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Sample records for umbria region central

  1. Geodiversity of the Umbria region (central Italy): a GIS-based quantitative index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melelli, Laura; Pica, Alessia; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The measure of natural range related to geological bedrock, landforms and geomorphological processes is the necessary starting point to geodiversity evaluation. Geodiversity plays a strategic role in landscape management. Whereas geotourism and geosites are identified as a driving power for the scientific and economic promotion of an area, the geodiversity knowledge is required for a complete and accurate research. For example, high values of this abiotic parameter identify and support the foundation of geoparks. According to this perspective, the geodiversity is the unifying factor for these areas of interest. While a subjective and qualitative approach may be adequate for geosites definition, identification and cultural promotion, the geodiversity concept needs a different evaluation method. A quantitative procedure allows achieving an objective and repeatable process exportable in different geographic units. Geographical Information Systems and spatial analysis techniques are the base to quantitative evaluation involving topographic, geological and geomorphological data. Therefore, the assessment of a numerical index derived from the overlay of spatial parameters can be conveniently computed in GIS environment. In this study, a geodiversity index is proposed where geological, geomorphological and landcover factors deriving mainly from maps and field survey; topographic ones are employed from DEM and remote sensed data. Each abiotic parameter is modelled in a grid format; focal functions do provide neighbourhood analysis and computing variety statistics. A particular extent is dedicated to topographic information and terrain roughness, that are strictly related to efficiency of geomorphological processes and generally corresponding to the abiotic components variability. The study area is located in central Italy and is characterized by a well known natural heritage. Thirty-seven geosites are detected in the Umbria region, where seven regional and one natural

  2. Preliminary Assessment of Rock Fall Hazard and Risk In The Central Part of The Nera Valley, Umbria Region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghigi, S.; Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Detti, R.

    Rock falls are one of the most common types of fast moving landslides in mountain areas. They represent the most abundant landslides triggered by earthquakes. Rock falls are one of the primary causes of fatalities and of damage caused by landslides. Despite being widespread and highly destructive, only a few attempts have been made to establish rock fall hazard and the associate risk along transportation corridors in mountain areas. We present a preliminary assessment of rock fall hazard and risk for the central part of the Nera River Valley, in the Umbria Region of Central Italy. The Nera River, a tributary of the Tiber River, flows across the Apennines in a deep and narrow valley. Two national roads, the SS 305 and the SS 209, and several mountain villages are located along the valley bottom. The villages and the roads are frequently affected by rock falls. On October 1997, aftershocks of the Umbria-Marche earth- quake triggered hundreds of rock falls, ranging in size from few cubic decimeters, to some tens of cubic meter. Damage was severe and the two national roads were closed for several weeks. Following the earthquake defensive measures (including scaling, rock fences, elastic fences, and artificial tunnels) were installed along the valley. These costly defensive measures were installed without any specific assessment of rock fall hazard and the associated risk. Using a 3-dimensional, spatially distributed rock falls simulation program, we have quantitatively evaluated rock fall hazard along a 20 kilo- metres section of the central part of the valley. The source areas of rock falls (i.e., the detachment zones) were identified from vertical aerial photographs and in the field. Parameters controlling the loss of energy at impact points and during rolling were ob- tained from a surface geology map prepared updating a geological map through the analysis of aerial photographs and field surveys. Maps of the expected rock fall count, a proxy for the probability of

  3. 11-14 November 2012 Umbria Region (Central Italy) flood event: from prediction to management for civil protection purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Zauri, Renato; Ponziani, Francesco; Francioni, Marco; Governatori Leonardi, Federico; Formica, Alessandro; Natazzi, Loredana; Costantini, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    Following laws and regulations concerning extreme natural events management, the Italian national hydrometeorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres - CF). Umbria Region CF is located in Central Italy and provides early warning, monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) when significant flood/landslide events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. For the real time flood forecasting system, at the CF several operational hydrological and hydraulic models were developed and implemented for a "dynamic" hazard/risk scenario assessment for Civil Protection DSS, useful also for the development of Flood Risk Management Plans according to the European "Floods Directive" 2007/60. In the period 11th-14th November 2012, a significant flood event occurred in Umbria (as well as Tuscany and northern Lazio). The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 300 mm in 72 hours and, generally, values greater than the seasonal averages all over the region. In the most affected area the recorded rainfall depths correspond to centenarian return period: one-third of the annual mean precipitation occurred in 2-3 days. Almost all rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds, and several ones overflowed. Furthermore, in some cases, so high water levels have never been recorded by the hydrometric network. As in the major flood events occurred in the last years, dams (Montedoglio and Corbara dams along Tiber River and Casanuova dam along Chiascio River) and other hydraulic works for flood defense (e.g. along Chiani stream) played a very important mitigation role, storing high water volumes and avoiding the overlap of peak discharges downstream. During

  4. Operational flood forecasting system of Umbria Region "Functional Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, N.; Pandolfo, C.; Stelluti, M.; Ponziani, F.; Viterbo, A.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrometeorological alert office (called "Decentrate Functional Centre" - CFD) of Umbria Region, in central Italy, is the office that provides technical tools able to support decisions when significant flood/landslide events occur, furnishing 24h support for the whole duration of the emergency period, according to the national directive DPCM 27 February 2004 concerning the "Operating concepts for functional management of national and regional alert system during flooding and landslide events for civil protection activities purposes" that designs, within the Italian Civil Defence Emergency Management System, a network of 21 regional Functional Centres coordinated by a central office at the National Civil Protection Department in Rome. Due to its "linking" role between Civil Protection "real time" activities and environmental/planning "deferred time" ones, the Centre is in charge to acquire and collect both real time and quasi-static data: quantitative data from monitoring networks (hydrometeorological stations, meteo radar, ...), meteorological forecasting models output, Earth Observation data, hydraulic and hydrological simulation models, cartographic and thematic GIS data (vectorial and raster type), planning studies related to flooding areas mapping, dam managing plans during flood events, non instrumental information from direct control of "territorial presidium". A detailed procedure for the management of critical events was planned, also in order to define the different role of various authorities and institutions involved. Tiber River catchment, of which Umbria region represents the main upper-medium portion, includes also regional trans-boundary issues very important to cope with, especially for what concerns large dam behavior and management during heavy rainfall. The alert system is referred to 6 different warning areas in which the territory has been divided into and based on a threshold system of three different increasing critical levels according

  5. Orbital Cyclicities Above and Below the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, Umbria-Marche Region, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, D. T., Jr.; Petruny, L. W.; Rampino, M. R.; Prokoph, A.; Pope, K.; Fischer, A. G.; Montanari, A.; Ocampo, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    In the Umbria-Marche region of central Italy, the deep basinal carbonate Scaglia Rossa Formation contains an important sequence of Cretaceous-Tertiary strata including a detailed paleomagnetic record and the distal impactoclastic Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay layer. In addition to this significant paleomagnetic and impactoclastic record, the Scaglia Rossa also contains potentially important stratigraphic evidence of relatively long-term oceanic and atmospheric consequences of the Cretaceous-Tertiary bolide catastrophe, which we will describe for the first time herein. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In Italy, dog shelters are overcrowded because the rate of dog adoption is lower than that of abandonment. A project called “RandAgiamo” was implemented in a rescue shelter in central Italy. RandAgiamo provides training, socialization and advertising of adult shelter dogs. Official data of the Umbria regional health authorities from the year 2014 showed a higher rate of adoption in shelters involved in the project. RandAgiamo dogs had triple odds of being adopted compared to others housed in shelters of the same province. The increase in adoption rate can be beneficial for both dog welfare and shelter management. Abstract Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this “no-kill policy” has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (p < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  7. Scale-Invariance in the Spatial Development of Landslides in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liucci, Luisa; Melelli, Laura; Suteanu, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of mass movements is a major issue in the management and forecasting of landslide risk. In this context, the present study examines the most widespread types of landslide in the Umbria region (central Italy), that is, slides and flows, in order to establish if it is possible to identify a well-defined structure in their spatial pattern. By using the landslide inventory map available for the area and by resorting to the principles of fractal theory, the scaling properties of the landslide sample were investigated. The application of the box-counting algorithm to the maps of landslide triggering points and landslide areas allowed for the identification of a clear scale-invariant structure. Two distinct types of fractal behaviour were recognized, separated by a scale value of 1 km and characterized by capacity dimensions of 1.35 and 1.76, in the ranges of 25 m-1 km and 1-16 km, respectively. The comparison between the scaling exponents obtained from a map of points and one of areas, and the elaboration of the cumulative frequency distributions of landslide areas supported the interpretation of this result: the higher capacity dimension describes the spatial distribution of landslides in the Umbria region, while the lower contains additional information about their geometries, suggesting that the latter also possess scaling properties. Based on the finding of two different types of behaviour of landslides in space, the hypothesis is discussed that the contribution of each causal factor (i.e., predisposing and triggering factors) to the occurrence of landslide events and to their spatial development could be different in the two scale ranges identified, depending on its spatial variability at local and regional scale. According to this hypothesis, factors with high local variability (i.e., topographic attributes) would mainly affect the assortment of landslide geometries, while those with high regional variability (e.g., rainfalls

  8. [Analysis of the causes of death in the Umbria Region (Italy) 1994-2008].

    PubMed

    D'Alò, Daniela; Stracci, Fabrizio; Casucci, Paola; Stabile, Marco; La Rosa, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The leading causes of death in the Umbria Region (Italy) between 1994-2008 were analysed and a comparison was made between data from three five-year time periods: 1994-1998, 1999-2003 and 2004-2008. Standardized rates of Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) at 75 years, by gender and cause of death, were also measured. Mortality data was obtained from the Umbria Registry of causes of death; diagnoses were codified according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD10). Mortality trends over time were analysed by using standardized mortality rates with the 2001 Umbria census data as the reference population . The joinpoint regression program was used to analyze rates calculated by the SEER (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results) software of the National Cancer Institute (USA). Mortality for all causes, standardised by age, show a significantly decreasing trend from 1994 to 2008 in both genders. Mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumours show a significant constant decline in both genders. Standardised rates of YPLL at 75 years declined by 32% in males and 29% in females between the five-year period 1994-1998 and the period 2004-2008. In conclusion, a generalised decline in mortality and a shift towards older age groups is observed with a consequent decline in YPLL, allowing a positive judgment to be given regarding the efficacy of preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitation interventions implemented by the regional health care system. PMID:20859307

  9. Landslide volumes and landslide mobilization rates in Umbria, central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, Fausto; Ardizzone, Francesca; Cardinali, Mauro; Rossi, Mauro; Valigi, Daniela

    2009-03-01

    A catalogue of 677 landslides of the slide type was selected from a global database of geometrical measurements of individual landslides, including landslide area ( AL) and volume ( VL). The measurements were used to establish an empirical relationship to link AL (in m 2) to VL (in m 3). The relationship takes the form of a power law with a scaling exponent α = 1.450, covers eight orders of magnitude of AL and twelve orders of magnitude of VL, and is in general agreement with existing relationships published in the literature. The reduced scatter of the experiential data around the dependency line, and the fact that the considered landslides occurred in multiple physiographic and climatic environments and were caused by different triggers, indicate that the relationship between VL and AL is largely independent of the physiographical setting. The new relationship was used to determine the volume of individual landslides of the slide type in the Collazzone area, central Italy, a 78.9 km 2 area for which a multi-temporal landslide inventory covering the 69-year period from 1937 to 2005 is available. In the observation period, the total volume of landslide material was VLT = 4.78 × 10 7 m 3, corresponding to an average rate of landslide mobilization φL = 8.8 mm yr - 1 . Exploiting the temporal information in the landslide inventory, the volume of material produced during different periods by new and reactivated landslides was singled out. The wet period from 1937 to 1941 was recognized as an episode of accelerated landslide production. During this 5-year period, approximately 45% of the total landslide material inventoried in the Collazzone area was produced, corresponding to an average rate of landslide mobilization φL = 54 mm yr - 1 , six times higher than the long term rate. The volume of landslide material in an event or period was used as a proxy for the magnitude of the event or period, defined as the logarithm (base 10) of the total landslide volume produced

  10. [Healthcare research and regional programming in Umbria (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Carlo; Minelli, Liliana

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between regional programming and national health research policy, and in particular evaluates the role that intellectual capital plays in innovation processes of knowledge-based organizations. The concepts of intellectual capital and knowledge-based organization are defined in the paper, as these are especially useful when speaking of university, healthcare systems and research and development companies. The paper also examines the various types of healthcare research (basic research, clinical trial, epidemiological research, valutative research) and the role that each type of research plays in healthcare programming at the national and regional levels. PMID:19219082

  11. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this 'no-kill policy' has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project "RandAgiamo" implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs' adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs' visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs' welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  12. Crustal versus asthenospheric relaxation and post-seismic deformation for shallow normal faulting earthquakes:the Umbria-Marche (central Italy) case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, R.; Aoudia, A.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.; Sabadini, R.; Panza, G. F.

    2000-06-01

    Following a normal mode approach for a stratified viscoelastic earth, we investigate the effects induced by shallow normal faulting earthquakes, on surface post-seismic vertical displacement and velocity at the surface, when stress relaxation occurs in the crust or in the asthenosphere. The modelled earthquake is a moderate one characteristic of some slowly deforming plate boundaries in the central Mediterranean region. We focus on the Umbria-Marche (central Italy) region where deep seismic reflection studies (CROP03) and the 1997 earthquake sequence clearly show a seismogenic layer decoupled from the lower crust by a sizeable transition zone. Accordingly, the crust is subdivided into three layers: an elastic upper crust, a transition zone and a low-viscosity lower crust. The fault is embedded in the upper crust. The layered viscoelastic structure of the crust and mantle imposes a pattern and scale on the modelled coseismic and post-seismic deformation with a major contribution from the transition crustal zone and low-viscosity lower crust, stress relaxation in the mantle being negligible. We show that significant vertical deformation rates of the order of 1mmyr-1 could be expected for a shallow and moderate event such as the recent Umbria-Marche earthquake for viscosity values of 1019 and 1018Pas in the crustal transition zone and lower crust, respectively.

  13. Coulomb stress changes caused by repeated normal faulting earthquakes during the 1997 Umbria-Marche (central Italy) seismic sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nostro, Concetta; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Cocco, Massimo; Baumont, David; Scotti, Oona

    2005-05-01

    We investigate fault interaction through elastic stress transfer among a sequence of moderate-magnitude main shocks (5 < Mw < 6) which ruptured distinct normal fault segments during a seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche region (central Apennines). We also model the spatial pattern of aftershocks and their faulting mechanisms through Coulomb stress changes. We compute stress perturbations caused by earthquake dislocations in a homogeneous half-space. Our modeling results show that seven out of eight main shocks of the sequence occur in areas of enhanced Coulomb stress, implying that elastic stress transfer may have promoted the occurrence of these moderate-magnitude events. Our modeling results show that stress changes caused by normal faulting events reactivated and inverted the slip of a secondary N-S trending strike-slip fault inherited from compressional tectonics in its shallowest part (1-3 km). Of the 1517 available aftershocks, 82% are located in areas of positive stress changes for optimally oriented planes (OOPs) for Coulomb failure. However, only 45% of the 322 available fault plane solutions computed from polarity data is consistent with corresponding focal mechanisms associated with the OOPs. The comparison does not improve if we compute the optimally oriented planes for Coulomb failure by fixing the strike orientation of OOPs using information derived from structural geology. Our interpretation of these modeling results is that elastic stress transfer alone cannot jointly explain the aftershock spatial distribution and their focal mechanisms.

  14. Seismic Q estimates in Umbria Marche (Central Italy): hints for the retrieval of a new attenuation law for seismic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisconti, Angelo; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca; de Lorenzo, Salvatore

    2015-06-01

    In the Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) region an important earthquake sequence occurred in 1997, characterized by nine earthquakes with magnitudes in the range between 5 and 6, that caused important damages and causalities. In the present paper, we separately estimate intrinsic and scattering Q-1 parameters, using the classical multiple lapse time window analysis (MLTWA) approach in the assumption of a half-space model. The results clearly show that the attenuation parameters Qi-1 and Qs-1 are frequency dependent. This estimate is compared with other attenuation studies carried out in the same area, and with all the other MLTWA estimates obtained till now in other tectonic environments in the Earth. The bias introduced by the half-space assumption is investigated through numerical solutions of the energy transport equation in the more realistic assumption of a heterogeneous crust overlying a transparent mantle, with a Moho located at a depth ranging between 35 and 45 km below the surface. The bias introduced by the half-space assumption is significant only at high frequency. We finally show how the attenuation estimates, calculated with different techniques, lead to different peak ground acceleration decay with distance relationships, using the well-known and well proven Boore's method. This last result indicates that care must be used in selecting the correct estimate of the attenuation parameters for seismic risk purposes. We also discuss the reason why MLTWA may be chosen among all the other available techniques, due to its intrinsic stability, to obtain the right attenuation parameters.

  15. Modelling coseismic displacements during the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunstad, Ingrid; Anzidei, Marco; Cocco, Massimo; Baldi, Paolo; Galvani, Alessandro; Pesci, Arianna

    1999-11-01

    We propose a dislocation model for the two normal faulting earthquakes that struck the central Apennines (Umbria-Marche, Italy) on 1997 September 26 at 00:33 (Mw 5.7) and 09:40 GMT (Mw 6.0). We fit coseismic horizontal and vertical displacements resulting from GPS measurements at several monuments of the IGMI (Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano) by means of a dislocation model in an elastic, homogeneous, isotropic half-space. Our best-fitting model consists of two normal faults whose mechanisms and seismic moments have been taken from CMT solutions; it is consistent with other seismological and geophysical observations. The first fault, which is 6 km long and 7 km wide, ruptured during the 00:33 event with a unilateral rupture towards the SE and an average slip of 27 cm. The second fault is 12 km long and 10 km wide, and ruptured during the 09:40 event with a nearly unilateral rupture towards the NW. Slip distribution on this second fault is non-uniform and is concentrated in its SE portion (maximum slip is 65 cm), where rupture initiated. The 00:33 fault is deeper than the 09:40 one: the top of the first rupture is deeper than 1.7 km the top of the second is 0.6 km deep. In order to interpret the observed epicentral subsidence we have also considered the contributions of two further moderate-magnitude earthquakes that occurred on 1997 October 3 (Mw 5.2) and 6 (Mw 5.4), immediately before the GPS survey, and were located very close to the 09:40 event of September 26. We compare the pattern of vertical displacements resulting from our forward modelling of GPS data with that derived from SAR interferograms: the fit to SAR data is very good, confirming the reliability of the proposed dislocation model.

  16. Seismic anisotropy of the shallow crust in the Umbria-Marche (Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Trabace, Maria

    2011-11-01

    Small magnitude earthquake data, recorded during the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Italy) seismic crisis, have been used to study the shear wave splitting in the central Apennine. Using the method of diagonalization of the covariance matrix, a set of 1234 S waves impinging the Earth at an angle less than the critical angle has been selected. The cross-correlation method was used to estimate the splitting time between the two horizontal S components and the direction of the symmetry axis of the anisotropic structure. A further analysis, based on visual inspection of corrected traces, allowed us to estimate the anisotropic parameters for 884 S waves. An average splitting time <τ>=32.3∓4ms has been estimated. Splitting times do not generally show a clear pattern with distance, which is an indication of possible spatial variations of seismic anisotropy. A minimum 2 km depth of the anisotropic layer is estimated. The trend of normalized splitting time vs. depth roughly indicates a maximum 4-5 km depth of the anisotropic layer. The distribution of the fast symmetry axis indicates a main symmetry axis oriented along the direction of the maximum compressive stress in the area and a secondary symmetry axis almost orthogonal to the first one. The stereographic plots of fast axis direction seem exclude a depth dependence of anisotropic parameters. A clear spatial correlation between the directions of the fast symmetry axes at the considered stations and the orientations of the nearest fault systems and thrust fronts is found, which confirms the spatial variability in the anisotropic properties of the area, as inferred by the analysis of splitting times. Based also on previous studies, results are interpreted in terms of the extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA) model. The estimated crack density is always smaller than the critical coalescence value, enforcing the hypothesis that fluid-filled separated crack systems control the polarization of S waves.

  17. Frequency dependent Qα and Qβ in the Umbria-Marche (Italy) region using a quadratic approximation of the coda-normalization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Bianco, Francesca; Del Pezzo, Edoardo

    2013-06-01

    The coda normalization method is one of the most used methods in the inference of attenuation parameters Qα and Qβ. Since, in this method, the geometrical spreading exponent γ is an unknown model parameter, the most part of studies assumes a fixed γ, generally equal to 1. However γ and Q could be also jointly inferred from the non-linear inversion of coda-normalized logarithms of amplitudes, but the trade-off between γ and Q could give rise to unreasonable values of these parameters. To minimize the trade-off between γ and Q, an inversion method based on a parabolic expression of the coda-normalization equation has been developed. The method has been applied to the waveforms recorded during the 1997 Umbria-Marche seismic crisis. The Akaike criterion has been used to compare results of the parabolic model with those of the linear model, corresponding to γ = 1. A small deviation from the spherical geometrical spreading has been inferred, but this is accompanied by a significant variation of Qα and Qβ values. For almost all the considered stations, Qα smaller than Qβ has been inferred, confirming that seismic attenuation, in the Umbria-Marche region, is controlled by crustal pore fluids.

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs and pork products in Umbria and Marche regions of Italy.

    PubMed

    Ercoli, Laura; Farneti, Silvana; Zicavo, Alessia; Mencaroni, Guerriero; Blasi, Giuliana; Striano, Gianluca; Scuota, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    In total 1095 samples from 675 pork products, 210 swine colon contents, and 210 swine carcass sponge swabs were collected in Umbria and Marche regions of Italy and examined for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), also known as Verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC). After an enrichment step, each sample was analysed by real-time PCR to detect the stx1, stx2, and eae genes. stx-Positive samples were further tested for the "top five" serogroup markers (O157, O26, O103, O111, O145) and cultured onto selective media. The isolates were assigned to stx subtypes and tested for the presence of aaiC and aggR genes. Out of 420 swine samples, 38.6% faecal samples and 13.8% carcass sponge swabs were stx-positive. In total, 33 E. coli STEC isolates were obtained from 30 samples (4 carcasses and 26 colon contents) indicating a culture-positive rate of 7.1%. A higher culture-positive rate was observed in faecal samples (12.4%) than in carcass sponge swabs (1.9%). Out of 675 pork samples, 19 (2.8%) were stx-positive. No STEC strains were isolated from stx-positive pork products. We concluded that STEC isolation from foodstuffs remains difficult, despite the application of ISO/TS 13136:2012. Furthermore, in accordance with the results of studies conducted in other countries, we observed that most of swine STEC strains carried stx2e gene and lacked of virulence genes, such as eae, aaiC and aggR, indicative of potential pathogenic characteristics for humans. Although the majority of STEC isolates did not express virulence factors correlating with severe human diseases, the association between swine STEC strains and human illness requires further investigations. PMID:27236076

  19. Shear Wave Structure of Umbria and Marche, Italy, Strong Motion Seismometer Sites Affected by the 1997-98 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert; Scasserra, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Lanzo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    A long sequence of earthquakes, eight with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck the Umbria and Marche regions of central Italy between September 26, 1997 and July 1998. The earthquake swarm caused severe structural damage, particularly to masonry buildings, and resulted in the loss of twelve lives and about 150 injuries. The source of the events was a single seismogenic structure that consists of several faults with a prevailing northwest-southeast strike and crosses the Umbria-Marche border. The focal mechanism of the largest shocks indicates that the events were the product of shallow extensional normal faulting along a NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines. The network of analog seismometer stations in the Umbria and Marche regions recorded motions of the main September and October 1997 events and a dense array of mobile digital stations, installed since September 29, recorded most of the swarm. The permanent national network Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) is administered and maintained by Dipartimento delle Protezione Civile (DPC: Civil Protection Department); the temporary array was managed by Servizio Sismico Nazionale (SSN) in cooperation with small agencies and Universities. ENEA, the operator of many seismometer stations in Umbria, is the public Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment. Many of the temporary and permanent stations in the Italian seismic network have little or no characterization of seismic velocities. In this study, we investigated 17 Italian sites using an active-source approach that employs low frequency harmonic waves to measure the dispersive nature of surface waves in the ground. We used the Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) approach, coupled with an array of harmonic-wave electro-mechanical sources that are driven in-phase to excite the ground. An inversion algorithm using a non-linear least-squares best-fit method is used to compute shear wave velocities for up to 100

  20. Timing of eastward-migrating compression in the Miocene Umbria Preapennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozzetti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Umbria Preapennines is an east-verging embricate thrust-system deforming a Meso-Cenozoic carbonate succession and the overlying Miocene foredeep turbidites. The major thrust-sheets correspond to three regional tectonic units whose stratigraphy shows sensible differences as regards the onset-time of foredeep sedimentation, the age of its top and the source areas of the turbiditic fill. These "tectono-stratigraphic" units are characterised by an eastward-younging of the contractional deformations and by an analogous allochthony decrease. The eastward-rejuvenating trend was summarily documented by the past literature but a regional overview, calibrated on an updated bio-chrono-stratigraphic scale, is still lacking. In this work, we try to reconstruct an exhaustive tectono-stratigraphic frame of this part of the Apennine foredeep with the aim of define and date the main tectonic events occurred from the Aquitanian to the Early Tortonian. To achieve this purpose, a multidisciplinary research, integrating physic stratigraphy, nannofossil biostratigraphy and structural analysis, was carried out on the main outcropping tectonic structures and on a large number of stratigraphic sections located in north-central Umbria. In more detail, the study area is bounded to the west by the Tuscan allochthon leading-edge (Sansepolcro - Monte S. M. Tiberina - Mt. Murlo alignment) and extends eastward to the inner side of the Umbria-Marche calcareous chain. The obtained results precisely highlight the steps through which each zone of this area evolved from foreland to foredeep domain and was, subsequently, incorporated into the chain. The influence of allochthon sheets emplacement, and of growing compressional structures, on sin-tectonic sedimentation is also discussed.

  1. Positive inversion tectonics in foreland fold-and-thrust belts: A reappraisal of the Umbria-Marche Northern Apennines (Central Italy) by integrating geological and geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scisciani, Vittorio; Agostini, Simone; Calamita, Fernando; Pace, Paolo; Cilli, Andrea; Giori, Italiano; Paltrinieri, Werter

    2014-12-01

    Unraveling the tectonic style in the outer zones of fold-and-thrust belts is generally puzzling because the basement-cover relationships are often hidden in the subsurface as in the outer Northern Apennines of Italy. This study aims to reconstruct the deep setting of the Northern Apennine foreland thrust belt by integrating surface structural-geological and subsurface seismic reflection profile and well data, corroborated by a gravity-magnetic modeling. A remarkable mountain ridge, the Umbria-Marche Apennine Ridge (UMAR), which corresponds to a prominent area of structural and topographic elevation, characterizes the morphology of the Northern Apennines. This mountain ridge is constituted by Meso-Cenozoic carbonates involved in Neogene compressive structures and is surrounded by wide exposures of foredeep deposits. The basement-cover relationships are poorly constrained and both thin- and thick-skinned tectonic styles have been applied. The interpretation of subsurface data allowed recognizing a thick pre-Jurassic sedimentary sequence filling a late Paleozoic(?)-Triassic symmetric fault-bounded extensional basin, lying directly below the UMAR. This deep-rooted basin underwent positive inversion during the Neogene compression and thrust-fold development. The reconstructed thick-skinned inversion tectonic model is consistent with both the modest amount of shortening and the remarkable structural elevation of the UMAR. The outcomes of this study reveal that prominent mountain ridges occurring in foreland thrust belts are most likely related to the deep-rooted basement-involved positive inversion of pre-existing extensional basins.

  2. [Use Of Hospital Services By The Immigrant Population In Umbria, Italy].

    PubMed

    Casadei, Riccardo; Angeli, Giuseppe; Casucci, Paola; Minelli, Liliana; Pasquini, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify possible inequalities in the quality of health care services for the management of conditions such as cardiovascolar diseases, psychiatric disorders, appendectomy, and hysterectomy, offered to the immigrant population in the Umbria region (central Italy). Hospital discharge data covering the period 2009-2012 were analysed and crude and standardized hospitalization rates per 100,000 calculated. Immigrants were found to have an increased risk of undergoing procedures such as appendectomy and hysterectomy for benign disease, indicating a greater degree of nonappropriateness in this category of users. In the young immigrant population, admissions were mainly due to reproductive health problems in women, and injuries/trauma in men. The results of this study confirm that, despite regional efforts to reduce social inequalities and consequently inequalities in health, through regional legislation, information to the population, training of healthcare personnel, and cultural mediation, some inequalities are present in the quality of health care delivered to foreign-born persons in the region. Hence, there is a need to strengthen information campaigns for immigrants, to keep them informed of their rights, and to strengthen training courses among healthcare and social workers. PMID:27077557

  3. [Local, central and regional functions. Obsolete concepts?].

    PubMed

    Stene-Larsen, G; Bjørnstad, E; Bergesen, O; Nordhaug, B; Abildgaard, U

    1990-11-30

    As a consequence of the regionalization of the health services in Norway hospitals were given either local, central or regional responsibility. This system was intended to improve the availability of expertise and costly equipment, and at the same time reduce the growth of expenditures on health care. In the last few years, however, many of the smaller hospitals have improved their technical and medical skills to such an extent that this classification system has become less meaningful. Aker hospital in Oslo carries out local, central and regional functions. In a prospective study at this hospital we found that 88% of 980 consecutive medical admissions could be classified as local hospital admissions. Only 5% of the patients needed service at the central level, and 5% at the regional level. In our opinion it would suffice to have two types of hospital ("treatment levels"), standard hospitals and referral hospitals. PMID:2274952

  4. Structural and morphological characterization of active intermontane basins: a case of the Gubbio captured basin (Umbria Pre-Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavitolo, Paolo; Menichetti, Marco; Nesci, Olivia; Savelli, Daniele; Troiani, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Intermontane basins characterize many orogenic chains, where they are originated either by crustal stretching or gravitational collapse of the axial zones of the chain. Extensional and/or transtensional mechanisms generate structures with geometries controlled by fault-bounded depressed areas, which in some cases are seismogenetic. The western sector of the Northern Apennines in Central Italy is characterized by several intermontane basins filled by continental Plio-Pleistocene sediments. At present, a few of these basins are depressed endorheic areas, whereas most of them have been captured by river upstream erosion. The morphotectonic characterization at both regional and local scale of these structures is crucial considering the associated geological hazards due to clustered seismicity and seismic-related slope-instability along the basin-margins. This work presents a multi-disciplinary approach based on new and existing data to define the structural geometries, landforms and processes related to the genesis and the morphoevolution of the intermountain valleys/captured-basins in Central Italy. Quantitative geomorphological analyses from Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) are compared with geological and structural data and with geophysical investigations of active and sismogenetic faults bordering the Gubbio valley in the Umbria Pre-Apennines in central Italy. This 4 km-wide valley extends for ca. 20 km in NW-SE direction and is bounded along the NE margin by a SW-dipping listric normal fault with an offset of 1500 m. The area locates along one of the main seismogenic portion of the Apennine chain and recorded historical (i.e., April 29, 1984: Ms 5.3) and many instrumental earthquakes. In this study, new data on the slope-instability along the basin-margins and the influence of active tectonics and gravitational phenomena on the streams incision and aggradation are also provided.

  5. Regional Adaptation Strategies in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge on international, national, and regional scale. It affects the scientific world as well as policymakers, representatives of economy, and the public. Consequently, the need for a dialogue between experts in climate change and the people affected is needed. However, structuring and communicating climate change information on the various scales is challenging and demands coordination. Within the Helmholtz community in Germany, four regional Helmholtz climate offices are founded. One of their major goals is to encourage the communication between science and public. Primarily, this is done by close cooperation to the Helmholtz research centers at which each climate office is hosted. Second, a continuous exchange is supported beyond the Helmholtz research centers towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. Each regional Helmholtz climate office represents regional aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting Helmholtz research institutes. In the Climate Office for central Germany, Land use changes are among the most important factors of climate change driven environmental changes which have to be managed by the society in the next years. Since 1991 UFZ scientists research the causes and consequences of far-reaching environmental changes. The Climate Office offers information about climate change effects on the environmental compartments, land use strategies as well as regional strategies of adaptation. The three federal states in Central Germany (Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia) handle adaptation to climate change very differently. The presentation focusses on alikeness and differences in the adaptation process.

  6. Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These

  7. Canine filariosis in Umbria: an update of the occurrence one year after the first observation of autochthonous foci.

    PubMed

    Fioretti, D Piergili; Diaferia, M; Grelloni, V; Maresca, C

    2003-06-01

    Following the first observation of two autochthonous foci of canine filariosis occurred in Umbria region in the year 2001, a survey on prevalence and risk factors was conducted 12 months later to better understand the actual entity of the Dirofilaria problem in Umbria region. Blood samples were collected between January and December 2002 from 2406 dogs living in a total of 7 towns located in the identified areas at risk. Blood samples were tested by a modified Knott's technique to evaluate the microfilaraemia and, by a commercial ELISA kit, to detect in the sera adult antigens of D. immitis. The results were subject to statistical analysis. A total of 439 dogs were found to be infected. The true prevalence (LC 95%) was of 18%. Microfilariae of D. immitis were detected in 286 dogs (13%) while 112 dogs (6%) showed only microfilariae of D. repens and 41 dogs (1.6%) microfilariae of both D. immitis and D. repens. The prevalence ratio (PR) for each species of Dirofilaria (LC 95%) calculated in association with different risk factors (age, sex, use, outdoor night status, position, living together with other dogs, breed) and the statistical significance between the risk factors and the presence/absence of the infection, evaluated for each species of Dirofilaria, are discussed. PMID:15267001

  8. Central regions of keloids are severely ischaemic.

    PubMed

    Touchi, Ryoma; Ueda, Koichi; Kurokawa, Norifumi; Tsuji, Motomu

    2016-02-01

    We classified scars as keloids, hypertrophic scars and mature scars, and then examined the scars for differences in central and marginal vascularization. We found significant differences in localized hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and vascular density in keloids, but no localized differences in hypertrophic or mature scars. The central areas of keloids exhibited higher HIF-1α expression and lower vascular density than marginal areas, suggesting that the former are severely ischaemic. PMID:26794626

  9. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  10. 12 CFR 790.2 - Central and regional office organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Central and regional office organization. 790.2 Section 790.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION DESCRIPTION OF NCUA; REQUESTS FOR AGENCY ACTION § 790.2 Central and regional office organization....

  11. 12 CFR 790.2 - Central and regional office organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Central and regional office organization. 790.2... Central and regional office organization. (a) General organization. NCUA is composed of the Board with a..., for facilitating good organization design, for staffing positions through recruitment and...

  12. Dynamics of the Central Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeren, S.; Holt, W. E.; Haines, A. J.; Flesch, L. M.

    2003-12-01

    The Aegean is one of the fastest deforming regions on the planet. The northward motion of the Arabian plate, the westward drift of Turkey, right-lateral shear in Northern Aegean Sea, and complicated deformation patterns in Greece have long been of geophysical interest. In this work we seek to quantify the relative driving forces for active deformation within the Aegean. Specifically, we seek to quantify the role of body forces associated density variations within the lithosphere as well as the role of plate interaction in driving the active deformation there. Our numerical grid covers the entire Aegean region and the Turkish mainland. We first interpolate GPS data with continuous bi-cubic spline functions to define a kinematic solution. The density of grid areas used in the kinematic and dynamic modeling, together with the GPS data, are sufficient to delineate both rapidly deforming and rigid areas. Moreover, the model strain rate tensor field, defined by the fit to the GPS data, is in good agreement with the styles of active deformation inferred from earthquake moment tensor solutions. Our dynamic solutions involve a direct estimate of vertically averaged deviatoric stresses, using a thin-sheet parameterization. The deviatoric stress solution satisfies a set of balance equations for a non-accelerating continuum, where the governing force comes from the lateral variations in the graviatational potential energy, calculated assuming Airy-type isostatic compensation of topography. A second solution to the linear equations, without the body force term, is sought in a formal inversion to define a complete stress boundary solution. The deviatoric stress field associated with the boundary condition solution is added to the deviatoric stress field associated with the gravitational potential energy distribution to define a total solution. In the formal inversion the directions and relative magnitudes of principal axes of the total deviatoric stresses are constrained to be a

  13. Central Region: A Report Identifying and Addressing the Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the deliberations of the Central Regional Advisory Committee (RAC), one of 10 RACs established under the Educational Technical Assistance Act of 2002 (20 U.S.C. sections 9601 et. seq.) to assess the educational needs of the region. The committee's report outlines the educational needs across the states of Colorado, Kansas,…

  14. MOHO ORIENTATION BENEATH CENTRAL CALIFORNIA FROM REGIONAL EARTHQUAKE TRAVEL TIMES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppenheimer, David H.; Eaton, Jerry P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines relative Pn arrival times, recorded by the U. S. Geological Survey seismic network in central and northern California from an azimuthally distributed set of regional earthquakes. Improved estimates are presented of upper mantle velocities in the Coast Ranges, Great Valley, and Sierra Nevada foothills and estimates of the orientation of the Moho throughout this region. Finally, the azimuthal distribution of apparent velocities, corrected for dip and individual station travel time effects, is then studied for evidence of upper mantle velocity anisotropy and for indications of lower crustal structure in central California.

  15. Photometry of the central region of the Andromeda Nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Sharov, A.S.; Liutyi, V.M.

    1980-05-01

    The photoelectric U, B, V observations of the central region of M81 made in 166 fields at distances of 54-351 arcsec from the center are used to explain the structure of the central condensation of the galaxy. The surface-brightness isophotes can be fit by ellipses varying in axial ratio from 0.9 to 0.6 and in position angle from 70 to 45 deg. The central condensation may include a bar in the form of a triaxial ellipsoid the nucleus occupies an asymmetric position in this condensation, shifted by 22 arcsec northwest relative to the most distant U isophote at a 368 arcsec. The apparent eccentricity with respect to the outlying isophotes is caused by distribution of dust, as shown by the colorimetric B - V, U - B color-index profiles reflecting the dust in the central condensation of M31.

  16. 12 CFR 790.2 - Central and regional office organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Central Office in Alexandria, Virginia, five Regional Offices, the Asset Management and Assistance Center... member is designated by the Board to be Vice-Chairman. The Board is also responsible for management of... Secretary of the CLF. (3) Asset Management and Assistance Center. The President of the Asset Management...

  17. Nuclear stopping and energy deposition into the central rapidity region

    SciTech Connect

    Zingman, J.A.

    1987-08-03

    Nuclear stopping and energy deposition into the central rapidity region of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are studied through the application of a model incorporating hydrodynamic baryon flow coupled to a self-consistent field calculated in the flux tube model. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions are modeled in which the nuclei have passed through each other and as a result are charged and heated.

  18. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  19. Lithosphere-asthenosphere Structure and Active Tectonics In Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimera, G.; Aoudia, A.; Saraò, A.; Panza, G. F.

    We investigate the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure and the active tectonics along a stripe from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic with emphasis on the Umbria-Marche area by means of surface-wave tomography, and inversion studies for structure and seismic moment tensor retrieval. The data include seismic waveforms, a large compilation of local group velocities (0.8-4s) and regional phase and group velocity (10-100s) measurements. The local group velocity maps cover the area reactivated by the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence. These maps suggest a relation between the lat- eral heterogeneity and distribution of the active faults and related basins. Such relation is confirmed by the non-linear inversion of the local dispersion curves. To image the deeper structure from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast, we fix the uppermost part of the crust using the Umbria-Marche models along with the CROP03 profile and related shear wave velocity, and invert the additional long period dispersion measure- ments. The results of the inversion show the geometry and lateral heterogeneity of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. The retrieved models for the Umbria-Marche up- per crust reveal the importance of the inherited compression on the ongoing extension and related seismic activity. The reactivated 1997 normal fault zone displays a thrust fault geometry as evidenced by the lateral extent of the faulted Late Triassic evap- orites that did not yet balance the cumulative normal faulting deformation attesting therefore recent extensional tectonics within the thrust belt. Our data are in favor of a listric geometry of faulting at depth. Source inversion studies of the two main crustal events of September 26 and October 14, 1997 show the dominance of normal faulting mechanisms, whereas selected aftershocks between the reactivated fault segments re- veal that the prevailing deformation at the step-over is of strike-slip faulting type. The rupture of the three distinct and

  20. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N

    2002-07-05

    This morning I will describe a program that we refer to as STARS, for Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security, in Central Asia. It is a program that is based on cooperative, bilateral and multilateral, science and technology projects. It is our premise that such cooperative projects provide an opportunity for engagement while addressing real problems that could otherwise lead to destabilizing tensions in the region. The STARS program directly supports USCENTCOM's activities and objectives in environmental security. In fact, we think that STARS is a great vehicle for implementing and amplifying USCENTCOM's environmental security objectives and activities. We are very grateful and very pleased to have General DeLong's support in this matter. I am going to briefly describe the program. I want to stress again that it is a cooperative program. We would like to get input, suggestions, and feedback from the Central Asians here today so we can move forward together.

  1. Possible existence of wormholes in the central regions of halos

    SciTech Connect

    Rahaman, Farook; Salucci, P.; Kuhfittig, P.K.F.; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, Mosiur

    2014-11-15

    An earlier study (Rahaman, et al., 2014 and Kuhfittig, 2014) has demonstrated the possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of the galactic halo, based on the Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) density profile. This paper uses the Universal Rotation Curve (URC) dark matter model to obtain analogous results for the central parts of the halo. This result is an important compliment to the earlier result, thereby confirming the possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies. - Highlights: • Earlier we showed possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of halo. • We obtain here analogous results for the central parts of the galactic halo. • Our result is an important compliment to the earlier result. • This confirms possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies.

  2. Star Formation in the Central Regions of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Mengchun

    2015-08-01

    The galactic central region connects the galactic nucleus to the host galaxy. If the central black hole co-evolved with the host galaxies, there should be some evidence left in the central region. We use the environmental properties in the central regions such as star-forming activity, stellar population and molecular abundance to figure out a possible scenario of the evolution of galaxies. In this thesis at first we investigated the properties of the central regions in the host galaxies of active and normal galaxies. We used radio emission around the nuclei of the host galaxies to represent activity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and used infrared ray (IR) emission to represent the star-forming activity and stellar population of the host galaxies. We determined that active galaxies have higher stellar masses (SMs) within the central kiloparsec radius than normal galaxies do independent of the Hubble types of the host galaxies; but both active and normal galaxies exhibit similar specific star formation rates (SSFRs). We also discovered that certain AGNs exhibit substantial inner stellar structures in the IR images; most of the AGNs with inner structures are Seyferts, whereas only a few LINERs exhibit inner structures. We note that the AGNs with inner structures show a positive correlation between the radio activity of the AGNs and the SFRs of the host galaxies, but the sources without inner structures show a negative correlation between the radio power and the SFRs. These results might be explained with a scenario of starburst-AGN evolution. In this scenario, AGN activities are triggered following a nuclear starburst; during the evolution, AGN activities are accompanied by SF activity in the inner regions of the host galaxies; at the final stage of the evolution, the AGNs might transform into LINERs, exhibiting weak SF activity in the central regions of the host galaxies. For further investigation about the inner structure, we choose the most nearby and luminous

  3. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Land use and environmental assessment in the central Atlantic region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H.; Fitzpatrick, K.; Lins, H. F., Jr.; Mcginty, H. K., III

    1975-01-01

    Data from high altitude aircraft, LANDSAT and Skylab were used in a comprehensive regional survey of land use and its associated environmental impact in the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS). Each sensor system has advantages that were demonstrated by producing experimental land use maps and other data products, applying them to typical problems encountered in regional planning and environmental impact assessment, and presenting the results to prospective users for evaluation. An archival collection of imagery, maps, data summaries, and technical reports was assembled, constituting an environmental profile of the central Atlantic region. The investigation was organized into four closely-related modules, a land use information module, an environmental impact module, a user interaction and evaluation module, and a geographic information systems module. Results revealed a heterogeneous user community with diverse information needs, tending, however, definitely toward the higher-resolution sensor data and the larger-scale land use maps and related information products. Among project recommendations are greater efforts toward improving compatibility of federal, state, and local land use information programs, and greater efforts toward a broader exchange of imagery, computer tapes, and land use information derived therefrom.

  5. Two possible source regions for central Greenland last glacial dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Újvári, Gábor; Stevens, Thomas; Svensson, Anders; Klötzli, Urs S.; Manning, Christina; Németh, Tibor; Kovács, János; Sweeney, Mark R.; Gocke, Martina; Wiesenberg, Guido L. B.; Markovic, Slobodan B.; Zech, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Dust in Greenland ice cores is used to reconstruct the activity of dust-emitting regions and atmospheric circulation. However, the source of dust material to Greenland over the last glacial period is the subject of considerable uncertainty. Here we use new clay mineral and <10 µm Sr-Nd isotopic data from a range of Northern Hemisphere loess deposits in possible source regions alongside existing isotopic data to show that these methods cannot discriminate between two competing hypothetical origins for Greenland dust: an East Asian and/or central European source. In contrast, Hf isotopes (<10 µm fraction) of loess samples show considerable differences between the potential source regions. We attribute this to a first-order clay mineralogy dependence of Hf isotopic signatures in the finest silt/clay fractions, due to absence of zircons. As zircons would also be absent in Greenland dust, this provides a new way to discriminate between hypotheses for Greenland dust sources.

  6. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  7. Psychiatric practice in Umbria: research and transformation processes in the light of juridical-prescriptive events.

    PubMed

    Ciappi, F; De Pascalis, A; Lorenzetti, M P; Orlando, C

    1985-01-01

    The present paper provides a synthetic account of the process of renewal and transformation of psychiatric care in Umbria, and, more specifically, in Perugia, in the last two decades. In the first part we attempt to show that the significance assigned to the normative aspect in the framework of psychiatric care in Italy has been excessive, particularly in the last few years. In the second, we try to give an account of the psychiatric work done in Umbria. We deal first with the period preceding the passing of Law no. 180 by the Italian Parliament; then we discuss the relationship between the new law and the processes in action; finally, we consider more recent problems concerning the attempts to promote a psychiatric counter-reformation and the theory and practice of our work. PMID:3859179

  8. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented.

  9. Central and regional hemodynamics in prolonged space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazenko, O. G.; Shulzhenko, E. B.; Turchaninova, V. F.; Egorov, A. D.

    This paper presents the results of measuring central and regional (head, forearm, calf) hemodynamics at rest and during provocative tests by the method of tetrapolar rheography in the course of Salyut-6-Soyuz and Salyut-7-Soyuz missions. The measurements were carried out during short-term (19 man-flights of 7 days in duration) and long-term (21 man-flights of 65-237 days in duration) manned missions. At rest, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) as well as heart rate (HR) decreased insignificantly (in short-term flights) or remained essentially unchanged (in long-term flights). In prolonged flights CO increased significantly in response to exercise tests due to an increase in HR and the lack of changes in SV. After exercise tests SV and CO decreased as compared to the preflight level. During lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tests HR and CO were slightly higher than preflight. Changes in regional hemodynamics included a distinct decrease of pulse blood filling (PBF) of the calf, a reduction of the tone of large vessels of the calf and small vessels of the forearm. Head examination (in the region of the internal carotid artery) showed a decrease of PBF of the left hemisphere (during flight months 2-8) and a distinct decline of the tone of small vessels, mainly, in the right hemisphere. During LBNP tests the tone of pre- and postcapillary vessels of the brain returned to normal while PBF of the right and left hemisphere vessels declined. It has been shown that regional circulation variations depend on the area examined and are induced by a rearrangement of total hemodynamics of the human body in microgravity. This paper reviews the data concerning changes in central and regional circulation of men in space flights of different duration.

  10. Genetics/Genomics Research in the Central Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    Genetics-based research within the Biological Resources Discipline (BRD) Science Centers in the Central Region incorporates many aspects of the field of genetics. Research activities range from documenting patterns of genetic variation in order to investigate relationships among species, populations and individuals to investigating the structure, function and expression of genes and their response to environmental stressors. Research in the broad areas of genetics requires multidisciplinary expertise and specialized equipment and instrumentation. Brief summaries of the capabilities of the five BRD Centers are given below.

  11. An anchored astronomical time-scale for the Turonian reference sections in the Umbria-Marche Basin, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vleeschouwer, D.; Montanari, A.; Coccioni, R.

    2012-04-01

    In the Umbria-Marche basin, the aftermath of Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2, Bonarelli Level) is represented by the Turonian part of the Scaglia Rossa Formation. The Scaglia Rossa pelagic limestones were studied in the classic Contessa and Bottaccione sections near Gubbio, in the Umbria-Marche region of the northeastern Apennines of Italy. Oscillations between radiolarian cherts interbedded with foram-coccolith pelagic limestones are interpreted to follow the rhythm of precession and show hierarchical bundles, which are suggestive of eccentricity-related grouping. Eccentricity-bundles are correlated amongst the two studied sections. Moreover, the magnetic susceptibility signal of the Bottaccione section and the δ18O and δ13C record of both sections clearly demonstrate the imprint of precession and eccentricity. Eccentricity minima are associated with relatively warm periods (δ18O minima), characterized by an increased magnetic susceptibility signal and radiolarian blooms, which are expressed by frequent chert beds. Radiolarian blooms seem to hamper primary productivity, given that they correlate with δ13C minima. The delineated astronomical cycles constitute an eccentricity-based cyclostratigraphy for the Turonian part of the Scaglia Rossa. Moreover, the constructed cyclostratigraphy is anchored to numerical time by calibration with the astronomical solution La2010 (Laskar et al., 2011) and with recent radioisotopic ages from the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval near the GSSP in Colorado, USA (Meyers et al., 2012). The numerical age (93.9 ± 0.15 Ma; Meyers et al., 2012) of the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (0.75 m above the top of the Bonarelli Level in the Contessa section; Tsikos et al., 2004; Kennedy et al., 2005) is used as the pinpoint to which our astronomical time-scale is anchored. Using the anchored astronomical time-scale for the Turonian of the Umbria-Marche basin, the top of the Bonarelli Level is placed at 93.97 ± 0.25 Ma, and the boundary

  12. Northern and Central Appalachian region assessment: The Pittsburgh coal bed

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.

    1996-12-31

    Approximately 40% of the Nation`s coal is produced in the six states (Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, and Kentucky) that occupy parts of the Northern and Central Appalachian region. Coal is, and will continue to be, the primary energy commodity in this region where more than 50 coal beds and coal zones are currently being mined. About one-half of the productions is from just eight coal beds or zones. Three of these, the Pittsburgh and Upper Freeport coal beds and the Kittanning coal zone, are located in the northern part of the region. The remaining beds or zones, the Pond Creek, Fire Clay, Alma, Upper Elkhorn No. 3, and the Pocahontas No. 3, are located primarily in the central part of the region. This study is designed to utilize the data and expertise existing within the USGS and the State Geological Surveys to produce bed-specific, digital, coal resource assessments for most of the top-producing coal beds and coal zones. Unlike past USGS assessments, this study will emphasize not only the quantity of coal but also the quality of the coal. Particular attention will be paid to the geochemical parameters that are thought to adversely effect combustion characteristics and possibly have adverse effects on the environment, including ash yield, sulfur, calorific value, and, the elements listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Geochemical databases produced for the assessed beds will be augmented by new, representative, coal analyses of major, minor, and trace elements. Products will include stratigraphic and geochemical data bases, original and remaining source calculations, and comprehensive digital maps at a scale of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 of crop-line, coal thickness, coal structure, overburden thickness, mined-out areas, and geochemistry for each assessed coal beds.

  13. Centralization of a regional clinical microbiology service: The Calgary experience

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre L; Hall, Paula

    1999-01-01

    Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS) in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA) and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL). Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs) are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service. PMID:22346397

  14. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  15. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  16. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  17. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  18. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  19. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.236 Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  20. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.236 Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  1. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.236 Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  2. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.236 Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  3. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.236 Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  4. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  5. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  6. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  7. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  8. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  9. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  10. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  11. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  12. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  13. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  14. 40 CFR 81.250 - North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Kansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.250 North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  15. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  16. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  17. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  18. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  19. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  20. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  1. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  2. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  3. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  4. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  5. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  6. 40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.166 South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  7. 40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central New York Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.127 Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  8. 40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central New York Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.127 Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  9. 40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.95 Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Florida Intrastate Air...

  10. 40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.95 Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Florida Intrastate Air...

  11. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  12. Water demand studies. [central and southern California regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.; Estes, J. E.; Churchman, C. W.; Johnson, C. W.; Huning, J. R.; Rozelle, K.; Hamilton, J.; Washburn, G.; Tinney, L. R.; Thaman, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The areas of focus of the Santa Barbara and Riverside groups in conducting water demand studies are the central and southern California regional test sites, respectively. Within each test site, sub-areas have been selected for use in the making of detailed investigations. Within each of these sub-areas an in-depth evaluation is being made as to the capability of remote sensing systems to provide pertinent data relative to water demand phenomena. These more limited sub-areas are: (1) Kern County and the San Joaquin Basin; (2) Chino-Riverside Basin; and (3) the Imperial Valley. Rational for the selection of these subareas included the following: Much of the previous remote sensing research had been conducted in these areas and therefore a great deal of remote sensing imagery and pertinent ground truth for the areas was already available.

  13. Human mucin gene MUC5AC: organization of its 5'-region and central repetitive region.

    PubMed Central

    Escande, F; Aubert, J P; Porchet, N; Buisine, M P

    2001-01-01

    Human mucin gene MUC5AC is clustered with MUC2, MUC5B and MUC6 on chromosome 11p15.5. We report here the full length cDNA sequence upstream of the repetitive region of human MUC5AC. We have also determined the sequence of its large central tandem repeat array. The 5'-region reveals high degree of sequence similarity with MUC2 and MUC5B and codes for 1336 amino acids organized into a signal peptide, four pro-von Willebrand factor-like D domains (D1, D2, D' and D3) and a short domain which connects to the central repetitive region. In the central region, 17 major domains have been identified. Nine code for cysteine-rich domains (Cys-domains 1-9) and exhibit high sequence similarity to the cysteine-rich domains described in the central region of MUC2 and MUC5B. Cys-domains 1-5 are interspersed by domains enriched with serine, threonine, and proline residues. Cys-domains 1-9 are interspersed by four domains (TR1-TR4) composed of various numbers of MUC5AC-type repeats. Southern-blot analyses reveal allelic variations both in length and nucleotide sequence. The length polymorphism which is due to variable numbers of tandem repeats is located in TR1 and TR4, whereas a mutation polymorphism detected with TaqI is located in Cys-domain 6. In this study, the organization of MUC5AC has been entirely elucidated showing extensive similarity to the other chromosome 11p15 MUC genes, particularly MUC5B, and providing additional arguments for common evolution from a single ancestral gene. PMID:11535137

  14. Large cutting tools in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, central China.

    PubMed

    Kuman, Kathleen; Li, Chaorong; Li, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Handaxe-bearing sites in China are currently known to occur in a number of alluvial basins, the best known being Dingcun, Bose and Luonan. Bose in the south and Luonan in central China on the northern margin of the Qinling Mountains are most familiar to English-speaking researchers. Here we document the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR) as another major area for large cutting tools (LCTs), located in central China on the southeastern edge of the Qinling Mountains. Large cutting tools are preserved in three terraces of the Han and Dan Rivers in Hubei and Henan Provinces, with dates from ca. 0.8 Ma (millions of years ago) (Terrace 4) to the first half of the Middle Pleistocene (Terrace 3), and possibly to the Late Pleistocene (Terrace 2). This paper reports on LCTs discovered in Terraces 3 and 2, with a majority from the older terrace (and one specimen from Terrace 4). Regional environments during the Middle Pleistocene were relatively warm, humid and stable. Despite the poor quality of raw materials (predominantly quartz phyllite and trachyte for the LCTs), good examples of both handaxes and cleavers are present, plus two types of picks. The LCT technology is compared and contrasted with other Asian industries and with the Acheulean. Overall the DRR LCTs show both technological and morphological similarities with Acheulean LCTs, with some differences that are mainly attributed to raw material properties, subsistence ecology, and 'cultural drift.' The DRR LCTs expand the range of morphological variability of the East Asian material and highlight the need for greater reliance on technological analysis and raw material evaluation for best comparison of Chinese assemblages with the Acheulean tradition. PMID:25223718

  15. Central San Juan caldera cluster: regional volcanic framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    symmetrically resurgent Creede caldera, the volcanic framework for Lake Creede, has been exceptionally preserved because of rapid infilling by moat sediments of the Creede Formation, which were preferentially eroded during the past few million years. The ash-flow tuffs and caldera of the central San Juan region have been widely recognized as exceptional sites for study of explosive volcanic processes, and the results reported here provide new insights into processes of pyroclastic eruption and emplacement, geometric interrelations between caldera subsidence and resurgence, the petrologic diversity of sequential ash-flow eruptions, recurrent eruption of intermediate-composition lavas after each caldera-forming event, associated regional fault development, volume relations between ash-flow eruptions and associated calderas, the emplacement of subvolcanic batholiths, and involvement of mantle-derived mafic phases in magma-generation processes.

  16. Integrated stratigraphy of the Smirra Coring: a new reference sedimentary record for the early Paleogene from the Umbria-Marche Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtù, Antonio; Lauretano, Vittoria; Catanzariti, Rita; Galeotti, Simone; Lanci, Luca; Moretti, Matteo; Lourens, Lucas J.

    2016-04-01

    The early Paleogene represents a critical time interval in Earth's history characterized by prolonged greenhouse conditions, culminating in a series of extreme global warming events (i.e. hyperthermals), as well as large uncertainties in the Geological Time Scale. Therefore new, high-resolution, geological records are crucial in providing novel constraints on these topics. The Paleogene Umbria-Marche sections of the Northern Apennines (Italy) have shown to be suitable for integrated stratigraphy allowing regional-to-global correlations and environmental reconstructions across this time interval. Among several well-known sections, a new sedimentary record is provided by the Smirra Coring, which recovered an undisturbed sequence of rocks (~120 m from 4 overlapping holes) spanning the upper Scaglia Fms. (early Paleocene - middle Eocene) of the Umbria-Marche pelagic succession. Here we present a new, high-resolution, integrated stratigraphic framework (magnetostratigraphy, calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, physical properties, calibrated XRF core scanning and cyclostratigraphy) of the ~93 m composite section drilled in Smirra Holes 1 and 2. The succession extends almost continuously, with modest tectonic disturbance affecting its lowermost part with minor faulting. The resulting magnetic stratigraphy defines a succession of normal and reversed polarity magnetozones. The correlation of the paleomagnetic polarity sequence with the latest Geomagnetic Polarity Timescales (GPTSs; e.g. CK95, GTS 2004 and 2012), also constrained through nannofossil biostratigraphy, shows that the section spans the late Paleocene - middle Eocene from chrons C21n (~46 Ma) to C26r (~60 Ma). The overall sedimentation rates computed at Smirra are fully comparable with those from coeval sections from the Umbria-Marche Basin, ranging from ~10 m/Ma, between chrons C21n and C22n, to ~6 m/Ma, between chrons C22r and the base of the section. However, the sedimentation rates vary considerably

  17. Central America Regional Climate Change Program: Tools for Your Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Dan; Irving, Bill; Yeager, Carey

    2006-01-01

    USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team, in partnership with EPA, NASA, Oak Ridge National Lab, and the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), have had a significant impact on the region's ability to monitor, mitigate, and adapt to environmental threats. Environmental decision-making tools and data are posted on a website (SERVIR: http://servir.nsstc.nasa.pov/home.html)that provides satellite and geographic data and maps to anybody with an Internet connection. The SERVIR program has been identified as the model for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) - a major international effort to develop a 21st century system for environmental management and disaster response. In coordination with the USAID/EPA program, NASA has developed a GIs tool that enables countries to examine their forest cover and document changes on an annual basis. This information is used in calculating carbon emissions as part of greenhouse gas inventories, but also serves a valuable monitoring function. In addition, USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team in collaboration with EPA are helping countries meet their obligations as signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). EPA is assisting Central American governments to improve the quality of their greenhouse gas emission inventories reported to the UNFCCC through the development of tools and improvements in data quality. New EPA tools developed include software to automatically calculate greenhouse gas emissions for the agricultural and forestry sector inventories, determine key sources of greenhouse gas emissions, and document institutional arrangements. Several of these tools are state of the art and are comparable to tools currently used in the U.S.

  18. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.104 Section 81.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  19. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.104 Section 81.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  20. Mechanisms of fluoride release in sediments of Argentina's central region.

    PubMed

    Borgnino, L; Garcia, M G; Bia, G; Stupar, Y V; Le Coustumer, Ph; Depetris, P J

    2013-01-15

    We analyze the sources and mechanisms that control the release of fluoride from sediments collected from two types of aquatic reservoirs in the central region of Argentina: 1) mountainous rivers draining crystalline rocks from the Sierras Pampeanas ranges, and 2) shallow aquifers in loessic sediments. The assessment was performed on the basis of experimental work and the study of chemical and mineralogical characteristics of sediments in contact with F-rich waters of the studied region. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of sediments were analyzed by ICP/OES, DRX, and SEM-EDS. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the kinetics of fluoride release under variable pH and ionic composition of the solution. The enhanced release of fluoride at more acidic pH, the inhibition of release in Ca-rich solutions and the positive significant linear trends between Ca(2+) and fluoride concentrations suggest that the dissolution of a Ca/F-bearing phase (like fluorapatite) strongly controls the dynamics of fluoride in the early stages of water-sediment interaction, particularly under acidic conditions. Calculations revealed that the dissolution of an amount of FAp equivalent to that estimated in the studied sediments may widely account for the values measured in the leaching experiments at pH6, whatever the dominant cation in the solution. Under such conditions, dissolution of FAp (present as coatings onto glass surfaces or as detritic grains) is likely the major primary source of fluorine in the studied sediments. Contribution from biotite may be also considered as a source in fluvial sediments. When adequate surfaces are present the released anions may partially be scavenged from the solution by adsorption at acidic pH. Increasing alkalinity in the aquatic reservoirs may then release the adsorbed fluoride through desorption or through competition with other anionic species. Comparing both mechanisms, dissolution predominates at lower pH while desorption is the main

  1. Geomorphological evidence of recent tilting in the Central Amazonia Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibanez, Delano Menecucci; Riccomini, Claudio; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon

    2014-06-01

    Geomorphometric techniques applied to remote sensing data represent powerful tools as an aid for detecting terrain features produced by recent vertical crustal movements in a variety of landscapes. In this work, geomorphometric analysis of the Central Amazonia drainage network using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data was carried out to determine surface water loading and tectonic influence on the development of the Uatumã and Urubu river basins since the Miocene. The main objective was to detect geomorphological domains of lateral stream migration and channel sinuosity changes that could indicate recent vertical crustal movement. To achieve this, the Transverse Topographic Symmetry Factor and Sinuosity Index were applied to analyze the study area drainage network. Comparison of the geomorphological domains with structural field data and records of seismicity suggests that they are influenced by subsurface fault reactivation, which coincides in space with faults mapped in outcrops that have activated since the Miocene. This interpretation is corroborated by the spatial correspondence between these faults with domain boundaries and shapes, by river sinuosity change when crossing these boundaries, and by a high concentration of seismic activity along one of these limits. The crustal movement caused by hydrological loading can also influence such geomorphological features. Such is the case of lateral stream migrations of a domain in the opposite sense to the Amazon River flow. This may be a consequence of the more pronounced expression of hydrological loading in the Negro and Solimões river confluence region.

  2. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  3. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  4. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  5. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  6. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  7. How Did States in the Central Region Evaluate Supplemental Educational Services in 2007?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Zoe; Wegner, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    In state needs assessment meetings held in late June 2008, the leadership of two Central Region state departments of education, South Dakota and Missouri, asked Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Central to determine how the states in the region evaluate their supplemental educational service (SES) providers. Specifically, these SEA staff…

  8. Energy and development in Central America. Volume I: regional assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-02-01

    This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

  9. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  10. Determinants of deforestation in Nepal's Central Development Region.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Conway, Dennis; Yousef, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    The process of deforestation in the Central Development Region (CDR) of Nepal is diverse in space and time, with rapid deforestation still occurring in areas outside the national parks and wildlife reserves. This paper identifies the spatial driving forces (SDFs) of deforestation in the CDR for 1975-2000 using satellite data of 1975 (MSS), 1990 (TM), and 2000 (ETM+) along with socio-demographic and socioeconomic variables. Radiometrically calibrated satellite images are individually classified into seven distinct classes and merged together to cover the entire CDR. Classification accuracies are also assessed. Areas of land use and cover within the areas of each Village Development Committee (VDC) and municipality represented by GIS polygons are calculated from the classified images by overlaying vector files of 1845 polygons representing sections of VDCs and municipalities in 30-1199 m, 1200-2399 m, 2400-4999 m and >5000 m elevation levels. These elevation levels were estimated from the DEM compiled from 24 ASTER scenes taken on different dates. Only the first three elevation levels are used in the analysis because area >5000 m is under permanent snow cover where human related forestry activities are almost negligible. A transition matrix is generated for 1975-1990 using classified images of 1975 and 1990 and then this product is used to further develop another transition matrix for 1990-2000 with the classified ETM+ 2000 images as the final stage. The GIS polygon layer is overlaid on the transition matrices to calculate deforestation areas for 1975-1990 and 1990-2000. Biophysical and socioeconomic information collected from various sources is then brought into a GIS platform for statistical analyses. Six linear regression models are estimated using SAS; in effect, two models for each elevation range representing the 1975-1990 and 1990-2000 periods of change to identify SDF influences on deforestation. These regression analyses reveal that deforestation in the CDR

  11. Long regional magnetotelluric profile crossing geotectonic structures of central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaniuk, M.; Pokorski, J.; Wojdyla, M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction The magnetotelluric survey was made along a regional profile, which runs across Poland from south-west to north-east during 2005-2006 years. The profile crosses major geological structures of Central Poland, including the Variscan Externides and Variscan foredeep, the Transeuropean Suture Zone and the marginal zone of East European Craton. The main objectives of the project include identification of sub-Zechstein sedimentary structures and evaluation of resistivity distribution within the deep crust, especially at the contact of East European Precambrian Craton and Central Europe Paleozoic structures. The length of the profile is about 700 km; 161 deep magnetotelluric sounding sites were made with a medium spacing of about 4 km. Data acquisition and processing The recording of the components of natural electromagnetic field was made with a broad range of frequencies, varying from 0.0003 Hz up to 575 Hz with use of MT-1 system of Electromagnetic Instruments Incorporation. This frequency band allowed obtaining the information about geology ranging from a few dozen meters to approximately 100 km, depending on the vertical distribution of the resistivity inside geological medium. To reduce the electromagnetic noise, magnetic and electric remote reference was applied. A remote reference site was located at a distance of over 100 km of field sites. Processing of the recorded data included the estimation of the components of impedance tensor (Zxx, Zxy, Zyx and Zyy ), with use of robust type procedures. The components of the impedance tensor allowed in a subsequent step for calculation of field curves for two orientations of the measurement system (XY - described further as the TM mode and YX - TE mode) and additional parameters of the medium like skew, strike, pole diagrams etc. Recording of the vertical component of electromagnetic field (Hz) allowed calculation of tipper parameter T. Magnetotelluric soundings interpretation Geophysical interpretation of MT

  12. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  13. Regional analysis of changes in snow pack in mountainous basins in the central Danube region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Gabor; Juričeková, Katarina; Gauzer, Balazs; Hlavčová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Jan; Zsideková, Beata

    2013-04-01

    Accurate estimation of the volume of water stored in the snow pack and its rate of release is essential to predict the flow during the snowmelt period. In mountainous drainage basins water stored in the snow pack represents an important component of the water budget. Two modelling tools are compared. The first, HOLV snowmelt model is developed by the Hungarian National Hydrological Forecasting Service (VITUKI NHFS) for regional assessment of snow accumulation and ablation of the central Danube. The model originates from the early 80's and it is under continuous development, while its recent distributed version over a grid with 0.1 degree resolution is in use. The snowmelt model has a flexible structure; it is able to change its own structure in function of data availability. In case when only precipitation and air temperature data are available temperature index method is used. When also other data are accessible (cloudiness, dew point, wind speed) using of energy balance model is to be preferred. If there are suitable data available for calculation of the energy terms, the energy balance method can be applied. The second semi-distributed Hron model, developed at the Slovak University of Technology was applied to a smaller sub-basin to represent spatial distribution of snow cover by simulated snow water equivalent. The upper Hron river basin with an area of 1766 km2 is located in central Slovakia. The conceptual semi-distributed tool applied contains three basic storage components with 15 calibrated parameters, as the flow routing component the cascade of linear reservoirs is used as opposed to the original simple triangular routing function. The snow sub-model uses the temperature index (degree-day) method for snow accumulation and snowmelt calculations. Uncertainty of model parameters was reduced by multi-calibration on the mean daily discharges in the basin outlet and measured stations data of snow water equivalent. Changes in the model parameters during the

  14. Geospatial database for regional environmental assessment of central Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Klein, Terry L.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Adams, Monique G.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Todorov, Todor I.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McEachron, Luke; Anthony, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the future planning needs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed environmental assessment of the effects of historical mining on Forest Service lands in central Colorado. Stream sediment, macroinvertebrate, and various filtered and unfiltered water quality samples were collected during low-flow over a four-year period from 2004–2007. This report summarizes the sampling strategy, data collection, and analyses performed on these samples. The data are presented in Geographic Information System, Microsoft Excel, and comma-delimited formats. Reports on data interpretation are being prepared separately.

  15. Phylogeography of Supralittoral Rocky Intertidal Ligia Isopods in the Pacific Region from Central California to Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Mateos, Mariana; Santamaria, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ligia isopods are widely distributed in the Pacific rocky intertidal shores from central California to central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Yet, their biological characteristics restrict them to complete their life cycles in a very narrow range of the rocky intertidal supralittoral. Herein, we examine phylogeographic patterns of Ligia isopods from 122 localities between central California and central Mexico. We expect to find high levels of allopatric diversity. In addition, we expect the phylogeographic patterns to show signatures of past vicariant events that occurred in this geologically dynamic region. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced two mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA). We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We found many divergent clades that, in general, group according to geography. Some of the most striking features of the Ligia phylogeographic pattern include: (1) deep mid-peninsular phylogeographic breaks on the Pacific and Gulf sides of Baja peninsula; (2) within the Gulf lineages, the northern peninsula is most closely related to the northern mainland, while the southern peninsula is most closely related to the central-southern mainland; and, (3) the southernmost portion of the peninsula (Cape Region) is most closely related to the southernmost portion of mainland. Conclusions/Significance Our results shed light on the phylogenetic relationships of Ligia populations in the study area. This study probably represents the finest-scale phylogeographic examination for any organism to date in this region. Presence of highly divergent lineages suggests multiple Ligia species exist in this region. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the Gulf of California and Baja peninsula are incongruent with a widely accepted vicariant scenario among phylogeographers, but consistent with aspects of alternative geological hypotheses and phylo- and biogeographic patterns of

  16. Oceanic Anoxic Event 1b: insights and new data from the Poggio le Guaine section (Umbria-Marche Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, Nadia; Sprovieri, Mario; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Gardin, Silvia; Baudin, François

    2015-04-01

    The upper Aptian to lower Albian interval (~114-109 Ma) represents a crucial period during Earth's history, with a major evolution in the nature of mid-Cretaceous tectonics, sea level, climate, and marine plankton communities. Interestingly, it also includes multiple prominent black shale horizons that are the sedimentary expression of oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1b. An high-resolution planktonic foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy in combination with an integrated study of multiple geochemical proxies (δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg, TOC, HI, CaCO3, trace elements/Al ratios) of the late Aptian-early Albian OAE 1b has been performed on the pelagic sedimentary sequence of Poggio le Guaine (Umbria-Marche Basin, central Italy). A comparison of the newly collected stable isotope carbon curve with the records from the Vocontian Basin (SE France), DSDP Site 545 and Hole 1049C provided a reliable and precise identification of the four main prominent black shale levels (113/Jacob, Kilian, Urbino/Paquier and Leenhardt) that definitively punctuate the OAE 1b. The studied record shows an increase in the marine organic carbon accumulation rate, in particular in the 113/Jacob and Urbino/Paquier levels. In the other black shales, TOC values are < 1%, with evidence of degraded marine organic matter. Completely anoxic conditions were never established during the sediment deposition, although evidence of oxygen depletion at the bottom of the basin is clearly documented by the distribution pattern of redox-sensitive trace metals. The results suggest an increase in organic carbon burial rates during the OAE 1b due to the effect of enhanced surface productivity, as supported by a major increase in Ba/Al, and reduced bottom water ventilation. Noteworthy, the Kilian and Urbino/Paquier levels from the PLG section are characterized by the absence of correlative shifts in δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg. The increase in the δ13Corg, values in these levels is explained by an increase in

  17. Groundwater modeling of the Calera Aquifer region in Central Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Calera Aquifer is the main source of water for irrigated agriculture, industrial, and drinking water purposes in the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 80% of the total groundwater extracted from the Calera Aquifer. In recent years, ...

  18. Regional Mapping of Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central Puget Sound Region, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, S. P.; Perkins, W. J.

    2005-12-01

    In the late 1980's we began development of a series of regional liquefaction susceptibility maps covering the urban areas of the central Puget Sound region, including the cities of Seattle and Tacoma. In producing these maps we used a standardized approach that utilizes 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping and analyses of geotechnical boring data and allows direct comparison of the liquefaction susceptibility assessments depicted on each map. The geologic units in a study area were grouped based on their geological and engineering characteristics, and a suite of geotechnical borings was compiled for each geologic grouping. A standard engineering analysis was used to calculate factors-of-safety from standard penetration test N-values, sample descriptions, grain-size analyses, and ground-water depths obtained from the compiled geotechnical borings. Liquefaction factors-of-safety were calculated for two magnitude 7.3 earthquake scenarios, one having a 0.15 g peak ground acceleration (PGA), and the other a 0.30 g PGA. The choice of earthquake scenarios is consistent with an intraplate earthquake similar to the 1949 Olympia and 2001 Nisqually events in the Puget Sound region. Using these factor-of-safety calculations we determined the aggregated total thicknesses of liquefiable material for each boring in a geologic grouping, and normalized these data by expressing the aggregated thicknesses as a percentage of the total penetrated thickness. A series of histograms, one for each earthquake scenario, were used to present the distribution of aggregate liquefiable thicknesses and to assign a liquefaction susceptibility to each geologic grouping. We have calibrated our analyses of liquefaction susceptibility using the liquefaction response observed during the Nisqually earthquake. We developed histograms for each geologic grouping using measured PGA's from this event and the geotechnical boring datasets compiled in the production of the previously published liquefaction

  19. Alternative No-till Rotations and Drought Mitigation Research in the Central Great Plains Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers in the dryland portion of the Central Great Plains Region make their living on land that receives 14-20 inches of precipitation annually. The evaporative demand in the region is usually 4 to 8 times that amount and so the challenge to successfully farm this region is great. The crops and lan...

  20. High School Dropout and Graduation Rates in the Central Region. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 040

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randel, Bruce; Moore, Laurie; Blair, Pam

    2008-01-01

    This report presents comprehensive and detailed information on grades 7-12 dropout rates and on high school graduation rates in the Central Region. Dropout and graduation rates are presented for the region as a whole and for each state in the region, by gender, race/ethnicity, locale, and grade. The rates provide a comprehensive reference for…

  1. Regional Art History: A Procedural Model for Research, Central Ohio 1945-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Christopher A.

    This paper documents the creation of a procedural model for researching regional art history. It focuses on the region of Central Ohio and identifies art historical resources and a sampling of artists from 1945-1995. Topics discussed include: art history in Europe and in the United States; the problem of researching regional art history; review of…

  2. Insect Pollination at North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station – Past and Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, or NCRPIS, is a joint venture among USDA-ARS, the Agricultural Experimental Stations of the 12 North Central States, and Iowa State University (ISU). As a component of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), NCRPIS is dedicated to the conse...

  3. 78 FR 45521 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and... June 17, 2013,\\1\\ the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) staff will hold a...

  4. 78 FR 53450 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and... June 17, 2013, and the Supplemental Notice issued on July 19, 2013, the Federal Energy...

  5. Mount Chacaltaya Regional GAW Station in the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaratti, Francesco; Forno, Ricardo N.; Lolli, Simone

    2010-05-01

    The Mount Chacaltaya Laboratory (MCL), located 30 km from the city of La Paz , at 5300 m asl, is well known as a cosmic ray laboratory that made important contributions to the Elementary Particles Physics in the 40's and 50's of the last century. Since its beginnings, the MCL has also hosted instruments and experiments devoted to atmospheric research and health studies at high altitude locations. In addition, the Chacaltaya glacier has attracted the interest of worldwide climatologists, due to its dramatic retreat. In fact, this glacier does not exist almost anymore. Recently, the Atmospheric Physics Laboratory (LFA-UMSA) has begun to take permanent and field measurements of some relevant atmospheric parameters at MCL, such as carbon dioxide, aerosols and ultraviolet irradiance. In this work we show some characteristics that made Chacaltaya a Regional GAW Station (CHC), recently nominated by WMO. In addition we show some pioneering steps of this project, supported by research institutes from France, Italy, Switzerland and USA. Finally, thanks to the vigorous co-operation of the Raman lidar group at Goddard Space Flight Center, a new YAG Laser is being installed, to be operated together with the "old" Alexandrite Lidar in the study of aerosols at La Paz.

  6. Training for Environmental Protection in the Lombardy and Umbria Regions. Discussion Paper No. 74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, Raul

    An increasing awareness of environmental issues and the implementation of environmental programs internationally has spurred a greater need for environmental education and training in many countries. This document is the first in a series of papers that will examine and provide insights into available national training programs for environmental…

  7. Probing the central regions of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohfink, Anne Maria

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are one of the key players in the Universe. Their energy output can strongly affect the growth of their host galaxy and can promote or suppress star formation on galactic scales. Most of the processes that determine the power of an AGN as well as the form in which that power is released take place in the immediate surroundings of its supermassive black hole, a region that is still not entirely understood. A comprehension of these inner regions is, however, crucial to any ultimate understanding of the AGN's vast influence. This dissertation explores these close-in environments of the black hole using two approaches: X-ray spectroscopy and variability studies. We begin by summarizing our current understanding of why AGN play such a significant role in galaxy formation. This is followed by a discussion of why X-ray spectroscopy is one of the best means to investigate them. We point out that, in particular, the X-ray reflection spectrum is interesting as it can directly probe parameters such as the black hole spin or the inclination of the accretion disk. Since the reflection spectrum is a broad band component, that usually only contributes a fraction of the total observed X-ray flux, the entire X-ray spectrum requires careful modeling. To perform such modeling and gain access to the parameters of the reflection spectrum, we first select a target in which the spectral decomposition is simplified by the absence of absorption - the Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9. We apply a multi-epoch fitting method that uses more than one spectrum at a time to get the best possible results on the parameters of the reflection spectrum that are invariant on human timescales. This technique enables us to tightly constrain the reflection parameters and leads us to conclude that Fairall 9 most likely possesses a composite soft X-ray excess, consisting of blurred reflection and a separate component such as Comptonization. The reflection spectrum also provides a way

  8. Vertigenesis in soils of the central chernozemic region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitrov, N. B.

    2012-09-01

    On the basis of soil studies along routes and on key plots, 35 new areas of soils with definite features of vertigenesis have been identified in Belgorod and Voronezh oblasts and in the northern part of Volgograd oblast (in the Don River basin). Earlier, vertic soils were not noted for these areas. In the studied region, their portion in the soil cover is much less than 1%. All the delineated areas of vertic soils are confined to the outcrops of swelling clay materials of different origins (marine, lacustrine, glacial, and colluvial sediments) and ages (Quaternary or Tertiary) that may be found in four landscape positions: (1) in the deep closed depressions within vast flat watersheds; (2) in the bottoms of wide hollows on interfluvial slopes and, sometimes, on steeper slopes of local ravines; (3) in the hydromorphic solonetzic soil complexes, and (4) on step-like interfluvial surfaces with the outcrops of Tertiary clays. Within the studied areas, soils with different degrees of expression (six grades) of vertic properties are present. These soils belong to the type of dark vertic soils proper and to vertic subtypes of different soil types according to the Russian soil classification system; according to the WRB system, they belong to Vertisols proper and to reference soil units with a Vertic prefix in the groups of Chernozems, Phaeozems, and Solonetzes. Statistical data on the morphometric indices of the vertic properties (the depth and thickness of the soil horizons with slickensides, a wedge-shaped structure, and cracks filled with material from the upper horizons) and the depth and thickness of the Vertic horizon are analyzed.

  9. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.143 Section 81.143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.143...

  10. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.142 Section 81.142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  11. From the Ground Up: Growing Entrepreneurship in the North Central Region. RRD 191

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Mary

    2008-01-01

    More than 300 people in the North Central region added their voices to a discussion on the importance of entrepreneurship to rural community vitality, often traveling long distances to attend one of 11 listening sessions held throughout the region. Among those attending were local leaders, service providers, entrepreneurs, and educators. The…

  12. A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

  13. 40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.166 Section 81.166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.166...

  14. U.S. Higher Education Regional Accreditation Commission Standards and the Centrality of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Valerie O.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Green, Birgit L.; Raymond, Megan; Borchardt, Melody P.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed the research question "How do regional accrediting standards apply to the central role of community engagement in U.S. institutions of higher education?" Using descriptive and qualitative methods, two sources were analyzed: published standards of the 6 regional accrediting commissions in the United States and the…

  15. 40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.166 Section 81.166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.166...

  16. 40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES... Region. The South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  17. REGIONAL EMISSIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN AGROECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL WEST REGION, BRAZIL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...

  18. Heat sources for tertiary metamorphism and anatexis in the Annapurna-Manaslu region, central Nepal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Philip; Le Fort, Patrick; Molnar, Peter; Pecher, Arnaud

    1992-01-01

    The metamorphic evolution of the rocks near the Main Central Thrust in the Annapurna-Manaslu region of central Nepal is examined. In this region, all three types of metamorphic features can be observed: regional metamorphism, anatectic granitoids, and inverted metamorphic isograds. In this work, each phase of metamorphism is treated separately to estimate the heat sources required for each process. This approach makes it possible to identify the important parameters for each process, to draw preliminary conclusions about the heat sources required for each of these phases, and to determine which parameters need to be measured more precisely in order to constrain these heat sources.

  19. Regional Comparative Unit Cost Studies for Maintenance and Operation of Physical Plants in Universities and Colleges in Central States Region and Rocky Mountain Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators, Corvallis, OR.

    Presented in this document are data pertaining to maintenance and operations costs at colleges and universities in the central states region and the Rocky Mountain region. The major accounts included in the cost analysis are: (1) physical plant administration, (2) building maintenance, (3) custodial services, (4) utilities, (5) landscape and…

  20. The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies

  1. Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

    The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.

  2. Urban impacts on regional carbonaceous aerosols: case study in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Tate E; Sheesley, Rebecca J

    2014-08-01

    Rural and background sites provide valuable information on the concentration and optical properties of organic, elemental, and water-soluble organic carbon (OC, EC, and WSOC), which are relevant for understanding the climate forcing potential of regional atmospheric aerosols. To quantify climate- and air quality-relevant characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in the central United States, a regional background site in central Texas was chosen for long-term measurement. Back trajectory (BT) analysis, ambient OC, EC, and WSOC concentrations and absorption parameters are reported for the first 15 months of a long-term campaign (May 2011-August 2012). BT analysis indicates consistent north-south airflow connecting central Texas to the Central Plains. Central Texas aerosols exhibited seasonal trends with increased fine particulate matter (< 2.5 microm aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) and OC during the summer (PM2.5 = 10.9 microg m(-3) and OC = 3.0 microg m(-3)) and elevated EC during the winter (0.22 microg m(-3)). When compared to measurements in Dallas and Houston, TX, central Texas OC appears to have mixed urban and rural sources. However central Texas EC appears to be dominated by transport of urban emissions. WSOC averaged 63% of the annual OC, with little seasonal variability in this ratio. To monitor brown carbon (BrC), absorption was measured for the aqueous WSOC extracts. Light absorption coefficients for EC and BrC were highest during summer (EC MAC = 11 m2 g(-1) and BRC MAE365 = 0.15 m2 g(-1)). Results from optical analysis indicate that regional aerosol absorption is mostly due to EC with summertime peaks in BrC attenuation. This study represents the first reported values of WSOC absorption, MAE365, for the central United States. Implications: Background concentration and absorption measurements are essential in determining regional potential radiative forcing due to atmospheric aerosols. Back trajectory, chemical, and optical analysis of PM2.5 was used to

  3. Monoclonal antibody evidence for structural similarities between the central rod regions of actinin and dystrophin.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T M; Ellis, J M; Ginjaar, I B; van Paassen, M M; van Ommen, G J; Moorman, A F; Cartwright, A J; Morris, G E

    1990-10-15

    A monoclonal antibody, MANDYS141, binds to both dystrophin and actinin on Western blots (SDS-denatured), but only to actinin in frozen sections of human muscle (native conformation). It differs from a polyclonal cross-reacting antiserum in that it binds to several muscle isoforms of actinin (smooth, fast and slow) from man, mouse and chicken and recognises a quite different part of the proposed triple-helical region of dystrophin (amino acids 1750-2248). The results suggest that structural homologies between actinin and dystrophin occur more than once in their central helical regions and provide experimental support for an actinin-like central rod model for dystrophin. PMID:1699800

  4. Rainfall Induced Natural Disaster in Central America, a challenge for Regional Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estuardo Guinea Barrientos, Héctor; Swain, Ashok

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall induced natural disasters rank first among all natural disasters in Central America. According to the records of the EM-DAT international database, 248 out of 486 disasters registered in Central America were disasters triggered by rainfall invents, in countries like Belize and Honduras, rainfall-induced natural disasters, mainly floods and landslides, account for more than 90% of the total number of casualties as well as the economic damage of all the disasters. Due to the natural conditions of the Central American Isthmus, precipitation events often struck more than one country at the time, for example Hurricane Mitch in 1998 affected the entire Central American region causing more than 18,000 casualties. In this context, the Central America countries have been working on joint programs and policies aiming transboundary cooperation and management of natural disasters, a clear example of this effort is CEPREDENAC which is the intergovernmental body with the mandate of promoting activities, projects and programs towards reduction of the risks to disasters in order to avoid loss of life and economic assets in the Central America, however, transnational management face several challenges that fall mostly in the political, economical and technical areas. In this paper we described and analyzed the rainfall induced natural disasters, their impacts and the inherent management challenges in the Central American context. Key words: Central America, Natural Disasters, Risk Management, International Cooperation

  5. Central Atlantic regional ecological test site: A prototype regional environmental information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A comparison of photomorphic regions from an uncontrolled ERTS-1 mosaic of CARETS to land use areas on a map published in the National Atlas revealed close correlations in non-urban regions. Such regional scale analysis of ERTS-1 data has the potential for providing an economical sampling strategy for selecting sites for more detailed field measurements if other environmental variables can be correlated with patterns on ERTS-1 imagery. ERTS-1 imagery has also revealed for the first time the appearance of CARETS during the winter months. Investigators have identified extensive areas of conifers, which have previously been indistinguishable from deciduous vegetation. Imagery has also shown very clearly the extent of snow cover at a particular time over the region. The evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery used for the land use mapping of the shore zone of CARETS, has shown that the presence or absence of elements of an hierarchal system of shoreline landforms can help identify areas of potential rapid change. Changes in land use class distributions on the Barrier Islands signify the environmental response to natural and man-caused processes. Both environmental vulnerability and sensitivity can be estimated from the repetitive ERTS-1 coverage of long reaches of the CARETS coast. Results indicate potential applications to land use planning, management, and regional environmental quality analysis.

  6. Early Holocene basinal sediments of the Dakhleh Oasis region, south central Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, Ian A.

    1989-09-01

    Twenty samples of artifactual ostrich eggshell and hearth charcoal, firmly to loosely associated with basinal lacustrine, playa, and sand sheet sediments in the Dakhleh Oasis region of south-central Egypt, yield radiocarbon ages between ca. 8800 and ca. 4700 yr B.P. The sediments record variable sedimentary responses to an early Holocene pluvial interval in this virtually rainless region. Differences of hydrogeology and morphometry among and within basin types complicate paleoclimatic interpretation.

  7. Spatial Distribution Of Cs-137 In Surface Soils On Some Central Rhodopes Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Hr. G.; Srentz, A. K.; Balabanov, N. P.

    2007-04-01

    The subject of investigation are soils from region around village Kiselchovo, town Smolyan, villages Narechen, Bachkovo, Laki, Kosovo, Dobralak, Central Rhodopes region. The samples have been collected from natural soils at a depth of 0-10 cm. The samples have been analyzed for the content of technogenical radionuclide Cs-137. The measurements were taken by precise gamma ray spectrometer. Based on the conducted research an inference can be made that there are radioactive contamination (up to 30 times over the background level).

  8. Spatial Distribution Of Cs-137 In Surface Soils On Some Central Rhodopes Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Hristov, Hr. G.; Srentz, A. K.; Balabanov, N. P.

    2007-04-23

    The subject of investigation are soils from region around village Kiselchovo, town Smolyan, villages Narechen, Bachkovo, Laki, Kosovo, Dobralak, Central Rhodopes region. The samples have been collected from natural soils at a depth of 0-10 cm. The samples have been analyzed for the content of technogenical radionuclide Cs-137. The measurements were taken by precise gamma ray spectrometer. Based on the conducted research an inference can be made that there are radioactive contamination (up to 30 times over the background level)

  9. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.143 Section 81.143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  10. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.142 Section 81.142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  11. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.143 Section 81.143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  12. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.143 Section 81.143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  13. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.143 Section 81.143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  14. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.142 Section 81.142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  15. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.142 Section 81.142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  16. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.142 Section 81.142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  17. THE EXTENT OF MINE DRAINAGE INTO STREAMS OF THE CENTRAL APPALACHIAN AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are contaminating streams throughout the United States with acidic and metal contaminated waters and sediments. The extent of mining impacts on streams of the coal bearing region of the Central Appalachians and the metal bearing...

  18. Institutional Innovation and Public Extension Services Provision: The Marche Regional Administration Reform in Central Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascucci, Stefano; De Magistris, Tiziana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of the MRA reform we used a methodological approach based on three steps: (i) first we applied a desk analysis to sketch the…

  19. Cucurbit germplasm collections at the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, USA is one of four primary Plant Introduction Stations in the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), and has responsibility for maintenance, regeneration, characterization, and distribution of the NPGS Cucumis and Cucurbi...

  20. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  1. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section 81.247 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... portions of the 1956 Election Districts 7-17, inclusive, and Election District 24 as described in...

  2. Best Management Practices for Remediation/Restoration of Degraded Soils in the Central Great Plains Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmlands in the Central Great Plains Region (CGPR) have lost topsoil through wind and water erosion induced by tillage and poor soil management (Wheat-fallow management). Productivity of degraded/eroded soils can be restored using organic amendment such as manure and improved crop and soil manageme...

  3. Remediation/Restoration of Degraded Soil to Improve Productivity In The Central Great Plains Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality and productivity of some farmlands in the central Great Plains Region (CGPR) have been lost through wind and water erosion induced by tillage and poor soil management. Productivity of degraded/eroded soils can be restored using organic amendments such as manure and improved crop and soil...

  4. Orientations of central peaks in lunar craters - Implications for regional structural trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, W.

    1980-01-01

    Impact craters are dominant features on the lunar surface and all fresh craters with diameters greater than 35 km possess central peaks. Approximately half of these central peaks (54%) have either linear or arcuate geometry and display some preferential orientation. These orientations were measured for 200 lunar craters of Pre-Nectarian to Copernican age. A pervasive regional north-south trend is identified for central peak orientation, with secondary trends at + or - 20-30 deg from this axis. No evidence for regional east-west trends is found. These orientations are shown to persist in craters formed through the last 4 billion years of lunar history. A lack of coincidence between impact direction, as determined from ejecta asymmetries and peak orientation, argues for structural control by the target as a source of the linear peak morphology. This is supported by the regional and temporal persistence of preferred peak orientations. It is proposed that linear central peak orientations in lunar craters reflect a pervasive regional structural system which developed early in lunar history and has persisted through geologic time.

  5. Access to Supplemental Educational Services in the Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Zoe; Wegner, Sandra K.

    2007-01-01

    The Central Region states (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) lag behind the nation in the rate of participation in supplemental educational services that schools failing to make adequate progress for three consecutive years must offer to eligible students under the No Child Left Behind Act. This study…

  6. Source Sector and Region Contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the WRF model. Predicted AOD valu...

  7. Epidemiological Peculiarity of Septoria Species on Winter Wheat in the Central Region of the Russian Federation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency of Septoria species on the host plant and development of disease were estimated during three growing seasons on five winter wheat cultivars in the Central region of the Russian Federation. Frequency of the species in the different plant growth stages varied. During the early growth sta...

  8. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  9. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described areas (including the territorial area of...

  10. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of.... The North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial...

  11. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area...

  12. 40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of...

  13. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial...

  14. The State of Economic and Social Development in the North Central Region of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Keith D.; And Others

    Emphasizing patterns of rural economic and social activity in the North Central Region (NCR) of the U.S., this report utilizes U.S. census data to survey and analyze: population distribution; business patterns; agricultural activity; local and county government expenditures; and income distribution. Among the major findings reported are: slightly…

  15. Residual Weeds of Processing Sweet Corn in the North Central Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of weed community structure in vegetable crops of the North Central Region (NCR) is poor. To characterize weed composition of species persisting in sweet corn to harvest, hereafter called residual weeds, 175 sweet corn fields were surveyed in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin from 2005 to...

  16. Variation of coda wave attenuation in the Alborz region and central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, H.; Motaghi, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Hamzehloo, H.

    2010-06-01

    More than 340 earthquakes recorded by the Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran (IGUT) short period stations from 1996 to 2004 were analysed to estimate the S-coda attenuation in the Alborz region, the northern part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogen in western Asia, and in central Iran, which is the foreland of this orogen. The coda quality factor, Qc, was estimated using the single backscattering model in frequency bands of 1-25 Hz. In this research, lateral and depth variation of Qc in the Alborz region and central Iran are studied. It is observed that in the Alborz region there is absence of significant lateral variation in Qc. The average frequency relation for this region is Qc = 79 +/- 2f1.07+/-0.08. Two anomalous high-attenuation areas in central Iran are recognized around the stations LAS and RAZ. The average frequency relation for central Iran excluding the values of these two stations is Qc = 94 +/- 2f0.97+/-0.12. To investigate the attenuation variation with depth, Qc value was calculated for 14 lapse times (25, 30, 35,... 90s) for two data sets having epicentral distance range R < 100 km (data set 1) and 100 < R < 200 km (data set 2) in each area. It is observed that Qc increases with depth. However, the rate of increase of Qc with depth is not uniform in our study area. Beneath central Iran the rate of increase of Qc is greater at depths less than 100 km compared to that at larger depths indicating the existence of a high attenuation anomalous structure under the lithosphere of central Iran. In addition, below ~180 km, the Qc value does not vary much with depth under both study areas, indicating the presence of a transparent mantle under them.

  17. Crustal structure of the south-central Andes Cordillera and backarc region from regional waveform modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, P.; Beck, S.; Zandt, G.

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the crustal structure in the Andes Cordillera and its backarc region using regional broadband waveforms from crustal earthquakes. We consider seismic waveforms recorded at regional distances by the CHile-ARgentina Geophysical Experiment (CHARGE) during 2000-2002 and utilize previous seismic moment tensor inversion results. For each single station-earthquake pair, we fixed the source parameters and performed forward waveform modelling using ray paths that sample the crust of the highest elevation Cordillera and the accreted terranes in the backarc region. Our investigation indicates that synthetic seismograms for our earthquake-station geometry are most sensitive to crustal parameters and less sensitive to mantle parameters. We performed a grid search around crustal thickness, P-wave seismic velocity (Vp) and P- to S-wave seismic velocity ratio (Vp/Vs), fixing mantle parameters. We evaluated this waveform analysis by estimating an average correlation coefficient between observed and synthetic data over the three broadband components. We identified all acceptable crustal models that correspond to high correlation coefficients that provide best overall seismogram fits for the data and synthetic waveforms filtered mainly between 10 and 80 s. Our results indicate along strike variations in the crustal structure for the north-south high Cordillera with higher P-wave velocity and thickness in the northern segment (north of 33°S), and persistently high Vp/Vs ratio (>1.85) in both segments. This is consistent with a colder mafic composition for the northern segment and a region of crustal thickening above the flat slab region. In contrast, the results for the current volcanic arc (south of 33°S) agree with a warmer crust consistent with partial melt related to Quaternary volcanism presumably of an intermediate to mafic composition. A distinctive feature in the backarc region is the marked contrast between the seismic properties of the Cuyania and Pampia

  18. West Texas nursing education portal project: developing a regional centralized application system.

    PubMed

    Allen, Patricia; Billings, Lynda; Cannon, Sharon; Majors, Jennifer; Sportsman, Susan; Ballesteros, Pauline A; Bezinque, Kim; Bolton, Cathy; Cottenoir, Marla; Edwards, Carmen; Louder, Justin; O'Neal, Cynthia; Morgan, Jackolyn; Reyes, Helen; Ross, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Because of the nursing shortage and a demand for maximum enrollment, a group of five baccalaureate and seven associate degree nursing programs in West Texas first met in 2007 to form the West Texas Nursing Education Consortium (WTNEC). To emphasize the importance of scale and distance, the West Texas region is larger than all of the northeastern states combined. The founding group agreed that the first mission of WTNEC should be to pool resources in order to increase admission and graduation rates for WTNEC schools. Two years later, this mission is being accomplished by the implementation of a plan designed to increase participating schools' admissions, retention, and graduation rates. A grant proposal was written and funded to develop a central regionalization of the application process for entry into WTNEC generic programs (associates degree in nursing and bachelor of science in nursing), with the goal of decreasing and possibly eliminating student vacancy rates in member schools and perhaps reducing the resources needed by each school for the admission process. The implemented centralized application system allowed prospective students to apply online to the centralized admission portal. Students maintained the freedom to choose the nursing program(s) they wanted to attend, but they were also made aware of possible openings in other participating schools. The admission portal also saved potential students time and money by submitting one centralized application, resulting in consolidation of the nursing school application process. Eleven of the 12 consortium schools participated in the centralized application system. PMID:21596353

  19. Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS): A prototype regional environmental information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Accomplishments have included: (1) completion of the research design for the USGS/CARETS demonstration project; (2) preparation of photomossics and land use maps at a scale of 1:100,000 for entire area; (3) demonstration of the feasibility of extracting several categories of land use information from ERTS-1 MSS data for a portion of the CARETS region; (4) demonstration of the feasibility of detecting some significant land use changes on ERTS-1 imagery; (5) demonstration of the feasibility of attaching environmental impact significance to the remote sensor-derived land use data; (6) delivery of land use information derived from high altitude aircraft data to the Maryland state planning agency for use in its statewide land use inventory; (7) demonstration of high interest by other use groups in the test region in products and services provided by investigation; and (8) determination of the viability of setting up a computerized geographic information system as part of the CARETS investigation, to facilitate handling of sensor-derived land use data in a variety of formats to suit user requirements.

  20. Experiments with clustering of catchments in PCA-reduced space and regionalization of a hydrological model (Central Alborz region, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Mohammad; Solomatine, Dimitri; Salajegheh, Ali; Mohseni Saravi, Mohsen; Malekian, Arash; Corzo, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the possibility of simulating time series of daily streamflows in ungauged catchments based on climatic and physiographic similarity. The study area is located in central Alborz region in Iran. Fourteen (14) proper catchments, with the area ranged between 16 to 827Km2, in this region selected for testing. After applying Principal Component Analysis for selecting the most important parameters among the different climatic and physiographic parameters, five components which could explain more than 90% of variances of the data were selected and according to the values of the coefficients in selected PCA components, five parameters including: Area, Annual Rainfall, Annual temperature, gravelius compactness coefficient and mean elevation, were selected as the measures for clustering. Then mentioned parameters entered in K-means clustering analysis method to classify the catchments. Finally the catchments divided in three different clusters. Using the well known HBV model, we built a model for the closest catchment to the center of each cluster. Then, the thirteen (13) HBV model parameters were calibrated using Genetic Algorithm. We assumed that the remained catchments in each cluster are ungauged, and using the calibrated model, the daily time series of streamflows simulated in the remained catchments in the considered cluster (as the receiver catchments). Nash Sutcliffe and RMSE indices used to comparing the simulated and recorded data. The experiments with the considered case study confirmed that the model regionalization based on the physiographic and climatic characteristics could be a useful instrument in hydrological studies. Key words: Regionalization, HBV, PCA, Cluster, Catchment, central Alborz region

  1. Central New York Library Resources Council CLRC Regional Digitization Plan. Final Report for the Preparing Central New York History for the Future LSTA Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sywetz, Betsy

    The primary goal for digitization projects sponsored by the Central New York Library Resources Council (CLRC) is enhanced access for the people of the region to digital resources created from collections in Central New York's libraries, archives and museums. The CLRC Digitization Plan provides a framework for the support of digitization activities…

  2. Climatic variability, fire, and vegetation modeling in the North American Central Grassland Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. )

    1994-06-01

    In developing an equilibrium vegetation model for assessing the sensitivity of natural vegetation to climatic change in the Central Grasslands, we encountered difficulties in establishing solely climatic determinants for grasslands. Under the normal climate, woody plant dominance was predicted for much of the region supporting open grassland at the time of European settlement. Climatic data for historic periods and a fire model were used to test whether grass dominance was promoted by (1) climatic periods distinct from the normal period, (2) by fire, or (3) by the interactive effect of both. Grass/woody ratios in test simulations exhibited spatio-temporal variation produced by complex interactions among PET, precipitation seasonality, competition for soil moisture, and fuel characteristics determining fire intensity. Results support concepts of plant community thresholds and multiple steady states in the Central Grassland region.

  3. Radon Concentration in Groundwater in the Central Region of Gyeongju, Korea - 13130

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, A. Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2013-07-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is a well known cause of lung cancer through inhalation. Nevertheless, stomach cancer can also occur if radon-containing water is ingested. This study measured the radon concentration in groundwater for drinking or other domestic uses in the central region of Gyeongju, Korea. The groundwater samples were taken from 11 points chosen from the 11 administrative districts in the central region of Gyeongju by selecting a point per district considering the demographic distribution including the number of tourists who visit the ancient ruins and archaeological sites. The mean radon concentrations in the groundwater samples ranged from 14.38 to 9050.73 Bq.m{sup -3}, which were below the recommendations by the U.S. EPA and WHO. (authors)

  4. Linear polarization observations in selected celestial zones - the central region of our Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Bignell, R.C.; Simard-Normandin, M.; Vallee, J.P.

    1988-07-01

    The Algonquin Radio Observatory and the very large array have been used to obtain the linear polarization integrated over the angular size of a radio galaxy or quasar. All sources are located in a celestial angular zone encompassing the central region of the Galaxy. In addition to the total intensity (Stokes I) flux density, the percentage and position angle of the linear polarization (Stokes Q and U) are obtained for 14 sources at several centimetric wavelengths. 15 references.

  5. Assessment of geothermal energy potential by geophysical methods: Nevşehir Region, Central Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kıyak, Alper; Karavul, Can; Gülen, Levent; Pekşen, Ertan; Kılıç, A. Rıza

    2015-03-01

    In this study, geothermal potential of the Nevşehir region (Central Anatolia) was assessed by using vertical electrical sounding (VES), self-potential (SP), magnetotelluric (MT), gravity and gravity 3D Euler deconvolution structure analysis methods. Extensive volcanic activity occurred in this region from Upper Miocene to Holocene time. Due to the young volcanic activity Nevşehir region can be viewed as a potential geothermal area. We collected data from 54 VES points along 5 profiles, from 28 MT measurement points along 2 profiles (at frequency range between 320 and 0.0001 Hz), and from 4 SP profiles (total 19 km long). The obtained results based on different geophysical methods are consistent with each other. Joint interpretation of all geological and geophysical data suggests that this region has geothermal potential and an exploration well validated this assessment beyond doubt.

  6. Breakup of Pangaea and plate kinematics of the central Atlantic and Atlas regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schettino, Antonio; Turco, Eugenio

    2009-08-01

    and the conjugate margin of Nova Scotia. The inversion of the Atlas rift and the subsequent formation of the Atlas mountain belt occurred during the Oligocene-early Miocene time interval. In the central Atlantic, this event was associated with higher spreading rates of the ridge segments north of the Atlantis FZ. An estimate of 170 km of dextral offset of Morocco relative to northwest Africa, in the central Atlantic, is required by an analysis of marine magnetic anomalies. Five plate tectonic reconstructions and a computer animation are proposed to illustrate the late Triassic and Jurassic process of breakup of Pangaea in the central Atlantic and Atlas regions.

  7. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties and Zoogeographical Composition of the Family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian region. 72 species belonging to seven subfamilies and 25 genera were identified. The major part of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is formed by the subfamilies Elaterinae and Cardiophorinae. The genus Cardiophorus was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is partially consistent with known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Central Anatolian region shares most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic as does the Elateridae fauna of Turkey. Detailed localities of nine species are given for the first time for Turkey, with emphasis on the Central Anatolian region. PMID:21864150

  8. Reproduction of links between circulation types and precipitation in Central Europe in regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan; Štěpánek, Petr

    2014-05-01

    The study evaluates relationships between large-scale atmospheric circulation (represented by circulation indices and circulation types derived from gridded mean sea level pressure) and daily precipitation amounts over three regions in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) with different precipitation regimes. We examine how ENSEMBLES regional climate model (RCM) simulations driven by re-analysis reproduce the observed links and capture differences in the links between the regions (lowlands vs. highlands) and seasons. We study the links of circulation to (i) mean precipitation over the regions, (ii) probability of wet days, and (iii) probability of extreme daily precipitation (exceeding threshold defined by a high quantile of precipitation distribution in a given season). Relatively strong links between atmospheric circulation and the precipitation characteristics are found in the observed data. The links are generally more pronounced for highland than lowland regions. More wet days and higher precipitation amounts are found for cyclonic and stronger flows, and for westerly and north-easterly flows. The RCMs are generally able to capture basic features of the links; nevertheless, they have difficulties to reproduce some more specific features and differences in the links between the regions. The results also suggest that good performance in some precipitation characteristics may be due to compensating errors rather than model's perfection. Reference: Plavcová E., Kyselý J., Štěpánek P., 2014: Links between circulation types and precipitation in Central Europe in the observed data and regional climate model simulations. International Journal of Climatology, doi 10.1002/joc.3882.

  9. Sulcus-Based MR Analysis of Focal Cortical Dysplasia Located in the Central Region

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Pauline; Mellerio, Charles; Chassoux, Francine; Rivière, Denis; Cachia, Arnaud; Charron, Sylvain; Lion, Stéphanie; Mangin, Jean-François; Devaux, Bertrand; Meder, Jean-François; Oppenheim, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are mainly located in the frontal region, with a particular tropism for the central sulcus. Up to 30% of lesions are undetected (magnetic resonance [MR]-negative FCD patients) or belatedly diagnosed by visual analysis of MR images. We propose an automated sulcus-based method to analyze abnormal sulcal patterns associated with central FCD, taking into account the normal interindividual sulcal variability. Methods We retrospectively studied 29 right-handed patients with FCD in the central region (including 12 MR negative histologically-confirmed cases) and 29 right-handed controls. The analysis of sulcal abnormalities from T1-weighted MR imaging (MRI) was performed using a graph-based representation of the cortical folds and an automated sulci recognition system, providing a new quantitative criterion to describe sulcal patterns, termed sulcus energy. Results Group analysis showed that the central sulcus in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the FCD exhibited an abnormal sulcal pattern compared with controls (p = 0.032). FCDs were associated with abnormal patterns of the central sulci compared with controls (p = 0.006), a result that remained significant when MR-negative and MR-positive patients were considered separately, while the effects of sex, age and MR-field were not significant. At the individual level, sulcus energy alone failed to detect the FCD lesion. We found, however, a significant association between maximum z-scores and the site of FCD (p = 0.0046) which remained significant in MR-negative (p = 0.024) but not in MR-positive patients (p = 0.058). The maximum z-score pointed to an FCD sulcus in four MR-negative and five MR-positive patients. Conclusions We identified abnormal sulcal patterns in patients with FCD of the central region compared with healthy controls. The abnormal sulcal patterns ipsilateral to the FCD and the link between sulcus energy and the FCD location strengthen the interest of sulcal

  10. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  11. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  12. Early regional LGM (MIS 3) reflected in Central European Loess-Paleosol Sequences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoeller, Ludwig; Fuchs, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The age of the "Brandenburg Phase", representing the regional LGM in Northern Germany and Poland, has been under debate. Evidence was found recently by OSL dating that it occurred during late MIS 3. In a new loess profile in the famous quarry of Nußloch south of Heidelberg (Germany) an exceptionally thick (6 m) loess-paleosol sequence (LPS) starts with a boreal brown soil regionally known as "Lohne soil", which terminates the Middle Pleniglacial LPS, according to classical stratigraphies. This paleosol is overlain by loess beds interbedding with weakly developed tundra-gley soils of typically Upper Pleniglacial habitus. Mean OSL ages from quartz fine and middle grains range between ca. 29 ka and ca. 35 ka in this part of the section which is much thicker than in previously studied corresponding parts of the loess stratigraphy at the Nußloch site. Our surprising dating results are, however, supported by recently dated loess beds in the Central European corridor between the ice margin of the Brandenburg Phase and the Northern Alpine LGM terminal moraines. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions point to cold but rather humid climatic conditions favouring rapid ice advance. We, thus, hypothesize that the rapid advance of Scandinavian ice into northern Central Europe which may have occurred ca. 10 ka prior to the global LGM, is reflected in some well-preserved Central European loess sections covering the last glacial cycle.

  13. A Study of Regional Wave Source Time Functions of Central Asian Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Perry, M. R.; Schult, F. R.; Wood, J.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the extensive use of seismic regional waves in seismic event identification and attenuation tomography, very little is known on how seismic sources radiate energy into these waves. For example, whether regional Lg wave has the same source spectrum as that of the local S has been questioned by Harr et al. and Frenkel et al. three decades ago; many current investigators assume source spectra in Lg, Sn, Pg, Pn and Lg coda waves have either the same or very similar corner frequencies, in contrast to local P and S spectra whose corner frequencies differ. The most complete information on how the finite source ruptures radiate energy into regional waves is contained in the time domain source time functions (STFs). To estimate the STFs of regional waves using the empirical Green's function (EGF) method, we have been substantially modifying a semi-automotive computer procedure to cope with the increasingly diverse and inconsistent naming patterns of new data files from the IRIS DMC. We are applying the modified procedure to many earthquakes in central Asia to study the STFs of various regional waves to see whether they have the same durations and pulse shapes, and how frequently source directivity occur. When applicable, we also examine the differences between STFs of local P and S waves and those of regional waves. The result of these analyses will be presented at the meeting.

  14. Investigating drought over the Central Highland, Vietnam, using regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Minh Tue; Raghavan, Srivatsan V.; Pham, Duc Minh; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2015-07-01

    The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has been computed based on the monthly precipitation for different observed and modelled datasets over the Central Highland, Vietnam during the period 1990-2005. Station data from a total of 13 stations were collected from the study region and used for benchmarking to compare gridded observation data and two regional climate models (RCMs). Various characteristics of drought across the study region were analyzed using spatial and temporal distributions, number of drought events, their frequency and their deficit. The RCMs were able to capture the SPI temporal distributions of station data fairly well. The analysis from RCMs showed close estimation for the number of drought events to station data and gridded observations. In terms of Drought Deficit and frequency, the RCMs matched the station data better than gridded observations. The drought trend was carried out using a Modified Mann-Kendall trend test which yielded no clear trends that suggested the need for longer records of data. The results also highlight uncertainties in gridded data and the need for robust station data quality and record lengths. The regional climate models proved to be appropriate tools in assessing drought over the study area as they can serve as good proxies over data sparse regions, especially in developing countries, for studying detailed climate features at sub regional and local scales.

  15. Central obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease in the Asia Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio as risk factors for ischaemic heart disease and stroke in Asia Pacific populations. We undertook a pooled analysis involving six cohort studies (45 988 participants) and used Cox proportional hazards regression to assess the associations of the four anthropometric indices with stroke and ischaemic heart disease by age, sex and region. During a mean follow-up of six years, 346 stroke and 601 ischaemic heart disease events (fatal and non-fatal) were documented. Overall, a one-standard deviation increase in index was associated with an increase in risk of ischaemic heart disease of 17% (95% CI 7-27%) for body mass index, 27% (95% CI 14-40%) for waist circumference, 10% (95% CI 1-20%) for hip circumference, and 36% (95% CI 21-52%) for waist-hip ratio. There were no significant differences between age groups, sex, and region. None of the four anthropometric indices had a strong association with risk of stroke. These data indicate that measures of central obesity such as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio are strongly associated with risk of ischaemic heart disease in this region. Therefore, we suggest that, along with calculation of body mass index, measures of central obesity such as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio should be undertaken routinely. PMID:16837418

  16. Solution and Crystallographic Structures of the Central Region of the Phosphoprotein from Human Metapneumovirus

    PubMed Central

    Leyrat, Cedric; Renner, Max; Harlos, Karl; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) of the family Paramyxoviridae is a major cause of respiratory illness worldwide. Phosphoproteins (P) from Paramyxoviridae are essential co-factors of the viral RNA polymerase that form tetramers and possess long intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). We located the central region of HMPV P (Pced) which is involved in tetramerization using disorder analysis and modeled its 3D structure ab initio using Rosetta fold-and-dock. We characterized the solution-structure of Pced using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and carried out direct fitting to the scattering data to filter out incorrect models. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) and ensemble optimization were employed to select correct models and capture the dynamic character of Pced. Our analysis revealed that oligomerization involves a compact central core located between residues 169-194 (Pcore), that is surrounded by flexible regions with α-helical propensity. We crystallized this fragment and solved its structure at 3.1 Å resolution by molecular replacement, using the folded core from our SAXS-validated ab initio model. The RMSD between modeled and experimental tetramers is as low as 0.9 Å, demonstrating the accuracy of the approach. A comparison of the structure of HMPV P to existing mononegavirales Pced structures suggests that Pced evolved under weak selective pressure. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using SAXS in combination with ab initio modeling and MDS to solve the structure of small, homo-oligomeric protein complexes. PMID:24224051

  17. SALTRA: a regional program for workers' health and sustainable development in Central America.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, Catharina; Aragón, Aurora; Elgstrand, Kaj; Flores, Reinaldo; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the university-based Program on Work and Health in Central America, SALTRA, was launched to build national and regional capacities in occupational safety and health with the goal of preventing and reducing poverty in Central America. SALTRA has implemented 20 projects including action projects in priority sectors (e.g., construction, sugarcane, hospitals, migrant coffee workers); strengthening of surveillance (occupational health profiles, carcinogenic exposures, fatal injuries and pesticides); a participatory model for training and risk monitoring by workers; building occupational health capacity for professionals, employers, and workers, with collaborating networks between the countries; strengthening of universities in work, environment, and health; studies of serious occupational and environmental situations; communication channels; and continued efforts to raise political awareness. SALTRA has placed issues of workers' health on political, business, and academic agendas throughout the region and has laid the foundations for achieving substantial future improvements in health conditions of all workers in the region. External evaluators envisioned SALTRA as an innovative development model. PMID:21905390

  18. Bias in the centroid moment tensor for central Asian earthquakes: Evidence from regional surface wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Howard J.

    1998-11-01

    Surface waves recorded on the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) station Urumqi (WMQ) are analyzed for 26 centroid moment tensor (CMT) earthquakes located within an epicentral distance of 1300 km. Applying a simple grid search method for source parameter retrieval, I obtain revised estimates of the focal depth, fault strike, and seismic moment (M0) from amplitude spectra of Love and Rayleigh waves and compare these estimates with the CMT best double-couple solutions. The comparisons show that residuals are unbiased for focal depth and fault strike, where population spreads are ±13 km and ±17°, respectively. On the other hand, M0 estimates are found to be biased, with CMT M0 larger than regional estimates by an average of 0.27±0.04 log units. The results for focal depth and strike are consistent with previous global and regional studies comparing independent estimates with CMT results. Recent full-waveform modeling studies for central Asian earthquakes support the findings of bias in M0 estimates. I suggest that causes for M0 bias may be related to great thicknesses of continental crust in Hindu Kush and Tien Shan regions and to data censoring practices at small magnitudes. M0:mb scaling relationships for central Asian earthquakes show better agreement with western U.S. scaling when M0 estimates determined in this study are used.

  19. Tectonic style and regional relations of the central Nevada thrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, J.M. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Taylor, W.J. . Dept. of Geoscience); Fryxell, J.E. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Schmitt, J.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Vandervoort, D.S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Walker, J.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The Mesozoic( ) Central Nevada thrust belt (CNTB) lies in a geographically and structurally central position in the Great Basin. Understanding the structural geometries and timing of deformation in this belt is critical to reconstructing pre-thrusting sedimentary basins, post-thrusting sediment source locations and the syn- to post-thrusting Cretaceous Newark Canyon basins. The authors recent detailed studies in the thrust belt better constrain the structural geometries, associated sedimentary basins and timing of deformation in the CNTB. They suggest that contractile structures in the CNTB east and south of Railroad Valley are part of the same orogen as the Eureka belt which north and west of that valley. Therefore, the CNTB is an essentially continuous orogen for 250 km along strike, from Alamo to Eureka, Nevada. The structural style effects paleogeographic reconstructions. The CNTB is made up of a stack of at least six separate thrusts. Many thrusts have long ramps that cut from the Mississippian into the Cambrian ([approximately] 2,200 m of section) suggesting large vertical uplifts. Shortening in the CNTB is bracketed between Late Permian and Cretaceous, but regional correlations indicate it may be Jurassic to Cretaceous. The youngest contraction is no younger than Early Cretaceous as indicated by (1) folding and thrusting of parts of the Albian-Aptian Newark Canyon Formation, (2) intrusion of an anticline by the 84.6 Ma (new date) Troy stocked, and (3) intrusion of another anticline by the [approximately]100 Ma (new date) Lincoln stock. The onset of shortening is more difficult to ascertain because Triassic and Jurassic rocks are not present. Rocks as young as Pennsylvanian in the south and Permian in central region are deformed. A Jurassic age is based on regional correlations with the Jurassic Elko orogenic belt.

  20. Convective transport over the central United States and its role in regional CO and ozone budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ellis, William G., Jr.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Scala, John R.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Mcnamara, Donna P.; Simpson, Joanne

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed a regional budget for boundary layer carbon monoxide over the central United States (32.5 deg - 50 deg N, 90 deg - 105 deg W), emphasizing a detailed evaluation of deep convective vertical fluxes appropriate for the month of June. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer (upward) dominates other components of the CO budget, e.g., downward convective transport, loss of CO by oxidation, anthropogenic emissions, and CO produced from oxidation of methane, isoprene, and anthropogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Calculations of deep convective venting are based on the method pf Pickering et al.(1992a) which uses a satellite-derived deep convective cloud climatology along with transport statistics from convective cloud model simulations of observed prototype squall line events. This study uses analyses of convective episodes in 1985 and 1989 and CO measurements taken during several midwestern field campaigns. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer over this moderately polluted region provides a net (upward minus downward) flux of 18.1 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month to the free troposphere during early summer. Shallow cumulus and synoptic-scale weather systems together make a comparable contribution (total net flux 16.2 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month). Boundary layer venting of CO with other O3 precursors leads to efficient free troposheric O3 formation. We estimate that deep convective transport of CO and other precursors over the central United States in early summer leads to a gross production of 0.66 - 1.1 Gmol O3/d in good agreement with estimates of O3 production from boundary layer venting in a continental-scale model (Jacob et al., 1993a, b). On this respect the central U.S. region acts as s `chimney' for the country, and presumably this O3 contributes to high background levels of O3 in the eastern United States and O3 export to the North Atlantic.

  1. Telemagmatic metamorphism superimposed on regional metamorphism: Evidence from coals in central China

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Coal (Lower Permian No. 1) in north-central Henan province, central China, exhibits a zoned rank distribution. The rank varies between high-volatile bituminous and anthracite. Highest rank coal occurs in a northwest-southeast trending zone that cuts across the center of the study area. Coal rank decreases from this central zone towards both the northeast and southwest. Core data indicate that the anthracite is currently overlain by over 4,600 m of sedimentary cover, which represents more or less continuous sedimentation during the Permian and Triassic. In the lower rank area to the southwest, erosion has removed all but approximately 1,000 m of strata. The rank distribution in this area has been attributed to regional metamorphism by previous workers as the higher coal rank coincides with the thicker strata. However, this study reveals that anthracite in the area has a much higher vitrinite reflectance, between 3--6% (Ro max, in oil), with some locations exhibiting reflectances greater than 6%. Petrographically, the anthracite is characterized by well developed pores (5--10 [mu]m in diameter) and mosaic structure. It is suggested that the higher heat flow is due to the presence of deep-seated plutons. It is proposed that coal metamorphism in this area involved three stages: (1) Pre-orogenic (early Permian-late Triassic). Regional metamorphism produced coals of subbituminous to high-volatile bituminous rank; (2) Orogenic (early Jurassic-late Cretaceous). Telemagmatic metamorphism resulted in zones of higher rank coal (medium volatile through anthracite rank); (3) Post-orogenic (Tertiary-Quaternary). Shallow burial depth due to the tectonic uplift followed by erosion had a negligible effect on coal rank. It is suggested, therefore, that coalification in this area is the result of regional metamorphism overprinted by telemagmatic metamorphism.

  2. Crustal structure of the Pannonian-Carpathian region, Central Europe, from ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Carpathian Basins Project Working Group

    2010-12-01

    The Pannonian Basin of Central Europe is a major extensional basin surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains. During the evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region, extension of the crust and lithosphere created several inter-related basins of which the Pannonian basin is the largest. Imaging the seismic velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle may help us understand the structure and geodynamic evolution of this part of central Europe. Here, we use ambient noise tomography to investigate the crust and uppermost mantle structure in the region. We have collected and processed continuous data from 56 temporary stations deployed in the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) for 16 months (2005-2007) and 41 permanent broadband stations; this dataset enables the most well-resolved images of the S-wave structure of the region yet obtained. We computed the cross-correlation between vertical component seismograms from pairs of stations and stacked the correlated waveforms over 1-2 years to estimate the Rayleigh wave Green’s function. Frequency-time analysis is used to measure the group velocity dispersion curves, which are then inverted for the group velocity maps. Our 4-10 s group velocity maps exhibit low velocity anomalies which clearly defined the major sediment depo-centers in the Carpathian region. A broad low velocity anomaly in the center of the 5 s group velocity map can be associated with the Pannonian Basin, whereas an anomaly in the southeastern region is related to the Moesian platform. Further east, the Vienna Basin can also be seen on our maps. A fast anomaly in the central region can be associated with the Mid-Hungarian line. At periods from 18 to 24 seconds, group velocities become increasingly sensitive to crustal thickness. The maps also reveal low-velocity anomalies associated with the Carpathians. The low velocity anomalies are probably caused by deeper crustal roots beneath the mountain ranges which occur due to isostatic compensation. CBP

  3. Regional draft-storage relationships for central and western Upper Peninsula of Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoimenoff, L.E.

    1972-01-01

    Regional draft-storage relationships for central and western Upper Peninsula of Michigan are presented in this report. Storage requirements for the 5- and 20-year recurrence intervals were determined using the frequency-mass curve method and daily discharge records from 15 gaging stations. The relationships will be useful in making preliminary estimates of development potential and inc comparing the development possibilities of different streams. Carryover storage was investigated and was found to be unnecessary at draft rates of less than 50 percent of the mean annual flow. Carryover storage requirements are presented for the gaging station Middle Branch Escanaba River near Ishpeming.

  4. Gamma-rays from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Central Region of the Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2009-02-01

    In this article, we review the prospects for the FERMI satellite (formerly known as GLAST) to detect gamma-rays from dark matter annihilations in the Central Region of the Milky Way, in light of the recent observations and discoveries of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. While the existence of significant astrophysical backgrounds in this part of the sky limits FERMI's discovery potential to some degree, this can be mitigated by exploiting the peculiar energy spectrum and angular distribution of the dark matter annihilation signal relative to those of astrophysical backgrounds.

  5. Vortex flows with suspended separation regions and long-range untwisted central jets

    SciTech Connect

    Abramovich, G.N.; Trofimov, R.S.

    1988-05-01

    A study is made of possible physicoaerodynamic configurations of vortical flow with suspended separation regions and untwisted central jets. Such flows are encountered in power plants (heat exchangers, combustion chambers, and chemical reactors) and in nature (tornadoes). The basic configurations of several flows of this type are described, including the structure of a flow formed by coaxial cocurrent twisted jets, the flow in a conical swirl chamber with the formation of an untwisted long-range axial jet, the flow pattern in a gas turbine engine chamber, and some considerations regarding the aerodynamics of a tornado.

  6. Decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moemken, Julia; Reyers, Mark; Buldmann, Benjamin; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate predictions on timescales from one year to one decade are gaining importance since this time frame falls within the planning horizon of politics, economy, and society. In this context, decadal predictions are of particular interest for the development of renewable energies such as wind energy. The present study examines the decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials in the framework of the MiKlip consortium ("Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen"; www.fona-miklip.de). This consortium aims to develop a model system based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) that can provide skilful decadal predictions on regional and global scales. Three generations of the decadal prediction system, which differ primarily in their ocean initialisation, are analysed here. Ensembles of uninitialised historical and yearly initialised hindcast experiments are used to assess different skill scores for 10m wind speeds and wind energy output (Eout) over Central Europe, with special focus given to Germany. With this aim, a statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is used for the regionalisation of the global datasets. Its added value is evaluated by comparison of skill scores for MPI-ESM large-scale wind speeds and SDD simulated regional wind speeds. All three MPI-ESM ensemble generations show some forecast skill for annual mean wind speed and Eout over Central Europe on yearly and multi-yearly time scales. The forecast skill is mostly limited to the first years after initialisation. Differences between the three ensemble generations are generally small. The regionalisation preserves and sometimes increases the forecast skill of the global runs but results depend on lead time and ensemble generation. Moreover, regionalisation often improves the ensemble spread. Seasonal Eout skills are generally lower than for annual means. Skill scores are lowest during summer, and persist longest in autumn. A large-scale westerly

  7. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  8. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

  9. Structural development of the central Kyrenia Range (north Cyprus) in its regional setting in the eastern Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. H. F.; Kinnaird, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed structural analysis of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic geological development of the central segment of the Kyrenia Range in its regional tectonic context is given here. The structural evidence comes from five structural traverses, outcrop observations, small-scale structures and related regional evidence. The majority of the structures are fault planes, of which a subordinate number exhibit slickenlines (fault plane data, n = 2688; with kinematics, n = 537). Additional kinematic data were obtained from C-S fabrics and folds. Small-scale structures in each stratigraphic unit were `backstripped' to reveal relative chronology. Synthesis of the structural information indicates three phases of convergence-related deformation: (1) Late Cretaceous, associated with greenschist facies metamorphism, followed by exhumation that was probably associated with WNW-ESE to ENE-WSW-trending high-angle faulting; (2) Mid-Eocene, associated with southward thrusting, coupled with ~N-S strike-slip (transfer faulting) and oblique faulting in an overall sinistral transpressive stress regime; (3) Late Miocene-earliest Pliocene, involving southward thrusting and folding, localised back-thrusting, extensive fault reactivation and large-scale segmentation of the range. Intense uplift of the Kyrenia Range took place during the Plio-Pleistocene, possibly related to the collision of the Eratosthenes Seamount with the Cyprus trench to the south of the island. The three main convergent phases relate to stages of northward subduction and diachronous continental collision affecting the northerly, active continental margin of the Southern Neotethys.

  10. Regional trends in mercury distribution across the Great Lakes states, north central USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nater, Edward A.; Grigal, David F.

    1992-07-01

    CONCENTRATIONS of mercury in the environment are increasing as a result of human activities, notably fossil-fuel burning and incineration of municipal wastes. Increasing levels of mercury in aquatic environments and consequently in fish populations are recognized as a public-health problem1,2. Enhanced mercury concentrations in lake sediments relative to pre-industrial values have also been attributed to anthropogenic pollution. It is generally assumed that atmospheric mercury deposition is dominated by global-scale processes, consequently being regionally uniform. Here, to the contrary, we report a significant gradient in concentrations and total amounts of mercury in organic litter and surface mineral soil along a transect of forested sites across the north central United States from northwestern Minnesota to eastern Michigan. This gradient is accompanied by parallel changes in wet sulphate deposition and human activity along the transect, suggesting that the regional variation in mercury content is due to deposition of anthropogenic mercury, most probably in particulate form.

  11. Estimating annual suspended-sediment loads in the northern and central Appalachian Coal region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple-regression equations were developed for estimating the annual suspended-sediment load, for a given year, from small to medium-sized basins in the northern and central parts of the Appalachian coal region. The regression analysis was performed with data for land use, basin characteristics, streamflow, rainfall, and suspended-sediment load for 15 sites in the region. Two variables, the maximum mean-daily discharge occurring within the year and the annual peak discharge, explained much of the variation in the annual suspended-sediment load. Separate equations were developed employing each of these discharge variables. Standard errors for both equations are relatively large, which suggests that future predictions will probably have a low level of precision. This level of precision, however, may be acceptable for certain purposes. It is therefore left to the user to asses whether the level of precision provided by these equations is acceptable for the intended application.

  12. Projecting the vegetation response to climatic change in the North American Central Grasslands Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. )

    1993-06-01

    An interdisciplinary modeling effort is underway in which high-resolution climate change projections will drive the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System (MAPSS) to simulate vegetation change in the Central Grasslands Region. MAPSS calculates a complete site water balance and solves for the leaf area (LAI) of both woody and grass lifeforms in full competition for both light and water. Fire is a necessary constraint on simulated shrub LAI throughout much of the grasslands region, and incorporation of weather variability is critical for obtaining accurate tree/grass LAI ratios in the Prairie Peninsula. Initial estimates of the potential impact of climatic change include significant changes in both lifeform LAI and the distribution of subformation vegetation types, but the magnitude and even the direction of change varies with the climate scenario and with assumptions concerning wind speed and plant water-use efficiency.

  13. Intraspecific phylogeography of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in the central Rocky Mountain region of North America.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gregory M; Den Bussche, Ronald A; McBee, Karen; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Jones, Cheri A

    2005-11-01

    We used variation in a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region to examine phylogeography of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, a boreal-adapted small mammal in the central Rocky Mountain region. AMOVA revealed that 65.66% of genetic diversity was attributable to variation within populations, 16.93% to variation among populations on different mountain ranges, and 17.41% to variation among populations within mountain ranges. Nested clade analysis revealed two major clades that likely diverged in allopatry during the Pleistocene: a southern clade from southern Colorado and a northern clade comprising northern Colorado, Wyoming, eastern Utah, and eastern Idaho. Historically restricted gene flow as a result of geographic barriers was indicated between populations on opposite sides of the Green River and Wyoming Basin and among populations in eastern Wyoming. In some instances genetic structure indicated isolation by distance. PMID:16247688

  14. Spectra of double-cumulative photons in the central rapidity region at high transverse momenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, I. G.; Golubev, A. A.; Goryachev, V. S.; Dzubenko, G. B.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Zhigareva, N. M.; Kiselev, S. M.; Mikhaylov, K. R.; Morozova, E. A.; Polozov, P. A.; Prokudin, M. S.; Romanov, D. V.; Svirida, D. N.; Stavinsky, A. V.; Stolin, V. L.; Sharkov, G. B.

    2015-11-01

    The spectra of photons produced in the interaction between carbon ions of kinetic energy 2.0 and 3.2 GeV per nucleon and beryllium nuclei were measured at the FLINT facility by means of electromagnetic calorimeters that is deployed at the accelerator of the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow). The spectra in question were measured in the central rapidity region (at angles between 35° and 73° in the laboratory frame) at photon energies of 1 to 3 GeV by using a cumulative-photon trigger. An analysis of the data obtained in this way reveals that the interaction of multinucleon fluctuation in the projectile nucleus with a multinucleon fluctuation in the target nucleus is a dominant process that leads to photon production in the measured region of angles and momenta. As a development of the generally accepted terminology, an interaction of this type may be called a double cumulative interaction.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the central star forming region in NGC 1140 (exp 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Deidre A.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Gallagher, John S. Iii

    1994-01-01

    We present broadband images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope's Planetary Camera of the central supergiant H II region in the amorphous galaxy NGC 1140. These images allow observations to a resolution of about 13 pc at the galaxy, and they reveal that its central 1/2 kpc contains 6-7 blue, luminous, compact super star clusters, many of which would be comparable in luminosity to globular clusters at the same age. A blue arc-shaped structure near the center may be a grouping of less luminous, R136/NGC 2070-sized clusters or a sheet of OB stars. Additional somewhat less luminous and redder clusters are also found farther out from the center. If these clusters are older, they too could have had luminosities comparable to those of the central six clusters at a comparable age. Thus, we find that NGC 1140 is remarkable in the number of extreme clusters that it has formed recently in a relatively small area of the galaxy. Since NGC 1140 exhibits global characteristics that are consistent with a recent merger, these clusters are likely to be a product of that event. This galaxy adds to the number of cases where rapid star formation has evidently produced super star clusters.

  16. Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a 6 year recharge study in the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas are statistically analyzed to regionalize the limited number of site-specific but year-round measurements. Emphasis is placed on easily measured parameters and field-measured data. The results of the statistical analysis reveal that a typical recharge event in central Kansas lasts 5-7 days, out of which 3 or 4 days are precipitation days with total precipitation of ??? 83 mm. The maximum soil-profile water storage and the maximum groundwater level resulting from the recharge event exhibit the lowest coefficients of variation, whereas the amount of recharge exhibits the highest coefficient of variation. The yearly recharge in the Great Bend Prairie ranged from 0 to 177 mm with a mean of 56 mm. Most of the recharge events occur during the months of April, May, and June, which coincide with the months of highest precipitation in the region. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the most influential variables affecting recharge are, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation average maximum soil-profile water storage during the spring months, average shallowest depth to water table during the same period, and spring rainfall rate. Classification methods, whereby relatively homogeneous hydrologic-unit areas based on the four recharge-affecting variables are identified, were combined with a Geographic Information Systems (ARC/INFO) overlay analysis to derive an area-wide map of differing recharge regions. This recharge zonation is in excellent agreement with the field-site recharge values. The resulting area-weighted average annual recharge for the region is 36 mm. ?? 1992.

  17. Evaluating historical climate and hydrologic trends in the Central Appalachian region of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, B. A.; Zegre, N.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is surfacing as one of the most important environmental and social issues of the 21st century. Over the last 100 years, observations show increasing trends in global temperatures and intensity and frequency of precipitation events such as flooding, drought, and extreme storms. Global circulation models (GCM) show similar trends for historic and future climate indicators, albeit with geographic and topographic variability at regional and local scale. In order to assess the utility of GCM projections for hydrologic modeling, it is important to quantify how robust GCM outputs are compared to robust historical observations at finer spatial scales. Previous research in the United States has primarily focused on the Western and Northeastern regions due to dominance of snow melt for runoff and aquifer recharge but the impact of climate warming in the mountainous central Appalachian Region is poorly understood. In this research, we assess the performance of GCM-generated historical climate compared to historical observations primarily in the context of forcing data for macro-scale hydrologic modeling. Our results show significant spatial heterogeneity of modeled climate indices when compared to observational trends at the watershed scale. Observational data is showing considerable variability within maximum temperature and precipitation trends, with consistent increases in minimum temperature. The geographic, temperature, and complex topographic gradient throughout the central Appalachian region is likely the contributing factor in temperature and precipitation variability. Variable climate changes are leading to more severe and frequent climate events such as temperature extremes and storm events, which can have significant impacts on our drinking water supply, infrastructure, and health of all downstream communities.

  18. CHARACTER AND REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF GREAT FALLS TECTONIC ZONE, EAST-CENTRAL IDAHO AND WEST-CENTRAL MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Lopez, David A.

    1985-01-01

    The Great Falls tectonic zone, here named, is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can be traced from the Idaho batholith in the Cordilleran miogeocline, across thrust-belt structures and basement rocks of west-central and southwestern Montana, through cratonic rocks of central Montana, and into southwestern-most Saskatchewan, Canada. Geologic mapping in east-central Idaho and west-central Montana has outlined a continuous zone of high-angle faults and shear zones. Recurrent fault movement in this zone and strong structural control over igneous intrusion suggest a fundamental tectonic feature that has influenced the tectonic development of the Idaho-Montana area from a least middle Proterozoic time to the present. Refs.

  19. Sororin loads to the synaptonemal complex central region independently of meiotic cohesin complexes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rocío; Felipe-Medina, Natalia; Ruiz-Torres, Miguel; Berenguer, Inés; Viera, Alberto; Pérez, Sara; Barbero, José Luis; Llano, Elena; Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Alsheimer, Manfred; Pendás, Alberto M; Losada, Ana; Suja, José A

    2016-05-01

    The distribution and regulation of the cohesin complexes have been extensively studied during mitosis. However, the dynamics of their different regulators in vertebrate meiosis is largely unknown. In this work, we have analyzed the distribution of the regulatory factor Sororin during male mouse meiosis. Sororin is detected at the central region of the synaptonemal complex during prophase I, in contrast with the previously reported localization of other cohesin components in the lateral elements. This localization of Sororin depends on the transverse filaments protein SYCP1, but not on meiosis-specific cohesin subunits REC8 and SMC1β. By late prophase I, Sororin accumulates at centromeres and remains there up to anaphase II The phosphatase activity of PP2A seems to be required for this accumulation. We hypothesize that Sororin function at the central region of the synaptonemal complex could be independent on meiotic cohesin complexes. In addition, we suggest that Sororin participates in the regulation of centromeric cohesion during meiosis in collaboration with SGO2-PP2A. PMID:26951638

  20. Study of the Seismic Cycle of large Earthquakes in central Peru: Lima Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norabuena, E. O.; Quiroz, W.; Dixon, T. H.

    2009-12-01

    Since historical times, the Peruvian subduction zone has been source of large and destructive earthquakes. The more damaging one occurred on May 30 1970 offshore Peru’s northern city of Chimbote with a death toll of 70,000 people and several hundred US million dollars in property damage. More recently, three contiguous plate interface segments in southern Peru completed their seismic cycle generating the 1996 Nazca (Mw 7.1), the 2001 Atico-Arequipa (Mw 8.4) and the 2007 Pisco (Mw 7.9) earthquakes. GPS measurements obtained between 1994-2001 by IGP-CIW an University of Miami-RSMAS on the central Andes of Peru and Bolivia were used to estimate their coseismic displacements and late stage of interseismic strain accumulation. However, we focus our interest in central Peru-Lima region, which with its about 9’000,000 inhabitants is located over a locked plate interface that has not broken with magnitude Mw 8 earthquakes since May 1940, September 1966 and October 1974. We use a network of 11 GPS monuments to estimate the interseismic velocity field, infer spatial variations of interplate coupling and its relation with the background seismicity of the region.

  1. Beam tracking simulation in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggraita, Pramudita; Santosa, Budi; Taufik, Mulyani, Emy; Diah, Frida Iswinning

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the trajectories simulation of proton beam in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron, operating with negative proton beam (for easier beam extraction using a stripper foil), 40 kV peak accelerating dee voltage at fourth harmonic frequency of 77.88 MHz, and average magnetic field of 1.275 T. The central region covers fields of 240mm × 240mm × 30mm size at 1mm resolution. The calculation was also done at finer 0.25mm resolution covering fields of 30mm × 30mm × 4mm size to see the effects of 0.55mm horizontal width of the ion source window and the halted trajectories of positive proton beam. The simulations show up to 7 turns of orbital trajectories, reaching about 1 MeV of beam energy. The distribution of accelerating electric fields and magnetic fields inside the cyclotron were calculated in 3 dimension using Opera3D code and Tosca modules for static magnetic and electric fields. The trajectory simulation was carried out using Scilab 5.3.3 code.

  2. [Supporting system for regional medical liaison and role of a central hospital].

    PubMed

    Kitano, Seigo

    2003-04-01

    The current status and future development of the supporting system for regional medical liaison and a role of the central hospital in the network were outlined. One of such supportive systems for regional medical network would be tele-medicine or tele-mentoring that include radiological and pathological diagnoses in distance, tele-surgery, and tele-education. Most of these systems are facilitated in the universities and affiliated hospitals and generally need high-cost communication equipment. Another approach is the information sharing system through the modern telecommunication network. Electronic patient record (EPR) systems are the key to achieving this and currently active in several areas. Since the recent progress in information technology (IT) is astonishing, community-based EPR systems are practical with the capability of clinical information exchange between different institutions and even with patients. The role of a central hospital in these systems must be capacious. Management and continuous operation of the system would be the most important affairs. For extending these supporting systems to the ones working in a broader area, the establishment of a "one ID for one patient" system is crucial. Strict security management of the data base and legal institution for distant medical practice still remain as the future tasks. PMID:12774744

  3. Intraseasonal variability of organized convective systems in the Central Andes: Relationship to Regional Dynamical Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, K. I.; Slayback, D. A.; Nicholls, S.; Yager, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Andes extend from the west coast of Colombia (10N) to the southern tip of Chile (53S). In southern Peru and Bolivia, the Central Andes is split into separate eastern and western cordilleras, with a high plateau (≥ 3000 m), the Altiplano, between them. Because 90% of the Earth's tropical mountain glaciers are located in the Central Andes, our study focuses on this region, defining its zonal extent as 7S-21S and the meridional extent as the terrain 1000 m and greater. Although intense convection occurs during the wet season in the Altiplano, it is not included in the lists of regions with frequent or the most intense convection. The scarcity of in-situ observations with sufficient density and temporal resolution to resolve individual storms or even mesoscale-organized cloud systems and documented biases in microwave-based rainfall products in poorly gauged mountainous regions have impeded the development of an extensive literature on convection and convective systems in this region. With the tropical glaciers receding at unprecedented rates, leaving seasonal precipitation as an increasingly important input to the water balance in alpine valley ecosystems and streams, understanding the nature and characteristics of the seasonal precipitation becomes increasingly important for the rural economies in this region. Previous work in analyzing precipitation in the Central Andes has emphasized interannual variability with respect to ENSO, this is the first study to focus on shorter scale variability with respect to organized convection. The present study took advantage of the University of Utah's Precipitation Features database compiled from 14 years of TRMM observations (1998-2012), supplemented by field observations of rainfall and streamflow, historical gauge data, and long-term WRF-simulations, to analyze the intraseasonal variability of precipitating systems and their relationship regional dynamical features such as the Bolivian High. Through time series and

  4. Central regions of LIRGs: rings, hidden starbursts, Supernovae and star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väisänen, Petri; Escala, Andres; Kankare, Erkki; Kotilainen, Jari; Mattila, Seppo; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Randriamanakoto, Zara; Reunanen, Juha; Ryder, Stuart; Zijlstra, Albert

    2012-07-01

    We study star formation (SF) in very active environments, in luminous IR galaxies, which are often interacting. A variety of phenomena are detected, such as central starbursts, circumnuclear SF, obscured SNe tracing the history of recent SF, massive super star clusters, and sites of strong off-nuclear SF. All of these can be ultimately used to define the sequence of triggering and propagation of star-formation and interplay with nuclear activity in the lives of gas rich galaxy interactions and mergers. In this paper we present analysis of high-spatial resolution integral field spectroscopy of central regions of two interacting LIRGs. We detect a nuclear 3.3 μm PAH ring around the core of NGC 1614 with thermal-IR IFU observations. The ring's characteristics and relation to the strong star-forming ring detected in recombination lines are presented, as well as a scenario of an outward expanding starburst likely initiated with a (minor) companion detected within a tidal feature. We then present NIR IFU observations of IRAS 19115-2124, aka the Bird, which is an intriguing triple encounter. The third component is a minor one, but, nevertheless, is the source of 3/4 of the SFR of the whole system. Gas inflows and outflows are detected in their nuclei locations. Finally, we briefly report on our on-going NIR adaptive optics imaging survey of several dozen LIRGs. We have detected highly obscured core-collapse SNe in the central kpc, and discuss the statistics of "missing SNe" due to dust extinction. We are also determining the characteristics of hundreds of super star clusters in and around the core regions of LIRGs, as a function of host-galaxy properties.

  5. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Impact on Elementary School Mathematics in the Central Region. Final Report. NCEE 2011-4005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randel, Bruce; Beesley, Andrea D.; Apthorp, Helen; Clark, Tedra F.; Wang, Xin; Cicchinelli, Louis F.; Williams, Jean M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted by the Central Region Educational Laboratory (REL Central) administered by Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning to provide educators and policymakers with rigorous evidence about the potential of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning (CASL) to improve student achievement. CASL is a widely used professional…

  6. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Jazeel H.; Hwang, C.-Y.; Abidin, Zamri Z.; Ibrahim, Zainol A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1–0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the 12CO(J = 1–0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt–Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation. PMID:27247251

  7. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA.

    PubMed

    Azeez, Jazeel H; Hwang, C-Y; Abidin, Zamri Z; Ibrahim, Zainol A

    2016-01-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1-0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the (12)CO(J = 1-0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt-Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation. PMID:27247251

  8. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, K.  Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a case study on 16 October 2011 to show the first observational evidence of the influence of short period gravity waves in aerosol transport during daytime over the central Himalayan region. The Doppler lidar data has been utilized to address the daytime boundary layer evolution and related aerosol dynamics over the site. Mixing layer height is estimated by wavelet covariance transform method and found to be ~ 0.7 km, AGL. Aerosol optical depth observations during daytime revealed an asymmetry showing clear enhancement during afternoon hours as compared to forenoon. Interestingly, Fourier and wavelet analysis of vertical velocity and attenuated backscatter showed similar 50-90 min short period gravity wave signatures during afternoon hours. Moreover, our observations showed that gravity waves are dominant within the boundary layer implying that the daytime boundary layer dynamics is playing a vital role in transporting the aerosols from surface to the top of the boundary layer. Similar modulations are also evident in surface parameters like temperature, relative humidity and wind speed indicating these waves are associated with the dynamical aspects over Himalayan region. Finally, time evolution of range-23 height indicator snapshots during daytime showed strong upward velocities especially during afternoon hours implying that convective processes through short period gravity waves plays a significant role in transporting aerosols from the nearby valley region to boundary layer top over the site. These observations also establish the importance of wave induced daytime convective boundary layer dynamics in the lower Himalayan region.

  9. Discriminating Mining Induced Seismicity from Natural Tectonic Earthquakes in the Wasatch Plateau Region of Central Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, J. R.; Pankow, K. L.; Koper, K. D.; McCarter, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    On average, several hundred earthquakes are located each year within the Wasatch Plateau region of central Utah. This region includes the boundary between the relatively stable Colorado Plateau and the actively extending Basin and Range physiographic provinces. Earthquakes in this region tend to fall in the intermountain seismic belt (ISB), a continuous band of seismicity that extends from Montana to Arizona. While most of the earthquakes in the ISB are of tectonic origin, events in the Wasatch Plateau also include mining induced seismicity (MIS) from local underground coal mining operations. Using a catalog of 16,182 seismic events (-0.25 < M < 4.5) recorded from 1981 to 2011, we use double difference relocation and waveform cross correlation techniques to help discriminate between these two populations of events. Double difference relocation greatly improves the relative locations between the many events that occur in this area. From the relative relocations, spatial differences between event types are used to differentiate between shallow MIS and considerably deeper events associated with tectonic seismicity. Additionally, waveform cross-correlation is used to cluster events with similar waveforms—meaning that events in each cluster should have a similar source location and mechanism—in order to more finely group seismic events occurring in the Wasatch Plateau. The results of this study provide both an increased understanding of the influence mining induced seismicity has on the number of earthquakes detected within this region, as well as better constraints on the deeper tectonic structure.

  10. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeez, Jazeel H.; Hwang, C.-Y.; Abidin, Zamri Z.; Ibrahim, Zainol A.

    2016-06-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1–0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the 12CO(J = 1–0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt–Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation.

  11. Simulating Climate Change in Central America Using PRECIS Regional Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmalkar, A. V.; Bradley, R. S.; Diaz, H. F.

    2006-12-01

    Highland tropical forests are rich in endemic species and crucial in maintaining freshwater resources in many regions. Much of their remarkable biodiversity is due to the steep climate gradients found on tropical mountains. These gradients are significantly altered due to warming, affecting many species living on the mountain slopes. Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest shows biological changes associated with changes in climatic patterns. Our goal is to understand climate change at areas of high relief in the tropics and its potential impacts on ecosystem dynamics. We address this question by focusing on Central America, which is considered to be a biodiversity hotspot. The model used is the UK Hadley Center PRECIS(Providing REgional Climates for Impact Studies) model. The model is based on HadAM3H, an improved version of the atmospheric component of the latest Hadley Center coupled AOGCM, HadCM3 and is forced at the lateral boundaries by HadAM3P GCM. The surface boundary conditions include observed SSTs and sea-ice. We carried out a baseline run (1961-1990) and a doubled CO2 run (SRES A2 2071-2100) at a resolution of 25 km (0.22°) over the region of Central America that includes several biodiversity hotspots. Model verification is performed by comparing control run results with observations and reanalysis data. Preliminary analysis shows that PRECIS has successfully captured present-day spatial and temporal climate variability that has been observed in Central America. Elevation dependency of temperature is one of the important results of this study and will be investigated in great detail. The SRES A2 run shows average warming of about 3K, with more warming at higher altitudes in general. Precipitation and relative humidity analysis shows drier conditions in the region in 2 × CO2 world. Additional techniques are being developed to better quantify model performance in areas of high relief. We plan to expand this project to other models, and to additional

  12. 2000 resource assessment of selected coal beds and zones in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Northern and Central Appalachian Basin Coal Regions Assessment Team

    2001-01-01

    This report includes results of a digital assessment of six coal beds or zones in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions that produce over 15 percent of the Nation's coal. Other chapters include an executive summary, a report on geology and mining, a report summarizing other selected coal zones that were not assessed, and a report on USGS coal availability and recoverablity studies in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions.

  13. Regional frequency analysis for mapping drought events in north-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, J. H.; Verbist, K.; Wallis, J. R.; Schaefer, M. G.; Morales, L.; Cornelis, W. M.

    2011-08-01

    SummaryDroughts are among the most important natural disasters, particularly in the arid and semiarid regions of the world. Proper management of droughts requires knowledge of the expected frequency of specific low magnitude precipitation totals for a variety of durations. Probabilistic approaches have often been used to estimate the average recurrence period of a given drought event. However, probabilistic model fitting by conventional methods, such as product moment or maximum likelihood in areas with low availability of long records often produces highly unreliable estimates. Recognizing the need for adequate estimates of return periods of severe droughts in the arid and semiarid region of Chile, a regional frequency analysis method based on L-moments (RFA-LM) was used for estimating and mapping drought frequency. Some adaptations to the existing procedures for forming homogeneous regions were found necessary. In addition, a new 3-parameter distribution, the Gaucho, which is a special case of the 4-parameter Kappa distribution, was introduced, and the analysis procedure was improved by the developments of two new software tools named L-RAP, to perform the RFA-LM analysis, and L-MAP, to map the resulting drought maps. Eight homogeneous sub-regions were delineated using the Gaucho distribution and used to construct return period maps for drought events with 80% and 40% precipitation of the normal. The study confirms the importance of a sub-regional homogeneity test, and the usefulness of the Gaucho distribution. The RFA-LM showed that droughts with a 40% precipitation of the normal have return periods that range from 4 years at the northern arid boundary of the study area to 22 years at the southern sub-humid boundary. The results demonstrate the need for different thresholds for declaring a drought than those currently in use for drought characterization in north-central Chile.

  14. Physical properties of Meridiani Sinus-type units in the central equatorial region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, Edwin L., III

    1992-01-01

    Classification and mapping of surficial units in the central equatorial region of Mars (30 degrees N to 20 degrees S, 57 degrees E to 75 degrees W) using enhanced color images and Mars Consortium data identified four major color/albedo units in the dark, reddish-gray regions that form the classical dark albedo markings of Mars, including Meridiani Sinus. The darkest, least red (relatively 'blue') materials form splotches (some with dune forms) in craters, inter-crater depressions, and part of Valles Marineris. These form the 'Dark Blue' Meridiani unit. Abundant materials that have higher albedos and are somewhat redder than the 'Dark Blue' unit have uniquely high green/(violet + red) color ratios in Viking Orbiter images. These materials, named 'Green-blue' Meridiani surround and mix with 'Dark Blue' Meridiani patches and are abundant on crater rims and local elevations. Discontinuous, patchy deposits with still higher albedos and much redder colors have morphologies classified of the Type Ib bright depositional dust streaks and sheets that were classified by Thomas et al. These dust deposits, which appear to be optically thin and patchy and are darker and not as red as other Type Ib dust deposits on Mars, and their Meridiani substrates, were designated the 'Red' Meridiani unit. Distinctive deposits that form highly eroded mesas and escarpments in northern Meridiani Sinus were named 'Light Blue' Meridiani, since they are not as red as other materials with moderately high albedos. Large areas dominated by these units form Meridiani Province in the central equatorial region of Mars.

  15. Physical properties of Meridiani Sinus-type units in the central equatorial region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Edwin L., III

    1992-12-01

    Classification and mapping of surficial units in the central equatorial region of Mars (30 degrees N to 20 degrees S, 57 degrees E to 75 degrees W) using enhanced color images and Mars Consortium data identified four major color/albedo units in the dark, reddish-gray regions that form the classical dark albedo markings of Mars, including Meridiani Sinus. The darkest, least red (relatively 'blue') materials form splotches (some with dune forms) in craters, inter-crater depressions, and part of Valles Marineris. These form the 'Dark Blue' Meridiani unit. Abundant materials that have higher albedos and are somewhat redder than the 'Dark Blue' unit have uniquely high green/(violet + red) color ratios in Viking Orbiter images. These materials, named 'Green-blue' Meridiani surround and mix with 'Dark Blue' Meridiani patches and are abundant on crater rims and local elevations. Discontinuous, patchy deposits with still higher albedos and much redder colors have morphologies classified of the Type Ib bright depositional dust streaks and sheets that were classified by Thomas et al. These dust deposits, which appear to be optically thin and patchy and are darker and not as red as other Type Ib dust deposits on Mars, and their Meridiani substrates, were designated the 'Red' Meridiani unit. Distinctive deposits that form highly eroded mesas and escarpments in northern Meridiani Sinus were named 'Light Blue' Meridiani, since they are not as red as other materials with moderately high albedos. Large areas dominated by these units form Meridiani Province in the central equatorial region of Mars.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Snowfall in Central New York - A Lake Effect Dominated Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, Justin Joseph

    Central New York is located in one of the snowiest regions in the United States, with the city of Syracuse, New York the snowiest metropolis in the nation. Snowfall in the region generally begins in mid-November and lasts until late-March. Snow accumulation occurs from a multitude of conditions: frontal systems, mid-latitude cyclones, Nor'easters, and most notably lake-effect storms. Lake effect snowfall (LES) is a difficult parameter to forecast due to the isolated and highly variable nature of the storm. Consequently, studies have attempted to determine changes in snowfall for lake-effect dominated regions. Annual snowfall patterns are of particular concern as seasonal snowfall totals are vital for water resources, winter businesses, agriculture, government and state agencies, and much more. Through the use of snowfall, temperature, precipitation, and location data from the National Weather Service's Cooperative Observer Program (COOP), spatial and temporal changes in snowfall for Central New York were determined. In order to determine climatic changes in snowfall, statistical analyses were performed (i.e. least squares estimation, correlations, principal component analyses, etc.) and spatial maps analyzed. Once snowfall trends were determined, factors influencing the trends were examined. Long-term snowfall trends for CNY were positive for original stations (˜0.46 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1) and homogenously filtered stations (0.23 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1). However, snowfall trends for shorter time-increments within the long-term period were not consistent, as positive, negative, and neutral trends were calculated. Regional differences in snowfall trends were observed for CNY as typical lake-effect areas (northern counties, the Tug Hill Plateau and the Southern Hills) experienced larger snowfall trends than areas less dominated by LES. Typical lake-effect months (December - February) experienced the greatest snowfall trend in CNY compared to other winter months. The

  17. MAPPING THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE PPN CRL 618 AT SUBARCSECOND RESOLUTION AT 350 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Yang, Chun-Hui; Sahai, Raghvendra; Sanchez Contreras, Carmen

    2013-06-20

    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at {approx}0.''3-0.''5 resolutions. Two components are seen in the 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in a 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base; and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC{sub 3}N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain millimeter-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC{sub 3}N and HCN and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in CH{sub 2}CHCN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within {approx}630 AU (0.''7) of the central star. A simple radiative transfer model is used to derive the kinematics, physical conditions, and the chemical abundances in the dense core. The dense core is expanding and accelerating, with the velocity increasing roughly linearly from {approx}3 km s{sup -1} in the innermost part to {approx}16 km s{sup -1} at 630 AU. The mass-loss rate in the dense core is extremely high with a value of {approx}1.15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The dense core has a mass of {approx}0.47 M{sub Sun} and a dynamical age of {approx}400 yr. It could result from a recent enhanced heavy mass-loss episode that ends the asymptotic giant branch phase. The isotopic ratios of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N are 9 {+-} 4 and 150 {+-} 50, respectively, both lower than the solar values.

  18. SO2 measurements at a high altitude site in the central Himalayas: Role of regional transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naja, Manish; Mallik, Chinmay; Sarangi, Tapaswini; Sheel, Varun; Lal, Shyam

    2014-12-01

    Continuous measurements of a climatically important acidic gas, SO2, were made over Nainital (29.37°N, 79.45°E; 1958 m amsl), a regionally representative site in the central Himalayas, for the first time during 2009-2011. Unlike many other sites, the SO2 levels over Nainital are higher during pre-monsoon (345 pptv) compared to winter (71 pptv). High values during pre-monsoon are attributed to the transport of air masses from regions viz. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), northern India and north-East Pakistan, which are dotted with numerous industries and power plants, where coal burning occurs. Transport from the polluted regions is evinced from good correlations of SO2 with wind speed, NOy and UV aerosol index during these periods. Daytime elevations in SO2 levels, influenced by 'valley winds' and boundary layer evolution, is a persistent feature at Nainital. SO2 levels are very much lower during monsoon compared to pre-monsoon, due to oxidation losses and wet scavenging. Despite this, SO2/NOy slopes are high (>0.4) both during pre-monsoon and monsoon, indicating impacts of point sources. The SO2 levels during winter are lower as the measurement site is cut off from the plains due to boundary layer dynamics. Further, the SO2 levels during winter nights are the lowest (lesser than 50 pptv) and resemble free tropospheric conditions.

  19. A preliminary evaluation of regional ground-water flow in south-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Sala, A. M., Jr.; Doty, G.C.; Pearson, F.J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of regional ground-water flow were investigated in a 4,500-square-mile region of south-central Washington, centered on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Hanford Reservation. The investigation is part of the Commission's feasibility study on storing high-level radioactive waste in chambers mined in basaltic rocks at a. depth of about 3,000 feet or more below the surface. Ground-water flow., on a regional scale, occurs principally in the basalt and-in interbedded sediments of the Columbia River Group, and is controlled by topography, the structure of the basalt, and the large streams--the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers. The ground water beneath the main part of the Hanford Reservation, south and west of the Columbia River, inures southeastward from recharge areas in the uplands, including Cold Creek and Dry Creek valleys, and ultimately discharges to the Columbia River south of the reservation: East and southeast of the Columbia River, ground water flows generally southwestward and discharges to the River. The Yakima River valley contains a distinct flow system in which movement is toward the Yakima River from the topographic divides. A large southward-flowing ground-water system beneath the southern flank of the Horse Heaven Hills discharges to the Columbia River in the westward-trending reach downstream from Wallula Gap.

  20. Regional tectonic synthesis of central foldbelt and Indus plain of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.R.; Russell, O.R.; Dolan, P.

    1989-03-01

    A regional tectonic synthesis based on detailed interpretation of 32 Landsat images, review of literature and maps, and integration of a regional stratigraphic analysis reveals a great deal about the development and distribution of deformational features in Pakistan and indicates a number of oil and gas exploration opportunities that may have been overlooked. It appears that the original shape of the Indian and Eurasian plates and their convergence vector through time controlled the overall pattern of deformation resulting from their collision. The details of plate convergence history, distribution of previously existing structural features, distribution of lithologic units, and their mechanical properties profoundly influence the morphology and architecture of the ranges comprising the Central foldbelt and the effects of the collision in the Indus Plain. In particular, the distribution of low-viscosity units that act as detachment zones (e.g., the Infracambrian evaporite sequence, Cretaceous and Eocene shales and evaporites) control the location of folded thrust belts, thrust duplexes, and passive-roof complexes. Taken together, the tectonic synthesis and regional stratigraphic analysis indicate a wide variety of untested exploration opportunities. These opportunities range from the obvious testing of undrilled structures within productive foldbelts such as the Potwar Plateau and Sulaiman Range to the pursuit of distal folds and the more obscure extension of foldbelts beneath the alluvial cover of the Indus Plain and delta.

  1. Remote sensing of regional pyroclastic deposits on the north central portion of the lunar nearside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Campbell, B. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Peterson, C. A.; Coombs, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution 3.0-cm radar data for the Rima Bode regional pyroclastic deposit and a number of UV-visible reflectance spectra for regional pyroclastic deposits on the north-central portion of the lunar nearside are analyzed and compared to existing data. The data obtained indicate that small craters in this deposit excavated loose unwelded pyroclastic particles, suggesting that welded layers or lenses do not exist at depths within the deposit's core area. The 70-cm radar data indicate that the Roma Bode deposit is thinner than the pyroclastic unit on the Aristarchus Plateau. The surfaces of all these regional pyroclastic deposits are dominated by ilmenite-rich black spheres, and contamination by low-Ti, nonpyroclastic debris appears to be minimal. The fine-grained block-free uncontaminated Rima Bode would be ideal for lunar mining operations and for rapidly covering lunar base modules with an adequate thickness of shielding material for protection from meteorite impact and space radiation.

  2. Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008–July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

  3. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of contemporary mantle flow and tectonic stress beneath the Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Aoudia, Abdelkrim; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2010-02-01

    The structure, density and effective viscosity of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Central Mediterranean influence lithospheric deformation, mantle flow, and tectonic stress state. To estimate the contribution of buoyancy forces to regional dynamics, three-dimensional finite-element models are developed to determine contemporary uppermost mantle flow and tectonic stresses. We use density models for the crust and uppermost mantle derived from S-wave seismic velocities and constrained by gravity data. The viscosity model is constrained by the observed strain rate and regional heat flow data. The modeled movement of the uppermost crust is consistent with the northeast-oriented motion of the lithosphere and is in an agreement with the geodetic measurements. The modeled flow patterns of the lower crust and uppermost mantle are consistent with the regional observations. The models predict (i) northwest-oriented movements beneath the southeast part of the Adriatic Sea region, (ii) the northeastern subduction beneath the western part of the Adriatic Sea, (iii) the upwelling beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea and its eastern coast, (iv) the western movement of the Ionian Sea sub-plate, and (v) the subduction beneath the western Calabria region. Our models predict also a distinct compressional regime along the northeast part of the Italian peninsula and to the east of Sicily, and a tensional regime beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea, Umbria-Marche region, and Ionian Sea. The predicted tectonic stress regimes in the northern and central Apennines are in agreement with stress regimes derived from earthquake fault-plane solutions. Changes in the predicted crustal stress pattern and magnitude are likely to be caused by buoyancy-driven mantle circulation beneath the region rather than by gravitational potential energy differences in the crust itself. Based on the model results, we conclude that the buoyancy forces play an important role in the contemporary tectonics of the region.

  4. Mesozoic Kinematic Evolution of the Central Atlantic Inferred From Regional Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labails, C.; Olivet, J.; Aslanian, D.; Sichler, B.; Roest, W.; Evain, M.

    2007-12-01

    The magnetic anomaly signature of Central Atlantic margins is well defined by the gridded data published by Verhoef et al. (1996) on the North American region. However, a gridded dataset for the West African margin (South of the Canary Islands) was lacking. We have used magnetic data from the Geodas database, an Ifremer dataset and personnal communication from H.A. Roeser and W.J.M. Van der Linden in order to produce a gridded magnetic data of the Dakhla margin and to better constrain the kinematics of Central Atlantic early opening. Our model adopts the breakup timing of 195 Ma as proposed by Sahabi et al. (2004) - 20 myr earlier than what was generally proposed in previous models. According to our interpretation of the newly compiled magnetic data, the early opening of Central Atlantic was characterized by three distinct phases. In contrast to other models, we propose that for the first 30 myr (195-165 Ma, Lias-Dogger) the oceanic accretion was extremely slow (~0.8 cm/y). At the Blake Spur time, (around 165 Ma, Callovian basis), a drastic change occurred, both in the relative plate motions (initially NNW-SSE, it becomes NO-SE) and spreading rate (that increases up to ~ 4.8 cm/y). The BSMA (Blake Spur Magnetic Anomaly) is related to a great basement topographic change. From magnetic chron M22 (150 Ma, Tithonian basis) onwards, the spreading rate slowed down to about 2.6 cm/y and remained constant until magnetic chron M0 (125 Ma, Barremian-Aptian limit).

  5. Regional offshore geology of central and western Solomon Islands and Bougainville, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Vedder, J.G.; Colwell, J.B.; Bruns, T.R.; Cooper, A.K.

    1986-07-01

    The central and western Solomon Islands and the Bougainville regions are parts of a complex island-arc system that includes an intra-arc basin and remnants of both forearc and back-arc depositional wedges. These features formed in response to episodic Cenozoic tectonism along the convergent boundary between the Pacific and Australia-India plates. Presumed early Tertiary southwest-directed subduction of the Pacific plate and associated arc magmatism were curtailed by impingement of the leading edge of the Ontong Java Plateau. Aprons of back-arc and forearc sediment were derived from highstanding parts of the arc during the late Oligocene and early Miocene. Late Tertiary arc-polarity reversal and northeastward-directed subduction of the Woodlark spreading system caused a renewal of island-arc magmatism that completed the construction of the Central Solomons Trough as an enclosed intra-arc basin. Interpretations of multichannel profiles from 1982 and 1984 CCOP/SOPAC Tripartite Cruises of the research vessel R/V S.P. Lee indicate that the Central Solomons Trough is a composite intra-arc basin containing as much as 5.5 km of late Oligocene(.) and younger sedimentary rocks. As many as five lenticular seismic-stratigraphic units can be identified on the basis of unconformities and abrupt velocity changes. Late Miocene and younger folds and faults deform the northeast and southwest flanks of the basin. Profiles across the Kilinailau Trench show Ontong Java Plateau rocks covered by 2-4 km of trench sediment. The inner trench wall consists of folded, upfaulted, and rotated blocks of trench and forearc strata. The deep-water basin northwest of Bougainville is a southeastward extension of the New Ireland forearc basin, the southern margin of which is formed by a subsided part of the early Cenozoic arc. There, Oligocene(.) and younger basin strata, as much as 7 km thick, are deformed by pre-Pliocene faults and folds.

  6. The Diversity of Coolia spp. (Dinophyceae Ostreopsidaceae) in the Central Great Barrier Reef Region

    PubMed Central

    Momigliano, Paolo; Sparrow, Leanne; Blair, David; Heimann, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background Dinoflagellates are important primary producers, crucial in marine food webs. Toxic strains, however, are the main causative agents of non-bacterial seafood poisoning, a major concern for public health worldwide. Despite their importance, taxonomic uncertainty within many genera of dinoflagellates is still high. The genus Coolia includes potentially harmful species and the diversity within the genus is just starting to become apparent. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, cultures were established from strains of Coolia spp. isolated from the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Cultures were identified based on thecal plate morphology and analyses of sequences (18S, ITS and 28S) from the nuclear rRNA operon. We report that the central GBR harbors a high diversity of Coolia species, including two species known to be capable of toxin production (C. tropicalis and C. malayensis), as well as the non-toxic C. canariensis. The strain of C. canariensis isolated from the GBR may in fact be a cryptic species, closely related but nevertheless phylogenetically distinct from the strain on which the holotype of C. canariensis was based. We also found evidence of the occurrence of a cryptic species morphologically very similar to both C. malayensis and C. monotis. The consequences of taxonomic confusion within the genus are discussed. Conclusion/Significance The central GBR region harbors a previously unreported high diversity of Coolia spp., including two species known to potentially produce toxins. The presence of a cryptic species of unknown toxicity highlights the importance of cryptic diversity within dinoflagellates. PMID:24194962

  7. Remote climate drivers as predictors of precipitation in data sparse regions, an example from Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Samuel G.; Wilby, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    It is widely understood that hydrologic variables, such as precipitation and stream flow can be significantly influenced by large scale atmospheric circulation patterns. Global scale analysis of teleconnection patterns between remote large scale climate drivers (e.g. ENSO) and hydrologic variables has highlighted the potential for forecasting precipitation anomalies (Dai and Wigley, 2000). Detailed analysis at smaller spatial scales is required to determine the strength of relationships at the catchment scale. These relationships have significant potential for regions with sparse ground based monitoring networks, such as Central Asia. However, sparse observations hinder the determination of relationships between remote climate drivers and patterns of precipitation. The area based nature of remotely sensed precipitation estimates can combat this problem allowing precipitation patterns to be understood at relatively high spatial and temporal scales. Using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation estimates, correlation patterns are determined between several remote climate drivers (ENSO, NAO and South Asian Monsoon) and Central Asian precipitation. Preliminary analysis has shown statistically significant negative correlations between Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and winter precipitation over the headwaters of the Amu Darya (Pamir Mountains, Tajikistan). Introducing a lag interval of up to six months increases correlations across Tajikistan, as well as introducing statistically significant correlations over the headwaters of the Syr Darya (Tien Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan). These findings open promising avenues for exploration, including the potential to use remote climate drivers as predictors for seasonal flow forecasting.

  8. Mitochondrial control region variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis populations from the central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Giantsis, Ioannis A; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P

    2014-01-01

    The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species' inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

  9. Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China

    SciTech Connect

    Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Phillips, W.S.; Randall, G.E.

    1996-09-01

    In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5 nuclear explosions at station AAK in Kyrgyzstan. The explosions are from the Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and Lop Nor, China. The earthquakes are mostly from northwest China. They have also evaluated a single suspected chemical explosion. Event magnitudes (m{sub b}) range between 2.5 and 6.5 and maximum event-station distance is about 1,700 km. Using these measurements the authors formed phase, spectral, cross-spectral, short-period/long-period, and long-period ratios to test many possible event discriminants. All ratios were corrected for distance effects before forming ratio-versus-magnitude discrimination plots. The authors found that all five classes of these discriminants are useful for separating earthquakes from explosions in central Asia, provided the right combinations of frequency bands and phases are selected. Results are described.

  10. Essential and toxic elements in honeys from a region of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, M A; Desideri, D; Roselli, C; Benedetti, C; Feduzi, L

    2015-01-01

    Levels of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in several types of honey produced in a region of Central Italy were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The degree of humidity, sugar content, pH, free acidity, combined acidity (lactones), and total acidity were also measured. These elements were found to be present in honey in various proportions depending upon (1) the area foraged by bees, (2) flower type visited for collection of nectar, and (3) quality of water in the vicinity of the hive. Strong positive correlations occurred between Pb and Hg, Pb and Cd, Pb and Fe, Pb and Cr, Hg and Cd, and Hg and Fe. The honey products synthesized in Central Italy were of good quality, but not completely free of heavy metal contamination. Compared with established recommended daily intakes, heavy metals or trace element intoxication following honey consumption in Italy was found not to be a concern for human health. PMID:26039679