along a moderate to steeply dipping thrust fault. The amphibolite terrane is composed of amphibolite and metasedimentary rocks in approximately equal amounts accompanied by many bodies of serpentinite and a number of gabbro and dioritic plutons. Most of the amphibolite is foliated, but some is nonfoliated; the nonfoliated amphibolite has an amphibolite mineralogy and commonly a relict volcanic rock texture. The nonfoliated amphibolite occurs on the southern and eastern borders of the amphibolite terrane between the areas offoliated amphibolite and the overly ing metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Hornblende and plagioclase (An30-35) are the characteristic minerals, indicating that the rocks are of the almandine-amphibolite metamorphic facies. The metasedimentary rocks interbedded with the amphibolites include siliceous schist and phyllite, minor quartzite, and subordinate amounts of marble. Potassium-argon age dates obtained on hornblende from foliated amphibolite yield ages of 146?4 and 148? 4 m.y., suggesting a Late Jurassic metamorphic episode. Mafic and ultramafic rocks are widespread in the amphibolite terrane but are almost entirely absent from the area of greenschist facies metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. The ultramafic rocks, predominantly serpentinite, occur as a few large bodies and many small tabular concordant bodies interleaved with the foliated rocks. The ultramafic rocks include harzburgite and d1lIlite and their serpentinized equivalents. In the Condrey Mountain quadrangle, probably more t

Hotz, Preston Enslow

1979-01-01

354

Theoretical investigation into the feasibility to deposit RF energy centrally in the head-and-neck region  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the ability to deposit radiofrequency energy centrally in the neck as a function of antenna positions, number of antennas, and operating frequency. Methods and Materials: Power absorption (PA) distributions in a realistic model of the head-and-neck anatomy are calculated in which the head model is irradiated by an array of dipole antennas. The relative PA distributions corresponding to different setups are visualized and analyzed using the ratio of the average PA (aPA) in the target and neck region. Results: Both the PA distributions and aPA ratios indicate an optimal focusing ability of the setups (i.e., the ability to direct energy efficiently into the target region), between 400 and 600 MHz. In this frequency band, the focusing ability depends only moderately on the size of the neck. Finally, it is found that the focusing ability at 433 MHz is increased significantly by increasing the number of antenna elements. Conclusions: The optimal frequency is found to be highly dependent on the size of the target volume; thus, a single optimum is hard to define. However, future clinical research will focus on 433 MHz based on the optimal range of frequencies, as found in this study.

Paulides, Margarethus M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Unit Hyperthermia, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: M.Paulides@ErasmusMC.nl; Vossen, Stefan H.J.A. [Netherlands Organisation of Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Defence, Security, and Safety, The Hague (Netherlands); Zwamborn, Adrianus P.M. [Netherlands Organisation of Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Defence, Security, and Safety, The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetics Effects Chair, Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), Eindhoven (Netherlands); Rhoon, Gerard C. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Unit Hyperthermia, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

2005-10-01

355

Mutation status and immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in patients from northwest and central region of Spain with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and mutation status of the immunoglobulin heavy variable chain (IGHV) in a cohort of 224 patients from northwest and central region of Spain diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and to correlate it with cytogenetic abnormalities, overall survival (OS) and time to first treatment (TTFT). 125 patients had mutated IGHV, while 99 had unmutated IGHV. The most frequently used IGHV family was IGHV3, followed by IGHV1 and IGHV4. The regions IGHV3-30, IGHV1-69, IGHV3-23, and IGHV4-34 were the most commonly used. Only 3.1% of the patients belonged to the subfamily IGHV3-21 and we failed to demonstrate a worse clinical outcome in this subgroup. The IGHV4 family appeared more frequently with mutated pattern, similar to IGHV3-23 and IGHV3-74. By contrast, IGHV1-69 was expressed at a higher frequency in unmutated CLL patients. All the cases from IGHV3-11 and almost all from IGHV5-51 subfamily belonged to the group of unmutated CLL. PMID:24790994

González-Gascón Y Marín, I; Hernández, J A; Martín, A; Alcoceba, M; Sarasquete, M E; Rodríguez-Vicente, A; Heras, C; de Las Heras, N; Fisac, R; García de Coca, A; de la Fuente, I; Hernández-Sánchez, M; Recio, I; Galende, J; Martín-Núñez, G; Alonso, J M; Hernández-Rivas, J M; González, M

2014-01-01

356

Planning report for the Edwards-Trinity Regional Aquifer-System analysis in central Texas, Southeast Oklahoma, and Southwest Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Edwards-Trinity regional aquifer system supplies more than 0.78 million acre-ft/yr (700 million gal/day) of water for central Texas and small adjacent parts of southeast Oklahoma and southwest Arkansas. Current (1986) and future concerns about the aquifer system involve the ever-increasing demand for water, most of which is associated with rapid population increases. Decreases in, or elimination of, spring discharges and encroachment of water from downdip saline water zones into updip freshwater zones are of primary concern in the area underlain by the Edwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifer. Water level declines of several hundred ft in the Trinity aquifer are a serious concern in some metropolitan areas. The Edwards-Trinity regional aquifer-system analysis project, begun in October 1985 and scheduled to be completed by October 1991, is one of a series of similar projects being conducted nationwide. The project is intended to define the geohydrologic framework, and to describe the geochemistry and groundwater flow of the aquifer system in order to provide a better understanding of the system 's long-term water yielding potential. A multidisciplinary approach will be used in which computer-based digital simulation of flow in the system will be the principal method of geohydrologic investigation. (Author 's abstract)

Bush, P.W.

1986-01-01

357

Fourier Decomposition of RR Lyrae light curves and the SX Phe population in the central region of NGC 3201  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CCD time-series observations of the central region of the globular cluster NGC 3201 were obtained with the aim of performing the Fourier decomposition of the light curves of the RR Lyrae stars present in that field. This procedure gave the mean values, for the metallicity, of [Fe/H] [ZW] = - 1.483±0.006 (statistical) ±0.090 (systematic), and for the distance, 5.000±0.001 kpc (statistical) ±0.220 (systematic). The values found from two RRc stars are consistent with those derived previously. The differential reddening of the cluster was investigated and individual reddenings for the RR Lyrae stars were estimated from their V - I curves. We found an average value of E(B - V) = 0.23±0.02. An investigation of the light curves of stars in the blue straggler region led to the discovery of three new SX Phe stars. The period-luminosity relation of the SX Phe stars was used for an independent determination of the distance to the cluster and of the individual reddenings. We found a distance of 5.0 kpc.

Arellano Ferro, A.; Ahumada, J. A.; Calderón, J. H.; Kains, N.

2014-10-01

358

A Compilation of Provisional Karst Geospatial Data for the Interior Low Plateaus Physiographic Region, Central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geospatial data needed to visualize and evaluate the hydrogeologic framework and distribution of karst features in the Interior Low Plateaus physiographic region of the central United States were compiled during 2004-2007 as part of the Ground-Water Resources Program Karst Hydrology Initiative (KHI) project. Because of the potential usefulness to environmental and water-resources regulators, private consultants, academic researchers, and others, the geospatial data files created during the KHI project are being made available to the public as a provisional regional karst dataset. To enhance accessibility and visualization, the geospatial data files have been compiled as ESRI ArcReader data folders and user interactive Published Map Files (.pmf files), all of which are catalogued by the boundaries of surface watersheds using U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) eight-digit hydrologic unit codes (HUC-8s). Specific karst features included in the dataset include mapped sinkhole locations, sinking (or disappearing) streams, internally drained catchments, karst springs inventoried in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database, relic stream valleys, and karst flow paths obtained from results of previously reported water-tracer tests.

Taylor, Charles J.; Nelson, Hugh L.

2008-01-01

359

Local seismicity observed by a temporal network in the Villarrica-Valdivia region, South-Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the processes behind subduction-related hazards is an important responsibility and major challenge for Earth scientists. Few areas demonstrate this as clearly as south-central Chile, where the largest instrumentally-recorded earthquake occurred (the 1960 Mw 9.5 Valdivia earthquake) in the same region as one of South America's most active volcanoes, Villarrica. The geometry and geophysical characteristics of the subduction system are well constrained north of 39°S, but not further south where the 1960 coseismic slip was greatest. This region has long been considered a seismic gap due to the scarcity of local earthquakes registered in this region both by international networks (IRIS-NEIC) and the Chilean National Seismological Service (SSN). In the framework of the collaborative research centre SFB 574, the south-central Chilean subduction zone is investigated by a seismological subproject conducted by Chilean, Argentinian and German partners. This study presents results from a seismicity study based on a temporal local network of 55 stations between 39° and 40°S, covering the area from the coast to the back-arc in Argentina. The network was installed in November 2008 and ran for one full year, consisting of 40 short-period seismometers and 15 broad-band stations. The registered seismicity was significantly higher than expected, with more than 1000 observed events out of which about 300 earthquakes were localized in the area covered by the network. The plate interface where the 1960 slip occurred is free of seismicity. At greater depths, the Wadati-Benioff-Zone can be clearly observed down to depths of about 160 km with a dip angle of about 30°; some indication for a double Benioff-zone at shallower depths (ca. 60 km) is also found. In the continental crust, seismicity is observed related to local fault structures and the active volcanoes. Some clusters of seismicity are located offshore, possibly delineating fault structures in the incoming oceanic plate. In the vicinity of the trench, a large number of events is recorded, and focal mechanisms will be presented.

Dzierma, Y.; Thorwart, M. M.; Siegmund, C.; Rabbel, W.; Comte, D.; Bataille, K.; Iglesia, M.; Prezzi, C.

2010-12-01

360

Functional interpretation of representative soil spatial-temporal variability at the Central region of European territory of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The essential spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest and forest-steppe soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis, modeling and functional-ecological interpretation of representative soil cover patterns spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from scientific society, private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. On basis of long-term different-scale soil mapping, key plot investigation, land quality and land-use evaluation, soil forming and degradation processes modeling, functional-ecological typology of the zonal set of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) has been done in representative natural and man transformed ecosystems of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones at the Central region of European territory of Russia (ETR). The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of functional quality and ecological state have been made for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of local GIS, traditional regression kriging and correlation tree models. Development, zonal-regional differentiation and verification of the basic set of criteria and algorithms for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature forests mutual for them the windthrow impacts and lateral processes make SFPs more active and complex both in soils of windthrow mounds and holes: CO2 emission increases by 30-60 %; proteolytic activities - by 50-200 %, average humification rate exceeds 100-1000 g/m2year, and the rate of aggressive fulvic acid formation - 40-300 g/m2year. The average lessivage rate may reach 2-3 kg*cm/m2year and the rate of oxalate extractable Fe2O3, Al2O3migration is 0.6-1.3 kg*cm/ m2year. Eluvial horizons can go deep on 6-18 cm per 50-150 yeas - depending on depth of initial impacts and on morphogenetic profile of background soil. The carried out analysis of Chernozem regional-typological degradation processes has shown qualitative expansion of their set. The outcomes of statistical modeling show essential amplification of dehumification processes due to current violation of traditional balances of organic matter in agrolandscapes. A drop of humus content below threshold values (4.5-6.5 % for different Chernozems) considerably reduces farming effectiveness. Mean annual rate of humus decreasing and increasing varies from 0.1 up to 1.3 g/kg per year, acidification and alkalization - from 0.01 up to 0.13 dp per year, salinity - from 5 up to 18 mg/kg per year. Succession analysis of modern evolution of natural and man-changed soils essentially increases accuracy of quantitative assessments of dominant SFPs' rate and potential, their influence on landscape and soil cover quality and diversity. Their results allow developing the regional and landscape adapted versions of automated systems of land agroecological evaluation (RASLEV) and demand-driven land-use DSS (LODSSAL).

Vasenev, I.

2012-04-01

361

Convective Distribution of Tropospheric Ozone and Tracers in the Central American ITCZ Region: Evidence from Observations During TC4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Tropical Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment that occurred in July and August of 2007, extensive sampling of active convection in the ITCZ region near Central America was performed from multiple aircraft and satellite sensors. As part of a sampling strategy designed to study cloud processes, the NASA ER-2, WB-57 and DC-8 flew in stacked "racetrack patterns" in convective cells. On July 24, 2007, the ER-2 and DC-8 probed an actively developing storm and the DC-8 was hit by lightning. Case studies of this flight, and of convective outflow on August 5, 2007 reveal a significant anti-correlation between ozone and condensed cloud water content. With little variability in the boundary layer and a vertical gradient, low ozone in the upper troposphere indicates convective transport. Because of the large spatial and temporal variability in surface CO and other pollutants in this region, low ozone is a better convective indicator. Lower tropospheric tracers methyl hydrogen peroxide, total organic bromine and calcium substantiate the ozone results. OMI measurements of mean upper tropospheric ozone near convection show lower ozone in convective outflow. A mass balance estimation of the amount of convective turnover below the tropical tropopause transition layer (TTL) is 50%, with an altitude of maximum convective outflow located between 10 and 11 km, 4 km below the cirrus anvil tops. It appears that convective lofting in this region of the ITCZ is either a two-stage or a rapid mixing process, because undiluted boundary layer air is never sampled in the convective outflow.

Avery, Melody; Twohy, Cynthia; MCabe, David; Joiner, Joanna; Severance, Kurt; Atlas, Eliot; Blake, Donald; Bui, T. P.; Crounse, John; Dibb, Jack; Diskin, Glenn; Lawson, Paul; McGill, Matthew; Rogers, David; Sachse, Glen; Scheuer, Eric; Thompson, Anne M.; Trepte, Charles; Wennberg, Paul; Ziemke, Jerald

2010-01-01

362

Density and magnetic suseptibility values for rocks in the Talkeetna Mountains and adjacent region, south-central Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents a compilation and statistical analysis of 306 density and 706 magnetic susceptibility measurements of rocks from south-central Alaska that were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS) scientists between the summers of 1999 and 2002. This work is a product of the USGS Talkeetna Mountains Transect Project and was supported by USGS projects in the Talkeetna Mountains and Iron Creek region, and by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) projects in the Delta River Mining District that aim to characterize the subsurface structures of the region. These data were collected to constrain potential field models (i.e., gravity and magnetic) that are combined with other geophysical methods to identify and model major faults, terrane boundaries, and potential mineral resources of the study area. Because gravity and magnetic field anomalies reflect variations in the density and magnetic susceptibility of the underlying lithology, these rock properties are essential components of potential field modeling. In general, the average grain density of rocks in the study region increases from sedimentary, felsic, and intermediate igneous rocks, to mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on rock outcrops and hand samples from the study area also reveal lower magnetic susceptibilities for sedimentary and felsic intrusive rocks, moderate susceptibility values for metamorphic, felsic extrusive, and intermediate igneous rocks, and higher susceptibility values for mafic igneous rocks. The density and magnetic properties of rocks in the study area are generally consistent with general trends expected for certain rock types.

Sanger, Elizabeth A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.

2003-01-01

363

Occupational dermatoses caused by contact with metalworking fluids in the region of central slovakia from 2000 to 2012.  

PubMed

Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are a common cause of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. MWFs being currently used are mostly water based, containing biocides, emulsifiers, and other additives. We performed a retrospective analysis of the etiology of the occupational dermatoses caused by metalworking fluids in three regions of Central Slovakia (population of approximately 2 million) between 2000 and 2012. The primary aim was the analysis of metalworking fluid-induced dermatoses, which involved determining the particular disease type (allergic or irritant), its regional distribution, and the specific chemical causing the disease. The secondary aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge and competence among dermatologists in performing patch testing for allergens contained in metalworking fluids using a study-specific questionnaire. Of the total number of 422 dermatoses during the analyzed period, 64 (41 in men and 23 in women) were caused by metalworking fluids. The implicated fluids were all aqueous, synthetic MWFs. 39 patients developed an allergic and 25 an irritant-induced contact dermatitis. 51 patients were tested using a special Trolab® metalworking battery (Almirall Hermal GmbH, Reinbek, Germany). The test identified a positive reaction to one of the following chemicals: methylchoroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), formaldehyde, 1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one, abietic acid, chloroxylenol, triclosan, amerchol L101, dichlorophene, propylenglycol, metylene (bis-methyl oxazolidine), monoethanolamine, and diethanolamine. The questionnaire showed that a large majority of Slovak dermatologists have no experiences with testing of MWFs. Metalworking fluids were found to be the most frequent cause of occupational contact dermatitis. They also are the second largest group of all occupational dermotoses. Their incidence corresponded with the presence of machine industry in the region. Several unresolved problems include detection of specific allergens and standardization of patch test performance among individual dermatologists. Low levels of experience in testing of MWFs revealed need to educate both dermatologists and residents. PMID:25230059

Urban?ek, Slavomir; Kuklová-Bieliková, Marianna; Fetisovová, Želmira; Klimentová, Gabriela; Vil?ek, Rober

2014-01-01

364

Future of water resources in the Aral Sea Region, Central Asia - Reality-checked climate model projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future of water resources in a region invariably depends on its historic as well as present water use management policy. In order to understand the past hydro-climatic conditions and changes, one needs to analyze observation data and their implications for climate and hydrology, such as Temperature, Precipitation, Runoff and Evapotranspiration in the region. In addition to the changes in climate, human re-distribution of water through land- and water­use changes is found to significantly alter the water transfer from land to atmosphere through an increase or decrease in evapotranspiration. The Aral region in Central Asia, comprising the Aral Sea Drainage Basin and the Aral Sea, is an example case where the human induced changes in water-use have led to one of the worst environmental disasters of our time, the desiccation of the Aral Sea. Identification of the historical hydro-climatic changes that have happened in this region and their drivers is required before one can project future changes to water and its availability in the landscape. Knowledge of the future of water resources in the Aral region is needed for planning to meet increasing water and food demands of the growing population in conjunction with ecosystem sustainability. In order to project future scenarios of water on land, the Global Climate Model (GCM) ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) was analyzed for their performance against hydrologically important, basin-scale observational climate and hydrological datasets. We found that the ensemble mean of 22 GCMs over-estimated the observed temperature by about 1°C for the historic period of 1961-1990. For the future extreme climate scenario RCP8.5 the increase in temperature was projected to be about 5°C by 2070-2099, the accuracy of which is questionable from identified biases of GCMs and their ensemble results compared with observations for the period 1961-1990. In particular, the water balance components precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration simulated by the GCM ensemble for the 1961-1990 period yielded an increase in average annual water storage change of 7 mm/year, which for example greatly contradicts the known major drop in Aral Sea water level by 46 mm/year during the same period. Such inadequacies in climate model performance with regard to the system of water on land emphasizes a major need for better representation of that system in climate models. Key words: Climate, Hydrology, Hydro­climate, Aral Sea, Land water, CMIP5, Climate model performance

Asokan, Shilpa M.; Destouni, Georgia

2014-05-01

365

Lower crustal deformation beneath the central Transverse Ranges, southern California: Results from the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a P wave velocity model derived from active source seismic data collected during the 1994 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment. Our model extends previously published upper crustal velocity models to mantle depths. Our model was developed by both ray tracing through a layered model and calculating travel times through a gridded model. It includes an 8-km-thick crustal root centered beneath the surface trace of the San Andreas fault, north of the highest topography in the San Gabriel Mountains. A simple mass balance calculation suggests that ???36 km of north-south shortening across the San Andreas fault in the central Transverse Ranges could have formed this root. If north-south compression began when the "Big Bend" in the San Andreas fault formed at ???5 Ma, 36 km of shortening implies a north-south contraction rate of ???7.1 mm/yr across the central Transverse Ranges. If, instead, north-south compression began when the Transverse Ranges formed at 3.4-3.9 Ma, 36 km of shortening implies a contraction rate of 9.2-10.6 mm/yr. North of the San Andreas fault, the Mojave Desert crust has a low-velocity (6.3 km/s) mid and lower crust and a 28-km-deep Moho. South of the San Andreas fault, beneath the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley basins, there is a fast (6.6-6.8 km/s), thick (10-12 km) lower crust with a 27-km-deep Moho. Farther south still, the lower crust of the Continental Borderland is fast (6.6-6.8 km/s) and thin (5 km) with a shallow (22 km deep) Moho.

Godfrey, N.J.; Fuis, G.S.; Langenheim, V.; Okaya, D.A.

2002-01-01

366

Atmospheric circulation in regional climate models over Central Europe: links to surface air temperature and the influence of driving data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine simulation of atmospheric circulation and links between circulation and daily surface air temperatures in current climate models over Central Europe. Large-scale atmospheric circulation is represented by circulation indices (flow direction, strength and vorticity) derived from mean sea level pressure. We explore control simulations of five 25-km resolution RCMs from the ENSEMBLES project, driven by the ERA-40 re-analysis and the ECHAM5 GCM, and runs of one RCM (RCA) driven by different GCMs. The driving GCMs are investigated as well. The models' performance is compared against the dataset gridded from a high-density stations network (temperature) and the ERA-40 re-analysis (pressure). The aims of the study are (i) to identify errors in simulated distributions of circulation indices in individual seasons, (ii) to identify errors in simulated temperatures under particular circulation indices in winter and summer, and (iii) to compare performance of individual RCMs with respect to the driving data. We find that most of the RCMs qualitatively reflect observed distributions of the airflow indices; however, each produces distributions significantly different from the observations. General biases include overestimation of the frequency of strong cyclonic vorticity and of strong flow days. HIRHAM driven by ECHAM5 and RCA driven by BCM are the RCMs with the most distorted atmospheric circulation. Our results show that some circulation biases obviously propagate from the driving data. For example, ECHAM5 and all simulations driven by ECHAM5 underestimate frequency of easterly flow. However, except for HIRHAM, all RCMs driven by ECHAM5 improve on the driving GCM in simulating atmospheric circulation. A set of RCA simulations with different driving data demonstrates that the influence on circulation characteristics in the nested RCM differs between GCMs. We find relatively strong relationships between circulation indices and surface air temperatures in the observed data for Central Europe. The RCMs qualitatively reproduce these relationships, which differ by season and are usually stronger for daily maxima than minima. Our results suggest that the RCM formulation appears to be more important than the driving data in representing the links to surface temperature. Differences of the circulation-to-temperature links among the RCA simulations are smaller and the links tend to be more realistic compared to the driving GCMs. Plavcová E., Kyselý J., 2012: Atmospheric circulation in regional climate models over Central Europe: links to surface air temperature and the influence of driving data. Climate Dynamics [10.1007/s00382-011-1278-8.

Plavcová, E.; Kyselý, J.

2012-04-01

367

Changes in Central European Soil Moisture Availability and Atmospheric Circulation Patterns between 1875 and 2005 - Regional Climate Change in Progress?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relationships between the soil moisture availability and the atmospheric circulation in Central Europe were analyzed for the period 1881-2005. The analysis was based on the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue of circulation types (CTs), and a series of weekly self-calibrated Palmer Z-index (scZ-index) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) values at seven stations where high-quality daily data has recently become available. The results show that the large-scale droughts during spring months (MAM) were associated with east (E), south (S), and south- east (SE) circulation types, whereas during summer (JJA) and the whole vegetation season, i.e., April-September (VEG), the Central Europe high pressure systems (HM) and east (E) circulation types were conducive to drought. Statistically significant drying trends were noted at a majority of the stations, especially during MAM and JJA, over the whole period for which the scPDSI and scZ-index series were available (1875-2005). Although almost no statistically significant tendencies were found prior to 1940, a significant tendency towards more intense drought was present at all sites after this year. The largest drying trend was noted during the VEG and AMJ seasons. The overall drying trend might be associated with shifts in the frequency of CTs, especially during AMJ. Although the aggregate frequency of occurrence of drought-conducive CTs (i.e. E, S and HM) remained stable at approximately 30% up to the 1940s, a steady increase to the present 55% frequency is observed afterwards. Higher frequencies of S and HM types drove the observed increase of drought-conducive CTs at the expense of N types that are associated with wet conditions. The long-term shifts in the frequency of circulation types conducive to drought explain more than 50% of the long-term variations of both scZ-index and PDSI values over the territory of the Czech Republic, and they are likely to affect whole central European region as well. Acknowledgement: This study was conducted with support of the 6th FP EU research project CECILIA (no GOCE 037005) and by the Research plan No. MSM6215648905 "Biological and technological aspects of sustainability of controlled ecosystems and their adaptability to climate change", which is financed by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. The weekly drought indicators were parameterized with the help of KONTAKT project no. ME 844.

Trnka, M.; Kysely, J.; Dubrovsky, M.; Mozny, M.; Hostynek, J.; Svoboda, M.; Hayes, M. J.; Zalud, Z.

2007-12-01

368

Reconstruction of anthropogenic eutrophication in the region off the Changjiang Estuary and central Yellow Sea: From decades to centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic activities are known to induce estuarine and coastal eutrophication. However, the eutrophication history over a longer time scale (e.g., over hundreds of years) is often missing, and this perspective is important for an objective assessment of recent-decades anthropogenic activities. To reconstruct eutrophication history in this region, two sediment cores were taken, core E4 in the region off the Changjiang Estuary in the coast of East China Sea, and core E2 in the central Yellow Sea. High sedimentation rate (3.8 cm/yr) of core E4 enabled us to reconstruct a detailed anthropogenic eutrophication history for the past 70 years, while the history at least back to 1855 was further revealed via core E2. Sedimentary nitrogen isotopes (?15N) in core E4 showed a gradually depleting trend from 5‰ (1930s) to 3.8‰ in the top, which is consistent with the increasing riverine nitrogen flux over the past few decades. A negative relationship was found between total sedimentary Chla (=preserved chlorophyll a+its degradation products) and ?15N (r2=0.68), suggesting the promotion of estuarine productivity by chemical fertilizer-N. Preserved diagnostic pigments ratio (peridinin/fucoxanthin) further suggests that after 1995, the influence of dinoflagellates has been increasing compared to diatoms. At a longer time scale (i.e., core E2), sedimentary ?15N also decreased from 5.1‰ (before 1855) to 4.4‰ (at top layer). As normalized fossil cyanobacterial pigment (zeaxanthin) showed a decreasing trend from before 1855 to the top of the core, we propose that the decreasing sedimentary ?15N after 1855 was not due to assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen, but due to excess nutrients input to the central Yellow Sea, which promoted primary production. This is further proved by preserved pheopigments, which continuously increased from 41.7 nmol g OC-1 (before 1855) to 251 nmol g OC-1 (at top layer) in core E2. Besides revealing the eutrophication history, big history events were also recorded, including the 1998 flood of the Changjiang River (core E4) and the shift of the Yellow River mouth in 1855 (core E2).

Zhu, Zhuo-Yi; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Du, Jin-Zhou; Zhang, Guo-Sen

2014-01-01

369

An assessment of the feasibility of the use of satellite-only rainfall estimates for the hydrological monitoring in central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for accurate distributed hydrological modelling has constantly increased in last years for several purposes: agricultural applications, water resources management, hydrological balance at watershed scale, floods forecast. The main input for the hydrological numerical models is rainfall data that present, at the same time, a large availability of measures (in gauged regions, with respect to other micro-meteorological variables) and the most complex spatial patterns. While also in presence of densely gauged watersheds the spatial interpolation of the rainfall is a non-trivial problem, due to the spatial intermittence of the variable (especially at finer temporal scales), ungauged regions need an alternative source of rainfall data in order to perform the hydrological modelling. Such source can be constituted by the satellite-estimated rainfall fields, with reference to both geostationary and polar-orbit platforms. In this work the rainfall product obtained by the Aqua-AIRS sensor were used in order to assess the feasibility of the use of satellite-based rainfall as input for distributed hydrological modelling. The MOBIDIC (MOdello di BIlancio Distribuito e Continuo) model, developed at the Department of civil and Environmental Engineering of the University of Florence and operationally used by Tuscany Region and Umbria Region for flood prediction and management, was used for the experiments. In particular three experiments were carried on: a) hydrological simulation with the use of rain-gauges data, b) simulation with the use of satellite-only rainfall estimates, c) simulation with the combined use of the two sources of data in order to obtain an optimal estimate of the actual rainfall fields. The domain of the study was the central Italy. Several critical events occurred in the area were analyzed. A discussion of the results is provided.

Campo, Lorenzo; Caparrini, Francesca

2013-04-01

370

Variation and control of soil organic carbon and other nutrients in permafrost regions on central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation and control of soil organic carbon (SOC) and other nutrients in permafrost regions are critical for studying the carbon cycle and its potential feedbacks to climate change; however, they are poorly understood. Soil nutrients samples at depths of 0–10, 10–20, 20–30, and 30–40 cm, were sampled eight times in 2009 in alpine swamp meadow, alpine meadow and alpine steppe in permafrost regions of the central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. SOC and total nitrogen (TN) in the alpine swamp meadow and meadow decreased with soil depth, whereas the highest SOC content in the alpine steppe was found at depths of 20–30 cm. The vertical profiles of total and available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were relatively uniform for all the three grassland types. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that soil moisture (SM) was the most important parameter for the vertical variation of SOC and other soil nutrients, and that belowground biomass (BGB) was the main source of SOC and TN. The spatial variations (including seasonal variation) of SOC and TN at plot scale were large. The relative deviation of SOC ranged from 7.18 to 41.50 in the alpine swamp meadow, from 2.88 to 35.91 in the alpine meadow, and from 9.33 to 68.38 in the alpine steppe. The spatial variations in the other soil nutrients varied among different grassland types. The most important factors for spatial variations (including seasonal variation) of SOC, TN, total P, available P, and both total and available K were: SM, SM and temperature, SM, air temperature, and SM and BGB, respectively. The large variation in the three grassland types implies that spatial variation at plot scale should be considered when estimating SOC storage and its dynamics.

Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Shengyun; Zhao, Qian; Sun, Zhizhong; Ren, Jiawen; Qin, Dahe

2014-11-01

371

Questionnaire-based survey on the clinical management of canine leishmaniosis in the Madrid region (central Spain).  

PubMed

This paper describes a questionnaire designed to gain information on how veterinarians clinically manage canine leishmaniosis (CanL) in the Madrid region (central Spain). The present survey is one of the several similar questionnaire-based surveys conducted within the framework of the project EDEN (Emerging Diseases in a changing European eNvironment). The questionnaire sought to obtain data regarding the main clinical manifestations observed, the diagnostic methods used and the preventive measures recommended. Its Spanish version was sent by post to veterinary practitioners within the study area in two lots, one sent out in December 2006 and the other in March 2007. Only 174 of the 760 questionnaires sent were completed and returned (reply rate of 23%). Among the completed questionnaires, clinics differed widely in terms of features such as the habitats of the dogs (urban, peri-urban or rural) and patient volumes. Clinics attending dogs from peri-urban/rural habitats reported more suspected (p<0.001), confirmed (p=0.001) and newly diagnosed (p=0.001) cases/year than clinics providing service to a city clientele alone. According to the veterinary practitioners, skin lesions, lymphadenomegaly and weight loss were commonly observed, although these signs are not specific to CanL. Signs described to be of high diagnostic value were epistaxis and kidney disease. All the veterinarians polled reported that a suspicion of Leishmania infantum infection was confirmed by at least a serological method; the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) being the technique most used. To prevent the disease, most vets recommended topical synthetic pyrethroids applied as impregnated collars or spot-ons. It is observed that despite considerable progress is being made in clinical management and controlling the disease, in Madrid Region its incidence continues to increase. PMID:21821298

Gálvez, R; Miró, G; Descalzo, M A; Molina, R

2011-10-01

372

Chronic intermittent hypoxia increases blood pressure and expression of FosB/DeltaFosB in central autonomic regions.  

PubMed

Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) models repetitive bouts of arterial hypoxemia that occur in humans suffering from obstructive sleep apnea. CIH has been linked to persistent activation of arterial chemoreceptors and the renin-angiotensin system, which have been linked to chronic elevations of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Because Fos and FosB are transcription factors involved in activator protein (AP)-1 driven central nervous system neuronal adaptations, this study determined if CIH causes increased Fos or FosB staining in brain regions that regulate SNA and autonomic function. Male Sprague Dawley rats were instrumented with telemetry transmitters for continuous recording of MAP and heart rate (HR). Rats were exposed to continuous normoxia (CON) or to CIH for 8 h/day for 7 days. CIH increased MAP by 7-10 mmHg without persistently affecting HR. A separate group of rats was killed 1 day after 7 days of CIH for immunohistochemistry. CIH did not increase Fos staining in any brain region examined. Staining for FosB/?FosB was increased in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (CON: 9 ± 1; CIH: 34 ± 3 cells/section), subfornical organ (CON: 7 ± 2; CIH: 31 ± 3), median preoptic nucleus (CON 15 ± 1; CIH: 38 ± 3), nucleus of the solitary tract (CON: 9 ± 2; CIH: 28 ± 4), A5 (CON: 3 ± 1; CIH: 10 ± 1), and rostral ventrolateral medulla (CON: 5 ± 1; CIH: 17 ± 2). In the paraventricular nucleus, FosB/?FosB staining was located mainly in the dorsal and medial parvocellular subnuclei. CIH did not increase FosB/?FosB staining in caudal ventrolateral medulla or supraoptic nucleus. These data indicate that CIH induces an increase in FosB/?FosB in autonomic nuclei and suggest that AP-1 transcriptional regulation may contribute to stable adaptive changes that support chronically elevated SNA. PMID:21543638

Knight, W David; Little, Joel T; Carreno, Flavia R; Toney, Glenn M; Mifflin, Steven W; Cunningham, J Thomas

2011-07-01

373

Notes on the Deformation Penetration Induced by Subductions and Collision Processes: Seismic Anisotropy Beneath the Adria Region (central Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic anisotropy studies help to sketch mantle deformation and related geodynamic processes. Adria is a small region in the Central Mediterranean surrounded by three mountain belts (the Alps, the Apennines and the Dinarides) generated by a long evolution of different subduction and collisional systems. We present 253 new shear wave splitting measurements obtained studying more than 100 teleseismic events for 12 seismographic stations. These data confirm that around the Adria microplate, most of the mantle has been deeply deformed by subduction processes. In its northern part, the anisotropy pattern follows the arcuate shape of the Alps, and the same occurs along the Apennines, following a NW-SE direction, but with a sudden change in the Adria foreland. This lateral variation has been analyzed to identify a distinct Adria mantle pattern, which is NE-SW along the western side of the microplate and N-S at Trieste (NE-Italy). This is interpreted as the traces left in the mantle by a drag effect due to the counterclockwise rotation of Adria, and this hypothesis is supported by GPS data. All SKS splitting measurements taken around Adria demonstrate the real 3D complexity of the upper mantle of this region. We interpret them as related to mantle flows induced by subduction processes, of which the one that generated the Alps is more efficient than its Apennine counterpart, deforming a larger volume of mantle. Moreover, the mantle flow we draw requires the existence of an escape route beneath the Alps-Apennines transition, as required by other previously suggested geodynamic models and as seen by some tomographic studies, through which the merged mantle flows of the Alps and the Apennines feed together the circulation in the Tyrrhenian mantle system.

Salimbeni, S.; Pondrelli, S.; Margheriti, L.

2013-12-01

374

Fine Epitope Mapping of the Central Immunodominant Region of Nucleoprotein from Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV)  

PubMed Central

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), a severe viral disease known to have occurred in over 30 countries and distinct regions, is caused by the tick-borne CCHF virus (CCHFV). Nucleocapsid protein (NP), which is encoded by the S gene, is the primary antigen detectable in infected cells. The goal of the present study was to map the minimal motifs of B-cell epitopes (BCEs) on NP. Five precise BCEs (E1, 247FDEAKK252; E2a, 254VEAL257; E2b, 258NGYLNKH264; E3, 267EVDKA271; and E4, 274DSMITN279) identified through the use of rabbit antiserum, and one BCE (E5, 258NGYL261) recognized using a mouse monoclonal antibody, were confirmed to be within the central region of NP and were partially represented among the predicted epitopes. Notably, the five BCEs identified using the rabbit sera were able to react with positive serum mixtures from five sheep which had been infected naturally with CCHFV. The multiple sequence alignment (MSA) revealed high conservation of the identified BCEs among ten CCHFV strains from different areas. Interestingly, the identified BCEs with only one residue variation can apparently be recognized by the positive sera of sheep naturally infected with CCHFV. Computer-generated three-dimensional structural models indicated that all the antigenic motifs are located on the surface of the NP stalk domain. This report represents the first identification and mapping of the minimal BCEs of CCHFV-NP along with an analysis of their primary and structural properties. Our identification of the minimal linear BCEs of CCHFV-NP may provide fundamental data for developing rapid diagnostic reagents and illuminating the pathogenic mechanism of CCHFV. PMID:25365026

Liu, Dongliang; Li, Yang; Zhao, Jing; Deng, Fei; Duan, Xiaomei; Kou, Chun; Wu, Ting; Li, Yijie; Wang, Yongxing; Ma, Ji; Yang, Jianhua; Hu, Zhihong; Zhang, Fuchun; Zhang, Yujiang; Sun, Surong

2014-01-01

375

Chronic intermittent hypoxia increases blood pressure and expression of FosB/?FosB in central autonomic regions  

PubMed Central

Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) models repetitive bouts of arterial hypoxemia that occur in humans suffering from obstructive sleep apnea. CIH has been linked to persistent activation of arterial chemoreceptors and the renin-angiotensin system, which have been linked to chronic elevations of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Because Fos and FosB are transcription factors involved in activator protein (AP)-1 driven central nervous system neuronal adaptations, this study determined if CIH causes increased Fos or FosB staining in brain regions that regulate SNA and autonomic function. Male Sprague Dawley rats were instrumented with telemetry transmitters for continuous recording of MAP and heart rate (HR). Rats were exposed to continuous normoxia (CON) or to CIH for 8 h/day for 7 days. CIH increased MAP by 7–10 mmHg without persistently affecting HR. A separate group of rats was killed 1 day after 7 days of CIH for immunohistochemistry. CIH did not increase Fos staining in any brain region examined. Staining for FosB/?FosB was increased in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (CON: 9 ± 1; CIH: 34 ± 3 cells/section), subfornical organ (CON: 7 ± 2; CIH: 31 ± 3), median preoptic nucleus (CON 15 ± 1; CIH: 38 ± 3), nucleus of the solitary tract (CON: 9 ± 2; CIH: 28 ± 4), A5 (CON: 3 ± 1; CIH: 10 ± 1), and rostral ventrolateral medulla (CON: 5 ± 1; CIH: 17 ± 2). In the paraventricular nucleus, FosB/?FosB staining was located mainly in the dorsal and medial parvocellular subnuclei. CIH did not increase FosB/?FosB staining in caudal ventrolateral medulla or supraoptic nucleus. These data indicate that CIH induces an increase in FosB/?FosB in autonomic nuclei and suggest that AP-1 transcriptional regulation may contribute to stable adaptive changes that support chronically elevated SNA. PMID:21543638

Knight, W. David; Little, Joel T.; Carreno, Flavia R.; Toney, Glenn M.; Mifflin, Steven W.

2011-01-01

376

THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE BARRED SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 1097 PROBED BY AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect

With the Infrared Camera on board AKARI, we carried out near-infrared (2.5-5.0 {mu}m) spectroscopy of the central kiloparsec region of the barred spiral galaxy, NGC 1097, categorized as Seyfert 1 with a circumnuclear starburst ring. Our observations mapped the area of {approx}50'' Multiplication-Sign 10'' with the resolution of {approx}5'', covering about a half of the ring and the galactic center. As a result, we spatially resolve the starburst ring in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 3.3 {mu}m, the aliphatic hydrocarbon 3.4-3.6 {mu}m features, and the hydrogen Br{alpha} 4.05 {mu}m emission. They exhibit spatial distributions significantly different from each other, indicating that the environments vary considerably around the ring. In particular, the aliphatic features are enhanced near the bar connecting the ring with the nucleus, where the structure of hydrocarbon grains seems to be relatively disordered. Near the center, the continuum emission and the CO/SiO absorption features are strong, which indicates that the environments inside the ring are dominated by old stellar populations. The near-infrared spectra do not show any evidence for the presence of nuclear activity.

Kondo, Toru; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Oyabu, Shinki; Ishihara, Daisuke; Mori, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Suzuki, Toyoaki, E-mail: kondo@u.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

2012-05-20

377

Groundwater quality and management in arid and semi-arid regions: Case study, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a model budget for groundwater in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The stable isotopic composition and hydrochemistry of groundwater samples collected from different aquifers were determined to identify recharge sources and water quality. Stable isotopic values suggest that shallow alluvial and fracture zone aquifers are recharged from seasonal precipitation, while groundwater in deeper sedimentary sub-basins is paleowater that was recharged during periods of less arid regional climate. Hydrochemical analysis indicates elevated salinity in each aquifer type, which is attributed to leaching and dissolution of terrestrial salts and to mixing with marine water. Groundwater from sedimentary sub-basin aquifers can be treated and used for drinking and domestic purposes. Groundwater from shallow alluvial and fracture zone wells is suitable for animal husbandry and mineral ore dressing. A model water budget shows that approximately 4.8 × 109 m3 of recoverable groundwater is stored in sedimentary sub-basin aquifers, or approximately 550 years of water at present utilization rates.

Amer, Reda; Ripperdan, Robert; Wang, Tao; Encarnación, John

2012-07-01

378

Applicability of a monoclonal antibody-based dipstick in diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis in the Central Region of Ghana.  

PubMed

Summary We tested a rapid visually read monoclonal antibody (MoAb) based dipstick assay for specific diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis against microscopy and the use of haematuria and proteinuria in a schistosomiasis haematobia endemic area in the Central Region of Ghana. The study group consisted of 141 school children (83 males, 58 females) aged 8-19 years. A total of 129 of 141 (91.5%) submitted stool samples, and 7.8% had Schistosoma mansoni, 55% had hookworms and 6.2% had tapeworms. The presence of S. mansoni and intestinal parasites did not appear to influence the results of the MoAb-dipstick assay. The urinary schistosomiasis prevalence by MoAb-dipstick (78%) was higher (P < 0.05) than the estimate by microscopy (60.3%), microhaematuria (27%) and proteinuria (30.5%). The MoAb-dipstick correctly identified 98.8% of microscopically confirmed cases and missed one (1.3%). The dipstick was also positive for 26 of 56 (46.4%) egg-negative individuals, thereby giving a sensitivity of 98.8% and a specificity of 53.6%. On the other hand, microhaematuria and proteinuria were 38.8% and 30.6% sensitive, and 91.1% and 69.6% specific, respectively. Microhaematuria and proteinuria were less sensitive (P < 0.05) than both microscopy and MoAb-dipstick. PMID:15361112

Bosompem, Kwabena M; Owusu, Osei; Okanla, E O; Kojima, Somei

2004-09-01

379

Surface mining and reclamation effects on flood response of watersheds in the central Appalachian Plateau region - article no. W04407  

SciTech Connect

Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km{sup 2} watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

Ferrari, J.R.; Lookingbill, T.R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P.A.; Eshleman, K.N. [University of Maryland, Frostburg, MD (United States)

2009-04-15

380

The effects of long-term grazing exclosures on range plants in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey.  

PubMed

Over the last fifty years, almost half of the steppe rangeland in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey (CAR) has been converted to cropland without an equivalent reduction in grazing animals. This shift has led to heavy grazing pressure on rangeland vegetation. A study was initiated in June 2003 using 6 multiscale Modified-Whittaker plots to determine differences in plant composition between areas that have not been grazed in 27 years with neighboring grazed plant communities. A total of 113 plant species were identified in the study area with the ungrazed plots containing 32 plants more than the grazed plots. The major species were Astragalus acicularis, Bromus tomentellus, Festuca valesiaca, Genista albida, Globularia orientalis, Poa bulbosa, and Thymus spyleus ssp rosulans. Grazing impacts on forbs were more pronounced than for grasses and shrubs. Based on Jaccard's index, there was only a 37% similarity of plant species between the two treatments. Our study led to four generalizations about the current grazing regime and long-term exclosures in the steppe rangeland around the study area: (1) exclosures will increase species richness, (2) heavy grazing may have removed some plant species, (3) complete protection from grazing for a prolonged period of time after a long history of grazing disturbance may not lead to an increase in desirable plant species with a concomitant improvement in range condition, and (4) research needs to be conducted to determine how these rangelands can be improved. PMID:17203339

Firincio?lu, Hüseyin K; Seefeldt, Steven S; Sahin, Bilal

2007-03-01

381

A longitudinal study of isolated gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region of children aged 6-8 years.  

PubMed

A 2-year longitudinal investigation of isolated gingival recession was undertaken in 42 children aged 6-8 years at the commencement of the study. Gingival inflammation was controlled by supervised tooth brushing or professional plaque control. Mandibular anterior crowding considered to have contributed to the degree of recession was untreated in 11 subjects, while in 13 subjects serial extractions had been undertaken. No attempt was made to correct frenal involvement in those subjects (9) where it might have been considered a contributing etiologic factor. After 2 years, improvement in gingival contour was most apparent in those subjects whose gingival inflammation had been controlled. This was achieved more readily with professional plaque control than with supervised tooth brushing. Improvement in arch alignment and gingival contour was greater in untreated subjects than in those receiving serial extractions. WHen gingival inflammation was controlled evidence of frenal involvement declined. Control of gingival inflammation appears to be the most important factor in the treatment of isolated gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region. PMID:6958683

Powell, R N; McEniery, T M

1982-09-01

382

Characterization of regional carbonaceous particulate matter in Central Texas using combined radiocarbon and organic tracer source apportionment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in Texas can be transported readily among urban, rural and natural areas. Depending upon the season and transport conditions, major Texas cities can readily impact PM loadings in urban and rural areas across the state. To begin to assess the potential impacts of anthropogenic and biogenic sources on carbonaceous aerosol loading in Central Texas, source apportionment modeling is needed. For this study, two rigorous models have been combined to provide better constraints on potential emission sources; organic tracer chemical mass balance modeling and radiocarbon source apportionment have been combined to provide complementary information on primary emission contributions (motor vehicle exhaust and biomass burning) and total fossil vs modern (biogenic plus biomass burning) contributions to carbonaceous PM. Preliminary results indicate more than 50% of carbonaceous PM is from biogenic/biomass burning emissions during the summer study period. Organic tracer CMB will be added to increase specificity in the fossil and modern carbon emission sources (ie. motor vehicle exhaust and biomass burning). This detailed, top-down study can provide crucial constraints for future regional, bottom-up approaches which focus on emissions inventories.

Sheesley, R. J.; Barrett, T.; Nallathamby, P. D.

2012-12-01

383

Carbon Emission from Forest Fires on Scots Pine Logging Sites in the Angara Region of Central Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire and large-scale forest harvesting are the two major disturbances in the Russian boreal forests. Non-recovered logged sites total about a million hectares in Siberia. Logged sites are characterized by higher fire hazard than forest sites due to the presence of generally untreated logging slash (i.e., available fuel) which dries out much more rapidly compared to understory fuels. Moreover, most logging sites can be easily accessed by local population; this increases the risk for fire ignition. Fire impacts on the overstory trees, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation biomass were estimated on 14 logged and unlogged comparison sites in the Lower Angara Region in 2009-2010 as part of the NASA-funded NEESPI project, The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia. Based on calculated fuel consumption, we estimated carbon emission from fires on both logged and unlogged burned sites. Carbon emission from fires on logged sites appeared to be twice that on unlogged sites. Soil respiration decreased on both site types after fires. This reduction may partially offset fire-produced carbon emissions. Carbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions and as a result of anticipated increases in future forest harvesting in Siberia.

Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; McRae, D. J.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Kovaleva, N. M.

2010-12-01

384

The 1997 Umbria-Marche, Italy, earthquake sequence: a first look at the main shocks and aftershocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long sequence of earthquakes, six with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck Central Italy starting on September 26, 1997, causing severe damages and loss of human lives. The seismogenic structure consists of a NW-SE elongated fault zone extending for about 40 km. The focal mechanisms of the largest shocks reveal normal faulting with NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend

A. Amato; R. Azzara; C. Chiarabba; G. B. Cimini; M. Cocco; M. Di Bona; L. Margheriti; S. Mazza; F. Mele; G. Selvaggi; A. Basili; E. Boschi; F. Courboulex; A. Deschamps; S. Gaffet; G. Bittarelli; L. Chiaraluce; D. Piccinini; M. Ripepe

1998-01-01

385

Development and Delivery of Ecologically-based IPM Packages in Central Asia Central Asia Regional IPM Program Year 3 Work plans  

E-print Network

, Tajikistan Dr. Doug Landis, Michigan State University Dr. Mustapha El-Bouhssini, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria Dr countries include Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The technical objectives of the Central Asia and technologies for IPM packages for wheat, potatoes and tomatoes in three host countries (Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan

386

Technical Education and Vocational Training in Central Africa. Feasibility Survey of the Regional Development of Rapid Vocational Training: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, and Gabon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report is the result of a survey requested by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and undertaken by the Organization for Rehabilitation through Training (ORT) of four countries (Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, and Gabon) and a conference on vocational training sponsored by the Economic and Customs…

Organization for Rehabilitation through Training, Geneva (Switzerland).

387

Integrated assessment of a new Waste-to-Energy facility in Central Greece in the context of regional perspectives  

SciTech Connect

The main aim of this study is the integrated assessment of a proposed Waste-to-Energy facility that could contribute in the Municipal Solid Waste Management system of the Region of Central Greece. In the context of this paper alternative transfer schemes for supplying the candidate facility were assessed considering local conditions and economical criteria. A mixed-integer linear programming model was applied for the determination of optimum locations of Transfer Stations for an efficient supplying chain between the waste producers and the Waste-to-Energy facility. Moreover different Regional Waste Management Scenarios were assessed against multiple criteria, via the Multi Criteria Decision Making method ELECTRE III. The chosen criteria were total cost, Biodegradable Municipal Waste diversion from landfill, energy recovery and Greenhouse Gas emissions and the analysis demonstrated that a Waste Management Scenario based on a Waste-to-Energy plant with an adjacent landfill for disposal of the residues would be the best performing option for the Region, depending however on the priorities of the decision makers. In addition the study demonstrated that efficient planning is necessary and the case of three sanitary landfills operating in parallel with the WtE plant in the study area should be avoided. Moreover alternative cases of energy recovery of the candidate Waste-to-Energy facility were evaluated against the requirements of the new European Commission Directive on waste in order for the facility to be recognized as recovery operation. The latter issue is of high significance and the decision makers in European Union countries should take it into account from now on, in order to plan and implement facilities that recover energy efficiently. Finally a sensitivity check was performed in order to evaluate the effects of increased recycling rate, on the calorific value of treated Municipal Solid Waste and the gate fee of the candidate plant and found that increased recycling efforts would not diminish the potential for incineration with energy recovery from waste and neither would have adverse impacts on the gate fee of the Waste-to-Energy plant. In general, the study highlighted the need for efficient planning in solid waste management, by taking into account multiple criteria and parameters and utilizing relevant tools and methodologies into this context.

Perkoulidis, G. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papageorgiou, A., E-mail: giou6@yahoo.g [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Karagiannidis, A. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kalogirou, S. [Waste to Energy Research and Technology Council (Greece)

2010-07-15

388

Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region Despite India's tremendous progress on all fronts after independence in 1947, the fact remains that it is one of the poorest nation in the world in terms of per capita income and energy consumption which is considered to be the gauge of the economic situation of any country. In case of India, it is nearly one tenth of the developed nations. If economic condition of its people is to be raised, then country has to boost its agriculture production which is largely monsoon dependent and to exploit its conventional and unconventional energy sources at a very rapid growth rate. Although, worldwide, 70% of the water that is withdrawn for human use is used for agriculture, 22% for industry and 8% is used for domestic services. But in India which is a low income country, 82% is used for agriculture, 10% for industry and 8% for domestic services. Therefore, India needs new sources of water to reduce the risk of dependency on the monsoon for the Sustainable Development of the country. It is in this connection that the Ambikapur Basin in the Central India has been studied for sustainable water withdrawal. At present, the crops in the Ambikapur region are totally monsoon dependent. However, with the initiatives of the State Government, 25 boreholes in an area of about 25 square kilometers have been drilled up to a depth of 500m and completed in the Gondwana sandstone. The water quality and the discharge rates have been established to sustain the crops of the area which is the only livelihood of the local people , in case the monsoon fails. The hydraulic properties of the aquifer like Transmissivity (T) and the Coefficient of Storage (S) were determined following the graphic method of Jacob and Theis. The rate of discharge (Q) of the pumped well was estimated at 4.05 x 10 to the power 3 cubic meters per second and the values of other parameters like T at the well being 2.5 x 10 to the power 3 square meters per second and, T and S at the piezometric head being 1.56 x 10 to the power 2 square meters per second and 5.8 % respectively. The Interference Tests show that the reservoir is communicable. The measurements of bottom hole pressure indicate that it was always greater than the hydrostatic pressure, therefore, the wells will have a self flow. The residency period of the water in the reservoir comes out to be nearly 30 to 40 years. The reservoir characteristics indicate that the Ambikapur aquifer offers vast water resource worth exploiting the judicious management of which can reduce the dependency of crops on the monsoon and can help a fast sustainable development of the region. Key words : Gondwana sandstone, Aquifer, Transmissivity, Piezometric head, Interference test,

Sharma, S. K.

2009-04-01

389

First survey for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infection in cattle from Central and Southern regions of Portugal using serological and DNA detection methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incidence of bovine babesiosis in Portugal is currently unknown. In this study, a first survey of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina infection in cattle was carried out using blood samples from 406 clinically healthy individuals from different districts from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and a...

390

Investigating Land-Use Effects on Hydrologic Processes and Water Quality in a Complex Karst Hydro-Region of the Central United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A century of watershed studies verify that hydrologic and water quality responses to land-use varies substantially physiographically. In the Oak dominated, Missouri Ozark Karst hydrogeologic region of the Central U.S., catchment studies are needed to validate current forest best management practices (BMPs). Similarly, studies are necessary that quantify urban degraded freshwater resources and disassembled riparian zone form and function. Given

J. A. Hubbart; E. A. Bulliner; G. W. Freeman; P. Chinnasamy; G. W. Hosmer; D. P. Scollan; T. D. Stokely

2009-01-01

391

Food-hoarding behavior of gray squirrels and North American red squirrels in the central hardwoods region: implications for forest regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) has expanded its geographic range into the state of Indiana concurrently with a decline in populations of gray squirrels ( Sciurus carolinensis) throughout portions of the central hardwoods region of the United States that have been converted to intensive agriculture. Red squirrels construct larder hoards and function as seed predators throughout much of

Jacob R. Goheen; Robert K. Swihart

2003-01-01

392

Oligocene subsidence and subsequent erosion in the Arauco forearc basin, south central Chile - a local or more regional uplift event?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to shed further light on the thermal and tectonic development of the coastal Cordillera between 37° and 38° S (the Arauco Peninsula and Isla Santa Maria) using fission-track (FT) thermochronology. Coal is present in Eocene strata at shallow depths in the Arauco basin today, but the timing of the post-Eocene, coal-forming temperature event has been unknown. Vitrinite reflectance (VR) data from wells penetrating the basin reveal maximum paleo-geothermal gradients below 30° C/km , indicating significant sedimentary loading and subsequent erosion (Kuhn et al 2009). The thermal heat flow was probably higher during the Oligocene, both due to the trenchward broadening volcanic arc and an acceleration of the convergence rate between the Nazca and the South American plates that was significantly higher than today. But when was the sedimentary cover thick enough to cause enough heat for coal formation? The Oligocene deposits found on the shelf today are very minor, and the early Miocene deposits on top of truncated Eocene successions contain very little volcanic material. Hence, there is no sedimentological evidence for major Oligocene sedimentary loading of the present-day forearc. In contrast, the Miocene successions are up to 3 km thick in some other basins at the Chilean shelf but only a couple of hundred meters thick and truncated by an angular unconformity, or completely eroded, at the Arauco Peninsula. Here we present apatite FT data for core material from six wells in the basin. A decreasing apatite FT age trend with depth was received for two wells. Additionally, late Oligocene apatite FT ages were obtained for units with late Cretaceous depositional ages in all six wells. Track length distributions confirm that totally annealed samples have been obtained from depths where little or no present-day annealing occurs today nor has occurred in the past. Moreover, inverse modelling of the apatite FT and VR data combined indicates rapid cooling to near-surface temperatures during late Oligocene times. Our apatite FT results constrain the timing of onset of cooling from c 120° C to near-surface temperatures during the late Oligocene. Furthermore, they confirm the hypothesis of an antecedent km-scale sedimentary burial and subsequent erosion (Kuhn et al 2009). However, they are difficult to reconcile with the general belief of a general extensional regime during Oligocene to early Miocene times in the region. Based on our data several questions emerge: What was the age and provenance of the missing sedimentary section? Was the missing section deposited and eroded locally, ie only in the Arauco basin with surroundings, or did it reach a more regional extent along the forearc? Despite available geological archives our thermochronology data forward discussion on a possible cycle of rapid subsidence and subsequent inversion/erosion of an Oligocene forearc basin, similar to the well documented Late Miocene to Pliocene evolution in the area. Another switch from tectonic erosion to accretion could fit the surprisingly stationary nature of the south-central Andean forearc during the Cenozoic. Reference: Kuhn, P. P., Echtler, H., Littke, R. and Alfaro, G., 2009: Thermal basin modelling of the Arauco forearc basin, south central Chile - Heat flow and active margin tectonics. Tectonophysics), doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2009.07.026

Cederbom, Charlotte; Echtler, Helmut; Glodny, Johannes; Melnick, Daniel; Oncken, Onno

2010-05-01

393

Upper-mantle seismic structure beneath SE and Central Brazil from P- and S-wave regional traveltime tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present models for the upper-mantle velocity structure beneath SE and Central Brazil using independent tomographic inversions of P- and S-wave relative arrival-time residuals (including core phases) from teleseismic earthquakes. The events were recorded by a total of 92 stations deployed through different projects, institutions and time periods during the years 1992-2004. Our results show correlations with the main tectonic structures and reveal new anomalies not yet observed in previous works. All interpretations are based on robust anomalies, which appear in the different inversions for P- and S-waves. The resolution is variable through our study volume and has been analyzed through different theoretical test inversions. High-velocity anomalies are observed in the western portion of the São Francisco Craton, supporting the hypothesis that this Craton was part of a major Neoproterozoic plate (San Franciscan Plate). Low-velocity anomalies beneath the Tocantins Province (mainly fold belts between the Amazon and São Francisco Cratons) are interpreted as due to lithospheric thinning, which is consistent with the good correlation between intraplate seismicity and low-velocity anomalies in this region. Our results show that the basement of the Paraná Basin is formed by several blocks, separated by suture zones, according to model of Milani & Ramos. The slab of the Nazca Plate can be observed as a high-velocity anomaly beneath the Paraná Basin, between the depths of 700 and 1200 km. Further, we confirm the low-velocity anomaly in the NE area of the Paraná Basin which has been interpreted by VanDecar et al. as a fossil conduct of the Tristan da Cunha Plume related to the Paraná flood basalt eruptions during the opening of the South Atlantic.

Rocha, Marcelo Peres; Schimmel, Martin; Assumpção, Marcelo

2011-01-01

394

Organic biomarkers to describe the major carbon inputs and cycling of organic matter in the central Great Barrier Reef region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controversy surrounds the sources and transport of land derived pollutants in the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem because there is insufficient knowledge of the mechanism of movement of organic contaminants and the cycling of organic matter in this dynamic system. Thus a sediment and sediment trap study was used to describe the composition of resuspended and surface sediments in the south central Great Barrier Reef and its lagoon. This region is characterised by strong tides (6-8 m at Mackay) and trade winds regularly about 15-20 knots. A series of organic biomarkers detailed the cyclical processes of sediment resuspension, recolonising with marine algae and bacteria, packaging into zooplankton faecal pellets and resettlement to sediments where the organics undergo further diagenesis. With each cycle the inshore sediments are diluted with CaCO 3 reef sediments and moved further offshore with the strong ebb tide currents. This results in transport of land derived materials offshore and little storage of organic materials in the lagoon or reef sediments. These processes were detailed by inorganic measurements such as %CaCO 3 and Al/Ca ratios, and by the compositions of hydrocarbon, sterol, alcohol, and fatty acid lipid fractions. Persistent contaminants such as coal dust from a coastal loading facility can be detected in high concentration inshore and decreasing out to the shelf break at 180 m approximately 40 nautical miles offshore. The normal processes would likely be amplified during cyclonic and other storms. The lipids show the sources of carbon to include diatoms and other phytoplankton, creanaerchaeota, sulfate reducing and other bacteria, land plants including mangrove leaves, plus coal dust and other petroleum contaminants.

Burns, Kathryn; Brinkman, Diane

2011-06-01

395

Subduction in Central Kermadec: Crustal Structures from the Incoming Plate and the Arc- Backarc Region From Wide-Angle Seismics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central part of the 2500-km long Tonga-Kermadec Trench is characterized by the subduction of the Louisville Ridge and unusually large seismicity approximately 200-300 km to the south of this ridge subduction. From this region we show preliminary results which have been derived from the recently acquired interpretation of seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction data. The data were collected along an almost 500-km long transect carried out in April 2007 using the R/V Sonne in order to determine the upper lithospheric structures of the incoming Pacific Plate and the overriding Australian Plate across the Colville and Kermadec Ridges. This transect lies immediately north of Raoul Island, the largest of the Kermadec Islands and which is presently a highly active volcano. This study is part of the MANGO project (Marine Geoscientific Inverstigations on the Input and Output of the Kermadec Subduction Zone) which comprises a 1000-km long working area north of New Zealand's North Island. It covers the transition from subduction of the Hikurangi Plateau in the south to erosive subduction of normal Pacific oceanic crust in the centre and thence accretionary subduction further north. Overall the subduction is accompanied by northward increasing seismicity. The aim of this project is to understand the transition throughout the different regimes, the variation of the structures to explain the accompanying seismicty, and the role and evolution of the stratovolcanoes. This will be achieved by analysing the structures of the sediment, crust and upper mantle and also material transfers from its input and output through subduction zone processes.

Scherwath, M.; Kopp, H.; Flueh, E. R.; Henrys, S. A.

2007-12-01

396

Drainage evolution on the eastern piedmont of Central Apennines (Italy): clues about local tectonics and regional uplift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Apennines chain is divided into main morphostructural domains: from west to east chain, piedmont, coastal and Adriatic area. The landscape features have been developed in a complex geomorphological and geological setting, from Neogene to Quaternary, driven by active tectonics (thrust-related crustal shortening and high-angle normal faulting related crustal extension), regional rock uplift, and surface processes. The piedmont of Abruzzi region is characterized by a low relief hill landscape (i.e. cuesta, mesa, plateau reliefs) on Mio-Plio-Quaternary terrigenous deposits, related to sin-, late-orogenic phases of the Apennines, and by post-orogenic Quaternary marine regressive deposits and fluvial continental deposit. This work is focused on the Pleistocene drainage evolution of the piedmont area and on the comprehension of the role of tectonics, that is an intriguing issue, being this area a key area for the Apennines orogen geodynamics, at the transition between compressional active tectonics areas, towards east (Adriatic), and extensional active tectonic areas, towards west (Apennines chain). Regional morphostructural analysis (based on DEM analysis and remote sensing) shows a general arrangement of the drainage network topography with mostly NE striking rivers, plan abrupt bends (>60°-90°) at the transition between chain and piedmont (i.e. W-E to SW-NE, NW-SE to S-N) and within the piedmont (i.e. S-N to SW-NE, SW-NE to E-W). Major long gradient variation (i.e. knick points, ks high) are located at the transition between chain and piedmont. Secondary long gradient variation are located within the piedmont area in connection with plan bends and are, in many cases, NW-aligned. Quaternary fluvial deposits (basing on field mapping) records drainage evolution since the emersion (Early Pleistocene)of the present piedmont. They are arranged in four to six different order of terraces (from Middle Pleistocene to Holocene), being the first order terrace (Middle Pleistocene) located at the present drainage divides between adjacent basins, recording the onset of the drainage system after the early emersion. Long profile analysis shows a convergent geometry of the terraces, indicating the role of uplift on the drainage development. Local morphostructural analysis (based on field mapping and aerial photo interpretation) shows geomorphological evidence of tectonics (i.e. river bends, straight valleys, hanging and beheaded valleys, counterflow confluences) mostly NW-striking and SW- or WSW-striking. The correlation with fluvial terraces suggests the age of the landforms, outlining the timing of tectonics acting within the piedmont areas (late Middle Pleistocene -early Late Pleistocene). The drainage network of Adriatic piedmont of Central Apennines is the result of the link between streams developed in different morphostructural setting and in different time: remnants of a paleodrainage longitudinal to the chain (developed in the first emension moments, Middle Pleistocene), a main NE-stiking conseguent drainage connected to the regional rock uplift processes (Middle - Late Pleistocene) and a secondary, mainly NW-striking, drainage coming from local, low displacement, extensional tectonics (late Middle Pleistocene -early Late Pleistocene).

Piacentini, T.; Miccadei, E.

2010-12-01

397

Quantitative functional assessment of SOM dynamics in changing land-use and landscape conditions at the Central region of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial ecosystems are a major player in the global and regional carbon cycles acting as carbon stocks and carbon sources. Soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest carbon stock in the most of terrestrial ecosystems.Soil CO2 emission is a predominant terrestrial carbon outflow, including autotrophic respiration of plant roots and heterotrophic microbial respiration. The capacity for carbon sequestration is widely accepted as a principal soil ecological function. Soil respiration is assumed as an important carbon source, included in the studies, assessing carbon budget in changing land-use and landscape conditions. The Central region of the European territory of Russia is especially interested for this kind of researches due to essential original spatial heterogeneity of its forest and forest-steppe soils and landscapes that has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions as a results of past century environmental changes and human impacts. SOM stocks and especially CO2 emission demonstrates a very high spatial and temporal variability here, which is mutual feature for most regional natural and man-changed ecosystems and may have a strong influence on land-use and farming change strategy and climate change. However quite a few studies focus on this problem here with application of modern field tools and quantitative functional assessment of SOM dynamics variability at the level of changing elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) that includes in the key issues of our project. Development the zonal-regional set of criteria for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, s