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1

The impact of landslides in the Umbria region, central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Umbria Region of Central Italy has a long history of mass movements. Landslides range from fast moving rock falls and debris flows, most abundant in mountain areas, to slow moving complex failures extending up to several hectares in the hilly part of the Region. Despite landslides occurring every year in Umbria, their impact remains largely unknown. We present an

F. Guzzetti; P. Reichenbach; M. Cardinali; F. Ardizzone; M. Galli

2003-01-01

2

Modeling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We model the rainfall-induced initiation of shallow landslides over a broad region using a deterministic approach, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-stability (TRIGRS) model that couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution for transient pore pressure response to rainfall infiltration. This model permits the evaluation of regional shallow landslide susceptibility in a Geographic Information System framework, and we use it to analyze susceptibility to shallow landslides in an area in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy. As shown on a landslide inventory map produced by the Italian National Research Council, the area has been affected in the past by shallow landslides, many of which have transformed into debris flows. Input data for the TRIGRS model include time-varying rainfall, topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water table depth, and material strength and hydraulic properties. Because of a paucity of input data, we focus on parametric analyses to calibrate and test the model and show the effect of variation in material properties and initial water table conditions on the distribution of simulated instability in the study area in response to realistic rainfall. Comparing the results with the shallow landslide inventory map, we find more than 80% agreement between predicted shallow landslide susceptibility and the inventory, despite the paucity of input data.

Salciarini, D.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Conversini, P.; Baum, R.L.; Michael, J.A.

2006-01-01

3

11-14 November 2012 Umbria Region (Central Italy) flood event: from prediction to management for civil protection purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following laws and regulations concerning extreme natural events management, the Italian national hydrometeorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres - CF). Umbria Region CF is located in Central Italy and provides early warning, monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) when significant flood/landslide events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. For the real time flood forecasting system, at the CF several operational hydrological and hydraulic models were developed and implemented for a "dynamic" hazard/risk scenario assessment for Civil Protection DSS, useful also for the development of Flood Risk Management Plans according to the European "Floods Directive" 2007/60. In the period 11th-14th November 2012, a significant flood event occurred in Umbria (as well as Tuscany and northern Lazio). The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 300 mm in 72 hours and, generally, values greater than the seasonal averages all over the region. In the most affected area the recorded rainfall depths correspond to centenarian return period: one-third of the annual mean precipitation occurred in 2-3 days. Almost all rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds, and several ones overflowed. Furthermore, in some cases, so high water levels have never been recorded by the hydrometric network. As in the major flood events occurred in the last years, dams (Montedoglio and Corbara dams along Tiber River and Casanuova dam along Chiascio River) and other hydraulic works for flood defense (e.g. along Chiani stream) played a very important mitigation role, storing high water volumes and avoiding the overlap of peak discharges downstream. During the event many emergency interventions were necessary. There were no casualties among the population, but many landslides and flooding occurred causing over 240 million Euros of damages (to hydraulic works, infrastructures, public and commercial facilities, residential buildings, agriculture, etc.) enough to induce the Regional Administration to request declaration of state of emergency to the National Government. The day before the beginning of the event (10th November) QPFs values were high enough to activate "Attention" Phase of Regional Civil Protection System and CF, during the critical phases, provided 24h decision support activities, also through the official web site (www.cfumbria.it), very useful for monitoring and data/info dissemination from the national to the municipality level. The thresholds presented good agreement with direct territorial presidiums observations and the alert system has been tested. The purpose of this work is to highlight what worked well and what did not, in order to improve the early warning and DSS for Civil Protection purposes.

Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Zauri, Renato; Ponziani, Francesco; Francioni, Marco; Governatori Leonardi, Federico; Formica, Alessandro; Natazzi, Loredana; Costantini, Sandro

2013-04-01

4

Long term survival of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in male patients in the Umbria region (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to make a study of the whole population of a central Italian region, the Umbria region – cancer survival rates for the upper aerodigestive tract, which includes cancers of the head and neck (tongue, oral cavity, pharynx), oesophagus and larynx. In Italy cancer survival rates do not cover entire regions but single municipalities or

F. La Rosa; A. M. Petrinelli; F. Stracci; C. Ammetto; P. Casucci; V. Mastrandrea

2000-01-01

5

Operational flood forecasting system of Umbria Region "Functional Centre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrometeorological alert office (called "Decentrate Functional Centre" - CFD) of Umbria Region, in central Italy, is the office that provides technical tools able to support decisions when significant flood/landslide events occur, furnishing 24h support for the whole duration of the emergency period, according to the national directive DPCM 27 February 2004 concerning the "Operating concepts for functional management of national and regional alert system during flooding and landslide events for civil protection activities purposes" that designs, within the Italian Civil Defence Emergency Management System, a network of 21 regional Functional Centres coordinated by a central office at the National Civil Protection Department in Rome. Due to its "linking" role between Civil Protection "real time" activities and environmental/planning "deferred time" ones, the Centre is in charge to acquire and collect both real time and quasi-static data: quantitative data from monitoring networks (hydrometeorological stations, meteo radar, ...), meteorological forecasting models output, Earth Observation data, hydraulic and hydrological simulation models, cartographic and thematic GIS data (vectorial and raster type), planning studies related to flooding areas mapping, dam managing plans during flood events, non instrumental information from direct control of "territorial presidium". A detailed procedure for the management of critical events was planned, also in order to define the different role of various authorities and institutions involved. Tiber River catchment, of which Umbria region represents the main upper-medium portion, includes also regional trans-boundary issues very important to cope with, especially for what concerns large dam behavior and management during heavy rainfall. The alert system is referred to 6 different warning areas in which the territory has been divided into and based on a threshold system of three different increasing critical levels according to the expected ground effects: ordinary, moderate and high. Particularly, hydrometric and rainfall thresholds for both floods and landslides alarms were assessed. Based on these thresholds, at the Umbria Region Functional Centre an automatic phone-call and SMS alert system is operating. For a real time flood forecasting system, at the CFD several hydrological and hydraulic models were developed. Three rainfall-runoff hydrological models, using different quantitative meteorological forecasts, are available: the event based models X-Nash (based on the Nash theory) and Mike-Drift coupled with the hydraulic model Mike-11 (developed by the Danish Hydraulic Institute - DHI); and the physically-based continuous model Mobidic (MOdello di Bilancio Idrologico DIstribuito e Continuo - Distributed and Continuous Model for the Hydrological Balance, developed by the University of Florence in cooperation with the Functional Centre of Tuscany Region). Other two hydrological models, using observed data of the real time hydrometeorological network, were implemented: the first one is the rainfall-runoff hydrological model Hec-Hms coupled with the hydraulic model Hec-Ras (United States Army Corps of Engineers - USACE). Moreover, Hec-Hms, is coupled also with a continuous soil moisture model for a more precise evaluation of the antecedent moisture condition of the basin, which is a key factor for a correct runoff volume evaluation. The second one is the routing hydrological model Stafom (STage FOrecasting Model, developed by the Italian Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection of the National Research Council - IRPI-CNR). This model is an adaptive model for on-line stage forecasting for river branches where significant lateral inflow contributions occur and, up to now, it is implemented for the main Tiber River branch and it allows a forecasting lead time up to 10 hours for the downstream river section. Recently, during the period between December the 4th and the 16th 2008, Umbria region territory was interested

Berni, N.; Pandolfo, C.; Stelluti, M.; Ponziani, F.; Viterbo, A.

2009-04-01

6

Seismicity and mean magnitude variations correlated to the strongest earthquakes of the 1997 Umbria-Marche sequence (central Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearby faults can interact, affecting the timing of a future earthquake. A large earthquake can alter the static stress surrounding faults, possibly activating an aftershock sequence. Here we test the hypothesis of earthquake triggering by examining the earthquakes that affected the Umbria-Marche region (central Italy) during September 1997 to April 1998. The analysis was performed combining information contained in parameters

Maura Murru; Rodolfo Console; Arianna Lisi

2004-01-01

7

Orbital Cyclicities Above and Below the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, Umbria-Marche Region, Italy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Umbria-Marche region of central Italy, the deep basinal carbonate Scaglia Rossa Formation contains an important sequence of Cretaceous-Tertiary strata including a detailed paleomagnetic record and the distal impactoclastic Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay layer. In addition to this significant paleomagnetic and impactoclastic record, the Scaglia Rossa also contains potentially important stratigraphic evidence of relatively long-term oceanic and atmospheric consequences of the Cretaceous-Tertiary bolide catastrophe, which we will describe for the first time herein. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

King, D. T., Jr.; Petruny, L. W.; Rampino, M. R.; Prokoph, A.; Pope, K.; Fischer, A. G.; Montanari, A.; Ocampo, A. C.

2000-01-01

8

Qc, Q?, Qi and Qs attenuation parameters in the Umbria-Marche (Italy) region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation of coda and S waves has been inferred for the Umbria-Marche region (central Italy) using seismic waveforms collected during the 1997 seismic crisis. The selected dataset is composed of 343 small magnitude (1.4 < ML < 4.2) earthquakes recorded at a temporary array composed of 23 seismic stations. The Sato (1977) method, based on the assumption of single isotropic scattering has been used to infer Qc, considering three different lapse times (20, 30 and 40 s). The coda normalization method (Aki, 1980) has been used to infer Q?. Both Qc and Q? show a clear frequency dependence with a different frequency dependent parameter. The frequency dependence of Qc is comparable with that previously found in the same area and around it. Using the method of Wennerberg (1993), intrinsic and scattering attenuation have been separated. Intrinsic attenuation is found to be close to coda attenuation and dominates over scattering dissipation. Coda Q increases with increasing lapse time but at a rate smaller than that observed in other areas of the Earth. Coda and intrinsic attenuation in the Umbria-Marche region are very high compared to other seismic active regions of the Earth. The retrieved high values of intrinsic attenuation may be explained in terms of the previously hypothesized fluid-pressurized regime of the crust in the central Apennines (Miller et al., 2004).

de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca

2013-05-01

9

Modelling coseismic displacements during the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake (central Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a dislocation model for the two normal faulting earthquakes that struck the central Apennines (Umbria-Marche, Italy) on 1997 September 26 at 00:33 (Mw 5.7) and 09:40 GMT (Mw 6.0). We fit coseismic horizontal and vertical displacements resulting from GPS measurements at several monuments of the IGMI (Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano) by means of a dislocation model in an

Ingrid Hunstad; Marco Anzidei; Massimo Cocco; Paolo Baldi; Alessandro Galvani; Arianna Pesci

1999-01-01

10

[Analysis of the causes of death in the Umbria Region (Italy) 1994-2008].  

PubMed

The leading causes of death in the Umbria Region (Italy) between 1994-2008 were analysed and a comparison was made between data from three five-year time periods: 1994-1998, 1999-2003 and 2004-2008. Standardized rates of Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) at 75 years, by gender and cause of death, were also measured. Mortality data was obtained from the Umbria Registry of causes of death; diagnoses were codified according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD10). Mortality trends over time were analysed by using standardized mortality rates with the 2001 Umbria census data as the reference population . The joinpoint regression program was used to analyze rates calculated by the SEER (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results) software of the National Cancer Institute (USA). Mortality for all causes, standardised by age, show a significantly decreasing trend from 1994 to 2008 in both genders. Mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumours show a significant constant decline in both genders. Standardised rates of YPLL at 75 years declined by 32% in males and 29% in females between the five-year period 1994-1998 and the period 2004-2008. In conclusion, a generalised decline in mortality and a shift towards older age groups is observed with a consequent decline in YPLL, allowing a positive judgment to be given regarding the efficacy of preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitation interventions implemented by the regional health care system. PMID:20859307

D'Alò, Daniela; Stracci, Fabrizio; Casucci, Paola; Stabile, Marco; La Rosa, Francesco

2010-01-01

11

Coseismic and postseismic displacements related with the 1997 earthquake sequence in Umbria-Marche (central Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the coseismic and postseismic displacements related with the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence by means of leveling lines along a deformed aqueduct located in the epicentral area. Comparing the 1960 and 10\\/1997 measurements we obtain 0.49+\\/-0.10m of coseismic displacement distributed along 3 km across the normal fault zone. Modeling of the coseismic surface dislocation is obtained from a combination

Roberto Basili; Mustapha Meghraoui

2001-01-01

12

Seismic anisotropy of the shallow crust in the Umbria-Marche (Italy) region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small magnitude earthquake data, recorded during the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Italy) seismic crisis, have been used to study the shear wave splitting in the central Apennine. Using the method of diagonalization of the covariance matrix, a set of 1234 S waves impinging the Earth at an angle less than the critical angle has been selected. The cross-correlation method was used to estimate the splitting time between the two horizontal S components and the direction of the symmetry axis of the anisotropic structure. A further analysis, based on visual inspection of corrected traces, allowed us to estimate the anisotropic parameters for 884 S waves. An average splitting time =32.3?4ms has been estimated. Splitting times do not generally show a clear pattern with distance, which is an indication of possible spatial variations of seismic anisotropy. A minimum 2 km depth of the anisotropic layer is estimated. The trend of normalized splitting time vs. depth roughly indicates a maximum 4-5 km depth of the anisotropic layer. The distribution of the fast symmetry axis indicates a main symmetry axis oriented along the direction of the maximum compressive stress in the area and a secondary symmetry axis almost orthogonal to the first one. The stereographic plots of fast axis direction seem exclude a depth dependence of anisotropic parameters. A clear spatial correlation between the directions of the fast symmetry axes at the considered stations and the orientations of the nearest fault systems and thrust fronts is found, which confirms the spatial variability in the anisotropic properties of the area, as inferred by the analysis of splitting times. Based also on previous studies, results are interpreted in terms of the extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA) model. The estimated crack density is always smaller than the critical coalescence value, enforcing the hypothesis that fluid-filled separated crack systems control the polarization of S waves.

de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Trabace, Maria

2011-11-01

13

Structural styles, chronology rates of deformation, and time-space relationships in the Umbria-Marche thrust system (central Apennines, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural interpretation of geological and geophysical data available for the central Apennines (Italy) allowed us to draw, balance, and restore three geological profiles across the external zones of the Umbria-Marche thrust system and to evaluate the timing and rates of deformation in a roughly 4 Ma time window (from late Messinian to late Pleistocene time). From this data set we

Fernando Calamita; Giuseppe Cello; Giovanni Deiana; Werter Paltrinieri

1994-01-01

14

Trichophyton verrucosum infection in cattle farms of Umbria (Central Italy) and transmission to humans.  

PubMed

Trichophyton verrucosum is the most common ringworm agent in cattle. Epidemiology of cattle dermatophytoses in Central Italy is not clear. Its diffusion among cattle and herdsmen was investigated in 20 Umbrian farms, Central Italy. Hairs and scales were taken from 395 animals and 31 workers. Typical ringworm was present in 71.7% of cattle under 6 months and in 11% of animals over 6 months. T. verrucosum was isolated from 98.9% of symptomatic heads and was the most prevalent dermatophyte in all herds investigated (isolated in 18 of the 20 farms). T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes was found in 16 symptomatic and in eight asymptomatic young animals. Prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of both species was significantly higher in young heads (21.1% vs. 8.1%) and the age below 6 months was the only statistically significant risk factor associated with dermatophytosis. About the workers, all the 14 men with lesions were positive for T. verrucosum; copresence of T. verrucosum and Microsporum gypseum was noticed in one case. Results indicate a high diffusion of T. verrucosum among both animals and humans in Umbrian farms and confirm the dermatophyte infection as a public health problem. Periodic epidemiological surveys, treatment of sick livestock and workers, cleaning/sanitisation of herds and vaccination programmes may be useful in controlling the infection. PMID:24621382

Agnetti, Francesco; Righi, Cecilia; Scoccia, Eleonora; Felici, Andrea; Crotti, Silvia; Moretta, Iolanda; Moretti, Annabella; Maresca, Carmen; Troiani, Lucas; Papini, Manuela

2014-07-01

15

Slope instability in the Bastardo Basin (Umbria, Central Italy) ? The landslide of Barattano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bastardo Basin is one of the classics Apenninic intermontane basins of central Italy. They are en-closed tectonic basins (graben and semigraben) with high anthropization, but with high vulnerability, too (seismic, hydrogeological and geomorphological). The paper concerns some aspects about slope instability in the Bastardo Basin as part of a wider research, which aims to actually define the characteristics of the liability to landslides of the Apenninic intermontane basins. In particular lithological, stratigraphical and hydrogeological conditions are analysed under which a landslide near village of Barattano has developed. This mass movement, at different times, produced partial or total occlusion of the torrent Puglia. Here geognostic investigations together with laboratory tests and subsequent monitoring of landslide area were carried out. A back analysis, based on limit equilibrium solutions for the factor of safety of the slope, provided the residual strenght properties of the soil mass along the sliding surface. The landslide of Barattano is representative of a very frequent situation (in terms of type, factors and causes of the movement, possible development of the movement) not only within Bastardo Basin, but in general within Apenninic intermontane basins, too. The study of landslide and the design of appropriate remedial measures are of great importance in terms of prevention and mitigation of geologic-hydraulic risk in Apenninic intermontane basins.

Cencetti, C.; Conversini, P.

16

Slope Instability In The Sbastardo A~é¸ Basint (umbria, Central Italy). The Landslide of Barattano.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper discusses some aspects of the stability of natural slopes in the area known as SBastardo BasinT in Umbria, central Italy (Gregori, 1988; Barchi et al., 1991), in the & cedil;framework of a more general study of landslide phenomena in plio-pleistocenic clastic sequences of the SIntermountain Apenninic BasinsT of central Italy. Several natural & cedil;slopes in the Basin (80 km2 in area) are affected by evident slope movements which affect roads, buildings and other infrastructures, often resulting in serious damage. The great majority of these slope movements can be classified as rotational slides and/or flows. Often they present as Scomposite landslides" (WP/WLI, 1993) due to the com- & cedil;bination of the two aforementioned principal failure mechanism. The stratigraphic se- quence in the area is typical of intermountain basins: it is the filling series of the basin (coarsening upward), with lignitic clays at the base, followed by sands and gravels at the top. Such a sequence has been identified through a number of deep drillings, per- formed with the objective of defining the depth and thickness of lignitic layers for sub- sequent mining exploitation. Associated to the aforementioned series, sub-horizontal plates of lithic or earthy travertine of limited extension have been found. These plates do not form unitary and continuous geologic bodies, and they are probably related to the upwelling of waters saturated in CaCO3 through important faults bordering the basin, of evident tectonic origin. The landslide of Barattano, located in the heading area of the hydrographic basin of the River Puglia, is a typical example of the slope movements which can be observed in the area of Bastardo. The main interest in this landslide, rather than its extension, lies in the fact that the sliding mass can produce the temporary occlusion of the River Puglia, yielding risk conditions which have to be evaluated with care. The landslide, whose start dates back to the '70, have suffered an acceleration in the year 1995, with consequent withdrawal and widening of the head- ing area. The landslide body, for the first time that year, reached the river bed of the River Puglia, producing its temporary occlusion (Cencetti et alii, 1997). At present time, the landslide is about 200 meters in length, with a total area of around 30,000 m2. In 1997, the rapid evolution of the landslide motivated a detailed study of the mass movement with the objective of better defining its characteristics and evaluating the related risk of occlusion of the river bed of the River Puglia. A detailed geologic survey and three drillings (continuous corings up to 20 meters in depth) along the prin- cipal direction of movement were performed. Two of the drillings (S1 and S2) were 1 equipped with piezometers; the other one (S3) was equipped with an inclinometer. Another inclinometer was positioned near to the drilling S2. Three undisturbed soil samples were taken from the borings, using standard Shelby tube sampler. The site in- vestigation was completed with Standard Penetration Tests. A detailed topographical survey of the landslide area was performed. A back analysis, based on limit equi- librium solutions for the factor of safety of the slope, provided the residual strenght properties of the soil mass along the sliding surface. This allowed the definition of the geometry and kinematics of the mass movement, its causes, and to formulate hy- pothesis on its possible evolution. These elements are of primary importance in the definition of the associated risk conditions and in the design of appropriate remedial measures for the mitigation of the geologic-hydraulic risk. 2

Cencetti, C.; Conversini, P.

17

Shear Wave Structure of Umbria and Marche, Italy, Strong Motion Seismometer Sites Affected by the 1997-98 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A long sequence of earthquakes, eight with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck the Umbria and Marche regions of central Italy between September 26, 1997 and July 1998. The earthquake swarm caused severe structural damage, particularly to masonry buildings, and resulted in the loss of twelve lives and about 150 injuries. The source of the events was a single seismogenic structure that consists of several faults with a prevailing northwest-southeast strike and crosses the Umbria-Marche border. The focal mechanism of the largest shocks indicates that the events were the product of shallow extensional normal faulting along a NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines. The network of analog seismometer stations in the Umbria and Marche regions recorded motions of the main September and October 1997 events and a dense array of mobile digital stations, installed since September 29, recorded most of the swarm. The permanent national network Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) is administered and maintained by Dipartimento delle Protezione Civile (DPC: Civil Protection Department); the temporary array was managed by Servizio Sismico Nazionale (SSN) in cooperation with small agencies and Universities. ENEA, the operator of many seismometer stations in Umbria, is the public Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment. Many of the temporary and permanent stations in the Italian seismic network have little or no characterization of seismic velocities. In this study, we investigated 17 Italian sites using an active-source approach that employs low frequency harmonic waves to measure the dispersive nature of surface waves in the ground. We used the Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) approach, coupled with an array of harmonic-wave electro-mechanical sources that are driven in-phase to excite the ground. An inversion algorithm using a non-linear least-squares best-fit method is used to compute shear wave velocities for up to 100 meters of the soil column. A draft report was published in the summer of 2008, followed by a comment period, lengthy discussions with Italian colleagues, and improved knowledge of the subsurface at the sites from soil logs. Four of the sites were reprocessed in order to correct issues with phase unwrapping of the field dispersion curves that complicated the velocity profile calculations at the lowest velocity sites. This report presents the final results from the reprocessing effort.

Kayen, Robert; Scasserra, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Lanzo, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

18

ORIC central region calculations  

SciTech Connect

The central region for the K = 100 Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, ORIC, will be modified to provide better orbit centering, focusing of orbits in the axial direction, and phase selection, in order to improve extraction efficiency, and reduce radioactive activation of cyclotron components. The central region is specifically designed for the acceleration of intense light ion beams such as 60 MeV protons and 15--100 MeV alphas. These beams will be used in the production of radioactive atoms in the Radioactive Ion Beam Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Bailey, J.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Lane, S.N.; Mosko, S.W.; Olsen, D.K.; Tatum, B.A.

1995-12-31

19

Evidence of Toscana virus circulation in Umbria: First report  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate, for the first time, circulation and clinical expression of Toscana virus (ToSv) in Umbria region we studied: (1) 93 cases of aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis admitted to our Department from 1989 to 2001 with negative results for common neurotropic virus; (2) 50 healthy subjects. Specific antibodies (IgM and IgG) anti-TOSv were found in 36.6% of aseptic meningitis, in

D. Francisci; R. Papili; G. Camanni; S. Morosi; N. Ferracchiato; M. Valente; M. G. Ciufolini; F. Baldelli

2003-01-01

20

Seismicity in Central and Northern Apennines integrating the Italian national and regional networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present and discuss an improved picture of the seismicity distribution of the Umbria–Marche–Abruzzi Apennines as obtained through the integration of the national and the regional seismic networks operating from 2002 to 2006. During this period, both the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) National Seismic Network and the regional networks have been greatly improved. We

G. De Luca; M. Cattaneo; G. Monachesi; A. Amato

2009-01-01

21

[Trends in mortality due to the main causes of death in Umbria (Italy), 1994-2004].  

PubMed

In order to obtain information regarding the efficacy of healthcare services in the region of Umbria (Italy), trends in mortality due to the main causes of death in this region, between 1994-2004, were analysed. Mortality data was collected from the Nominal Registry of Causes of Death. Standardized mortality and years of potential life lost (YPLL) rates, and cumulative death risk were used as indicators. Joinpoint regression was used to determine whether temporal changes in indicator trends were statistically significant. The joinpoint analysis of mortality trends has shown that general mortality, as well as specific mortality due to malignant tumors, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease and accidental causes declined over the examined time period. Statistically significant decreases in the indicators used were constant over time: in fact, joinpoints were found only for YPLL and cumulative risk trends for cardiovascular disease-related mortality. These results have provided important information regarding healthcare in the Umbria region. PMID:17206222

Canosa, Antonio; Stracci, Fabrizio; Cassetti, Tiziana; Minelli, Liliana; Romagnoli, Carlo; La Rosa, Francesco

2006-01-01

22

West Central Texas Regional Transportation Final Report  

E-print Network

WEST CENTRAL TEXAS REGIONAL REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION FINAL REPORT NOVEMBER 2006 West Central Texas Regional Transit Coordination Plan Final Report and Executive Summary November 2006 A&R Consulting The Goodman... Workshops 177 Appendix C - Public Meetings 183 West Central Texas Regional Transit Coordination Plan Final Report and Executive Summary November 2006 A&R Consulting The Goodman Corporation November 2006 3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...

West Central Texas Council of Governments

23

Monitoring and in vivo ecotoxicological evaluation of surface water quality in Umbria and Tuscany, Italy.  

PubMed

New Zealand White male rabbits have been watered for 45 days with surface water taken from three sites on Lake Trasimeno (Umbria, Italy) and from two artificial reservoirs along the Tiber River, one located on the upper tract of the river, just at the border between the regions of Tuscany and Umbria, and the other at the southernmost end of the Tiber Umbrian tract, just before it leaves Umbria. The detoxifying enzymatic activity (EROD) in rabbits was evaluated and used as an indicator of the chemical contamination of surface water due to various classes of micropollutants including organochlorinate pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The comparison between EROD values and the concentrations of organic micropollutant found in the water matrices showed that MFO hepatic activity in the rabbits is a sensitive, measurable biological parameter for quantitatively evaluating the presence of xenobiotic compounds in the environment. It can therefore be used as a sufficiently accurate method for evaluating in vivo surface water quality in ecotoxicological screening models over vast areas. PMID:12940600

Poletti, Antonio; Murgia, Sandro Maria; Selvaggi, Roberta; Proietti, Gabriele; Poletti, Luca

2003-01-01

24

Central Atlantic regional ecological test site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work of the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS) project is discussed. The primary aim of CARETS is to test the hypothesis that data from ERTS-A can be made an integral part of a regional land resources information system, encompassing both inventory of the resource base and monitoring of changes, along with their effects on the quality of the environment. Another objective of the project is to determine scaling factors for developing land use information and regional analysis for regions of any given size.

Alexander, R. H.

1972-01-01

25

Central Region Drought Outlook August 2, 2012  

E-print Network

Central Region Drought Outlook ­ August 2, 2012 Dr. Jim Angel Illinois State Climatologist Illinois University, National Drought Mitigation Center Next Climate/Drought Outlook Webinar ­ August 16 Access to Climate/Drought Webinars and information http://mrcc.isws.illinois.edu/webinars.htm http

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

26

Analysis of the Volatile Components of Onosma echioides (L.) L. var. columnae Lacaita Growing in Central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile components obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts (leaves and flowers) of Onosma echioides (L.) L. var. columnae Lacaita (Boraginaceae family) growing wild in central Italy (Marche, Umbria and Abruzzo regions) were investigated by GC and GC\\/MS for the first time. Sixty-four volatile components were identified: hexadecanoic acid (3.2–33.8%) and phytol (7.3–15.2%) were predominant in the flower oils, while

Filippo Maggi; Bruno Tirillini; Sauro Vittori; Gianni Sagratini; Fabrizio Papa

2009-01-01

27

Imaging Fault Geometries With High-Resolution Seismicity Data in a Complex Normal Faulting Setting in the Central Apennines, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Umbria-Marche region (central Apennines) was struck over a period of 30 days by a series of moderate magnitude (5

L. Chiaraluce; W. L. Ellsworth; C. Chiarabba; M. Cocco

2001-01-01

28

Kinematic analysis of recent and active faults of the southern Umbria-Marche domain, Northern Apennines, Italy: geological constraints to geodynamic models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent and active deformation that affects the crest zone of the Umbria-Marche belt (Northern Apennines, Italy) displays a remarkable extensional character, outlined by development of normal fault sets that overprint pre-existing folds and thrusts of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene age. The main extensional fault systems often bound intermontane depressions hosting recent, mainly continental, i.e. fluvial or lacustrine deposits, separating the latter from Triassic-Miocene, mainly carbonatic and siliciclastic marine rocks that belong to the Romagna-Umbria-Marche stratigraphic succession. Stratigraphic data indicate that the extensional strain responsible for the development of normal fault-bounded continental basins in the outer zones of the Northern Apennines was active until Middle Pleistocene time. Since Middle Pleistocene time onwards a major geodynamic change has affected the Central Mediterranean region, with local reorganization of the kinematics in the Adria domain and adjacent Apennine belt. A wide literature illustrates that the overall deformation field of the Central Mediterranean area is presently governed by the relative movements between the Eurasia and Africa plates. The complex interaction of the Africa-Adria and the Anatolian-Aegean-Balkan domains has led the Adria microplate to migrate NW-ward and to collide against Eurasia along the Eastern Southern Alps. As a consequence Adria is presently moving with a general left-lateral displacement with respect to the Apennine mountain belt. The sinistral component of active deformations is also supported by analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms. A comparison between geophysical and geological evidence outlines an apparent discrepancy: most recognized recent and active faults display a remarkable extensional character, as shown by the geometry of continental basin-bounding structutes, whereas geodetic and seismologic evidence indicates the persistency of an active strike-slip, left-lateral dominated strain field. The coexistence of extensional and strike-slip regimes, in principle difficult to achieve, may be explained in the framework of a transtensional deformation model where extensional components, normal to the main NW-directed structural trends, are associated to left-lateral strike-slip movements parallel to the main NW-directed structural trends. Critical for the evaluation of the internal consistency of a deformation model for the brittle upper crustal levels is the definition of the kinematics of active faults. In this study we illustrate the preliminary results of a kinematic analysis carried out along 20, exceptionally well exposed, recent and active fault surfaces cropping out in the southernmost portion of the Umbria-Marche belt adjacent to its termination against the the Latium-Abruzzi domain to the East. The collected data indicate that the investigated faults reflect a kinematically oblique character, and that development of these structures may be explained in the framework of a left-dominated transtensional strain field. More important, the data indicate that fault kinematic analysis is an effective tool in testing geodynamic models for actively deforming crustal domains.

Pasqui, Valeria; Viti, Marcello; Mantovani, Enzo

2013-04-01

29

Central region of SKKUCY-9 compact cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a 9 MeV compact cyclotron for the production of radioisotopes for medical applications has been recently completed. The machine accelerates negative hydrogen ions generated from an internal PIG (Penning Ion Gauge) ion source following spiral orbits. Some of the structures designed for early beam acceleration, including a pair of center poles providing ions a circular direction, the head of the ion source, and the electrodes, are located in the center of the cyclotron. In this paper we discuss and evaluate the design of the central region that pulls the ions from the chimney of the ion source and directs them into the equilibrium orbit. The magnetic field produced by the center poles was analyzed using the magnetic solver in OPERA-3D TOSCA, and the phase error and ion equilibrium orbit, which is dependent on the kinetic energy within the designed field, were calculated using CYCLONE v8.4. The electric field produced in the acceleration gap was designed using an electrostatic solver. Then, the single beam trajectory was calculated by our own Cyclotron Beam Dynamics (CBD) code. The early orbits, vertical oscillation, acceptable RF phase and the energy gain during the early turns was evaluated. Final goal was to design the central region by the iterative optimization process and verify it with 1 MeV beam experiment.

Jung, S. Y.; Kim, H. W.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Park, J. K.; Chai, J. S.; Kim, S. H.

2014-04-01

30

Central Asia Region Integrated Pest Management Stakeholders Forum  

E-print Network

Central Asia Region Integrated Pest Management Stakeholders Forum Tashkent, Uzbekistan May 5 (STCU) held the Integrated Pest Management Stakeholders Forum for the Central Asia Region from May 5 a collaborative regional program in Central Asia. The U.S. team was represented by IPM specialists Karim Maredia

31

Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These initiatives are important because substantial improvements in the COR air quality must be made to avoid significant deterioration in the respiratory health of the population.

Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.

2004-12-01

32

North Central Texas Regional Public Transportation Coordination Plan  

E-print Network

North Central Texas Council of Governments North Central Texas Regional Public Transportation Coordination Plan Final Report December 21, 2006 North Central Texas Council of Governments North Central Texas Regional Public Transportation... Commissioner, Denton County Mayor, City of Melissa Vice President Director Director General Council Chad Adams Tom Vandergriff Bobby Waddle Jerry Gilmore County Judge, Ellis County County Judge, Tarrant County Mayor Pro Tem, City of DeSoto Executiv...

North Central Texas Council of Governments

2006-12-21

33

Central Asia Regional IPM Program The Collaborative Program  

E-print Network

Central Asia Regional IPM Program The Collaborative Program USAID is sponsoring a Collaborative Research Support Program for Integrated Pest Management in Central Asia (IPM-CRSP). The project is designed, designed to facilitate capacity building in IPM in Central Asia. IPM Constraints Addressed Based

34

Central Region Drought Outlook 15 November 2012  

E-print Network

Program Manager), State Climatologists and the Midwest Regional Climate Center, High Plains Regional (Most Likely) Forecast Gavins Point Dam release reductions to winter releases will begin November 23rd://www.drought.gov Drought response USDA Drought Assistance #12; Today's Recorded Presentation: http

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

35

Hydrocarbon potential of Quemado region, west-central New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrocarbon potential of the Quemado Region, a frontier exploration region in west-central New Mexico, appears to be fairly low, as only 4 wells out of a total of 41 drilled there had shows of oil and\\/or gas. Source and reservoir beds for hydrocarbons are present in Pennsylvanian and Cretaceous strata. However, the Pennsylvanian is absent from much of the

1986-01-01

36

Central Region: A Report Identifying and Addressing the Educational Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the deliberations of the Central Regional Advisory Committee (RAC), one of 10 RACs established under the Educational Technical Assistance Act of 2002 (20 U.S.C. sections 9601 et. seq.) to assess the educational needs of the region. The committee's report outlines the educational needs across the states of Colorado, Kansas,…

US Department of Education, 2011

2011-01-01

37

40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2012-07-01

38

40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2013-07-01

39

40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2010-07-01

40

40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2011-07-01

41

40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2014-07-01

42

40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.142 Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

43

40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.142 Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality...

2010-07-01

44

40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.142 Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality...

2011-07-01

45

40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.142 Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

46

40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.142 Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality...

2014-07-01

47

40 CFR 81.215 - East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.215 East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2013-07-01

48

40 CFR 81.215 - East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.215 East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2011-07-01

49

40 CFR 81.215 - East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.215 East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2010-07-01

50

40 CFR 81.215 - East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.215 East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2012-07-01

51

40 CFR 81.215 - East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

... 2014-07-01 false East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.215 East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2014-07-01

52

40 CFR 81.219 - Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.219 Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2012-07-01

53

40 CFR 81.219 - Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.219 Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2011-07-01

54

40 CFR 81.219 - Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.219 Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2013-07-01

55

78 FR 45521 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations...Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations...Office of Energy Policy and Innovation, Federal Energy Regulatory...Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission...

2013-07-29

56

MOHO ORIENTATION BENEATH CENTRAL CALIFORNIA FROM REGIONAL EARTHQUAKE TRAVEL TIMES.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper examines relative Pn arrival times, recorded by the U. S. Geological Survey seismic network in central and northern California from an azimuthally distributed set of regional earthquakes. Improved estimates are presented of upper mantle velocities in the Coast Ranges, Great Valley, and Sierra Nevada foothills and estimates of the orientation of the Moho throughout this region. Finally, the azimuthal distribution of apparent velocities, corrected for dip and individual station travel time effects, is then studied for evidence of upper mantle velocity anisotropy and for indications of lower crustal structure in central California.

Oppenheimer, David, H.; Eaton, Jerry, P.

1984-01-01

57

Development and Delivery of Ecologically-based IPM Packages in Central Asia Central Asia Regional IPM Program Year 2 Workplans  

E-print Network

1 Development and Delivery of Ecologically-based IPM Packages in Central Asia Central Asia Regional and academic institutions and NGOs is implementing a regional IPM program in Central Asia. The three host countries include - Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The technical objectives of the Central Asia

58

The magnetic environment in the central region of nearby galaxies  

E-print Network

The central regions of galaxies harbor some of the most extreme physical phenomena, including dense stellar clusters, non-circular motions of molecular clouds and strong and pervasive magnetic field structures. In particular, radio observations have shown that the central few hundred parsecs of our Galaxy has a striking magnetic field configuration. It is not yet clear whether these magnetic structures are unique to our Milky Way or a common feature of all similar galaxies. Therefore, we report on (a) a new radio polarimetric survey of the central 200 pc of the Galaxy to better characterize the magnetic field structure and (b) a search for large-scale and organized magnetized structure in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies using data from the Very Large Array (VLA) archive. The high angular resolution of the VLA allows us to study the central 1 kpc of the nearest galaxies to search for magnetized nuclear features similar to what is detected in our own Galactic center. Such magnetic features play a important role in the nuclear regions of galaxies in terms of gas transport and the physical conditions of the interstellar medium in this unusual region of galaxies.

Cornelia C. Lang; Maria R. Drout

2008-09-16

59

37Chapter 4 -Regionalism and Multilateralism in Central Asia Regionalism and  

E-print Network

Trade Agreements The CARs have joined several regional organizations that involve or seek to reach in Central Asia As noted in Chapter 3, there are significant policy- related barriers to trade in Central Asia, which have adversely affected the recent trade performance of the CARs and prevented them from

Kammen, Daniel M.

60

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region  

SciTech Connect

The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1981-02-01

61

SEPIVAC: a community-based study of stroke incidence in Umbria, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SEPIVAC study is a community-based epidemiological survey of incidence and outcome of acute cerebrovascular disease in the Sixth Local Health Unit, Umbria, Italy (population 49,218). The study was carried out from 1 September 1986 to 31 August 1989. There were 375 patients who were registered with a first ever stroke, with a crude rate of 2.54 (95% confidence limits

S Ricci; M G Celani; F La Rosa; R Vitali; E Duca; R Ferraguzzi; M Paolotti; D Seppoloni; N Caputo; C Chiurulla

1991-01-01

62

40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality...Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air...

2010-07-01

63

40 CFR 81.193 - North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality...Quality Control Regions § 81.193 North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air...

2010-07-01

64

40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...Quality Control Regions § 81.262 North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Illinois Intrastate Air...

2010-07-01

65

An anchored astronomical time-scale for the Turonian reference sections in the Umbria-Marche Basin, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Umbria-Marche basin, the aftermath of Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2, Bonarelli Level) is represented by the Turonian part of the Scaglia Rossa Formation. The Scaglia Rossa pelagic limestones were studied in the classic Contessa and Bottaccione sections near Gubbio, in the Umbria-Marche region of the northeastern Apennines of Italy. Oscillations between radiolarian cherts interbedded with foram-coccolith pelagic limestones are interpreted to follow the rhythm of precession and show hierarchical bundles, which are suggestive of eccentricity-related grouping. Eccentricity-bundles are correlated amongst the two studied sections. Moreover, the magnetic susceptibility signal of the Bottaccione section and the ?18O and ?13C record of both sections clearly demonstrate the imprint of precession and eccentricity. Eccentricity minima are associated with relatively warm periods (?18O minima), characterized by an increased magnetic susceptibility signal and radiolarian blooms, which are expressed by frequent chert beds. Radiolarian blooms seem to hamper primary productivity, given that they correlate with ?13C minima. The delineated astronomical cycles constitute an eccentricity-based cyclostratigraphy for the Turonian part of the Scaglia Rossa. Moreover, the constructed cyclostratigraphy is anchored to numerical time by calibration with the astronomical solution La2010 (Laskar et al., 2011) and with recent radioisotopic ages from the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval near the GSSP in Colorado, USA (Meyers et al., 2012). The numerical age (93.9 ± 0.15 Ma; Meyers et al., 2012) of the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (0.75 m above the top of the Bonarelli Level in the Contessa section; Tsikos et al., 2004; Kennedy et al., 2005) is used as the pinpoint to which our astronomical time-scale is anchored. Using the anchored astronomical time-scale for the Turonian of the Umbria-Marche basin, the top of the Bonarelli Level is placed at 93.97 ± 0.25 Ma, and the boundary between the Whiteinella archaeocretacea and Helvetoglobotruncana helvetica planktonic foraminiferal zones is put at 93.48 ± 0.25 Ma. These ages are consistent with the numerical ages obtained from radioisotopic dating of the near-GSSP USGS #1 Portland core (Meyers et al., 2012). High-resolution XRF geochemical analysis through the 82 cm thick Bonarelli Level in the Bottaccione section at Gubbio, reveals four strong ~21 cm thick cycles. Spectral analyses on the SiO2 and Al2O3 concentration and in the Si/Al ratio suggest an eccentricity and precession signature if one assumes an average sedimentation rate of 2.0 m/Myr during the OAE2 in this pelagic basin. These results indicate a duration of ~410 kyr for the Bonarelli Level and place the bottom of this anoxic interval at 94.38 ± 0.25 Ma. In the near future, the latter marker-bed could be used to connect the astronomical time-scale presented in this abstract to the Cenomanian astronomical time-scale based on the nearby Furlo section (Batenburg et al., this session), in order to obtain a considerably long (> 5 Myr) astronomically calibrated time-scale across a an intriguing time interval in Earth history, with unprecedented precision and accuracy.

De Vleeschouwer, D.; Montanari, A.; Coccioni, R.

2012-04-01

66

The magnetic environment in the central region of nearby galaxies  

E-print Network

The central regions of galaxies harbor some of the most extreme physical phenomena, including dense stellar clusters, non-circular motions of molecular clouds and strong and pervasive magnetic field structures. In particular, radio observations have shown that the central few hundred parsecs of our Galaxy has a striking magnetic field configuration. It is not yet clear whether these magnetic structures are unique to our Milky Way or a common feature of all similar galaxies. Therefore, we report on (a) a new radio polarimetric survey of the central 200 pc of the Galaxy to better characterize the magnetic field structure and (b) a search for large-scale and organized magnetized structure in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies using data from the Very Large Array (VLA) archive. The high angular resolution of the VLA allows us to study the central 1 kpc of the nearest galaxies to search for magnetized nuclear features similar to what is detected in our own Galactic center. Such magnetic features play a importa...

Lang, Cornelia C

2008-01-01

67

Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in Central Asia  

SciTech Connect

This morning I will describe a program that we refer to as STARS, for Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security, in Central Asia. It is a program that is based on cooperative, bilateral and multilateral, science and technology projects. It is our premise that such cooperative projects provide an opportunity for engagement while addressing real problems that could otherwise lead to destabilizing tensions in the region. The STARS program directly supports USCENTCOM's activities and objectives in environmental security. In fact, we think that STARS is a great vehicle for implementing and amplifying USCENTCOM's environmental security objectives and activities. We are very grateful and very pleased to have General DeLong's support in this matter. I am going to briefly describe the program. I want to stress again that it is a cooperative program. We would like to get input, suggestions, and feedback from the Central Asians here today so we can move forward together.

Rosenberg, N

2002-07-05

68

Possible existence of wormholes in the central regions of halos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earlier study (Rahaman, et al., 2014 and Kuhfittig, 2014) has demonstrated the possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of the galactic halo, based on the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile. This paper uses the Universal Rotation Curve (URC) dark matter model to obtain analogous results for the central parts of the halo. This result is an important compliment to the earlier result, thereby confirming the possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies.

Rahaman, Farook; Salucci, P.; Kuhfittig, P. K. F.; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, Mosiur

2014-11-01

69

Long regional magnetotelluric profile crossing geotectonic structures of central Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction The magnetotelluric survey was made along a regional profile, which runs across Poland from south-west to north-east during 2005-2006 years. The profile crosses major geological structures of Central Poland, including the Variscan Externides and Variscan foredeep, the Transeuropean Suture Zone and the marginal zone of East European Craton. The main objectives of the project include identification of sub-Zechstein sedimentary

M. Stefaniuk; J. Pokorski; M. Wojdyla

2009-01-01

70

78 FR 59924 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations...Office of Energy Policy and Innovation, Federal Energy Regulatory...Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations...achieving its stated goals. Each Regional Transmission...

2013-09-30

71

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region  

SciTech Connect

This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1981-03-01

72

Central and regional hemodynamics in prolonged space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of measuring central and regional (head, forearm, calf) hemodynamics at rest and during provocative tests by the method of tetrapolar rheography in the course of Salyut-6-Soyuz and Salyut-7-Soyuz missions. The measurements were carried out during short-term (19 man-flights of 7 days in duration) and long-term (21 man-flights of 65-237 days in duration) manned missions. At rest, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) as well as heart rate (HR) decreased insignificantly (in short-term flights) or remained essentially unchanged (in long-term flights). In prolonged flights CO increased significantly in response to exercise tests due to an increase in HR and the lack of changes in SV. After exercise tests SV and CO decreased as compared to the preflight level. During lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tests HR and CO were slightly higher than preflight. Changes in regional hemodynamics included a distinct decrease of pulse blood filling (PBF) of the calf, a reduction of the tone of large vessels of the calf and small vessels of the forearm. Head examination (in the region of the internal carotid artery) showed a decrease of PBF of the left hemisphere (during flight months 2-8) and a distinct decline of the tone of small vessels, mainly, in the right hemisphere. During LBNP tests the tone of pre- and postcapillary vessels of the brain returned to normal while PBF of the right and left hemisphere vessels declined. It has been shown that regional circulation variations depend on the area examined and are induced by a rearrangement of total hemodynamics of the human body in microgravity. This paper reviews the data concerning changes in central and regional circulation of men in space flights of different duration.

Gazenko, O. G.; Shulzhenko, E. B.; Turchaninova, V. F.; Egorov, A. D.

73

Heat waves over Central Europe in regional climate model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional climate models (RCMs) have become a powerful tool for exploring impacts of global climate change on a regional scale. The aim of the study is to evaluate the capability of RCMs to reproduce characteristics of major heat waves over Central Europe in their simulations of the recent climate (1961-2000), with a focus on the most severe and longest Central European heat wave that occurred in 1994. We analyzed 7 RCM simulations with a high resolution (0.22°) from the ENSEMBLES project, driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis. In observed data (the E-OBS 9.0 dataset), heat waves were defined on the basis of deviations of daily maximum temperature (Tmax) from the 95% quantile of summer Tmax distribution in grid points over Central Europe. The same methodology was applied in the RCM simulations; we used corresponding 95% quantiles (calculated for each RCM and grid point) in order to remove the bias of modelled Tmax. While climatological characteristics of heat waves are reproduced reasonably well in the RCM ensemble, we found major deficiencies in simulating heat waves in individual years. For example, METNOHIRHAM simulated very severe heat waves in 1996, when no heat wave was observed. Focusing on the major 1994 heat wave, considerable differences in simulated temperature patterns were found among the RCMs. The differences in the temperature patterns were clearly linked to the simulated amount of precipitation during this event. The 1994 heat wave was almost absent in all RCMs that did not capture the observed precipitation deficit, while it was by far most pronounced in KNMI-RACMO that simulated virtually no precipitation over Central Europe during the 15-day period of the heat wave. By contrast to precipitation, values of evaporative fraction in the RCMs were not linked to severity of the simulated 1994 heat wave. This suggests a possible major contribution of other factors such as cloud cover and associated downward shortwave radiation. Therefore, a more detailed analysis of individual components of the energy budget over Central Europe during and before the 1994 heat wave was performed.

Lhotka, Ond?ej; Kyselý, Jan

2014-05-01

74

40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 false Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.195 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.195 Central...

2014-07-01

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40 CFR 81.271 - Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 false Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.271 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.271 Central...

2014-07-01

76

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

2014-07-01

77

40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.155 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.155 Central...

2014-07-01

78

40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.243 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central...

2010-07-01

79

78 FR 37537 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AD13-7-000] Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent...conference on centralized capacity markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent...Information), Office of Energy Policy and Innovation, Federal Energy Regulatory...

2013-06-21

80

Centralization of a regional clinical microbiology service: The Calgary experience  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS) in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA) and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL). Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs) are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service. PMID:22346397

Church, Deirdre L; Hall, Paula

1999-01-01

81

Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

Icerman, L. (ed.) [ed.

1984-02-01

82

Placing Central European climate archives into a regional tephrochronological framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of Lateglacial and Early Holocene lacustrine records from Central and Southern Europe have been shown to contain both visible and micro-tephra deposits, which can be correlated to volcanic eruptions from multiple volcanic sources. Detailed environmental proxy records, which outline local and regional responses to the abrupt climatic changes of the Last Glacial to Interglacial transition (LGIT), are thus constrained within a regional tephrochronological framework. Amongst other volcanic markers, the Laacher See Tephra, erupted from the Eifel region of Germany at 12,880 ±120 varve yrs BP (Brauer et al., 1999), and the Vedde Ash, erupted from Iceland between 12,225 and 11,832 cal. yrs BP (Blockley et al., 2007), are found within some of the same lake cores (e.g., Blockley et al., 2008). These key horizons, which bracket the onset of the Younger Dryas Interstadial, provide precise and absolutely dated tie points around which a detailed picture of the timing of local and regional environmental transitions can be constructed. The presence of the Vedde Ash in the Swiss lake sites allows a direct linkage to the Greenland Ice Core chronology (Mortensen et al., 2005) and highlights the potential for key tephra deposits to be found and correlated across wide geographical areas. This paper summarises the results of tephrochronological investigations into a suite of Central European records, which includes: Soppensee and Rotsee, in Central Switzerland; Rotmeer, in Southern Germany; and Lavarone, in Northern Italy. Chemical analysis of each tephra deposit has been carried out and the sources of the eruption events have been identified. Where appropriate, tephra ages have been transferred from high-precision annually-resolved chronologies and integrated with Bayesian-based radiocarbon age models for the sites. The environmental archives of the LGIT at each site are then compared on a common timescale, and further comparisons are made with other published European tephra-bearing records. References: Blockley, S.P.E., Bronk Ramsey, C. and Pyle, D.M. 2008. Improved age modelling and high-precision age estimates of late Quaternary tephras, for accurate palaeoclimate reconstruction. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 177(1), pp. 251-262. Blockley, S.P.E., Lane, C.S., Lotter, A.F. and Pollard, A.M. 2007. Evidence for the presence of the Vedde Ash in Central Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26(25-28), pp. 3030-3036. Brauer, A., Endres, C., Negendank, J.F.W., 1999a. Lateglacial calendar year chronology based on annually laminated sediments from Lake Meerfelder Maar, Germany. Quaternary International 61, 17-25. Mortensen, A.K., Bigler, M., Grönvold, K., Steffensen, J.P. and Johnsen, S.J. 2005. Volcanic ash layers from the last glacial termination in the NGRIP ice core. Journal of Quaternary Science, 20(3), pp. 209-219.

Lane, C. S.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Lotter, A. F.; Filippi, M. L.; Pollard, A. M.

2009-04-01

83

Ring-shaped structures in the central region of galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a catalogue of galaxies with circumnuclear rings. This catalogue includes 50% more objects than the one available in the literature. We have carried out a statistical study of the incidence of nuclear activity in this sample in order to understand the feeding processes of the central massive object. Circumnuclear rings are structures of star formation which can easily be radially differentiated from those of the active nuclei themselves, such as outflows or extended ionized regions. In order to minimize the sample bias, we have made a comparison catalogue composed by galaxies with similar properties but also without circumnuclear ring. The main result is an over-abundance of 3 times the expected incidence of Seyfert 2 nuclei. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Agüero, M. P.; Díaz, R. J.; Dottori, H.

84

Probing the Central Regions of Nearby Compact Elliptical Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

K-band spectroscopic observations recorded with NIFS+ALTAIR on Gemini North are used to probe the central arcsecond of the compact elliptical galaxies NGC 4486B, NGC 5846A, and M32. The angular resolution of these data is ~0.1" FWHM; this corresponds to a spatial scale of 12 pc in NGC 5846A, which is the most distant galaxy in the sample. Indices that probe the strengths of various atomic and molecular features are measured. The central stellar contents of NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A are similar in the sense that they occupy the same regions of the (Ca I, 12CO), (Na I, 12CO), and ( 13CO, 12CO) diagrams. The NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A observations depart from the sequence defined by solar neighborhood giants in the (Na I, 12CO) diagram in a sense that is consistent with both galaxies having nonsolar chemical mixtures. For comparison, the M32 data are consistent with a chemical enrichment history like that in the Galactic disk; M32 could not have formed from the stripping of a larger elliptical galaxy. The behavior of the near-infrared line indices as a function of radius is also investigated. The stellar content in the central arcsecond of M32 appears to be well mixed. However, the radial behavior of the indices in NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A show complicated behavior, with the gradients that are present at large radii breaking down or reversing within a few tenths of an arcsec of the nucleus. Based on the age gradients predicted from visible wavelength spectra, coupled with the radial behavior of the and 12CO(2, 0) indices, it is suggested that the nuclear regions of NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A harbor intermediate-age populations. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF) on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council of Canada (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

Davidge, T. J.; Beck, Tracy L.; McGregor, Peter J.

2008-04-01

85

Central San Juan caldera cluster: regional volcanic framework  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eruption of at least 8800 km3 of dacitic-rhyolitic magma as 9 major ash-slow sheets (individually 150-5000 km3) was accompanied by recurrent caldera subsidence between 28.3 and about 26.5 Ma in the central San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Voluminous andesitic-decitic lavas and breccias were erupted from central volcanoes prior to the ash-flow eruptions, and similar lava eruptions continued within and adjacent to the calderas during the period of explosive volcanism, making the central San Juan caldera cluster an exceptional site for study of caldera-related volcanic processes. Exposed calderas vary in size from 10 to 75 km in maximum diameter, the largest calderas being associated with the most voluminous eruptions. After collapse of the giant La Garita caldera during eruption if the Fish Canyon Tuff at 17.6 Ma, seven additional explosive eruptions and calderas formed inside the La Garita depression within about 1 m.y. Because of the nested geometry, maximum loci of recurrently overlapping collapse events are inferred to have subsided as much as 10-17 km, far deeper than the roof of the composite subvolcanic batholith defined by gravity data, which represents solidified caldera-related magma bodies. Erosional dissection to depths of as much as 1.5 km, although insufficient to reach the subvolcanic batholith, has exposed diverse features of intracaldera ash-flow tuff and interleaved caldera-collapse landslide deposits that accumulated to multikilometer thickness within concurrently subsiding caldera structures. The calderas display a variety of postcollapse resurgent uplift structures, and caldera-forming events produced complex fault geometries that localized late mineralization, including the epithermal base- and precious-metal veins of the well-known Creede mining district. Most of the central San Juan calderas have been deeply eroded, and their identification is dependent on detailed geologic mapping. In contrast, the primary volcanic morphology of the symmetrically resurgent Creede caldera, the volcanic framework for Lake Creede, has been exceptionally preserved because of rapid infilling by moat sediments of the Creede Formation, which were preferentially eroded during the past few million years. The ash-flow tuffs and caldera of the central San Juan region have been widely recognized as exceptional sites for study of explosive volcanic processes, and the results reported here provide new insights into processes of pyroclastic eruption and emplacement, geometric interrelations between caldera subsidence and resurgence, the petrologic diversity of sequential ash-flow eruptions, recurrent eruption of intermediate-composition lavas after each caldera-forming event, associated regional fault development, volume relations between ash-flow eruptions and associated calderas, the emplacement of subvolcanic batholiths, and involvement of mantle-derived mafic phases in magma-generation processes.

Lipman, Peter W.

2000-01-01

86

Regional Air Quality in central México and emissions inventories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four air quality field campaigns, from 2009 to 2012, during March-April were carried out in several sites in urban, rural and semi-rural sites in Central México. One of the sites was in the Chalco Gap southeast of MCMA (2011), another in the state of Morelos (2011), other two in the state of Puebla (2009 and 2012). All these sites are South and East of the Mexico Basin. The main object of those campaigns was to document regional air quality, mainly in rural and periurban sites, including the photochemical age of regional polluted plumes as they were transported away from the main metropolitan areas within the region. In this paper, we focus on comparisons between observed CO/NOx, and CO/SO2 ratios with those from the National Emissions Inventory and form local inventories reported in state air quality management programs. Comparisons were made with data between 05:00 to 08:00 h to minimize effects photochemical activity and the fast evolution of MLH occurring between 08:00 and 09:00 due to high insolation. Comparisons among observed ratios show a fairly consistent ratio, whereas ratios from emissions inventory are widely variable and only in few sites compare reasonable well with observed ones, indicating the need for homologation of emissions inventories in the country. Also Ozone, CO, NOx and NOy observed time series are compared with WRF-Chem model results for the same campaign periods to evaluate its performance outside MCMA. In addition, observed surface wind speeds and early morning MLH obtained with a tethered balloon are also compared with modeled values to help understanding discrepancies in the trace gases comparisons.

Gerardo Ruiz-Suarez, Luis; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Agustín García-Reynoso, José; Santos García-Yee, José; Barrera-Huertas, Hugo; Alejandro Torres-Jaramillo, Jorge; Robles-Roldán, Miguel Angel; Gutierrez López, Wilfrido; García-Espinoza, Manuel; Castro-Romero, Telma

2014-05-01

87

Regional CODA magnitudes in central Asia and MB (LG) transportability.  

SciTech Connect

Local and near regional coda have been shown to provide accurate and precise estimates of source, path and site effects. Using empirical methods, we investigate tlic use of coda to determine moments and magnitudes using regional distance (to 2500 km) data from 21 stations in central Asia and China. We find source levels for bands between 33 s and 8 Hz from events recorded at Urumchi (WMQ) to be a factor of two more consistent for coda than for direct waves, for bands outside the microseism range. However, the anticipated path averaging of regional coda is insufficient io remove bias in all but the lowest frequency bands. We correct for path bias by spatially interpolating coda levels rclative to mb(PDE). For higher bands (1 Hz), the spatial correction patterns vary by an order of magnitude and are similar to patterns obtained using direct L,. For the lowest band (20-33 s) the maximum spatial variation shrinks to under a factor of 4 and changes sign, reflecting effects other than crustal Q. Thus, the low frequency coda could be useful for correcting for source effects in empirical or tomographic path studies, which is currently performed using mb. After rcmoving path bias from coda measurements, we find that amplitude measurement consistency between all 21 stations vanes considerably from pair to pair (a = 0.12 to 0.37), with low-Q surroundings and poor site conditions yielding the least stable measurements. CMT based moments (Mw) derived from 20-33 s WMQ coda are verified by comparing with moments derived from waveform fitting studies (a = 0.18). We continue investigations into the transportability of regional magnitudes using the m{sub b}(L{sub g}) scale devised by Nuttli. Previous work has shown that mb(L) is portable for earthquakes provided that L, attenuation is well calibrated for propagation paths. ln this study, our focus shifts to explosion sources, and the question of transportability of m{sub b}(L{sub g}) for different test sites. We revisit Nuttli's results, which were based on observations at far-regional and teleseismic distances, and depended critically upon accurate knowledge of the L, Qo. In this paper, measurements of m{sub b}(L{sub g}) are reported for stations within 1000 km, and as such, errors due to uncertainties in the path correction are smaller than was the case for Nuttli's measurements.

Phillips, W. S. (William Scott); Patton, Howard J.; Hartse, H. E. (Hans E.); Mayeda, K. M. (Kevin M.)

2001-01-01

88

Central America Regional Climate Change Program: Tools for Your Use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team, in partnership with EPA, NASA, Oak Ridge National Lab, and the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), have had a significant impact on the region's ability to monitor, mitigate, and adapt to environmental threats. Environmental decision-making tools and data are posted on a website (SERVIR: http://servir.nsstc.nasa.pov/home.html)that provides satellite and geographic data and maps to anybody with an Internet connection. The SERVIR program has been identified as the model for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) - a major international effort to develop a 21st century system for environmental management and disaster response. In coordination with the USAID/EPA program, NASA has developed a GIs tool that enables countries to examine their forest cover and document changes on an annual basis. This information is used in calculating carbon emissions as part of greenhouse gas inventories, but also serves a valuable monitoring function. In addition, USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team in collaboration with EPA are helping countries meet their obligations as signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). EPA is assisting Central American governments to improve the quality of their greenhouse gas emission inventories reported to the UNFCCC through the development of tools and improvements in data quality. New EPA tools developed include software to automatically calculate greenhouse gas emissions for the agricultural and forestry sector inventories, determine key sources of greenhouse gas emissions, and document institutional arrangements. Several of these tools are state of the art and are comparable to tools currently used in the U.S.

Irwin, Dan; Irving, Bill; Yeager, Carey

2006-01-01

89

78 FR 65632 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations...Office of Energy Policy and Innovation, Federal Energy Regulatory...be offered in other eastern Regional Transmission Organization...efficacy. While recognizing that regional differences may be...

2013-11-01

90

TOWARD A RAYLEIGH WAVE ATTENUATION MODEL FOR CENTRAL ASIA AND SURROUNDING REGIONS  

E-print Network

TOWARD A RAYLEIGH WAVE ATTENUATION MODEL FOR CENTRAL ASIA AND SURROUNDING REGIONS Anatoli L model for short-period (10-20 s) Rayleigh waves in Central Asia and surrounding regions. This model), two-dimensional (2-D) Rayleigh-wave attenuation models for Central Asia along with associated

Ritzwolle, Mike

91

Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

E-print Network

-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using climate change Á Biodiversity Á Central America 1 Introduction The Mexican and Central American landmass

Bradley, Raymond S.

92

Geomorphological evidence of recent tilting in the Central Amazonia Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphometric techniques applied to remote sensing data represent powerful tools as an aid for detecting terrain features produced by recent vertical crustal movements in a variety of landscapes. In this work, geomorphometric analysis of the Central Amazonia drainage network using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data was carried out to determine surface water loading and tectonic influence on the development of the Uatumã and Urubu river basins since the Miocene. The main objective was to detect geomorphological domains of lateral stream migration and channel sinuosity changes that could indicate recent vertical crustal movement. To achieve this, the Transverse Topographic Symmetry Factor and Sinuosity Index were applied to analyze the study area drainage network. Comparison of the geomorphological domains with structural field data and records of seismicity suggests that they are influenced by subsurface fault reactivation, which coincides in space with faults mapped in outcrops that have activated since the Miocene. This interpretation is corroborated by the spatial correspondence between these faults with domain boundaries and shapes, by river sinuosity change when crossing these boundaries, and by a high concentration of seismic activity along one of these limits. The crustal movement caused by hydrological loading can also influence such geomorphological features. Such is the case of lateral stream migrations of a domain in the opposite sense to the Amazon River flow. This may be a consequence of the more pronounced expression of hydrological loading in the Negro and Solimões river confluence region.

Ibanez, Delano Menecucci; Riccomini, Claudio; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon

2014-06-01

93

Heat sources for tertiary metamorphism and anatexis in the Annapurna-Manaslu region, central Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metamorphic evolution of the rocks near the Main Central Thrust in the Annapurna-Manaslu region of central Nepal is examined. In this region, all three types of metamorphic features can be observed: regional metamorphism, anatectic granitoids, and inverted metamorphic isograds. In this work, each phase of metamorphism is treated separately to estimate the heat sources required for each process. This

Philip England; Patrick Le Fort; Peter Molnar; Arnaud Pecher

1992-01-01

94

40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...false North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.262 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.262 North...

2014-07-01

95

40 CFR 81.260 - South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.260 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.260 South...

2010-07-01

96

40 CFR 81.264 - West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

... false West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.264 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.264 West...

2014-07-01

97

40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

... false East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.263 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.263 East...

2014-07-01

98

40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...false North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.157 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.157 North...

2014-07-01

99

40 CFR 81.260 - South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 false South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.260 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.260 South...

2014-07-01

100

78 FR 53450 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent...an opportunity for each of the eastern Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs...Information), Office of Energy Policy and Innovation, Federal Energy Regulatory...

2013-08-29

101

Modeling coseismic displacements resulting from SAR interferometry and GPS measurements during the 1997 Umbria-Marche seismic sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we analyse coseismic GPS displacements and DInSAR data to constrain a dislocation model for the three largest earthquakes of the 1997 Umbria-Marche seismic sequence. The first two events, which occurred on September 26 at 00:33 GMT (Mw 5.7) and 09:40 GMT (Mw 6.0) respectively, are investigated using both GPS displacements and DInSAR interferograms. We discuss and compare

S. Salvi; S. Stramondo; M. Cocco; M. Tesauro; I. Hunstad; M. Anzidei; P. Briole; P. Baldi; E. Sansosti; G. Fornaro; R. Lanari; F. Doumaz; A. Pesci; A. Galvani

2000-01-01

102

MSU Workplan for Central Asia Regional IPM Program The Collaborative Program  

E-print Network

MSU Workplan for Central Asia Regional IPM Program The Collaborative Program USAID is sponsoring a Collaborative Research Support Program for Integrated Pest Management in Central Asia (IPM-CRSP). The project, designed to facilitate capacity building in IPM in Central Asia. IPM Constraints Addressed Based

103

Development and Delivery of Ecologically-based IPM Packages in Central Asia Central Asia Regional IPM Program Year 3 Work plans  

E-print Network

1 Development and Delivery of Ecologically-based IPM Packages in Central Asia Central Asia Regional and academic institutions and NGOs is implementing a regional IPM program in Central Asia. The three host countries include Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The technical objectives of the Central Asia

104

UNIVERSITY PARTICIPATION IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the new economy in Eastern and Central European countries involves a complexity of economic and social processes. The accession countries inherited a relatively well-organised university and higher education system from the state socialism period. But dis- ciplinary structures and territorial location of the higher education show significant inequalities. Capital city concentration, low level of research orientation and

GYULA HORVÁTH

105

Silurian of central Texas: a first record for the region.  

PubMed

Silurian outcrops, not previously recorded from central Texas, have been identified from the Llano uplift, where they occur in collapse structures within the Lower Ordovician Honeycut Formation of the Ellenburger Group. The formation is a pinkish-gray granular limestone, contains fossils of probable Wenlock age, and is named the Starcke Limestone. PMID:17752803

Barnes, V E; Boucot, A J; Cloud, P E; Miller, R H; Palmer, A R

1966-11-25

106

Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it’s important to provide regional climate change\\u000a information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central\\u000a America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal\\u000a variability of temperature and precipitation

Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

2011-01-01

107

Metabolic activity of the central and peripheral regions of mesencephalic auditory center of reptiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

491 Earlier, we showed that the central and peripheral regions of torus semicircularis (TS) of turtles have different, more often alternative, neurochemical properties. In contrast to the central lemniscal region (n. centralis, nCe), where the content of biologically active substances (5-HT, TH, m-Enk, and SP) was negligible, it was high in the peripheral extralemniscal region (n. laminaris, nL) of the

M. G. Belekhova; N. B. Kenigfest; T. V. Chudinova; N. P. Vesselkin

2006-01-01

108

Training for Environmental Protection in the Lombardy and Umbria Regions. Discussion Paper No. 74.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasing awareness of environmental issues and the implementation of environmental programs internationally has spurred a greater need for environmental education and training in many countries. This document is the first in a series of papers that will examine and provide insights into available national training programs for environmental…

Gagliardi, Raul

109

Tectonics of the Longmen Shan and Adjacent Regions, Central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Longmen Shan region includes, from west to east, the northeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau, the Sichuan Basin, and the eastern part of the eastern Sichuan fold-and-thrust belt. In the northeast, it merges with the Micang Shan, a part of the Qinling Mountains. The Longmen Shan region can be divided into two major tectonic elements: (1) an autochthon\\/parautochthon, which

B. C. Burchfiel; Chen Zhiliang; Liu Yupinc; L. H. Royden

1995-01-01

110

Phylogeography of Supralittoral Rocky Intertidal Ligia Isopods in the Pacific Region from Central California to Central Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Ligia isopods are widely distributed in the Pacific rocky intertidal shores from central California to central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Yet, their biological characteristics restrict them to complete their life cycles in a very narrow range of the rocky intertidal supralittoral. Herein, we examine phylogeographic patterns of Ligia isopods from 122 localities between central California and central Mexico. We expect to find high levels of allopatric diversity. In addition, we expect the phylogeographic patterns to show signatures of past vicariant events that occurred in this geologically dynamic region. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced two mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA). We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We found many divergent clades that, in general, group according to geography. Some of the most striking features of the Ligia phylogeographic pattern include: (1) deep mid-peninsular phylogeographic breaks on the Pacific and Gulf sides of Baja peninsula; (2) within the Gulf lineages, the northern peninsula is most closely related to the northern mainland, while the southern peninsula is most closely related to the central-southern mainland; and, (3) the southernmost portion of the peninsula (Cape Region) is most closely related to the southernmost portion of mainland. Conclusions/Significance Our results shed light on the phylogenetic relationships of Ligia populations in the study area. This study probably represents the finest-scale phylogeographic examination for any organism to date in this region. Presence of highly divergent lineages suggests multiple Ligia species exist in this region. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the Gulf of California and Baja peninsula are incongruent with a widely accepted vicariant scenario among phylogeographers, but consistent with aspects of alternative geological hypotheses and phylo- and biogeographic patterns of several other taxa. Our findings contribute to the ongoing debate regarding the geological origin of this important biogeographic region. PMID:20657776

Hurtado, Luis A.; Mateos, Mariana; Santamaria, Carlos A.

2010-01-01

111

EU Cohesion Policy and the Europeanization of Central and East European Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article probes the extent to which politics in Central and Eastern European (CEE) regions are becoming Europeanized. Existing analyses suggest that Europeanization and regionalization in CEE have been loosely related phenomena. These claims, along with broader forecasts about the waning post-accession influence of the European Union (EU), generate predictions that the politics of the regions will be ‘lightly Europeanized’.

John A. Scherpereel

2010-01-01

112

Development of Agricultural Dust Emission Inventories for the Central States Regional Air Planning Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the Central States Regional Air Planning Association's (CENRAP) need to develop a regional haze plan, Sonoma Technology, Inc. (STI) developed a 2002 emission inventory of particulate matter (PM) emissions from agricultural dust sources for the nine-state CENRAP region, which includes Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Iowa, and Minnesota. Emissions from agricultural tilling operations were estimated

Bryan M. Penfold; Dana Coe Sullivan; Stephen B. Reid; Lyle R. Chinkin

113

An investigation of seismicity for the Central Anatolia region, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the seismicity of Central Anatolia, within the area restricted to coordinates 30-35° longitude and 38-41° latitude, by determining the " a" and " b" parameters in a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relationship using data from earthquakes of moment magnitude (Mw) ? 4.0 that occurred between 1900 and 2010. Based on these parameters and a Poisson model, we aim to predict the probability of other earthquakes of different magnitudes and return periods (recurrence intervals). To achieve this, the study area is divided into six seismogenic zones, using spatial distributions of earthquakes greater than Mw ? 4.0 with active faults. For each seismogenic zone, the a and b parameters in the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relationship were calculated by the least squares method. The probability of occurrence and return periods of various magnitude earthquakes were calculated from these statistics using the Poisson method.

Özmen, Bülent; Bayrak, Erdem; Bayrak, Yusuf

2014-07-01

114

Implementation of a Regional Healthcare Information Organization in South Central Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this Graduate Management Project is to delineate the strategic plan necessary to successfully implement the South Central Texas Regional Healthcare Information Organization (RHIO) under the auspices of the Greater San Antonio Hospital Counc...

M. R. Barry

2007-01-01

115

Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprised of numerous scientific and advocacy partners, and funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), CARPE seeks to help identify and establish conditions and practices which will reduce deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Congo Basin. CARPE arose in response to both local and international concern about the consequences of the current pattern of unsustainable resource use in the region. Main sections at this site include: Briefing Sheet, Partners, Activities, Products, Donor Coordination and related sites. Users can join a discussion group or link to related sites.

1997-01-01

116

Mount Chacaltaya Regional GAW Station in the Central Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mount Chacaltaya Laboratory (MCL), located 30 km from the city of La Paz , at 5300 m asl, is well known as a cosmic ray laboratory that made important contributions to the Elementary Particles Physics in the 40's and 50's of the last century. Since its beginnings, the MCL has also hosted instruments and experiments devoted to atmospheric research and health studies at high altitude locations. In addition, the Chacaltaya glacier has attracted the interest of worldwide climatologists, due to its dramatic retreat. In fact, this glacier does not exist almost anymore. Recently, the Atmospheric Physics Laboratory (LFA-UMSA) has begun to take permanent and field measurements of some relevant atmospheric parameters at MCL, such as carbon dioxide, aerosols and ultraviolet irradiance. In this work we show some characteristics that made Chacaltaya a Regional GAW Station (CHC), recently nominated by WMO. In addition we show some pioneering steps of this project, supported by research institutes from France, Italy, Switzerland and USA. Finally, thanks to the vigorous co-operation of the Raman lidar group at Goddard Space Flight Center, a new YAG Laser is being installed, to be operated together with the "old" Alexandrite Lidar in the study of aerosols at La Paz.

Zaratti, Francesco; Forno, Ricardo N.; Lolli, Simone

2010-05-01

117

From the Ground Up: Growing Entrepreneurship in the North Central Region. RRD 191  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 300 people in the North Central region added their voices to a discussion on the importance of entrepreneurship to rural community vitality, often traveling long distances to attend one of 11 listening sessions held throughout the region. Among those attending were local leaders, service providers, entrepreneurs, and educators. The…

Emery, Mary

2008-01-01

118

Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders,

Derek B. Hall; Paul D. Greger; Jeffrey R. Rosier

2009-01-01

119

Trends and discontinuities in regional rainfall of West and Central Africa: 1951-1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standardized regional mean annual rainfall series are analysed over the period 1951-1989 from a data set of 891 rainfall stations which covers 23 countries of West and Central Africa. Missing values are estimated by using regionalized indexes computed on the basis of a morpho-climatic delimitation of 44 homogeneous climatic units. Searches for statistical discontinuities in rainfall series show no discontinuity

GIL MAHE; GEOFFROY WOTLING

2001-01-01

120

New Orleans and Hurricane Katrina. II: The Central Region and the Lower Ninth Ward  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure of the New Orleans regional flood protection systems, and the resultant catastrophic flooding of much of New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina, represents the most costly failure of an engineered system in U.S. history. This paper presents an overview of the principal events that unfolded in the central portion of the New Orleans metropolitan region during this hurricane, and

R. B. Seed; R. G. Bea; A. Athanasopoulos-Zekkos; G. P. Boutwell; J. D. Bray; C. Cheung; D. Cobos-Roa; L. Ehrensing; L. F. Harder Jr.; J. M. Pestana; M. F. Riemer; J. D. Rogers

2008-01-01

121

VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION AND DIEL MIGRATION OF EUPHAUSIIDS IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT  

E-print Network

VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION AND DIEL MIGRATION OF EUPHAUSIIDS IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE CALIFORNIA. Zooplankton assemblages in the nearshore regions differed from those farther offshore in having a larger euphausiid populations, particularly Euphausia pacifica, tended to be more pronounced in offshore waters

122

REGIONAL EMISSIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN AGROECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL WEST REGION, BRAZIL.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...

123

The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies are necessary. Temporary seismic networks have been installed in several Central Asian cities (Bishkek and Karakol, Kyrgyzstan; Dushanbe, Tajikistan; Tashkent, Uzbekistan) within the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA), a regional program of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The empirically estimated site effects have already helped to improve real-time risk scenarios for Bishkek and will be applied to other major cities. - A crucial requirement for disaster risk reduction involves the analysis of the vulnerability of existing building inventories. Whereas traditional approaches are very time- and cost-consuming, and even impossible given the high rate of urbanization in Central Asian capitals, our integrated approach is based on satellite remote sensing and ground-based omni-directional imaging, providing building inventories and thus structural vulnerability over large areas (EMCA, GEM-IDCT). All mentioned activities are carried out within the framework of cooperation between GFZ and regional national institutes, in particular the Central Asian Institute for Applied Geosciences. Altogether, this comprehensive and long-term risk analyses and research program will lead to a better understanding of the coupling of endogene and exogene processes and the identification of their impact on society.

Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

2012-12-01

124

The Importance of Local and Regional Factors on the Vegetation of Created Wetlands in Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the relative importance of regional and local processes to wetland plant diversity in created depressional wetlands\\u000a in Central Europe (Košské mokrade wetlands, central Slovakia). Twelve wetlands were sampled for vegetation, water chemistry,\\u000a morphological, and hydrological data in 2008. A total of 39 plant species were found in the wetlands, dominated by Typha latifolia L. The results support the

Marek Svitok; Richard Hrivnák; Helena O?ahe?ová; Daniela Dúbravková; Peter Pa?ove-Balang; Vladimír Slobodník

125

Stock allocation among a central warehouse and identical regional warehouses in a particular push inventory control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-echeleon inventory system with one central warehouse and n regional warehouses is considered. Customer demand is satisfied from the regional warehouses. A push type control system is used, implying that the allocation of stock is coordinated by the central unit. Given an initial system stock, a fixed planning horizon and two shipping possibilities from the central warehouse until the

HENRIK JÖNSSON; EDWARD A. SILVER

1987-01-01

126

Rainfall Induced Natural Disaster in Central America, a challenge for Regional Risk Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall induced natural disasters rank first among all natural disasters in Central America. According to the records of the EM-DAT international database, 248 out of 486 disasters registered in Central America were disasters triggered by rainfall invents, in countries like Belize and Honduras, rainfall-induced natural disasters, mainly floods and landslides, account for more than 90% of the total number of casualties as well as the economic damage of all the disasters. Due to the natural conditions of the Central American Isthmus, precipitation events often struck more than one country at the time, for example Hurricane Mitch in 1998 affected the entire Central American region causing more than 18,000 casualties. In this context, the Central America countries have been working on joint programs and policies aiming transboundary cooperation and management of natural disasters, a clear example of this effort is CEPREDENAC which is the intergovernmental body with the mandate of promoting activities, projects and programs towards reduction of the risks to disasters in order to avoid loss of life and economic assets in the Central America, however, transnational management face several challenges that fall mostly in the political, economical and technical areas. In this paper we described and analyzed the rainfall induced natural disasters, their impacts and the inherent management challenges in the Central American context. Key words: Central America, Natural Disasters, Risk Management, International Cooperation

Estuardo Guinea Barrientos, Héctor; Swain, Ashok

2013-04-01

127

Projections of Future Changes in Precipitation for Central America Using PRECIS Regional Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central America has been identified as one of the regions in the world where potential climate change impacts on the environment can be pronounced. Climate of the region shows its variability mainly in precipitation. Interactions between regional atmospheric circulation patterns, trade winds and region's complex topography not only define different precipitation regimes for the Caribbean basin (windward) and the Pacific basin (leeward) but also modify the annual cycle of precipitation. These features can only be realistically simulated and studied by a regional climate model. We use the UK Hadley Centre PRECIS (Providing REgional Climates for Impact Studies) regional model to study climate change in Central America. The comparison between a control run and the SRES A2 (doubled CO2) run enables us to examine the projected changes in climate on a regional scale. The fidelity of model simulations is assessed by comparing the control run with observations and reanalysis data. PRECIS underestimates precipitation over Central America, which is also seen in nearly all global models as a result of underestimation of sea surface temperatures and an excessive smooth representation of regional topographical features. The summer rainy season in Central America is characterized by a bimodal distribution in precipitation, with maxima in June and September and a relative minimum during July-August known as the mid-summer drought (MSD). The mechanisms controlling this precipitation cycle in the region is discussed at length in the literature. However, how this cycle would change in future at a regional scale, is yet to be investigated in great detail. The PRECIS resolution of 25km allows us to study the annual cycle separately for the Pacific and Caribbean sides. The precipitation change in future differs considerably on the Atlantic and Pacific sides of Central America and is also a function of elevation. In the SRES A2 run, both sides experience a relative decrease in precipitation in the months of July and August. However, for other months, precipitation change in future on the Atlantic side differs considerably than that on the Pacific side. The Atlantic side not only experiences a reduction in precipitation throughout the year but also sees a change in the shape of the annual cycle where the MSD feature seem to disappear. The probability distributions of precipitation for different elevations predict that high elevation regions, in general, will become drier with a reduction in precipitation variability compared to lowlands. These aspects of the rainy season are very important for planning in key sectors such as agriculture and power generation, which are an integral part of the economy of the region.

Karmalkar, A. V.; Bradley, R. S.; Diaz, H. F.

2008-12-01

128

Lower Palaeozoic sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Kerman region, East-Central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kerman-Tabas region of East-Central Iran contains the thickest and most complete sequence of Early Palaeozoic (Cambrian to Silurian) rocks in Iran and the Middle East, but the stratigraphy is complex.\\u000aDetailed reassessment of stratigraphic relationships between the Early Palaeozoic strata, together with new sedimentological, petrological and palaeontological data, indicate that the Kerman-Tabas region was tectonically active during this period,

Mir Alireza Hamedi

1995-01-01

129

Intraspecific Phylogeography of Red Squirrels ( Tamiasciurus hudsonicus ) in the Central Rocky Mountain Region of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used variation in a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region to examine phylogeography of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, a boreal-adapted small mammal in the central Rocky Mountain region. AMOVA revealed that 65.66% of genetic diversity was attributable to variation within populations, 16.93% to variation among populations on different mountain ranges, and 17.41% to variation among populations within mountain ranges. Nested

Gregory M. Wilson; Ronald A. Den Bussche; Karen McBee; Lacrecia A. Johnson; Cheri A. Jones

2005-01-01

130

How do human activities shape wolves' behavior in the central Rocky Mountains region, Alberta, Canada?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wolves (Canis lupus) may be considered an indicator species for cumulative effects induced by human interactions. This paper describes the conceptualization and implementation of an agent-based model to investigate how different intensity levels of human activities affect wolf's behavior in the central Rocky Mountains region of Alberta. Most agent-based models for wildlife study include two components: an animal movement component

Sk. Morshed Anwar; Marco Musiani; Greg Mcdermid; Danielle J. Marceau

2009-01-01

131

Industry Association Influence Upon State Aquaculture Policy in the North Central Region1  

Microsoft Academic Search

States within the North Central Region of the U.S. differ in their approaches to regulating the aquaculture industry. According to interest group theory, these policy differences may be attributable to differences in the abilities of state aquaculture associations to influence state policy makers. The influence abilities of six aquaculture industry associations were examined in relation to the corresponding state policy

SUSAN K. THOMAS; DONALD W. FLOYD; ROBERT L. VKRTREES

132

Distinct sources for syntectonic Variscan granitoids: Insights from the Aguiar da Beira region, Central Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Variscan syntectonic granitoid plutons from the Aguiar da Beira region (central Portugal) were emplaced into metasediments of Late Proterozoic-Early Cambrian age during the last Variscan ductile tectonic event (D3), which is related to dextral and sinistral shearing.

Costa, M. M.; Neiva, A. M. R.; Azevedo, M. R.; Corfu, F.

2014-05-01

133

Research Priorities for Adult Education in Agriculture in the North Central Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey of 43 state supervisors and 110 teacher educators in agriculture in the 12-state North Central region received 116 responses. Supervisors identified determining the need for adult agriculture programs and competencies of adult agriculture instructors as the most important research needs. Teacher educators selected adult program evaluation…

Birkenholz, Robert J.; And Others

1990-01-01

134

Summaries of Studies in Agricultural Education, Central Region, 1966-67.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose, method, and findings are given for each of 55 research studies in agricultural education completed in 1966-67 in the 13 states of the American Vocational Central Region. Also listed are the 66 investigations which were in progress in 1967-68. Summaries are arranged alphabetically by author and are available for loan from university…

Warmbrod, J. Robert, Comp.

135

Summaries of Studies in Agricultural Education, Central Region. 1971-72.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of research in agricultural education presents abstracts of 76 studies completed during 1971-72 in 12 of the states of the Central Region. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author and indexed by subject. A list of studies in progress in 1971-73 is also included. Abstracts of research completed in 1971-72 were reported…

Thomas, Hollie B., Comp.

136

Summaries of Studies in Agricultural Education, Central Region, 1969-70.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography of research in agricultural education includes abstracts of 103 studies completed during 1969-70 in 11 of the 13 states of the American Vocational Association Central Region. They are arranged alphabetically by author and indexed by subject. A list of 97 studies in progress in 1970-71 is also included. All studies…

Horner, James T., Comp.

137

Ecology of duck broods in a forested region of north-central Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thesis. During the summers of 1968-1972, 45 mallard (Anas ; platyrhynchos) and 26 wood duck (Aix sponsa) females with broods were radio ; tracked on the rivers, lakes, and small wetlands of a forested region of north-; central Minnesota. The resulting 3729 radio locations were analyzed with respect ; to movements and habitat use. Supplementary information was also gathered on

Ball; I. J. Jr

1973-01-01

138

NWS Central Region Service Assessment Joplin, Missouri, Tornado May 22, 2011  

E-print Network

NWS Central Region Service Assessment Joplin, Missouri, Tornado ­ May 22, 2011 U.S. DEPARTMENT Headquarters Kansas City, MO July 2011 #12;Cover Photographs Left: NOAA Radar image of Joplin Tornado. Right: Aftermath of Joplin, MO, tornado courtesy of Jennifer Spinney, Research Associate, University of Oklahoma

139

Sedimentary environments of the Central Region of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sediments and calcareous organisms on the outer reefal shelf of the Central Region of the Great Barrier Reef were collected and observed by SCUBA diving and research vessel techniques (including underwater television) to understand the production and processes of deposition of the sediment. The carbonate grains are mainly sand and gravel size and solely of skeletal origin. Over the

Terence P. Scoffin; Alexander W. Tudhope

1985-01-01

140

PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF THE CENTRAL GRASSLAND REGION OF THE UNITED STATES1,3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboveground net primary production of grasslands is strongly influenced by the amount and distribution of annual precipitation. Analysis of data collected at 9500 sites throughout the central United States confirmed the overwhelming importance of water availability as a control on production. The regional spatial pattern of production reflected the east-west gradient in annual precipitation. Lowest values of aboveground net primary

O. E. SALA; W. J. PARTON; L. A. JOYCE; W. K. LAUENROTH

1988-01-01

141

40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42...

2012-07-01

142

40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42...

2013-07-01

143

40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42...

2014-07-01

144

40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42...

2010-07-01

145

ccsd00000779 THE DARK MATTER DISTRIBUTION IN THE CENTRAL REGIONS OF  

E-print Network

ccsd­00000779 (version 1) : 23 Oct 2003 THE DARK MATTER DISTRIBUTION IN THE CENTRAL REGIONS 91125, USA Cosmological N-body simulations predict that dark matter halos should have a universal shape gravitational arcs we were able to measure precisely the inner slope of the dark matter halo and compare

146

North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

2012-01-01

147

Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

148

Changes in agriculture and the environment in an upland region of the Massif Central, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study of an upland region in the Massif Central, which has over the years struggled to find some demographic, economic, ecological and cultural ‘equilibrium’. The field site forms part of the Cévennes National Park, and contains habitats and landscapes of considerable ecological and cultural value. The society and landscape of the uplands studies have essentially

Eileen O’Rourke

2006-01-01

149

Farm Crisis Response: Extension and Research Activities in the North Central Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 12 states comprising the North Central Region have been affected in similar ways by the farm crisis of the 1980s. Statewide surveys show sizeable proportions of farm operations that are experiencing moderately high levels of financial stress. The problems caused by chronic stress on family structure and functioning, the loss of mainstreet…

Lasley, Paul, Comp.; And Others

150

Airborne aerosols over central Africa during the Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO) conducted over central Africa in November 1996, 24 airborne aerosol samples were obtained and further analyzed for black and organic carbon (BC and OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), soluble ions, elemental composition, and morphology. Particles were collected in the different atmospheric layers either

Stéphane Ruellan; Hélène Cachier; Annie Gaudichet; Pierre Masclet; Jean-Pierre Lacaux

1999-01-01

151

Historical Abundance and Decline of Chinook Salmon in the Central Valley Region of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Valley drainage of California formerly produced immense numbers of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Four seasonal runs occur in this system—fall, late-fall, winter, and spring runs. Differences in life history timing and spatial distribution enabled the four runs to use the drainage to the fullest possible extent and once made it one of the richest regions in the world

Ronald M. Yoshiyama; Frank W. Fisher; Peter B. Moyle

1998-01-01

152

Exemplary English Language Arts Standards among the Seven States in the Central Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study provides an organized list of core English language arts standards and benchmarks that are recognized by most or all of the states in the Central Region (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) and that are found in standards documents that have been rated as exemplary by national organizations. In…

Kendall, John S.; Norford, Jennifer S.; Snyder, Christina E.

153

Access to Supplemental Educational Services in the Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Central Region states (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) lag behind the nation in the rate of participation in supplemental educational services that schools failing to make adequate progress for three consecutive years must offer to eligible students under the No Child Left Behind Act. This study…

Barley, Zoe; Wegner, Sandra K.

2007-01-01

154

Institutional Innovation and Public Extension Services Provision: The Marche Regional Administration Reform in Central Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of the MRA reform we used a methodological approach based on three steps: (i) first we applied a desk analysis to sketch the…

Pascucci, Stefano; De Magistris, Tiziana

2011-01-01

155

Condom Availability at Four-Year State Universities in the North Central Census Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of 66 4-year state universities with enrollments greater than 5,000 students in the North Central census region investigated the availability of condoms on campuses to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The survey sought to determine condom availability, location, cost to students, and…

Estes, K. R.; And Others

156

Regional distribution of cyclooxygenase-3 mRNA in the rat central nervous system.  

PubMed

We determined COX-3 mRNA expression in regions of the rat central nervous system (CNS). On a regional basis, levels were the highest in choroid plexus and spinal chord followed by pituitary gland, hypothalamus, hippocampus, medulla, cerebellum, and cortex. COX-3 mRNA levels were higher in major brain arteries, and dramatically higher in brain microvessels. Our results suggest that the expression pattern of COX-3 mRNA in the rat CNS primarily relates to the vascular density of a given region. PMID:15207919

Kis, Bela; Snipes, Andy; Bari, Ferenc; Busija, David W

2004-07-01

157

On tokamak equilibria with a zero current or negative current central region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several tokamak experiments have reported the development of a central region with vanishing currents (the current hole). The straightforward application of results from the work of Greene, Johnson and Weimer [Phys. Fluids 14, 671 (1971)] on a tokamak equilibrium to these plasmas leads to the apparent singularities in several physical quantities including the Shafranov shift and casts doubts on the existence of this type of equilibria. In this paper, the above quoted equilibrium theory is re-examined and extended to include equilibria with a current hole. It is shown that singularities can be circumvented and that equilibria with a central current hole do satisfy the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium condition with regular behavior for all the physical quantities and do not lead to infinitely large Shafranov shifts. Isolated equilibria with negative current in the central region could exist. But equilibria with negative currents in general do not have neighboring equilibria and thus cannot have experimental realization, i.e., no negative currents can be driven in the central region.

Chu, M. S.; Parks, P. B.

2002-12-01

158

Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS): A prototype regional environmental information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Accomplishments have included: (1) completion of the research design for the USGS/CARETS demonstration project; (2) preparation of photomossics and land use maps at a scale of 1:100,000 for entire area; (3) demonstration of the feasibility of extracting several categories of land use information from ERTS-1 MSS data for a portion of the CARETS region; (4) demonstration of the feasibility of detecting some significant land use changes on ERTS-1 imagery; (5) demonstration of the feasibility of attaching environmental impact significance to the remote sensor-derived land use data; (6) delivery of land use information derived from high altitude aircraft data to the Maryland state planning agency for use in its statewide land use inventory; (7) demonstration of high interest by other use groups in the test region in products and services provided by investigation; and (8) determination of the viability of setting up a computerized geographic information system as part of the CARETS investigation, to facilitate handling of sensor-derived land use data in a variety of formats to suit user requirements.

Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

159

Phylogeography of Supralittoral Rocky Intertidal Ligia Isopods in the Pacific Region from Central California to Central Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLigia isopods are widely distributed in the Pacific rocky intertidal shores from central California to central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Yet, their biological characteristics restrict them to complete their life cycles in a very narrow range of the rocky intertidal supralittoral. Herein, we examine phylogeographic patterns of Ligia isopods from 122 localities between central California and central Mexico.

Luis A. Hurtado; Mariana Mateos; Carlos A. Santamaria; Sharyn Jane Goldstien

2010-01-01

160

Atmospheric Transport of Arid Aerosol from Desert Regions of Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of atmospheric transport of arid aerosol from Central Asia was held within the ISTC project 3715. Particular attention was paid to the removal of aerosol from the Aral Sea region and its further transport, because aerosol and pollutants emission from Central Asia affect the airspace of the entire Asian continent. At the same time measurements of aerosols in the atmosphere of Central Asia are holding in a small number of stations, and currently available data are insufficient to define the initial conditions and/or verification of models of long-range transport. To identify sources of pollution transported from Central Asia, in Kyrgyzstan measurement and sampling of air were organized: at the station on the northern slope of the Kirgiz Range, 30 km south of Bishkek, at an altitude of 1700 m above sea level (Bishkek Site, 42,683N; 74,694E ), and on permanent alpine Teploklyuchenka lidar station in the Central Tien Shan at an altitude of 2000 m above sea level (Lidar Site, 42,467N; 78,533E). The chemical analysis of collected aerosol and soils samples was carried out. Measurements of aerosol at these stations have been merged with the simulation of the trajectories of air masses in the study region and with the satellite (the Terra and Aqua satellites) observations of aerosol optical thickness in this region. Satellite data for the region 43-47 N, and 58-62 E (Aral Sea) from April 2008 to September 2009 were analyzed. The moments were selected, when the value of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was greatest (more than 0.5), and the transport from the Aral Sea region to the observation sites took place. For each of these days, the forward trajectories, which started at 6 points within the region, were calculated using the HYSPLIT model. The days, on which the trajectories reached the BISHKEK and LIDAR sites, were determined from the data obtained. Calculations on the basis of the RAMS model were performed for these days. These calculations were performed using a grid of 160*120*30 points. The obtained meteorological fields were used in the HYPACT model; the source of Lagrangian particles was located over the Aral Sea region. As the result for 2008 11 days were detected when aerosol from the Aral Sea was actively transported to the observation sites. Comparative chemical analysis of aerosol samples at the stations of observation and soil samples from the Aral Sea region would confirm the presence of emissions and regional transport. It should be noted that the main source of aerosol in Central Asia is Taklamakan desert. Average value and AOT variability over it several times higher than corresponding AOT values over the rest of the region. The greatest variability aerosol over Taklamakan observed from late March to mid-May. For example, on April 22, 2008 average of the AOT in cell 5° x 5° over the western part of Taklamakan - value reached 3,171. AOT virtually throughout the region positively correlated with AOT over Taklamakan desert. The most noticeable effect makes an aerosol of Taklamakan found in the south-east Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan in the east and north of the Tibetan highlands. The impact of the Aral Sea area is restricted significantly less. In doing so, AOT in the central part of the region reveals a weak negative correlation with the AOT over the Aral Sea.

Chen, Boris; Solomon, Paul; Sitnov, Sergei; Grechko, Evgeny; Maximenkov, Leonid; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

2010-05-01

161

Deposition, clearance, and translocation of chrysotile asbestos from peripheral and central regions of the rat lung  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated the pulmonary deposition, clearance, and translocation of chrysotile asbestos in the context of their previously developed model of asbestos in the rat. Adult male rats were exposed for 3 hr to an aerosol of chrysotile asbestos. Subgroups were sacrificed up to 29 days postexposure and the lungs of the animals fixed. Peripheral and central regions of the left lung were resected, digested, and analyzed for fiber content by scanning electron microscopy. Pulmonary deposition did not differ between peripheral and central regions. There was no evidence of translocation of fibers from central to peripheral regions. The average diameter of retained fibers decreased over time, consistent with longitudinal splitting. The average length of retained fibers increased over time, consistent with longitudinal splitting. The average length of retained fibers increased over time, consistent with slower clearance of longer fibers. A novel counting scheme to ensure accurate fiber number measurements, allowing the calculation of clearance rates for fibers 0.5 {ge} 16 {mu}m in length. Fibers of length {ge}16 {mu}m were cleared slowly, if at all. These findings could have important implications for the pathogenesis of asbestos-related pleural disease. Many fibers are deposited in the peripheral region, and the longest ({ge}16 {mu}m) will persist there for extended periods.

Coin, P.G. (National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States) Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States) Durham Veterans Administration Medical Centers, NC (United States)); Roggli, V.L. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States) Durham Veterans Administration Medical Centers, NC (United States)); Brody, A.R. (National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1992-06-01

162

Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Niño events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region.

Karmalkar, Ambarish V.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Diaz, Henry F.

2011-08-01

163

Central Asia Regional IPM CRSP Project Report: October 2006-March 2007 Submitted by: Dr. K. Maredia and Dr. D. Baributsa  

E-print Network

Central Asia Regional IPM CRSP Project Report: October 2006-March 2007 Submitted by: Dr. K. Maredia and rearing of newly introduced predator mites in Central Asia. Dr. Tashpulatova is reviewing the history the IPM-CRSP in Central Asia and Oxfam GB. A joint effort is underway by the IPM-CRSP project

164

Microsurgical Treatment for Central Gyrus Region Meningioma With Epilepsy as Primary Symptom  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this article was to investigate the operation outcome, complications, and the patient’s quality of life after surgical therapy for central gyrus region meningioma with epilepsy as the primary symptom. Methods All patients get at least 6 months of follow-up (range, 6–34 mo) after surgery. They underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and video electroencephalography, and their clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, microsurgical methods, and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed. Results The meningioma was located in the front and back of the central sulcus vein in 3 and 2 patients, respectively; in the compressed precentral gyrus and central sulcus vein in 3 patients; and in the precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus each in 1 patient; beside the right sagittal sinus and invaded a thick draining vein on the brain surface in 1 patient and beside the right sagittal sinus and close to the precentral gyrus in 2 patients; invaded the superior sagittal sinus in 8 patients; crossed the cerebral falx and compressed cortex gyrus veins in 1 patient; invaded duramater and irritated skull hyperplasia in 3 patients; invaded duramater and its midline infiltrated into the superior sagittal sinus, was located behind the precentral gyrus, and enveloped the central sulcus vein. They were resected and classified by Simpson standards: 17 of the 26 patients had grade I, 6 patients had in grade II, and 3 patients had in grade III. Conclusions Resection of central gyrus region meningioma by microsurgical technique avoids injury to the cerebral cortex, central sulcus vein, and other draining veins. Microsurgery improves the total resection rate, reduces recurrence rate, and lowers disability or death rate. PMID:24999673

Deng, Wen-shuai; Zhou, Xiao-yang; Li, Zhao-jian; Xie, Hong-wei; Fan, Ming-chao; Sun, Peng

2014-01-01

165

Climatic variability, fire, and vegetation modeling in the North American Central Grassland Region  

SciTech Connect

In developing an equilibrium vegetation model for assessing the sensitivity of natural vegetation to climatic change in the Central Grasslands, we encountered difficulties in establishing solely climatic determinants for grasslands. Under the normal climate, woody plant dominance was predicted for much of the region supporting open grassland at the time of European settlement. Climatic data for historic periods and a fire model were used to test whether grass dominance was promoted by (1) climatic periods distinct from the normal period, (2) by fire, or (3) by the interactive effect of both. Grass/woody ratios in test simulations exhibited spatio-temporal variation produced by complex interactions among PET, precipitation seasonality, competition for soil moisture, and fuel characteristics determining fire intensity. Results support concepts of plant community thresholds and multiple steady states in the Central Grassland region.

Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

1994-06-01

166

Effect of centrally administered endothelin agonists on systemic and regional blood circulation in the rat: role of sympathetic nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the present study were to determine (1) the hypotensive and regional circulatory effects of centrally administered endothelin (ET) ETA and ETB agonists, and (2) the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the mediation of hypotensive effects due to centrally administered ET-1. The systemic haemodynamics and regional blood circulation in urethane anaesthetized rats following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration

A Gulati; A Kumar; S Morrison; B. T Shahani

1997-01-01

167

Regional trends in transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity, lower cretaceous sands, north-central Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depositional and structural history control the regional trends in transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity in Lower Cretaceous-age sands along the Balcones Ouachita trend in North-Central Texas. Because of scarcity of pumping tests, delineation of trends was only possible by incorporating transmissivities estimated from specific capacities. Statistical comparison of estimated and pumping-test transmissivities confirmed the validity of this approach. The resulting contour

Macpherson

1983-01-01

168

Coupled Global-Regional Climate Model Simulations of Future Changes in Hydrology over Central America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central America covers a relatively small area, but is topographically very complex, has long coast-lines, large inland bodies of water, and very diverse land cover which is both natural and human-induced. As a result, Central America is plagued by hydrologic extremes, especially major flooding and drought events, in a region where many people still barely manage to eke out a living through subsistence. Therefore, considerable concern exists about whether these extreme events will change, either in magnitude or in number, as climate changes in the future. To address this concern, we have used global climate model simulations of future climate change to drive a regional climate model centered on Central America. We use the IPCC `business as usual' scenario 21st century run made with the NCAR CCSM3 global model to drive the regional model MM5 at 12 km resolution. We chose the `business as usual' scenario to focus on the largest possible changes that are likely to occur. Because we are most interested in near-term changes, our simulations are for the years 2010, 2015, and 2025. A long `present-day run (for 2005) allows us to distinguish between climate variability and any signal due to climate change. Furthermore, a multi-year run with MM5 forced by NCEP reanalyses allows an assessment of how well the coupled global-regional model performs over Central America. Our analyses suggest that the coupled model does a credible job simulating the current climate and hydrologic regime, though lack of sufficient observations strongly complicates this comparison. The suite of model runs for the future years is currently nearing completion, and key results will be presented at the meeting.

Oglesby, R. J.; Erickson, D. J.; Hernandez, J. L.; Irwin, D.

2005-12-01

169

Gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region, Qinling Mountains, central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gold-rich Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region in eastern Shaanxi and western Henan provinces, central China, lies about 30-50 km inland of the southern margin of the North China craton. More than 100 gold deposits and occurrences are concentrated in the Xiaoqinling (west), Xiaoshan (middle), and Xiong'ershan (east) areas. Late Archean gneiss of the Taihua Group, and Middle Proterozoic metavolcanic rocks of the

Jingwen Mao; Richard J. Goldfarb; Zhengwei Zhang; Wenyi Xu; Yumin Qiu; Jun Deng

2002-01-01

170

Regional Convergence in Central and Eastern European Countries: A Multidimensional Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the dynamics of regional income at the NUTS3 level of the new EU Member States from Central and Eastern Europe in the years 1998–2005. The authors apply a wide range of methods and tools including classical beta and sigma convergence analysis supplemented by transition matrices, kernel density estimations and spatial autocorrelation statistics. Results of such a multi-dimensional

Maciej Sm?tkowski; Piotr Wójcik

2012-01-01

171

Active oblique extension in the central Apennines (Italy): evidence from the Fucino region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fucino Basin is a flat Quaternary depression within the central Apennines. It is surrounded by active normal faults with small oblique-slip components. Surface faulting was observed along the east side of the basin during the Ms=7.0 Avezzano earthquake of 1915. In order to understand the kinematics of recent strain better and to assess the seismic hazard of this region,

Luigi Piccardi; Yves Gaudemer; Paul Tapponnier; Mario Boccaletti

1999-01-01

172

Environmental Behaviour of Metolachlor and Diuron in a Tropical Soil in the Central Region of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental behaviour of metolachlor and diuron was studied in the Central-western region of Brazil, by means of a field\\u000a study where six experimental plots were installed. The soil was classified as a Latosol, and the soil horizons were characterized.\\u000a Sorption of metolachlor and diuron was evaluated in laboratory batch experiments. Metolachlor and diuron were applied to the\\u000a experimental plots

Eliana F. G. C. Dores; Cláudio A. Spadotto; Oscarlina L. S. Weber; Leandro Carbo; Antonio B. Vecchiato; Alicio A. Pinto

2009-01-01

173

The Unconserved Groucho Central Region Is Essential for Viability and Modulates Target Gene Specificity  

PubMed Central

Groucho (Gro) is a Drosophila corepressor required by numerous DNA-binding repressors, many of which are distributed in gradients and provide positional information during development. Gro contains well-conserved domains at its N- and C-termini, and a poorly conserved central region that includes the GP, CcN, and SP domains. All lethal point mutations in gro map to the conserved regions, leading to speculation that the unconserved central domains are dispensable. However, our sequence analysis suggests that the central domains are disordered leading us to suspect that the lack of lethal mutations in this region reflects a lack of order rather than an absence of essential functions. In support of this conclusion, genomic rescue experiments with Gro deletion variants demonstrate that the GP and CcN domains are required for viability. Misexpression assays using these same deletion variants show that the SP domain prevents unrestrained and promiscuous repression by Gro, while the GP and CcN domains are indispensable for repression. Deletion of the GP domain leads to loss of nuclear import, while deletion of the CcN domain leads to complete loss of repression. Changes in Gro activity levels reset the threshold concentrations at which graded repressors silence target gene expression. We conclude that co-regulators such as Gro are not simply permissive components of the repression machinery, but cooperate with graded DNA-binding factors in setting borders of gene expression. We suspect that disorder in the Gro central domains may provide the flexibility that allows this region to mediate multiple interactions required for repression. PMID:22319573

Turki-Judeh, Wiam; Courey, Albert J.

2012-01-01

174

Regional Hydrological Response to Climate Change in Mexico and Central America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future changes in precipitation amount and variability are among the most important and serious projected consequences of climate change. Central America (CAM) shows most of its climate variability in precipitation. Thus, the large hydrological response to global warming can have negative consequences on agricultural activities and the ecosystem dynamics in the region. Indeed, Central America is considered to be a climate change hot-spot in the tropics mainly due to a future decrease in precipitation and an increase in precipitation variability as projected by the IPCC models. These coarse resolution general circulation models (GCMs) do not provide climate information at spatial scales appropriate for impacts assessment. A regional climate model PRECIS was used in this study to carry out two experiments: (i) the baseline (present-day) run and (ii) the SRES A2 run, both performed at 25 km horizontal resolution. The low-level circulation in the region around Central America is controlled by the low pressure area in the Pacific (the ITCZ) and the high pressure area (North Atlantic Subtropical High, NASH) in the Atlantic. Changes in the position and magnitude of the ITCZ low and the NASH govern the low-level circulation in the region. The spatial pattern of precipitation over CAM landmass is further modified by the complex topography and the land surface properties. A large reduction in precipitation is projected during the wet season (May-Oct) for eastern Mexico (30% decrease) and the Yucatan Peninsula (40% decrease) under the A2 scenario. A small decrease in precipitation during the wet season is projected for the Caribbean slopes of southern Central America. In general, a decrease in precipitation in these regions is associated with an increase in sea level pressure that indicates extended/intensified NASH in the future scenario. Regions on the Pacific side of the CAM cordillera show up to 20-25% decrease in precipitation in the wet season which is associated with the southward displacement of the ITCZ in the SRES A2 simulation. Changes in precipitation are closely linked to changes in the atmospheric and soil moisture. The orographic clouds are an important source of moisture to the windward slopes of Central America in the dry season (Nov-Apr). An increase in temperature and a reduction in precipitation is projected for most of Central America in this season. In addition, an increase in the cloud base heights in DJF is also projected for the Pacific slopes and high elevation Caribbean slopes of Costa Rica as a result of increasing temperatures. The height of orographic cloud formation is also affected by the land surface properties. The region has experienced alarming deforestation in the recent decades. It has been demonstrated that orographic cloud formation is sensitive to the land use change and deforestation in Costa Rican lowland. With the help of a regional model, this study will attempt to shed some light on the combined effect of the land-use change and an increase in greenhouse concentrations (under the A2 scenario) on the regional hydrological changes in Central America.

Karmalkar, A. V.; Bradley, R. S.; Diaz, H. F.

2009-12-01

175

The magnetic field structure of the central region in M 31  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The Andromeda Galaxy (M 31) is the nearest grand-design spiral galaxy. Thus far, most studies in the radio regime concentrated on the 10 kpc ring. The central region of M 31 has significantly different properties than the outer parts: The star formation rate is low, and inclination and position angle are largely different from the outer disk. Aims: The existing model of the magnetic field in the radial range 6 ? r ? 14 kpc is extended to the innermost part r ? 0.5 kpc to ultimately achieve a picture of the entire magnetic field in M 31. Methods: We combined observations taken with the VLA at 3.6 cm and 6.2 cm with data from the Effelsberg 100-m telescope to fill the missing spacings of the synthesis data. The resulting polarization maps were averaged in sectors to analyse the azimuthal behaviour of the polarized intensity (PI), rotation measure (RM), and apparent pitch angle (?obs). We developed a simplified 3D model for the magnetic field in the central region to explain the azimuthal behaviour of the three observables. Results: Our 3D model of a quadrupolar or dipolar dynamo field can explain the observed patterns in PI, RM, and ?obs, while a 2D configuration is not sufficient to explain the azimuthal behaviour. In addition and independent of our model, the RM pattern shows that the spiral magnetic field in the inner 0.5 kpc points outward, which is opposite to that in the outer disk, and has a pitch angle of ?33°, which is much larger than that of 8°-19° in the outer disk. Conclusions: The physical conditions in the central region differ significantly from those in the 10 kpc ring. In addition, the orientation of this region with respect to the outer disk is completely different. The opposite magnetic field directions suggest that the central region is decoupled from the outer disk, and we propose that an independent dynamo is active in the central region. FITS files of the recombined Stokes IQU images at the two frequencies are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/571/A61

Gießübel, R.; Beck, R.

2014-11-01

176

Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties and Zoogeographical Composition of the Family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey  

PubMed Central

The focus of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian region. 72 species belonging to seven subfamilies and 25 genera were identified. The major part of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is formed by the subfamilies Elaterinae and Cardiophorinae. The genus Cardiophorus was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is partially consistent with known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Central Anatolian region shares most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic as does the Elateridae fauna of Turkey. Detailed localities of nine species are given for the first time for Turkey, with emphasis on the Central Anatolian region. PMID:21864150

Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

2011-01-01

177

Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

2002-10-09

178

Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.  

SciTech Connect

Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region-specific differences in the ecological functions performed by macroinvertebrates in forested depressional wetlands.

Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

2005-02-12

179

Early regional LGM (MIS 3) reflected in Central European Loess-Paleosol Sequences?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The age of the "Brandenburg Phase", representing the regional LGM in Northern Germany and Poland, has been under debate. Evidence was found recently by OSL dating that it occurred during late MIS 3. In a new loess profile in the famous quarry of Nußloch south of Heidelberg (Germany) an exceptionally thick (6 m) loess-paleosol sequence (LPS) starts with a boreal brown soil regionally known as "Lohne soil", which terminates the Middle Pleniglacial LPS, according to classical stratigraphies. This paleosol is overlain by loess beds interbedding with weakly developed tundra-gley soils of typically Upper Pleniglacial habitus. Mean OSL ages from quartz fine and middle grains range between ca. 29 ka and ca. 35 ka in this part of the section which is much thicker than in previously studied corresponding parts of the loess stratigraphy at the Nußloch site. Our surprising dating results are, however, supported by recently dated loess beds in the Central European corridor between the ice margin of the Brandenburg Phase and the Northern Alpine LGM terminal moraines. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions point to cold but rather humid climatic conditions favouring rapid ice advance. We, thus, hypothesize that the rapid advance of Scandinavian ice into northern Central Europe which may have occurred ca. 10 ka prior to the global LGM, is reflected in some well-preserved Central European loess sections covering the last glacial cycle.

Zoeller, Ludwig; Fuchs, Markus

2014-05-01

180

Amino Acids That Centrally Influence Blood Pressure and Regional Blood Flow in Conscious Rats  

PubMed Central

Functional roles of amino acids have increasingly become the focus of research. This paper summarizes amino acids that influence cardiovascular system via the brain of conscious rats. This paper firstly describes why amino acids are selected and outlines how the brain regulates blood pressure and regional blood flow. This section includes a concise history of amino acid neurotransmitters in cardiovascular research and summarizes brain areas where chemical stimulations produce blood pressure changes mainly in anesthetized animals. This is followed by comments about findings regarding several newly examined amino acids with intracisternal stimulation in conscious rats that produce changes in blood pressure. The same pressor or depressor response to central amino acid stimulations can be produced by distinct mechanisms at central and peripheral levels, which will be briefly explained. Thereafter, cardiovascular actions of some of amino acids at the mechanism level will be discussed based upon findings of pharmacological and regional blood flow measurements. Several examined amino acids in addition to the established neurotransmitter amino acids appear to differentially activate brain structures to produce changes in blood pressure and regional blood flows. They may have physiological roles in the healthy brain, but pathological roles in the brain with cerebral vascular diseases such as stroke where the blood-brain barrier is broken. PMID:22690328

Takemoto, Yumi

2012-01-01

181

Solution and Crystallographic Structures of the Central Region of the Phosphoprotein from Human Metapneumovirus  

PubMed Central

Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) of the family Paramyxoviridae is a major cause of respiratory illness worldwide. Phosphoproteins (P) from Paramyxoviridae are essential co-factors of the viral RNA polymerase that form tetramers and possess long intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). We located the central region of HMPV P (Pced) which is involved in tetramerization using disorder analysis and modeled its 3D structure ab initio using Rosetta fold-and-dock. We characterized the solution-structure of Pced using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and carried out direct fitting to the scattering data to filter out incorrect models. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) and ensemble optimization were employed to select correct models and capture the dynamic character of Pced. Our analysis revealed that oligomerization involves a compact central core located between residues 169-194 (Pcore), that is surrounded by flexible regions with ?-helical propensity. We crystallized this fragment and solved its structure at 3.1 Å resolution by molecular replacement, using the folded core from our SAXS-validated ab initio model. The RMSD between modeled and experimental tetramers is as low as 0.9 Å, demonstrating the accuracy of the approach. A comparison of the structure of HMPV P to existing mononegavirales Pced structures suggests that Pced evolved under weak selective pressure. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using SAXS in combination with ab initio modeling and MDS to solve the structure of small, homo-oligomeric protein complexes. PMID:24224051

Leyrat, Cedric; Renner, Max; Harlos, Karl; Grimes, Jonathan M.

2013-01-01

182

Convective transport over the central United States and its role in regional CO and ozone budgets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed a regional budget for boundary layer carbon monoxide over the central United States (32.5°-50°N, 90°-105°W), emphasizing a detailed evaluation of deep convective vertical fluxes appropriate for the month of June. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer (upward) dominates other components of the CO budget, e.g., downward convective transport, loss of CO by oxidation, anthropogenic emissions, and CO produced from oxidation of methane, isoprene, and anthropogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Calculations of deep convective venting are based on the method of Pickering et al. [1992a] which uses a satellite-derived deep convective cloud climatology along with transport statistics from convective cloud model simulations of observed prototype squall line events. This study uses analyses of convective episodes in 1985 and 1989 and CO measurements taken during several midwestern field campaigns. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer over this moderately polluted region provides a net (upward minus downward) flux of 18.1×108kg CO month-1 to the free troposphere during early summer, assuming the June statistics are typical. Shallow cumulus and synoptic-scale weather systems together make a comparable contribution (total net flux 16.2×108 kg CO month-1). Boundary layer venting of CO with other O3 precursors leads to efficient free tropospheric O3 formation. We estimate that deep convective transport of CO and other precursors over the central United States in early summer leads to a gross production of 0.66-1.1 Gmol O3 d-1 in good agreement with estimates of O3 production from boundary layer venting in a continental-scale model [Jacob et al., 1993a, b]. In this respect the central U.S. region acts as a "chimney" for the country, and presumably this O3 contributes to high background levels of O3 in the eastern United States and O3 export to the North Atlantic.

Thompson, Anne M.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ellis, William G.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Scala, John R.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; McNamara, Donna P.; Simpson, Joanne

1994-09-01

183

Convective transport over the central United States and its role in regional CO and ozone budgets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have constructed a regional budget for boundary layer carbon monoxide over the central United States (32.5 deg - 50 deg N, 90 deg - 105 deg W), emphasizing a detailed evaluation of deep convective vertical fluxes appropriate for the month of June. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer (upward) dominates other components of the CO budget, e.g., downward convective transport, loss of CO by oxidation, anthropogenic emissions, and CO produced from oxidation of methane, isoprene, and anthropogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Calculations of deep convective venting are based on the method pf Pickering et al.(1992a) which uses a satellite-derived deep convective cloud climatology along with transport statistics from convective cloud model simulations of observed prototype squall line events. This study uses analyses of convective episodes in 1985 and 1989 and CO measurements taken during several midwestern field campaigns. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer over this moderately polluted region provides a net (upward minus downward) flux of 18.1 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month to the free troposphere during early summer. Shallow cumulus and synoptic-scale weather systems together make a comparable contribution (total net flux 16.2 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month). Boundary layer venting of CO with other O3 precursors leads to efficient free troposheric O3 formation. We estimate that deep convective transport of CO and other precursors over the central United States in early summer leads to a gross production of 0.66 - 1.1 Gmol O3/d in good agreement with estimates of O3 production from boundary layer venting in a continental-scale model (Jacob et al., 1993a, b). On this respect the central U.S. region acts as s `chimney' for the country, and presumably this O3 contributes to high background levels of O3 in the eastern United States and O3 export to the North Atlantic.

Thompson, Anne M.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ellis, William G., Jr.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Scala, John R.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Mcnamara, Donna P.; Simpson, Joanne

1994-01-01

184

Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

2011-01-01

185

Fertility levels and trends in Arsi and Shoa regions of Central Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Levels and trends of fertility in the Arsi and Shoa regions of Central Ethiopia are examined, using data from the 1986 Population, Health and Nutrition baseline survey of the Ministry of Health of Ethiopia. The population has high fertility. Total fertility of six children per woman in the late 1960s increased to eight children per woman in the early 1980s, then declined to seven children per woman in the mid-1980s. Urban fertility declined by a substantial amount during the 15 years before the survey while rural fertility increased during the same period. The implications of high fertility are considered. PMID:1939287

Hailemariam, A

1991-10-01

186

Vortex flows with suspended separation regions and long-range untwisted central jets  

SciTech Connect

A study is made of possible physicoaerodynamic configurations of vortical flow with suspended separation regions and untwisted central jets. Such flows are encountered in power plants (heat exchangers, combustion chambers, and chemical reactors) and in nature (tornadoes). The basic configurations of several flows of this type are described, including the structure of a flow formed by coaxial cocurrent twisted jets, the flow in a conical swirl chamber with the formation of an untwisted long-range axial jet, the flow pattern in a gas turbine engine chamber, and some considerations regarding the aerodynamics of a tornado.

Abramovich, G.N.; Trofimov, R.S.

1988-05-01

187

Gamma-rays from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Central Region of the Galaxy  

SciTech Connect

In this article, we review the prospects for the FERMI satellite (formerly known as GLAST) to detect gamma-rays from dark matter annihilations in the Central Region of the Milky Way, in light of the recent observations and discoveries of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. While the existence of significant astrophysical backgrounds in this part of the sky limits FERMI's discovery potential to some degree, this can be mitigated by exploiting the peculiar energy spectrum and angular distribution of the dark matter annihilation signal relative to those of astrophysical backgrounds.

Serpico, Pasquale Dario; /CERN; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

2009-02-01

188

Obscured star formation in the central region of the dwarf galaxy NGC5253  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present HST\\/NICMOS observations (1.1-2.2micron) and 1.9-4.1micron\\u000aspectroscopy of the central region of the dwarf galaxy NGC5253. The HST\\/NICMOS\\u000aobservations reveal the presence of a nuclear double star cluster separated by\\u000a0.3-0.4arcsec or 6-8pc (for a distance d=4.1Mpc). The double star cluster, also\\u000aa bright double source of Pa-alpha emission, appears to be coincident with the\\u000adouble radio nebula detected

Almudena Alonso-Herrero; Toshinobu Takagi; Andrew J. Baker; George H. Rieke; Marcia J. Rieke; Masatoshi Imanishi; Nick Z. Scoville

2004-01-01

189

Gamma rays from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Central Region of the Galaxy  

E-print Network

In this article, we review the prospects for the Fermi satellite (formerly known as GLAST) to detect gamma rays from dark matter annihilations in the Central Region of the Milky Way, in particular on the light of the recent astrophysical observations and discoveries of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. While the existence of significant backgrounds in this part of the sky limits Fermi's discovery potential to some degree, this can be mitigated by exploiting the peculiar energy spectrum and angular distribution of the dark matter annihilation signal relative to those of astrophysical backgrounds.

Pasquale Dario Serpico; Dan Hooper

2009-02-16

190

Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada  

SciTech Connect

We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

2009-04-01

191

Moment tensor analysis of the central Italy earthquake sequence of September-October 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larger earthquakes in the Umbria-Marche (central Italy) seismic sequence of September-October 1997 are analyzed using long-period seismograms from the Mediterranean seismographic network (MEDNET) and additional data from the global seismographic network (GSN). We modify the Harvard centroid-moment tensor (CMT) algorithm to allow moment tensor inversion of long-period waveforms, primarily Rayleigh and Love waves, for small earthquakes at local to

Göran Ekström; Andrea Morelli; Enzo Boschi; Adam M. Dziewonski

1998-01-01

192

Assessment of carbon footprint and energy performance of the extra virgin olive oil chain in Umbria, Italy.  

PubMed

The cradle to grave carbon footprint (CF) and energy footprint (EF) analysis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) produced in the Province of Perugia (Umbria, Italy) is assessed. In this study, olive orchard cultivation, EVOO extraction, bottling, packaging, storage at -18°C and distribution in the main importing countries were studied from a life cycle assessment perspective, with the main objective of identifying the processes with the largest environmental impacts. The selected functional unit was 1L of EVOO, packaged for distribution. Inventory data was gathered mainly through both direct communication using questionnaires and direct measurements. To determine the CF the ISO/TS 14067:2013 was followed while the EF was evaluated according to ISO standards 14040 and 14044. Results showed that the most impacting process is the distribution, mainly due to the choice of employing air transport. The main other hot spots identified were the olive orchard fertilization, EVOO freezing during its storage at the olive mill factory and the manufacture of glass bottles. Suggested improvement opportunities included shifts in the EVOO transportation policy, the introduction of lighter glass bottles in the bottling process, the use of cooling agent with lower global warming potential and the employment of biodiesel in the farming machineries. PMID:24636888

Rinaldi, S; Barbanera, M; Lascaro, E

2014-06-01

193

Geochemical features of the two early paleozoic ophiolitic zones and volcanic rocks in the central-southern Tianshan Region, Xinjiang  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the geochemical features of the two Early Paleozoic ophiolite zones in the central-southern Tianshan\\u000a region and the central Tianshan igneous rock belt between them. Study results suggest that the central Tianshan belt was an\\u000a Ordovician volcanic arc with an affinity of continental crust, and the Kumux-Hongliuhe ophiolitic zone that is located on\\u000a the southern margin of

Guo Jian; Shu Liangshu; Charvet Jaques; Laurent C. Sebastien; Sun Shuwen

2002-01-01

194

Using A Gridded Global Data Set To Characterize Regional Hydroclimate In Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Chile is facing dramatic projections of climate change, with a consensus for declining precipitation, negatively affecting hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. Rising from sea level to 6,000 meters within a distance of 200 kilometers, precipitation characterization is difficult due to a lack of long-term observations, especially at higher elevations. For understanding current conditions and recent hydroclimatological change, as well as to provide a baseline for downscaling climate model projections, a temporally and spatially complete data set of daily precipitation is essential. We use a gridded global daily meterological data set at 0.25 degree resolution for 1948-2008, and adjust it using monthly precipitation observations interpolated to the same grid using a cokriging method with elevation as covariate. For validation, we compare daily statistics of the adjusted gridded precipitation to station observations. For further validation we drive a hydrology model with the gridded 0.25-degree meteorology and compare stream flow statistics with observed flow. We validate the high elevation precipitation by comparing the simulated snow extent to MODIS images. Results show that the daily adjusted precipitation can accurately capture the statistical properties of extreme events as well as the sequence of wet and dry events. The new precipitation fields has been used to simulate the hydrological cycle of three basins in the region. The adjusted gridded data set will be used in downscaling efforts to be able to evaluate the vulnerability of the region's water resources to projected climate changes during the twenty-first century. Stakeholders in Central Chile will be able to use this information to plan potential adaptation responses to simulated changes in water availability in the region. This demonstrates the successful use of a global gridded data product in a relatively data-sparse region to capture hydroclimatological characteristics and extremes.

Demaria, E. M.; Maurer, E. P.; Sheffield, J.; Bustos, E.; Poblete, D.; Vicuna, S.; Meza, F. J.

2012-12-01

195

USDA Forest Service Gen.Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-187. 2003. 159 V. The Central Valley Region  

E-print Network

/index.htm)]. Since the Central Valley is an economic rather than political region, its definition varies. It also Highway 99. Growth is driven by increased birth rates and continued immigration from around the Pacific

Standiford, Richard B.

196

Beam tracking simulation in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the trajectories simulation of proton beam in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron, operating with negative proton beam (for easier beam extraction using a stripper foil), 40 kV peak accelerating dee voltage at fourth harmonic frequency of 77.88 MHz, and average magnetic field of 1.275 T. The central region covers fields of 240mm × 240mm × 30mm size at 1mm resolution. The calculation was also done at finer 0.25mm resolution covering fields of 30mm × 30mm × 4mm size to see the effects of 0.55mm horizontal width of the ion source window and the halted trajectories of positive proton beam. The simulations show up to 7 turns of orbital trajectories, reaching about 1 MeV of beam energy. The distribution of accelerating electric fields and magnetic fields inside the cyclotron were calculated in 3 dimension using Opera3D code and Tosca modules for static magnetic and electric fields. The trajectory simulation was carried out using Scilab 5.3.3 code.

Anggraita, Pramudita; Santosa, Budi; Taufik, Mulyani, Emy; Diah, Frida Iswinning

2012-06-01

197

The magnetic field structure of the central region in M31  

E-print Network

The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is the nearest grand-design spiral galaxy. Thus far most studies in the radio regime concentrated on the 10 kpc ring. The central region of M31 has significantly different properties than the outer parts: The star formation rate is low, and inclination and position angle are largely different from the outer disk. The existing model of the magnetic field in the radial range 6picture of the entire magnetic field in M31. We combined observations taken with the VLA at 3.6 cm and 6.2 cm with data from the Effelsberg 100-m telescope to fill the missing spacings of the synthesis data. The resulting polarization maps were averaged in sectors to analyse the azimuthal behaviour of the polarized intensity (PI), rotation measure (RM), and apparent pitch angle (\\phi_obs). We developed a simplified 3-D model for the magnetic field in the central region to explain the azimuthal behaviour of the three observab...

Gießübel, René

2014-01-01

198

Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu (DSP) Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER) Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the DSP and the ER ice core drilling sites is only ~ 125 km, the stable isotopic record (?18O or ?D) of the DSP core is interpreted in previous studies as a temperature proxy, while the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that remarkable discrepancy in precipitation seasonality between the two sites may account for their disparate isotopic interpretations. At the ER core site, the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) precipitation is dominating due to topographic blocking of the moisture from westerlies by the high ridges of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), which results in a negative correlation between the ER ?18O or ?D record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas in response to the "amount effect". At the DSP core site, in comparison with the ISM precipitation, the wintertime precipitation associated with the westerlies is likely more important owing to its local favorable topographic conditions for interacting with the western disturbances. Therefore, the DSP stable isotopic record may be primarily controlled by the westerlies. Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

Pang, H.; Hou, S.; Kaspari, S.; Mayewski, P. A.

2014-02-01

199

Geochemical tracers for the groundwater and streams in central mountainous regions of Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gases have been considered as sensitive tracers for groundwater due to their unique geochemical characteristics. In this study, groundwater of the monitoring wells and river water were collected for geochemical analysis, including Radon concentration and Helium isotopes, from central mountainous regions of Taiwan to discuss their fluid sources. The results of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic values are -77.8~-36.5o and -10.7~-6.3o respectively, falling on the local meteoric water line of Taiwan. It revealed that groundwater source in studied area is mainly from the precipitation. The helium isotopic ratios of the samples range from 0.78 to 1.13 Ra. It implies that, in addition to the air-saturated water, there are additional sources for the groundwater in central mountainous regions of Taiwan. Interestingly the water sample from Liwu River was detected high 222Rn concentration, 7.66 kBq/m3, which is much higher than background values in normal river water. It suggests that local groundwater with high 222Rn concentration of 1.38~75.4 kBq/m3 may play important role for the Liwu River. Combined with other geochemical tracers, like 87Sr/86Sr and carbon isotopes of DIC, we will further discuss possible interaction between the groundwater and surface water with bed rocks.

Chuang, Jin-Lun; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Chen, Ai-Ti; Fu, Ching-Chou; Lin, Shih-Jung; Liu, Tsung-Kwei; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Yunshuen

2014-05-01

200

Intraseasonal variability of organized convective systems in the Central Andes: Relationship to Regional Dynamical Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Andes extend from the west coast of Colombia (10N) to the southern tip of Chile (53S). In southern Peru and Bolivia, the Central Andes is split into separate eastern and western cordilleras, with a high plateau (? 3000 m), the Altiplano, between them. Because 90% of the Earth's tropical mountain glaciers are located in the Central Andes, our study focuses on this region, defining its zonal extent as 7S-21S and the meridional extent as the terrain 1000 m and greater. Although intense convection occurs during the wet season in the Altiplano, it is not included in the lists of regions with frequent or the most intense convection. The scarcity of in-situ observations with sufficient density and temporal resolution to resolve individual storms or even mesoscale-organized cloud systems and documented biases in microwave-based rainfall products in poorly gauged mountainous regions have impeded the development of an extensive literature on convection and convective systems in this region. With the tropical glaciers receding at unprecedented rates, leaving seasonal precipitation as an increasingly important input to the water balance in alpine valley ecosystems and streams, understanding the nature and characteristics of the seasonal precipitation becomes increasingly important for the rural economies in this region. Previous work in analyzing precipitation in the Central Andes has emphasized interannual variability with respect to ENSO, this is the first study to focus on shorter scale variability with respect to organized convection. The present study took advantage of the University of Utah's Precipitation Features database compiled from 14 years of TRMM observations (1998-2012), supplemented by field observations of rainfall and streamflow, historical gauge data, and long-term WRF-simulations, to analyze the intraseasonal variability of precipitating systems and their relationship regional dynamical features such as the Bolivian High. Through time series and wavelet analysis, we found an important 8-10 day cycle related to but lagging convective surges in the Amazon basin and enhanced upper-level cyclonic flow around the Bolivian High. The majority of the organized convection in the region tended to be weak (< 5 mm/hr rain rates) and shallow (< 12 km). The timing of response (i.e., formation and distribution of organized convection) due to changes in moisture transport around the Bolivian High was similar in the wetter eastern and drier western cordilleras of the Central Andes. The response to upper level moisture transport was modulated by local soil moisture and elevation slope and aspect, with higher elevation, eastern facing peaks having a stronger response than western-facing and lower elevation areas. Streamflow data support the hypothesis that the majority of the light rainfall infiltrates the shallow sub-surface, rather than contributing to surface channel runoff, helping to sustain the high altitude peatlands in the Andean valleys.

Mohr, K. I.; Slayback, D. A.; Nicholls, S.; Yager, K.

2013-12-01

201

CHARACTER AND REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF GREAT FALLS TECTONIC ZONE, EAST-CENTRAL IDAHO AND WEST-CENTRAL MONTANA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Falls tectonic zone, here named, is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can be traced from the Idaho batholith in the Cordilleran miogeocline, across thrust-belt structures and basement rocks of west-central and southwestern Montana, through cratonic rocks of central Montana, and into southwestern-most Saskatchewan, Canada. Geologic mapping in east-central Idaho and west-central Montana has outlined a continuous zone of high-angle faults and shear zones. Recurrent fault movement in this zone and strong structural control over igneous intrusion suggest a fundamental tectonic feature that has influenced the tectonic development of the Idaho-Montana area from a least middle Proterozoic time to the present. Refs.

O'Neill, J. Michael; Lopez, David, A.

1985-01-01

202

2000 resource assessment of selected coal beds and zones in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report includes results of a digital assessment of six coal beds or zones in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions that produce over 15 percent of the Nation's coal. Other chapters include an executive summary, a report on geology and mining, a report summarizing other selected coal zones that were not assessed, and a report on USGS coal availability and recoverablity studies in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions.

2001-01-01

203

PUNTO. DESIGN TRAINING CENTER FOR SMALL-SIZED BUSINESS OWNERS AND ENTREPRENEURS IN THE CENTRAL AMERICAN REGION  

E-print Network

PUNTO. DESIGN TRAINING CENTER FOR SMALL-SIZED BUSINESS OWNERS AND ENTREPRENEURS IN THE CENTRAL AMERICAN REGION By Copyright 2012 Maria Jose Miselem S. Submitted to the graduate degree program in Design Management and the Graduate Faculty... AND ENTREPRENEURS IN THE CENTRAL AMERICAN REGION ________________________________ Chairperson Michael Eckersley Date approved: March 30, 2012 iii Abstract Proposed is a thesis project to develop and plan aspects of punto.: a...

Miselem, Maria Jose

2012-05-31

204

Regional frequency analysis for mapping drought events in north-central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryDroughts are among the most important natural disasters, particularly in the arid and semiarid regions of the world. Proper management of droughts requires knowledge of the expected frequency of specific low magnitude precipitation totals for a variety of durations. Probabilistic approaches have often been used to estimate the average recurrence period of a given drought event. However, probabilistic model fitting by conventional methods, such as product moment or maximum likelihood in areas with low availability of long records often produces highly unreliable estimates. Recognizing the need for adequate estimates of return periods of severe droughts in the arid and semiarid region of Chile, a regional frequency analysis method based on L-moments (RFA-LM) was used for estimating and mapping drought frequency. Some adaptations to the existing procedures for forming homogeneous regions were found necessary. In addition, a new 3-parameter distribution, the Gaucho, which is a special case of the 4-parameter Kappa distribution, was introduced, and the analysis procedure was improved by the developments of two new software tools named L-RAP, to perform the RFA-LM analysis, and L-MAP, to map the resulting drought maps. Eight homogeneous sub-regions were delineated using the Gaucho distribution and used to construct return period maps for drought events with 80% and 40% precipitation of the normal. The study confirms the importance of a sub-regional homogeneity test, and the usefulness of the Gaucho distribution. The RFA-LM showed that droughts with a 40% precipitation of the normal have return periods that range from 4 years at the northern arid boundary of the study area to 22 years at the southern sub-humid boundary. The results demonstrate the need for different thresholds for declaring a drought than those currently in use for drought characterization in north-central Chile.

Núñez, J. H.; Verbist, K.; Wallis, J. R.; Schaefer, M. G.; Morales, L.; Cornelis, W. M.

2011-08-01

205

Rupture mechanism and source parameters of Umbria-Marche mainshocks from strong motion data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long sequence of earthquakes causing few casualties and considerable damage in a wide zone struck Central Italy starting on September 26, 1997. Theearthquakes are characterized by normal faulting mechanism, with a NE-SW(anti-Apenninic direction) tension axis. In this paper we analyze the accelerometric recordings collected by the accelerograph stations belonging to the National Accelerograph Network. About 10 stations were triggered

P. Capuano; A. Zollo; A. Emolo; S. Marcucci; G. Milana

2000-01-01

206

Three-dimensional numerical modeling of contemporary mantle flow and tectonic stress beneath the Central Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure, density and effective viscosity of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Central Mediterranean influence lithospheric deformation, mantle flow, and tectonic stress state. To estimate the contribution of buoyancy forces to regional dynamics, three-dimensional finite-element models are developed to determine contemporary uppermost mantle flow and tectonic stresses. We use density models for the crust and uppermost mantle derived from S-wave seismic velocities and constrained by gravity data. The viscosity model is constrained by the observed strain rate and regional heat flow data. The modeled movement of the uppermost crust is consistent with the northeast-oriented motion of the lithosphere and is in an agreement with the geodetic measurements. The modeled flow patterns of the lower crust and uppermost mantle are consistent with the regional observations. The models predict (i) northwest-oriented movements beneath the southeast part of the Adriatic Sea region, (ii) the northeastern subduction beneath the western part of the Adriatic Sea, (iii) the upwelling beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea and its eastern coast, (iv) the western movement of the Ionian Sea sub-plate, and (v) the subduction beneath the western Calabria region. Our models predict also a distinct compressional regime along the northeast part of the Italian peninsula and to the east of Sicily, and a tensional regime beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea, Umbria-Marche region, and Ionian Sea. The predicted tectonic stress regimes in the northern and central Apennines are in agreement with stress regimes derived from earthquake fault-plane solutions. Changes in the predicted crustal stress pattern and magnitude are likely to be caused by buoyancy-driven mantle circulation beneath the region rather than by gravitational potential energy differences in the crust itself. Based on the model results, we conclude that the buoyancy forces play an important role in the contemporary tectonics of the region.

Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Aoudia, Abdelkrim; Panza, Giuliano F.

2010-02-01

207

Physical properties of Meridiani Sinus-type units in the central equatorial region of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classification and mapping of surficial units in the central equatorial region of Mars (30 degrees N to 20 degrees S, 57 degrees E to 75 degrees W) using enhanced color images and Mars Consortium data identified four major color/albedo units in the dark, reddish-gray regions that form the classical dark albedo markings of Mars, including Meridiani Sinus. The darkest, least red (relatively 'blue') materials form splotches (some with dune forms) in craters, inter-crater depressions, and part of Valles Marineris. These form the 'Dark Blue' Meridiani unit. Abundant materials that have higher albedos and are somewhat redder than the 'Dark Blue' unit have uniquely high green/(violet + red) color ratios in Viking Orbiter images. These materials, named 'Green-blue' Meridiani surround and mix with 'Dark Blue' Meridiani patches and are abundant on crater rims and local elevations. Discontinuous, patchy deposits with still higher albedos and much redder colors have morphologies classified of the Type Ib bright depositional dust streaks and sheets that were classified by Thomas et al. These dust deposits, which appear to be optically thin and patchy and are darker and not as red as other Type Ib dust deposits on Mars, and their Meridiani substrates, were designated the 'Red' Meridiani unit. Distinctive deposits that form highly eroded mesas and escarpments in northern Meridiani Sinus were named 'Light Blue' Meridiani, since they are not as red as other materials with moderately high albedos. Large areas dominated by these units form Meridiani Province in the central equatorial region of Mars.

Strickland, Edwin L., III

1992-01-01

208

Downscaling GRACE satellite data for sub-region groundwater storage estimates in California's Central Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Valley aquifer (CVA) is a vital economic and environmental resource for California and the United States, and supplies water for one of the most agriculturally productive regions in the world. Recent estimates of groundwater (GW) availability in California have indicated declines in GW levels that may pose a threat to sustainable groundwater use in this region. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) can be used to estimate variations in total water storage (TWS) and are therefore used to estimate GW storage changes within the CVA. However, using GRACE data in the CVA is challenging due to the coarse spatial resolution and increased error. To compensate for this, we used a statistical downscaling approach applied to GRACE data at the sub-region level using GW storage estimates from the California Department of Water Resources' (DWR) C2VSim hydrological model. This method produced a spatially and temporally variable GW anomaly dataset for sub-region GW management and for analysis of GW changes influenced by spatial and temporal variability. An additional challenge for this region is the influence of natural climate variability, altering GW recharge and influencing pumping practices. Understanding the effects of climate variability on GW storage changes, may improve GRACE TWS and GW estimates during periods of increased rain or droughts. Thus, the GRACE TWS and GW storage estimates were compared to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) using singular spectral analysis (SSA). Results from SSA indicate that variations in GRACE TWS are moderately correlated to PDO (10-25 year cycle), although low correlations were observed when compared to ENSO (2-7 year cycle). The incorporation of these new methods for estimating variations in groundwater storage in highly productive aquifers may improve water management techniques in California.

Kuss, A. M.; Newcomer, M. E.; Hsu, W.; Bourai, A.; Puranam, A.; Landerer, F. W.; Schmidt, C.

2012-12-01

209

Monitoring variations of inland lakes in the arid region of Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inland lakes are the major surface water resource in the arid regions of Central Asia. Therefore, the surface area changes in inland lakes have been a sensitive indicator of climate changes and human activities, and have often been the focus of ecological and environmental research. This study aimed to monitor the changes in surface area of nine major lakes over a 32-year period. The water body was extracted from MSS images from the mid-1970s, TM images from the early 1990s, ETM + images in the late 1990s, and TM images in 2007. The results indicated that the total surface area of these nine lakes had decreased over time to 50.38% of the area, from 91402.06 km2 in 1975 to 46049.23 km2 in 2007. As the surface area of lakes in the western part of Central Asia was larger than that in the eastern part, the shrinking trend of lake area was more significant in the west than in the east. There was a varied reduction of closed lakes in flat regions. The most substantial decrease was in the surface area of closed lakes in flat regions. Most significantly, the area of the Aral Sea was reduced by 75.7% from its original area in 1975. The area of alpine lakes remained relatively stable; the change in surface area was less than 0.7% during the period 1975-2007. The area change in opened lakes with outlets was notably different from the other two types. The area of Zaysan had increased sharply by 5.85%, and that of Bosten had decreased by 9.1%. Sasykkol had hardly any changes in this period. Due to global climate warming, vapor transfer to the south via westerly winds had been blocked, resulting in a decrease of much-needed precipitation in the western parts of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan between 1970 and 2000. The decrease in precipitation and the increase in water consumption for agricultural irrigation resulted in the decrease of river runoff. Consequently, the area of inland lakes in Central Asia shrank over the past 32 years.

Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

2012-06-01

210

MAPPING THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE PPN CRL 618 AT SUBARCSECOND RESOLUTION AT 350 GHz  

SciTech Connect

CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at {approx}0.''3-0.''5 resolutions. Two components are seen in the 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in a 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base; and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC{sub 3}N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain millimeter-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC{sub 3}N and HCN and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in CH{sub 2}CHCN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within {approx}630 AU (0.''7) of the central star. A simple radiative transfer model is used to derive the kinematics, physical conditions, and the chemical abundances in the dense core. The dense core is expanding and accelerating, with the velocity increasing roughly linearly from {approx}3 km s{sup -1} in the innermost part to {approx}16 km s{sup -1} at 630 AU. The mass-loss rate in the dense core is extremely high with a value of {approx}1.15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The dense core has a mass of {approx}0.47 M{sub Sun} and a dynamical age of {approx}400 yr. It could result from a recent enhanced heavy mass-loss episode that ends the asymptotic giant branch phase. The isotopic ratios of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N are 9 {+-} 4 and 150 {+-} 50, respectively, both lower than the solar values.

Lee, Chin-Fei; Yang, Chun-Hui [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sahai, Raghvendra [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sanchez Contreras, Carmen [Astrobiology Center (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain)

2013-06-20

211

Acaricides efficiency on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Bahia state North-Central region.  

PubMed

The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for major losses in the Brazilian livestock, mainly due to reduction in cattle productive performance. Resistance development to major classes of acaricide widely used nowadays has been extensively reported, as well as the occurrence of residues from these compounds in animal products and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of acaricides on R. (B.) microplus collected from rural properties in the North-Central region of Bahia State. Ticks were collected in several cattle farms in the cited region, and an in vitro acaricide efficiency assay was performed based on the immersion of ticks in acaricide solutions made according to manufacturers' recommendations. The results obtained in the experiments indicated varying degrees of efficiency of the several bases studied, with the products benzofenilurea, macrocyclic lactone and fipronil showing the highest levels of efficiency, 100%, 100% and 97.34%, respectively. It was possible to conclude that, for the region studied, there are different degrees of commercial acaricides efficiency, and many present less than 95% effectiveness, value determined as acceptable by the Brazilian legislation. PMID:23538503

Raynal, José Tadeu; Silva, Aretha Alves Borges da; Sousa, Thiago de Jesus; Bahiense, Thiago Campanharo; Meyer, Roberto; Portela, Ricardo Wagner

2013-01-01

212

Carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere and precipitation of the Nam Co region, central Tibet.  

PubMed

A continuous air and precipitation sampling for carbonaceous particles was conducted in a field observatory beside Nam Co, Central Tibetan Plateau during July of 2006 through January of 2007. Organic carbon (OC) was the dominant composition of the carbonaceous particles both in the atmosphere (1660 ng/m3) and precipitation (476 ng/g) in this area, while the average elemental carbon (BC) concentrations in the atmosphere and precipitation were only 82 ng/m3 and 8 ng/g, respectively. Very high OC/BC ratio suggested local secondary organic carbon could be a dominant contribution to OC over the Nam Co region, while BC could be mainly originated from Southern Asia, as indicated by trajectory analysis and aerosol optical depth. Comparison between the BC concentrations measured in Lhasa, those at "Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (NCO-P)" site on the southern slope of the Himalayas, and Nam Co suggested BC in the Nam Co region reflected a background with weak anthropogenic disturbances and the emissions from Lhasa might have little impact on the atmospheric environment here, while the pollutants from the Indo-Gangetic Basin of Southern Asia could be transported to the Nam Co region by both the summer monsoon and the westerly. PMID:21235163

Ming, Jing; Xiao, Cunde; Sun, Junying; Kang, Shichang; Bonasoni, Paolo

2010-01-01

213

A preliminary evaluation of regional ground-water flow in south-central Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The characteristics of regional ground-water flow were investigated in a 4,500-square-mile region of south-central Washington, centered on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Hanford Reservation. The investigation is part of the Commission's feasibility study on storing high-level radioactive waste in chambers mined in basaltic rocks at a. depth of about 3,000 feet or more below the surface. Ground-water flow., on a regional scale, occurs principally in the basalt and-in interbedded sediments of the Columbia River Group, and is controlled by topography, the structure of the basalt, and the large streams--the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers. The ground water beneath the main part of the Hanford Reservation, south and west of the Columbia River, inures southeastward from recharge areas in the uplands, including Cold Creek and Dry Creek valleys, and ultimately discharges to the Columbia River south of the reservation: East and southeast of the Columbia River, ground water flows generally southwestward and discharges to the River. The Yakima River valley contains a distinct flow system in which movement is toward the Yakima River from the topographic divides. A large southward-flowing ground-water system beneath the southern flank of the Horse Heaven Hills discharges to the Columbia River in the westward-trending reach downstream from Wallula Gap.

La Sala, A. M., Jr.; Doty, G.C.; Pearson, F.J., Jr.

1973-01-01

214

SO2 measurements at a high altitude site in the central Himalayas: Role of regional transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous measurements of a climatically important acidic gas, SO2, were made over Nainital (29.37°N, 79.45°E; 1958 m amsl), a regionally representative site in the central Himalayas, for the first time during 2009-2011. Unlike many other sites, the SO2 levels over Nainital are higher during pre-monsoon (345 pptv) compared to winter (71 pptv). High values during pre-monsoon are attributed to the transport of air masses from regions viz. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), northern India and north-East Pakistan, which are dotted with numerous industries and power plants, where coal burning occurs. Transport from the polluted regions is evinced from good correlations of SO2 with wind speed, NOy and UV aerosol index during these periods. Daytime elevations in SO2 levels, influenced by 'valley winds' and boundary layer evolution, is a persistent feature at Nainital. SO2 levels are very much lower during monsoon compared to pre-monsoon, due to oxidation losses and wet scavenging. Despite this, SO2/NOy slopes are high (>0.4) both during pre-monsoon and monsoon, indicating impacts of point sources. The SO2 levels during winter are lower as the measurement site is cut off from the plains due to boundary layer dynamics. Further, the SO2 levels during winter nights are the lowest (lesser than 50 pptv) and resemble free tropospheric conditions.

Naja, Manish; Mallik, Chinmay; Sarangi, Tapaswini; Sheel, Varun; Lal, Shyam

2014-12-01

215

Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned. PMID:25242952

Braga, Isis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andreia Lima Tome; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

2014-01-01

216

Mitochondrial control region variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis populations from the central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea.  

PubMed

The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ?ST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species' inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

Giantsis, Ioannis A; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P

2014-01-01

217

Investment in higher order central processing regions is not constrained by brain size in social insects.  

PubMed

The extent to which size constrains the evolution of brain organization and the genesis of complex behaviour is a central, unanswered question in evolutionary neuroscience. Advanced cognition has long been linked to the expansion of specific brain compartments, such as the neocortex in vertebrates and the mushroom bodies in insects. Scaling constraints that limit the size of these brain regions in small animals may therefore be particularly significant to behavioural evolution. Recent findings from studies of paper wasps suggest miniaturization constrains the size of central sensory processing brain centres (mushroom body calyces) in favour of peripheral, sensory input centres (antennal and optic lobes). We tested the generality of this hypothesis in diverse eusocial hymenopteran species (ants, bees and wasps) exhibiting striking variation in body size and thus brain size. Combining multiple neuroanatomical datasets from these three taxa, we found no universal size constraint on brain organization within or among species. In fact, small-bodied ants with miniscule brains had mushroom body calyces proportionally as large as or larger than those of wasps and bees with brains orders of magnitude larger. Our comparative analyses suggest that brain organization in ants is shaped more by natural selection imposed by visual demands than intrinsic design limitations. PMID:24741016

Muscedere, Mario L; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Moreau, Corrie S; Traniello, James F A

2014-06-01

218

Crystal structure of the complex between thrombin and the central “E” region of fibrin  

PubMed Central

Nonsubstrate interactions of thrombin with fibrin play an important role in modulating its procoagulant activity. To establish the structural basis for these interactions, we crystallized d-Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethyl ketone-inhibited human thrombin in complex with a fragment, Eht, corresponding to the central region of human fibrin, and solved its structure at 3.65-Å resolution. The structure revealed that the complex consists of two thrombin molecules bound to opposite sides of the central part of Eht in a way that seems to provide proper orientation of their catalytic triads for cleavage of fibrinogen fibrinopeptides. As expected, binding occurs through thrombin's anion-binding exosite I. However, only part of it is involved in forming an interface with the complementary negatively charged surface of Eht. Among residues constituting the interface, Phe-34, Ser-36A, Leu-65, Tyr-76, Arg-77A, Ile-82, and Lys-110 of thrombin and the A? chain Trp-33, Phe-35, Asp-38, Glu-39, the B? chain Ala-68 and Asp-69, and the ? chain Asp-27 and Ser-30 of Eht form a net of polar contacts surrounding a well defined hydrophobic interior. Thus, despite the highly charged nature of the interacting surfaces, hydrophobic contacts make a substantial contribution to the interaction. PMID:14978285

Pechik, Igor; Madrazo, Joel; Mosesson, Michael W.; Hernandez, Irene; Gilliland, Gary L.; Medved, Leonid

2004-01-01

219

Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China  

SciTech Connect

In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5 nuclear explosions at station AAK in Kyrgyzstan. The explosions are from the Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and Lop Nor, China. The earthquakes are mostly from northwest China. They have also evaluated a single suspected chemical explosion. Event magnitudes (m{sub b}) range between 2.5 and 6.5 and maximum event-station distance is about 1,700 km. Using these measurements the authors formed phase, spectral, cross-spectral, short-period/long-period, and long-period ratios to test many possible event discriminants. All ratios were corrected for distance effects before forming ratio-versus-magnitude discrimination plots. The authors found that all five classes of these discriminants are useful for separating earthquakes from explosions in central Asia, provided the right combinations of frequency bands and phases are selected. Results are described.

Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Phillips, W.S.; Randall, G.E.

1996-09-01

220

Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?-9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon — which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" — in two distinct intervals (15,900-13,800 and 12,700-9700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Niña-like conditions).

Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy

2008-05-01

221

Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea  

PubMed Central

The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ?ST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

Giantsis, Ioannis A.; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J.; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P.

2014-01-01

222

Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).  

PubMed

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

2012-01-01

223

The CQU Regional Seismic Network and applications to underground mining in Central Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Queensland University (CQU) Regional Seismic Network is made up of an array of six short-period seismometer and two strong motion accelerometer stations. The array has an aperture of about 50 km. CQU is able to resolve epicentral co-ordinates to about ±2 kilometres, with a sample rate of 100 per second, and an absolute time accuracy of 100 milliseconds. This resolution is achieved by using triaxial seismometers which allow better secondary phase identification of shear, converted and depth phases. The network covers an area of above average seismic risk in continental Australia. The area has been affected in 1918 by one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded along the eastern seaboard of Australia. The network also monitors a large number of blasts carried out by the coal mines and hard rock, quarries in the region, and these are being used in a long-term study to determine the structure of the Crust and Upper Mantle in Central Queensland. Techniques for monitoring rockbursts and longwall caving in mines are similar, to those used for monitoring local earthquakes. CQU has successfully used a single triaxial seismometer to record seismic events produced by the strata failure and roof falls of a longwall coal mine. The case history presented shows that the initial fall under massive roof conditions appears to be predicted by a simple trend plot of microseismic event magnitude and longwall production rate. Extension of this technique to a closely spaced array of both surface and in-seam triaxial seismometers is required for a more detailed appraisal to be undertaken. Adequate resolution of event location requires a higher, sample rate (up to 1000 Hz) and more accurate timing (about 1 millisecond) than for earthquake monitoring. An appropriate stratigraphic model is also required, as is the case for earthquake location.

McKavanagh, Byron; Boreham, Bruce; McCue, Kevin; Gibson, Gary; Hafner, Jennifer; Klenowski, George

1995-10-01

224

Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)  

PubMed Central

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

Gonzalez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simon, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpcio

2012-01-01

225

Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ∼0.2) in CA vary seasonally with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ∼10 ?g m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2-90 ?g m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ∼0.1 ?g m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD, and PM2.5, PM10, BC, organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in the Kyrgyz Republic (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrate that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning and anthropogenic sources from Europe, South, East and CA, and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.

Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

2014-05-01

226

The Butana Region of Central Sudan: Sahara Craton or Arabian-Nubian Shield?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Butana region lies 250 km south east of Khartoum and is one of the few exposures of Proterozoic basement in Central Sudan. The area is characterized by a flat surface and isolated basement exposures. Various authors have allocated the region to part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield or to part of the reworked Sahara Craton. Although the area is indeed located in the rough region of this transition, little information exists on the details of the basement geology in Butana. Field work indicates that the geology of the study area is similar to the other parts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The area consists of low-grade metavolcanic rocks (arc assemblage), pre- and syn-tectonic granitic intrusions. In particular the presence of serpentinites, ophiolitic metagabbro and high-grade metamorphic rocks may identify it as part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The main metamorphic foliation trend in the low-grade rocks is northeast-southwest with steep foliation plains and sub-horizontal lineation. In the high-grade rocks, at least three deformation phases were observed in the field. D1 associates with northeast-southwest foliation planes and D2 associates with high temperature folding mechanism which gave the high-grade rocks domal pattern. While D3 is a faulting phase with brittle features. The peak metamorphism most probably occurred after the D2 as indicated by the migmatic features. Geochronological work is in progress in order to identify uniquely if the region should be allocated to the Arabian-Nubian Shield or the Sahara Craton.

Abu-Alam, T.; Stüwe, K.

2012-04-01

227

The flood event of 10-12 November 2013 on the Tiber River basin (central Italy): real-time flood forecasting with uncertainty supporting risk management and decision-making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Italian national hydro-meteorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres, CF). Umbria Region (central Italy) CF provides early warning for floods and landslides, real-time monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) for the Civil Defence Authorities when significant events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. The real-time flood forecasting system is based also on different hydrological and hydraulic forecasting models. Among these, the MISDc rainfall-runoff model ("Modello Idrologico SemiDistribuito in continuo"; Brocca et al., 2011) and the flood routing model named STAFOM-RCM (STAge Forecasting Model-Rating Curve Model; Barbetta et al., 2014) are continuously operative in real-time providing discharge and stage forecasts, respectively, with lead-times up to 24 hours (when quantitative precipitation forecasts are used) in several gauged river sections in the Upper-Middle Tiber River basin. Models results are published in real-time in the open source CF web platform: www.cfumbria.it. MISDc provides discharge and soil moisture forecasts for different sub-basins while STAFOM-RCM provides stage forecasts at hydrometric sections. Moreover, through STAFOM-RCM the uncertainty of the forecast stage hydrograph is provided in terms of 95% Confidence Interval (CI) assessed by analyzing the statistical properties of model output in terms of lateral. In the period 10th-12th November 2013, a severe flood event occurred in Umbria mainly affecting the north-eastern area and causing significant economic damages, but fortunately no casualties. The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 400 mm in 72 hours. In the most affected area, the recorded rainfall depths correspond approximately to a return period of 200 years. Most rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds and causing flooding (e.g. Chiascio river). The flood event was continuously monitored at the Umbria Region CF and the possible evolution predicted and assessed on the basis of the model forecasts. The predictions provided by MISDc and STAFOM-RCM were found useful to support real-time decision-making addressed to flood risk management. Moreover, the quantification of the uncertainty affecting the deterministic forecast stages was found consistent with the level of confidence selected and had practical utility corroborating the need of coupling deterministic forecast and 'uncertainty' when the model output is used to support decisions about flood management. REFERENCES Barbetta, S., Moramarco, T., Brocca, L., Franchini, M., Melone, F. (2014). Confidence interval of real-time forecast stages provided by the STAFOM-RCM model: the case study of the Tiber River (Italy). Hydrological Processes, 28(3), 729-743. Brocca, L., Melone, F., Moramarco, T. (2011). Distributed rainfall-runoff modelling for flood frequency estimation and flood forecasting. Hydrological Processes, 25 (18), 2801-2813

Berni, Nicola; Brocca, Luca; Barbetta, Silvia; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Moramarco, Tommaso

2014-05-01

228

Physical properties of Deucalionis, Eos, Xanthe-type units in the central equatorial region of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classification and mapping of surficial units in the central equatorial region of Mars (30 degrees N to 20 degrees S, 57 degrees E to 75 degrees W) using enhanced color images and Mars Consortium data, identified three distinct, high albedo, relatively red surficial units in regions with intermediate to high thermal inertias. These units have distinctive properties and morphologies, occur in different, well-defined areas, and show different seasonal and secular patterns of albedo change. Deucalionis units occupy the classical albedo area of Deucalionis Regio, south of Meridiani Sinus and Sabaeus Sinus, and adjacent areas. Eos forms a bright band that separates the dark, relatively blue Meridiani-type units that dominate the southern part of the study area from intermediate albedo, relatively red Oxia units common in the north. Xanthe forms moderately bright, relatively red, Type 1B crater-streaks and uniform sheet-deposits in and adjacent to parts of Chryse Planitia, including the Viking 1 landing site. Xanthe is always associated with Oxia deposits, and has significantly lower albedos than the Eos materials, which it can be confused with.

Strickland, Edwin L., III

1992-01-01

229

A survey and a molecular dynamics study on the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins  

E-print Network

Prion diseases are invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals. Unlike most other amyloid forming neurodegenerative diseases, these can be highly infectious. Prion diseases occur in a variety of species. They include the fatal human neurodegenerative diseases Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI), Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), Kuru, the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or 'mad-cow' disease) in cattle, the chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep and goats, etc. Transmission across the species barrier to humans, especially in the case of BSE in Europe, CWD in North America, and variant CJDs (vCJDs) in young people of UK, is a major public health concern. Fortunately, scientists reported that the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins (PrP) controls the formation of diseased prions. This article gives a detailed survey on PrP hydrophobic region and does molecular dynamics studies of human PrP(110-136...

Zhang, Jiapu

2014-01-01

230

Investigation of regional geokinematics of central Europe using permanent GPS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2009 the Centre of Applied Geomatics of the Military University of Technology acts as one of the 18 Local Analysis Centers within EPN (EUREF Permanent Network). The duty of the LAC is to process a subnetwork of EPN stations and deliver weekly free network solutions to the Combination Centre as well as make research aimed at interpretation of obtained sites' coordinates. We have used satellite data from more than 300 permanent sites located in Europe, incorporated to EPN and supplemented by the sites operated within Polish GBAS (Ground-Based Augmentation System) called ASG-EUPOS for investigation of the regional geokinematic effects. These observations were processed by means of combining the normal equations using BERNESE 5.0 software. The velocities of permanent sites were determined from time series (geocentric coordinates) in two ways: using robust estimation using M-estimators and with CATREF software with no significant differences obtained. The several methods of interpolation of velocities into regular grid were tested. The research on regional kinematics was done by scientific description of continuous velocity model in comparison with different discontinuous models with geological structure taken into consideration. Finally the strain rates of Central Europe were elaborated using GRID_STRAIN software and compared to the previously determined empirical models.

Bogusz, J.; Figurski, M.; Kontny, B.; Jarosinski, M.; Klos, A.; Grzempowski, P.

2012-12-01

231

V and I Photometry of Bright Giants in the Central Regions of NGC 147  

E-print Network

Deep V and I CCD images with sub-arcsec spatial resolution are used to investigate the stellar content of the central regions of the Local Group dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC147. Red giant branch (RGB) stars are resolved over the entire field, and the RGB-tip occurs at I ~ 20.5, suggesting that the distance modulus is 24.3. A comparison with globular cluster sequences indicates that the center of NGC147 is moderately metal-poor, with [Fe/H] ~ -1. This is not significantly different from what was found in the outer regions of the galaxy by Mould, Kristian & Da Costa (1983, ApJ, 270, 471). Moreover, the width of the V-I color distribution at I = 21.0 indicates that a spread in metallicity is present, with sigma[Fe/H] ~ +/- 0.3. There is no evidence of a component more metal-poor than [Fe/H] ~ -1.3. A small population of moderately bright asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars has also been detected, and the AGB-tip occurs near M{bol} ~ -5.0, indicating that an intermediate-age population is present. It is estimated that the intermediate-age population contributes ~ 2-3% of the V light from NGC147.

T. J. Davidge

1994-10-13

232

Aeromagnetic and Gravity Data Reveal Crustal Structure and Tectonic History of the Central Transantarctic Mountains Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near complete coverage of the East Antarctic shield by ice hampers geological study of the crustal architecture important for understanding global tectonic and climate history. Limited exposures in the central Transantarctic Mountains, however, show that Archean and Proterozoic rocks of the shield as well as Neoproterozoic-lower Paleozoic sedimentary successions were deformed during oblique convergence associated with Gondwana amalgamation. Subsequently, the area was overprinted by Jurassic magmatism and Cenozoic uplift. To extend the known geology of the region to ice-covered areas, we conducted a draped aeromagnetic survey flown by helicopters over the Transantarctic Mountains and by fixed-wing aircraft over the adjacent polar plateau. We flew >32,000 line km covering an area of nearly 60,000 km2 at an average altitude of 600 m (average line spacing 2.5 km over most areas and 1.25 km over basement rocks exposed in the Miller and Geologists ranges). Additional lines flown to true north, south and west extended preliminary coverage and tied with existing surveys. Broad, moderate amplitude magnetic highs and lows over the ice-covered plateau resemble those inferred for Precambrian shield provinces to the north, suggesting a similar origin. Additionally, seismic tomographic models and a ground-based gravity profile show that the region is underlain by thick, cold lithosphere. Exposed high-grade metamorphic rocks, representing lower crust exhumed from ˜25-30 km depth during the Ross orogeny, show variable magnetic anomalies, with pronounced central highs and a linear, SE-trending corrugated fabric that correlates with ductile shear structures and regional folds. The magnetic highs correlate with retrogressed mafic eclogites in exposed layered gneiss and are in line with trends of high-amplitude magnetic highs and lows over the adjacent polar plateau. The parallelism of these anomaly trends with those farther to the west suggests that rock types exposed in the surveyed ranges extend beneath the polar plateau. Outboard lower Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks show uniformly quiet magnetic character, whereas Jurassic Ferrar sills and inferred dike swarms yield magnetic highs. Distinctive magnetic lows are associated with exposed Ross-age granitic plutons and indicate several large bodies hidden beneath the ice. A prominent thrust system exposed north of Nimrod Glacier, which places Neoproterozoic-Cambrian platform rocks upon Cambrian-Ordovician molasse deposits, can be traced magnetically several 10's of km to the south, including places previously mapped erroneously as an unconformity boundary.

Goodge, J.; Finn, C.; Damaske, D.; Abraham, J.; Moeller, H.; Anderson, E.; Roland, N.; Goldmann, F.; Braddock, P.; Rieser, M.

2004-12-01

233

Attenuation Tomography Based on Strong Motion Data: Case Study of Central Honshu Region, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional frequency dependent S-wave quality factor (Q?(f)) value for the central Honshu region of Japan has been determined in this paper using an algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data. The method of inversion for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients is proposed by H ashida and S himazaki (J Phys Earth. 32, 299-316, 1984) and has been used and modified by J oshi (Curr Sci. 90, 581-585, 2006; Nat Hazards. 43, 129-146, 2007) and J oshi et al. (J. Seismol. 14, 247-272, 2010). Twenty-one earthquakes digitally recorded on strong motion stations of Kik-net network have been used in this work. The magnitude of these earthquake ranges from 3.1 to 4.2 and depth ranging from 5 to 20 km, respectively. The borehole data having high signal to noise ratio and minimum site effect is used in the present work. The attenuation structure is determined by dividing the entire area into twenty-five three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness having different frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor. Shear wave quality factor values have been determined at frequencies of 2.5, 7.0 and 10 Hz from record in a rectangular grid defined by 35.4°N to 36.4°N and 137.2°E to 138.2°E. The obtained attenuation structure is compared with the available geological features in the region and comparison shows that the obtained structure is capable of resolving important tectonic features present in the area. The proposed attenuation structure is compared with the probabilistic seismic hazard map of the region and shows that it bears some remarkable similarity in the patterns seen in seismic hazard map.

Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Verma, O. P.

2013-12-01

234

CO in late-type galaxies within the central region of Abell 1367  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 12CO (J = 1-0) and 12CO (J = 2-1) spectra for 19 bright, late-type galaxies (spirals) in the central region of the galaxy cluster Abell 1367 (z = 0.02) from observations made with the IRAM 30-m telescope. All 19 spirals were observed at the position of their optical centre and for a subset, at multiple positions. For each spiral the integrated CO (J = 1-0) intensity from the central pointing, in few cases supplemented with intensities from offset pointings, was used to estimate its molecular hydrogen mass and H2 deficiency. Accepting the considerable uncertainties involved in determining H2 deficiencies, spirals previously identified by us to have redder colours and higher H i deficiencies as a result of environmental influence were found to be more H2 deficient compared to members of the sample in less advanced evolutionary states. For eight of the observed spirals multiple pointing observations were made to investigate the distribution of their molecular gas. For these spirals we fitted Gaussians to the CO intensities projected in a line across the galaxy. In two cases, CGCG 097-079 and CGCG 097-102(N), the offset between the CO and optical intensity maxima was significantly larger than the pointing uncertainty, and the full width at half-maximum values of the fits were significantly greater than those of the other spirals, irrespective of optical size. Both signatures are indicators of an abnormal molecular gas distribution. In the case of CGCG 097-079, which is considered an archetype for ram-pressure stripping, our observations indicate that the CO intensity maximum lies ˜15.6 ± 8.5 arcsec (6 kpc) north-west of the optical centre at the same projected position as the H i intensity maximum.

Scott, T. C.; Usero, A.; Brinks, E.; Boselli, A.; Cortese, L.; Bravo-Alfaro, H.

2013-02-01

235

Sea Level Variability in the Central Region of the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of three bottom pressure/temperature/conductivity (PTC) instruments was deployed along the Saudi Arabian coast of the eastern Red Sea since 2008. These locations, represent the central region of the Red Sea; Al-Lieth (100km south of Jeddah), Thuwal (KAUST) and Arriyas (100km north of Rabigh). Surface sea level/height was calculated from the bottom pressure measurements using the hydrostatic equation. The data analysis displayed the sea level variability into three different scales: 1) On daily time scales: the data showed the most energetic component of sea level variability was the diurnal and semidiurnal tides dominated by the M2, N2, K1 and O1 tidal constituents. 2) On weekly time scales (~10 days): the sea level variability was wind driven with setup and set down up to 40 cm due to the local wind stress. 3) On yearly time scales: the sea level varied approximately 50 cm and was highest in winter (January-February) and lowest in summer (July-August). Barometric pressure also had an annual cycle of approximately 10mb and was highest in January, thus attenuating the amplitude of the annual sea level variability. The data analysis postulate that the only mechanism behind the higher sea level in the central Red Sea during winter months was due to a response to the convergent in the large-scale Red Sea wind stress associated with the Indian Monsoon, which is consisting of NNW winds in the northern part of the Red Sea and SSE winds in the southern part. The amplitude of the principal tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability was coherent at the three sites, but the direction of phase propagation could not be resolved with confidence.

Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Limeburner, Richard; Farrar, J. Thomas; Beardsley, Robert

2013-04-01

236

CENTRAL REGIONS OF BARRED GALAXIES: TWO-DIMENSIONAL NON-SELF-GRAVITATING HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The inner regions of barred galaxies contain substructures such as off-axis shocks, nuclear rings, and nuclear spirals. These substructures may affect star formation, and control the activity of a central black hole (BH) by determining the mass inflow rate. We investigate the formation and properties of such substructures using high-resolution, grid-based hydrodynamic simulations. The gaseous medium is assumed to be infinitesimally thin, isothermal, and non-self-gravitating. The stars and dark matter are represented by a static gravitational potential with four components: a stellar disk, a bulge, a central BH, and a bar. To investigate various galactic environments, we vary the gas sound speed, c{sub s} , as well as the mass of the central BH, M{sub BH}. Once the flow has reached a quasi-steady state, off-axis shocks tend to move closer to the bar major axis as c{sub s} increases. Nuclear rings shrink in size with increasing c{sub s} , but are independent of M{sub BH}, suggesting that the ring position is not determined by the Lindblad resonances. Rings in low-c{sub s} models are narrow since they are occupied largely by gas on x{sub 2}-orbits and well decoupled from nuclear spirals, while they become broad because of large thermal perturbations in high-c{sub s} models. Nuclear spirals persist only when either c{sub s} is small or M{sub BH} is large; they would otherwise be destroyed completely by the ring material on eccentric orbits. The shape and strength of nuclear spirals depend sensitively on c{sub s} and M{sub BH} such that they are leading if both c{sub s} and M{sub BH} are small, weak trailing if c{sub s} is small and M{sub BH} is large, and strong trailing if both c{sub s} and M{sub BH} are large. While the mass inflow rate toward the nucleus is quite small in low-c{sub s} models because of the presence of a narrow nuclear ring, it becomes larger than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when c{sub s} is large, providing a potential explanation of nuclear activity in Seyfert galaxies.

Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Yoon, Doosoo [FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Teuben, Peter J., E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2012-03-01

237

Origin and evolution of mountainous regions north of Tibet, Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The huge deformation field associated with the Indo-Eurasia collision provides an unrivalled opportunity to investigate the origin and evolution of anomalously high topography in an intraplate, continental interior setting. Mountainous regions north of Tibet and south of the Hangay Dome are hyper-arid with internally drained basins and very low erosion rates. Consequently, the tectonic signal is very strongly expressed in the landscape. Directly north of Tibet, the Beishan is an anomalous plateau region whose first-order topography cannot be explained by Tertiary-Quaternary faulting, although second-order topographic culminations within the plateau are due to Quaternary-Recent transpressional fault displacements. The Beishan appears to be a peripheral bulge due to significant underthrusting of the Tarim-Dunhuang Block beneath the northern margin of Tibet. North of the Beishan region, the Eastern Tien Shan and Gobi Altai are essentially a transpressional basin and range province whose origin is due to thrust and oblique-slip thrust reactivation of older basement structures and diffuse sinistral strike-slip faulting. The angular relationship between SHmax and older structural trends is the first-order control on the kinematics of Quaternary faulting in the region and the style of mountain building. Restraining bends, thrust blocks and diverse transpressional fault arrays generate a complex 3D orogenic architecture that differs significantly from a contractional fold and thrust belt. Late Cenozoic uplift of the Gobi Altai, eastern Tien Shan and Altai orogens is due to diffuse transpressional reactivation of a mechanically weak Paleozoic terrane collage sandwiched between more rigid Precambrian basement blocks, representing the ';soft' core of Central Asia. Southeast of Mongolia and northeast of Tibet, the Lang Shan, Yabrai Shan and Helan Shan mountainous regions comprise footwall block uplifts associated with Ordos Basin extension and the left-lateral strike-slip termination of the Altyn Tagh Fault system. The Lang Shan and Yabrai Shan display regionally peneplained footwall summit ridges elevated 0.5-1 km above their surroundings. Their active mountain fronts are defined by high frontal fault scarps that are cut by slot canyons with extremely low valley width/valley height ratios. In many places, the mountain fronts are defined by trapezoidal facets instead of triangular facets attesting to low erosion rates and relatively high uplift rates. Between Tibet and the Hangay Dome, anomalously high topography is best explained by upper crustal faulting as a distant response to NE-directed compressional stresses generated by the continued Indo-Eurasia collision 2000+ kms to the south. However, if the crust and lithospheric mantle are mechanically coupled as has been suggested by joint analysis of SKS splitting and surface deformation data in Tibet and elsewhere in Asia, then upper crustal flower structures and other transpressional ranges in the Beishan, easternmost Tien Shan and Gobi Altai must be balanced at depth by vertical thickening, crustal shortening and along-strike displacements. This may therefore contribute to more diffuse regional topographic uplift and lateral crustal ';extrusion' similar to the Tibetan region to the south.

Cunningham, D.; Zhang, J.

2013-12-01

238

Crustal P-wave velocity model for the central-western region of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies require a p-wave velocity model to obtain accurate results moreover such models could provide an insight of the tectonic structure of the study area. Accordingly, in this study we estimate the crustal 3D p-wave velocity model for the Jalisco Block located at the central-western region of Mexico. The Jalisco Block is limited on its eastern side by the Colima and Tepic-Zacoalcos Rifts, and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt; while on its western side it is limited by the Mesoamerican Trench. Cocos and Rivera plates are subducting beneath the Jalisco Block conforming a tectonically complex region. We used earthquakes occurring within the limits of lithosphere volume from which we want to estimate the velocity model. Such events were registered by the Mapping the Rivera Subduction Zone experiment (MARS) and the Seismic and Acelerometric Network of Jalisco (RESAJ). During MARS experiment 51broadband stations active from January 2006 to June 2007 were deployed while RESAJ by July of 2012consists of nine active stations however more stations will be deployed until reach 30 stations. The velocity model is estimated using the Fast Marching Tomography (FMTOMO) software. FMTOMO uses the Fast Marching Method (FMM) in order to solve the forward problem; the FMM is a numerical algorithm that tracks the interfaces evolution along a nodes narrow band, and travel times are updated solving the eikonal equation. Finally , the inverse problem is about adjusting the model parameters (interface depth, velocity, hypocenter location) in order to try to satisfy the observed data (travel times). We perform a resolution test using several events that show good resolution results up to a 60 km depth. We present a 3D p-wave velocity model, we compare our results within the MARS data with previous results for greater depths, approximately the upper mantle, finally we also present studies towards the northern portion of the Jalisco Block using the RESAJ data.

Ochoa, J.; Escudero, C. R.; Perez, O. G.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.

2012-12-01

239

Patient satisfaction with the endoscopy experience and willingness to return in a central Canadian health region  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Patient experiences with endoscopy visits within a large central Canadian health region were evaluated to determine the relationship between the visit experience and the patients’ willingness to return for future endoscopy, and to identify the factors associated with patients’ willingness to return. METHODS: A self-report survey was distributed to 1200 consecutive individuals undergoing an upper and/or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy at any one of the six hospital-based endoscopy facilities in the region. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the association between the patients’ overall rating of the visits and willingness to return for repeat procedures under similar medical circumstances. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with willingness to return for repeat endoscopy and overall satisfaction (rating) of the visit. RESULTS: A total of 529 (44%) individuals returned the questionnaire, with 45% rating the visit as excellent and 56% indicating they were extremely likely to return for repeat endoscopy. There was a low moderate correlation between overall rating of the visit and patients’ willingness to return for repeat endoscopy (r=0.30). The factors independently associated with patient willingness to return for repeat endoscopy included perceived technical skills of the endoscopists (OR 2.7 [95% CI 1.3 to 5.5]), absence of pain during the procedure (OR 2.2 [95% CI 1.3 to 3.6]) and history of previous endoscopy (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.4 to 4.1]). In contrast, the independent factors associated with the overall rating of the visit included information provided pre- and postprocedure, wait time before and on the day of the visit, and the physical environment. CONCLUSIONS: To facilitate patient return for needed endoscopy, it is important to assess patients’ willingness to return because positive behavioural intent is not simply a function of satisfaction with the visit. PMID:23712300

Loftus, Russell; Nugent, Zoann; Graff, Lesley A; Schumacher, Frederick; Bernstein, Charles N; Singh, Harminder

2013-01-01

240

First records of Dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of Central Balkan.  

PubMed

Dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe, particularly in its southern part, the Mediterranean region. Many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. This paper presents the first records of adult D. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in Central Balkan countries (Serbia and Macedonia). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were examined for the presence of D. repens adults. In order to investigate their role as hosts and potential wild reservoirs of this zoonosis, 71 wolves (Canis lupus), 48 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 26 jackals (Canis aureus) were examined. Under the skin of two wolves (one from Serbia and one from Macedonia) and of a red fox from Serbia D. repens adults were found. In all three cases only one parasite was present. Further research on wild canids is needed, particularly on species widening their range (such as jackals) and those living near human settlements (foxes and jackals), which facilitates the transmission of the parasites to dogs and humans. PMID:25410390

Cirovi?, Duško; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Pavlovi?, Ivan; Kuliši?, Zoran; Cosi?, Nada; Burazerovi?, Jelena; Maleti?, Vladimir

2014-12-01

241

The Frequency of Exfoliation Syndrome in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of exfoliation syndrome in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey and to evaluate its relationship with cardiovascular and ocular diseases. Methods. Patients over the age of 45 years who presented to the clinic were included in the study. All cases underwent a comprehensive ophthalmology examination. Exfoliation syndrome was diagnosed with the presence of exfoliative material on the lens anterior capsule or iris on slit lamp examination. The patients were divided into two groups as the exfoliation syndrome group and nonexfoliation syndrome group according to the presence of exfoliative material. Results. Exfoliative material was found in one or both eyes of 212 of the 2103 patients (10.1%) evaluated within the scope of the study. A significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and increasing age and male gender. A significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and glaucoma, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and phacodonesis. While no relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and hypertension or diabetes mellitus, a significant relationship was found with coronary artery disease. Conclusion. The unilateral or bilateral exfoliation syndrome frequency was 10.1% in this hospital-based study. A statistically significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and advancing age, gender, and coronary artery disease. PMID:25165574

K?l?c, Rasit; Sezer, Hafize; Comcal?, Sebile U.; Bayraktar, Serdar; Goktolga, Gokay; Cakmak, Yasin; Cetin, Abdi B.; Cumurcu, Tongabay

2014-01-01

242

Pollen Analysis of Natural Honeys from the Central Region of Shanxi, North China  

PubMed Central

Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010–2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000–100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000–500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

2012-01-01

243

The Central Regions of Local (U)LIRGs Viewed with Big Radio Eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I review some of the main results obtained by our team in the last few years on high-angular resolution radio studies of nearby Luminous and Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs, respectively). These galaxies are expected to form stars at rates ? (10-100) M_{?} {year}^{-1}, and produce core-collapse supernovae at rates ? (0.3-3) year- 1. (U)LIRGs are also expected to be bright at radio wavelengths, thanks to the ubiquitous Far-Infrared Radio correlation, which makes high-angular resolution (? 0.1^'') radio observations an excellent tool for probing the inner ? 100 pc region of local (U)LIRGs. I justify the need for this high-angular resolution radio studies of local (U)LIRGs and, among other results, I present the impressive discovery of an extremely prolific supernova factory in the central ˜ 150 pc of the galaxy Arp 299-A (D = 45 Mpc) and the monitoring of a large number of very compact radio sources in it, the detection and precise location of the long-sought AGN in Arp 299-A and, more recently, the evidence for the existence of nuclear disks (? 100 pc in size) in starburst galaxies from their radial distribution of supernovae. All those results show that very-high angular resolution studies of nearby (U)LIRGs are of high relevance for the comprehension of both local and high-z starbursting galaxies.

Pérez-Torres, Miguel Ángel

244

Morphological characterization of cherry rootstock candidates selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey.  

PubMed

The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

2013-01-01

245

Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey  

PubMed Central

The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05?C 002 and 08?C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05?C 002 and 55?S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

2013-01-01

246

Rupture mechanism and source parameters of Umbria-Marche mainshocks from strong motion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long sequence of earthquakes causing few casualties and considerable damage in a wide zone struck Central Italy starting on September 26, 1997. Theearthquakes are characterized by normal faulting mechanism, with a NE-SW(anti-Apenninic direction) tension axis. In this paper we analyze the accelerometric recordings collected by the accelerograph stations belonging to the National Accelerograph Network. About 10 stations were triggered by the mainshocks of the sequence. In particular, a small size foreshock and the two mainshocks that occurred on September,26 (00:33(GMT) MW = 5.7 and 09:40 MW = 6.0) have been recorded by two digital 3-C accelerometers located at near source distances (within 30 km from the faults). These records are relevant to investigate the detail of therupture kinematics, due to the close epicentral distance and azimuthallocation relative to the fault orientation and geometry. Using a trial and error approach we modeled the source mechanism through the fit of the arrival times, the apparent source time duration, the main polarization features and the entire waveforms of the recorded signals, in order to get some insight on the rupture evolution, the location of the fracture origin point and the fault geometry. Based on this fault kinematic model, inferences on fault slip distribution are obtained by modeling the S acceleration waveform, comparing the ray theory synthetics with 1-5 Hz band filtered ground velocity records.The final model shows that the seismic ruptures occurred along two adjacent,sub-parallel, low angle dipping normal faults. Ruptures bothnucleated from the fault bottom and propagated up-dip, showing differentrupture velocity and length. The presence of a transfer zone (barrier)can be suggested by the mainshocks rupture evolution. This transfer zonehas probably controlled the amplitude increase of local stressreleased by the first rupture at its NW edge which triggered about 9 hourslater the second rupture. The inferred model was used to compute the predictedground acceleration in the near source range, using a hybridstatistical-deterministic approach.A similar trial and error method has been also applied to the October 14, 199715:23 earthquake (MW = 5.6). The inferred kinematic model indicates a rupture nucleating from the faultbottom and propagating up-dip, toward the SE direction. Thus the three mainshocks ruptured distinct fault segments, adjacent and slightly offsetfrom one to another.

Capuano, P.; Zollo, A.; Emolo, A.; et al.

247

The role of lithology and season on rainfall thresholds for the initiation of landslides in central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compiled a catalogue of 442 rainfall events with landslides in the Abruzzo, Marche, and Umbria regions, central Italy, in the period 2002-2010. The landslide information was obtained through the analysis of national, regional, and local newspapers, and reports of landslide events compiled by fire brigades. For each rainfall event that has resulted in one or more landslides, we calculated the cumulated rainfall E (mm) and the duration D (h) of the rainfall event, using a dense network of 150 rain gauges. Landslides were mapped as single points using Google Earth°. We exploited the catalogue to determine new cumulated event rainfall - rainfall duration (ED) thresholds. To determine the ED thresholds, we modified a Frequentist probabilistic method first proposed to determine ID thresholds. The method assumes that the threshold curve is a power law E = ? × D^?, where E is the cumulated rainfall (mm), D is the duration of the rainfall event (h), ? is a scaling constant (the intercept), and ? is the slope of the power law curve. We improved the method adopting a bootstrapping statistical technique to evaluate the uncertainties in the parameters that define the threshold curve model, and the sensitivity (robustness) of the thresholds to the number of (D,E) data points in the empirical data set. We determined ED thresholds for 1% and 5% exceedance probability levels for the entire study area, and for the three individual regions that comprise the study area (Abruzzo, Marche, and Umbria). To investigate the role of lithology and season on the occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides, we segmented the rainfall ED data by the main lithological domains in the study area (i.e., Post-Orogenic sediments, Flysch deposits, and Carbonate rocks), and season of the events (May - September, October - April). Comparison of the ED thresholds indicates that the cumulated amount of rainfall necessary to trigger landslides in Flysch deposits is larger than in Post-Orogenic sediments and Carbonate rocks, and that the thresholds for Post-Orogenic sediments and Carbonate rocks were statistically indistinguishable in the study area. The seasonal thresholds are statistically different for D < 12 h, and for D > 100 h. In particular, for short rainfall periods (D < 12 h) the cumulated rainfall required to initiate landslides is higher in the summer period May - September than in the period October - April. The results obtained are applicable for landslide forecasting based on empirical rainfall thresholds, and have implications for landslide hazard and risk assessment.

Peruccacci, S.; Brunetti, M.; Luciani, S.; Vennari, C.; Guzzetti, F.

2011-12-01

248

Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy)  

PubMed Central

Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy), a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts) are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.). In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (wounds) and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation), Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises), while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules). Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread knowledge of means of conserving foodstuffs, they also led to the use of products easily available within each home. The values of E.I. (ethnobotanicity index) for the upper Molise region are considered amongst the highest in Italian areas. Nevertheless, like the values for other areas of Italy, they are lower than those of many Spanish areas, perhaps (and not only) because of the more rapid cultural erosion experienced in Italy. PMID:18334029

Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucchese, Fernando; Medori, Simone

2008-01-01

249

Regional fire monitoring and characterization using global NASA MODIS fire products in dry lands of Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Asian dry lands are grass- and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia. This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually. Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia. Degradation of this ecosystem through burning and overgrazing directly impacts economic growth and food supply in the region. Fire is a recurrent disturbance agent in dry lands contributing to soil erosion and air pollution. Here we provide an overview of inter-annual and seasonal fire dynamics in Central Asia obtained from remotely sensed data. We evaluate the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global fire products within Central Asian dry lands and use these products to characterize fire occurrence between 2001 and 2009. The results show that on average ˜15 million ha of land burns annually across Central Asia with the majority of the area burned in August and September in grasslands. Fire is used as a common crop residue management practice across the region. Nearly 89% of all burning occurs in Kazakhstan, where 5% and 3% of croplands and grasslands, respectively, are burned annually.

Loboda, Tatiana V.; Giglio, Louis; Boschetti, Luigi; Justice, Christopher O.

2012-06-01

250

Regional climate model assessment of the urban land-surface forcing over central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the climate impact of cities and urban surfaces in general on climate of central Europe, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been extended with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM). A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005-2009 for central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces or with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer) as well as on the boundary layer height (increases up to 50 m). Urbanization further influences surface wind with a winter decrease up to -0.6 m s-1, though both increases and decreases were detected in summer depending on the location relative to the cities and daytime (changes up to 0.3 m s-1). Urban surfaces significantly reduce evaporation and thus the humidity over the surface. This impacts the simulated summer precipitation rate, showing decrease over cities up to -2 mm day-1. Significant temperature increases are simulated over higher elevations as well, not only within the urban canopy layer. With the urban parameterization, the climate model better describes the diurnal temperature variation, reducing the cold afternoon and evening bias of RegCM4. Sensitivity experiments were carried out to quantify the response of the meteorological conditions to changes in the parameters specific to the urban environment such as street width, building height, albedo of the roofs and anthropogenic heat release. The results proved to be rather robust and the choice of the key SLUCM parameters impacts them only slightly (mainly temperature, boundary layer height and wind velocity). Statistically significant impacts are modeled not only over large urbanized areas, but the influence of the cities is also evident over rural areas without major urban surfaces. It is shown that this is the result of the combined effect of the distant influence of the cities and the influence of the minor local urban surface coverage.

Huszar, P.; Halenka, T.; Belda, M.; Zak, M.; Sindelarova, K.; Miksovsky, J.

2014-07-01

251

FAST TRACK PAPER: Surface deformation in the Abruzzi region, Central Italy, from multitemporal DInSAR analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the 1992-2000 surface deformation affecting the Abruzzi region, Central Italy, by exploiting two set of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, acquired by the ERS-1/2 SAR sensors from ascending and descending orbits, respectively. We apply the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) technique to the SAR data set to estimate the displacement time-series and the corresponding velocity maps. Our DInSAR analysis allows us to detect a previously unreported major change in crustal deformation moving from the highest elevation of the Central Apennines to the Adriatic sector, that we infer as evidence of a complex tectonic boundary between two Adriatic microplates involving a wide interaction zone. An extension effect, at a rate of about 0.10 × 10-6 yr-1, is also confirmed by our investigation. Our findings may have important implications in the seismic hazard assessment within the Adriatic region in Central Italy.

Hunstad, I.; Pepe, A.; Atzori, S.; Tolomei, C.; Salvi, S.; Lanari, R.

2009-09-01

252

An Inter-Regional Comparison of Ozone Sensitivity to Reductions in Emissions in Central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of ozone precursors NOx and VOC have declined significantly in central California over the past 60 years due to rigorous emission control programs, with 40 to 50 percent reductions achieved from 1990 to 2010 alone. Three major air basins, however, are still designated as nonattainment areas for the federal 8-hour ozone standard: the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), Sacramento area and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Historically, ozone response to reductions in emissions varied from region to region. While the maximum hourly ozone concentrations have declined significantly in all three air basins, the locations of maximum ozone shifted. Some exceedance areas came into compliance with the standard while new areas started exceeding the standard. Some areas did not significantly respond to reductions in emissions. To meet the current ozone standard, additional emission reductions are needed. Further emission reductions above and beyond the goal of meeting the current standard will be needed if the EPA lowers the current standard. In an effort to help planners and decision makers, we have been conducting a modeling study to better understand how ozone may respond to future emission reductions in the region. In this initial phase of the study, we used the WRF-CMAQ modeling system to simulate ozone for July 12-28, 2006, a representative high ozone period for all three air basins. With the selected high grid resolution and optimum model setup, the model performance for the base case simulation was exceptionally good. Statistical agreement with observations was better than most previously applied models in the region. We performed a number of sensitivity simulations by reducing anthropogenic VOC or NOx emissions separately or together 10-60 percent at 10 percent intervals uniformly across the board and prepared EKMA diagrams at observation stations. We found that a 60 percent reduction in VOC and NOx emissions reduced the maximum ozone by 20-30 percent in the modeling domain. The largest reduction was in the SJV and the smallest reduction was in the SFBA. Ozone in the three air basins responded differently to separate reductions in VOC and NOx emissions. In the SFBA, reducing VOC emissions reduced ozone concentrations. However, reducing NOx emissions reduced ozone concentrations during some days of the episode and increased them on other days. The SFBA seems to be a NOx rich air basin under certain meteorological conditions. In the Sacramento area, ozone was insensitive to reductions in VOC emissions, possibly due to the abundance of biogenic VOC emissions, especially in the afternoon hours. Reducing NOx emissions reduced ozone concentrations in this air basin. In the SJV, ozone was sensitive to reductions in either VOC or NOx emissions. For the same percentage emission reductions, reducing NOx emissions would lead to higher reductions in ozone compared to VOC reductions in this air basin. Based upon these results, continuing to reduce anthropogenic emissions of both VOC and NOx would benefit the region. In general, ozone is more responsive to emission reductions after 40 percent reductions are achieved in all three air basins.

Soong, S.; Tanrikulu, S.; Tran, C.; Jia, Y.; Beaver, S.; Matsuoka, J.; Cordova, J.

2011-12-01

253

Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored maps provide a regional summary of the new mapping at a scale of 1:200,000, a scale that is sufficient to show the general distribution and relationships of the map units but not to distinguish the more detailed elements that are present in the database. The report is the product of cooperative work by the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, William Lettis and & Associates, Inc. (WLA), and the California Geological Survey. An earlier version was submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey by WLA as a final report for a NEHRP grant (Witter and others, 2005). The mapping has been carried out by WLA geologists under contract to the NEHRP Earthquake Program (Grant 99-HQ-GR-0095) and by the California Geological Survey.

Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

2006-01-01

254

The Urban Heat Island of the North-Central Texas Region and Its Relation to the 2011 Severe Texas Drought  

E-print Network

The Urban Heat Island of the North-Central Texas Region and Its Relation to the 2011 Severe Texas Dallas­Fort Worth, Texas, metropolitan and rural sites have been used to calculate the urban heat island positive trend in the urban heat island of 0.148C decade21 in the Dallas­Fort Worth metropolitan area from

Winguth, Arne

255

Design Parameters of Low Temperature Shelled-Corn Drying in the Central Black Sea Region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn drying is an energy-intensive process. Thus, the management of energy use is critical for economical corn drying. The Central Black Sea Region covering Amasya, Çorum, Ordu, Samsun and Tokat provinces has climatic and agronomic conditions suitable for corn production. However, the drying of newly harvested wet corn stays as a major problem for farmers since it is traditionally dried

Sefa Tarhan; Gazanfer Ergüne?; Ahmet Sari

2005-01-01

256

Transport mechanisms and the potential movement of planktonic larvae in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that considerable inter-reef dispersal of reef fishes and many benthic invertebrates is likely in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef. Larvae are most abundant in spring-summer when currents on the outer shelf, where most of the coral reefs occur, are almost entirely unidirectional and southeastward (longshore). Net drift on the outer shelf at this time

D. Mc B. Williams; E. Wolanski; J. C. Andrews

1984-01-01

257

Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in martens and fishers from the Algonquin Region of South-Central Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine insecticides (OCI) has been restricted in the Province of Ontario, Canada, since 1971. This study reports on OCI and PCB levels in two carnivores, fishers (Martes pennanti) and martens (Martes americana), collected in the Algonquin Region of south-central Ontario in 1976 and 1981, and compares them to data collected for the same species

T. Sleeves; M. Strickland; R. Frank; J. Rasper; C. W. Douglas

1991-01-01

258

Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

2011-01-01

259

Transcriptomic Profiling of Central Nervous System Regions in Three Species of Honey Bee during Dance Communication Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWe conducted a large-scale transcriptomic profiling of selected regions of the central nervous system (CNS) across three species of honey bees, in foragers that were performing dance behavior to communicate to their nestmates the location, direction and profitability of an attractive floral resource. We used microarrays to measure gene expression in bees from Apis mellifera, dorsata and florea, species that

Moushumi Sen Sarma; Sandra L. Rodriguez-Zas; Feng Hong; Sheng Zhong; Gene E. Robinson; Walter S. Leal

2009-01-01

260

Student Mobility in Rural and Nonrural Districts in Five Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 089  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the extent and distribution of student mobility in five Central Region states. The study, which calculated student mobility percentages in each state and compared percentages by locale (city, suburb, town, and rural locale, and degree of rurality) within each state, found no consistent patterns across locales. Research…

Beesley, Andrea; Moore, Laurie; Gopalani, Sarah

2010-01-01

261

Wind Energy Statistics for Large Arrays of Wind Turbines (New England and Central U.S. Regions).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance characteristics have been simulated for large dispersed arrays of 500 kW - 1500 wind turbines producing power and feeding it directly into the utility distribution grid in the New England - Middle Atlantic and the Central U.S. regions. Des...

C. G. Justus

1976-01-01

262

Teaching English Language Learner Students: Professional Standards in Elementary Education in Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 122  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on professional teaching standards in the Central Region examines what K-8 general education teachers are expected to know and be able to do in order to teach English language learner students. It reviews the standards for coverage of six topics that the research literature suggests are important for improving student achievement. Key…

Apthorp, Helen; Wang, Xin; Ryan, Susan; Cicchinelli, Louis F.

2012-01-01

263

Optical properties of the central region of NGC 1316 - A small bright core in a giant D galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new photometric, spectroscopic, and astrometric observations of the central region of NGC 1316 obtained with the 4 m telescope on Cerro Tololo. High-resolution photographic photometry is combined with existing photoelectric data to give brightness profiles that extend from the center to 450\\

F. Schweizer

1981-01-01

264

Ground deformation analysis using GNSS permanent stations: Experience on Central Italy after the l'Aquila Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great number of GNSS permanent stations nowadays available represents a very important tool for many surveying applications. Satellite technologies as well as dedicated software yet affirmed, have opened new horizons in the field of surveying. In particular, the construction of GNSS time series can provide interesting results regarding the ground's surface monitoring on both local and global scale. This knowledge should have interesting extensions when applied on the seismically very unsteady underground. This research aimed to understand the moving patterns caused by the seismic sequence of L'Aquila earthquake (2009) in the central Italy using various networks of permanent stations. Global IGS/EPN/RDN and the local regional networks of Abruzzo and Umbria regions have been employed on purpose. All measurements were carried out with a great number of permanent stations creating a long time series with enough information to analyze the surface movements of the territory. With the obtained results a comparison between the pre and post seismic period was possible. The test area was extended on a radius of about 50 km from the seismic epicenters. All data elaborations were made using two scientific software (BERNESE and GAMIT/GLOBK) achieving high accuracy by modeling any source of error on measurements. The results of the elaboration with both software and for all networks are being presented.

Dominici, Donatella; Radicioni, Fabio; Elaiopoulos, Michael; Massimi, Vincenzo; Alicandro, Maria

2013-04-01

265

Utility of regional Chinese seismograms for source and path studies in central Asia  

SciTech Connect

Regional surface waves recorded at the Urumchi station located about 700 km north of the Tibetan Plateau in the Sinkiang Province are used to study East Kazakh explosions and wave propagation in central Asia. The data consist of broadband (flat to displacement between 0.1 and 10 Hz), photographic records from an SK Kirnos galvanometric system. Simultaneous inversion of Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities for the path from East Kazakh through the Dzhungarian Basin yields a crustal model dominated by the presence of very low velocities and a strong positive velocity gradient above 15 km depth. Velocities below 15 km depth are not significantly different from other continental structures underlain by Paleozoic or Precambrian basement. This model is consistent with geologic evidence indicating that most of the path is characterized by the presence of up to 10 km of sediments overlying a Paleozoic basement. Source studies were made on seven East Kazakh explosions detonated in the time period between June 1980 and April 1981. These studies involved estimation of seismic moments using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. The largest explosion studied occurred on 9/14/80 and had an m/sub b/ of 6.2 and a seismic moment of 2.7 x 10/sup 23/ dyn-cm. The observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves are richer in high frequencies than predicted by explosion source models with tectonic release. This could be caused by a path effect involving seismic wave focusing by the large sedimentary basin between East Kazakh and the Urumchi station, although source medium effects cannot be ruled out. 30 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Patton, H.J.; Taylor, S.R.; Harris, D.B.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

1984-04-01

266

Two-dimensional Kinematics of the Central Region of NGC 2110  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a two-dimensional mapping of the central region of the active galaxy NGC 2110, using K-band integral field spectroscopy with the Gemini NIFS at a spatial resolution of ? 25 pc. We present flux distributions and kinematics for the molecular and ionized gas emission lines, as well as the stellar kinematics. The maps for the kinematics and flux distributions of the emitting gas for NGC 2110 were obtained by fitting the H_{2} ? 2.1218 ? m and H I? 2.1661 ? m emission-line profiles by Gauss-Hermite series. The H_{2} presents extended emission in the whole field of observation, while the Br? is extended only to the southeast - northwest direction. The H_{2} emission is consistent with emission of gas excited by thermal processes, such as gas heated by X-rays from the AGN or shocks. We estimated an excitation temperature of ? 2100-2700 K for H_{2} emitting gas. The gas velocity fields present a similar rotation pattern than those observed for the stars. In addition, the H_{2} velocity field presents other kinematic components. Two spiral structures are observed in blueshifts to the north of the nucleus and redshifts to the south of it. If these kinematic structures are originated from emission of gas located in the plane of the galaxy, they can be interpreted as gas flows towards the nucleus (inflows) of the galaxy. In this case, the mass inflow rate is estimated to be ? 4.1 × 10^{-4} M_{odot} yr^{-1}. Another kinematic component observed for H_{2} emitting gas was interpreted as an ejection of gas from the nucleus (outflows) within a bi-cone with a mass outflow rate of ? 4.6 × 10^{-4} M_{odot} yr^{-1}.

Diniz, M. R.; Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

2014-10-01

267

Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg) speciation ?????" reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), elemental Hg (Hg??), and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5), were determined from June to November 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1) a 1114 megawatt (MW) coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2) a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3) a smaller (465 MW) coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of RGM, Hg?? and Hg-PM 2.5, were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m-3) measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.41 ppbv; measured at 50 km site). The finding that RGM, Hg??, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1) the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2) the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3) RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg??. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

Kolker, A.; Olson, M.L.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Tate, M.T.; Engle, M.A.

2010-01-01

268

Relict rock glaciers in alpine catchments: A regional study in Central Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpine catchments represent an important freshwater source in many regions. Catchments in the subalpine to nival altitudinal levels are generally characterised by higher precipitation, lower evapotranspiration and consequently higher discharge rates compared to lower elevated areas of the montane and foothill levels of the same region. Particularly in crystalline mountain regions in the mid- to high latitudes glacial and periglacial sediments cover larger areas and form important aquifers in alpine catchments. Typical periglacial landforms in mountain areas are rock glaciers. Relict rock glaciers consist of sediment accumulations without permafrost at present. This rock glacier type has a strong influence on water storage capacities and discharge behaviour of the catchments. The hydraulic properties of rock glaciers have a positive impact on flood-risk reduction and the riparian ecology below rock glacier springs during dry periods. Furthermore, the exceptional high discharge rates at springs at the front of relict rock glaciers compared to nearby non-rock glacier springs are also of economic interest. Knowledge about morphometric characteristics of rock glacier catchments helps to increase the understanding of the groundwater system and discharge dynamics of rock glaciers. In this context the main objectives of our study are (a) to assess and quantitatively describe rock glacier catchments at a regional scale by analysing different morphometric parameters of the catchments and (b) to combine the rock glacier catchment properties with water balance data. In doing so, at first an inventory of 295 rock glacier catchments was established for the 2440 km² large study area (Niedere Tauern Range, Styria) in Central Austria ranging from 590 to 2862 m a.s.l.. In a second step, the inventory data were combined with area-wide precipitation, discharge and evapotranspiration data. Results reveal that 108 km² or 4.4% of the entire study area belongs to rock glacier catchments. This proportion increases to 8.6% for areas above 1500 m a.s.l. and even to 23% for areas above 2000 m a.s.l.. Results for a 626 km² large subunit (Seckauer Tauern Range) reveal that even 15.6% of the area above 1500 m a.s.l. and more 42% above 2000 m a.s.l. are influenced by relict rock glaciers as aquifers. A total water volume of 4240 Mio m³ is precipitated annually (mean value for the normal period 1971-2000) in the entire study area. 22% of this water is evapotranspirated and the remaining water is the discharge of the catchments. Despite the fact that 8.6% of the entire Niedere Tauern Range above 1500 m a.s.l. belong to rock glacier catchments, about 9.5% of the total discharge and 9.2% of the total precipitation originates in the rock glacier catchments. In contrast, only 7.9% of all precipitated water is evapotranspirated in these catchments. In the subunit Seckauer Tauern Range the same figures for rock glacier catchments are substantially higher and more pronounced in their differences with 15.6% for area, 16.8% for precipitation, 14.5% for evapotranspiration and even 17.3% for discharge. These figures exemplarily show that rock glaciers and their catchments are highly relevant in the alpine water cycle of the study area.

Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Pauritsch, Marcus; Winkler, Gerfried

2013-04-01

269

Thermoluminescence dating of the orkutsay loess section in Tashkent region, Uzbekistan, Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronology of loess in Central Asia was investigated by means of thermoluminescence dating (TL) in the 1970s, when age estimates ranging from 20 ka to over 800 ka were taken as providing an absolute chronology. This has caused major misinterpretation of Central Asian loess stratigraphy and palaeoclimatic reconstruction. We present a new TL study of a loess section at

L. P. Zhou; A. E. Dodonov; N. J. Shackleton

1995-01-01

270

Seasonal pattern of regional carbon balance in the central Rocky Mountains from surface and airborne measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional carbon fluxes in mountain regions are poorly observedAirborne budgets and ecosystem models can be used to place bounds on uncertaintyDual carbon uptake pattern is consistent across region and related to snowmelt

Ankur R. Desai; David J. P. Moore; William K. M. Ahue; Phillip T. V. Wilkes; Stephan F. J. De Wekker; Bjorn G. Brooks; Teresa L. Campos; Britton B. Stephens; Russell K. Monson; Sean P. Burns; Tristan Quaife; Steven M. Aulenbach; David S. Schimel

2011-01-01

271

Sedimentation and provenance of the Antofagasta region of the southern Puna Plateau, central Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic and provenance studies of Cenozoic non-marine sedimentary basins in the Central Andean Puna Plateau provide insight into the regional development and dynamics. The southern plateau hosts several poorly exposed intramontane basins bounded by basement-involved ~N-S striking thrust faults; their origin is explained differently by contrasting geodynamic models. This study focuses on the Antofagasta region (NW Argentina). The top of the studied basin was over-thrust by basement rocks along a west-dipping thrust fault, which was likely active during exhumation of the Calalaste range to the west (25-29 Ma, Carrapa et al., 2005). We studied three sections SW of Antofagasta de la Sierra. S3 (552 m) is the lowest section and is composed of mud playa to sandflat sediments, with at least two paleosol horizons. Lower S2 (1,263 m) contains ~300 meters of proximal alluvial fan sediments. Upper S2 is composed of fluvial to shallow lacustrine sediments. The separation between the top of S2 and the bottom of S1 (1,062 m) is ~540 m. The lower ~600 m of S1 is composed of thick, distal alluvial fan and braided river sediments. In the upper S1, the depositional environment changes to fluvial-alluvial, with a paleosol developed at the top of S1. Imbricated pebbles suggest prevailing eastward paleoflow. Modal compositions of 18 sandstones plot in the mixed zone on a Qm-F-Lt plot, and the transitional continental and recycled orogenic zones on a Qt-F-L plot (Dickinson, 1985). Their compositions cluster and do not show any evolutionary trends, despite being sampled from a ~3000 m-thick sedimentary column. However, when combined with data from the Quinoas Formation (Late Eocene to Late Oligocene) and the Chacras Formation (Late Oligocene to Early Miocene), outcropped west of the study site (Carrapa et al., 2005), the Antofagasta samples mark the beginning of an evolving trend towards the dissected arc and transitional arc zones. We analyzed U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from eight samples. Four young grains from three samples near the top of S2 yield ages of 38-39.5 Ma. If these grains were derived from air-fall volcanics, they indicate a late Eocene depositional age for the studied strata, but otherwise they give a maximum age estimate. We tentatively favour the former interpretation. For all samples, detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra show significant late Cambrian to early Ordovician and Precambrian (~1000-1400 Ma, ~1700-1900 Ma) sources. The ~1000-1400 Ma cluster is well matched with ages from the Sierra de Maz, to the west. A minor Permian-Triassic source (~240-290 Ma) is also present which could reflect limited exposures of plutonic rocks west of the study site. Our work suggests that the ~3000 meter thick unit in the Antofagasta basin is time-equivalent of the Quinoas Formation and accumulated with a high sedimentation rate. The sediments were sourced primarily from the west, with little input from volcanics. The consistent western source regions and the rapid subsidence lead us to favour a foreland-type origin for the late Eocene Antofagasta Basin.

Zhou, Renjie; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Sobel, Edward R.; Carrapa, Barbara; Davis, Donald W.

2014-05-01

272

Long term landscape evolution within central Apennines (Italy): Marsica and Peligna region morphotectonics and surface processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relief features of the Apennines have been developed in a complex geomorphological and geological setting from Neogene to Quaternary. Growth of topography has been driven by active tectonics (thrust-related crustal shortening and high-angle normal faulting related to crustal extension), regional rock uplift, and surface processes, starting from Late Miocene(?) - Early Pliocene. At present a high-relief landscape is dominated by morphostructures including high-standing, resistant Mesozoic and early Tertiary carbonates ridges (i.e. thrust ridges, faulted homocline ridges) and intervening, erodible Tertiary siliciclastics valleys (i.e. fault line valleys) and Quaternary continental deposits filled basins (i.e. tectonic valleys, tectonic basins). This study tries to identify paleo-uplands that may be linked to paleo-base levels and aims at the reconstruction of ancient landscapes since the incipient phases of morphogenesis. It analyzes the role of tectonics and morphogenic processes in the long term temporal scale landscape evolution (i.e. Mio?-Pliocene to Quaternary). It is focused on the marsicano-peligna region, located along the main drainage divide between Adriatic side and Tyrrhenian side of Central Apennines, one of the highest average elevation area of the whole chain. The work incorporates GIS-based geomorphologic field mapping of morphostructures and Quaternary continental deposits, and plano-altimetric analysis and morphometry (DEM-, map-based) of the drainage network (i.e. patterns, hypsometry, knick points, Ks). Field mapping give clues on the definition of paleo-landscapes related to different paleo-morpho-climatic environments (i.e. karst, glacial, slope, fluvial). Geomorphological evidence of tectonics and their cross-cutting relationships with morphostructures, continental deposits and faults, provide clues on the deciphering of the reciprocal relationship of antecedence of the paleo-landscapes and on the timing of morphotectonics. Morphotectonic features are related to Neogene thrusts, reactivated or displaced by complex kinematic strike slip and followed by extensional tectonic features (present surface evidence given by fault line scarps, fault line valleys, fault scarps, fault slopes, wind gaps, etc.). Geomorphic evidence of faults is provided also by morphometry of the drainage network: highest long slope of the main streams (knick points and Ks) are located where the streams cut across or run along recent faults. Correlation of tectonic elements, paleosurfaces, Quaternary continental deposits, by means of morphotectonic cross sections, lead to the identification, in the marsicano-peligna region, of areas in which morphotectonics acted in the same period, becoming younger moving from the West to the East. In conclusion, recognition of different morphotectonic features, identification of different paleo-landscapes, and reconstruction of their migration history, contribute to define the main phases of syn and post orogenic, Apennine chain landscape evolution: it results from the link of alternating morphotectonics and surface processes, due to migrating fault activity, rock uplift processes and alternating karst, glacial, slope, fluvial processes.

Miccadei, E.; Piacentini, T.; Berti, C.

2010-12-01

273

Exploitation of high-density DInSAR data points of the Umbria-Marche (Italy) 1997 seismic sequence for fault characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High spatial resolution DInSAR data for the Umbria Marche 1997 seismic sequence are exploited by relaxing constraints derived from datasets of different nature, such as seismologically derived fault dimensions. DInSAR data are thus inverted for a realistic slip distribution over the faults, in terms of depth distribution and roughness, which allows us to relocate the main faults and to minimize the misfit between the vertical displacement pattern derived from DInSAR and model predictions. Our analysis reveals that slip affected not only the shallowest part of the fault system but also its deepest part, rupturing the whole seismogenic layer of the crust down to 10 km, reaching slip values up to 30 cm at the base of the seismogenic layer. Misfit is reduced by a factor of two with respect to previous analyses based on a smaller number of digitized fringe points.

Dalla Via, G.; Crippa, B.; Toraldo Serra, E. M.; Giacomuzzi, G.; Sabadini, R.

2007-09-01

274

Current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kanto Plain is known as the largest plain in Japan, where a lot of huge cities are located and about 30% of population of Japan is concentrated. In the inland part of the Kanto Plain, dependence on groundwater for water requirements is relatively high; in particular around 40% of the municipal water supply is dependent on groundwater. On the other hand, various kinds of controlled substances such as arsenic, nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen, volatile organic compounds are detected in groundwater in excess of the Japanese environmental standards. Therefore, in order to evaluate current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in the central part of the Kanto Plain, we investigated around 500 wells. These wells are distributed throughout the plain area of Saitama Prefecture, stretching about 80 kilometers from east to west and about 60 kilometers from north to south. Depths of these wells range from 5m to 200m. We analyzed heavy metals and metalloids such as Fe, Mn, Al, As, Pb, using the ICP/AES and ICP/MS and also analyzed major dissolved ions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO42-, using the ion chromatograph. As a result of investigation, rate of samples exceeded the Japanese environmental standards of arsenic (0.01 mg/l) in groundwater was about 1%, and the maximum concentration was about 10 times of the environmental standards. Groundwater with a high arsenic concentration was detected in the specific area, such as in the lowlands located upstream from the former shoreline at the Holocene glacial retreat. Taking the land use of surrounding area, well depth and groundwater condition of aquifers into account, detected arsenic is considered to be of natural origin and mainly originate from natural layers. According to the previous studies, the release mechanisms of natural arsenic are summarized in some ways and in case of this research area, it was explained that natural arsenic is released with dissolution of the iron oxide in the reduction environment of groundwater. On the other hand, rate of samples exceeded the standards of nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen (10 mg/l) was about 15%, and maximum concentration was about 6 to 7 times the standard. Nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen were detected in shallow groundwater in most upland, with very intense pollution on the uplands in the northern part of the plain. Causes of the pollution were assumed as unsuitable treatments of livestock excrement, superfluous fertilization, leaking of living drainage and so on.

Hachinohe, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.

2012-12-01

275

Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal lands could produce ~29 × 109 L ethanol y-1, or about 48% of the 2007 U.S. Congress legislative mandate.

Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

2010-12-01

276

Regional tectonic stress near the San Andreas fault in central and southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout central and southern California, a uniform NNE-SSW direction of maximum horizontal compressive stress is observed that is remarkably consistent with the superposition of stresses arising from lateral variations in lithospheric buoyancy in the western United States, and far-field Pacific-North America plate interaction. In central California, the axis of maximum horizontal compressive stress lies at a high angle to the

J. Townend; M. D. Zoback

2004-01-01

277

Regional tectonic stress near the San Andreas fault in central and southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

[1] Throughout central and southern California, a uniform NNE-SSW direction of maximum horizontal compressive stress is observed that is remarkably consistent with the superposition of stresses arising from lateral variations in lithospheric buoyancy in the western United States, and far-field Pacific-North America plate interaction. In central California, the axis of maximum horizontal compressive stress lies at a high angle to

J. Townend; M. D. Zoback

2003-01-01

278

Thickness of the near-interface regions and central bulk ohmic resistivity in lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ferroelectric thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a method to separate the low-resistive near-interface regions (NIRs) from the high-resistive central bulk region (CBR) in a ferroelectric thin film. The NIR thickness and the CBR resistivity can thus be accurately determined. Using lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate films as an example, we show that the total thickness of the NIRs depends only on the electrode materials in use (Ir and Pt), while the CBR resistivity depends only on the impurity doping levels (La=1.5% and 3%). The fact that the NIR is much narrower when Pt electrodes are used instead of Ir, and that the NIR resistivity is always considerably lower than the central bulk, suggest that the NIRs is probably originated from material nonstoichiometry/defects rather than the band bending at metal/insulator interfaces.

Chu, D. P.; Zhang, Z. G.; Migliorato, P.; McGregor, B. M.; Ohashi, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Shimoda, T.

2002-12-01

279

Occult hepatitis B virus infection among injecting drug users in the Central-West Region of Brazil  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was investigated in 149 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Central-West Region of Brazil. Of these individuals, 19 were positive for HBV DNA, resulting in an occult HBV infection prevalence of 12.7% (19/149); six of these 19 individuals had anti-HBV core and/or anti-HBV surface antibodies and 13 were negative for HBV markers. All IDUs with occult hepatitis B reported sexual and/or parenteral risk behaviours. All HBV DNA-positive samples were successfully genotyped. Genotype D was the most common (17/19), followed by genotype A (2/19). These findings reveal a high prevalence of occult HBV infection and the predominance of genotype D among IDUs in Brazil's Central-West Region. PMID:23778654

de Matos, Marcia Alves Dias; Ferreira, Renata Carneiro; Rodrigues, Fabiana Perez; Marinho, Tamiris Augusto; Lopes, Carmen Luci Rodrigues; Novais, Antonia Carlos Magalhaes; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Souto, Francisco Jose Dutra; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel

2013-01-01

280

What is success and what is failure of transition? A critical review of two decades of agricultural reform in the Europe and Central Asia region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the outcome of the transformation of a centrally planned into a market economy over the past two decades in the case of agriculture in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region. It focuses on the question of how transition progress in the region's agriculture can be evaluated and compared adequately. The article presents a set of arguments

Jürgen Wandel; Agata Pieniadz; Thomas Glauben

2011-01-01

281

The vegetation of metalliferous and non-metalliferous grasslands in two former mine regions in Central Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the composition of the vegetation in two former mining regions in Central Slovakia: Banská Štiavnica with\\u000a predominant Pb-Zn contamination and Staré Hory with a very high Cu content in the soil. Old heaps rich in heavy metals are\\u000a covered with specific vegetation. On the Cu-rich spoil heaps, species-poor plant communities with prevailing Agrostis stolonifera, Avenella flexuosa, Acetosella vulgaris,

Viera Banásová; Othmar Horak; Milada ?iamporová; Miriam Nadubinská; Irene Lichtscheidl

2006-01-01

282

Integrated assessment of a new Waste-to-Energy facility in Central Greece in the context of regional perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study is the integrated assessment of a proposed Waste-to-Energy facility that could contribute in the Municipal Solid Waste Management system of the Region of Central Greece. In the context of this paper alternative transfer schemes for supplying the candidate facility were assessed considering local conditions and economical criteria. A mixed-integer linear programming model was applied

G. Perkoulidis; A. Papageorgiou; A. Karagiannidis; S. Kalogirou

2010-01-01

283

On Analyzing the Degree of Coldness in Iowa, a North Central Region, United States: An XML Exploitation in Spatial Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a State of Iowa is an agricultural rich state in north central region and is divided into 99 counties. NCRA in the United States\\u000a maintains agricultural databases to facilitate crop and risk analysis, pest management and forecasting. NC94 is one such dataset\\u000a which is intensively used and is available for public use through many sources to process and analyze to get

Sugam Sharma; Shashi K. Gadia

2010-01-01

284

Populus tremuloides Michx. postfire stand dynamics in the northern boreal-cordilleran ecoclimatic region of central Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postfire vegetation development among 8–185-year-old stand was assessed based on 100 relevés from the northern boreal-cordilleran ecoclimatic region (61–63°N) in the central Yukon Territory, Canada. Vegetation sampling included only stands thought to have originated from postfire Populus tremuloides Michx. regeneration that occurred on well drained and low gradient sites. Seven vegetation types were recognized based on cluster analysis and Kruskal–Wallis

W. L Strong

2009-01-01

285

Strongly Localized Potential Profile Measurements Through Stark Effects in the Central Core Region of an Inertial Electrostatic Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

Strongly localized electric fields were measured in the central cathode helium plasma core region of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) by the degree of polarization and by the longitudinal alignment methods. Both results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center in excellent agreement. The decay time of the excited states is found to indicate least effects by the collisions to ensure the LIF method.

Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Takiyama, Ken [Hiroshima University (Japan); Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

286

Test and calibration of rainfall thresholds for use in a regional civil defense emergency management system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With regard to the evaluation of hydrogeological risk in Italy, the Italian Civil Defence Emergency Management System has a national hydrometeorological alert office (called Chief Functional Center) and a network of 21 Regional Centers (Decentrate Functional Centers, CFD) whose main purpose is the monitoring and evaluation of critical hydraulic and hydrogeological events, mainly caused by heavy rainfall. The national alert procedure, in use at the CFD in Umbria , is based on a 3-level scale, and the main instrument for the choice of landslide hazard level is the rainfall thresholds, as heavy rainfall is the most important factor in the triggering of landslides. The current thresholds have been established by a wide rainfall dataset for a large area of Central Italy; up to now they have been seen to work well with regard to the hydraulic risk, but in order to cope with the hydrogeological risk we need more investigation. Therefore a statistical and comparative study between the rainfall thresholds and the landslide datasets occurring in past rainfall events was performed, in order to measure their performance in terms of false and missed alarms; the main goal of this goal was to try to tune the thresholds to the complex and varying geomorphologic conditions in Umbria. In fact subsequent compressive and extensional tectonic phases produced in this area chains, lakes, intermontane valleys and river grabens, with complex lithostratigraphy. Moreover, due to its importance in the triggering of landslides, a method to evaluate moisture content in soil was implemented. About 20 temporal windows (5-10days wide), apparent (in terms of events recorded with several landslides) in the historical landslide datasets available from 1991 to 2001 were analyzed, plus a severe hydrometeorological event which occurred in December 2008. IDW spatial estimate of cumulative rainfall, moisture content, and local rainfall threshold for every landslide site, using the data from the regional real time hydrometeorological network operating since 1982, was performed. The results of this statistical and comparative analysis are shown, together with details of the real-time system that is to be implemented for the estimation of critical rainfall levels used in the alert system, supported by soil moisture probes and a double-polarization meteorological radar of new generation that will be used to calibrate rainfall thresholds also with areal data.

Ponziani, F.; Pandolfo, C.; Stelluti, M.; Berni, N.; Brocca, L.

2009-04-01

287

Winter fog is decreasing in the fruit growing region of the Central Valley of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Valley of California is home to a variety of fruit and nut trees. These trees account for 95% of the U.S. production, but they need a sufficient amount of winter chill to achieve rest and quiescence for the next season's buds and flowers. In prior work, we reported that the accumulation of winter chill is declining in the Central Valley. We hypothesize that a reduction in winter fog is cooccurring and is contributing to the reduction in winter chill. We examined a 33 year record of satellite remote sensing to develop a fog climatology for the Central Valley. We find that the number of winter fog events, integrated spatially, decreased 46%, on average, over 32 winters, with much year to year variability. Less fog means warmer air and an increase in the energy balance on buds, which amplifies their warming, reducing their chill accumulation more.

Baldocchi, Dennis; Waller, Eric

2014-05-01

288

The Mid Summer Drought in Middle and Central Americas as simulated by a regional atmosphere-ocean model. Regional extent and the ocean remote and local influences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 30 year model climatology (1979-2010) is analyzed to study the tendencies and variability of the Mid Summer Drought comparing against the CRU observed climatology over the same period. The model used is a state-of-the-art regional atmosphere-ocean coupled model (REMO) developed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. A simulation with 0.5 degree horizontal resolution is used to perform the analysis of precipitation over the region. Inspection of model annual and seasonal precipitation reveals that these compare well with CRU observed climatology both in amplitude and pattern. The exception is Southern Mexico and portions of Central America which the model underestimates during the rainy seasons. However, the spatial patterns of the Mid Summer Drought (MSD) are well represented over Mexico and Central America. It is found that both the onset and end of the MSD over Southern Mexico are profoundly influenced by the state of the Eastern Pacific Ocean particularly in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and Central America. On this model climatology the remote influence of Atlantic and Pacific oceans plays a crucial role in the second pluvial peak at the end of the MSD around September.

Martinez-Lopez, B.; Cabos, W.; Quintanar Isaias, A.

2013-05-01

289

Late Holocene Decline of Beech Populations in the Central Great Lakes Region: Drought- Induced Vegetation Change in a Humid Region.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large decline in beech populations ( Fagus grandifolia) has been well-documented from pollen records in southeastern Michigan and Southern Ontario between 1000 and 600 BP. These records reveal that declines in beech pollen were generally associated with increases in oak ( Quercus) and pine ( Pinus). The beech decline probably extended eastward into western Pennsylvania and New York, although beech populations in Upper Michigan remained unaffected or even expanded during this time period. The causes of these forest changes and their spatial patterning is not completely understood, although they have been variously attributed to anthropogenic disturbance, climatic cooling, or drought. Recent paleoclimate evidence from the region indicates that the most severe droughts of the last 2000 years occurred between 1000 and 700 BP. However, direct attribution of drought as a cause of the decline has been problematic because of uncertainties associated with comparison of radiocarbon-dated chronologies. We have conducted tandem investigations of pollen, charcoal, hydroclimate proxies (testate amoebae, humification), and a temperature proxy (d18O of Sphagnum cellulose) from the archives contained in three Sphagnum-dominated peatlands of the region. Two of these peatlands were located within the region of the beech decline (eastern, lower Michigan) and the other was outside the decline region (Upper Michigan). Our results reveal that a series of large droughts, likely the combined result of decreased summer precipitation and warm temperatures, were associated with the beech decline. Large wildfires were also associated with the droughts. Neither droughts nor beech declines were recorded in Upper Michigan. High-resolution analysis of beech pollen and hydroclimate proxies at sites that experienced the droughts reveals complex dynamics at multidecadal timescales between 1000-700 BP, with large fluctuations in beech pollen, available moisture, and charcoal concentrations. Our study demonstrates the potential of using the tandem application of pollen, charcoal, and a wide variety of vegetation-independent climatic proxies to assess ecological responses to climate variability at multidecadal timescales. Although moisture variability is not generally recognized as a driver of ecological change in humid regions, our data indicate that ecologically significant thresholds have been crossed in the recent past.

Booth, R. K.; Jackson, S. T.; Taylor, M.; Pendall, E.; Sousa, V. A.

2007-12-01

290

Vascular flora and vegetation of granite outcrops in the Central Mineral Region of Texas  

E-print Network

-examined the vascular flora of Enchanted Rock as well as describing the flora. of Watch Mountain, Dutch Mountain, and the immediate vicinity in Llano County. The lichen flora (Hopkins 1977) and fungi and bryophyte flora (Castro-Mendoza 1978) of the Central Mineral...-examined the vascular flora of Enchanted Rock as well as describing the flora. of Watch Mountain, Dutch Mountain, and the immediate vicinity in Llano County. The lichen flora (Hopkins 1977) and fungi and bryophyte flora (Castro-Mendoza 1978) of the Central Mineral...

Walters, Terrence Wesley

2012-06-07

291

The Large-Scale Oscillations Influence Over the Interdecadal Climate Variability in Mexico's Central Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate in the highlands of Mexico displays high variability due to its complex terrain and elevation. The knowledge to elucidate the principal forcings of these variations can be useful for forecasting annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation over this area. Due to its complexity a small area in the highlands was delimited with defined physical boundaries, encompassing several states of Mexico. The study area was defined as Mexico's Central Region (MCR), which is located between 19.5 ° - 22.5 ° N and 98.5 ° - 104 ° W. Most of this area overlies the plateau of Anahuac, whose physical boundaries extend to the north from the "Sierras Transversales" (composed by the "Sierra de Zacatecas", the "Sierra de la "Breña" and the "Sierra de San Luis") to the "Eje Neovolcánico" to the south; east and west boundaries are confined by the "Sierra Madre Oriental" and the "Sierra Madre Occidental", respectively. Daily data of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation series from a total of 112 weather stations were obtained from CLICOM and ERICIII databases. Several climatic indices with average periods of phase oscillations greater than five years, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDOI), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMOI), The Arctic Oscillation (AOI), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAOI), and Aleutian Low Pressure (ALPI) on a monthly basis for all series, except the ALPI series which is on annual rate, were also used in this study. Indices data were obtained from the web site http://www.cicimar.ipn.mx/oacis/Indices_Climaticos.php/. The common period of all series was 1961-2000. We applied Principal Component Analysis to precipitation and temperature series to identify the principal modes of variation of the series. The first mode explained more than 68% of the variance in the original series and corresponds to annual variations. Contour maps were useful to elucidate that temperature variations are highly correlated with the terrain elevation, and that the variation of precipitation results from a combined effect between altitude and distance from the seaboard. Correlations between climatic indices and standardized anomalies of temperature and precipitation series were computed. Correlation analysis was applied first with no time lag between the series, and then until the lag offsetting was equal to half the average of each oscillation period of the series. In all cases the climatic index preceded the temperature and precipitation series. Significant correlations were found through the calculations. The strongest correlations were found between the ALPI and temperature, and precipitation series; Correlation between climatic indices and the maximum temperature was stronger than correlation between climatic indices and the other variables. The NAOI displays low correlation with temperature and precipitation series, so we conclude that North Atlantic Oscillation does not influence significantly to the climate variability of MCR.

Jofre, R.; Brito-Castillo, L.; Tereshchenko, I.; Atmospheric Sciences Climatology Climate Variability

2013-05-01

292

The Esquipulas Process: A Central American Paradigm for Resolving Regional Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

After several unsuccessful but instructive peace initiatives in the early 1980s, the presidents of the five Central American states took their fate into their own hands at an historic meeting in Esquipulas, Guatemala. In August 1987, they signed the Esquipulas II Accord. Although that document did not declare a cease-fire and end decades of fighting, it did lay the foundation

Johanna Oliver

293

Water use options for regional development. Potentials of new water technologies in Central Northern Namibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CuveWaters project relates the alignment and implementation of innovative water technologies to an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in the Cuvelai-Etosha-Basin, which lies in Central Northern Namibia. The aim here is to improve inhabitants’ living conditions by means of appropriate technical schemes and measures – particularly with a view to enhancing water supply and basic sanitation (incl. waste water

Alexandra Lux; Cedric Janowicz

2009-01-01

294

Geochronology of late Pleistocene to Holocene speleothemsfrom central Texas: Implications for regional paleoclimate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed chronology for four stalagmites from three central Texas caves separated by as much as 130 km provides a 71 000-yr re- cord of temporal changes in hydrology and climate. Mass spectrometric 238 U- 230 Th and 235 U- 231 Pa analyses have yielded 53 ages. The accuracy of the ages and the closed- system behavior of the speleothems

MaryLynn Musgrove; Jay L. Banner; Larry E. Mack; Deanna M. Combs; Eric W. James; Hai Cheng; R. Lawrence Edwards

2001-01-01

295

A Survey of the Bait Industry in the North-Central Region of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained information from a survey on characteristics of the bait industry and estimates of quantities and values of bait in 1992 in six north-central states: Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. Baitfish, ranked in decreasing order of volume sold, were fathead minnows Pimephales promelas; a group of fishes sold as “lake shiners,” including the emerald shiner Notropis

Thomas G. Meronek; Fred A. Copes; Daniel W. Coble

1997-01-01

296

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Irrigation Waters in Thessaly Region, Central Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to provide information on heavy metals concentrations in soils and in irrigation water in Thessaly, Central Greece, where tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is cultivated. Tobacco tends to accumulate high levels of heavy metals, especially Cadmium. During the years 1998, 1999, and 2000, 795 surface soil samples (0 to 30 cm depth) and 200 water samples were

I. K. Mitsios; E. E. Golia; C. D. Tsadilas

2005-01-01

297

Regional Variation in Epiphytic Macrolichen Communities in Northern and Central California Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied epiphytic macrolichen communities in northern and central California to 1) describe how gradients in community composition relate to climate, topography, and stand structure and 2) define subregions of relatively homogeneous lichen communities and environ- mental conditions. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was used to characterize landscape-level trends in lichen community composition from 211 plots. We found two gradients in lichen

Sarah Jovan; Bruce McCune

2004-01-01

298

Regional climate model simulation of precipitation in central Asia: Mean and interannual variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how well the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) regional climate model (RegCM2) simulates the mean and interannual variability of precipitation in a semiarid region to more fully establish the strengths and weaknesses of the model as a tool for studying regional scale climate processes. We compare precipitation observations with RegCM2 output from a 5.5 year long simulation

Eric E. Small; Filippo Giorgi; Lisa Cirbus Sloan

1999-01-01

299

An assessment of fire occurrence regime and performance of Canadian fire weather index in south central Siberian boreal region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is the dominant natural disturbance in Eurasian boreal region, which acts as a major driver of the global carbon cycle. An effectiveness of wildfire management requires suitable tools for fire prevention and fire risk assessment. This study aims to investigate fire occurrence patterns in relation to fire weather conditions in the remote south central Siberia region. The Canadian Fire Weather Index derived from large-scale meteorological reanalysis data was evaluated with respects to fire regimes during 14 consecutive fire seasons in south central Siberian environment. All the fire weather codes and indices, including the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), the Duff Moisture Code (DMC), the Drought Code (DC), the Buildup Index (BUI), the Initial Spread Index (ISI), and the Fire Weather Index (FWI), were highly reflected inter-annual variation of fire activity in south central Siberia. Even though human-caused fires were major events in Russian boreal forest including south central Siberia, extreme fire years were strongly correlated with ambient weather conditions (e.g. Arctic Oscillation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind), showing by in-phase (or positive linear relationship) and significant wavelet coherence between fire activity and DMC, ISI, BUI, and FWI. Time series observation of 14 fire seasons showed that there was an average of about 3 months lags between the peaks of fire weather conditions and fire activity, which should take into account when using coarse scale fire weather indices in the assessment of fire danger in the study area. The results are expected to contribute to a better reconstruction and prediction of fire activity using large-scale reanalysis data in remote regions in which station data are very few.

Chu, T.; Guo, X.

2014-07-01

300

Earthquake focal mechanisms, deformation state, and seismotectonics of the Pamir-Tien Shan region, Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of the seismotectonics of the Pamir-Tien Shan collision zone in the Garm region, Tajikistan, based on geological structure, seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions. The region is dominated by horizontal compression, manifested by imbricate, low-angle thrust faults that separate the upper crust into a series of tectonic sheets. These thrust systems verge northward from the Tajik

Albert A. Lukk; Sergei L. Yunga; Vladimir I. Shevchenko; Michael W. Hamburger

1995-01-01

301

The Dilemma of Water Management ‘Regionalization’ in Mexico under Centralized Resource Allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexico's evolving water management framework is predicated on: (1) integration of water resources planning and management; (2) decentralization from federal to ‘regional’ (river basin) levels; and (3) privatization of service provision. This paper focuses on Mexico's recurring federal-regional tensions, highlighting the historical case of the Yaqui River, and analyzing the current decentralization impasse. Although important advances have been made with

CHRISTOPHER A. SCOTT; JEFF M. BANISTER

2008-01-01

302

Dog filariosis in the Lazio region (Central Italy): first report on the presence of Dirofilaria repens  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological investigations were carried out in the Lazio Region to assess the status of canine filariosis and to evaluate the actual risk for veterinary and medical public health. METHODS: Since August 2001 to June 2003, a total of 972 canine blood samples, collected in public kennels and from private owners animals of the 5 Provinces of the Region, were

Paola Scaramozzino; Simona Gabrielli; Michele Di Paolo; Marcello Sala; Francesco Scholl; Gabriella Cancrini

2005-01-01

303

Regional status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and

André Zoli; Oliver Shey-Njila; Emmanuel Assana; Jean-Pierre Nguekam; Pierre Dorny; Jef Brandt; Stanny Geerts

2003-01-01

304

The central and northern Appalachian Basin-a frontier region for coalbed methane development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Appalachian basin is the world's second largest coalbed-methane (CBM) producing basin. It has nearly 4000 wells with 1996 annual production at 147.8 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Cumulative CBM production is close to 0.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). The Black Warrior Basin of Alabama in the southern Appalachian basin (including a very minor amount from the Cahaba coal field) accounts for about 75% of this annual production and about 75% of the wells, and the remainder comes from the central and northern Appalachian basin. The Southwest Virginia coal field accounts for about 95% of the production from the central and northern parts of the Appalachian basin. Production data and trends imply that several of the Appalachian basin states, except for Alabama and Virginia, are in their infancy with respect to CBM development. Total in-place CBM resources in the central and northern Appalachian basin have been variously estimated at 66 to 76 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), of which an estimated 14.55 Tcf (~ 20%) is technically recoverable according to a 1995 U.S. Geological Survey assessment. For comparison in the Black Warrior basin of the 20 Tcf in-place CBM resources, 2.30 Tcf (~ 12%) is technically recoverable. Because close to 0.9 Tcf of CBM has already been produced from the Black Warrior basin and the proved reserves are about 0.8 Tcf for 1996 [Energy Information Administration (EIA), 1997]. U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 1996 Annual Report. U.S. Department of Energy DOE/EIA-0216(96), 145 pp.], these data imply that the central and northern Appalachian basin could become increasingly important in the Appalachian basin CBM picture as CBM resources are depleted in the southern Appalachian basin (Black Warrior Basin and Cahaba Coal Field). CBM development in the Appalachian states could decrease the eastern U.S.A.'s dependence on coal for electricity. CBM is expected to provide over the next few decades a virtually untapped source of unconventional fossil fuel in the Appalachian states, where the CBM resources are large and the demand for cleaner fossil-fuel energy is high.The central and northern Appalachian basin could become increasingly important in the Appalachian basin coalbed methane (CBM) picture as CBM resources are depleted in the southern Appalachian basin. Total in-place CBM resources in the central and the northern Appalachian basin have been estimated at 66 to 76 Tcf, of which 14.55 Tcf is technically recoverable.

Lyons, P.C.

1998-01-01

305

Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in martens and fishers from the Algonquin region of south-central Ontario  

SciTech Connect

Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine insecticides (OCI) has been restricted in the Province of Ontario, Canada, since 1971. This study reports on OCI and PCB levels in two carnivores, fishers (Martes pennanti) and martens (Martes americana), collected in the Algonquin Region of south-central Ontario in 1976 and 1981, and compares them to data collected for the same species in the same area in 1972-74. Algonquin Region is a forested area of 43,000 km{sup 2} on the Precambrian shield, and has no major industrial or agricultural development. Except for DDT, which was used in the 1950's and 1960's to control biting insects around tourist establishments, there has been little use of OCIs or PCBs in this area. Their occurrence in the Algonquin Region is most likely due to atmospheric transport.

Steeves, T.; Strickland, M. (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Parry Sound, Ontario (Canada)); Frank, R.; Rasper, J. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)); Douglas, C.W.

1991-03-01

306

Historical experience in the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis in the plain region of Eastern and Central China  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) (kala-azar) was most seriously prevalent in the plain regions of eight provinces/municipalities in the eastern and central parts of China. In the early 1950s, the number of counties/cities endemic for VL and the number of cases in the plain regions accounted for 60% and 80%, respectively, of the total numbers in the entire country. By implementing comprehensive control measures, including treatment of patients for eliminating the source of infection and spraying insecticide in endemic villages to kill sandflies, VL transmission has been brought under control in this region by the early 1960s, and no new infected cases have been found since 1983, achieving the goal of eliminating VL. PMID:24650707

2014-01-01

307

A Multiscale Application of the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes in the Central Mediterranean Area and Alpine Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the parameters A, B, and C of the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE) in the Central Mediterranean area and Alpine region on the basis of a variable space and time scale approach. We make use of regional and local earthquake catalogues. Accordingly, we investigate three different scales: the scale of the Central Mediterranean and Alpine region spanning different geological domains, the scale of the Alps focusing on a single geological entity, and the scale of an active fault system at the junction between the southeastern Alps and the external Dinarides in Northeastern Italy and Western Slovenia. Maps based on the varied time and location scales are compared with each other. The observed temporal variability of the A, B, C coefficients indicates significant changes of seismic activity at the time scales of a few decades. Therefore, it is highly recommended to use all the data available for long-term seismic hazard assessment in conjunction with a real-time monitoring of these characteristics for possible evaluation of time-dependent risk at the intermediate-term scales of a few years. The confirmed fractal nature of earthquakes and their distribution in space implies that the traditional estimations of seismic hazard for cities and urban agglomerations are usually underestimated. The degree of underestimation by traditional methods of seismic risk at a city is illustrated by providing estimates of hazard and related personal hazard, which are oversimplified examples of seismic risk assessment accounting for fractal properties of earthquakes in the major cities of the Central Mediterranean and Alpine region.

Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V.; Peresan, A.; Aoudia, A.; Panza, G. F.

2011-01-01

308

Regional hydrological thresholds for landslides and floods in the Tiber River Basin (central Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of landslide warning thresholds, based on the analysis of hydrological data, is proposed. In the Tiber River\\u000a Basin of central Italy historical information on landslides and floods, for the period 1918–1990, was available from a nationwide\\u000a bibliographical and archive inventory on geohydrological catastrophes. Hydrological data were obtained from mean daily discharge\\u000a records at various gauging stations within the

P. Reichenbach; M. Cardinali; P. De Vita; F. Guzzetti

1998-01-01

309

Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during

Jay Quade; Jason A. Rech; Julio L. Betancourt; Claudio Latorre; Barbra Quade; Kate Aasen Rylander; Timothy Fisher

2008-01-01

310

Advective heat transport associated with regional Earth degassing in central Apennine (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we show that the main springs of the central Apennine transport a total amount of heat of ˜2.2×109 J s-1. Most of this heat (57%) is the result of geothermal warming while the remaining 43% is due to gravitational potential energy dissipation. This result indicates that a large area of the central Apennines is very hot with heat flux values >300 mW m-2. These values are higher than those measured in the magmatic and famously geothermal provinces of Tuscany and Latium and about 1/3 of the total heat discharged at Yellowstone. This finding is surprising because the central Apennines have been thought to be a relatively cold area. Translated by CO2 rich fluids, this heat anomaly suggests the existence of a thermal source such as a large magmatic intrusion at depth. Recent tomographic images of the area support the presence of such an intrusion visible as a broad negative velocity anomaly in seismic waves. Our results indicate that the thermal regime of tectonically active areas of the Earth, where meteoric waters infiltrate and deeply circulate, should be revised on the basis of mass and energy balances of the groundwater systems.

Chiodini, G.; Cardellini, C.; Caliro, S.; Chiarabba, C.; Frondini, F.

2013-07-01

311

Evaluation of phase bunching in the central region of a cyclotron by a radial probe with a plastic scintillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique for evaluating the phase bunching performance in the central region of a cyclotron was developed. A newly-developed radial probe with a 6-mm-wide, 5-mm-height plastic scintillator was applied to analysis of the correlation between the internal beam phase distribution and the initial beam phase, defined by adjusting the relative RF phase of the beam buncher. The phase distribution measurement system, comprising the radial probe equipped with a plastic scintillator and the signal-processing modules, had a sufficiently good time resolution of 45 ps full-width at half-maximum for the phase bunching evaluation. The correlations between the buncher phase and the measured phase distribution for the acceleration harmonic number h=1 and 2 were consistent with the calculation result of the geometric trajectory analysis. For h=1 case of a 107 MeV 4He2+ beam, the internal beam phase region spread over 71 RF degrees full-width at quarter-maximum (FWQM) for the acceptable buncher phase region of 48 RF degrees, and no evidence of the phase bunching effect was observed. For h=2 case of a 260 MeV 20Ne7+ beam, the internal beam phase region for the acceptable buncher phase region of 59 RF degrees was compressed into 21 RF degrees FWQM. The phase bunching effect was sharply evident for h=2, and contributed to increase of the acceptable beam phase region and the beam intensity per phase width.

Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kurashima, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Arakawa, Kazuo; Kamiya, Tomihiro

2014-12-01

312

Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and discuss the impact of climate change on future development of the region.

Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

2010-12-01

313

Transneuronal tracing of central autonomic regions involved in cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats.  

PubMed

Stimulation of cardiac afferents (CA) increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure. The goal of the current study is to determine the central autonomic nuclei involved in the regulation of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) which has been proved in previously functional studies. Neuroanatomical method and pseudorabies virus (PRV) transynaptic retrograde trace technique will be performed to investigate the relationship between kidney and heart and the temporal order of the most PRV-labeled neurons in the central nervous system. Recombinant PRV expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was injected into the left kidney of rats as a specific trans-synaptic retrograde tracer in neurons. After 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 days, brain, spinal cord and heart were collected for immunofluorescence staining. The temporal order of PRV labeled neurons was found in the ipsilateral intermediolateral nucleus (IML) of T8-T12 spinal segments on day 3; bilateral rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) on day 4; and left and right ventricular walls and ventricular septum of the heart on day 9. In rats with renal denervation, no PRV-infected neurons or cardiomyocytes were found after PRV injection. In conclusion, PRV trans-synaptic retrograde trace confirms that CA, NTS, PVN, RVLM, IML and renal nerves do exist to be involved in the regulation of CSAR and there is a close relationship between heart and kidney. CA is mainly located in the left ventricular wall, right ventricular wall and ventricular septum. PMID:24819915

Gao, Juan; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Hai-Jian; Liu, Tong-Yan; Ding, Lei; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Ye-Bo

2014-07-15

314

Evaluation of methods for restoration of tallgrass prairie in the Blackland Prairie region of North Central Texas  

E-print Network

species emerged and established when the initial wetting period was at least 5 days and relative humidity exceeded 50& (Frasier et al. 1987). Stubbendieck (1974) found variable g ' t' p ' d'ff tg p t 1pg. A~d hallii and Panicum antidotale showed... is within the Blackland prairie region of North Central Texas. It contains an approximately 21 ha relict tallgrass prairie of the Tri sacum-Panicum-Sor hastrum community type (Diamond and Smeins 1985). The remaining 81 ha are oldfield and abandoned...

Eidson, James Arthur

2012-06-07

315

Paleomagnetic and structural evidence for middle Tertiary counterclockwise block rotation in the Dixie Valley region, west-central Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Paleomagnetic data from late Oligocene to early Miocene ash-flow tuffs at four localities in the northern Dixie Valley region, west-central Nevada, indicate that parts of the crust have rotated counterclockwise by at least 25/sup 0/ and perhaps significantly more in late Cenozoic time. Field relations in White Rock Canyon, Stillwater Range, suggest that rotation (1) was accommodated by right-lateral slip on northwest-trending faults, (2) spanned ash-flow tuff emplacement, and (3) probably ceased before eruption of overlying middle Miocene basalts. Accurate estimates of Cenozoic extension, as well as evaluation of earlier Mesozoic structures, must include the strain partitioned into rotation in the area.

Hudson, M.R.; Geissman, J.W.

1987-07-01

316

Identification of Patterns of Farm Equipment Utilization in Two Agricultural Regions of Central and Northern México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a descriptive approach, a study of the dynamics of farm mechanization was performed in the agricultural regions of Delicias, Chihuahua and La Begoña, Guanajuato, México. The study was aimed at identifying patterns of farm equipment utilization through multivariate analyses of relevant data. A total of 135 farmers were interviewed, along with 21 extension agents and 22 farm machinery dealers.

Pedro Andrade; B. M. Jenkins

317

Influence of gas motion on star formation in the central region of a disk galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosions in the galactic nuclei are associated with expulsion of huge amount of high velocity gas clouds. The authors investigate the influence of explosive motion on star formation in the inner region of disk galaxies. A strong shock wave generates as a result of the explosion and propagates forward carrying most of the expelled gas behind it. This gas loses

B. Basu; Anuradha Saha; Tara Bhattacharyya

1988-01-01

318

NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking

K. Brindha; R. Rajesh; R. Murugan; L. Elango

2009-01-01

319

Seasonal pattern of regional carbon balance in the central Rocky Mountains from surface and airborne measurements  

E-print Network

, King's College, London, UK. 3 Now at School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Arizona severely damaged by drought, fire, and insect outbreaks, which have been quantified at local scales but not assessed in terms of carbon uptake at regional scales. The Airborne Carbon in the Mountains Experiment

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

320

COMPARATIVE STUDY REGARDING THE EVOLUTION OF THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE REGION'S  

E-print Network

EUROPE REGION'S COUNTRIES Ionela Gavrila ­ Paven Ph.D.Student Assistant in Economics ionelapaven or announcement effecting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from the European Union (EU) to the ten EU accession-specific results. We will try to show that economic fundamentals explain differences in inward investment

Boyer, Edmond

321

Plant diversity differs between young and old mesic meadows in a central European low mountain region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of habitat age on species diversity are an important issue in plant conservation. However, effects of habitat age on mesic meadows are poorly investigated. Here we compare plant species richness between old mesic meadows (>150 years) and young mesic meadows (40–60 years) in a low mountain region (Thuringian Forest, Germany). Species richness and species traits were determined in 20

Gunnar Waesch; Thomas Becker

2009-01-01

322

Population biology of Avena : II. Isoenzyme polymorphisms in populations of the Mediterranean region and Central California.  

PubMed

Surveys for polymorphisms in natural populations of A. barbata sampled in California grasslands had provided evidence for widespread monomorphism and rather localized polymorphic areas in the north coastal and San Francisco regions, based on a set of morphological and isoenzymatic marker loci. Since this species, like many other annuals, was introduced from the Mediterranean region during the Spanish mission period, a comparative study of the Canadian-Welsh collections of Avena species from the Mediterranean region was undertaken using various plant characters and starch gel electrophoresis to analyze variants for esterase, phosphatase and peroxidase systems. A total of 96 samples including 73 of A. barbata and 23 of A. hirtula were studied and the results were scored to compute the polymorphism indices. In both species, only 10 to 15 percent sites showed any significant degree of polymorphism of which a majority seemed to originate from localized regions in Italy and Turkey; a part of this observed lack of within-sample variation might be the result of small sample size. In general, the patterns of variation in A. barbata from the California surveys and the present analyses seemed to be very similar and raised some interesting questions on (a) the colonizing history of introduced materials (b) the factors underlying such marked patterns of geographical variation, and (c) the current evolutionary changes occurring in these two broad, disjunct areas of species distribution. PMID:24430023

Singh, R S; Jain, S K

1971-01-01

323

Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2–5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the

Wafaa M. El-Ghanim; Loutfy M. Hassan; Tarek M. Galal; Abdelfattah Badr

2010-01-01

324

Risk degree evaluation on water and soil loss in central Hunan province of red soil hilly region, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By taking the red soil hilly region of Central Hunan Province in China as an example, this paper evaluated the risk degree of water and soil loss using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methods. Firstly, the synthetic index system of water and soil loss risk degree (WSLRD) evaluation was established based on the current situation, natural and human factors. Secondly, the weights of fifteen indices were determined using AHP methods. Finally, a comprehensive evaluation model was used to evaluate the risk degree of water and soil loss at the research locations. The results showed that five cities (Changsha, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan, Loudi, and Yiyang) had a slight degree of risk, while Hengyang and Shaoyang had a middle degree of risk. The WSLRD in this region can provide scientific basis for developing effective plan of soil and water conversation, especially it is of importance to consider human activity factors when evaluating the risk.

Zhang, Yuenan; Li, Zhongwu; Chen, Zhiliang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Peng, Xiaochun; Yuan, Min; Huang, Jinquan

325

Echinomycin binding to the sequence CG(AT)nCG alters the structure of the central AT region.  

PubMed Central

DNA fragments containing the sequence CG(AT)nCG have been used in footprinting experiments to assess the effect of echinomycin, which binds to CG steps, on the structure of the central AT region. DNAase I normally cuts ApT much better than TpA; in the presence of the drug this preference is retained but cleavage at TpA is enhanced. Changes in cleavage by micrococcal nuclease have also been observed. Echinomycin renders alternate adenines hyperreactive to diethylpyrocarbonate. The results suggest that echinomycin induces structural changes in regions surrounding its binding site and that these can be cooperatively propagated over several turns of the DNA helix. Images PMID:2336384

Fox, K R; Kentebe, E

1990-01-01

326

Crustal shear-wave anisotropy in the New Madrid and Wabash Valley seismic regions of the Central US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local and regional earthquakes recorded by the US Array , the New Madrid and GSN - IRIS/USGS network of stations are analyzed to study crustal shear-wave anisotropy of the New Madrid and Wabash Valley seismic zones of the Central United States. The N-S and E-W components of the ground motion are cross-correlated to obtain the polarization angle of the fast shear-wave, and delay time of the slow shear-wave. Data with high signal to noise ratio, and incidence angle at a station less than 35 degrees are selected for further analysis. Preliminary results from data recorded by select stations show that the fast shear-wave is polarized in the direction of regional maximum horizontal compressional stress. Time delays over 100 ms are observed between the fast and the slow shear-waves.

Jemberie, A. L.

2012-12-01

327

Energy-consumption patterns of low-income groups and minorities: a central Kentucky regional study  

SciTech Connect

Based on the primary data of a sample collected from the Central Kentucky area, several descriptive statistical analyses were performed to establish some characteristics of energy-consumption patterns of minorities and/or the poor. In doing so, the Average Percentage of Disposable Income (APDI) spent on energy was calculated and utilized for the purpose of comparisons between different sub-samples with different socio-economic and ethnic backgrounds. The APDI is also used to measure the possible impact of energy price increases on the poor. This study also indicates that the poor pay more for electricity as compared to higher-income groups for home maintenance due exclusively to the pricing policy of utility companies. The poor also seem to experience a more-severe impact from rising energy costs than higher-income groups, although the extent of this cannot be quantitatively measured.

Lee, D.S.

1982-02-01

328

Body composition of rural and urban children from the central region of Spain.  

PubMed

Body composition components are considered in a cross-sectional sample of 2564 children (age range 6-14 years) from Central Spain. The sample was divided depending on rural or urban residence. Weight, and skinfold at the triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac site were measured. Body composition was represented by percentage fat (%F), lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM) and sum of skinfolds (SSK). Sex differences were found to be highly significant for all variables and rural-urban differences were small. Rural boys show slightly larger fat content, in %F, FM and SSK, than their urban peers, but significant (p < 0.05) differences appear only for SSK. No statistically significant environmental effect was found for LBM. The improvement of living conditions, the urban influence on the rural area and the degree of urbanization of the urban settlement are suggested as the main determinants influencing obtained results. PMID:8807038

Mesa, M S; Sanchez-Andres, A; Marrodan, M D; Martin, J; Fuster, V

1996-01-01

329

Clumps & Cores in Massive Star-Forming Regions from Orion to the Central Molecular Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will present Bolocam, Herschel Hi-GAL, and ALMA results on selected massive star and star cluster-forming clumps. While the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) contains many dense and compact clumps sufficiently massive to form young massive clusters (YMCs) such as the Arches, it is unclear if the best studied example, G0.25+0.02 (a.k.a the "Brick") will actually do so. In the Galactic disk no "pre-stellar" clumps with sufficient mass to form a YMC have yet been found. Thus, in cluster formation, the equivalent of a "pre-stellar" core may be rare. All detected clumps sufficiently massive to form a YMC are already forming massive stars. In the Galactic disk, YMCs may be assembled by the merger of sub-clusters dragged-in by converging gas flows.

Bally, John

2014-07-01

330

There's no place like home: crown-of-thorns outbreaks in the central pacific are regionally derived and independent events.  

PubMed

One of the most significant biological disturbances on a tropical coral reef is a population outbreak of the fecund, corallivorous crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci. Although the factors that trigger an initial outbreak may vary, successive outbreaks within and across regions are assumed to spread via the planktonic larvae released from a primary outbreak. This secondary outbreak hypothesis is predominantly based on the high dispersal potential of A. planci and the assertion that outbreak populations (a rogue subset of the larger population) are genetically more similar to each other than they are to low-density non-outbreak populations. Here we use molecular techniques to evaluate the spatial scale at which A. planci outbreaks can propagate via larval dispersal in the central Pacific Ocean by inferring the location and severity of gene flow restrictions from the analysis of mtDNA control region sequence (656 specimens, 17 non-outbreak and six outbreak locations, six archipelagos, and three regions). Substantial regional, archipelagic, and subarchipelagic-scale genetic structuring of A. planci populations indicate that larvae rarely realize their dispersal potential and outbreaks in the central Pacific do not spread across the expanses of open ocean. On a finer scale, genetic partitioning was detected within two of three islands with multiple sampling sites. The finest spatial structure was detected at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, between the lagoon and forereef habitats (<10 km). Despite using a genetic marker capable of revealing subtle partitioning, we found no evidence that outbreaks were a rogue genetic subset of a greater population. Overall, outbreaks that occur at similar times across population partitions are genetically independent and likely due to nutrient inputs and similar climatic and ecological conditions that conspire to fuel plankton blooms. PMID:22363570

Timmers, Molly A; Bird, Christopher E; Skillings, Derek J; Smouse, Peter E; Toonen, Robert J

2012-01-01

331

There's No Place Like Home: Crown-of-Thorns Outbreaks in the Central Pacific Are Regionally Derived and Independent Events  

PubMed Central

One of the most significant biological disturbances on a tropical coral reef is a population outbreak of the fecund, corallivorous crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci. Although the factors that trigger an initial outbreak may vary, successive outbreaks within and across regions are assumed to spread via the planktonic larvae released from a primary outbreak. This secondary outbreak hypothesis is predominantly based on the high dispersal potential of A. planci and the assertion that outbreak populations (a rogue subset of the larger population) are genetically more similar to each other than they are to low-density non-outbreak populations. Here we use molecular techniques to evaluate the spatial scale at which A. planci outbreaks can propagate via larval dispersal in the central Pacific Ocean by inferring the location and severity of gene flow restrictions from the analysis of mtDNA control region sequence (656 specimens, 17 non-outbreak and six outbreak locations, six archipelagos, and three regions). Substantial regional, archipelagic, and subarchipelagic-scale genetic structuring of A. planci populations indicate that larvae rarely realize their dispersal potential and outbreaks in the central Pacific do not spread across the expanses of open ocean. On a finer scale, genetic partitioning was detected within two of three islands with multiple sampling sites. The finest spatial structure was detected at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, between the lagoon and forereef habitats (<10 km). Despite using a genetic marker capable of revealing subtle partitioning, we found no evidence that outbreaks were a rogue genetic subset of a greater population. Overall, outbreaks that occur at similar times across population partitions are genetically independent and likely due to nutrient inputs and similar climatic and ecological conditions that conspire to fuel plankton blooms. PMID:22363570

Timmers, Molly A.; Bird, Christopher E.; Skillings, Derek J.; Smouse, Peter E.; Toonen, Robert J.

2012-01-01

332

Intraplate earthquakes, regional stress and fault mechanics in the Central and Eastern U.S. and Southeastern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilizing 75 high quality individual earthquake focal plane mechanisms and 10 formal stress inversions we investigate the consistency of regional stress orientations in the central and eastern United States and southeastern Canada, the variation of relative stress magnitudes across the region and the compatibility of slip on optimally-oriented nodal planes with frictional faulting theory. To map faulting styles and relative stress magnitudes across the region of study, we utilize the high quality focal plane mechanisms to calculate the A? parameter (following Angelier, 1979; Simpson, 1997) that ranges from 0 (uniform horizontal extension with SV > > SHmax = Shmin) to 1.5 (strike-slip faulting with SHmax > SV > Shmin) to 3 (uniform horizontal compression with SHmax = Shmin > SV). We find that horizontal stresses become increasingly more compressive with respect to the vertical stress from the south-central United States (characterized predominantly by strike-slip focal mechanisms) toward the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada (predominantly thrust mechanisms). In a manner similar to the study by M.L. Zoback (1992a), which used a much smaller data set, we utilize the Mohr-Coulomb criterion to calculate the difference in orientation between the theoretically-optimal orientation of a fault plane (for various coefficients of friction, ?) and the focal mechanism nodal planes assuming that pore pressure in the brittle crust is hydrostatic. For the 75 focal plane mechanisms utilized in our study, the preferred (better fitting) nodal planes deviate on average only 7° in strike and dip from the theoretically-optimal planes for ? = 0.6. As such minor differences could represent small variations in the stress field (or uncertainties in the focal plane mechanisms), we conclude that nearly all earthquakes in the study region slip in a manner compatible with shear failure on pre-existing faults in the local stress field.

Hurd, Owen; Zoback, Mark D.

2012-12-01

333

Spatial and temporal variations in seismicity and uplift within the Socorro Magma Body region in central New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Socorro Magma Body (SMB) is a mid-crustal, sill-like intrusion located at 19 km depth in central New Mexico that produces significant seismic activity relative to the rest of the state. Within this region, shallow earthquake swarms, <8 km depth, containing up to several hundred events each, occur over decadal time scales in an area approximately 5000 km2 in size known as the Socorro Seismic Anomaly. Geodetic measurements suggest uplift in this region of ~2 mm/yr, although there may be temporal variation associated with this uplift. Uplift coupled with microseismic swarms typically suggests magma or hydrothermal fluid movement as observed at some volcanic settings (e.g. Long Valley Caldera, Campi Flegrei, Yellowstone). We seek to understand the spatial and temporal relationship between uplift and seismicity at the SMB. We have located approximately 700 microearthquakes since September 2004 using local short-period seismic network data and a generalized least squares inversion algorithm with a 1D velocity model that includes a low velocity sill for the SMB region. We then use cross-correlation techniques to refine the locations of events falling within specific clusters. Preliminary comparison of cluster locations and uplift variations as determined by InSAR suggest a spatial relationship, however there is a lack of increased seismicity over the suggested shallow magma source. We will explore temporal patterns by comparing seismicity with campaign GPS results. In addition, we examine spectral content of broadband seismic data from a temporary experiment (2005 - 2007) as well as several current USArray stations to search for any tremor-like signals that might indicate active magma processes in central New Mexico. Preliminary examination of this data suggests a regional signal with spectral peaks between 1 - 7 Hz that may indicate possible tremor-like activity, although we are also exploring additional sources for this energy.

Ruhl, C. J.; Bilek, S. L.; Newman, A. V.

2009-12-01

334

Assessment of regional change in nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Central Valley, California, USA, 1950s-2000s  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A regional assessment of multi-decadal changes in nitrate concentrations was done using historical data and a spatially stratified non-biased approach. Data were stratified into physiographic subregions on the basis of geomorphology and soils data to represent zones of historical recharge and discharge patterns in the basin. Data were also stratified by depth to represent a shallow zone generally representing domestic drinking-water supplies and a deep zone generally representing public drinking-water supplies. These stratifications were designed to characterize the regional extent of groundwater with common redox and age characteristics, two factors expected to influence changes in nitrate concentrations over time. Overall, increasing trends in nitrate concentrations and the proportion of nitrate concentrations above 5 mg/L were observed in the east fans subregion of the Central Valley. Whereas the west fans subregion has elevated nitrate concentrations, temporal trends were not detected, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of the water quality in this area and geologic sources of nitrate, combined with sparse and uneven data coverage. Generally low nitrate concentrations in the basin subregion are consistent with reduced geochemical conditions resulting from low permeability soils and higher organic content, reflecting the distal portions of alluvial fans and historical groundwater discharge areas. Very small increases in the shallow aquifer in the basin subregion may reflect downgradient movement of high nitrate groundwater from adjacent areas or overlying intensive agricultural inputs. Because of the general lack of regionally extensive long-term monitoring networks, the results from this study highlight the importance of placing studies of trends in water quality into regional context. Earlier work concluded that nitrate concentrations were steadily increasing over time in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, but clearly those trends do not apply to other physiographic subregions within the Central Valley, even where land use and climate are similar.

Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

2013-01-01

335

A Cooperative Career Education Project Involving the Fayette County Schools, Eastern Kentucky University, and Central Kentucky Vocational Region. Volume I. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 3-year project was intended to provide for a systematic delivery of career development experiences within each of the three institutions involved--Fayette County Schools, Eastern Kentucky University, and the Central Kentucky Vocational Region--with central activity located in the Fayette County Schools. Major project themes centered on…

Jenkins, John D.

336

A Fresh Look at the Copernicus Crater Central Peak Region Through High-Resolution NIR Data from the SIR-2 Instrument on Chandrayaan-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We looked at the NIR reflectance spectral characteristics of surface materials in the central peaks region of the Copernicus crater using high spectral and spatial resolution data from the SIR-2 instrument on board of the Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission.

Bugiolacchi, R.; Mall, U.; Bhatt, M.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.

2010-03-01

337

Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both

M. O. Andreae; R. W. Talbot; T. W. Andreae; R. C. Harriss

1988-01-01

338

Dog filariosis in the Lazio region (Central Italy): first report on the presence of Dirofilaria repens  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological investigations were carried out in the Lazio Region to assess the status of canine filariosis and to evaluate the actual risk for veterinary and medical public health. Methods Since August 2001 to June 2003, a total of 972 canine blood samples, collected in public kennels and from private owners animals of the 5 Provinces of the Region, were tested. The presence of filarial parasites was evaluated by microscopy and bio-molecular techniques; the species identification was performed by means of the same diagnostic tools. Results A total of 17/972 (1.75%; 95%CI 1.06%–2.85%) blood samples were parasitized by D. repens,13 out them drawn by dogs resident in the Province of Roma, and 4 in the other provinces. Multivariate analysis was performed in order to evaluate the association between filariosis and risk factors. The origin from coastal territories seems to be a significant risk factor to acquire the infection. Conclusion This is the first report of canine filariosis in the Lazio Region, where D. repens was before reported only in foxes. The risk of human zoonotic infection is stressed, and the absence of other filarial species is discussed PMID:16185352

Scaramozzino, Paola; Gabrielli, Simona; Di Paolo, Michele; Sala, Marcello; Scholl, Francesco; Cancrini, Gabriella

2005-01-01

339

Eruptive history of the Dieng Mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location.

Miller, C. Dan; Sushyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

1983-01-01

340

Structural Rearrangements of the Central Region of the Morbillivirus Attachment Protein Stalk Domain Trigger F Protein Refolding for Membrane Fusion*  

PubMed Central

It is unknown how receptor binding by the paramyxovirus attachment proteins (HN, H, or G) triggers the fusion (F) protein to fuse with the plasma membrane for cell entry. H-proteins of the morbillivirus genus consist of a stalk ectodomain supporting a cuboidal head; physiological oligomers consist of non-covalent dimer-of-dimers. We report here the successful engineering of intermolecular disulfide bonds within the central region (residues 91–115) of the morbillivirus H-stalk; a sub-domain that also encompasses the putative F-contacting section (residues 111–118). Remarkably, several intersubunit crosslinks abrogated membrane fusion, but bioactivity was restored under reducing conditions. This phenotype extended equally to H proteins derived from virulent and attenuated morbillivirus strains and was independent of the nature of the contacted receptor. Our data reveal that the morbillivirus H-stalk domain is composed of four tightly-packed subunits. Upon receptor binding, these subunits structurally rearrange, possibly inducing conformational changes within the central region of the stalk, which, in turn, promote fusion. Given that the fundamental architecture appears conserved among paramyxovirus attachment protein stalk domains, we predict that these motions may act as a universal paramyxovirus F-triggering mechanism. PMID:22431728

Ader, Nadine; Brindley, Melinda A.; Avila, Mislay; Origgi, Francesco C.; Langedijk, Johannes P. M.; Orvell, Claes; Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plemper, Richard K.; Plattet, Philippe

2012-01-01

341

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: multiresistant tick.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the acaricide resistance of tick populations in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), which has not previously been reported. Fifty-four cattle farms were visited and specimens of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were collected and subjected to the adult immersion test, using nine commercial acaricides in the amidine, pyrethroid and organophosphate groups. Climatic data, including monthly precipitation, were recorded. The results from the present study demonstrated that seven of the acaricides analyzed presented mean efficacy values of less than 95%, with large differences among the products tested. Nine of them exhibited satisfactory and unsatisfactory acaricide results on at least one farm. In conclusion, the farms located in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, exhibited populations of R. (Boophilus) microplus with variable degrees of susceptibility to different acaricides, thus suggesting that resistance to the active compounds exists. It is suggested that treatment protocols should be implemented at the beginning of winter and summer, using the acaricides that showed efficacy in the adult immersion test. PMID:25271453

Machado, Fabrício Amadori; Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti; Ferreira, Maiara Sanitá Tafner; Gregorio, Fabiano de Vargas; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; Sangioni, Luís Antônio

2014-09-01

342

Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it`s new marketing plan.

Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

1996-11-01

343

Analysis of The Network of Permanent GPS Stations In Central Europe and Its Significance For Geodynamical Studies In The Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The network of 15-20 permanent GPS stations situated in central and southeast Eu- rope is routinely analyzed at the Slovak University of Technology since 2000.0. The products of the regular network solutions are the station coordinates with 24-hour and 3-hour resolution, station troposphere zenith delays and regional ionosphere models. The network analysis is performed with consistent strategy using the Bernese GPS V4.2 software. From the two-year interval (2000.0 - 2002.0) we obtained the homo- geneous time series applicable for geodynamical and geophysical research. The coor- dinate time series with 24-hour resolution are used for checking the GPS positioning continuity and for determination of parameters of linear trend and seasonal variations of station position. In the next step the residuals are submitted to spectral analysis and evaluation of parameters of autoregressive moving average representation of the series. The coordinate time series with 3-hour resolution are analyzed with the aim to estimate unmodeled tidal variations of station positions. In the paper first results from permanent station coordinate time series modeling will be presented with respect to their consequences for geodynamic investigations in the Central Europe region.

Hefty, J.; Kartikova, H.; Igondova, M.

344

Development of regional skews for selected flood durations for the Central Valley Region, California, based on data through water year 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-frequency information is important in the Central Valley region of California because of the high risk of catastrophic flooding. Most traditional flood-frequency studies focus on peak flows, but for the assessment of the adequacy of reservoirs, levees, other flood control structures, sustained flood flow (flood duration) frequency data are needed. This study focuses on rainfall or rain-on-snow floods, rather than the annual maximum, because rain events produce the largest floods in the region. A key to estimating flood-duration frequency is determining the regional skew for such data. Of the 50 sites used in this study to determine regional skew, 28 sites were considered to have little to no significant regulated flows, and for the 22 sites considered significantly regulated, unregulated daily flow data were synthesized by using reservoir storage changes and diversion records. The unregulated, annual maximum rainfall flood flows for selected durations (1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 15-day, and 30-day) for all 50 sites were furnished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Station skew was determined by using the expected moments algorithm program for fitting the Pearson Type 3 flood-frequency distribution to the logarithms of annual flood-duration data. Bayesian generalized least squares regression procedures used in earlier studies were modified to address problems caused by large cross correlations among concurrent rainfall floods in California and to address the extensive censoring of low outliers at some sites, by using the new expected moments algorithm for fitting the LP3 distribution to rainfall flood-duration data. To properly account for these problems and to develop suitable regional-skew regression models and regression diagnostics, a combination of ordinary least squares, weighted least squares, and Bayesian generalized least squares regressions were adopted. This new methodology determined that a nonlinear model relating regional skew to mean basin elevation was the best model for each flood duration. The regional-skew values ranged from -0.74 for a flood duration of 1-day and a mean basin elevation less than 2,500 feet to values near 0 for a flood duration of 7-days and a mean basin elevation greater than 4,500 feet. This relation between skew and elevation reflects the interaction of snow and rain, which increases with increased elevation. The regional skews are more accurate, and the mean squared errors are less than in the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data's National skew map of Bulletin 17B.

Lamontagne, Jonathan R.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Berenbrock, Charles; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ferris, Justin C.; Knifong, Donna L.

2012-01-01

345

Complement selectively elicits glutamate release from nerve endings in different regions of mammal central nervous system.  

PubMed

Our study was aimed at investigating whether complement, a complex of soluble and membrane-associated serum proteins, could, in addition to its well-documented post-synaptic activity, also pre-synaptically affect the release of classic neurotransmitters in central nervous system (CNS). Complement (dilution 1 : 10 to 1 : 10000) elicited the release of preloaded [(3) H]-d-aspartate ([(3) H]d-ASP) and endogenous glutamate from mouse cortical synaptosomes in a dilution-dependent manner. It also evoked [(3) H]d-ASP release from mouse hippocampal, cerebellar, and spinal cord synaptosomes, as well as from rat and human cortical nerve endings, but left unaltered the release of GABA, [(3) H]noradrenaline or [(3) H]acetylcholine. Lowering external Na(+) (from 140 to 40 mM) or Ca(2+) (from 1.2 to 0.1 mM) ions prevented the 1 : 300 complement-evoked [(3) H]d-ASP release from mouse cortical synaptosomes. Complement-induced releasing effect was unaltered in synaptosomes entrapped with the Ca(2+) ions chelator 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N', tetra-acetic acid or with pertussis toxin. Nifedipine,/?-conotoxin GVIA/?-conotoxin MVIIC mixture as well as the vesicular ATPase blocker bafilomycin A1 were also inefficacious. The excitatory amino acid transporter blocker DL-threo-ß-benzyloxyaspartic acid, on the contrary, reduced the complement-evoked releasing effect in a concentration-dependent manner. We concluded that complement-induced releasing activity is restricted to glutamatergic nerve endings, where it was accounted for by carrier-mediated release. Our observations afford new insights into the molecular events accounting for immune and CNS crosstalk. We investigated whether complement, a complex of soluble and membrane-associated serum proteins, could pre-synaptically affect the release of classic neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). Our data provide evidence that complement-induced releasing activity is restricted to glutamatergic nerve endings, where it was accounted for by carrier-mediated release. Our observations add new insights to the knowledge of the molecular events accounting for immune and CNS crosstalk. EAAT = excitatory amino acid transporter. PMID:24387009

Merega, Elisa; Di Prisco, Silvia; Lanfranco, Massimiliano; Severi, Paolo; Pittaluga, Anna

2014-05-01

346

Advective heat transport associated to regional Earth degassing in central Apennine (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main springs of central Italy Apennines were investigated, in order to compute the amount of heat transported by groundwaters and to compute the fraction of heat due to the geothermal heat flux. The 46 investigated springs represent a significant portion of the permeable structures of the Apennine being characterised by a cumulative flow rate of 130 m3/s, i.e. ~ 50% of the water discharged in this sector of the Apennines. The groundwaters are characterised by relatively low temperatures, but the occurrence of an heat anomaly is evident when the differences between the temperatures of springs and recharge waters are compared with the corresponding altitude difference. A total amount of heat of ~ 2.1 × 109 J/s has been estimated to be transported by these groundwaters. Most of this heat (57%) is given by geothermal warming while the remaining 43% is due to gravitational potential energy dissipation. The computed geothermal warming implies very high heat flux, with values higher than 300 mW/m2, in a large sector of the Apennines which was considered to date be characterised by normal to low conductive heat flux. The same area is affected by high fluxes of CO2 from a deep source and the strict correlation between the geothermal warming and the input of deep CO2-rich fluids is testified by the fact that all the thermally anomalous groundwaters are also affected by the input of deeply derived CO2 contrary to those not thermally anomalous which display any input of deeply derived CO2. This correspondence reasonably suggest the geothermal heat is transported from depth by CO2 rich fluids, which enter the aquifers and mix with infiltrating waters. The amount of geothermal heat transported by central Apennine cold groundwaters is in absolute very high. It results the double than the hydrothermal heat discharge of the US Cascade Range (~1×103 MW) and is about the half of the total heat discharged at Yellowstone, one of the largest hydrothermal system of the world (5-6 × 103 MW). The large heat flux anomaly highlighted by this study opens a new vision of the Apennines belt and requires the existence of a thermal source such as a large magmatic intrusion at depth. Recent tomographic images of the area confirm the presence of such intrusion visible as a broad negative velocity of seismic waves. In addition, our results indicate that the thermal regime of tectonically active areas of the Earth, where meteoric waters infiltrate and deeply circulate, should be revised on the base of mass and energy balances of the groundwater systems.

Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Chiarabba, Claudio; Frondini, Francesco

2013-04-01

347

Late Quaternary Magmatism in the Three Sisters Region, Central Oregon Cascades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intersection of the Cascade trend with the Brothers Fault Zone in Central Oregon has been marked by extensive Quaternary magmatism. Three magmatic systems, represented by the shield, cinder cone, and composite volcanoes of the Mount Bachelor Chain, the large South Sister composite volcano and the youngest mafic and silicic lavas of the Newberry shield volcano, illustrate contrasting means of magmatic evolution. Mount Bachelor chain volcanoes (~18 - 8 Ka) produced basalt, basaltic andesite and andesite. Variation from basaltic andesite to andesite can be modeled by ~24 wt.% fractionation of observed phenocrysts (pc, ol, cpx, mt), but the trends to lower K/Rb and Ba/Rb with differentiation is unexplained by fractionation and is best modeled through assimilation-fractional crystallization involving assimilation of ~20 wt.% of a silicic component. South Sister volcano produced basaltic andesite to rhyolite magma over a span of ~50 Ka. In contrast with the Mount Bachelor Chain, magma evolution may be explained by fractional crystallization, with rhyolite produced by ~75 wt.% fractionation of observed phenocrysts (pc, ol, cpx, opx, mt, il). Magma chambers were maintained at relatively high temperature, as indicated by two-pyroxene thermometry (andesite ~1036 +/-116 and dacite 1005 +/- 51 oC) two-oxide thermometry (dacite ~823 +/- 72 and rhyolite 815 +/- 84 oC) and the absence of alkali feldspar phenocrysts. Newberry volcano is a broad shield comprised of abundant basaltic lava and cinder cones with a summit caldera marked by rhyolitic lava and pumice cones. Its youngest basaltic eruptions (~7 Ka) of the northwest fissure zone produced lava ranging from basalt to andesite. Variation diagrams suggest strong control by magma mixing between basalt and rhyolite to form basaltic andesite and andesite, although such mixing requires a potentially excessive proportion of rhyolite (up to ~40 wt.%). Estimated depths and temperatures of segregation calculated assuming fractionation of olivine for basaltic rocks (wt.% MgO>8.00) from the northwest rift of Newberry and the Mount Bachelor Chain suggest depths of 71-78 km (ToC 1454-1473) for the Newberry basalt and 51-78 km (ToC 1416-1494) for Bachelor Chain basalt. Although these depths and temperatures are similar, Nb/La versus Ba/La suggests that the Mount Bachelor Chain and other Central Oregon Cascade basaltic rocks were derived from subduction modified continental lithosphere, whereas the Newberry northwest rift basaltic rocks were derived from OIB-modified continental lithosphere.

Parker, D. F.; Price, J. D.; Ren, M.

2012-12-01

348

Physical properties of Oxia/Lunae Planum and Arabia-type units in the central equatorial region of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classification and mapping of surficial units in the central equatorial region of Mars Consortium data identified the relatively dark but 'red' materials that cover Lunae Planum and surround the Meridiani materials of Oxia Palus inertia region of Arabia. Oxia Province consists of the regions dominated by the characteristically dark 'red' Oxia materials, but it includes darker streaks and splotches of relatively 'blue' Meridiani materials and brighter 'red' deposits of dust belonging to Eos Province (the bright 'red' border between Oxia and regional Meridiani deposits to the south) and Xanthe Province (the moderately bright 'red' dust deposits in western Chryse Planitia and its vicinity, including the VL-1 landing site). Two Oxia units were recognized: a darker unit present on Lunae Planum and east of Oxia Palus that have intermediate to high inertias. Oxia Province surrounds the extremely low thermal inertia Arabia Province in the east part of the study area, and occurs as isolated patches within Arabia (often including splotches of Meridiani materials within the Oxia patches). Arabia Province's materials have been widely interpreted as unconsolidated dust deposits which are currently forming at this stage of Mars' precessional climate cycle, although the persistence of stable, moderately strong albedo contracts among Arabia materials has not been addressed in those models. A systematic interpretation of Oxia and Arabia Province materials based on currently available remote sensing data is given.

Strickland, Edwin L., III

1992-01-01

349

Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important, particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients.

Rapalee, Gloria; Steyaert, Louis T.; Hall, Forrest G.

2001-12-01

350

Pertussis in the central-west region of Brazil: one decade study.  

PubMed

In many parts of the world, numerous outbreaks of pertussis have been described despite high vaccination coverage. In this article we report the epidemiological characteristics of pertussis in Brazil using a Surveillance Worksheet. Secondary data of pertussis case investigations reported from January 1999 to December 2008 recorded in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN) and the Central Laboratory for Public Health (LACEN-MS) were utilized. The total of 561 suspected cases were reported and 238 (42.4%) of these were confirmed, mainly in children under six months (61.8%) and with incomplete immunization (56.3%). Two outbreaks were detected. Mortality rate ranged from 2.56% to 11.11%. The occurrence of outbreaks and the poor performance of cultures for confirming diagnosis are problems which need to be addressed. High vaccination coverage is certainly a good strategy to reduce the number of cases and to reduce the impact of the disease in children younger than six months. PMID:24275370

Druzian, Angelita Fernandes; Brustoloni, Yvone Maia; Oliveira, Sandra Maria do Valle Leone; Matos, Vanessa Terezinha Gubert de; Negri, Adriana Carla Garcia; Pinto, Clarice Souza; Asato, Silvia; Urias, Cirlene dos Santos Gonçalves; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda

2014-01-01

351

Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary and paleovegetation history of the eastern Solimões Basin, central Amazon region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palynological and stratigraphical analyses were carried out on the outcrops of the Solimões River to present new information about freshwater paleoenvironments of a fluvial-deltaic and meandering river system, evaluate the vegetation changes in the upper Solimões and Içá Formations in the eastern Solimões Basin, and the role of the Purus Arc in the evolution of central Amazon during the upper Neogene. The upper Miocene to Pliocene Solimões Formation is related to a fluvial-deltaic system, with fine-grained sediments of the prodelta-lacustrine environment supplied by meandering distributaries and delta front environment. The lake and distributaries were surrounded by extensive deltaic and floodplains colonized by lowland freshwater forests under wet climate conditions, persisting until the Pliocene. The Içá Formation started to deposit unconformably on the Solimões Formation during the Pleistocene, following the development of extensive meandering channels surrounded by floodplains of an essentially fluvial system linked to development of the present eastward direction of the Amazon River until the Atlantic coast. These floodplains were colonized by few palm species and pteridophytes of lowland freshwater forests during the Pleistocene. Additionally, no algae and fungi were observed, which may be related to drier climate conditions and/or different morphological conditions than the upper Solimões Formation.

Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Silveira, Rosemery; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix

2013-10-01

352

Regional winter climate of the southern central Andes: Assessing the performance of ERA-Interim for climate studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

order to determine the feasibility of using reanalysis (ERA-Interim) for climate studies over the southern central Andes in South America, we have compared the most recent version of different data sets available to the community. The data sets include gridded in situ observations: Climate Research Unit (CRU), Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), and University of Delaware; merged satellite and in situ data: Global Precipitation Climatology Project; and satellite estimates: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. We pay particular attention to the region between 30° and 37°S and also the period 1970-1976 to evaluate the data sets. This is the period of maximum availability of meteorological stations in the region. Whereas all data sets provide an adequate representation of mean winter, GPCC provides the best for winter precipitation due to the large number of stations included in gridding. The CRU data set has fewer observations throughout the period. Although it cannot reproduce the localized maxima in the Andes, it provides a better representation of the regional precipitation and is best suited to evaluate trends. The temperature in the region is best estimated by CRU. We evaluate the ERA-Interim reanalysis to determine potential shortcomings. The trends in the region were analyzed during the period 1979-2010, and while CRU indicates a significant decrease in winter precipitation, ERA-Interim shows virtually no significant trends. Interannual variability is well represented by ERA-Interim, and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, which has been proven to be the principal source of year to year precipitation variability in the region, is highly correlated there.

Rusticucci, Matilde; Zazulie, Natalia; Raga, Graciela B.

2014-07-01

353

Geology and hydrocarbon habitat of the Amu-Darya region (central Asia)  

SciTech Connect

The Amu-Darya region, shared by the Soviet Republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tadzhikistan, is the second-largest gas province of the USSSR after western Siberia both production and reserves. Its more than 180 gas, gas-condensate, and minor oil fields include 6 giants with reserves of over 3 tcf, such as the Sovietabad field of eastern Turkmenistan, which in 1989 produced nearly 1 tcf of gas and which had an initial recoverable reserve of 38 tcf of gas. oil in addition to gas is produced mainly in the eastern Uzbekian and Tadzhikian parts. The region represents a large depression covering the southeastern portion of the epi-Hercynian Turan platform to the north of the Alpine-Himalayan fold belts of northeastern Iran and northern Afghanistan. Continental, paralic, lagoonal, and shallow-marine environments characterized Mesozoic-Tertiary platform sedimentation, with maximum sediment thicknesses of about 10 km in the Alpine foredeeps at the southern platform margin. Large amounts of essentially gas-prone organic matter accumulated in the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic. Main hydrocarbon reservoirs are Callovian-Oxfordian shelf-platform and reefal carbonates under cover of thick Kimmeridgian-Tithonian salt, and shale-sealed Lower Cretaceous continental and near-shore deltaic sandstones. In the Tadzhik basin in the extreme east, oil is contained in Lower Tertiary fractured carbonates interbedded with bituminous shales. Synsedimentary differential movements and gently folding in the Miocene to Pliocene were the main trap mechanisms. The region has still a considerable undrilled future potential, particularly in its deeper southern parts.

Stoecklin, J.; Orassianou, T. (Petroconsultants S.A., Geneva (Switzerland))

1991-08-01

354

Decentralization and central and regional coordination of health services: the case of Switzerland.  

PubMed

As part of reforms in the health care delivery sector, decentralization is currently promoted in many countries as a means to improve performance and outcomes of national health care systems. Switzerland is an example of a country with a long-standing tradition of decentralized organization for many purposes, including health care delivery. Apart from the few aspects where the responsibility is at the federal level, it is the task of the 26 cantons to organize the provision of health services for the population of around 7 million people. This permits the system to be responsive to local priorities and interest as well as to new developments in medical and public health know-how. However, the increasing and complex difficulties of most health care delivery systems raise questions about the need for mechanisms for coordination at federal level, as well as about the equity and the effectiveness of the decentralized approach. The Swiss case shows that in a strongly decentralized system, health policy and strategy elaboration, as well as coordination mechanisms among the regional components of the system, are very hard to establish. This situation may lead to strong regional inequities in the financing of health care as well as to differences in the distribution of financial, human and material inputs into the health system. The study of the Swiss health system reveals also that, within a decentralized framework, the promotion of cost-effective interventions through a well-balanced approach towards promotional, preventive and curative services, or towards ambulatory and hospital care, is difficult to achieve, as agreements between relatively autonomous regions are difficult to obtain. Therefore, a decentralized system is not necessarily the most equitable and cost-effective way to deliver health care. PMID:11009945

Wyss, K; Lorenz, N

2000-01-01

355

Effects of fire on regional evapotranspiration in the central Canadian boreal forest  

SciTech Connect

Changes in fire regimes are driving the carbon balance of much of the North American boreal forest, but few studies have examined fire-driven changes in evapotranspiration (ET) at a regional scale. This study used a version of the Biome-BGC process model with dynamic and competing vegetation types, and explicit spatial representation of a large (106 km2) region, to simulate the effects of wildfire on ET and its components from 1948 to 2005 by comparing the fire dynamics of the 1948-1967 period with those of 1968-2005. Simulated ET averaged, over the entire temporal and spatial modeling domain, 323 mm yr-1; simulation results indicated that changes in fire in recent decades decreased regional ET by 1.4% over the entire simulation, and by 3.9% in the last ten years (1996-2005). Conifers dominated the transpiration (EC) flux (120 mm yr-1) but decreased by 18% relative to deciduous broadleaf trees in the last part of the 20th century, when increased fire resulted in increased soil evaporation, lower canopy evaporation, lower EC and a younger and more deciduous forest. Well- and poorly-drained areas had similar rates of evaporation from the canopy and soil, but EC was twice as high in the well-drained areas. Mosses comprised a significant part of the evaporative flux to the atmosphere (22 mm yr-1). Modeled annual ET was correlated with net primary production, but not with temperature or precipitation; ET and its components were consistent with previous field and modeling studies. Wildfire is thus driving significant changes in hydrological processes, changes that may control the future carbon balance of the boreal forest.

Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Peckham, Scott D.; Gower, Stith T.; Ewers, Brent

2009-04-08

356

Timing of Proterozoic regional deformation in the southern Manzano Mountains, central New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Early Proterozoic supracrustal and plutonic rocks of the Manzano Mtns have sustained a remarkably complex history of ductile deformation, metamorphism, and plutonism. A comparison of field relations and deformational features between the two southernmost plutons suggests that they differ greatly in timing of intrusion with respect to regional deformation. The Monte Largo pluton consists of medium-grained granodiorite and quartz monzonite that is bounded on three sides by strongly deformed quartzite and phyllite. An S1 foliation is folded by upright, N-trending folds (F2). S2, axial planar to F2, is mylonitic along the E pluton margin. The degree of deformation in the pluton is comparable to that in the country rock. The Monte Largo pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.66 Ga. The Priest pluton is a 10-km-long, N-S elongate, megacrystic quartz monzonite that is intrusive into quartzite sand schists. Large microcline crystals define a magmatic foliation. The body contains a weakly to moderately well-developed NE-striking tectonic foliation defined by flattened quartz grains, best developed along the W margin. On the N end of the pluton, map-scale folds in quartzite and schist have been cross-cut, and a contact metamorphic aureole cross-cuts country rock structures. The degree of deformation in the pluton is significantly less than that of country rock quartzites, some of which are mylonitic. The Priest Pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.45 Ga. These data suggest that the ca. 1.66 Ga Monte Largo pluton is syntectonic with respect to regional deformation, whereas the ca. 1.45 Ga priest pluton is post-tectonic with respect to the regional deformation.

Bauer, P.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Bowring, S.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences); Karlstrom, K.E. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

357

Annual variation of (7)Be soil inventory in a semiarid region of central Argentina.  

PubMed

Reliable information on environmental radionuclides atmospheric entrance, and their distribution along the soil profile, is a necessary condition for using these soil and sediment tracers to investigate key environmental processes. To address this need, (7)Be content in rainwater and the wet deposition in a semiarid region at San Luis Province, Argentina, were studied. Following these researches, in the same region, we have assessed the (7)Be content along a soil profile, during 2.5 years from September 2009 to January 2012. As expected, the specific activity values in soil samples in the wet period (November-April) were higher than in the dry period (May-October). During the investigated period (2009 - beginning 2012) and for all sampled points, the maximum value of the (7)Be specific activity (Bq kg(-1)) was measured at the surface level. A typical decreasing exponential function of (7)Be areal activity (Bq m(-2)) with soil mass depth (kg m(-2)) was found and the key distribution parameters were determined for each month. The minimum value of areal activity was 51 Bq m(-2) in August, and the maximum was 438 Bq m(-2) in February. The relaxation mass depth ranges from 2.9 kg m(-2) in March to 1.3 kg m(-2) in August. (7)Be wet deposition can explain in a very significant proportion the (7)Be inventory in soil. During the period of winds in the region (September and October), the (7)Be content in soil was greater than the expected contribution from wet deposition, situation that is compatible with a higher relative contribution of dry deposition at this period of the year. PMID:24487256

Lohaiza, F; Velasco, H; Juri Ayub, J; Rizzotto, M; Di Gregorio, D E; Huck, H; Valladares, D L

2014-04-01

358

Notes on Cordyceps species Collected from the Central Region of Nepal.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to explore the Cordyceps species and other entomopathogenic fungal flora around Kathmandu Valley and a few high altitude locations of Nepal. In this paper, we report eight Cordyceps species as new to Nepal: C. gracilis, C. ishikariensis, C. liangshanensis, C. martialis, C. militaris, C. pruinosa, C. sphecocephala and C. tricentri. We also mention a few allied genera such as Beauveria, Hirsutella and Paecilomyces from Nepal. Further collections from different ecological regions of Nepal will show the richness of entomopathogenic fungal floral diversity of Nepal. PMID:24049507

Shrestha, Bhushan; Sung, Jae-Mo

2005-12-01

359

Notes on Cordyceps species Collected from the Central Region of Nepal  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to explore the Cordyceps species and other entomopathogenic fungal flora around Kathmandu Valley and a few high altitude locations of Nepal. In this paper, we report eight Cordyceps species as new to Nepal: C. gracilis, C. ishikariensis, C. liangshanensis, C. martialis, C. militaris, C. pruinosa, C. sphecocephala and C. tricentri. We also mention a few allied genera such as Beauveria, Hirsutella and Paecilomyces from Nepal. Further collections from different ecological regions of Nepal will show the richness of entomopathogenic fungal floral diversity of Nepal. PMID:24049507

Shrestha, Bhushan

2005-01-01

360

Regional trends in the oxygen isotopic compositions of granitoid plutons, central and southern Appalachians  

SciTech Connect

Whole-rock oxygen isotope analyses of 125 samples from 87 plutons, together with average values from 20 additional plutons reported by Wenner (1981) and Casadevall and Rye (1980), representing nearly every major post-Grenville pluton of the crystalline Appalachians of Maryland-Alabama, are summarized. The high-/sup 18/O granitoids of the Blue Ridge, Ashland-Wedowee, and Inner Piedmont belts are indicative of source regions with a substantial metasedimentary component. The absence of high-/sup 18/O granitoids in the Slate Belt throughout its Precambrian-Hercynian intrusive history suggests an oceanic crust beneath this terrane, although meteoric water-rock interaction may have affected many of these plutons. The Charlotte and Raleigh belts contain plutons with /delta//sup 18/O/sub wr/ ranges intermediate between these two extremes. High-/sup 18/O Hercynian plutons of the Kiokee (Clouds Creek, Edgefield) and '' '' belts (terrane east of the Raleigh and north of the Eastern Slate Belt containing the Petersburg, Fallmouth and Gunpowder intrusives) suggest a significant metasedimentary component in the source regions of the youngest and eastern most of the Southern Appalachian intrusives.

Wesolowski, D.; Sans, J.R.; Thornton, C.P.; Ohmoto, H.

1985-01-01

361

Sedimentary Processes Observed on Offshore of Zonguldak-Kozlu Region, Central Black SEA*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Black Sea has a narrow shelf and steepy continental slope at southern side. Recent studies show the active sedimentary processes sediment transportation from shelf to abyssal depths. Study area is located in the central Black Sea Turkish continental slope and is under compressional tectonic regime of Western Pontides. A total of 1950 km of high resolution multichannel seismic reflection, Chirp sub-bottom profiler and multibeam bathymetry data were collected offshore of Zonguldak from continental shelf to abyssal plain of Black Sea along the margin. We used 216 channel 1350 m long digital streamer and a 45+45 cubic inch Generator-Injector (GI) gun fired at every 25 m. Chirp sub-bottom profiler system has 9 transducers operating at 2,7-6,7 kHz frequency band with 3,5 kHz central frequency. Side mounted multibeam bathymetry system has 50 kHz transducers with 153 degrees max. swath width. Southern Black Sea has a very narrow shelf and a very steep continental slope. Both seismic and bathymetry data show that the shelf break in the study area is located at a water depth of about 100 m and continental slope deepens to 2200 m maximum water depths of the abyssal plain with a maximum slope of about 27 degrees. The acoustic data also show that there are significant erosional structures along the margin especially on the continental slope and rise offshore of Zonguldak. An unstable area in the NW consisting of relatively larger slides and buried debris lobes is named Amasra mass failure zone. Different type of sliding with varying sizes including sliding in the steep slope zones, smaller-scale slides on the canyon walls, and relatively larger slides exist in the Amasra mass failure zone. We suggest that the slides in the Amasra mass failure zone is possibly triggered by excess pore pressures in shallow sediments due to the submarine fluid flow possibly produced from gas hydrate dissociation. Warmer Mediterranean water transportation during the rapid transgression period after the last glacial maximum in the Black Sea together with the rapid sedimentation possibly resulted in a destabilization of gas hydrates, which caused excess pore pressures in shallow sediments followed by sediment failures. A conceptual model together with phase curves for the gas hydrate stability in the area is produced to explain the formation of larger slides in the Amasra mass failure zone by excess pore pressures due to local gas hydrate dissociation and fluid flow. Small-scale normal faults around these type of sedimentary structures are also observed and we suggest that these faults are also secondary factor promoting the failures providing the suitable pathways for fluid flow as well as the suitable weak surfaces for the sliding. Several small-scale debris lobes are observed on the apron side and abyssal plain of the study area. Seismic data also show slab-type sliding on the upper continental slope to the south, whereas block-type sliding is formed by rotational faults on the canyon walls. Both types of mass wasting occur in the area due to gravitational loading on the steep slope zones possibly triggered by local seismic activity. * This presentation was supported by the EUROCORES programme TOPO-EUROPE of the European Science Foundation

Küçük, H. M.; Dondurur, D.; ?ifçi, G.

2012-04-01

362

Crustal structure of east central Oregon: relation between Newberry Volcano and regional crustal structure  

SciTech Connect

A 180-km-long seismic refraction transect from the eastern High Cascades, across Newberry Volcano, to the eastern High Lava Plains is used to investigate the subvolcanic crustal and upper mantle velocity structure there. Near-surface volcanic flows and sedimentary debris (1.6--4.7 km/s), ranging from 3 to 5 km in thickness, overlie subvolcanic Basin and Range structures. East and west of Newberry Volcano, the subvolcanic basement (5.6 km/s) has been downwarped, producing 5-km-deep basins. The midcrust (8- to 28-km depth) is characterized by velocities ranging from 6.1 to 6.5 km/s and varies laterally in thicknesses. The lowercrust is characterized by an unusually high velocity (about 7.4 km/s), and its geometry mirrors the subvolcanic basement geometry. The Moho is located at a depth of 37 km and represents a transition to an upper mantle velocity of 8.1 km/s. The shallow subsurface (1.2 km) beneath Newberry Volcano is characterized by high-velocity (5.6 km/s, versus 4.1 km/s for the surrounding area) intrusions and appears to be located on a basement high. Beneath the seismic fraction array at Newberry Volcano, an absence of low-velocity anomalies suggests that large silicic magma chambers do not exist in the upper crust, but apparent high attenuation of the seismic wave field may be consistent with either partial melts in small volumes, elevated crustal temperatures, and/or poor geophone-recording site coupling. The east central Oregon velocity structure is nearly identical to that of the northwestern Nevada Basin and Range and the Modoc Plateau of northeastern California, and variations in the deep crustal structure about Newberry Volcano are consistent with tectonism involving crustal underplating, melting, and extension.

Catchings, R.D.; Mooney, W.D.

1988-09-10

363

Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2–5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of Hail Flora by some foreign weeds such as Solanum nigrum, Lactuca serriola and Amaranthus lividus. The presence of these weeds points out the need to monitor the vegetation change in Hail region, and also other regions of Saudi Arabia, in order to elucidate the human impact on the wild plants diversity as human activities change with the fast development in the kingdom. PMID:23961067

El-Ghanim, Wafaa M.; Hassan, Loutfy M.; Galal, Tarek M.; Badr, Abdelfattah

2010-01-01

364

Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of Hail Flora by some foreign weeds such as Solanum nigrum, Lactuca serriola and Amaranthus lividus. The presence of these weeds points out the need to monitor the vegetation change in Hail region, and also other regions of Saudi Arabia, in order to elucidate the human impact on the wild plants diversity as human activities change with the fast development in the kingdom. PMID:23961067

El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

2010-04-01

365

Perinatal outcomes among immigrant mothers over two periods in a region of central Italy  

PubMed Central

Background The number of immigrants has increased in Italy in the last twenty years (7.2% of the Italian population), as have infants of foreign-born parents, but scanty evidence on perinatal outcomes is available. The aim of this study was to investigate whether infants of foreign-born mothers living in Italy have different odds of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to those of native-born mothers, and if such measures changed over two periods. Methods The source of this area-based study was the regional hospital discharge database that records perinatal information on all births in the Lazio region. We analysed 296,739 singleton births born between 1996-1998 and 2006-2008. The exposure variable was the mother's region of birth. We considered five outcomes of perinatal health. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the association between mother's region of birth and perinatal outcomes. Results Perinatal outcomes were worse among infants of immigrant compared to Italian mothers, especially for sub-Saharan and west Africans, with the following crude ORs (in 1996-1998 and 2006-2008 respectively): 1.80 (95%CI:1.44-2.28) and 1.95 (95%CI:1.72-2.21) for very preterm births, and 1.32 (95%CI:1.16-1.50) and 1.32 (95%CI:1.25-1.39) for preterm births; 1.18 (95%CI:0.99-1.40) and 1.17 (95%CI:1.03-1.34) for a low Apgar score; 1.22 (95%CI:1.15-1.31) and 1.24 (95%CI:1.17-1.32) for the presence of respiratory diseases; 1.47 (95%CI:1.30-1.66) and 1.45 (95%CI:1.34-1.57) for the need for special or intensive neonatal care/in-hospital deaths; and 1.03 (95%CI:0.93-1.15) and 1.07 (95%CI:1.00-1.15) for congenital malformations. Overall, time did not affect the odds of outcomes differently between immigrant and Italian mothers and most outcomes improved over time among all infants. None of the risk factors considered confounded the associations. Conclusion Our findings suggest that migrant status is a risk factor for adverse perinatal health. Moreover, they suggest that perinatal outcomes improved over time in some immigrant women. This could be due to a general improvement in immigrants' health in the past decade, or it may indicate successful application of policies that increase accessibility to mother-child health services during the periconception and prenatal periods for legal and illegal immigrant women in Italy. PMID:21569229

2011-01-01

366

A summary of the Cenozoic stratigraphy and geologic history of the Coalinga region, central California  

SciTech Connect

Cenozoic strata along the southwest side of the San Joaquin Valley provide a nearly complete record of the depositional history and structural evolution of this large sedimentary basin. The diverse sedimentary facies represented are evidence of repeated cycles of transgression and regression that are due to relative changes in sea level. These changes, in turn, can be interpreted in terms of either tectonic activity - that is, uplift or subsidence - or eustatic sea-level change. This chapter briefly describes the stratigraphy and outlines the geologic history of the region surrounding Coalinga and the epicenter of the May 2, 1983, earthquake, concentrating on Cenozoic time, during which tectonic relations most relevant to the existing stress field were established. This paper describes the geologic setting; Paleogene history; and Neogene and Quaternary history.

Bartow, J.A.

1990-01-01

367

Climate and glacier changes in Mt. Everest region in Central Southern Himalaya (Nepal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Everest region influenced by monsoon-dominated climate system is characterized by dense distribution of debris-covered glaciers. Very low number of papers has addressed on the interdisciplinary linkage of hydro-meteorological process and the glacier dynamics in high elevation areas. Here we present the glacier changes from 1958 to 2011 and the meteorological observations from 1992 to 2011 with the aim of understanding coupled climate-glacier dynamics using satellite imagery, historical maps and insitu field measurements. We developed reconstructed single series for temperature and precipitation through the monthly quantile mapping and expectation maximization techniques from the insitu observations in different automatic weather stations located in the Mt. Everest region. Multi-temporal satellite products and topographic maps were used for glacier terminus, surface and snowline altitude (SLA) analysis from 1958 to 2011. We observed the continuous shrinkage of glaciers since 1958 to 2011 with accelerated rate in the recent years. The average terminus retreatment of analyzed 29 glaciers was about 372±37 m (7.0 m a-1) in 1958 to 2011 with retreat rate of 6.1±1.9 m a-1 in 1958-75 and nearly its double in 2008-11. The glacier surface area had loss of 14.3±5.9 % (0.27 % a-1) from 396.2 km2 to 339.5 km2 in 53 years with the loss by 0.12 %a-1 in 1958-75 to 0.70 % a-1 in recent years. The smaller glaciers with

Thakuri, Sudeep; Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Guyennon, Nicolas; D'Agata, Carlo; Smiraglia, Claudio; Tartari, Gianni

2013-04-01

368

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the central region of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1808  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present mid-infrared spectra of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1808, obtained with the Gemini's Thermal-Region Camera Spectrograph at a spatial resolution of ˜26 pc. The high spatial resolution allowed us to detect bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions at 8.6 and 11.3 ?m in the galaxy centre (˜26 pc) up to a radius of 70 pc from the nucleus. The spectra also present [Ne II]12.8 ?m ionic lines, and H2 S(2) 12.27 ?m molecular gas line. We found that the PAHs profiles are similar to Peeters's A class, with the line peak shifted towards the blue. The differences in the PAH line profiles also suggest that the molecules in the region located 26 pc north-east of the nucleus are more in the neutral than in the ionized state, while at 26 pc south-west of the nucleus, the molecules are mainly in ionized state. After removal of the underlying galaxy contribution, the nuclear spectrum can be represented by a Nenkova's CLUMPY torus model, indicating that the nucleus of NGC 1808 hosts a dusty toroidal structure with an angular cloud distribution of ? = 70°, observer's view angle i = 90° and an outer radius of R0 ˜ 0.55 pc. The derived column density along the line of sight is NH = 1.5 × 1024 cm2, which is sufficient to block the hard radiation from the active nucleus, and would explain the presence of PAH molecules near to the NGC 1808's active nucleus.

Sales, Dinalva A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Riffel, R.; Winge, Cláudia

2013-03-01

369

Physical Characteristics of G331.5-0.1: The Luminous Central Region of a Giant Molecular Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report molecular line and dust continuum observations toward the high-mass star-forming region G331.5-0.1, one of the most luminous regions of massive star formation in the Milky Way, located at the tangent region of the Norma spiral arm, at a distance of 7.5 kpc. Molecular emission was mapped toward the G331.5-0.1 GMC in the CO(J = 1 ? 0) and C18O(J = 1 ? 0) lines with NANTEN, while its central region was mapped in CS(J = 2 ? 1 and J = 5 ? 4) with SEST, and in CS(J = 7 ? 6) and 13CO(J = 3 ? 2) with ASTE. Continuum emission mapped at 1.2 mm with SIMBA and at 0.87 mm with LABOCA reveal the presence of six compact and luminous dust clumps, making this source one of the most densely populated central regions of a GMC in the Galaxy. The dust clumps are associated with molecular gas and they have the following average properties: size of 1.6 pc, mass of 3.2 × 103 M ?, molecular hydrogen density of 3.7 × 104 cm-3, dust temperature of 32 K, and integrated luminosity of 5.7 × 105 L ?, consistent with values found toward other massive star-forming dust clumps. The CS and 13CO spectra show the presence of two velocity components: a high-velocity component at ~ - 89 km s-1, seen toward four of the clumps, and a low-velocity component at ~ - 101 km s-1 seen toward the other two clumps. Radio continuum emission is present toward four of the molecular clumps, with spectral index estimated for two of them of 0.8 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.2. A high-velocity molecular outflow is found at the center of the brightest clump, with a line width of 26 km s-1 (FWHM) in CS(J = 7 ? 6). Observations of SiO(J = 7 ? 6 and J = 8 ? 7), and SO(JK = 88 ? 77 and JK = 87 ? 76) lines provide estimates of the gas rotational temperature toward this outflow >120 K and >75 K, respectively.

Merello, Manuel; Bronfman, Leonardo; Garay, Guido; Nyman, Lars-Åke; Evans, Neal J., II; Walmsley, C. Malcolm

2013-09-01

370

Seismic Wave Velocity Heterogeneity and Discontinuity Topography of the D" Region beneath the Caribbean and Central America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triplication arrivals generated by shear wave interaction with a sharp velocity increase at the top of the D" region have been argued for the widespread presence of a D" velocity discontinuity beneath the Caribbean and Central America. Seismic tomography models have also shown strong lateral velocity heterogeneity in this region. To simultaneously investigate seismic velocity variations in the lowermost mantle and the D" discontinuity topography which trade off against each other, we model triplication waveforms from deep earthquakes in South America subduction zones and recorded by dense transportable USArray and permanent broadband stations in North America and Canada. The sourcestation configuration provides triplication arrivals which have the bottoming depths directly sampling D" in our study region. We divide sources and stations into a suite of linear transects. Then we employ a global search method which combines reflectivity synthetics and neighborhood algorithm (NA) to seek an optimal 1-D velocity model in the lowermost mantle around midway of each transect which best fits differential traveltimes (ScS-S, Sdiff-SKS and Scd-S) and triplication waveforms. All the differential times are corrected for contributions from heterogeneous mantle structure above D" using global tomography models. Though triplication shear waves emerge frequently between direct S and core-reflected ScS phases across the study area, as reported in previous studies, there are still a number of localized regions sampled by shear waves which contain no triplications. It implies that there exists strong lateral velocity heterogeneity and gradient in D" as well as significant topographic undulation of the D" discontinuity over the study region.

Ko, Y.; Kuo, B.; Hung, S.

2012-12-01

371

Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bundelkhand region of Central India is a hot spot of water scarcity, land degradation, poverty and poor socio-economic status. Impacts of integrated watershed development (IWD) interventions on water balance and different ecosystem services are analyzed in one of the selected watershed of 850 ha in Bundelkhand region. Improved soil, water and crop management interventions in Garhkundar-Dabar (GKD) watershed of Bundelkhand region in India enhanced ET to 64% as compared to 58% in untreated (control) watershed receiving 815 mm annual average rainfall. Reduced storm flow (21% vs. 34%) along with increased base flow (4.5% vs. 1.2%) and groundwater recharge (11% vs. 7%) of total rainfall received were recorded in treated watershed as compared to untreated control watershed. Economic Water productivity and total income increased from 2.5 to 5.0 INR m-3 and 11,500 to 27,500 INR ha-1 yr-1 after implementing integrated watershed development interventions in GKD watershed, respectively. Moreover IWD interventions helped in reducing soil loss more than 50% compared to control watershed. The results demonstrated that integrated watershed management practices addressed issues of poverty in GKD watershed. Benefit to cost ratio of project interventions was found three and pay back period within four years suggest economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in Bundelkhend region. Scaling-up of integrated watershed management in drought prone rainfed areas with enabling policy and institutional support is expected to promote equity and livelihood along with strengthening various ecosystem services, however, region-specific analysis is needed to assess trade-offs for downstream areas along with onsite impact.

Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.

2014-02-01

372

Cardiovascular risk predictors in central Slovakian Roma children and adolescents: regional differences.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to determine some Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk factors in 174 Roma children and adolescents (88 males and 86 females) aged 7-18 in 3 Central Slovakian cities (44 from Zilina, 39 from Bansk, Bystrica and 91 from Rimavská Sobota). Venous blood samples were drawn in the morning, after a 12 hour overnight fast for biochemical analysis. Total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were determined enzymatically. HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) after selective precipitation lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein B and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated by the Friedewald Formula. Serum levels of apolipoproteins (apo A, apo B) were analyzed immunochemically. Concentration of lipoprotein a [Lp(a)] was analyzed by immunonephelometric method (Beckman-Coulter System). Anthropometric measurements, including weight, height, waist and hip circumference were used to calculate the sum of the body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). Measured blood pressure (BP) was used to classify for hypertension. Significant differences were determined in serum levels of LDL-C (p < 0.05; by Tukey HSD test multiple comparison more significant difference was determined between Zilina and Rimavská Sobota p < 0.046), TG (p = 0.008), apo A (p < 0.001), Lp(a) (p = 0.042), WHR (p < 0.001), BMI (p < 0.001), sBP (p < 0.001) and dBP (p = 0.012) in Roma individuals of all locality groups. The Roma population from Rimavsk, Sobota had (in comparison to the examined populations) statistically higher values of TC, TG, LDL-C, lower HDL-C. The population showed significant relation of TG and stress at home (p = 0.03) and at school (p = 0.01), HDL-C and cigarette smoking (p = 0.004), apo A and cigarette smoking (p = 0.02) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.006), WHR and cigarette smoking (p = 0.02). Risk values of WHR, apo B and Lp(a) were mostly determined in Zilina's population (WHR significantly connected with family history CVD p = 0.03, cigarette smoking p = 0.02 and leisure time physical activity p < 0.001) and BMI, apo A and BP in Banská Bystrica. WHR was positively correlated to BP and negatively to HDL-C and TG only in Roma participants from Rimavská Sobota. BMI was positively correlated to systolic BP in populations from Banská Bystrica and Rimavská Sobota. The results of the study should improve the paediatric health treatment and prevention of CVD risk predictors for Roma from different cities. PMID:21033608

Hujová, Zuzana; Alberty, Roman; Ahlers, Ivan; Ahlersová, Eva; Paulíková, Edita; Desatniková, Júlia; Gábor, Drahoslav; Hrubá, Frantiska

2010-09-01

373

Magnetotelluric observations around the focal region of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake ( M j 6.9), Central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 25 March 2007, a damaging earthquake ( M j 6.9) occurred near the west coast of the Noto Peninsula, Central Japan. A wideband magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out in the onshore area of the source region immediately after the mainshock, with the aim of imaging the heterogeneity of the crustal resistivity structure. The final observation network had consisted of 26 sites. As a preparatory step for imaging three-dimensional features of the resistivity around the focal region, we constructed two-dimensional resistivity models along five profiles using only the TM mode responses, in order to reduce three-dimensional effects. Four profiles are perpendicular to the fault strike, and a fifth profile is parallel to the strike through the mainshock epicenter. Significant characteristics of the resistivity models are: (1) beneath the mainshock hypocenter, there is a conductive body which spreads to the eastern edge of the active aftershock region; (2) a resistive zone is located in the gap of the aftershock distribution between the mainshock hypocenter and the largest eastern aftershock; (3) one of the largest aftershock occurred at the boundary of the resistive zone described above. These results suggest that the deep conductors represent fluid-filled zones and that the lateral heterogeneity could have controlled the slip distribution on the fault plane.

Yoshimura, Ryokei; Oshiman, Naoto; Uyeshima, Makoto; Ogawa, Yasuo; Mishina, Masaaki; Toh, Hiroaki; Sakanaka, Shin'ya; Ichihara, Hiroshi; Shiozaki, Ichiro; Ogawa, Tsutomu; Miura, Tsutomu; Koyama, Shigeru; Fujita, Yasuyoshi; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Yu; Imai, Mikihiro; Honda, Ryo; Yabe, Sei; Nagaoka, Shintaro; Tada, Mitsuhiro; Mogi, Toru

2008-02-01

374

Glacial stratigraphy of the Bulkley River region: A depositional framework for the late Pleistocene in central British Columbia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A depositional framework for late Pleistocene sediments in central British Columbia was developed from the composite stratigraphy of glacial sediments found in the Bulkley River region. Nonglacial deposits correlated to the Olympia Nonglacial Interval, are overlain in succession by sub-till, ice-advance sediments, Late Wisconsinan (Fraser Glaciation) till, and late-glacial sediments. Due to local erosion and depositional variability, some of the units are not continuous throughout the region and differ locally in their thickness and complexity. At the onset of the Fraser Glaciation, ice advance was marked by rising base levels in rivers, lake ponding, and ice marginal sub-aqueous deposition. Physiography and glacier dynamics influenced the position of drainage outlets, direction of water flow, and ponding. The region was completely ice covered during this glaciation and ice-flow directions were variable, being dominantly influenced by the migrating position of ice divides. Deglaciation was marked by the widespread deposition of fine-grained sediments in proglacial lakes and glaciofluvial sands and gravels at locations with unrestricted drainage.

Stumpf, A.J.; Broster, B.E.; Levson, V.M.

2004-01-01

375

Spatial dependence of the star formation history in the central regions of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the star formation history (SFH) and the age-metallicity relation (AMR) in three fields of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. They sample a region spanning from the centre of the galaxy to beyond one core radius, which allows studying galactocentric gradients. In all the cases, we found stars as old as 12 Gyr, together with intermediate-age and young stellar populations. The last star formation events, as young as 1 Gyr old, are mainly located in the central region, which may indicate that the gas reservoir in the outer parts of the galaxy would have been exhausted earlier than in the centre or removed by tidal interactions. The AMR is smoothly increasing in the three analysed regions and similar to each other, indicating that no significant metallicity gradient is apparent within and around the core radius of Fornax. No significant traces of global UV-reionization or local SNe feedback are appreciated in the early SFH of Fornax. Our study is based on VLT photometry as deep as I ˜ 24.5 and the IAC-STAR/IAC-POP/MINNIAC suite of codes for the determination of the SFH in resolved stellar populations.

del Pino, Andrés; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio; Gallart, Carme; Carrera, Ricardo; Monelli, Matteo; Buonanno, Roberto; Marconi, Gianni

2013-08-01

376

Definition of a Sinkhole hazard methodology in the Pontina Plain (Latium Region, Central Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presented here is the continuation of " Sinkhole Project of Latium Region" (2002), carried out by Researchers of the Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology of the Department of Geological Sciences of the University "Roma Tre", Rome (Italy), through which were found, in different plain of the whole Region, Sinkhole prone areas, using a methodology based on the superimposition of thematic layers corresponding to geological and anthropogenic breaking factors. In the last years several specific investigations have been conducted by Researchers of the Laboratory in the Pontina Plain, that is located in the south west of the Latium Region, concerning the geological-stratigraphic setting, the sketch of flow in the aquifers located in the Pontine depression, the chemiphysical groundwater characheteristics, the density of wells, the amount of well pumping and piezometric changes. This required the implementation of several piezometric and chemiphysical surveys, the collection and validation of a large number of stratigraphic and geophysical data. All data in the archive have been computerized and the maps vectorized. This makes it possible today to address the analysis with Geographical Information Systems and to start numerical flow simulations, regarding both the heavily drained deep confined aquifer, and the areas subject to the presence of an important water exchange between the recharge area in the Lepini Mountains (carbonatic ridge) and terrigenous aquifers of the plain. Among the main causes that trigger the catastrophic collapses there are, in fact, all the phenomena that cause the mass density reduction through erosion, leaching, dissolution. All these agents are associated with water circulation: flow, velocity, CO2 saturation rate, carbonates saturation rate. The spread in the Pontina plain of deep and high pumping wells, wrongly built without the correct way of progress, and without the realization of cemented portions properly located, can lead to the rise of the artesian groundwater that flows into sandy horizons scarcely thickened, carrying out liquefaction and collapse phenomena. Thus, thanks to the numerous piezometric surveys, different areas have been identified in the plain: artesian wells areas with full water rise, areas with few artesian wells and areas with partial water lift. The analysis of geophysical data has allowed to draw deep profiles that show how along the axis of the plain the roof of carbonates has very changeable heights, due to a complex tectonic evolution. In correspondence to one of the most senior buried structural heights in the carbonate substratum of the plain, a karst cave was intercepted during a drilling on the vertical of a sinkhole opened in 1989, which could be interpreted as a paleospring. The right application of technologies for drilling and completion of the hole, however, has prevented against the recurrence of the phenomenon of collapse. This poster illustrates a matrix calculus implemented by the authors, by which you can come to an assessment of the distribution of Sinkhole hazard in the Pontina Plain. The matrix takes into account different parameters that are related to the breaking causes of the phenomenon. Each parameter is assigned a value (index) representing its variation. The area studied was divided into 150 m square cells, each cell is assigned the value of the Sinkhole hazard index, that is the sum of the various indices assigned to that cell. Such a methodology widely used in other scientific research must be improved by optimizing the values and weights that were assigned to each parameter and implementing the matrix by adding more parameters that influence the phenomenon. A discussion about the importance of these characterizing parameters is presented for further development of the methodology.

Teoli, Pamela; Mazza, Roberto; Capelli, Giuseppe

2010-05-01

377

NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking is a major problem in many countries as it causes health related problems. Most often infants are affected by the intake of high nitrate in drinking water and food. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the nitrate concentration in groundwater and determining the causes for nitrate in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district in India which is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from forty six representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to March 2009. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during the study. Soil samples were collected from fifteen locations during May 2009 and the denitrifying bacteria were isolated from the soil using spread plate method. The nitrate concentration in groundwater samples were analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration of nitrate recorded during the sampling period was 879.65mg/l and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. The maximum permissible limit of nitrate for drinking water as per Bureau of Indian Standards is 45mg/l. About 13% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond this limit. The nitrate concentration was high in the southeastern part of the study area. This implies that the nitrate concentration in groundwater tends to increase along the flow direction. Application of fertilizers is one of the sources for nitrate in groundwater. The recharge of rainwater through the indiscriminately dumped animal wastes also adds to nitrate in groundwater. As the population of denitrifying microbes (Agrobacterium sp.) in the topsoil increased, the nitrate concentration in groundwater decreased. The wells in the investigated region have been demarcated into safe and unsafe wells for consumption of water with respect to nitrate. The quality of groundwater in this region must be improved by denitrifying the groundwater before using it for consumption. Reduced dependence on nitrogen-rich fertilizers can also lower the influx of nitrates to a large extent. As the dumping of animal waste is also a reason behind high nitrate in groundwater, it would be better to use them as a biofertilizer. Due to the detrimental biological effects of nitrate, treatment and prevention methods must be considered to protect groundwater aquifers from nitrate leaching. Moreover, it is also important to educate the local population about keeping their surroundings clean, alternate use of the animal waste (as fuel) and to follow hygienic sanitation practices.

Brindha, K.; Rajesh, R.; Murugan, R.; Elango, L.

2009-12-01

378

IDENTIFICATION OF MEMBERS IN THE CENTRAL AND OUTER REGIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

The caustic technique measures the mass of galaxy clusters in both their virial and infall regions and, as a byproduct, yields the list of cluster galaxy members. Here we use 100 galaxy clusters with mass M{sub 200} {>=} 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} extracted from a cosmological N-body simulation of a {Lambda}CDM universe to test the ability of the caustic technique to identify the cluster galaxy members. We identify the true three-dimensional members as the gravitationally bound galaxies. The caustic technique uses the caustic location in the redshift diagram to separate the cluster members from the interlopers. We apply the technique to mock catalogs containing 1000 galaxies in the field of view of 12 h {sup -1} Mpc on a side at the cluster location. On average, this sample size roughly corresponds to 180 real galaxy members within 3r{sub 200}, similar to recent redshift surveys of cluster regions. The caustic technique yields a completeness, the fraction of identified true members, f{sub c} = 0.95 {+-} 0.03, within 3r{sub 200}. The contamination, the fraction of interlopers in the observed catalog of members, increases from f{sub i}=0.020{sup +0.046}{sub -0.015} at r{sub 200} to f{sub i}=0.08{sup +0.11}{sub -0.05} at 3r{sub 200}. No other technique for the identification of the members of a galaxy cluster provides such large completeness and small contamination at these large radii. The caustic technique assumes spherical symmetry and the asphericity of the cluster is responsible for most of the spread of the completeness and the contamination. By applying the technique to an approximately spherical system obtained by stacking the individual clusters, the spreads decrease by at least a factor of two. We finally estimate the cluster mass within 3r{sub 200} after removing the interlopers: for individual clusters, the mass estimated with the virial theorem is unbiased and within 30% of the actual mass; this spread decreases to less than 10% for the spherically symmetric stacked cluster.

Serra, Ana Laura [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Torino (Italy); Diaferio, Antonaldo, E-mail: serra@ph.unito.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

2013-05-10

379

Cenozoic normal faulting and regional doming in the southern Hangay region, Central Mongolia: implications for the origin of the Baikal rift province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hangay Dome in central Mongolia is a mountainous region covering more than 200,000 km 2 with numerous flat-topped peaks over 3000 m that preserve a Late Cretaceous-Paleogene erosion surface. Doming began in the middle Oligocene producing more than 2000 m of regional topographic uplift. The range represents an important kinematic link between the Baikal rift province to the north and Altai transpressional ranges to the south and west. Structural field investigations of major faults visible on satellite imagery indicate that the southern Hangay Dome region is dominated by Late Cenozoic normal faults that bound small half-graben. Most faults are NE-striking and faults at the highest elevations are the most recently active. Most graben appear to be isolated systems that constitute small sediment sinks perched on the flanks and crests of the dome. The first-order feature is the dome itself and most sediment eroded off of the dome is deposited in the Mongolian Valley of Lakes or is carried northwards by the Selenga river and its extensive tributaries. The basement of the dome is a Precambrian craton although the shape and dimensions of the craton are poorly constrained to the north and east. Late Cenozoic uplift of the southern dome region appears to be confined to the area underlain by cratonic basement whereas the Altai region to the south and west is underlain by mechanically weaker Palaeozoic arc and accretionary belts. With respect to the regional northeast directed SHmax, the Hangay craton appears to have acted as a rigid passive indentor focusing Late Cenozoic transpressional deformation around its west and southern margins. Models invoking a Late Cenozoic plume as the driving force for doming and widespread alkaline volcanism on the dome are not strongly supported by geochemical and isotopic data on Neogene-Recent volcanics and the spatial correlation between areas that are domed and older cratonic crust appears too coincidental to be ignored. Convective removal of an overthickened lithospheric root leading to adiabatically decompressed asthenosphere could explain regional doming and volcanism, however major crustal thickening last occurred in the Permian in the southern Hangay region and the time lag between thickening and postulated root removal and plateau uplift (>200 Myr) appears too long. An alternative model is explored based on speculated lithospheric mantle flow patterns driven by India's continued northeastward indentation. It is suggested that lithospheric mantle flow diversion around the overthickened Hangay craton crustal keel could cause lithospheric thinning beneath the craton and passive asthenospheric upwarp leading to regional topographic uplift and decompression melting/alkali volcanism. In general, the angular relationship between Precambrian craton boundaries and the prevailing northeasterly SHmax appears to control the kinematics of late Cenozoic deformation throughout the Hangay, Altai, Sayan and Baikal regions.

Cunningham, W. D.

2001-02-01

380

Mobile source and livestock feed contributions to regional ozone formation in Central California.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional air quality model with 8 km horizontal resolution was applied to estimate the summertime ozone (O(3)) production from mobile sources and fermented livestock feed in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV) during years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020. Previous studies have estimated that animal feed emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have greater O(3) formation potential than mobile-source VOC emissions when averaging across the entire SJV. The higher spatial resolution in the current study shows that the proximity of oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) and VOC emissions from mobile sources enhances their O(3) formation potential. Livestock feed VOC emissions contributed 3-4 ppb of peak O(3) (8-h average) in Tulare County and 1-2 ppb throughout the remainder of the SJV during the CCOS 2000 July-August episode. In total, livestock feed contributed ~3.5 tons of the ground level peak O(3) (8 h average) in the SJV region, and mobile VOC contributed ~12 tons in this episode. O(3) production from mobile sources is declining over time in response to emissions control plans that call for cleaner fuels and engines with advanced emissions controls. Projecting forward to the year 2020, mobile-source VOC emissions are predicted to produce ~3 tons of the ground level peak O(3)(8-h average) and livestock feed VOC emissions are predicted to contribute ~2.5 tons making these sources nearly equivalent. PMID:22304388

Hu, Jianlin; Howard, Cody J; Mitloehner, Frank; Green, Peter G; Kleeman, Michael J

2012-03-01

381

Studying Regional Wave Source Time Functions Using the Empirical Green's Function Method: Application to Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliably estimated source time functions (STFs) from high-frequency regional waveforms, such as Lg, Pn and Pg, provide important input for seismic source studies, explosion detection and discrimination, and minimization of parameter trade-off in attenuation studies. We have searched for candidate pairs of larger and small earthquakes in and around China that share the same focal mechanism but significantly differ in magnitudes, so that the empirical Green's function (EGF) method can be applied to study the STFs of the larger events. We conducted about a million deconvolutions using waveforms from 925 earthquakes, and screened the deconvolved traces to exclude those that are from event pairs that involved different mechanisms. Only 2,700 traces passed this screening and could be further analyzed using the EGF method. We have developed a series of codes for speeding up the final EGF analysis by implementing automations and user-graphic interface procedures. The codes have been fully tested with a subset of screened data and we are currently applying them to all the screened data. We will present a large number of deconvolved STFs retrieved using various phases (Lg, Pn, Sn and Pg and coda) with information on any directivities, any possible dependence of pulse durations on the wave types, on scaling relations for the pulse durations and event sizes, and on the estimated source static stress drops.

Xie, J.; Schaff, D. P.; Chen, Y.; Schult, F.

2013-12-01

382

Distribution of pediatric bone and soft tissue tumors in the central Black Sea region.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate pediatric cases treated surgically for an initial diagnosis of bone and soft tissue tumor between January 1987 and January 2012. This retrospective study evaluated 328 patients with pathologically confirmed tumor from a total of 374 patients hospitalized with an initial diagnosis of tumor. The cases were analyzed with respect to frequency, age, gender, and localization. One hundred and eighty (54.8%) males and 148 (45.2%) females, with a mean age of 13 years (range: 1-18 years), were included in the study. The tumors were determined as 258 (78.6%) bone tumors and 70 (21.4%) soft tissue tumors. The most common benign bone tumor was observed to be osteochondroma (n=61, 30.7%), and the most common malignant bone tumor was osteosarcoma (n=31, 52.6%). The most common benign soft tissue tumor was hemangioma, which is a vascular tumor (n=28, 43.8%), and the most common malignant soft tissue tumor was rhabdomyosarcoma (n=5, 83.3%). It is thought that similar studies will serve to form larger series and facilitate inter-regional comparisons by collecting data from centers that surgically treat bone and soft tissue tumors, thereby benefitting both pediatric and public health. PMID:25341592

C?rakl?, Alper; Dabak, Nevzat; C?rakl?, Sevgi; Sezgin, Hicabi; Göçer, Hasan; Bar??, Sancar

2014-01-01

383

Regional distribution of neuropeptide Y and its receptor in the porcine central nervous system.  

PubMed

The regional distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity and receptor binding was studied in the porcine CNS. The highest amounts of immunoreactive NPY were found in the hypothalamus, septum pellucidum, gyrus cinguli, cortex frontalis, parietalis, and piriformis, corpus amygdaloideum, and bulbus olfactorius (200-1,000 pmol/g wet weight). In the cortex temporalis and occipitalis, striatum, hippocampus, tractus olfactorius, corpus mamillare, thalamus, and globus pallidus, the NPY content was 50-200 pmol/g wet weight, whereas the striatum, colliculi, substantia nigra, cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and medulla spinalis contained less than 50 pmol/g wet weight. The receptor binding of NPY was highest in the hippocampus, corpus fornicis, corpus amygdaloideum, nucleus accumbens, and neurohypophysis, with a range of 1.0-5.87 pmol/mg of protein. Intermediate binding (0.5-1.0 pmol/mg of protein) was found in the septum pellucidum, columna fornicis, corpus mamillare, cortex piriformis, gyrus cinguli, striatum, substantia grisea centralis, substantia nigra, and cerebellum. In the corpus callosum, basal ganglia, corpus pineale, colliculi, corpus geniculatum mediale, nucleus ruber, pons, medulla oblongata, and medulla spinalis, receptor binding of NPY was detectable but less than 0.5 pmol/mg of protein. No binding was observed in the bulbus and tractus olfactorius and adenohypophysis. In conclusion, immunoreactive NPY and its receptors are widespread in the porcine CNS, with predominant location in the limbic system, olfactory system, hypothalamoneurohypophysial tract, corpus striatum, and cerebral cortex. PMID:2540275

Busch-Sørensen, M; Sheikh, S P; O'Hare, M; Tortora, O; Schwartz, T W; Gammeltoft, S

1989-05-01

384

Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season  

SciTech Connect

We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both acids at ground level and their vertical distribution in the forest canopy point to the existence of vegetative sources as well as to production by chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Dry deposition of the gaseous acids appears to be a major sink. The concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase were about 2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations of the corresponding species in the atmospheric aerosol. About 50--60%/sub 0/ of the aerosol (total) formate and acetate were in the size fraction below 1.0 ..mu..m diameter.

Andreae, M.O.; Talbot, R.W.; Andreae, T.W.; Harriss, R.C.

1988-02-20

385

Characteristics of rhizobia nodulating beans in the central region of Minnesota.  

PubMed

Until recently, beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Minnesota were rarely inoculated. Because of this, we hypothesized that bean rhizobia collected in Minnesota would either share characteristics identifiable with Rhizobium etli of Mesoamerican or Andean origin, introduced into the region as seed-borne contaminants, or be indigenous rhizobia from prairie species, such as Dalea spp. The latter organisms have been shown to nodulate and fix N2 with Phaseolus vulgaris. Rhizobia recovered from the Staples, Verndale, and Park Rapids areas of Minnesota were grouped according to the results of BOXA1R-PCR fingerprint analysis into 5 groups, with only one of these having banding patterns similar to 2 of 4 R. etli reference strains. When representative isolates were subject to fatty acid - methyl ester analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the results obtained differed. 16S rRNA gene sequences of half the organisms tested were most similar to Rhizobium leguminosarum. Rhizobia from Dalea spp., an important legume in the prairie ecosystem, did not play a significant role as the microsymbiont of beans in this area. This appears to be due to the longer time needed for them to initiate infection in Phaseolus vulgaris. Strains of Rhizobium tropici IIB, including UMR1899, proved tolerant to streptomycin and captan, which are commonly applied as seed treatments for beans. Local rhizobia appeared to have very limited tolerance to these compounds. PMID:15714233

Bernal, G R; Tlusty, B; Estevez de Jensen, C; van Berkum, P; Graham, P H

2004-12-01

386

Monte Carlo Inversion of DInSAR Data for Dislocation Modeling: Application to the 1997 Umbria-Marche Seismic Sequence (Central Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

— The study of surface deformation due to seismic activity is often made using dislocations with uniform slip and simple geometries. A better modeling of coseismic and postseismic surface displacements can be obtained by using dislocations with variable slip and nonregular shapes. This is consistent with the asperity model of fault surfaces, assuming a friction distribution on faults made of

S. Stramondo; P. Baldi; M. Dragoni; A. Piombo; S. Salvi; G. Spada

2004-01-01

387

The 1997 Umbria-Marche, Italy, earthquake sequence: a first look at the main shocks and aftershocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long sequence of earthquakes, six with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck Central Italy starting on September 26, 1997, causing severe damages and loss of human lives. The seismogenic structure consists of a NW-SE elongated fault zone extending for about 40 km. The focal mechanisms of the largest shocks reveal normal faulting with NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend

A. Amato; R. Azzara; C. Chiarabba; G. B. Cimini; M. Cocco; M. Di Bona; L. Margheriti; S. Mazza; F. Mele; G. Selvaggi; A. Basili; E. Boschi; F. Courboulex; A. Deschamps; S. Gaffet; G. Bittarelli; L. Chiaraluce; D. Piccinini; M. Ripepe

1998-01-01

388

Reduction of Risk in Exploration and Prospect Generation through a Multidisciplinary Basin-Analysis Program in the South-Central Mid-Continent Region  

SciTech Connect

This report will discuss a series of regional studies that were undertaken within the South-Central Mid-Continent region of the U.S. Coverage is also provided about a series of innovative techniques that were used for this assessment.

Banerjee, S.; Barker, C.; Fite, J.; George, S.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.; Jordan, J., Szpakiewicz, M.; Person, M.; Reeves, T.K.; Safley, E.; Swenson, J.B.; Volk, L.; and Erickson, R.

1999-04-02

389

A Descriptive and Economic Analysis of Agricultural Teacher Education Programs in Land-Grant Universities of the North-Central Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study which assessed the inputs and outputs of the agricultural programs of land-grant universities in the North-Central region. It was found that programs in this region are fairly homogeneous, particularly at the undergraduate level. (CT)

Trede, Larry D.; Crawford, Harold R.

1981-01-01

390

Texas A&M Transportation Institute | 2012 Page | 1 Seven transit providers in the Central Puget Sound region came together to develop the ORCA fare card system.  

E-print Network

Texas A&M Transportation Institute | 2012 Page | 1 ORCA SUMMARY Seven transit providers in the Central Puget Sound region came together to develop the ORCA fare card system. The providers include Overview The ORCA regional fare card (Figure 1) provides a seamless fare system for use on Community

391

Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of some plants native to the West-Central region of Brazil.  

PubMed

A total of 42 ethanolic extracts from 30 different plant species, native to the Pantanal and Cerrado of the West-Central region of Brazil, have been evaluated for their larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, the vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fevers. Among the extracts tested, that obtained from the trunk bark of Ocotea velloziana was the most active. Using a bioassay-directed fractionation of this extract, the active constituent was isolated and characterized as the aporphine alkaloid (+)-dicentrine. Its structure was established on the basis of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra, optical rotation and by comparison with an authentic sample. This is the first report on the larvicidal activity against A. aegypti of this alkaloid. Our results suggest that (+)-dicentrine may be considered as a promising natural mosquito larvicidal agent. PMID:19664915

Garcez, Walmir S; Garcez, Fernanda R; da Silva, Lilliam M G E; Hamerski, Lidilhone

2009-12-01

392

Occurrence of drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines in river waters from the Madrid Region (Central Spain).  

PubMed

This work investigates, for the first time, the occurrence of 10 drugs of abuse, six metabolites, and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain and one of the most densely populated in Europe. The results of this study have shown the presence of 14 out of the 19 compounds analyzed at concentrations ranging from 1.45 to 1020 ng L(-1). The most ubiquitous compounds, found in 100% of the samples, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-like compound ephedrine (EPH), the opioids morphine (MOR), methadone (METH), and the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three investigated benzodiazepines alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). Meanwhile, the largest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (up to 1020 ng L(-1)), BE (823 ng L(-1)), EDDP (151 ng L(-1)), and LOR (167 ng L(-1)). The only not detected compounds were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (OH-LSD), and ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Overall, the levels measured are comparatively higher than those previously reported in Europe. Comparison of the results obtained for samples collected on different days (Thursday and Sunday) did not show meaningful differences between weekdays and weekends. The lack of (eco)toxicological data does not permit to predict or disregard potential adverse effects on wildlife. Risk assessment in humans would require further knowledge, not currently available, on exposure to these compounds through other routes like drinking water and/or food. PMID:24083902

Mendoza, A; López de Alda, M; González-Alonso, S; Mastroianni, N; Barceló, D; Valcárcel, Y

2014-01-01

393

CHANDRA IDENTIFICATION OF 26 NEW BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF M31  

SciTech Connect

We have previously identified 10 M31 black hole candidates (BHCs) in M31 from their X-ray properties alone. They exhibit ''hard state'' emission spectra that are seen at luminosities {approx}<10% Eddington in X-ray binaries (XBs) containing a neutron star (NS) or black hole, at luminosities that significantly exceed the NS threshold. Nine of these are associated with globular clusters (GCs); hence, these are most likely low mass X-ray binaries; eight are included in this survey. We have recently discovered that analysis of the long term 0.5-4.5 keV variability of XBs via structure functions allows us to separate XBs from active galactic nuclei, even though the emission spectra are often similar; this has enabled us to search for BHCs outside of GCs. We have identified 26 new BHCs (12 strong, 14 plausible) within 20' of the M31 nucleus (M31*), using 152 Chandra observations spaced over {approx}13 yr; some of our classifications were enhanced with XMM-Newton observations. Of these, seven appear within 100'' of M31*; this supports the theory suggesting that this region experiences enhanced XB production via dynamical processes similar to those seen in GCs. We have found a parameter space where our BHCs are separated from Galactic NS binaries: we show that modeling a simulated hard state spectrum with a disk blackbody + blackbody model yields parameters that lie outside the space occupied by NS binaries that are modeled this way. The probability that our BHCs all lie within the NS parameter space is {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -29}.

Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Murray, S. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CFA), Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-06-20

394

Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms  

SciTech Connect

Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

1984-03-01

395

Moisture changes over the last millennium in arid central Asia: a review, synthesis and comparison with monsoon region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a strong chance that 20th century warming will cause differences in precipitation distribution, hydrological cycle and effective moisture changes over the globe. Arid central Asia (ACA), a unique dry-land area whose atmospheric circulation is dominated today by the westerlies, is one of the specific regions that are likely to be strongly impacted by global warming. An understanding of past variations in effective moisture in such regions is an important prerequisite for the prediction of future hydrological change. Here we evaluate spatial and temporal patterns of effective moisture variations documented by different proxies from 17 records in ACA, and synthesize a decadal-resolution moisture curve for ACA over the past millennium, using 5 of the 17 records selected on the basis of reliable chronologies and robust proxies. The high- and low-resolution data all show that, over the past millennium, ACA has been characterized by a relatively dry Medieval Warm Period (MWP; the period from ˜1000 to 1350 AD), a wet Little Ice Age (LIA; from ˜1500 to 1850 AD) and increasing moisture during recent decades. As a whole, the LIA in the ACA was not only relatively humid but also had high precipitation. Over the past millennium, the multi-centennial moisture changes in ACA show a generally inverse relationship with the temperature changes in the Northern Hemisphere, China, and western central Asia. The effective moisture history in ACA also shows an out-of-phase relationship with that in monsoon Asia (especially during the LIA). We propose that the humid LIA in ACA, possibly extending to Mediterranean Sea and Western Europe, may have resulted from increased precipitation due to more frequent mid-latitude cyclone activities as a result of the strengthening and equator-ward shift of the westerly jet stream, and the predominantly negative North Atlantic Oscillation conditions, coupled with a decrease in evapotranspiration caused by the cooling at that time.

Chen, Fa-Hu; Chen, Jian-Hui; Holmes, Jonathan; Boomer, Ian; Austin, Patrick; Gates, John B.; Wang, Ning-Lian; Brooks, Stephen J.; Zhang, Jia-Wu

2010-04-01

396

The Near-Infrared Photometric Properties of Bright Giants in the Central Regions of the Galactic Bulge  

E-print Network

Images recorded through broad (J, H, K), and narrow (CO, and 2.2micron continuum) band filters are used to investigate the photometric properties of bright (K < 13.5) stars in a 6 x 6 arcmin field centered on the SgrA complex. The giant branch ridgelines in the (K, J-K) and (K, H-K) color-magnitude diagrams are well matched by the Baade's Window (BW) M giant sequence if the mean extinction is A_K ~ 2.8 mag. Extinction measurements for individual stars are estimated using the M_K versus infrared color relations defined by M giants in BW, and the majority of stars have A_K between 2.0 and 3.5 mag. The extinction is locally high in the SgrA complex, where A_K ~ 3.1 mag. Reddening-corrected CO indices, CO_o, are derived for over 1300 stars with J, H, and K brightnesses, and over 5300 stars with H and K brightnesses. The distribution of CO_o values for stars with K_o between 11.25 and 7.25 can be reproduced using the M_K versus CO_o relation defined by M giants in BW. The data thus suggest that the most metal-rich giants in the central regions of the bulge and in BW have similar photometric properties and 2.3micron CO strengths. Hence, it appears that the central region of the bulge does not contain a population of stars that are significantly more metal-rich than what is seen in BW.

T. J. Davidge

1998-03-24

397

Assessment of land cover changes in Lake Olbolossat region of the Central Kenyan highlands using Landsat satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region around Lake Olbolossat located in the central Kenyan highlands has witnessed significant land-use changes, which are today believed to be major cause of the dwindling Lake volumes. Very few studies have been carried out in the region due to limited observed in-situ data important for monitoring purposes. It is thus urgent that contemporary cost effective techniques are explored to asses the space and time land cover changes with a view to provide information required for appropriate land and water resource management. In this preliminary study, the land cover changes around Lake Olbolossat region were investigated using remotely sensed data obtained from Landsat satellites. Two imageries for 1989 and 2010 when significant changes were witnessed in the area were selected for the study. The maximum-Likelihood function of the supervised classification technique was applied to classify and discern the changes. Five predominant land cover classes that included forest land, built-up area, water body, flood plain and farmland were selected for the study. From the results obtained, the area of the Lake (water body) was noted to have shrunk significantly by 68%. Farmlands in the region were noted to have increased by about 31% largely due to the favorable humid climatic conditions for commercial and subsistence agriculture. The study also revealed that built-up areas increased by about 33% consequent of the rise in the human population. The flood plain area was noted to have reduced by about 26% as most of the area were gradually been turned to farmland. The study also revealed intense deforestation in the upstream Aberdare forest, which was noted to have reduced in area by about 30% during the study period. In general, the study revealed significant land cover changes worth provoking the need for a better land-use planning system to avoid further decline and extinction of Lake Olbolossat. Keywords: Lake Olbolossat; Landsat satellite; Maximum-Likelihood; Supervised classification.

Muriithi, Zacharia; Olang, Luke

2013-04-01

398

Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important; particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

Rapalee, G.; Steyaert, L. T.; Hall, F. G.

2001-01-01

399

Magnitude and extent of land subsidence in central Mexico revealed by regional InSAR ALOS time-series survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive groundwater extraction is very common in Mexico and is well known to result in land subsidence. However, most surveys dedicated to land subsidence focus on one single city, mainly Mexico City, and thus fail to provide a comprehensive picture of the problem. Here we use a space-based radar remote sensing technique, known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to detect land subsidence in the entire central Mexico area. We used data from the Japanese satellite ALOS, processed over 600 SAR images acquired between 2007-2011 and produced over 3000 interferograms to cover and area of 200,000 km2 in central Mexico. We identify land subsidence in twenty-one areas, including seventeen cities, namely from east to west, Puebla, Mexico city, Toluca de Lerdo, Queretaro, San Luis de la Paz, south of San Luis de la Paz, Celaya, south of Villa de Reyes, San Luis Potosi, west of Villa de Arista, Morelia, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon, Aguascalientes, north of Aguascalientes, Zamora de Hidalgo, Guadalajara, Ahuacatlan, and Tepic. Subsidence rates of 30 cm/yr are observed in Mexico City, while in the other locations typical rates of 5-10 cm/yr are noticed. Regional surveys of this type are necessary for the development of hazard mitigation plans and efficient use of ground-based monitoring. We additionally correlate subsidence with land use, surface geology, and faults distribution and suggest that groundwater extraction for agricultural, urban, and industrial uses are the main causes of land subsidence. We also reveal that the limits of the subsiding areas often correlate with existing faults, motion on these faults being driven by water extraction rather than by tectonic activity. In all the subsiding locations we observe high ground velocity gradients emphasizing the significant risks associated with land subsidence in central Mexico. Averaged 2007-2011 ground velocity map from ALOS InSAR time-series in central Mexico, revealing land subsidence in 21 locations. The color scale shows red colors as subsidence and blue colors as uplift. The emplacement of subsiding cities are shown by black diamonds and labeled for reference, the ones included in the UNESCO World Heritage list are shown with an asterisk.

Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Amelung, F.; Cabral-Cano, E.

2013-05-01

400

Tertiary Volcanic Stratigraphy and Structure of the Sonora Pass Region, Central Sierra Nevada, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mapping north and west of Sonora Pass provides information about the paleogeography and structure of the Sierra Nevada-Basin Range transition in Oligocene to Miocene time. The stratigraphy includes: (1) Late Oligocene-Early Miocene (?) Valley Springs Formation, composed of at least 5-6 petrographically distinctive silicic ignimbrites, overlain with erosional unconformity by (2) Early to Middle Miocene (?) "Relief Peak Formation", here referred to as Mehrten Formation, composed of hornblende andesite volcanic debris flow deposits, overlain with erosional uncomformity by channelized fluvial deposits, in turn overlain with erosional unconformity by block and ash flow tuffs, overlain with erosional unconformity by (3) the Middle or Late Miocene (?) Stanislaus Formation, composed of (a) latite lava flows ("Table Mountain Latite") and interbedded volcanic debris flow and fluvial deposits, overlain with erosional unconformity by (b) the Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT), also of latitic composition, in turn overlain with erosional unconformity by (c) latite flows, volcaniclastic fluvial deposits, or a debris avalanche deposit. The entire section is cut by andesite plugs. The basal ignimbrites are distal facies with source calderas in Nevada. The Merhten Formation is dominated by primary volcanic deposits in the east. The "Table Mountain Latite" is coarsely porphyritic plagioclase- and augite-phyric lava flows and flow breccias; it is only 83 m thick, with two flow units, in the west, and thickens to 344 m, with 21 flow units, in the east, suggesting a source not far to the east of the crest. The EVT consists of two members, each of which grade upward from densely welded to nonwelded latite ignimbrite. Distinctive lapilli- to block-sized clasts in both members are a distinctive mixture of highly flattened and plastically-deformed obsidian and rigid, vesicular bombs cored by obsidian. The tuff was probably erupted from a caldera only 22 km to the east. The Miocene strata generally thicken from west to east (over a map distance of 25 km) but locally thicken dramatically into paleocanyons cut in Mesozoic granitic rocks. A paleocanyon along the present-day Sierran crest trends NNW-SSE from Stanislaus Peak to Sonora Peak; it is sited along NNW-SSE, steeply-dipping faults in the Merhten Formation and filled by undeformed Stanislaus Formation latite flows. Similar relations occur along what is probably the same fault 5 km to the SSE at Sardine Falls. To the west of the crest, a pair of paleocanyons trending ENE-WSW occur at the Dardenelles in the north and the Red Peak-Bald Peak area in the south. This pair of paleocanyons is cut by a series of steeply-dipping NNW-SSE trending faults that include (from west to east): 1) a down-to-the-west fault between the Dardenelles and Dardenelles Cone, along which the Merhten Formation is highly deformed in a 250 m wide shear zone, and thickens from about 60 m to 200 m to the west across the fault, while overlying latite flows are only downdropped 60 m to the west, 2) the Bald Peak fault, also down to the west, where Merhten Formation thickens from 50 to 100 m to the west across the fault, and the base of the Table Mountain Latite is dropped 45 m to the west, and 3) the Red Peak fault, which drops the EVT down to the west approximately 200 m. Miocene strata of the Sonora Pass region record the onset of faulting both during and after deposition of the Merhten Formation, with continued faulting after eruption of the latite flows and tuffs. We speculate that the latites erupted during a phase of rapid extension in an arc otherwise dominated by andesitic volcanism.

Busby, C. J.; Rood, D.; Wagner, D.

2003-12-01