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1

Formalizing UML Class Diagrams: A Hierarchical Predicate Transition Net Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unified Modeling Language (UML) has been widely accepted as the standard object-oriented development methodology in the software industry. However, many graphical notations in UML only have informal English definitions and thus are error-prone and cannot be formally analyzed. We present our preliminary results on an approach to formally define UML class diagrams using hierarchical predicate transition nets (HPrTNs). We show

Xudong He

2000-01-01

2

Reasoning on temporal class diagrams: Undecidability results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a temporal class diagram language useful to model temporal varying data. The atemporal portion of the language contains the core constructors available in both EER diagrams and UML class diagrams. The temporal part of the language is able to distin- guish between temporal and atemporal constructs, and it has the ability to represent dynamic constraints between classes.

Alessandro Artale

2006-01-01

3

Transformation from Data Flow Diagram to UML2.0 activity diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model transformations are frequently applied in business process modeling to bridge between languages on a different level of abstraction and formality This paper proposes a model transformation from Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) which have been used widely in structure requirement analysis phase to UML Activity Diagrams (UML-AD) which have been used widely in various phases of Object Oriented Development Method.

Fanchao Meng; Dianhui Chu; Dechen Zhan

2010-01-01

4

Semantics-Based Weaving of UML Sequence Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we briefly introduce an aspect language that can define cross-cutting effects on a set of UML 2.0 sequence diagrams.\\u000a Our main contribution is to weave aspects and sequence diagrams at the model level. By basing the weaving upon a formal trace\\u000a model for sequence diagrams, we ensure that the weaving is semantics-based. To avoid the intractability of

Roy Grønmo; Fredrik Sørensen; Birger Møller-pedersen; Stein Krogdahl

2008-01-01

5

A Novel Test Case Design Technique Using Dynamic Slicing of UML Sequence Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel methodology for test case generation based on UML sequence dia- grams. We create message dependence graphs (MDG) from UML sequence diagrams. Edge marking dynamic slicing method is applied on MDG to create slices. Based on the slice created with respect to each predicate on the sequence diagram, we generate test data. We formulate a test adequacy

Philip Samuel; Rajib Mall

2008-01-01

6

Automated Reverse Engineering of UML Sequence Diagrams for Dynamic Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach and tool to automatically instrument dynamic Web applications using source transformation technology, and to reverse engineer a UML 2.1 sequence diagram from the execution traces generated by the resulting instrumentation. The result can be directly imported and visualized in a UML toolset such as rational software architect. Our approach dynamically filters traces to reduce redundant

Manar H. Alalfi; James R. Cordy; Thomas R. Dean

2009-01-01

7

Static control-flow analysis for reverse engineering of UML sequence diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

UML sequence diagrams are commonly used to represent the interactions among collaborating objects. Reverse-engineered sequence diagrams are constructed from existing code, and have a variety of uses in software development, maintenance, and testing. In static analysis for such reverse engineering, an open question is how to represent the intraprocedural flow of control from the code using the control-flow primitives of

Atanas Rountev; Olga Volgin; Miriam Reddoch

2006-01-01

8

Static control-flow analysis for reverse engineering of UML sequence diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

UML sequence diagrams are commonly used to represent the interactions among collaborating objects. Reverse-engineered sequence diagrams are constructed from existing code, and have a variety of uses in software development, maintenance, and testing. In static analysis for such reverse engineering, an open question is how to represent the intraprocedural flow of control from the code using the control-flow primi- tives

Atanas Rountev; Olga Volgin; Miriam Reddoch

2005-01-01

9

Extendable and modifiable operational semantics for UML 2.0 sequence diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

UML sequence diagrams is a specification language that has proved it- self to be of great value in system development. When put to applications such as simulation, testing and other kinds of automated analysis there is a need for formal semantics. Such methods of analysis are by nature operational, and this motivates formalizing an operational semantics. We present an operational

Mass Soldal Lund; Ketil Stølen

10

Applying a UML Extension to Build Use Cases Diagrams in a Secure Mobile Grid Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems based on Grid computing have not traditionally been developed through suitable methodologies and have not taken into account security requirements throughout their development, offering technical security solutions only during the implementation stages. We are creating a development methodology for the construction of information systems based on Grid Computing, which is highly dependent on mobile devices, in which security plays a highly important role. One of the activities in this methodology is the requirements analysis which is use-case driven. In this paper, we build use case diagrams for a real mobile Grid application by using a UML-extension, called GridUCSec-Profile, through which it is possible to represent specific mobile Grid features and security aspects for use case diagrams, thus obtaining diagrams for secure mobile Grid environments.

Rosado, David G.; Fernández-Medina, Eduardo; López, Javier

11

A Fully General Operational Semantics for UML 2.0 Sequence Diagrams with Potential and Mandatory Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

UML sequence diagrams is a specification language that has proved itself to be of great value in system development. When put to applica- tions such as simulation, testing and other kinds of automated analysis there is a need for formal semantics. Such methods of automated analysis are by nature operational, and this motivates formalizing an operational semantics. In this report

Mass Soldal Lund; Ketil Stølen

2006-01-01

12

Integrating UML Statechart and Collaboration Diagrams Using Hierarchical Predicate Transition Nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

UML has become the standard object-oriented analysis and design language in software industry. However UML lacks a precise semantics that hinders error detection in the early stages of system development. Even worse, there is no clear definition of consistency criteria among various UML notations, and there are few examples of illustrating the use of various notations together. In this paper,

Zhijiang Dong; Xudong He

2001-01-01

13

UML and B Method Based Analysis and Refinement for Flight Control Software of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

B is a formal method which enables the automatic generation of an executable code through successive refinements from an abstract specification. unified modeling language (UML) specifications can be formally verified by analyzing the corresponding B specification, and integration of UML specifications and B method can overcomes the drawbacks of UML. In this paper the class diagram of the flight control

Jiufu Liu; Zhong Yang

2008-01-01

14

Modeling AN Application Domain Extension of Citygml in Uml  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents key aspects of the development of a Dutch 3D standard IMGeo as a CityGML ADE. The new ADE is modeled using UML class diagrams. However the OGC CityGML specification does not provide clear rules on modeling an ADE in UML. This paper describes how the extension was built, which provides general insight how CityGML can be extended for a specific applications starting from the UML diagrams. Several alternatives for modeling ADEs in UML have been investigated and compared. The best suited for the 3D standard option is selected and applied. Open issues and challenges are discussed in the conclusions.

van den Brink, L.; Stoter, J.; Zlatanova, S.

2012-06-01

15

AN ALGEBRAIC APPROACH TO CONSISTENCY CHECKING BETWEEN CLASS DIAGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several diagram methods for data modeling like a class diagram. It is very hard to describe a big data model of a large enterprise system into on e diagram. A large set of partial data models are used during designing an information system for a l arge enterprise. The skill of modelers makes fluctuation and discrepancy among data

HIDEKAZU ENJO; MOTONARI TANABU; JUNICHI IIJIMA

16

Engineering of Validatable Automation Systems Based on an Extension of UML Combined With Function Blocks of IEC 61499  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests a comprehensive engineering framework for software design for component-based distributed industrial automation based on the combination of UML with the function block concept of the newly emerging international standard IEC61499. Four UML diagram types have been used, namely: class, sequence, cooperation and state-chart diagrams. The UML design is transformed then to the executable function block specification following

Victor Dubinin; Valeriy Vyatkin; Thomas Pfeiffer

2005-01-01

17

Building UML Class Diagram Maintainability Prediction Models Based on Early Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that the usage of metrics in the analysis and design of object oriented (OO) software can help designers make better decisions is gaining relevance in software measurement arena. Moreover, the necessity of having early indicators of external quality attributes, such as maintainability, based on early metrics is growing. In addition to this, the aim is to show how

Marcela Genero; Mario Piattini; M. Esperanza Manso; Giovanni Cantone

2003-01-01

18

Impact Analysis and Change Management of UML Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Unified Model Language (UML) analysis\\/design models on large projects leads to a large number of interdependent UML diagrams. As software systems evolve, those diagrams undergo changes to, for instance, correct errors or address changes in the requirements. Those changes can in turn lead to subsequent changes to other elements in the UML diagrams. Impact analysis is then

Lionel C. Briand; Yvan Labiche; L. O'sullivan

2003-01-01

19

Animated Simulation of Integrated UML Behavioral Models Based on Graph Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how integrated UML models combin- ing class, object, use-case, collaboration and state dia- grams can be animated in a domain-specific layout. The presented approach is based on graph transformation, i.e. UML model diagrams are translated to a graph transforma- tion system and the behavior of the integrated model is sim- ulated by applications of graph transformation rules.

Claudia Ermel; Karsten Hölscher; Sabine Kuske; Paul Ziemann

2005-01-01

20

A Survey of UML Based Regression Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regression testing is the process of ensuring software quality by analyzing whether changed parts behave as intended, and unchanged parts are not affected by the modifications. Since it is a costly process, a lot of techniques are proposed in the research literature that suggest testers how to build regression test suite from existing test suite with minimum cost. In this paper, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of using UML diagrams for regression testing and analyze that UML model helps in identifying changes for regression test selection effectively. We survey the existing UML based regression testing techniques and provide an analysis matrix to give a quick insight into prominent features of the literature work. We discuss the open research issues like managing and reducing the size of regression test suite, prioritization of the test cases that would be helpful during strict schedule and resources that remain to be addressed for UML based regression testing.

Fahad, Muhammad; Nadeem, Aamer

21

Design of reconfigurable logic controllers from hierarchical UML state machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a formal design methodology for reconfigurable, modular digital controller logic synthesis. The project of embedded controller starts from behavioral, graphical hierarchical and concurrent state machine description in Unified Modeling Language (UML). After the hierarchical encoding of nested and concurrent superstates, the UML state machine diagram can be directly and automatically mapped into the structured array of cells

Marian Adamski

2009-01-01

22

Automating Architectural View Integration in UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architecting software systems requires more than what general- purpose software development models can provide. Architecting is about mod- eling, solving and interpreting, and in doing so, placing a major emphasis on mismatch identification and reconciliation within and among architectural views (such as diagrams). The emergence of the Unified Modeling Language (UML), which has become a de-facto standard for OO software

Alexander Egyed

1999-01-01

23

Modeling the UMLS using an OODB.  

PubMed Central

The Unified Medical Language System combines many well established authoritative medical informatics terminologies in one system. Such a resource is very valuable to the healthcare industry. However, the UMLS is very large and complex and poses serious comprehension problems for users and maintenance personnel. Furthermore, the sets of concepts of semantic types are not semantically uniform and thus are difficult to study. We describe a method to represent two components of the UMLS, the Metathesaurus (META) and the Semantic Network, as an OODB. The resulting UMLS OODB schema is deeper and more refined than the Semantic Network. It offers semantically uniform classes, which improves support for comprehension and navigation of META. The UMLS OODB also exposes problems in the semantic type classifications.

Gu, H.; Perl, Y.; Geller, J.; Halper, M.; Liu, L. M.; Cimino, J. J.

1999-01-01

24

UMLAnT: an Eclipse plugin for animating and testing UML designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the UML Animator and Tester (UMLAnT), which is an Eclipse plug-in for animating and testing UML models. UMLAnT can be used both by developers in the software industry and students who are learning concepts in object-oriented modeling. UMLAnT helps designers visualize the behavior specified in a UML model by displaying animated object diagrams and sequence diagrams. UMLAnT allows

Trung T. Dinh-trong; Sudipto Ghosh; Michael Hamilton; Brent Wilkins

2005-01-01

25

Automated Analysis of Unified Modeling Language (UML) Specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The Unified Modeling,Language,(UML) is a standard language adopted by the Object Management,Group (OMG) for writing object-oriented (OO) descriptions of software systems. UML allows the analyst to add class-level and system-level constraints. However, UML does not describe how to check the correctness of these constraints. Recent studies have shown,that Symbolic Model Checking can effectively verify large software

Meyer C. Tanuan

2001-01-01

26

Performance Analysis of a UML Micro-business Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a technique to carry out performance analysis of UML specifications. We consider UML specifications composed\\u000a of activity, sequence and deployment diagrams. Specifications are translated into the stochastic ?-calculus, and quantitative analysis is then performed via the BioSpi tool. The approach is applied to a web-based Micro-business\\u000a case study.

Katerina Pokozy-korenblat; Corrado Priami; Paola Quaglia

2004-01-01

27

First steps toward the construction of a hyperphase diagram that covers different classes of short polymer chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a multicanonical Monte Carlo study of flexible and wormlike polymer chains, where we investigate how the polymer structures observed during the simulations, mainly coil, liquid, and crystalline structures, can help to construct a hyperphase diagram that covers different polymer classes according to their thermodynamic behavior.

Sabeur, Sid Ahmed

2014-06-01

28

Automatic Debugging Support for UML Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design of large software systems requires rigorous application of software engineering methods covering all phases of the software process. Debugging during the early design phases is extremely important, because late bug-fixes are expensive. In this paper, we describe an approach which facilitates debugging of UML requirements and designs. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a set of notations for object-orient design of a software system. We have developed an algorithm which translates requirement specifications in the form of annotated sequence diagrams into structured statecharts. This algorithm detects conflicts between sequence diagrams and inconsistencies in the domain knowledge. After synthesizing statecharts from sequence diagrams, these statecharts usually are subject to manual modification and refinement. By using the "backward" direction of our synthesis algorithm. we are able to map modifications made to the statechart back into the requirements (sequence diagrams) and check for conflicts there. Fed back to the user conflicts detected by our algorithm are the basis for deductive-based debugging of requirements and domain theory in very early development stages. Our approach allows to generate explanations oil why there is a conflict and which parts of the specifications are affected.

Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

29

UML-B: Formal modelling and design aided by UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Abstract. The emergence of the UML as a de-facto standard for object-oriented modelling has been mirrored by the success of the B method as a practically useful formal modelling technique. The two notations have much to offer each other. The UML provides an accessible visualisation of models facilitating communication of ideas but lacks formal precise semantics. B, on the

Colin Snook; Michael Butler

30

Assessing the benefits of synchronization-adorned sequence diagrams: two controlled experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning about concurrency and synchronization is difficult for novices. In prior work, we developed saUML, a refinement of UML sequence diagrams, to address these difficulties and found them to be beneficial when compared to text-only presentations. This paper compares saUML to standard UML sequence diagrams to judge their relative effectiveness in enhancing a novice program- mer's understanding of programs with

Shaohua Xie; Eileen Kraemer; R. E. Kurt Stirewalt; Laura K. Dillon; Scott D. Fleming

2008-01-01

31

Carroll Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this number sorting activity students must use a Carroll Diagram to determine which two categories each number fits into. This activity can be completed in pairs or groups on printable versions or it can be completed as a whole class using the interactive white board (IWB). Included with this resource are printable versions of the Carroll Diagrams, guiding questions, extension and support suggestions, and a link to more challenging "More Carroll Diagrams".

Team, Nrich

2012-01-01

32

Implementation of UML Schema to RDBM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple disciplines - especially those within the earth and physical sciences, and increasingly those within social science and medical fields - require Geographic Information (GI) i.e. information concerning phenomena implicitly or explicitly associated with a location relative to the Earth [1]. Therefore geographic datasets are increasingly being shared, exchanged and frequently used for purposes other than those for which they were originally intended. The ISO Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211) together with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) provide a series of standards and guidelines for developing application schemas which should: a) capture relevant conceptual aspects of the data involved; and b) be sufficient to satisfy previously defined use-cases of a specific or cross-domain concerns. In addition, the Hollow World technology offers an accessible and industry-standardised methodology for creating and editing Application Schema UML models which conform to international standards for interoperable GI [2]. We present a technology which seamlessly transforms an Application Schema UML model to a relational database model (RDBM). This technology, using the same UML information model, complements the XML transformation of an information model produced by the FullMoon tool [2]. In preparation for the generation of a RDBM the UML model is first mapped to a collection of OO classes and relationships. Any external dependencies that exist are then resolved through the same mechanism. However, a RDBM does not support a hierarchical (relational) data structure - a function that may be required by UML models. Previous approaches have addressed this problem through use of nested sets or an adjacent list to represent such structure. Our unique strategy addresses the hierarchical data structure issue, whether singular or multiple inheritance, by hiding a delegation pattern within an OO class. This permits the object-relational mapping (ORM) software used to generate the RDBM to easily map the class into the RDBM. In other words the particular structure of the resulting OO class may expose a "composition-like aspect" to the ORM whilst maintaining an "inherited-like aspect" for use within an OO program. This methodology has been used to implement a software application to manages the new CEDA metadata model which is based on MOLES 3.4, Python, Django and SQLAlchemy.

Nagni, M.; Ventouras, S.; Parton, G.

2012-04-01

33

Formalizing Causal Block Diagrams for Modeling a Class of Hybrid Dynamic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to formalize the semantics of causal block diagrams, a language that is extensively used in the design of technical systems. The formalization is based on lambda calculus, and implemented in the declarative functional language Haskell. Specifically, the combination of discrete-time and continuous-time computations, hybrid dynamic systems, is concentrated on. It shows how in many cases this combination

Ben Denckla; Pieter J. Mosterman

2005-01-01

34

Standardizing Clinical Trials Workflow Representation in UML for International Site Comparison  

PubMed Central

Background With the globalization of clinical trials, a growing emphasis has been placed on the standardization of the workflow in order to ensure the reproducibility and reliability of the overall trial. Despite the importance of workflow evaluation, to our knowledge no previous studies have attempted to adapt existing modeling languages to standardize the representation of clinical trials. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a computational language that can be used to model operational workflow, and a UML profile can be developed to standardize UML models within a given domain. This paper's objective is to develop a UML profile to extend the UML Activity Diagram schema into the clinical trials domain, defining a standard representation for clinical trial workflow diagrams in UML. Methods Two Brazilian clinical trial sites in rheumatology and oncology were examined to model their workflow and collect time-motion data. UML modeling was conducted in Eclipse, and a UML profile was developed to incorporate information used in discrete event simulation software. Results Ethnographic observation revealed bottlenecks in workflow: these included tasks requiring full commitment of CRCs, transferring notes from paper to computers, deviations from standard operating procedures, and conflicts between different IT systems. Time-motion analysis revealed that nurses' activities took up the most time in the workflow and contained a high frequency of shorter duration activities. Administrative assistants performed more activities near the beginning and end of the workflow. Overall, clinical trial tasks had a greater frequency than clinic routines or other general activities. Conclusions This paper describes a method for modeling clinical trial workflow in UML and standardizing these workflow diagrams through a UML profile. In the increasingly global environment of clinical trials, the standardization of workflow modeling is a necessary precursor to conducting a comparative analysis of international clinical trials workflows.

de Carvalho, Elias Cesar Araujo; Jayanti, Madhav Kishore; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Kozan, Andreia M. O.; Rodrigues, Maria J.; Shah, Jatin; Loures, Marco R.; Patil, Sunita; Payne, Philip; Pietrobon, Ricardo

2010-01-01

35

UML-B: Formal modeling and design aided by UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The emergence of the ,UML as a de-facto ,standard for object-oriented modelling ,has been mirrored by the success of the B method as a practically useful formal modelling technique. The two notationshave,much to offer each other. The UML providesan accessible visualisation of models facilitating communication of ideas but lacks formal precise semantics. B, on the other hand, has the

Colin F. Snook; Michael J. Butler

2006-01-01

36

Metaphor and Numerical Diagrams in the Arithmetical Activity of a Fourth-Grade Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourth-grade students who participated in a yearlong, whole-class teaching experiment not only reconceptualized natural numbers but also generated flexible solution strategies to perform numerical computations mentally and in writing. Students' reconceptualization of number was mediated by their perceived resemblance between the physical action of…

Saenz-Ludlow, Adalira

2004-01-01

37

The UMLS Knowledge Source server.  

PubMed

The UMLS Knowledge Source server is an evolving tool for accessing information stored in the UMLS Knowledge Sources. The system architecture is based on the client-server paradigm wherein remote site users send their requests to a centrally managed server at the U.S. National Library of Medicine. The client programs can run on platforms supporting the TCP/IP communication protocol. Access to the system is provided through a command-line interface and through an Application Programming Interface. PMID:8591140

McCray, A T; Razi, A

1995-01-01

38

Evaluating UML Using a Generic Quality Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many researchers have evaluated different parts of UML™ and have come up with suggestions for improvements to different parts of the language. This chapter looks at UML (version 1.4) as a whole, and contains an overview evaluation of UML and how it is described in the OMG™ standard. The evaluation is done using a general framework for understanding quality of

John Krogstie

2003-01-01

39

Design Patterns Application in UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Unied Modeling Language (UML) currently proposes a mechanism to model recurrent design structures: the parameterized collaborations. The main goal of this mechanism is to model the struc- ture of Design Patterns. This is an interesting feature because it can help designers to point out pattern application without spending time with intricate design details. Moreover, it can also help designers

Gerson Sunyé; Alain Le Guennec; Jean-marc Jézéquel

2000-01-01

40

Modeling Input Validation in UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security is an integral part of most software systems but it is not considered as an explicit part in the development process yet. Input validation is the most critical part of software security that is not covered in the design phase of software development life-cycle resulting in many security vulnerabilities. Our objective is to extend UML to new integrated framework

Pedram Hayati; Nastaran Jafari; S. Mohammad Rezaei; Saeed Sarenche; Vidyasagar Potdar

2008-01-01

41

Integrating Architectural Views in UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support the development of software products we frequently make use of general-purposesoftware development models (and tools) such as the Unified Modeling Language (UML). However,software development in general and software architecting in particular (which is the main focus of ourwork) require more than what those general-purpose models can provide. Architecting is about:1) modeling the real problem adequately2) solving the model

Alexander Egyed

1999-01-01

42

Transforming Functional Requirements from UML into BPEL to Efficiently Develop SOA-Based Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intended behavior of any system such as services, tasks or functions can be captured by functional requirements of the system. As our dependence on online services has grown steadily, the web applications are being developed employing the SOA. BPEL4WS provides a means for expressing functional requirements of an SOA-based system by providing constructs to capture business goals and objectives for the system. In this paper we propose an approach for transforming user-centered requirements captured using UML into a corresponding BPEL specification, where the business processes are captured by means of use-cases from which UML sequence diagrams and activity diagrams are extracted. Subsequently these UML models are mapped to BPEL specifications that capture the essence of the initial business requirements to develop the SOA-based system by employing CASE tools. A student housing system is used as a case study to illustrate this approach and the system is validated using NetBeans.

Vemulapalli, Anisha; Subramanian, Nary

43

Modeling Value Chain Analysis of Distance Education using UML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distance education continues to grow as a methodology for the delivery of course content in higher education in India as well as abroad. To manage this growing demand and to provide certain flexibility, there must be certain strategic planning about the use of ICT tools. Value chain analysis is a framework for breaking down the sequence of business functions into a set of activities through which utility could be added to service. Thus it can help to determine the competitive advantage that is enjoyed by an institute. To implement these business functions certain visual representation is required. UML allows for this representation by using a set of structural and behavioral diagrams. In this paper, the first section defines a framework for value chain analysis and highlights its advantages. The second section gives a brief overview of related work in this field. The third section gives a brief discussion on distance education. The fourth section very briefly introduces UML. The fifth section models value chain of distance education using UML. Finally we discuss the limitations and the problems posed in this domain.

Acharya, Anal; Mukherjee, Soumen

2010-10-01

44

Automatic Debugging Support for UML Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of large software systems requires rigorous application of software engineering methods covering all phases of the software pro- cess. Debugging during the early design phases is extremely impor- tant, because late bug-fixes are expensive. In this paper, we describe an approach which facilitates debugging of UML requirements and designs. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a set of notations

Johann Schumann

2000-01-01

45

Teaching Object-Oriented Modelling Using UML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper elaborates on experiences and lessons learned from the course on object-oriented analyses and design at the Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad. In the paper we identify a set of issues concerning teaching modeling and UML. It is described experience of teaching UML to students with and without previous knowledge of object-oriented programming.

Boberi?-Krsti?ev, Danijela; Tešendi?, Danijela

2011-09-01

46

Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

47

Flow Diagram Decomposition Using Graph Transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key challenge of model transformations in model-driven development is in transforming higher-level abstract models into more concrete ones that can be used to generate implementation level models, including executable business process representations and program code. Many of the modelling languages (like UML Activity Diagrams or BPMN) use unstructured flow graphs to describe the operation sequence of a business process.

A. Rensink; M. V. Zimakova

2009-01-01

48

Semantic web services: from OWL-S via UML to MVC applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

OWL-S is used to describe the semantics of Web Services so that the discovery, selection, invocation and composition of these services can be automated. Prior research has shown that UML diagrams can be used to automatically generate Semantic Web Service descriptions in OWL-S. If complete Web applications could be generated from OWL-S descriptions, then a higher level of automation would

Cássio V. S. Prazeres; César A. C. Teixeira; Ethan V. Munson; Maria Da Graça Campos Pimentel

2009-01-01

49

A UML Profile to Model Safety-Critical Embedded Real-Time Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. To enable the description of safety-related software, a UML profile based on standards is presented. An inherently safe structure associated with well proven constructs, e.g., subsets of the real-time programming language PEARL according to DIN 66253-2 and of Function Block Diagrams according to IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499, resp., as well as a safety-oriented execution architecture based on concepts

Shourong Lu; Wolfgang A. Halang

2007-01-01

50

Stereo Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is an introduction to stereo diagrams. Students draw stereo diagrams for various models, determine the point group and crystal system of certain crystal shapes, and determine which block models match given stereo diagrams.

Perkins, Dexter

51

Mapping Cancer Patients' Symptoms to UMLS Concepts  

PubMed Central

A prerequisite for patient-friendly personal health records (PHR) is their ability to allow seamless integration of patient terminology with professional terminologies. In this work, we mapped a set of symptoms/problems from the self-assessment component of a cancer patient support system to concepts in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. Our objective was to learn how the UMLS can be used as a tool to connect patient terminology with professional vocabularies. The mapping to UMLS was done with the help of ten expert cancer nurses who evaluated concepts, their synonyms and placement in the source vocabulary hierarchical structure. The UMLS concepts were also compared with terms and phrases found in patient medical records that addressed the same set of symptoms. In this study we observed several problems related to the use of the UMLS Metathesaurus as a tool to connect from patient-level expressions to professional-level classification systems. More work is needed to increase interoperability between layperson health applications and clinical systems.

Slaughter, Laura; Ruland, Cornelia; Rotegard, Ann Kristin

2005-01-01

52

USP: modeling security protocol with UML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of security protocols is difficult and extremely complicated. In this paper, we presents a framework for modeling security protocol, UML extension for security protocol (USP), which makes it possible to the development of security protocols in an intuitive and visual way. For further security analysis of USP model, we refer to a precisely defined semantics of behavioral aspects. The formal semantics of a simplified fragment of UML builds on dynamic semantics of UML State Machines. As a case study, Denning-Sacco protocol will be described with USP. Moreover, the security protocol described with USP can be converted to an implementation or connected with existing formal analysis framework if appropriate converter tools are available.

Li, Zhitang; Xie, Yunfeng; Li, Weiming

2006-10-01

53

UMLS Concept Indexing for Production Databases  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To explore the feasibility of using the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus as the basis for a computational strategy to identify concepts in medical narrative text preparatory to indexing. To quantitatively evaluate this strategy in terms of true positives, false positives (spuriously identified concepts) and false negatives (concepts missed by the identification process). Methods: Using the 1999 UMLS Metathesaurus, the authors processed a training set of 100 documents (50 discharge summaries, 50 surgical notes) with a concept-identification program, whose output was manually analyzed. They flagged concepts that were erroneously identified and added new concepts that were not identified by the program, recording the reason for failure in such cases. After several refinements to both their algorithm and the UMLS subset on which it operated, they deployed the program on a test set of 24 documents (12 of each kind). Results: Of 8,745 matches in the training set, 7,227 (82.6 percent ) were true positives, whereas of 1,701 matches in the test set, 1,298 (76.3 percent) were true positives. Matches other than true positive indicated potential problems in production-mode concept indexing. Examples of causes of problems were redundant concepts in the UMLS, homonyms, acronyms, abbreviations and elisions, concepts that were missing from the UMLS, proper names, and spelling errors. Conclusions: The error rate was too high for concept indexing to be the only production-mode means of preprocessing medical narrative. Considerable curation needs to be performed to define a UMLS subset that is suitable for concept matching.

Nadkarni, Prakash; Chen, Roland; Brandt, Cynthia

2001-01-01

54

A Case Study for HRT-UML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hard-Real-Time Unified Modelling Language (HRT-UML) method replaces HRT-HOOD with a customized version of UML: it incorporates all the advantages of the HRT-HOOD method and improves the HRT-HOOD design concepts by converging to a more powerful and expressive modelling notation, that is currently a de-facto standard. This paper presents the principles of such a method and the related support toolset and describes the results of a case study showing how the method can be a comprehensive solution to the modelling of Hard Real Time systems.

D'Alessandro, M.; Mazzini, S.; Donati, F.

55

UML models for real-time embedded system  

Microsoft Academic Search

n this paper we propose a UML\\/MDA approach (MoPCoM methodology) to design high quality real-time embed- ded systems. We have defined a set of rules to build embedded systems UML models, where VHDL code is automatically gener- ated from the UML models by means of an MDA approach. We also use the MARTE profile as an UML extension to describe

Jorgiano Vidal; Florent de Lamotte; Guy Gogniat

56

Finding UMLS Metathesaurus Concepts in MEDLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entire collection of about 11.5 million MEDLINE abstracts was processed to extract 549 million noun phrases using a shallow syntactic parser. English language strings in the 2002 and 2001 releases of the UMLS Metathesaurus were then matched against these phrases using flexible matching techniques. 34% of the Metathesaurus names occurring in 30% of the concepts were found in the

Suresh Srinivasan; Thomas C. Rindflesch; William T. Hole; Alan R. Aronson; James G. Mork

2002-01-01

57

Foundations on Generation of Relationships Between Classes Based on Initial Business Knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter focuses on the development of the main component of platform independent model (PIM) of Model Driven Architecture, e.g., class diagram defined in Unified Modeling Language (UML), which has necessary details for transformation into platform specific model (PSM). It is important to formulate core principles of development of well-structured class diagram at a conceptual level, using knowledge of the problem domain, which consists of two interrelated models of system aspects - business processes and concept presentation. Definition of relationships of classes is important for PSM generation; therefore, the research on how it could be defined is performed. The hypothesis that it is possible to derive a class structure from initial business information is adduced. Information about the problem domain is presented in the form of two-hemisphere model that describes two interrelated parts of the most important aspects of a system, namely business process and concept models. These models serve as a source model for class diagram receiving. Capacity for the class diagram generation, based on the two-hemisphere model, is represented by a collection of graph transformations and illustrated with examples, where definition of different kinds of relationships (namely aggregation, dependency, generalization) is displayed.

Nikiforova, Oksana; Pavlova, Natalya

58

Activity Diagram Patterns for Modeling Quality Constraints in Business Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality management is an important aspect of business processes. Organizations must implement quality requirements, e.g., according to standards like ISO 9001. Existing approaches on business process modeling provide no explicit means to enforce such requirements. UML Activity Diagrams are a well recognized way of representing those business processes. In this paper, we present an approach for enforcing quality requirements in

Alexander Foerster; Gregor Engels; Tim Schattkowsky

2005-01-01

59

Towards model structuring based on flow diagram decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key challenge of model transformations in model-driven development is in transforming higher-level abstract models into more concrete ones that can be used to generate implementation level models, including executable business process representations and program code. Many of the modelling languages (like UML Activity Diagrams or BPMN) use unstructured flow graphs to describe the operation sequence of a business process.

Arend Rensink; Maria Zimakova; M. Ak?it; E. Kindler; E. Roubtsova; A. McNeile

2009-01-01

60

Venn Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are given a Venn diagram with certain rules and an element. They must then determine where in the Venn diagram the element belongs. This activity allows students to practice placing elements in Venn diagrams as well as reviewing mathematical terms associated with the different rules. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

61

Lucidchart: Diagramming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For all those who have wrestled with creating charts and diagrams in word processors, the Google Chrome application Lucidchart may be a long-awaited answer. Users can start using the intuitive drag-and-drop interface right away, although a free signup is required to save diagrams. By sharing a link with coworkers, project collaborators can work on the same diagram at the same time. This application is compatible with all computers running Google Chrome.

2012-08-24

62

Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program computes system reliability for very general class of reliability block diagrams. Four factors are considered in calculating probability of system success: active block redundancy, standby block redundancy, partial redundancy, and presence of equivalent blocks in the diagram.

Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, E. Y.

1975-01-01

63

Venn Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive problem provides an opportunity for children to become familiar with Venn diagrams, while reinforcing knowledge of number properties. Students must place the numbers from 1 to 40 into a Venn diagram of two sets with an intersection. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

2007-09-01

64

UMLS-based biomedical annotation of functional genomic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is a potential resource to provide associations between genes and medical knowledge. It may complement GO annotation, which provides information about molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components associated with genes and gene products. We present the advantages of a UMLS-based annotation (BioMeKE). The annotation method captures the UMLS concepts related to a gene

Gwenaëlle Marquet; Emilie Guerin; Fouzia Moussouni; Olivier Loréal; Anita Burgun

65

Venn Diagrams and Logic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math lesson from Illuminations uses Venn diagrams to illustrate direct, indirect and transitive reasoning. Students will learn the definitions of direct, indirect and transitive reasoning and give examples of each. Several student activity sheets are included. The material is intended for grades 9-12 and should require 2 and a half class periods to complete.

2011-01-04

66

Concepts and Synonymy in the UMLS Metathesaurus  

PubMed Central

This paper advances a detailed exploration of the complex relationships among terms, concepts, and syn­onymy in the UMLS (Uni?ed Medical Language System) Metathesaurus, and proposes the study and under­standing of the Metathesaurus from a model-theoretic perspective. Initial sections provide the background and motivation for such an approach, and a careful informal treatment of these notions is offered as a con­text and basis for the formal analysis. What emerges from this is a set of puzzles and confusions in the Metathesaurus and its literature pertaining to synonymy and its relation to terms and concepts. A model theory for a segment of the Metathesaurus is then constructed, and its adequacy relative to the informal treatment is demonstrated. Finally, it is shown how this approach clari?es and addresses the puzzles educed from the informal discussion, and how the model-theoretic perspective may be employed to eval­uate some fundamental criticisms of the Metathesaurus. For users of the UMLS, two signi?cant results of this analysis are a rigorous clari?cation of the different senses of synonymy that appear in treatments of the Metathesaurus and an illustration of the dangers in computing inferences involving ambiguous terms.

Merrill, Gary H.

2009-01-01

67

Hovmoller Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hovmoller diagrams are great for displaying large amounts of data in a meaningful and understandable form. The image on the left graphical shows the El Nino signal in the equatorial Pacific (100 W to 140 E ...

68

Design and Optimization of Distributed Control System using UML Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses with the utilization of the UML language for project, realization and optimization of distributed control systems. The work is oriented on the part of distributed control system with embedded systems interconnected by the industrial bus CAN. The article describes the project methodology, UML model and optimization of the system according to the target function. Also example of

Jirí Kotzian; Vilém Srovnal

2004-01-01

69

Using Unified Modelling Language (UML) as a process-modelling technique for clinical-research process improvement.  

PubMed

The Primary Care Data Quality programme (PCDQ) is a quality-improvement programme which processes routinely collected general practice computer data. Patient data collected from a wide range of different brands of clinical computer systems are aggregated, processed, and fed back to practices in an educational context to improve the quality of care. Process modelling is a well-established approach used to gain understanding and systematic appraisal, and identify areas of improvement of a business process. Unified modelling language (UML) is a general purpose modelling technique used for this purpose. We used UML to appraise the PCDQ process to see if the efficiency and predictability of the process could be improved. Activity analysis and thinking-aloud sessions were used to collect data to generate UML diagrams. The UML model highlighted the sequential nature of the current process as a barrier for efficiency gains. It also identified the uneven distribution of process controls, lack of symmetric communication channels, critical dependencies among processing stages, and failure to implement all the lessons learned in the piloting phase. It also suggested that improved structured reporting at each stage - especially from the pilot phase, parallel processing of data and correctly positioned process controls - should improve the efficiency and predictability of research projects. Process modelling provided a rational basis for the critical appraisal of a clinical data processing system; its potential maybe underutilized within health care. PMID:17365645

Kumarapeli, P; De Lusignan, S; Ellis, T; Jones, B

2007-03-01

70

A UML-based meta-framework for system design in public health informatics.  

PubMed Central

The National Agenda for Public Health Informatics calls for standards in data and knowledge representation within public health, which requires a multi-level framework that links all aspects of public health. METHOD: The literature of public health informatics and public health informatics application were reviewed. A UML-based systems analysis was performed. Face validity of results was evaluated in analyzing the public health domain of lead poisoning. RESULTS: The core class of the UML-based system of public health is the Public Health Domain, which is associated with multiple Problems, for which Actors provide Perspectives. Actors take Actions that define, generate, utilize and/or evaluate Data Sources. The life cycle of the domain is a sequence of activities attributed to its problems that spirals through multiple iterations and realizations within a domain. CONCLUSION: The proposed Public Health Informatics Meta-Framework broadens efforts in applying informatics principles to the field of public health

Orlova, Anna O.; Lehmann, Harold

2002-01-01

71

Guelph Physics Tutorials: Free Body Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers a tutorial on free body diagrams. The tutorial includes an introduction to free body diagrams, example problems, a series of self-paced questions, and a free body diagram java applet. This is part of series of tutorials on physics and mathematics used in physics classes.

2007-04-23

72

Venn diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These online resources offer varied opportunities to work with Venn diagrams, one of many tools used in logic and reasoning. Their use is especially helpful in learning foundational notions of definition and set theory. One of the five Process Standards promoted by NCTM, Reasoning and Proof requires middle school students to sharpen such skills as they learn to develop mathematical argument.

National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Middle School Portal Staff

2008-03-10

73

Educational Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Peirce, diagrammatic constructions are represented by words in a sentence, an algebraic formula, or a graphic display. They are the basis of all valid reasoning and provide significant means for discovering unexpected truths. Sources and uses of diagrams in education are discussed in relation to Peirce's ideas. Nineteen references are…

Moxley, Roy

1983-01-01

74

State-transition diagrams for biologists.  

PubMed

It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines. PMID:22844438

Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

2012-01-01

75

State-Transition Diagrams for Biologists  

PubMed Central

It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines.

Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Veronique

2012-01-01

76

HRT-UML: a design method for hard real-time systems based on the UML notation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hard Real-Time-Unified Modelling Language (HRT-UML) method aims at providing a comprehensive solution to the modeling of Hard Real Time systems. The experience shows that the design of Hard Real-Time systems needs methodologies suitable for the modeling and analysis of aspects related to time, schedulability and performance. In the context of the European Aerospace community a reference method for design is Hierarchical Object Oriented Design (HOOD) and in particular its extension for the modeling of hard real time systems, Hard Real-Time-Hierarchical Object Oriented Design (HRT-HOOD), recommended by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the development of on-board systems. On the other hand in recent years the Unified Modelling Language (UML) has been gaining a very large acceptance in a wide range of domains, all over the world, becoming a de-facto international standard. Tool vendors are very active in this potentially big market. In the Aerospace domain the common opinion is that UML, as a general notation, is not suitable for Hard Real Time systems, even if its importance is recognized as a standard and as a technological trend in the near future. These considerations suggest the possibility of replacing the HRT-HOOD method with a customized version of UML, that incorporates the advantages of both standards and complements the weak points. This approach has the clear advantage of making HRT-HOOD converge on a more powerful and expressive modeling notation. The paper identifies a mapping of the HRT-HOOD semantics into the UML one, and proposes a UML extension profile, that we call HRT-UML, based on the UML standard extension mechanisms, to fully represent HRT-HOOD design concepts. Finally it discusses the relationships between our profile and the UML profile for schedulability, performance and time, adopted by OMG in November 2001.

D'Alessandro, Massimo; Mazzini, Silvia; di Natale, Marco; Lipari, Giuseppe

2002-07-01

77

Unambiguous UML Composite Structures: The OMEGA2 Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from version 2.0, UML introduced hierarchical composite structures, which are a very expressive way of defining complex software architectures, but which have a very loosely defined semantics in the standard. In this paper we propose a set of consistency rules that ensure UML composite structures are unambiguous and can be given a precise semantics. Our primary application of the static consistency rules defined in this paper is within the OMEGA UML profile [6], but these rules are general and applicable to other hierarchical component models based on the same concepts, such as MARTE GCM or SysML. The rule set has been formalized in OCL and is currently used in the OMEGA UML compiler.

Ober, Iulian; Dragomir, Iulia

78

ASN.1: defining a grammar for the UMLS knowledge sources.  

PubMed Central

The unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project provides resources on an experimental basis to the research community. In 1995 the four UMLS Knowledge Sources have been provided in an additional data format, Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1). The benefits of ASN.1 are that it provides a standard, formal grammar for complex data and allows exchange of that data in a way which is independent of the particular software and hardware environment in which the data are created and stored. The paper begins with an introduction to the ASN.1 standard itself. It continues with a discussion of the ASN.1 implementation of the UMLS Knowledge Sources and some of the consequences for the newly released UMLS Knowledge Source Server. It concludes with a discussion of some of the benefits of using ASN.1 encoded data.

McCray, A. T.; Divita, G.

1995-01-01

79

Software cost estimation using class point metrics (CPM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating cost for the software project is one of the most important and crucial task to maintain the software reliability. Many cost estimation models have been reported till now, but most of them have significant drawbacks due to rapid changes in the technology. For example, Source Line Of Code (SLOC) can only be counted when the software construction is complete. Function Point (FP) metric is deficient in handling Object Oriented Technology, as it was designed for procedural languages such as COBOL. Since Object-Oriented Programming became a popular development practice, most of the software companies started applying the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The objective of this research is to develop a new cost estimation model with the application of class diagram for the software cost estimation.

Ghode, Aditi; Periyasamy, Kasilingam

2011-12-01

80

Object Modeling of Cryptographic Algorithms with UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes Object-Oriented modeling of cryptographic primitives and algorithms. Instead of just designing an Object-Oriented\\u000a cryptographic interface the primitives and algorithms themselves are modeled and assigned to class hierarchy. Models are based\\u000a on abstract classes or interfaces which define concept of functions manipulating data. Manipulation is done in buffers which\\u000a also are classes. Models are further used to define

Rauli Kaksonen; Petri Mähönen

1998-01-01

81

Describing different brain computer interface systems through a unique model: a UML implementation.  

PubMed

All the protocols currently implemented in brain computer interface (BCI) experiments are characterized by different structural and temporal entities. Moreover, due to the lack of a unique descriptive model for BCI systems, there is not a standard way to define the structure and the timing of a BCI experimental session among different research groups and there is also great discordance on the meaning of the most common terms dealing with BCI, such as trial, run and session. The aim of this paper is to provide a unified modeling language (UML) implementation of BCI systems through a unique dynamic model which is able to describe the main protocols defined in the literature (P300, mu-rhythms, SCP, SSVEP, fMRI) and demonstrates to be reasonable and adjustable according to different requirements. This model includes a set of definitions of the typical entities encountered in a BCI, diagrams which explain the structural correlations among them and a detailed description of the timing of a trial. This last represents an innovation with respect to the models already proposed in the literature. The UML documentation and the possibility of adapting this model to the different BCI systems built to date, make it a basis for the implementation of new systems and a mean for the unification and dissemination of resources. The model with all the diagrams and definitions reported in the paper are the core of the body language framework, a free set of routines and tools for the implementation, optimization and delivery of cross-platform BCI systems. PMID:18607780

Quitadamo, Lucia Rita; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Bianchi, Luigi

2008-01-01

82

Venn Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unions, intersections, and differences: This can all be quite confusing to students trying to enter the potentially tricky world of Venn Diagrams. Fortunately, Alfredo Jiminez of Pennsylvania State University, Hazleton has created this handy Flash-enabled teaching application designed to provide students with an engaging way to learn about this subject. The project is party of the Digital Classroom Resources at the MAA Mathematical Sciences Digital Library, and visitors will find this particular learning activity quite easy to use. The interactive tool contains seven sections, including those dealing with the principles of union and intersection, distributive properties, and De Morgan's laws. Within each section, visitors can try their hand with a series of short questions and then take advantage of some review materials and, of course, a few basic tests.

Jiminez, Alfredo

83

Venn Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unions, intersections, and differences: This can all be quite confusing to students trying to enter the potentially tricky world of Venn Diagrams. Fortunately, Alfredo Jiminez of Pennsylvania State University, Hazleton has created this handy Flash-enabled teaching application designed to provide students with an engaging way to learn about this subject. The project is party of the Digital Classroom Resources at the MAA Mathematical Sciences Digital Library, and visitors will find this particular learning activity quite easy to use. The interactive tool contains seven sections, including those dealing with the principles of union and intersection, distributive properties, and De Morgan's laws. Within each section, visitors can try their hand with a series of short questions and then take advantage of some review materials and, of course, a few basic tests.

Jiminez, Alfredo

2007-09-13

84

Model Based Test Case Prioritization For Testing Component Dependency In CBSD Using UML Sequence Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software maintenance is an important and costly activity of the software development lifecycle. To ensure proper maintenance the software undergoes regression testing. It is very inefficient to re execute every test case in regression testing for small changes. Hence test case prioritization is a technique to schedule the test case in an order that maximizes some objective function. A variety

2010-01-01

85

An Overview of Research on Reverse Engineering XML Schemas into UML Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensible Markup Language (XML) has become a standard for data representation and exchange over the Internet. XML schemas are often used to define vocabularies of XML document types and to validate whether the XML documents adhere to the rules defined in the XML schemas. Since XML schemas are textual, programmatic, logical-level schemas, users of XML schemas often find it difficult

Augustin Yu; Robert Steele

2005-01-01

86

An Approach to Generate the Thin-Threads from the UML Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software testing plays a crucial role in assuring software quality. One of the most important issues in software testing research is the generation of the test cases. For scenario-based software testing, the thin-threads, which are the usage scenarios in a software system from the end user's point of view, are frequently used to generate test cases. However, the generation of

Xiaoqing Bai; Chiou Peng Lam; Huaizhong Li

2004-01-01

87

Inheritance of Dynamic Behavior in UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the key issues of object-oriented modeling and design is in- heritance. It allows for the definition of subclasses that inherit features of some superclass. Inheritance is well defined for static properties of classes such as at- tributes and operations. However, there is no general agreement on the meaning of inheritance when considering the dynamic behavior of objects, captured

88

A Realistic Empirical Evaluation of the Costs and Benefits of UML in Software Maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the de facto standard for object-oriented software analysis and design modeling. However, few empirical studies exist which investigate the costs and evaluate the benefits of using UML in realistic contexts. Such studies are needed so that the software industry can make informed decisions regarding the extent to which they should adopt UML in their

Wojciech James Dzidek; Erik Arisholm; Lionel C. Briand

2008-01-01

89

UML based specifications of PDM product structure and workflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the use of a UML approach for the specifications of a PDM system (product data management) implementation. A PDM system enables the management of the whole product data and related information about its entire lifecycle.The main goal of this paper is to highlight the added value of using an object-oriented approach for modelling, specifying and implementing

Benoît Eynard; Thomas Gallet; Pierre Nowak; Lionel Roucoules

2004-01-01

90

Efficient Algorithms for Verification of UML Statechart Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we present algorithms devised for the automatic verification of UML(Unified Modeling Language) statechart models. The basic algorithm checks the safety property violation during the construction (on- the-fly) of the state space graph and if any property violation is found, it generates a counter example. The second algorithm builds the state space considering only those events, which could

Chikmagalur Manjappa Prashanth; K. Chandrashekhar Shet

2009-01-01

91

MDA: Revenge of the Modelers or UML Utopia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling is at the core of many disciplines, but it is especially important in engineering because it facilitates communication and constructs complex things from smaller parts. Model engineering or model-driven development, treats software development as a set of transformations between successive models from requirements to analysis, to design, to implementation, to deployment. We discuss UML and MDA tools for developing

Dave A. Thomas

2004-01-01

92

Evaluation Methodology for UML and GML Application Schemas Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INSPIRE Directive implementation in Poland has caused the significant increase of interest in making spatial data and services available, particularly among public administration and private institutions. This entailed a series of initiatives that aim to harmonise different spatial data sets, so to ensure their internal logical and semantic coherence. Harmonisation lets to reach the interoperability of spatial databases, then among other things enables joining them together. The process of harmonisation requires either working out new data structures or adjusting existing data structures of spatial databases to INSPIRE guidelines and recommendations. Data structures are described with the use of UML and GML application schemas. Although working out accurate and correct application schemas isn't an easy task. There should be considered many issues, for instance recommendations of ISO 19100 series of Geographic Information Standards, appropriate regulations for given problem or topic, production opportunities and limitations (software, tools). In addition, GML application schema is deeply connected with UML application schema, it should be its translation. Not everything that can be expressed in UML, though can be directly expressed in GML, and this can have significant influence on the spatial data sets interoperability, and thereby the ability to valid data exchange. For these reasons, the capability to examine and estimate UML and GML application schemas quality, therein also the capability to explore their entropy, would be very important. The principal subject of this research is to propose an evaluation methodology for UML and GML application schemas quality prepared in the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography in Poland within the INSPIRE Directive implementation works.

Chojka, Agnieszka

2014-05-01

93

Validating timed UML models by simulation and verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a technique and a tool for model-checking operational (design level) UML models based on a mapping to\\u000a a model of communicating extended timed automata. The target language of the mapping is the IF format, for which existing\\u000a model-checking and simulation tools can be used.\\u000a \\u000a Our approach takes into consideration most of the structural and behavioural features of

Iulian Ober; Susanne Graf; Ileana Ober

2006-01-01

94

Mapping product structures between CAD and PDM systems using UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The product data exchange,between heterogeneous,CAD and PDM systems is a crucial issue for the integration of product development systems. STEP offers an efficient mechanism,of product data exchange,between heterogeneous,systems. This paper introduces a UML-based mapping,methodology,for the product data models. The suggested mapping,method,has been applied to exchange,the product structure data between a CAD system and a PDM system. Based on the

Oh Youchon; Soon-hung Han; Hyowon Suh

2001-01-01

95

Using UML\\/OCL Constraints for Relational Database Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrating relational databases into object-oriented applications is state of the art in software development practice. In\\u000a database applications, it is beneficial if constraints like business rules are encoded as part of the database schema and\\u000a not in the application programs. The Object Constraint Language (OCL) as part of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) provides\\u000a the posssibility to express constraints in

Birgit Demuth; Heinrich Hussmann

1999-01-01

96

Classification and trend analysis of UML books (1997–2009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical books of each subject area denote the level of maturity and knowledge demand in that area. According to the Google\\u000a Books database, about 208 Unified Modeling Language (UML) books have been published from its inception in 1997 until 2009.\\u000a While various book reviews are frequently published in various sources (e.g., IEEE Software Bookshelf), there are no studies\\u000a to classify

Vahid Garousi

97

Phase Diagrams and Chemographic Projections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is a good way to get students thinking about the phase rule, metastable and stable reactions and phase diagrams. The exercise contains a lot of reading, and is suitable for in-class work or for homework. The idea is that students can do this on their own with little help from their instructor. The students only answer a few questions making this is more of a tutorial than a worksheet.

Perkins, Dexter

98

Students' Different Understandings of Class Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a…

Boustedt, Jonas

2012-01-01

99

Conceptual Model of Clinical Governance Information System for Statistical Indicators by Using UML in Two Sample Hospitals  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was investigating situation and presenting a conceptual model for clinical governance information system by using UML in two sample hospitals. Background: However, use of information is one of the fundamental components of clinical governance; but unfortunately, it does not pay much attention to information management. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in October 2012- May 2013. Data were gathered through questionnaires and interviews in two sample hospitals. Face and content validity of the questionnaire has been confirmed by experts. Data were collected from a pilot hospital and reforms were carried out and Final questionnaire was prepared. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and SPSS 16 software. Results: With the scenario derived from questionnaires, UML diagrams are presented by using Rational Rose 7 software. The results showed that 32.14 percent Indicators of the hospitals were calculated. Database was not designed and 100 percent of the hospital’s clinical governance was required to create a database. Conclusion: Clinical governance unit of hospitals to perform its mission, do not have access to all the needed indicators. Defining of Processes and drawing of models and creating of database are essential for designing of information systems.

Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Farzandipoor, Mehrdad; Arabfard, Masoud; Hosseini, Azam Haj Mohammad

2014-01-01

100

A tool for sharing annotated research data: the "Category 0" UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) vocabularies  

PubMed Central

Background Large biomedical data sets have become increasingly important resources for medical researchers. Modern biomedical data sets are annotated with standard terms to describe the data and to support data linking between databases. The largest curated listing of biomedical terms is the the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The UMLS contains more than 2 million biomedical terms collected from nearly 100 medical vocabularies. Many of the vocabularies contained in the UMLS carry restrictions on their use, making it impossible to share or distribute UMLS-annotated research data. However, a subset of the UMLS vocabularies, designated Category 0 by UMLS, can be used to annotate and share data sets without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Methods The UMLS Category 0 vocabularies can be extracted from the parent UMLS metathesaurus using a Perl script supplied with this article. There are 43 Category 0 vocabularies that can be used freely for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Among the Category 0 vocabularies are: MESH (Medical Subject Headings), NCBI (National Center for Bioinformatics) Taxonomy and ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modifiers). Results The extraction file containing all Category 0 terms and concepts is 72,581,138 bytes in length and contains 1,029,161 terms. The UMLS Metathesaurus MRCON file (January, 2003) is 151,048,493 bytes in length and contains 2,146,899 terms. Therefore the Category 0 vocabularies, in aggregate, are about half the size of the UMLS metathesaurus. A large publicly available listing of 567,921 different medical phrases were automatically coded using the full UMLS metatathesaurus and the Category 0 vocabularies. There were 545,321 phrases with one or more matches against UMLS terms while 468,785 phrases had one or more matches against the Category 0 terms. This indicates that when the two vocabularies are evaluated by their fitness to find at least one term for a medical phrase, the Category 0 vocabularies performed 86% as well as the complete UMLS metathesaurus. Conclusion The Category 0 vocabularies of UMLS constitute a large nomenclature that can be used by biomedical researchers to annotate biomedical data. These annotated data sets can be distributed for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. These vocabularies may be of particular importance for sharing heterogeneous data from diverse biomedical data sets. The software tools to extract the Category 0 vocabularies are freely available Perl scripts entered into the public domain and distributed with this article.

Berman, Jules J

2003-01-01

101

Effectively processing medical term queries on the UMLS Metathesaurus by layered dynamic programming  

PubMed Central

Background Mapping medical terms to standardized UMLS concepts is a basic step for leveraging biomedical texts in data management and analysis. However, available methods and tools have major limitations in handling queries over the UMLS Metathesaurus that contain inaccurate query terms, which frequently appear in real world applications. Methods To provide a practical solution for this task, we propose a layered dynamic programming mapping (LDPMap) approach, which can efficiently handle these queries. LDPMap uses indexing and two layers of dynamic programming techniques to efficiently map a biomedical term to a UMLS concept. Results Our empirical study shows that LDPMap achieves much faster query speeds than LCS. In comparison to the UMLS Metathesaurus Browser and MetaMap, LDPMap is much more effective in querying the UMLS Metathesaurus for inaccurately spelled medical terms, long medical terms, and medical terms with special characters. Conclusions These results demonstrate that LDPMap is an efficient and effective method for mapping medical terms to the UMLS Metathesaurus.

2014-01-01

102

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lecture that introduces the HR diagram. The HR diagram is a plot of luminosity in solar units on the Y axis and stellar temperature on the X axis. The HR diagram is a key tool in tracing the evolution of stars. The lecture discusses the location of different stars on the diagram. It also includes a discussion of thermonuclear fusion and the neutrino problem. A quiz follows the lecture.

Schombert, Jim

2008-12-15

103

Generalized Block Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventions and rules for generalized block diagram representation are developed and the relationships between generalized block diagrams and network graphs discussed. The generalized block diagram as developed here should prove of value in the computer-aided study of complex systems.

A. G. J. MACFARLANE

1967-01-01

104

Industrial communication protocol engineering using UML 2.0: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of Unified Modeling Language version 2.0 (UML 2.0) along with its UML testing profile in the recent years, promises to be a major break through in the field of formal description techniques. Thus in this paper we evaluate the suitability of UML 2.0 combined with its Testing profile for the engineering of industrial communication protocols using a case

Barath Kumar; Juergen Jasperneite

2008-01-01

105

SSBRP Communication & Data System Development using the Unified Modeling Language (UML)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the standard method for specifying, visualizing, and documenting the artifacts of an object-oriented system under development. UML is the unification of the object-oriented methods developed by Grady Booch and James Rumbaugh, and of the Use Case Model developed by Ivar Jacobson. This paper discusses the application of UML by the Communications and Data Systems (CDS) team to model the ground control and command of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) User Operations Facility (UOF). UML is used to define the context of the system, the logical static structure, the life history of objects, and the interactions among objects.

Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

106

A DIAGRAM APPROACH TO AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF JSP\\/SERVLET WEB APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We defined diagrams called Web transition diagrams to rep- resent overall behavior of Web applications. Using these diagrams, we can generate server program type Web ap- plications such as CGI-based Web applications, and server page type Web applications such as ASP-based Web appli- cations. The purpose of this paper is to design Web transi- tion diagrams to represent wider class

Kornkamol Jamroendararasame; Tetsuya Suzuki; Takehiro Tokuda

107

Model checking of UML models via a mapping to communicating extended timed automata?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technique and a tool for model-checking opera- tional UML models based on a mapping of object oriented UML models into a framework of communicating extended timed automata - in the IF format - and the use of the existing model-checking and simulation tools for this format. We take into account most of the structural and behavioral characteristics

Iulian Ober; Susanne Graf; Ileana Ober

2004-01-01

108

Validation of UML Models via a Mapping to Communicating Extended Timed Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technique and a tool for model-checking opera- tional UML models based on a mapping of object oriented UML models into a framework of communicating extended timed automata - in the IF format - and the use of the existing model-checking and simulation tools for this format. We take into account most of the structural and behavioral characteris-

Iulian Ober; Susanne Graf; Ileana Ober

2004-01-01

109

Evaluation of the UMLS as a terminology and knowledge resource for biomedical informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives : Terminology and knowledge resources are essential components of interoperability among disparate systems. This paper evaluates whether names and relationships needed in biomedical informatics are present in the UMLS. Methods : Terms for five broad categories of concepts were extracted from LocusLink and mapped to the UMLS Metathesausus. Relationships between gene products and the other four categories (phenotype, molecular

Olivier Bodenreider; Joyce A. Mitchell; Alexa T. McCray

110

Revise Through Diagrams: Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a 72 page book organized in seven major sections covering the present GCSE physics syllabuses and the physics component of the present GCSE double-award science syllabuses. Each page consists of several boxed features covering the key aspects of a single topic within each section. Each feature box contains one or more diagrams and related text. The diagrams are

Jim Breithaupt

1997-01-01

111

Compact explosion diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a system to automatically generate compact explosion diagrams. Inspired by handmade illustrations, our approach reduces the complexity of an explosion diagram by rendering an exploded view only for a subset of the assemblies of an object. However, the exploded views are chosen so that they allow inference of the remaining unexploded assemblies of the entire 3D model.

Markus Tatzgern; Denis Kalkofen; Dieter Schmalstieg

2010-01-01

112

Diagrams in the Mind?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clearly we can solve problems by thinking about them. Sometimes we have the impression that in doing so we use words, at other times diagrams or images. Often we use both. What is going on when we use mental diagrams or images? This question is addressed in relation to the more general multi-pronged question: what are representations, what are they

Aaron Sloman

113

Mollier Diagram for Nitrogen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermodynamic data for nitrogen are presented in Mollier diagram form covering the temperature range of 30K to 15,000K and the density range of 0.0000001 to 1000 amagat. Data for the solid and liquid regions are included. The diagram contains all availabl...

C. H. Piper R. L. Humphrey

1967-01-01

114

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity teaches students about the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The students will first describe differences between near and bright stars. Then they will discern a relationship between temperature and brightness. Finally they will correlate the evolution of stars to plotting the H-R diagram.

Slater, Tim P.

2004-07-16

115

Visual Modelling of Data Warehousing Flows with UML Profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data warehousing involves complex processes that transform source data through several stages to deliver suitable information ready to be analysed. Though many techniques for visual modelling of data warehouses from the static point of view have been devised, only few attempts have been made to model the data flows involved in a data warehousing process. Besides, each attempt was mainly aimed at a specific application, such as ETL, OLAP, what-if analysis, data mining. Data flows are typically very complex in this domain; for this reason, we argue, designers would greatly benefit from a technique for uniformly modelling data warehousing flows for all applications. In this paper, we propose an integrated visual modelling technique for data cubes and data flows. This technique is based on UML profiling; its feasibility is evaluated by means of a prototype implementation.

Pardillo, Jesús; Golfarelli, Matteo; Rizzi, Stefano; Trujillo, Juan

116

Compositional and Relational Reasoning during Class Abstraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Class diagrams are among the most widely used object-oriented de- sign techniques. They are effective in modeling the structure of software sys- tems at any stages of the software life cycle. Still, class diagrams can become as complex and overwhelming as the software systems they describe. This paper describes a techni que for abstracting lower-level class structures into higher- level

Alexander Egyed

2003-01-01

117

k-neighborhood Decentralization: A Comprehensive Solution to Index the UMLS for Large Scale Knowledge Discovery  

PubMed Central

The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is the largest thesaurus in the biomedical informatics domain. Previous works have shown that knowledge constructs comprised of transitively-associated UMLS concepts are effective for discovering potentially novel biomedical hypotheses. However, the extremely large size of the UMLS becomes a major challenge for these applications. To address this problem, we designed a k-neighborhood Decentralization Labeling Scheme (kDLS) for the UMLS, and the corresponding method to effectively evaluate the kDLS indexing results. kDLS provides a comprehensive solution for indexing the UMLS for very efficient large scale knowledge discovery. We demonstrated that it is highly effective to use kDLS paths to prioritize disease-gene relations across the whole genome, with extremely high fold-enrichment values. To our knowledge, this is the first indexing scheme capable of supporting efficient large scale knowledge discovery on the UMLS as a whole. Our expectation is that kDLS will become a vital engine for retrieving information and generating hypotheses from the UMLS for future medical informatics applications.

Xiang, Yang; Lu, Kewei; James, Stephen L.; Borlawsky, Tara B.; Huang, Kun; Payne, Philip R.O.

2011-01-01

118

k-Neighborhood decentralization: a comprehensive solution to index the UMLS for large scale knowledge discovery.  

PubMed

The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is the largest thesaurus in the biomedical informatics domain. Previous works have shown that knowledge constructs comprised of transitively-associated UMLS concepts are effective for discovering potentially novel biomedical hypotheses. However, the extremely large size of the UMLS becomes a major challenge for these applications. To address this problem, we designed a k-neighborhood Decentralization Labeling Scheme (kDLS) for the UMLS, and the corresponding method to effectively evaluate the kDLS indexing results. kDLS provides a comprehensive solution for indexing the UMLS for very efficient large scale knowledge discovery. We demonstrated that it is highly effective to use kDLS paths to prioritize disease-gene relations across the whole genome, with extremely high fold-enrichment values. To our knowledge, this is the first indexing scheme capable of supporting efficient large scale knowledge discovery on the UMLS as a whole. Our expectation is that kDLS will become a vital engine for retrieving information and generating hypotheses from the UMLS for future medical informatics applications. PMID:22154838

Xiang, Yang; Lu, Kewei; James, Stephen L; Borlawsky, Tara B; Huang, Kun; Payne, Philip R O

2012-04-01

119

Zeroes of Wronskians of Hermite polynomials and Young diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a certain class of partitions, a simple relation is observed between the\\u000ashape of the Young diagram and the pattern of zeroes of the Wronskian of the\\u000acorresponding Hermite polynomials.

G. Felder; A. D. Hemery; A. P. Veselov

2010-01-01

120

Assessing Modal Aspects of OntoUML Conceptual Models in Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing the quality of conceptual models is key to ensure that conceptual models can be used effectively as a basis for understanding, agreement and construction of information systems. This paper proposes an approach to assess conceptual models defined in OntoUML by transforming these models into specifications in the logic-based language Alloy. These Alloy specifications include the modal axioms of the theory underlying OntoUML, allowing us to validate the modal meta-properties of the OntoUML types and part-whole relations.

Benevides, Alessander Botti; Guizzardi, Giancarlo; Braga, Bernardo F. B.; Almeida, João Paulo A.

121

Bibliographic Notes on Voronoi Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents a comprehensive annotated bibliography on various theoretical and algorithmic aspects of Voronoi diagrams and related diagrams. Bibliographic notes on the relationship between Voronoi diagrams and solutions to the Euclidean traveling sa...

J. Bernal

1993-01-01

122

Satellite Venn Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use the background information they have read to organize a list of sources and objects, putting each item given in the appropriate part of the Venn diagram, depending on which instrument will study that item. Students will demonstrate their understanding of spectra, astronomical observations, and have read the background material on Chandra, Astro-E and the microcalorimeter, and the Constellation X-ray Observatory. They will write a five minute summary of the capabilities of the three observatories, based on their Venn diagram. Students' understanding of the background material will be evaluated based on the accuracy of their Venn diagrams and the interpretation of the information on the Venn diagrams from their closure paper.

2007-03-24

123

Diagram of Computer Keyboard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a line drawing of a Windows PC keyboard complete with labels for each key. This diagram is used on tests where students are asked to circle the keys that would be used to perform various functions.

Ward, Charles

2011-01-21

124

Phase Diagrams in Vivo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity uses three experiments for students to construct a phase diagram; the experiments have been videotaped and can be seen online. The purpose of this laboratory as designed is to gain familiarity with simple phase diagrams, their construction, and their applications to the understanding of geological and environmental problems. Subsidiary objectives include development of strategies for data processing including evaluation of assumptions and sources of errors, as well as honing of computer, spreadsheet, presentation (tabular and graphical), and report writing skills.

125

Venn Diagram Shape Sorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps students explore attributes of objects by sorting different sized, colored, shapes into Venn Diagrams. The user chooses the type of Venn Diagram including 2 intersecting circles, 2 non-intersecting circles, or a single circle. Two modes include "make the rule," where users create the rules of the circles and then sort, or "guess the rule," where users attempt to sort the shapes into the circles in order to guess the rule the computer has chosen.

2005-01-01

126

Temporal Verification Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Most formal approaches to the verification of temporal propertiesof reactive programs infer temporal conclusions from verificationconditions that are state formulas, i.e., contain no temporal operators.These proofs can often be effectively presented by the use of verification diagrams. In this paper, we present a self-contained presentation ofverification diagrams for proving various temporal properties.Beginning with safety properties, we present WAIT-FOR and

Zohar Manna; Amir Pnueli

1994-01-01

127

Ternary diagram plots  

SciTech Connect

A ternary diagram uses an equilateral triangle to graphically depict the relationship among three data values which sum to a constant value. Geologists in many fields use ternary diagrams for a variety of purposes: identification and classification of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks; classification of soils; chemical and molecular representation of minerals; representation of the fractional crystallization of igneous rock-forming minerals. Traditionally, constructing a ternary diagram involves calculating the normalized values from the raw data for the three components to be plotted, then plotting the point that represents these values on an equilateral triangle. This can be a tedious and time-consuming process, especially if many samples must be plotted, or many combinations of components represented. Ternary is a program that allows manipulation of large amounts of data to create accurate ternary diagrams. The program allows input of data for hundreds of samples, each containing up to 20 components, any three of which can be combined to form a ternary diagram. Each component can be given a label up to five characters long for ease in identification. Data are entered in raw form (i.e. parts per million, percentages, real or whole numbers), normalized internally to 100, and plotted on a ternary diagram that can be printed to the screen or dot matrix printer.

Scott, A.J.; Guth, P.L.

1987-11-01

128

MTS Integrating UML, HOOD, Ada in a Full Ada Operational Software Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The development of the MTS simulator for the French space agency, CNES, proved to be a very enriching experience as regards\\u000a the integration of UML, HOOD4, and Ada95 in an operational project. Developing a full Ada project using the UML formalism\\u000a and the HOOD4 method for the analysis and design phases, respectively, was a challenge that we were successful in

Thierry Lacomme; Séverine Carles; Agusti Canals; François Normend

2000-01-01

129

A Methodological Approach for Object-Relational Database Design using UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The most common way of designing databases is by means of a conceptual model, such as E\\/R, without taking into account other\\u000a views of the system. New object-oriented design languages, such as UML (Unified Modelling Language), allow the whole system,\\u000a including the database schema, to be modelled in a uniform way. Moreover, as UML is an extendable language, it

Esperanza Marcos; Belén Vela; José María Cavero

2003-01-01

130

Battling Scylla and Charybdis: the search for redundancy and ambiguity in the 2001 UMLS metathesaurus.  

PubMed Central

I previously developed methods for identifying cases of multiple synonymous concepts (redundancy) and concepts with multiple meanings (ambiguity) and applied them to the 1995 UMLS Metathesaurus. These methods use semantic approaches (including knowledge about word synonymy and the semantic types assigned to concepts) to complement the standard lexical approaches. In this paper, I describe the results of their application to the 2001 Metathesaurus and examine their implications for the evolution of the UMLS.

Cimino, J. J.

2001-01-01

131

On Linear-Sized Farthest-Color Voronoi Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given a collection of k sets consisting of a total of n points in the plane, the distance from any point in the plane to each of the sets is defined to be the minimum among distances to each point in the set. The farthest-color Voronoi diagram is defined as a generalized Voronoi diagram of the k sets with respect to the distance functions for each of the k sets. The combinatorial complexity of the diagram is known to be ?(kn) in the worst case. This paper initiates a study on farthest-color Voronoi diagrams having O(n) complexity. We introduce a realistic model, which defines a certain class of the diagrams with desirable geometric properties observed. We finally show that the farthest-color Voronoi diagrams under the model have linear complexity.

Bae, Sang Won

132

Upgrading Diagnostic Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnostic diagrams of forbidden lines have been a useful tool for observers in astrophysics for many decades now. They are used to obtain information on the basic physical properties of thin gaseous nebulae. Moreover they are also the initial tool to derive thermodynamic properties of the plasma from observations to get ionization correction factors and thus to obtain proper abundances of the nebulae. Some diagnostic diagrams are in wavelengths domains which were difficult to take either due to missing wavelength coverage or low resolution of older spectrographs. Thus they were hardly used in the past. An upgrade of this useful tool is necessary because most of the diagrams were calculated using only the species involved as a single atom gas, although several are affected by well-known fluorescence mechanisms as well. Additionally the atomic data have improved up to the present time. The new diagnostic diagrams are calculated by using large grids of parameter space in the photoionization code CLOUDY. For a given basic parameter the input radiation field is varied to find the solutions with cooling-heating-equilibrium. Empirical numerical functions are fitted to provide formulas usable in e.g. data reduction pipelines. The resulting diagrams differ significantly from those used up to now and will improve the thermodynamic calculations.

Proxauf, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Öttl, S.

2014-04-01

133

Decomposition of Data Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data flow diagrams are an important design aid in system development. CASE tools allow data flow diagram construction and modification to be automated. Decomposition is the top-down development of a data flow diagram starting with the system inputs and the system outputs. Decomposition may also be automated, resulting in an interactive process for data flow diagram design. Adler (1988) described

Timothy Arndt; Angela Guercio

1992-01-01

134

The projection diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a diagram, named the projection diagram (PD), that can be used for the interpretation of fringe projection operations in a similar way as the Holodiagram is used in holography and other branches in optics. It is obtained as a Moiré pattern between two spoke targets that mimic central projections, the same as those in a projection and observation system or two projection systems. N. Abramson [Academic, London (1981)] has already proposed its use in systems with two observation points (i.e., stereoscopic observation). By using this PD, several interesting features dealing with fringe projection are highlighted. Information on the sensitivity vector and the geometry of the contouring surfaces can be straightforwardly obtained in a graphical way. The effect of defocusing can also be included in the diagram.

Muramatsu, Mikaya; Torroba, Patricia; Cap, Nelly; Rabal, Hector

2003-08-01

135

Minkowski Diagram Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minkowski Diagram model displays the spacetime diagrams for two inertial observers. One or two events may be displayed and moved with the mouse. Optionally, the corresponding light cones may be shown, as well as the simultaneity lines in both reference frames. The spacetime interval is automatically computed. The simulation may be used to discuss simultaneity and causality in special relativity. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. The Minkowski Diagram model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_special_relativity_minkowski.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Please note that this resource requires at least version 1.5 of Java (JRE).

Aguirregabiria, Juan

2011-09-09

136

Diblock copolymer phase diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adaptation of the Matsen and Bates BCP phase diagram predicted using Mean-field Theory. * Matsen MW, Bates FS, ''http://pubs3.acs.org/acs/journals/doilookup?in_doi=10.1021/ma951138i Unifying weak- and strong-segregation block copolymer theories. Diblock copolymer phase diagram as calculated using Mean-field Theory by Matsen and Bates, where fA is the Block fraction, Ï is the Flory-Huggins Chi Parameter, and N is the length of the block.

Iacovella, Christopher R.

2006-11-20

137

NOTES ON FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce in a pedagogical manner how to compute probability amplitudes from Feynman diagrams, starting with 4 model. We introduce the notion of renormalization in this model at the one-loop level. Then we review the Dirac equation, and introduce QED. We then perform several example calculations in QED. The appendices gives a survey of Gamma matrices and use of Feynman

ALEX NELSON

2009-01-01

138

Hierarchical Hybrid Block Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block diagram languages are now commonly used to design and even implement embedded systems. In the design phase, they are used to model both plant and controller, typically with continuous and discrete modeling respectively. The semantics of these lan- guages are often vague and\\/or complex, which is fine for some users but leaves others puzzled by the behav- iors they

Ben Denckla; Pieter J. Mosterman

139

Interactive Molecular Orbital Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here is an application for constructing the molecular orbital electron configurations of heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Energy level diagrams are given for the two different cases encountered in heteronuclear diatomics of the first short period (Li2 - Ne2). This is a useful tool for having students explore questions of bond order, magnetic properties and numbers of unpaired electrons.

140

Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram model uses light-trajectories to show the effect of relative motion when observing (recording) events in special relativity. In the default scenario, an explosion (an event) at the center of a right-moving stick occurs at t=0 and the arrival of the explosion light signal at each end is recorded. The arrival event at the left end occurs before the arrival event at the right end because the stick is moving. How do the location and time of these events change if they are observed in a reference frame (the Other Frame) in which the stick is stationary?   The Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram model was written for the study of special relativity the Lorentz transformation using spacetime diagrams and is a supplemental simulation for an article by Sebastien Cromier and Richard Steinberg "The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts" in the The Physics Teacher 48 (9), 598-601 (2010). Initial conditions, such as the locations of the explosion and the detectors, can be adjusted by dragging before the simulation is run. The slider can be used to change the speed of the stick. A third view shows the stick and the wavefront in space. More importantly, a checkbox allows users to compare the predictions of Galilean and special relativity in order to observe how the assumption of a constant speed of light leads to the relativity of simultaneity.   The Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_sr_SimultaneitySpacetimeDiagram.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2010-10-07

141

Uml2 is a novel CalB-type lipase of Ustilago maydis with phospholipase A activity.  

PubMed

CalB of Pseudozyma aphidis (formerly named Candida antarctica) is one of the most widely applied enzymes in industrial biocatalysis. Here, we describe a protein with 66 % sequence identity to CalB, designated Ustilago maydis lipase 2 (Uml2), which was identified as the product of gene um01422 of the corn smut fungus U. maydis. Sequence analysis of Uml2 revealed the presence of a typical lipase catalytic triad, Ser-His-Asp with Ser125 located in a Thr-Xaa-Ser-Xaa-Gly pentapeptide. Deletion of the uml2 gene in U. maydis diminished the ability of cells to hydrolyse fatty acids from tributyrin or Tween 20/80 substrates, thus demonstrating that Uml2 functions as a lipase that may contribute to nutrition of this fungal pathogen. Uml2 was heterologously produced in Pichia pastoris and recombinant N-glycosylated Uml2 protein was purified from the culture medium. Purified Uml2 released short- and long-chain fatty acids from p-nitrophenyl esters and Tween 20/80 substrates. Furthermore, phosphatidylcholine substrates containing long-chain saturated or unsaturated fatty acids were effectively hydrolysed. Both esterase and phospholipase A activity of Uml2 depended on the Ser125 catalytic residue. These results indicate that Uml2, in contrast to CalB, exhibits not only esterase and lipase activity but also phospholipase A activity. Thus, by genome mining, we identified a novel CalB-like lipase with different substrate specificities. PMID:24469105

Buerth, Christoph; Kovacic, Filip; Stock, Janpeter; Terfrüchte, Marius; Wilhelm, Susanne; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Feldbrügge, Michael; Schipper, Kerstin; Ernst, Joachim F; Tielker, Denis

2014-06-01

142

ADEpedia 2.0: Integration of Normalized Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) Knowledge from the UMLS  

PubMed Central

A standardized Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) knowledge base that encodes known ADE knowledge can be very useful in improving ADE detection for drug safety surveillance. In our previous study, we developed the ADEpedia that is a standardized knowledge base of ADEs based on drug product labels. The objectives of the present study are 1) to integrate normalized ADE knowledge from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) into the ADEpedia; and 2) to enrich the knowledge base with the drug-disorder co-occurrence data from a 51-million-document electronic medical records (EMRs) system. We extracted 266,832 drug-disorder concept pairs from the UMLS, covering 14,256 (1.69%) distinct drug concepts and 19,006 (3.53%) distinct disorder concepts. Of them, 71,626 (26.8%) concept pairs from UMLS co-occurred in the EMRs. We performed a preliminary evaluation on the utility of the UMLS ADE data. In conclusion, we have built an ADEpedia 2.0 framework that intends to integrate known ADE knowledge from disparate sources. The UMLS is a useful source for providing standardized ADE knowledge relevant to indications, contraindications and adverse effects, and complementary to the ADE data from drug product labels. The statistics from EMRs would enable the meaningful use of ADE data for drug safety surveillance.

Jiang, Guoqian; Liu, Hongfang; Solbrig, Harold R.; Chute, Christopher G.

143

Consumer Health Concepts That Do Not Map to the UMLS: Where Do They Fit?  

PubMed Central

Objective This study has two objectives: first, to identify and characterize consumer health terms not found in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus (2007 AB); second, to describe the procedure for creating new concepts in the process of building a consumer health vocabulary. How do the unmapped consumer health concepts relate to the existing UMLS concepts? What is the place of these new concepts in professional medical discourse? Design The consumer health terms were extracted from two large corpora derived in the process of Open Access Collaboratory Consumer Health Vocabulary (OAC CHV) building. Terms that could not be mapped to existing UMLS concepts via machine and manual methods prompted creation of new concepts, which were then ascribed semantic types, related to existing UMLS concepts, and coded according to specified criteria. Results This approach identified 64 unmapped concepts, 17 of which were labeled as uniquely “lay” and not feasible for inclusion in professional health terminologies. The remaining terms constituted potential candidates for inclusion in professional vocabularies, or could be constructed by post-coordinating existing UMLS terms. The relationship between new and existing concepts differed depending on the corpora from which they were extracted. Conclusion Non-mapping concepts constitute a small proportion of consumer health terms, but a proportion that is likely to affect the process of consumer health vocabulary building. We have identified a novel approach for identifying such concepts.

Keselman, Alla; Smith, Catherine Arnott; Divita, Guy; Kim, Hyeoneui; Browne, Allen C.; Leroy, Gondy; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

2008-01-01

144

An Introduction to Tree Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief article describes the use of tree diagrams in calculating probabilities. The author provides examples of how tree diagrams are used to calculate specific probabilities and why the language chosen relates to the operations used to find the probability.

Cork, Stu

2014-01-01

145

Pattern Recognition of Logic Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the development of line following and line analysis pattern recognition routines to automatically computer read hand-drawn logic diagrams. The decision criterion used was based on a tree analysis of segmented lines. The logic diagrams ...

D. A. Naegele

1973-01-01

146

TEP process flow diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is

R Scott Wilms; Bryan Carlson; James Coons; William Kubic

2008-01-01

147

Conventions for Block Diagram Representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the use of block diagrams to represent various systems is very widespread, there are no standard conventions for the drawing of block diagrams. This is particularly true when such diagrams are used to represent complex nonlinear systems, and most practical systems of interest are of this type. The purpose of this paper is to suggest an approach to the

A. Bose; P. M. Anderson; C. Concordia; A. A. Fouad; P. Kundur; R. P. Schulz

1986-01-01

148

Modeling process flow using diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the practice of process improvement, tools such as the flowchart, the value-stream map (VSM), and a variety of ad hoc variants of such diagrams are commonly used. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear, precise, and consistent framework for the use of such flow diagrams in process improvement projects. The paper finds that traditional diagrams, such

Benjamin Kemper; Jeroen de Mast; Michel Mandjes

2010-01-01

149

Conservative generalized bifurcation diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bifurcation cascades in conservative systems are shown to exhibit a generalized diagram, which contains all relevant informations regarding the location of periodic orbits (resonances), their width (island size), irrational tori and the infinite higher-order resonances, showing the intricate way they are born. Contraction rates for islands sizes, along period-doubling bifurcations, are estimated to be ?I?3.9. Results are demonstrated for the standard map and for the continuous Hénon-Heiles potential. The methods used here are very suitable to find periodic orbits in conservative systems, and to characterize the regular, mixed or chaotic dynamics as the nonlinear parameter is varied.

Manchein, Cesar; Beims, Marcus W.

2013-04-01

150

Odyssey-VCS: a flexible version control system for UML model elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many current version control systems use a simple data model that is barely sufficient to manipulate source-code. This simple data model is not suf- ficient to provide versioning capabilities for software modeling environments, which are strongly focused on analysis and architectural design artifacts. In this work, we introduce a flexible version control system for UML model elements. This version control

Hamilton L. R. Oliveira; Leonardo Gresta Paulino Murta; Cláudia Werner

2005-01-01

151

Consistent Evolution of UML Models by Automatic Detection of Change Traces  

Microsoft Academic Search

As software evolves, analysis and design models should be modified, correspondingly. In this scenario, one of the main problems is to detect which elements should be changed due to a given change. This paper presents an approach that applies data mining over a versioned UML repository in order to detect change patterns among model elements at different abstraction levels. These

Cristine R. Dantas; Leonardo Gresta Paulino Murta; Cláudia Maria Lima Werner

2005-01-01

152

UML-Based Analysis of Embedded Systems Using a Mapping to VHDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for developing and modeling embedded sys- tems and rigorously verifying behavior before committing to code are increasingly important. A number of object- oriented techniques and notations have been introduced, but recently, it appears that the Unified Modeling Lan- guage (UML) could be a notation broad enough in scope to represent a variety of domains and gain widespread use. Currently,

William E. Mcumber; Betty H. C. Cheng

1999-01-01

153

UML Design and Auto-Generated Code: Issues and Practical Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article is based on experience gained during the early history of a project being worked on at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. One of the customer requirements on this project was a specific development tool based on Unified Modeling Language (UML) Versio...

A. K. Huber I. Lipkin

2005-01-01

154

Quality evaluation of value sets from cancer study common data elements using the UMLS semantic groups  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study is to develop an approach to evaluate the quality of terminological annotations on the value set (ie, enumerated value domain) components of the common data elements (CDEs) in the context of clinical research using both unified medical language system (UMLS) semantic types and groups. Materials and methods The CDEs of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Data Standards Repository, the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) concepts and the UMLS semantic network were integrated using a semantic web-based framework for a SPARQL-enabled evaluation. First, the set of CDE-permissible values with corresponding meanings in external controlled terminologies were isolated. The corresponding value meanings were then evaluated against their NCI- or UMLS-generated semantic network mapping to determine whether all of the meanings fell within the same semantic group. Results Of the enumerated CDEs in the Cancer Data Standards Repository, 3093 (26.2%) had elements drawn from more than one UMLS semantic group. A random sample (n=100) of this set of elements indicated that 17% of them were likely to have been misclassified. Discussion The use of existing semantic web tools can support a high-throughput mechanism for evaluating the quality of large CDE collections. This study demonstrates that the involvement of multiple semantic groups in an enumerated value domain of a CDE is an effective anchor to trigger an auditing point for quality evaluation activities. Conclusion This approach produces a useful quality assurance mechanism for a clinical study CDE repository.

Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

2012-01-01

155

A UMLS-based Knowledge Acquisition Tool for Rule-based Clinical Decision Support System Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision support systems in the medical field have to be easily modified by medical experts themselves. The authors have designed a knowledge acquisition tool to facilitate the creation and maintenance of a knowledge base by the domain expert and its sharing and reuse by other institutions. The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains the domain entities and constitutes the relations

Soumeya L Achour; Michel Dojat; Claire Rieux; Philippe Bierling; Eric Lepage

2001-01-01

156

Argument Diagramming: The Araucaria Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formal arguments, such as those used in science, medicine and law to establish a conclusion by providing supporting evidence, are frequently represented by diagrams such as trees and graphs. We describe the software package Araucaria which allows textual arguments to be marked up and represented as standard, Toulmin or Wigmore diagrams. Since each of these diagramming techniques was devised for a particular domain or argumentation, we discuss some of the issues involved in translating between diagrams. The exercise of translating between different diagramming types illustrates that any one diagramming system often cannot capture all of the nuances inherent in an argument. Finally, we describe some areas, such as critical thinking courses in colleges and universities and the analysis of evidence in court cases, where Araucaria has been put to practical use.

Rowe, Glenn; Reed, Chris

157

Behind the folding funnel diagram.  

PubMed

This Commentary clarifies the meaning of the funnel diagram, which has been widely cited in papers on protein folding. To aid in the analysis of the funnel diagram, this Commentary reviews historical approaches to understanding the mechanism of protein folding. The primary role of free energy in protein folding is discussed, and it is pointed out that the decrease [corrected] in the configurational entropy as the native state is approached hinders folding, rather than guiding it. Diagrams are introduced that provide a less ambiguous representation of the factors governing the protein folding reaction than the funnel diagram. PMID:21685880

Karplus, Martin

2011-07-01

158

Phase diagrams of two-lane driven diffusive systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a large class of two-lane driven diffusive systems in contact with reservoirs at their boundaries and develop a stability analysis of mean-field profiles as a method to derive the phase diagrams of such systems. We illustrate the method by deriving phase diagrams for the asymmetric exclusion process coupled to various second lanes: a diffusive lane, an asymmetric exclusion process with advection in the same direction as the first lane, and an asymmetric exclusion process with advection in the opposite direction. The competing currents on the two lanes naturally lead to a very rich phenomenology and we find a variety of phase diagrams. It is shown that the stability analysis is equivalent to an 'extremal current principle' for the total current in the two lanes. We also point to classes of models where the analysis fails due to the lack of a dynamically stable current-density relation.

Evans, M. R.; Kafri, Y.; Sugden, K. E. P.; Tailleur, J.

2011-06-01

159

Physiology Flow-Diagram Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A set of physiology flow-diagrams for the cardiovascular system, cardiac auto-rhythmic cell, cardiac contractile cell, respiratory system, coagulation/hemostasis, digestive system, excretion, and autonomic nervous system. These flow-diagrams show cause-and-effect markup and have accompanying tutorials.

PhD Sandra J Bruner (Polk Community College Biology)

2005-10-04

160

Potential-pH Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potential-pH diagrams show the domains of redoxpotential and pH in which major species are most stable. Constructing such diagrams provides students with opportunities to decide what species must be considered, search literature for equilibrium constants and free energies of formation, and practice in using the Nernst equation. (Author/JN)

Barnum, Dennis W.

1982-01-01

161

Feynman diagrams and the KdV hierarchy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generating series of the intersection numbers of the stable cohomology classes on moduli spaces of curves satisfies the string equation and a KdV hierarchy. We give a proof of this classical Kontsevich-Witten result completely in terms of Feynman diagrams.

Domenico Fiorenza

2001-01-01

162

Block diagram in undergraduate engineering courses other than control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional control system topics have included block diagrams and Mason's Gain Theorem. Flow charts have been used in computer programming classes and in planning techniques in industry. This paper proposes the introduction of a systems approach to other parts of the engineering curriculum. It would not require additional mathematics. It would introduce a different interpretation of the phenomena investigation. Functionality

L. M. Hideg

1998-01-01

163

Predicate Classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicate classes are a new linguistic construct designed to complement normal classes in object- oriented languages. Like a normal class, a predicate class has a set of superclasses, methods, and instance variables. However, unlike a normal class, an object is automatically an instance of a predicate class whenever it satisfies a predicate expression associated with the predicate class. The predicate

Craig Chambers

1993-01-01

164

Scheduling for optimum data memory compaction in block diagram oriented software synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the design of complex digital signal processing systems, block diagram oriented synthesis of real time software for programmable target processors has become an important design aid. The synthesis approach discussed in the paper is based on multirate block diagrams with scalable synchronous dataflow (SSDF) semantics. For this class of dataflow graphs the authors present scheduling techniques for optimum data

S. Ritz; M. Willems; H. Meyr

1995-01-01

165

Universal diagrams for TE waves guided by thin films bounded by saturable nonlinear media  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that universal V-b diagrams provide a powerful tool when analyzing the stationary waveguiding properties of the TE waves guided by a thin film bounded by a saturable nonlinear substrate or cladding. For a wide class of nonlinearities, the allowed and forbidden regions of these diagrams, for a stationary guided propagation to occur, display a universal pattern, the

Juan P. Torres; L. Torner

1993-01-01

166

Integrating a formal method into a software engineering process with UML and Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe how CSP-OZ, a formal method combining the process algebra CSP with the specification language Object-Z, can be\\u000a integrated into an object-oriented software engineering process employing the UML as a modelling and Java as an implementation\\u000a language. The benefit of this integration lies in the rigour of the formal method, which improves the precision of the constructed\\u000a models and

Michael Möller; Ernst-rüdiger Olderog; Holger Rasch; Heike Wehrheim

2008-01-01

167

Object-Oriented Reading Techniques for Inspection of UML Models - An Industrial Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Object-oriented design and modeling with UML has become a central part of software development in industry. Software inspections\\u000a are used to cost-efficiently increase the quality of the developed software by early defect detection and correction. Several\\u000a models presenting the total system need to be inspected for consistency with each other and with external documents such as\\u000a requirement specifications. Special Object

Reidar Conradi; Parastoo Mohagheghi; Tayyaba Arif; Lars Christian Hegde; Geir Arne Bunde; Anders Pedersen

2003-01-01

168

Framework to Simulate the Behavior of Embedded Real-Time Systems Specified in UML Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying errors in early design phases leads to a decrease in the cost of repairing such problems if they are discovered only in advanced design phases.This work is a first step toward an automatic verification approach for embedded and real-time systems' high-level specifications, such as UML models.This paper presents a model-driven framework to allow simulating system's behavior already in early

Marco A. Wehrmeister; Joao G. Packer; Luis M. Ceron

2011-01-01

169

Support for early verification of embedded real-time systems through UML models simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying errors in early design phases leads to a decrease in the repairing cost compared to the situation in which such problems are discovered only in advanced design phases. This work is a first step toward an automatic verification approach for embedded and real-time systems' high-level specifications, such as UML models. This paper presents a model-driven framework to simulate system's

Marco A. Wehrmeister; Joao G. Packer; Luis M. Ceron

2012-01-01

170

Modeling the Railway Control Domain Rigorously with a UML 2.0 Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the Railway Control Systems Domain (RCSD) profile of the Unified Modeling Language UML 2.0 as a domain specific\\u000a modeling language for railway and tramway control systems. The RCSD profile covers the segments of the rail network, sensors,\\u000a and control elements like signals and switches. Using these terms of the railway domain, it facilitates the communication\\u000a between domain experts and

Kirsten Berkenkötter; Ulrich Hannemann

2006-01-01

171

New Working Diagram for Membrane Separation Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

First a short presentation of the work diagram for rectification processes (McCabe-Thiele-diagram) is given. Then a new work diagram suitable for membrane separation processes is developed. The application in pervaporation and gas separation under cross f...

K. Hattenbach

1985-01-01

172

Particles, Feynman Diagrams and All That  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantum fields are introduced in order to give students an accurate qualitative understanding of the origin of Feynman diagrams as representations of particle interactions. Elementary diagrams are combined to produce diagrams representing the main features of the Standard Model.

Daniel, Michael

2006-01-01

173

"Racializing" Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

2003-01-01

174

The phase diagram of a bilayer Ising model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase diagram of a quasi-2D two-layer Ising lattice, with a variable inter-layer interaction parameter, is determined by phenomenological order-disorder, mean-field (MF), and simplified renormalization group (RG) approaches. Bethe approximation is used to determine phase diagrams of bond-diluted bilayer lattices, exhibiting non-trivial behavior in the presence of short-range correlations between the bonds. The critical behavior is discussed and the problem is shown to belong to the 2D-Ising universality class, for any given value of the inter-layer interaction. The phase diagram is verified by comparison to earlier results, obtained by computer simulations, perturbation series expansion, Bethe-tree approximation and other methods.

Sloutskin, E.; Gitterman, M.

2007-03-01

175

Fast Formal Analysis of Requirements via "Topoi Diagrams"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early testing of requirements can decrease the cost of removing errors in software projects. However, unless done carefully, that testing process can significantly add to the cost of requirements analysis. We show here that requirements expressed as topoi diagrams can be built and tested cheaply using our SP2 algorithm, the formal temporal properties of a large class of topoi can be proven very quickly, in time nearly linear in the number of nodes and edges in the diagram. There are two limitations to our approach. Firstly, topoi diagrams cannot express certain complex concepts such as iteration and sub-routine calls. Hence, our approach is more useful for requirements engineering than for traditional model checking domains. Secondly, out approach is better for exploring the temporal occurrence of properties than the temporal ordering of properties. Within these restrictions, we can express a useful range of concepts currently seen in requirements engineering, and a wide range of interesting temporal properties.

Menzies, Tim; Powell, John; Houle, Michael E.; Kelly, John C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

176

Phase diagram of supercooled water confined to hydrophilic nanopores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a phase diagram for water confined to cylindrical silica nanopores in terms of pressure, temperature, and pore radius. The confining cylindrical wall is hydrophilic and disordered, which has a destabilizing effect on ordered water structure. The phase diagram for this class of systems is derived from general arguments, with parameters taken from experimental observations and computer simulations and with assumptions tested by computer simulation. Phase space divides into three regions: a single liquid, a crystal-like solid, and glass. For large pores, radii exceeding 1 nm, water exhibits liquid and crystal-like behaviors, with abrupt crossovers between these regimes. For small pore radii, crystal-like behavior is unstable and water remains amorphous for all non-zero temperatures. At low enough temperatures, these states are glasses. Several experimental results for supercooled water can be understood in terms of the phase diagram we present.

Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David

2012-07-01

177

Phase diagram of supercooled water confined to hydrophilic nanopores.  

PubMed

We present a phase diagram for water confined to cylindrical silica nanopores in terms of pressure, temperature, and pore radius. The confining cylindrical wall is hydrophilic and disordered, which has a destabilizing effect on ordered water structure. The phase diagram for this class of systems is derived from general arguments, with parameters taken from experimental observations and computer simulations and with assumptions tested by computer simulation. Phase space divides into three regions: a single liquid, a crystal-like solid, and glass. For large pores, radii exceeding 1 nm, water exhibits liquid and crystal-like behaviors, with abrupt crossovers between these regimes. For small pore radii, crystal-like behavior is unstable and water remains amorphous for all non-zero temperatures. At low enough temperatures, these states are glasses. Several experimental results for supercooled water can be understood in terms of the phase diagram we present. PMID:22852633

Limmer, David T; Chandler, David

2012-07-28

178

Automatically Assessing Graph-Based Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date there has been very little work on the machine understanding of imprecise diagrams, such as diagrams drawn by students in response to assessment questions. Imprecise diagrams exhibit faults such as missing, extraneous and incorrectly formed elements. The semantics of imprecise diagrams are difficult to determine. While there have been…

Thomas, Pete; Smith, Neil; Waugh, Kevin

2008-01-01

179

DRAWING DIAGRAMS IN AN ONLINE EXAMINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study into the drawing of diagrams in an online examination. The diagrams were produced by students during an on-line examination using a simple drawing tool. The students' examination answers, which included a diagram, were submitted over the Internet to an automatic marking tool for grading and feedback. This paper describes the diagram drawing tool and discusses

Pete Thomas

180

Steps towards a GPSS block diagram system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We first note that block diagrams have been important for the learning of GPSS and have been used in most GPSS text books. The full value of block diagrams is obtained first when they can be automatically generated from program code and that block diagrams in turn can generate code. The computer generation of block diagrams requires, however, very exact

Ingolf Ståhl

2006-01-01

181

The UMLS-CORE project: a study of the problem list terminologies used in large healthcare institutions  

PubMed Central

Objective To study existing problem list terminologies (PLTs), and to identify a subset of concepts based on standard terminologies that occur frequently in problem list data. Design Problem list terms and their usage frequencies were collected from large healthcare institutions. Measurement The pattern of usage of the terms was analyzed. The local terms were mapped to the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). Based on the mapped UMLS concepts, the degree of overlap between the PLTs was analyzed. Results Six institutions submitted 76?237 terms and their usage frequencies in 14 million patients. The distribution of usage was highly skewed. On average, 21% of unique terms already covered 95% of usage. The most frequently used 14?395 terms, representing the union of terms that covered 95% of usage in each institution, were exhaustively mapped to the UMLS. 13?261 terms were successfully mapped to 6776 UMLS concepts. Less frequently used terms were generally less ‘mappable’ to the UMLS. The mean pairwise overlap of the PLTs was only 21% (median 19%). Concepts that were shared among institutions were used eight times more often than concepts unique to one institution. A SNOMED Problem List Subset of frequently used problem list concepts was identified. Conclusions Most of the frequently used problem list terms could be found in standard terminologies. The overlap between existing PLTs was low. The use of the SNOMED Problem List Subset will save developmental effort, reduce variability of PLTs, and enhance interoperability of problem list data.

McDonald, Clement; Srinivasan, Suresh

2010-01-01

182

Generating Models of Surgical Procedures using UMLS Concepts and Multiple Sequence Alignment  

PubMed Central

Surgical procedures can be viewed as a process composed of a sequence of steps performed on, by, or with the patient’s anatomy. This sequence is typically the pattern followed by surgeons when generating surgical report narratives for documenting surgical procedures. This paper describes a methodology for semi-automatically deriving a model of conducted surgeries, utilizing a sequence of derived Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts for representing surgical procedures. A multiple sequence alignment was computed from a collection of such sequences and was used for generating the model. These models have the potential of being useful in a variety of informatics applications such as information retrieval and automatic document generation.

Meng, Frank; D'Avolio, Leonard W.; Chen, Andrew A.; Taira, Ricky K.; Kangarloo, Hooshang

2005-01-01

183

Using the unified modeling language (UML) to design Jiro technology dynamic services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JiroT Technology is an implementation of the Federated Management Architecture developed by Sun Microsystems Incorporated (SMI). It defines middleware to support the development of distributed system management applications. Since it has not yet gained the widespread popularity of other Java technologies there has been little published discussion of how architects and designers can take advantage of the specialized features it offers. In this paper, some of those key features are examined with respect to using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) during the development process.

Earl, Anthony; Botterill, David

2001-07-01

184

Pseudohaptic interaction with knot diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make progress in understanding knot theory, we need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots, which are continuous in three dimensions (3-D) but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal is to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch two-dimensional (2-D) knot diagrams by taking advantage of a collision-sensing controller and explore their underlying smooth structures through a continuous motion. Recent advances of interaction techniques have been made that allow progress in this direction. Pseudohaptics that simulate haptic effects using pure visual feedback can be used to develop such an interactive system. We outline one such pseudohaptic knot diagram interface. Our interface derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing 2-D knot diagrams and provides haptic-like sensations to facilitate the creation and exploration of knot diagrams. A centerpiece of the interaction model simulates a physically reactive mouse cursor, which is exploited to resolve the apparent conflict between the continuous structure of the actual smooth knot and the visual discontinuities in the knot diagram representation. Another value in exploiting pseudohaptics is that an acceleration (or deceleration) of the mouse cursor (or surface locator) can be used to indicate the slope of the curve (or surface) of which the projective image is being explored. By exploiting these additional visual cues, we proceed to a full-featured extension to a pseudohaptic four-dimensional (4-D) visualization system that simulates the continuous navigation on 4-D objects and allows us to sense the bumps and holes in the fourth dimension. Preliminary tests of the software show that main features of the interface overcome some expected perceptual limitations in our interaction with 2-D knot diagrams of 3-D knots and 3-D projective images of 4-D mathematical objects.

Weng, Jianguang; Zhang, Hui

2012-07-01

185

Measuring system and software architecture complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional measures of software code complexity, specifically code length, Halstead difficulty: and McCahe cyclomatic complexity, are adapted to measure architecture complexity. These measures are applied to architecture models based on Unified Modeling Language (UML) class, sequence, and state diagrams by redefming measure factors in terms of UML elements. This approach is illustrated using architecture diagrams Gom a real-time communication control

Jeff Lankford; Galileo Galilei

2003-01-01

186

The architecture of the CMS Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System using UML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The architecture of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring software system is presented. This system has been installed and commissioned on the trigger online computers and is currently used for data taking. It has been designed to handle the trigger configuration and monitoring during data taking as well as all communications with the main run control of CMS. Furthermore its design has foreseen the provision of the software infrastructure for detailed testing of the trigger system during beam down time. This is a medium-size distributed system that runs over 40 PCs and 200 processes that control about 4000 electronic boards. The architecture of this system is described using the industry-standard Universal Modeling Language (UML). This way the relationships between the different subcomponents of the system become clear and all software upgrades and modifications are simplified. The described architecture has allowed for frequent upgrades that were necessary during the commissioning phase of CMS when the trigger system evolved constantly. As a secondary objective, the paper provides a UML usage example and tries to encourage the standardization of the software documentation of large projects across the LHC and High Energy Physics community.

Magrans de Abril, Marc; Da Rocha Melo, Jose L.; Ghabrous Larrea, Carlos; Hammer, Josef; Hartl, Christian; Lazaridis, Christos

2011-12-01

187

Electronegativity and hardness as coordinates in structure stability diagrams.  

PubMed Central

With electronegativity and hardness of an atom defined as 1/2(I + A) and 1/2(I - A), respectively, where I and A are the ionization potential and electron affinity, electronegativity difference and hardness sum are proposed as coordinates in structure stability diagrams. With these coordinates a successful topological classification of the crystal structures of octet and suboctet binary compounds is obtained, and a clear delineation of the structural classes portraying chemical periodicity is found.

Shankar, S; Parr, R G

1985-01-01

188

Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

2011-01-01

189

Telesynergy V3 Wiring Diagram  

Cancer.gov

Extron 8 port Video/Audio Switch WAVE Camera Telesynergy v3 Wiring Diagram ISDN T1/PRI Module CTRLR 0 Legend: S-Video Audio VGA DVI USB RS-232 Serial Microphone Ethernet Planar C5i AMD Exam Cam Canon Document Camera Olympus BX51 Sony DVD Recorder JVC

190

INCONEL 718: A solidification diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program studying weldability of Ni-base superalloys, results of an integrated analytical approach are used to generate a constitution diagram for INCONEL 718* in the temperature range associated with solidification. Differential thermal analysis of wrought material and optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and analytical electron microscopy of gas tungsten arc welds are used in

G. A. Knorovsky; M. J. Cieslak; T. J. Headley; A. D. Romig; W. F. Hammetter

1989-01-01

191

Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168-173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the

Robert P. Kirshner

2004-01-01

192

Concrete and Abstract Voronoi Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is

Rolf Klein

1989-01-01

193

Normalization of the Delano Diagram.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A normalization of the Delano y, y bar diagram is proposed in which the y heights are normalized by the entrance pupil height, the y bar heights by the image height. The normalization constants are expressed in terms of the system parameters, and it is se...

F. J. Lopez-Lopez

1970-01-01

194

What Kinds of Perceptions and Daily Learning Behaviors Promote Students' Use of Diagrams in Mathematics Problem Solving?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated factors promoting the use of self-constructed diagrams by examining students' perceptions and daily class activities, and comparing Japanese (n = 291) and New Zealand (n = 323) students. Algebra word problems and a questionnaire were administered. The results revealed that the New Zealand students used diagrams more often…

Uesaka, Yuri; Manalo, Emmanuel; Ichikawa, Shin'ichi

2007-01-01

195

Calculation of Ceramic Phase Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A data base is being developed for calculation of quasibinary and quasiternary phase diagrams of oxide and oxynitride ceramic systems. The current base covers combinations of Cr2O3, MgO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, FeO, CaO, SiO2, Si3N4 and AlN. Lattice Stabilit...

L. Kaufman

1979-01-01

196

INCONEL 718: A solidification diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program studying weldability of Ni-base superalloys, results of an integrated analytical approach are used to\\u000a generate a constitution diagram for INCONEL 718* in the temperature range associated with solidification. Differential thermal analysis of wrought material and optical and\\u000a scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and analytical electron microscopy of gas tungsten arc welds are\\u000a used in

G. A. Knorovsky; M. J. Cieslak; T. J. Headley; A. D. Romig; W. F. Hammetter

1989-01-01

197

Twistor Diagrams and Quantum Field Theory.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis uses twistor diagram theory, as developed by Penrose (1975) and Hodges (1990c), to try to approach some of the difficulties inherent in the standard quantum field theoretic description of particle interactions. The resolution of these issues is the eventual goal of the twistor diagram program. First twistor diagram theory is introduced from a physical view-point, with the aim of studying larger diagrams than have been typically explored. Methods are evolved to tackle the double box and triple box diagrams. These lead to three methods of constructing an amplitude for the double box, and two ways for the triple box. Next this theory is applied to translate the channels of a Yukawa Feynman diagram, which has more than four external states, into various twistor diagrams. This provides a test of the skeleton hypothesis (of Hodges, 1990c) in these cases, and also shows that conformal breaking must enter into twistor diagrams before the translation of loop level Feynman diagrams. The issue of divergent Feynman diagrams is then considered. By using a twistor equivalent of the sum-over -states idea of quantum field theory, twistor translations of loop diagrams are conjectured. The various massless propagator corrections and vacuum diagrams calculated give results consistent with Feynman theory. Two diagrams are also found that give agreement with the finite parts of the Feynman "fish" diagrams of phi^4 -theory. However it is found that a more rigorous translation for the time-like fish requires new boundaries to be added to the twistor sum-over-states. The twistor diagram obtained is found to give the finite part of the relevant Feynman diagram.

O'Donald, Lewis

198

Cut diagrams for high energy scatterings  

SciTech Connect

A new approach is introduced to study QCD amplitudes at high energy and comparatively small momentum transfer. Novel cut diagrams, representing the resummation of Feynman diagrams, are used to simplify the calculation and to avoid delicate cancellations encountered in the usual approach. An explicit calculation to the sixth order is carried out to demonstrate the advantage of cut diagrams over Feynman diagrams. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Feng, Y.J.; Hamidi-Ravari, O.; Lam, C.S. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University St., Montreal, P.Q., H3A 2T8 (CANADA)] [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University St., Montreal, P.Q., H3A 2T8 (CANADA)

1996-09-01

199

Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.

2012-01-01

200

INCONEL 718: A solidification diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a program studying weldability of Ni-base superalloys, results of an integrated analytical approach are used to generate a constitution diagram for INCONEL 718* in the temperature range associated with solidification. Differential thermal analysis of wrought material and optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and analytical electron microscopy of gas tungsten arc welds are used in conjunction with solidification theory to generate data points for this diagram. The important features of the diagram are an austenite (?)/Laves phase eutectic which occurs at ?19.1 wt pct Nb between austenite containing ?9.3 wt pct Nb and a Laves phase which contains ?22.4 wt pct Nb. The distribution coefficient for Nb was found to be ?0.5. The solidification sequence of INCONEL 718 was found to be (1) proeutectic ?, followed by (2) a ?/NbC eutectic at ?1250°C, followed by (3) continued ? solidification, followed by (4) a ?/Laves phase eutectic at ?1200°C. An estimate of the volume fraction eutectic is made using the Scheil solidification model, and the fraction of each phase in the eutectic is calculated via the lever rule. These are compared with experimentally determined values and found to be in good agreement.

Knorovsky, G. A.; Cieslak, M. J.; Headley, T. J.; Romig, A. D.; Hammetter, W. F.

1989-10-01

201

Unjustified Assumptions Based on Diagrams in Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated unjustified assumptions made by students when proving geometric statements. Geometric statements can be presented with a diagram or without. Diagrams can be accurate or sketchy. Unjustified assumptions may originate in an accompanying diagram. We thus asked whether the way in which a statement is presented has an effect on…

Dvora, Tali; Dreyfus, Tommy

2004-01-01

202

Ion potential diagrams for electrochromic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion potential diagrams can facilitate the description of systems in which ionic species are mobile. They depict qualitatively the spatial dependence of the potential energy for mobile ions, somewhat akin to band diagrams for electrons. The authors construct ion potential diagrams for the mixed conducting (oxide), optically active electrodes of five-layer electrochromic devices, based on reversible Li{sup +} intercalation. These

Francesca Varsano; D. Cahen; F. Decker; J. F. Guillemoles; E. Masetti

1998-01-01

203

Extending Reliability Block Diagrams to Software Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability block diagrams focus on components and connectors as do software architectures. However, some architectural styles possess characteristics which make traditional reliability block diagrams unusable as an analysis technique. In order to use the diagrams, they must be extended to reflect common architectural choices such as concurrency, distribution, dynamism, and implicit connectors.

Ahmed Abd-Allah

1997-01-01

204

Flow Diagram Simulator for the Cement Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important aspect of work performed in a process engineering department is the development of process flow diagrams. These diagrams display the results of energy and material balances and equipment rating calculations for a complex process plant. The development, features, and implementation of a computerized flow diagram simulation program named Fuller's interactive simulator for process engineering calculations (FISPEC) are

Bruce S. Knoll; William J. Berry

1984-01-01

205

Semantics of the Domain of Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A domain of flow diagrams similar to that proposed by Scott, a domain of linear flow diagrams proposed by Goguen et al , a domain of decision table diagrams involving mfimtary branching, and a domain of processes based on the ideas of Milner and Beklc are each provided with a direct semantics, closely related to partial-function semantics, and a continuation

John C. Reynolds

1977-01-01

206

Retrieving Information from Data Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

For reverse engineering, we need tools that can extract information from documents written before routine digital storage was feasible. Documents contain both text and diagrams; data flow diagrams play a prominent role in software documents. Using current techniques, it is possible to recover the information in a data flow diagram by scanning the printed document and processing the data obtained.

Gregory Butler; Peter Grogono; Rajjan Shinghal; Indra A. Tjandra

1995-01-01

207

A UML 2.0 Profile to Model Block Cipher Algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current mobile digital communication systems must implement rigorous operations to guarantee high levels of confidentiality and integrity during transmission of critical information. To achieve higher performance, the security algorithms are usually implemented as dedicated hardware functional units attached to the main processing units of the embedded communication system. To save hardware resources, the designer usually performs a number of manipulations in the cipher algorithm lying at the core of the confidentiality and integrity operations to implement a simplified version of it that is suitable to be efficiently used in an embedded environment. This paper describes an extension to UML 2.0 to model the structure of contemporary block cipher algorithms, with the ultimate goal of synthesizing representations in a hardware description language from these models according to a model-driven development principle. This automated process should alleviate design complexity and increase the productivity of the developer during experimentation with different design alternatives.

Balderas-Contreras, Tomás; Rodriguez-Gomez, Gustavo; Cumplido, René

208

UML for Validation: Experimenting Automatic Test Generation for Flight Software Validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UML for validation is a CNES study that aims at prototyping and experimenting automatic test generation technologies in the context of a model- based approach applied to on-board software development and tests. Starting from real test cases and test procedures taken from a state-of-the-art onboard software, we first applied a reverse engineering methodology to obtain an augmented software specification model, i.e. ready to support automated test generation. In parallel, we defined and prototyped a test generation tool using innovative model-based technologies based on EMF (Eclipse Modeling Framework). Finally, a representative end-to-end experiment was performed to evaluate the benefit of such technologies .

Hyounet, P.; Pouly, J.

2009-05-01

209

A Power Consumption Analysis Technique Using UML-Based Design Models in Embedded Software Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the power consumption of embedded system depends on the operation of hardware devices, software behaviors give great effect to the power consumption because of its functionality and complexity growth. This paper proposes a power consumption estimation technique using design models of software to support energy-efficient embedded software development. Even though code-based power analysis techniques have been proposed, these techniques have demerits that the analysis time is long and feedback is not easy. Our proposed technique makes use of UML behavior models for the power consumption analysis in order to overcome the demerits of code-based analysis. When comparing with the existing code-based analysis, our technique can provide the power analysis result at earlier phase than implementation. Therefore, software engineer can apply our technique to select energy-efficient design decisions in embedded software development process.

Kim, Doo-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Phil; Hong, Jang-Eui

210

Toward a Bio-Medical Thesaurus: Building the Foundation of the UMLS  

PubMed Central

The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is being designed to provide a uniform user interface to heterogeneous machine-readable bio-medical information resources, such as bibliographic databases, genetic databases, expert systems and patient records.1 Such an interface will have to recognize different ways of saying the same thing, and provide links to ways of saying related things. One way to represent the necessary associations is via a domain thesaurus. As no such thesaurus exists, and because, once built, it will be both sizable and in need of continuous maintenance, its design should include a methodology for building and maintaining it. We propose a methodology, utilizing lexically expanded schema inversion, and a design, called T. Lex, which together form one approach to the problem of defining and building a bio-medical thesaurus. We argue that the semantic locality implicit in such a thesaurus will support model-based reasoning in bio-medicine.2

Tuttle, Mark S.; Blois, Marsden S.; Erlbaum, Mark S.; Nelson, Stuart J.; Sherertz, David D.

1988-01-01

211

Initializing the VA medication reference terminology using UMLS metathesaurus co-occurrences.  

PubMed Central

We developed and evaluated a UMLS Metathesaurus Co-occurrence mining algorithm to connect medications and diseases they may treat. Based on 16 years of co-occurrence data, we created 977 candidate drug-disease pairs for a sample of 100 ingredients (50 commonly prescribed and 50 selected at random). Our evaluation showed that more than 80% of the candidate drug-disease pairs were rated "APPROPRIATE" by physician raters. Additionally, there was a highly significant correlation between the overall frequency of citation and the likelihood that the connection was rated "APPROPRIATE." The drug-disease pairs were used to initialize term definitions in an ongoing effort to build a medication reference terminology for the Veterans Health Administration. Co-occurrence mining is a valuable technique for initializing term definitions in a large-scale reference terminology creation project.

Carter, John S.; Brown, Steven H.; Erlbaum, Mark S.; Gregg, William; Elkin, Peter L.; Speroff, Ted; Tuttle, Mark S.

2002-01-01

212

Prototyping an institutional IAIMS/UMLS information environment for an academic medical center.  

PubMed Central

The paper describes a prototype information environment designed to link network-based information resources in an integrated fashion and thus enhance the information capabilities of an academic medical center. The prototype was implemented on a single Macintosh computer to permit exploration of the overall "information architecture" and to demonstrate the various desired capabilities prior to full-scale network-based implementation. At the heart of the prototype are two components: a diverse set of information resources available over an institutional computer network and an information sources map designed to assist users in finding and accessing information resources relevant to their needs. The paper describes these and other components of the prototype and presents a scenario illustrating its use. The prototype illustrates the link between the goals of two National Library of Medicine initiatives, the Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS) and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS).

Miller, P L; Paton, J A; Clyman, J I; Powsner, S M

1992-01-01

213

Class Size.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief introduction identifying current issues and trends in research on class size, this brochure reviews five recent studies bearing on the relationship of class size to educational effectiveness. Part 1 is a review of two interrelated and highly controversial "meta-analyses" or statistical integrations of research findings on class size,…

Ellis, Thomas I.

1985-01-01

214

Diagramming the Never Ending Story: Student-generated diagrammatic stories integrate and retain science concepts improving science literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examined an instructional strategy called Diagramming the Never Ending Story: A method called diagramming was taught to sixth grade students via an outdoor science inquiry ecology unit. Students generated diagrams of the new ecology concepts they encountered, creating explanatory 'captions' for their newly drawn diagrams while connecting them in a memorable story. The diagramming process culminates in 20-30 meter-long murals called the Never Ending Story: Months of science instruction are constructed as pictorial scrolls, making sense of all new science concepts they encounter. This method was taught at a North Carolina "Public" Charter School, Children's Community School, to measure its efficacy in helping students comprehend scientific concepts and retain them thereby increasing science literacy. There were four demographically similar classes of 20 students each. Two 'treatment' classes, randomly chosen from the four classes, generated their own Never Ending Stories after being taught the diagramming method. A Solomon Four-Group Design was employed: Two Classes (one control, one treatment) were administered pre- and post; two classes received post tests only. The tests were comprised of multiple choice, fill-in and extended response (open-ended) sections. Multiple choice and fill-in test data were not statistically significant whereas extended response test data confirm that treatment classes made statistically significant gains.

Pillsbury, Ralph T.

215

Optical generation of Voronoi diagram.  

PubMed

We present results of experiments of diffraction by an amplitude screen, made of randomly distributed circular holes. By careful selection of the experimental parameters we obtain an intensity pattern strongly connected to the Voronoi diagram (VD) generated by the centers of the apertures. With the help of simulations we give a description of the observed phenomenon and elucidate the optimal parameters for its observation. Finally, we also suggest how it can be used for a fast, all-optical generation of VDs. PMID:18542580

Giavazzi, F; Cerbino, R; Mazzoni, S; Giglio, M; Vailati, A

2008-03-31

216

Qualitative Spatial Interpretation of Course-of-Action Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper demonstrates qualitative spatial reasoning techniques in a real-world diagrammatic reasoning task: Course-of-Action (COA) diagrams. COA diagrams are military planning diagrams that depict unit movements and tasks in a given region. COA diagrams...

J. R. Rasch K. D. Forbus R. W. Ferguson W. Turmel

2000-01-01

217

Community detection by graph Voronoi diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and efficient community detection in networks is a key challenge for complex network theory and its applications. The problem is analogous to cluster analysis in data mining, a field rich in metric space-based methods. Common to these methods is a geometric, distance-based definition of clusters or communities. Here we propose a new geometric approach to graph community detection based on graph Voronoi diagrams. Our method serves as proof of principle that the definition of appropriate distance metrics on graphs can bring a rich set of metric space-based clustering methods to network science. We employ a simple edge metric that reflects the intra- or inter-community character of edges, and a graph density-based rule to identify seed nodes of Voronoi cells. Our algorithm outperforms most network community detection methods applicable to large networks on benchmark as well as real-world networks. In addition to offering a computationally efficient alternative for community detection, our method opens new avenues for adapting a wide range of data mining algorithms to complex networks from the class of centroid- and density-based clustering methods.

Deritei, Dávid; Lázár, Zsolt I.; Papp, István; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Sumi, Róbert; Varga, Levente; Ravasz Regan, Erzsébet; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária

2014-06-01

218

Multiple representations and free-body diagrams: Do students benefit from using them?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory physics students have difficulties understanding concepts and solving problems. When they solve problems, they use surface features of the problems to find an equation to calculate a numerical answer often not understanding the physics in the problem. How do we help students approach problem solving in an expert manner? A possible answer is to help them learn to represent knowledge in multiple ways and then use these different representations for conceptual understanding and problem solving. This solution follows from research in cognitive science and in physics education. However, there are no studies in physics that investigate whether students who learn to use multiple representations are in fact better problem solvers. This study focuses on one specific representation used in physics--a free body diagram. A free-body diagram is a graphical representation of forces exerted on an object of interest by other objects. I used the free-body diagram to investigate five main questions: (1) If students are in a course where they consistently use free body diagrams to construct and test concepts in mechanics, electricity and magnetism and to solve problems in class and in homework, will they draw free-body diagrams on their own when solving exam problems? (2) Are students who use free-body diagrams to solve problems more successful then those who do not? (3) Why do students draw free-body diagrams when solving problems? (4) Are students consistent in constructing diagrams for different concepts in physics and are they consistent in the quality of their diagrams? (5) What are possible relationships between features of a problem and how likely a student will draw a free body diagram to help them solve the problem? I utilized a mixed-methods approach to answer these questions. Questions 1, 2, 4 and 5 required a quantitative approach while question 3 required a qualitative approach, a case study. When I completed my study, I found that if students are in an environment which fosters the use of representations for problem solving and for concept development, then the majority of students will consistently construct helpful free-body diagrams and use them on their own to solve problems. Additionally, those that construct correct free-body diagrams are significantly more likely to successfully solve the problem. Finally, those students that are high achieving tend to use diagrams more and for more reasons then students who have low course grades. These findings will have major impacts on how introductory physics instructors run their classes and how curriculums are designed. These results favor a problem solving strategy that is rich with representations.

Rosengrant, David R.

219

A layout algorithm for data flow diagrams  

SciTech Connect

A layout algorithm is presented that allows the automatic drawing of data flow diagrams, a diagrammatic representation widely used in the functional analysis of information systems. A grid standard is defined for such diagrams, and aesthetics for a good readability are identified. The layout algorithm receives as input an abstract graph, specifying connectivity relations between the elements of the diagram, and produces as output a corresponding diagram according to the aesthetics. The basic strategy is to build incrementally the layout; first, a good topology is constructed with few crossings between edges; subsequently, the shape of the diagram is determined in terms of angles appearing along edges; and finally, dimensions are given to the graph, obtaining a grid skeleton for the diagram.

Batini, C.; Nardelli, E.; Tamassia, R.

1986-04-01

220

Process Flow Diagrams for Training and Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper focuses on the use of process flow diagrams for training first responders who execute search and seizure warrants\\u000a at electronic crime scenes. A generic process flow framework is presented, and the design goals and layout characteristics\\u000a of process flow diagrams are discussed. An evaluation of the process flow diagrams used in training courses indicates that\\u000a they are beneficial

Jacobus Venter

2006-01-01

221

Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate.  

PubMed

Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C. PMID:24320387

Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

2013-12-01

222

Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

2014-05-01

223

Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168-173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology.

Kirshner, Robert P.

2004-01-01

224

Prevalence of Ovarian Cancer among Women with a CA125 Level of 35 U\\/ml or Less  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The optimal upper limit of the normal range for CA125 in ovarian cancer screening is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of ovarian cancer among women in the Shizuoka Cohort Study on Ovarian Cancer Screening (SCSOCS) trial who had an abnormal ultrasound (US) and a CA125 level of 35 U\\/ml or less. Methods: Of 48,027 women enrolled in the SCSOCS

Hiroshi Kobayashi; Yoshihiko Yamada; Toshiyuki Sado; Mariko Sakata; Shozo Yoshida; Ryuji Kawaguchi; Seiji Kanayama; Hiroshi Shigetomi; Shoji Haruta; Yoriko Tsuji; Sachiyo Ueda; Takashi Kitanaka; Hidekazu Oi

2008-01-01

225

Symmetric Monotone Venn Diagrams with Seven Curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An n-Venn diagram consists of n curves drawn in the plane in such a way that each of the 2 n possible intersections of the interiors and exteriors of the curves forms a connected non-empty region. A k-region in a diagram is a region that is in the interior of precisely k curves. A n-Venn diagram is symmetric if it has a point of rotation about which rotations of the plane by 2?/n radians leaves the diagram fixed; it is polar symmetric if it is symmetric and its stereographic projection about the infinite outer face is isomorphic to the projection about the innermost face. A Venn diagram is monotone if every k-region is adjacent to both some (k - 1)-region (if k > 0) and also to some k + 1 region (if k < n). A Venn diagram is simple if at most two curves intersect at any point. We prove that the "Grünbaum" encoding uniquely identifies monotone simple symmetric n-Venn diagrams and describe an algorithm that produces an exhaustive list of all of the monotone simple symmetric n-Venn diagrams. There are exactly 23 simple monotone symmetric 7-Venn diagrams, of which 6 are polar symmetric.

Cao, Tao; Mamakani, Khalegh; Ruskey, Frank

226

Ion potential diagrams for electrochromic devices  

SciTech Connect

Ion potential diagrams can facilitate the description of systems in which ionic species are mobile. They depict qualitatively the spatial dependence of the potential energy for mobile ions, somewhat akin to band diagrams for electrons. The authors construct ion potential diagrams for the mixed conducting (oxide), optically active electrodes of five-layer electrochromic devices, based on reversible Li{sup +} intercalation. These serve to analyze stability problems that arise in these systems. The authors then use them as building blocks to arrive at ion diagrams for complete devices. This allows analyses of (dis)coloration kinetics.

Varsano, F. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Materials and Interfaces]|[Univ. di Roma La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica; Cahen, D. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Materials and Interfaces; Decker, F. [Univ. di Roma La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica; Guillemoles, J.F. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Materials and Interfaces]|[CNRS, Paris (France). Lab. d`Electrochimie; Masetti, E. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Sezione Dispositivi Ottici

1998-12-01

227

An Information System Development Method Based on the Link of Business Process Modeling with Executable UML Modeling and its Evaluation by Prototyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, Business Process Modeling (BPM) is used to create current analytical model (As-Is model) of the work processes, upon which an optimized model (the To-Be model) can be based, including the optimization of system configuration. Also, there is strong interest in the eXecutableUML (xUML), which makes it possible to validate system viability before it is implemented. This paper proposes a

Tsutomu Okawa; Tsukasa Kaminishi; Syuichi Hirabayashi; Hisao Koizumi; Jun Sawamoto

2008-01-01

228

A UMLS-based knowledge acquisition tool for rule-based clinical decision support system development.  

PubMed

Decision support systems in the medical field have to be easily modified by medical experts themselves. The authors have designed a knowledge acquisition tool to facilitate the creation and maintenance of a knowledge base by the domain expert and its sharing and reuse by other institutions. The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains the domain entities and constitutes the relations repository from which the expert builds, through a specific browser, the explicit domain ontology. The expert is then guided in creating the knowledge base according to the pre-established domain ontology and condition-action rule templates that are well adapted to several clinical decision-making processes. Corresponding medical logic modules are eventually generated. The application of this knowledge acquisition tool to the construction of a decision support system in blood transfusion demonstrates the value of such a pragmatic methodology for the design of rule-based clinical systems that rely on the highly progressive knowledge embedded in hospital information systems. PMID:11418542

Achour, S L; Dojat, M; Rieux, C; Bierling, P; Lepage, E

2001-01-01

229

Constructing Two-Dimensional Voronoi Diagrams via Divide-and-Conquer of Envelopes in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general framework for computing Voronoi diagrams of different classes of sites under various distance functions in { R}2. Most diagrams mentioned in the paper are in the plane. However, the framework is sufficiently general to support diagrams embedded on a family of two-dimensional parametric surfaces in three-dimensions. The computation of the diagrams is carried out through the construction of envelopes of surfaces in 3-space provided by Cgal (the Computational Geometry Algorithm Library). The construction of the envelopes follows a divide-and-conquer approach. A straightforward application of the divide-and-conquer approach for Voronoi diagrams yields algorithms that are inefficient in the worst case. We prove that through randomization, the expected running time becomes near-optimal in the worst case. We also show how to apply the new framework and other existing tools from Cgal to compute minimum-width annuli of sets of disks, which requires the computation of two Voronoi diagrams of different types, and of the overlay of the two diagrams. We do not assume general position. Namely, we handle degenerate input, and produce exact results.

Setter, Ophir; Sharir, Micha; Halperin, Dan

230

The voronoi diagram of three lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a complete description of the Voronoi diagram of three lines in R3. In particular, we show that the topology of the Voronoi diagram is invariant for three lines in general position, that is, that are pairwise skew and not all parallel to a common plane. The tri- sector consists of four unbounded branches of either a non-singular quartic

Hazel Everett; Sylvain Lazard; Daniel Lazard; Mohab Safey El Din

2007-01-01

231

Model Checking Activity Diagrams in TCM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a brief description of our (prototype) implementation in TCM [4] of an execution al-gorithm for activity diagrams. The execution algorithm translates an activity diagram into its corresponding execution structure. This execution structure is input for a model checker. With a model checker, requirements on the execution structure can be verified. Currently, we only use our own variant of

Rik Eshuis

232

Towards the Automatic Generation of Software Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors formulate the criteria for drawing dataflow diagrams and describe the placement and routing algorithms used in a system called MONDRIAN. A generalized approach to the question of software diagrams is proposed based on the authors' experience with MONDRIAN and a metasystem approach to the creation of CASE (computer-aided software engineering) environments. A formal approach to the definition of

L. Beth Protsko; Paul G. Sorenson; J. Paul Tremblay; Douglas A. Schaefer

1991-01-01

233

Understanding Machines from Text and Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instructional materials typically use both text and diagrams to explain how machines work. In this paper we give an account of what information is involved in understanding a mechanical device and the role that diagrams might play in communicating this in...

M. Hegarty M. A. Just

1987-01-01

234

Free-Body Diagrams: Necessary or Sufficient?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rutgers PAER group is working to help students develop various scientific abilities. One of the abilities is to create, understand and learn to use for qualitative reasoning and problem solving different representations of physical processes such as pictorial representations, motion diagrams, free-body diagrams, and energy bar charts. Physics education literature indicates that using multiple representations is beneficial for student

David Rosengrant; Alan van Heuvelen; Eugenia Etkina

2005-01-01

235

Phase diagram of a random tiling quasicrystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the phase diagram of a two-dimensional random tiling model for quasicrystals. At proper concentrations the model has 8-fold rotational symmetry. Landau theory correctly gives most of the qualitative features of the phase diagram, which is in turn studied in detail numerically using a transfer matrix approach. We find that the system can enter the quasicrystal phase from many

Weixiong Li; Michael Widom

1992-01-01

236

On hardware description from block diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a systematic way to describe the logical architecture of the system implementing a given algorithm by means of an extended block diagram, and develop a standard notation to describe each block. We then show a technique for correctly transforming a block diagram into a physical circuit description by introducing the notion of time into the

H. Jagadish; T. Kailath; J. Newkirk; R. Mathews

1984-01-01

237

Towards IEC 61499 function blocks diagrams verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

After having sketched the different techniques enabling to check properties of discrete event systems control software, we present in this article a formal method for IEC 61499 function blocks diagrams verification. This method is based on a formal representation of the behaviour of function blocks diagrams and takes benefit of verification tools developed from the SIGNAL synchronous language.

C. Schnakenbourg; J.-M. Faure; J.-J. Lesage

2002-01-01

238

Compiling Data Flow Diagrams into Functional Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest a method for compiling an arbitrary visual language V data flow diagrams with loops into a parallel functional language Sisal functions based on token propagation over the diagram and loop collapsing into a system of (mutually) recursive functions. This com- pilation algorithm preserves a concurrence potentially present in the data flow graph.

Mikhail Auguston; Ravindra Mathur

239

Block diagram modeling of quantum laser sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a method for modeling quantum laser sources. Quantum cascaded (QC), quantum dot (QD) and quantum dot cascaded (QDC) lasers are studied. Their block diagram models are devised. VisSim environment is used to achieve this purpose. Block diagram simulation results are validated against experimental published work and full agreements are obtained. Using of graphical user interface allows a

Imbaby I. Mahmoud

2010-01-01

240

Universal mean-field phase diagram for biaxial nematics obtained from a minimax principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a class of quadratic Hamiltonians which describe both fully attractive and partly repulsive molecular interactions, characteristic of biaxial liquid crystal molecules. To treat the partly repulsive interactions we establish a minimax principle for the associated mean-field free energy. We show that the phase diagram described by Sonnet [Phys. Rev. E 67, 061701 (2003)] is universal. Our predictions are

Fulvio Bisi; Epifanio G. Virga; Eugene C. Gartland Jr.; Giovanni de Matteis; André M. Sonnet; Georges E. Durand

2006-01-01

241

Free-Body Diagrams: Necessary or Sufficient?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rutgers PAER group is working to help students develop various scientific abilities. One of the abilities is to create, understand and learn to use for qualitative reasoning and problem solving different representations of physical processes such as pictorial representations, motion diagrams, free-body diagrams, and energy bar charts. Physics education literature indicates that using multiple representations is beneficial for student understanding of physics ideas and for problem solving. We developed a special approach to construct and utilize free-body diagrams for representing physical phenomena and for problem solving. We will examine whether students draw free-body diagrams in solving problems when they know they will not receive credit for it; the consistency of their use in different conceptual areas; and if students who use free-body diagrams while solving problems in different areas of physics are more successful then those who do not.

Rosengrant, David; Van Heuvelen, A.; Etkina, Eugenia

2009-11-30

242

Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ?} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik, E-mail: csyoo@wsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Shock Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Shock Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

2013-12-07

243

Extension of Geldart's Diagram to Fluidizable Fine and Ultrafine Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geldart's diagram, which was originally based on empirical observations on beds fluidized by air at ambient conditions, has been routinely used to predict the type of gas-fluidization expected for a granular material. However, the Geldart's diagram, based on particle size and density, is not currently a useful tool to predict the fluidization behaviour of many fine and ultrafine cohesive powders. There are recent reports revealing nonbubbling fluidlike fluidization for some preconditioned fine and ultrafine powders, in contrast with the predicted unfiuidizable Geldart C behaviour according to their primary particle size. In this work we present an extension of Geldart's diagram that rationalizes the type of behaviour observed for this new class of fine and ultrafine powders. In our approach we have extended empirical criteria mostly used in the past to explain the behaviour of liquid-fluidized beds, showing that fluidization, either by liquid or gas, can be understood from a general frame. Our approach to treat gas-fluidized beds of fine cohesive particles considers particle agglomerates, grown to a size limited by the balance between interparticle force and flow shear, as effective low-density particles. In accordance with experimental observations, our diagram predicts that the nonbubbling fluidization regime can be just solidlike for slightly cohesive particles (Geldar A behaviour). When particle size is decreased, we predict the existence of a nonbubbling fluidlike regime for preconditioned powders as seen experimentally. For sufficiently small particles and/or high viscosity gases, the fluidized bed transits directly from the nonbubbling fluidlike regime to elutriation as observed in gas-fluidized beds of nanoparticles, fluidized beds of micrometric particles with high viscosity gas, and liquid-fluidized beds of moderate density large beads.

Valverde, J. M.; Castellanos, A.

2009-06-01

244

Employing UMLS for generating hints in a tutoring system for medical problem-based learning.  

PubMed

While problem-based learning has become widely popular for imparting clinical reasoning skills, the dynamics of medical PBL require close attention to a small group of students, placing a burden on medical faculty, whose time is over taxed. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) offer an attractive means to increase the amount of facilitated PBL training the students receive. But typical intelligent tutoring system architectures make use of a domain model that provides a limited set of approved solutions to problems presented to students. Student solutions that do not match the approved ones, but are otherwise partially correct, receive little acknowledgement as feedback, stifling broader reasoning. Allowing students to creatively explore the space of possible solutions is exactly one of the attractive features of PBL. This paper provides an alternative to the traditional ITS architecture by using a hint generation strategy that leverages a domain ontology to provide effective feedback. The concept hierarchy and co-occurrence between concepts in the domain ontology are drawn upon to ascertain partial correctness of a solution and guide student reasoning towards a correct solution. We describe the strategy incorporated in METEOR, a tutoring system for medical PBL, wherein the widely available UMLS is deployed and represented as the domain ontology. Evaluation of expert agreement with system generated hints on a 5-point likert scale resulted in an average score of 4.44 (Spearman's ?=0.80, p<0.01). Hints containing partial correctness feedback scored significantly higher than those without it (Mann Whitney, p<0.001). Hints produced by a human expert received an average score of 4.2 (Spearman's ?=0.80, p<0.01). PMID:22429987

Kazi, Hameedullah; Haddawy, Peter; Suebnukarn, Siriwan

2012-06-01

245

Expanding the Extent of a UMLS Semantic Type via Group Neighborhood Auditing  

PubMed Central

Objective Each Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concept is assigned one or more semantic types (ST). A dynamic methodology for aiding an auditor in finding concepts that are missing the assignment of a given ST, S is presented. Design The first part of the methodology exploits the previously introduced Refined Semantic Network and accompanying refined semantic types (RST) to help narrow the search space for offending concepts. The auditing is focused in a neighborhood surrounding the extent of an RST, T (of S) called an envelope, consisting of parents and children of concepts in the extent. The audit moves outward as long as missing assignments are discovered. In the second part, concepts not reached previously are processed and reassigned T as needed during the processing of S's other RSTs. The set of such concepts is expanded in a similar way to that in the first part. Measurements The number of errors discovered is reported. To measure the methodology's efficiency, “error hit rates” (i.e., errors found in concepts examined) are computed. Results The methodology was applied to three STs: Experimental Model of Disease (EMD), Environmental Effect of Humans, and Governmental or Regulatory Activity. The EMD experienced the most drastic change. For its RST “EMD ? Neoplastic Process” (RST “EMD”) with only 33 (31) original concepts, 915 (134) concepts were found by the first (second) part to be missing the EMD assignment. Changes to the other two STs were smaller. Conclusion The results show that the proposed auditing methodology can help to effectively and efficiently identify concepts lacking the assignment of a particular semantic type.

Chen, Yan; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; Xu, Junchuan

2009-01-01

246

Physics Classroom: Drawing Free-Body Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial explains how free body diagrams are used in solving problems involving Newton's Second Law. This tutorials demonstrates how to draw free body diagrams, what the diagram means to Physics, and includes practice problems for the student. This tutorial also includes other tutorials, animations, and student activities in other concepts of Physics. The Physics Classroom is a set of resources created for learners and teachers of high school physics. It includes comprehensive tutorials, problem sets with solutions, extra help for struggling students, Shockwave animations, multimedia learning modules, labs, and photo gallery.

Henderson, Tom

2011-10-03

247

Near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams  

SciTech Connect

The near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams is derived from their configuration space representation, by performing all x integrations. The general scalar Feynman diagram is considered, with an arbitrary number of external momenta, an arbitrary number of internal lines and an arbitrary number of loops, in n dimensions and all masses may be different. The expansions are considered both below and above threshold. Rules, giving real and imaginary part, are derived. Unitarity of a sunset diagram with I internal lines is checked in a direct way by showing that its imaginary part is equal to the phase space integral of I particles.

Mendels, E. [Schenkkade 221, The Hague, 2595 AT Den Haag (Netherlands)

2005-07-01

248

Class Trash.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a classroom activity in which students calculate the amount and types of trash thrown out by their class at school to investigate how much trash is generated, where it goes, and speculate about alternatives. Students need to be familiar with the concepts of weight, volume, and numbers. (MCO)

Chemecology, 1992

1992-01-01

249

Constraints Modeling in FRBR Data Model Using OCL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transformation of the conceptual FRBR data model to the class diagram in UML 2.0 notation is given. The class diagram is formed using MagicDraw CASE tool. The paper presents a class diagram for the first group of FRBR entities ie. classes (the product of intellectual or artistic endeavour). It is demonstrated how to model constraints over relationships between classes in FRBR object data model using OCL 2.0.

Rudi?, Gordana

2011-09-01

250

The Art of Free-Body Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the difficulty of drawing free-body diagrams which only show forces exerted on a body from its neighbors. Presents three ways a body may be modeled: a particle, rigid extended, and nonrigid extended. (MKR)

Puri, Avinash

1996-01-01

251

A Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation describes a Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool. It is used by JPL's Team X in studying missions during the Pre-Phase A. It helps generate cost and mass estimates using proprietary data bases.

Tsuyuki, Glenn; Miyake, Robert; Dodge, Kyle

2008-01-01

252

Sloan Digital Sky Survey - Hubble Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, containing information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, provides projects and activities for advanced astronomy students. In this particular one, the user retraces Edwin Hubble's steps to discover that the Universe is expanding, by making a Hubble Diagram.

2010-01-07

253

EEBHub Building 101 Sankey Diagram Energy Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energy Efficient Buildings Hub (EEBHub) uses Sankey diagrams to visually analyze energy use in the building of its headquarters, Building 101 (B101). This report describes B101 energy consumption and passive energy exchanges with the surrounding envir...

A. J. Simon S. Singer

2013-01-01

254

An Improved Mnemonic Diagram for Thermodynamic Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers pressure, volume, entropy, temperature, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and internal energy. Suggests the mnemonic diagram is for use with simple systems that are defined as macroscopically homogeneous, isotropic, uncharged, and chemically inert. (MVL)

Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J.

1989-01-01

255

Veitch diagram plotter simplifies Boolean functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This device for simplifying the plotting of a Veitch diagram consists of several overlays for blocking out the unwanted squares. This method of plotting the various input combinations to a computer is used in conjunction with the Boolean functions.

Rubin, D. K.

1964-01-01

256

The Voronoi Diagram of Three Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a complete description of the Voronoi diagram, in ?3, of three lines in general position, that is, that are pairwise skew and not all parallel to a common plane. In particular,\\u000a we show that the topology of the Voronoi diagram is invariant for three such lines. The trisector consists of four unbounded\\u000a branches of either a nonsingular quartic

Hazel Everett; Daniel Lazard; Sylvain Lazard

2009-01-01

257

Spectroscopic Determination of Ternary Phase Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ternary phase diagrams describe phase equilibria among three components as a function of composition at constant temperature and pressure. The system of n-propanol, n-heptane, and water exhibits a simple ternary diagram with two well-demarcated regions. One region represents complete liquid miscibility at high proportions of n-propanol. The second region delineates the compositions where two immiscible liquid phases coexist--a water-rich layer

Kerry K. Karukstis; Sara K. Avrantinis; Stephanie L. Boegeman; Jeanie N. Conner; Blaine M. Hackman; Jennifer M. Lindsay; Alexander L. Mandel; Elizabeth J. Miller

2000-01-01

258

Generalized Local Voronoi Diagram of Visible Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circular robot in unknown environment, populated by non-overlapping obstacles is considered. The robot is equipped with a discrete scanner e.g. laser range scanner. We present a method for local construction of a one-dimensional structure, similar to the generalized Voronoi diagram. We call this structure a generalized local Voronoi diagram (GLVD). GLVD is constructed from scan points of the visible

Rajko Mahkovic; Tomaz Slivnik

1998-01-01

259

Algebraic decision diagrams and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present theory and experiments on the AlgebraicDecision Diagrams (ADD's). These diagrams extend BDD'sby allowing values from an arbitrary finite domain to be associatedwith the terminal nodes. We present a treatment foundedin boolean algebras and discuss algorithms and results in applicationslike matrix multiplication and shortest path algorithms.Furthermore, we outline possible applications of ADD's to logicsynthesis, formal verification,

R. Iris Bahar; Erica A. Frohm; Charles M. Gaona; Gary D. Hachtel; Enrico Macii; Abelardo Pardo; Fabio Somenzi

1993-01-01

260

ISS EPS Orbital Replacement Unit Block Diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attached documents are being provided to Switching Power Magazine for information purposes. This magazine is writing a feature article on the International Space Station Electrical Power System, focusing on the switching power processors. These units include the DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU), the Bi-directional Charge/Discharge Unit (BCDU), and the Sequential Shunt Unit (SSU). These diagrams are high-level schematics/block diagrams depicting the overall functionality of each unit.

Schmitz, Gregory V.

2001-01-01

261

Example-Based Sequence Diagrams to Colored Petri Nets Transformation Using Heuristic Search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic UML models like sequence diagrams (SD) lack sufficient formal semantics, making it difficult to build automated tools for their analysis, simulation and validation. A common approach to circumvent the problem is to map these models to more formal representations. In this context, many works propose a rule-based approach to automatically translate SD into colored Petri nets (CPN). However, finding the rules for such SD-to-CPN transformations may be difficult, as the transformation rules are sometimes difficult to define and the produced CPN may be subject to state explosion. We propose a solution that starts from the hypothesis that examples of good transformation traces of SD-to-CPN can be useful to generate the target model. To this end, we describe an automated SD-to-CPN transformation method which finds the combination of transformation fragments that best covers the SD model, using heuristic search in a base of examples. To achieve our goal, we combine two algorithms for global and local search, namely Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Simulated Annealing (SA). Our empirical results show that the new approach allows deriving the sought CPNs with at least equal performance, in terms of size and correctness, to that obtained by a transformation rule-based tool.

Kessentini, Marouane; Bouchoucha, Arbi; Sahraoui, Houari; Boukadoum, Mounir

262

Behavioral Dependency Measurement for Change-Proneness Prediction in UML 2.0 Design Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the development and maintenance of object-oriented (OO) software, the information on the classes which are more prone to be changed is very useful. Developers and maintainers can make a more flexible software by modifying the part of classes which are sensitive to changes. Traditionally, most change-proneness prediction has been studied based on source codes. However, change-proneness prediction in the

Ah-rim Han; Sang-uk Jeon; Doo-hwan Bae; Jang-eui Hong

2008-01-01

263

Five Year Results of US Intergroup/RTOG 9704 With Postoperative CA 19-9 {<=}90 U/mL and Comparison to the CONKO-001 Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trial 9704 was the largest randomized trial to use adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer. This report analyzes 5-year survival by serum level of tumor marker CA 19-9 of {<=}90 vs >90 U/mL and compares results to the those of the CONKO-001 trial. Methods and Materials: CA 19-9 expression was analyzed as a dichotomized variable ({<=}90 vs >90 U/mL). Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify the impact of the CA 19-9 value on overall survival (OS). Actuarial estimates of OS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Both univariate (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-4.3, P<.0001) and multivariate (HR = 3.1; 95% CI, 2.2-4.2, P<.0001) analyses demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in OS for CA 19-9 serum level of {>=}90 U/mL. For patients in the gemcitabine (Gem) treatment arm with CA 19-9 <90 U/mL, median survival was 21 months. For patients with CA 19-9 {>=}90 U/mL, this number dropped to 10 months. In patients with pancreatic head tumors in the Gem treatment arm with RT quality assurance per protocol and CA 19-9 of <90 U/mL, median survival and 5-year rate were 24 months and 34%. In comparison, the median survival and 5-year OS rate for patients in the Gem arm of the CONKO trial were 22 months and 21%. Conclusions: This analysis demonstrates that patients with postresection CA 19-9 values {>=}90 U/mL had a significantly worse survival. Patients with pancreatic head tumors treated with Gem with CA 19-9 serum level of <90 U/mL and per protocol RT had favorable survival compared to that seen in the CONKO trial. CA 19-9 is a stratification factor for the current RTOG adjuvant pancreas trial (0848).

Berger, Adam C., E-mail: adam.berger@jefferson.edu [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Winter, Kathryn [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hoffman, John P. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Regine, William F. [University of Maryland Medical Systems, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [University of Maryland Medical Systems, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Safran, Howard [Division of Hematology/Oncology, The Miriam Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island (United States)] [Division of Hematology/Oncology, The Miriam Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Freedman, Gary M. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Benson, Alan B. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois (United States); MacDonald, John [St. Vincent's Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [St. Vincent's Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

2012-11-01

264

Dynamic tactile diagram simplification on refreshable displays.  

PubMed

The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to independently access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow, cumbersome, and costly process. Refreshable haptic displays, which interact with computers, promise to make this access quicker, easier, and cheaper. One important aspect in converting visual to tactile diagrams is to simplify the diagram as otherwise it can be too difficult to interpret with touch. Enabling this to be under user control in an interactive environment, such as with refreshable displays, could allow users to avoid being overwhelmed by the diagrams at any instant in time while still retaining access to all information in "storage". Through this article the authors investigate whether two types of diagram simplification--boundary simplification and contextual simplification--showed potential utility in an interactive environment. Boundary simplification was found to be significantly helpful in answering general questions about borders on a geographic map, and contextual simplification was helpful in answering relational questions, as compared to using the original map unchanged. PMID:23527429

Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T V

2013-01-01

265

On phase diagrams of magnetic reconnection  

SciTech Connect

Recently, “phase diagrams” of magnetic reconnection were developed to graphically organize the present knowledge of what type, or phase, of reconnection is dominant in systems with given characteristic plasma parameters. Here, a number of considerations that require caution in using the diagrams are pointed out. First, two known properties of reconnection are omitted from the diagrams: the history dependence of reconnection and the absence of reconnection for small Lundquist number. Second, the phase diagrams mask a number of features. For one, the predicted transition to Hall reconnection should be thought of as an upper bound on the Lundquist number, and it may happen for considerably smaller values. Second, reconnection is never “slow,” it is always “fast” in the sense that the normalized reconnection rate is always at least 0.01. This has important implications for reconnection onset models. Finally, the definition of the relevant Lundquist number is nuanced and may differ greatly from the value based on characteristic scales. These considerations are important for applications of the phase diagrams. This is demonstrated by example for solar flares, where it is argued that it is unlikely that collisional reconnection can occur in the corona.

Cassak, P. A. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Drake, J. F. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)] [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)

2013-06-15

266

49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10 Transportation...Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its...

2013-10-01

267

Block diagram generation and parsing based on graph grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A block diagram is a graphical model with which it is possible to concisely visualize a system structure and is widely used in control engineering and other fields. However, there are few studies that try to formulate a syntax of block diagrams. In this research, we define a block diagram grammar which generates block diagrams by means of subgraph rewriting

Koushi Anzai; Yoshihiro Adachi; Suguru Kobayashi; Kensei Tsuchida

1997-01-01

268

Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

2010-01-01

269

The state diagram for cell adhesion mediated by two receptors.  

PubMed

Leukocyte recruitment from the bloodstream to surrounding tissues is an essential component of the immune response. Capture of blood-borne leukocytes onto vascular endothelium proceeds via a two-step mechanism, with each step mediated by a distinct receptor-ligand pair. Cells first transiently adhere, or "roll" (via interactions between selectins and sialyl-Lewis-x), and then firmly adhere to the vascular wall (via interactions between integrins and ICAM-1). We have reported that a computational method called adhesive dynamics (AD) accurately reproduces the fine-scale dynamics of selectin-mediated rolling. This paper extends the use of AD simulations to model the dynamics of cell adhesion when two classes of receptors are simultaneously active: one class (selectins or selectin ligands) with weakly adhesive properties, and the other (integrins) with strongly adhesive properties. AD simulations predict synergistic functions of the two receptors in mediating adhesion. At a fixed density of surface ICAM-1, increasing selectin densities lead to greater pause times and an increased tendency toward firm adhesion; thus, selectins mechanistically facilitate firm adhesion mediated by integrins. Conversely, at a fixed density of surface selectin, increasing ICAM-1 densities lead to greater pause times and an increased tendency to firm adhesion. We present this relationship in a two-receptor state diagram, a map that relates the densities and properties of adhesion molecules to various adhesive behaviors that they code, such as rolling or firm adhesion. We also present a state diagram for neutrophil activation, which relates beta(2)-integrin density and integrin-ICAM-1 kinetic on rate to neutrophil adhesive behavior. The predictions of two-receptor adhesive dynamics are validated by the ability of the model to reproduce in vivo neutrophil rolling velocities from the literature. PMID:12668476

Bhatia, Sujata K; King, Michael R; Hammer, Daniel A

2003-04-01

270

An algebra approach to the deduction of data flow diagrams and object oriented diagrams from a set of specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Software Engineering processes usually lack formal mathematical foundations. This paper presents a formal approach for the development of Specifications, Data Flow Diagrams and Object Oriented Diagrams using algebraic theory. The use of algebraic theory allows the check for completeness and consistency and the generation of automatic procedures for translating specifications into Data Flow Diagrams or Object Oriented Diagrams.

Federico Vazquez

1995-01-01

271

An algebra approach to the deduction of data flow diagrams and object oriented diagrams from algebraic specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Software Engineering procedures usually lack formal mathematical foundations. This paper presents a formal approach for the development of Specifications, Data Flow Diagrams and Object Oriented Diagrams using algebraic theory. The use of algebraic theory allows the check for completeness and consistency and the generation of automatic procedures for translating specifications into Data Flow Diagrams or Object Oriented Diagrams.

Federico Vazquez

1996-01-01

272

A pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make progress in understanding knot theory, we will need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots which are of course continuous in 3D but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal would be to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch 2D knot diagrams by taking advantage of a collision-sensing controller and explore their underlying smooth structures through a continuous motion. Recent advances of interaction techniques have been made that allow progress to be made in this direction. Pseudo-haptics that simulates haptic effects using pure visual feedback can be used to develop such an interactive system. This paper outlines one such pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface. Our interface derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing 2D knot diagrams and provides haptic-like sensations to facilitate the creation and exploration of knot diagrams. A centerpiece of the interaction model simulates a "physically" reactive mouse cursor, which is exploited to resolve the apparent conflict between the continuous structure of the actual smooth knot and the visual discontinuities in the knot diagram representation. Another value in exploiting pseudo-haptics is that an acceleration (or deceleration) of the mouse cursor (or surface locator) can be used to indicate the slope of the curve (or surface) of whom the projective image is being explored. By exploiting these additional visual cues, we proceed to a full-featured extension to a pseudo-haptic 4D visualization system that simulates the continuous navigation on 4D objects and allows us to sense the bumps and holes in the fourth dimension. Preliminary tests of the software show that main features of the interface overcome some expected perceptual limitations in our interaction with 2D knot diagrams of 3D knots and 3D projective images of 4D mathematical objects.

Zhang, Hui; Weng, Jianguang; Hanson, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

273

B-Fe-U Phase Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquidus projection of the U-rich corner of the B-Fe-U phase diagram is proposed based on X-ray powder diffraction measurements, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy observations complemented with energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. Two ternary reactions in this U-rich region were observed and their approximate temperatures were established. In addition, an overview of the complete phase diagram is given, including the liquidus projection; isothermal sections at 1053 K, 1223 K, and 1373 K (780 °C, 950 °C, and 1100 °C); and a U:(Fe,B) = 1:5 isopleth.

Dias, Marta; Carvalho, Patrícia Almeida; Mardolcar, Umesh Vinaica; Tougait, Olivier; Noël, Henri; Gonçalves, António Pereira

2014-04-01

274

Period Analyses Without O-C Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a versatile method appropriate for the period analyses of observations containing phase information of all kinds of periodic or nearly periodic variable stars on the basis of phenomenological modelling of their phase curves and phase functions. The approach is based on rigorous application of a non-linear weighted least-squares method exploiting all available observational data and does not need an O-C diagram as an intermediate stage for period analyses. However, this approach enables us to determine precise times of extrema of light curves, to calculate ephemerides and construct plausible O-C diagrams. We substantiate the general applicability of the method on eclipsing binaries research.

Mikulášek, Zden?k; Zejda, Miloslav; Janík, Jan

2012-04-01

275

Minkowski diagram in relativity and holography.  

PubMed

Now that ultrashort laser pulses can be used in holography, the temporal and spatial resolution approach the same order of magnitude. In that case the limited speed of light sometimes causes large measuring errors if correction methods are not introduced. Therefore, we want to revive the Minkowski diagram, which was invented in 1908 to visualize relativistic relations between time and space. We show how this diagram in a modified form can be used to derive both the static holodiagram, used for conventional holography, including ultrahigh-speed recordings of wavefronts, and a dynamic holodiagram used for studying the apparent distortions of objects recorded at relativistic speeds. PMID:20531662

Abramson, N

1988-05-01

276

Asymmetric Wings of the Butterfly Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze hemispheric asymmetry in the sunspot distribution over a solar cycle. Butterfly diagrams as plots of the latitudes of emerging sunspots against time are studied in order to find similarities and differences between Northern and Southern hemispheres. Long-term anticorrelations between time lags in hemispheric leading and "magnetic equator" shifts are found. The secular variability of the North-South asynchrony on the order of 90 years is identified. The asymmetry of butterfly diagrams just before and during the Global Minimums is discussed.

Zolotova, N. V.; Ponyavin, D. I.

2008-09-01

277

Study flow diagrams in Cochrane systematic review updates: an adapted PRISMA flow diagram  

PubMed Central

Cochrane systematic reviews are conducted and reported according to rigorous standards. A study flow diagram must be included in a new review, and there is clear guidance from the PRISMA statement on how to do this. However, for a review update, there is currently no guidance on how study flow diagrams should be presented. To address this, a working group was formed to find a solution and produce guidance on how to use these diagrams in review updates. A number of different options were devised for how these flow diagrams could be used in review updates, and also in cases where multiple searches for a review or review update have been conducted. These options were circulated to the Cochrane information specialist community for consultation and feedback. Following the consultation period, the working group refined the guidance and made the recommendation that for review updates an adapted PRISMA flow diagram should be used, which includes an additional box with the number of previously included studies feeding into the total. Where multiple searches have been conducted, the results should be added together and treated as one set of results. There is no existing guidance for using study flow diagrams in review updates. Our adapted diagram is a simple and pragmatic solution for showing the flow of studies in review updates.

2014-01-01

278

Study flow diagrams in Cochrane systematic review updates: an adapted PRISMA flow diagram.  

PubMed

Cochrane systematic reviews are conducted and reported according to rigorous standards. A study flow diagram must be included in a new review, and there is clear guidance from the PRISMA statement on how to do this. However, for a review update, there is currently no guidance on how study flow diagrams should be presented. To address this, a working group was formed to find a solution and produce guidance on how to use these diagrams in review updates.A number of different options were devised for how these flow diagrams could be used in review updates, and also in cases where multiple searches for a review or review update have been conducted. These options were circulated to the Cochrane information specialist community for consultation and feedback. Following the consultation period, the working group refined the guidance and made the recommendation that for review updates an adapted PRISMA flow diagram should be used, which includes an additional box with the number of previously included studies feeding into the total. Where multiple searches have been conducted, the results should be added together and treated as one set of results.There is no existing guidance for using study flow diagrams in review updates. Our adapted diagram is a simple and pragmatic solution for showing the flow of studies in review updates. PMID:24886533

Stovold, Elizabeth; Beecher, Deirdre; Foxlee, Ruth; Noel-Storr, Anna

2014-01-01

279

MIT Physics 8.02: Vector Field Diagram and Field Line Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet was designed to enhance understanding of electric field lines. By "drawing" lines from simulated charges on a color-coded field, the learner can explore vector field diagrams and form concepts about strength/direction of field lines. Sign and ratio of charge can be changed. This activity is appropriate for introductory and algebra-based physics classes. It is part of a larger collection of NSF-funded physics animations and simulations for use in the interactive classroom.

Belcher, John

2006-11-13

280

Computer-Generated Diagrams for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 10 computer programs used to draw diagrams usually drawn on chalkboards, such as addition of three vectors, vector components, range of a projectile, lissajous figures, beats, isotherms, Snell's law, waves passing through a lens, magnetic field due to Helmholtz coils, and three curves. Several programming tips are included. (JN)

Carle, Mark A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1986-01-01

281

Segmenting dot patterns by voronoi diagram concavity.  

PubMed

This correspondence defines a signed distance, called ``internal concavity,'' on paths of the Voronoi diagram of a dot pattern. An algorithm using internal concavity to segment dot patterns is described. The segmentation algorithm produces subsets of the Dirichlet tessellation (Delaunay triangulation) of the dot pattern. PMID:21869092

Fairfield, J

1983-01-01

282

Construction of Lax operators from weight diagrams  

SciTech Connect

We show that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to read-off the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax pair generates the modified KdV equations, and have been shown in some cases to produce acceptable solutions of the string equation of matrix models.

Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

1991-05-01

283

A pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make progress in understanding knot theory, we will need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots which are of course continuous in 3D but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal would be to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch 2D knot diagrams by taking advantage of a

Hui Zhang; Jianguang Weng; Andrew J. Hanson

2011-01-01

284

Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

2011-01-01

285

The Binary Temperature-Composition Phase Diagram  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The equations for the liquid and gas lines in the binary temperature-composition phase diagram are derived by approximating that delta(H)[subscript vap] of the two liquids are equal. It is shown that within this approximation, the resulting equations are not too difficult to present in an undergraduate physical chemistry lecture.

Sanders, Philip C.; Reeves, James H.; Messina, Michael

2006-01-01

286

Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to independently access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow, cumbersome and costly process. Refreshable haptic displays, which interact

Ravi Rastogi; Dianne T. V Pawluk

2012-01-01

287

Shockwave Physics Studios: Free Body Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity, part of The Physics Classroom tutorial collection, provides self-directed practice in constructing free-body diagrams. Twelve descriptions of physical situations are presented; the goal is to determine the type and relative magnitude of the forces acting upon the described object. Additional help is provided with one click on "Web Help".

Henderson, Tom

2011-09-27

288

Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

Vitz, Ed

2008-01-01

289

The Starfish Diagram: Statistical visualization tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Starfish Diagram is a statistical visualization tool that simultaneously displays the properties of an individual and its parent sample through a series of histograms. The code is useful for large datasets for which one needs to understand the standing or significance of a single entry.

Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.

2014-07-01

290

Dependability Assessment using Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the DREDD (Dependability and Risk Evaluation using Decision Diagrams) algorithm which incorporates coverage modeling into a BDD solution of a combinatorial model. BDDs, which do not use cutsets to generate system unreliability, can be used to find exact solutions for extremely large systems. The DREDD algorithm takes advantage of the efficiency of the BDD solution approach and increases the

Stacy A. Doyle; Joanne Bechta Dugan

1995-01-01

291

Expected Linear 3-Dimensional Voronoi Diagram Algorithm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Let S be a set of n sites chosen independently from a uniform distribution in a cube in 3-dimensional Euclidean space. In the paper, an expected O(n) algorithm for constructing the Voronoi diagram for S together with numerical results obtained from an imp...

J. Bernal

1990-01-01

292

An extensible system for drawing block diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system whose purpose is to accept input in a variety of languages and to produce block diagrams, such as flowcharts, as output. A special feature of the system is its use of syntax directed compilation techniques to process the various input languages. Through the use of incremental compilation, the system is able to offer extensibility of

H. E. Kulsrud

1972-01-01

293

Visualizing cognitive systems: getting past block diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualisations play an important part in the development of ideas. They make ingredients and relations explicit, guide thinking processes of the designer or scientist, and support communications, often across the boundaries of disciplines. In the fields of cognitive psychology and human-machine interaction, block diagrams have been a dominant means for representing cognitive systems. However, we believe that this form of

Pieter Jan Stappers; John M. Flach

2004-01-01

294

Multistate Block Diagrams and Fault Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how to model a multistate system with multistate components using binary variables. This modeling technique allows current binary algorithms for block diagrams and fault trees to be applied to multistate systems. Several multistate examples are presented, and some cases in which computational efficiency can be enhanced are discussed.

Alan P. Wood

1985-01-01

295

Fission stability diagram of sup 240 Pu  

SciTech Connect

We have used an axially symmetric deformed Thomas-Fermi model to evaluate the fission barrier of {sup 240}Pu as a function of the quadrupole moment {ital Q}{sub 2} for different values of the angular momentum {ital L} and temperature {ital T}. The fission stability diagram of this nucleus is investigated.

Garcias, F.; Barranco, M.; Wio, H.S. (Departament de Fisica, Universitat de ses Illes Balears, E-07071 Palma de Mallorca, Spain (ES)); Ngo, C. (Laboratoire National Saturne, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France); Nemeth, J. (Institute of Theoretical Physics, Eotvos University, H-1088 Budapest, Hungary)

1989-09-01

296

Asymmetric Wings of the Butterfly Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze hemispheric asymmetry in the sunspot distribution over a solar cycle. Butterfly diagrams as plots of the latitudes of emerging sunspots against time are studied in order to find similarities and differences between Northern and Southern hemispheres. Long-term anticorrelations between time lags in hemispheric leading and \\

N. V. Zolotova; D. I. Ponyavin

2008-01-01

297

Identification of complete data flow diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Structure Design is generated with Data Flow Diagrams (DFD). DFD have been used for more than ten years, and they are still popular. The main drawback of DFD is the lack of mathematical foundation. The great demand for bigger and more sophisticated computer systems makes necessary the formulation of a formal theory for DFD. This theory will provide a

Federico Vazquez

1994-01-01

298

Multimedia presentation design using data flow diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured analysis\\/design methodology has been used in software development for many years. We propose a revised data flow diagram technique and system based on the structured analysis methodology. The system allows a multimedia presentation designer to stepwise refine his\\/her presentation toward an interactive Petri net, which defines the temporal behaviour of the presentation. The generated presentation can mutate itself at

Timothy K. Shih; C. H. Kuo; H. C. Keh; Y. H. Wang; C. S. Wang; S. K. C. Lo; Shuo-Chih Hsu

1997-01-01

299

Weight diagram construction of Lax operators  

SciTech Connect

We review and expand methods introduced in our previous paper. It is proved that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to construct the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax operator is in the Miura-like form and generates the modified KdV equations. The algorithm is extended to the super-symmetric case.

Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

1991-10-01

300

Study of Phase Diagrams of Ternary Semiconductors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this three-year project on the theoretical studies of Hg-Cd-Te phase diagram, the liquidus and solidus have been calculated using the conditions to thermal coexistence of the liquid and solid. The pair approximation of the cluster variation method is u...

R. Kikuchi

1983-01-01

301

A generalized reliability block diagram (RBD) simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors demonstrate a computer simulation yielding reliability and maintainability information for any system based on the failure and repair distributions of the individual components. The information needed to link the various components together is taken directly from the reliability block diagram (RBD), thereby negating the need for writing specialized programs. Final results display 90% confidence intervals for four key

K. D. Figiel; D. R. Sule

1990-01-01

302

The Iron-Praseodymium Phase Diagram.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A phase diagram is proposed for the iron-praseodymium alloy system. Only one intermediate phase, Pr2Fe17, was observed in the system. Invariant points are the Pr2Fe17 peritectic point at 1105 plus or minus 8C and 89.5 at. % Fe and the eutectic point at 65...

A. E. Ray

1969-01-01

303

Near Earth Objects Program: Orbit Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides access to diagrams of the orbits of a very large number of objects in the asteroid belt as well as comets that cross Earth's orbit. The collection is searchable by object name or designation and users can also browse through an extensive list of potentially hazardous asteroids.

Program, Nasa J.; Nasa

304

Nonverbal Poetry: Family Life-Space Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines life-space diagrams as a form of nonverbal poetry which taps personal feelings, tells a story, and characterizes a particular life situation, forming a useful therapy technique that provides a family the opportunity to examine its internal family relationships. Offers two case studies, discusses five levels of knowing and awareness, and…

Bardill, Donald R.

2001-01-01

305

Impersonal parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An objective process for estimation of star cluster parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams is introduced, with direct inclusion of multiple stars, a least-squares fitting criterion, and standard error estimates. No role is played by conventional isochrones. Instead the quantity compared between observation and theory is the density of points (areal ) as it varies over the diagram. With as the effective observable quantity, standard parameter adjustment theory can be brought to bear on HR diagram analysis. Here we use the method of differential corrections with a least-squares fitting criterion, but any of the many known fitting methods should be applicable to comparison of observed and theoretical distributions. Diverse numerical schemes were developed to make the overall algorithm workable, including two that improve differentiability of by rendering point distributions effectively equivalent to continuous distributions in certain respects. Statistics of distributions are handled not via Monte Carlo methods but by the Functional Statistics Algorithm (hereafter FSA), a statistical algorithm that has been developed for HR diagram fitting but should serve as an alternative to Monte Carlo in many other applications. FSA accomplishes the aims of Monte Carlo with orders of magnitude less computation. Analysis of luminosity functions is included within the HR diagram algorithm as a special case. Areal density analysis of HR diagrams is acceptably fast because we handle stellar evolution via approximation functions, whose output also is more precisely differentiable than that of a full stellar evolution program. Evolution by approximation functions is roughly a million times as fast as full evolution and has virtually no numerical noise. The algorithmic ideas that lead to objective solutions can be applied to many kinds of HR diagram analysis that are now done subjectively. The present solution program is limited by speed considerations to use of one evolution program and exploration of variations in evolutionary physics is left for future versions. The program has miscellaneous refinements, such as allowing for distributions of chemical composition and interstellar extinction, as well as inclusion of binary star evolution, but so far not all have been tried in solutions. An algorithm is described for dealing with field stars directly in terms of , but has not yet been actively implemented. A synthetic globular cluster with known properties is analysed to demonstrate parameter convergence, solution consistency and comparison with known answers.

Wilson, R. E.; Hurley, Jarrod R.

2003-10-01

306

Improved Identification of Noun Phrases in Clinical Radiology Reports Using a High-Performance Statistical Natural Language Parser Augmented with the UMLS Specialist Lexicon  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a method of extracting noun phrases with full phrase structures from a set of clinical radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and to investigate the effects of using the UMLS® Specialist Lexicon to improve noun phrase identification within clinical radiology documents. Design: The noun phrase identification (NPI) module is composed of a sentence boundary detector, a statistical natural language parser trained on a nonmedical domain, and a noun phrase (NP) tagger. The NPI module processed a set of 100 XML-represented clinical radiology reports in Health Level 7 (HL7)® Clinical Document Architecture (CDA)–compatible format. Computed output was compared with manual markups made by four physicians and one author for maximal (longest) NP and those made by one author for base (simple) NP, respectively. An extended lexicon of biomedical terms was created from the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and used to improve NPI performance. Results: The test set was 50 randomly selected reports. The sentence boundary detector achieved 99.0% precision and 98.6% recall. The overall maximal NPI precision and recall were 78.9% and 81.5% before using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and 82.1% and 84.6% after. The overall base NPI precision and recall were 88.2% and 86.8% before using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and 93.1% and 92.6% after, reducing false-positives by 31.1% and false-negatives by 34.3%. Conclusion: The sentence boundary detector performs excellently. After the adaptation using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon, the statistical parser's NPI performance on radiology reports increased to levels comparable to the parser's native performance in its newswire training domain and to that reported by other researchers in the general nonmedical domain.

Huang, Yang; Lowe, Henry J.; Klein, Dan; Cucina, Russell J.

2005-01-01

307

Overture: The grid classes  

SciTech Connect

Overture is a library containing classes for grids, overlapping grid generation and the discretization and solution of PDEs on overlapping grids. This document describes the Overture grid classes, including classes for single grids and classes for collections of grids.

Brislawn, K.; Brown, D.; Chesshire, G.; Henshaw, W. [and others

1997-01-01

308

A Legal Negotiatiton Support System Based on A Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of a legal negotiation support system, ANS (Argumentation based Negotiation support System). ANS consists of a user interface, three inference engines, a database of old cases, and two decision support modules. The ANS users negotiates or disputes with others via a computer network. The negotiation status is managed in the form of the negotiation diagram. The negotiation diagram is an extension of Toulmin’s argument diagram, and it contains all arguments insisted by participants. The negotiation protocols are defined as operations to the negotiation diagram. By exchanging counter arguments each other, the negotiation diagram grows up. Nonmonotonic reasoning using rule priorities are applied to the negotiation diagram.

Nitta, Katsumi; Shibasaki, Masato; Yasumura, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Ryuzo; Fujita, Hiroshi; Koshimura, Miyuki; Inoue, Katsumi; Shirai, Yasuyuki; Komatsu, Hiroshi

309

Class Transitions in Black Holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A black hole spectrum is known to change from the hard state to the soft state when the energy spectral index ? (FE ? E-?) in, say, 2-20 keV range changes from ? ˜ 0.5 to ˜ 1.5. However, this `classical' definition which characterizes black holes like Cyg X-1, becomes less useful for many objects such as GRS 1915+105 in which the spectral slope is seen to vary from one to the other in a matter of seconds and depending on whether or not winds form, the spectral slope also changes. The light curves and the colour-colour diagrams may look completely different on different days depending on the frequency and mode of switching from one spectral state to the other. Though RXTE observations have yielded wealth of information on such `variability classes' in GRS 1915+105, very rarely one has been able to observe how the object goes from one class to the other. In the present review, we discuss possible origins of the class transition and present several examples of such transitions. In this context, we use mostly the results of the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE) which observed GRS 1915+105 more regularly.

Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

2005-06-01

310

Proof Test Diagrams for Zerodur Glass-Ceramic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

D. S. Tucker

1991-01-01

311

Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

Tucker, D. S.

1991-01-01

312

TOWER SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVERHEAD TRACK DIAGRAM, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

TOWER SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVERHEAD TRACK DIAGRAM, OPERATING LEVERS (BEING PULLED BY OPERATOR TOM HARTMAN), AND AUXILIARY TRACK DIAGRAM ABOVE DESK AT LEFT. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

313

Penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermions  

SciTech Connect

We calculate, at the one-loop level, penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermion operators constructed using various fat links. The main result is that diagonal mixing coefficients with penguin operators are identical between the unimproved operators and the improved operators using such fat links as Fat7, Fat7+Lepage, Fat7, HYP (I) and HYP (II). In addition, it turns out that the off-diagonal mixing vanishes for those constructed using fat links of Fat7, Fat7 and HYP (II). This is a consequence of the fact that the improvement by various fat links changes only the mixing with higher dimension operators and off-diagonal operators. The results of this paper, combined with those for current-current diagrams, provide complete matching at the one-loop level with all corrections of O(g{sup 2}) included.

Lee, Weonjong [School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-01-01

314

Modeling the Round Earth through Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier studies have found that students, including adults, have problems understanding the scientifically accepted model of the Sun-Earth-Moon system and explaining day-to-day astronomical phenomena based on it. We have been examining such problems in the context of recent research on visual-spatial reasoning. Working with middle school students in India, we have developed a pedagogical sequence to build the mental model of the Earth and tried it in three schools for socially and educationally disadvantaged students. This pedagogy was developed on the basis of (1) a reading of current research in imagery and visual-spatial reasoning and (2) students' difficulties identified during the course of pretests and interviews. Visual-spatial tools such as concrete (physical) models, gestures, and diagrams are used extensively in the teaching sequence. The building of a mental model is continually integrated with drawing inferences to understand and explain everyday phenomena. The focus of this article is inferences drawn with diagrams.

Padalkar, Shamin; Ramadas, Jayashree

315

Ring-Diagram Analysis: Status and Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ring diagram analysis is now more than a decade old. While the details of the technique are still evolving, the application of the method to MDI, TON, Mt. Wilson, HLH, and GONG data is providing intriguing results. Thanks to the work of many people, it is now becoming possible to observationally infer the complicated dynamics in the outer 15 Mm of the solar convection zone, investigate the depth dependence of meridional flow, and get a closer look at zonal jet-stream structures in the mid-latitudes. We may soon be able to similarly investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of scalar fields. As ring diagrams and other local helioseismology methods such as time-distance and acoustic imaging continue to mature, the comparison of results from different techniques on common data sets will provide a useful reality check.

Hill, F.

316

Study of constitution diagram aluminum-tantalum  

SciTech Connect

Alloys of aluminum with tantalum were for the first time obtained by aluminothermic method in 1868 by Moriniak. Later these alloys were studied in the works of Schirmeister (1915) and Brouwer (1938), moreover Brouwer established that tantalum with aluminum forms the chemical compound TaA1, which has tetragonal crystal lattice with parameters a=5.422 angstroms and c=8.536 angstroms (1). However despite the fact that alloys of aluminum with tantalum long ago are obtained already, constitution diagram of this system is not studied until recently. In connection with the application of tantalum as the modifying additive in aluminum alloys an emergency in the construction of this diagram, without the knowledge by which it is not possible to give the correct explanation of the mechanism of the very process of the modification of primary grain. For this purpose was undertaken this work. Russian translations.

Glazov, V.M.; Mal'tsev, M.V.; Chistyakov, Y.D.

1988-10-20

317

Phase diagram of model Cn >= 70 fullerenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have confirmed that model C60 has a stable liquid phase confined to a rather narrow temperature range; in this letter we determine the phase diagram of model C70 and show that also this fullerene possesses a liquid phase whose existence range is wider than that of C60. A "corresponding state"behaviour of C60 and C70, emerging from a description in terms of reduced quantities of both the interaction potential and the phase diagrams' parameters, is then extended to higher-order fullerenes. Critical- and triple-point densities and temperatures of C76, C84 and C92 are thereby predicted. The decreasing accuracy of such a representation of Cn > 70 phase behaviour with increasing n is discussed in relation to the model potential features.

Abramo, M. C.; Caccamo, C.; Costa, D.; Pellicane, G.

2001-05-01

318

Krajewski diagrams and the standard model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a complete list of Krajewski diagrams representing the standard model of particle physics. We will give the possible representations of the algebra and the anomaly free lifts which provide the representation of the standard model gauge group on the fermionic Hilbert space. The algebra representations following from the Krajewski diagrams are not complete in the sense that the corresponding spectral triples do not necessarily obey to the axiom of Poincaré duality. This defect may be repaired by adding new particles to the model, i.e., by building models beyond the standard model. The aim of this list of finite spectral triples (up to Poincaré duality) is therefore to provide a basis for model building beyond the standard model.

Stephan, Christoph A.

2009-04-01

319

Neural network design using Voronoi diagrams.  

PubMed

A novel approach is proposed which determines the number of layers, the number of neurons in each layer, and their connection weights for a particular implementation of a neural network, with the multilayer feedforward topology, designed to classify patterns in the multidimensional feature space. The approach is based on construction of a Voronoi diagram over the set of points representing patterns in feature space and this finds added usefulness in deriving alternate neural network structures for realizing the desired pattern classification. PMID:18276507

Bose, N K; Garga, A K

1993-01-01

320

Outlier Detection Based on Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlier mining is an important branch of data mining and has attracted much attention recently. The density-based method LOF\\u000a is widely used in application. However, selecting MinPts is non-trivial, and LOF is very sensitive to its parameters MinPts. In this paper, we propose a new outlier detection method based on Voronoi diagram, which we called Voronoi based Outlier\\u000a Detection (VOD).

Jilin Qu

2008-01-01

321

Sloan Digital Sky Survey: The Hubble Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's website provides an excellent explanation of how Astronomers are able to use red-shift to explain the expansion of the universe. An activity is provided for a user to retrace Edwin Hubble's steps of measuring magnitudes and calculating redshifts to make a Hubble Diagram. These pages are part of a large set of projects and activities provided by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for advanced astronomy students.

2005-05-15

322

Breaking bad news--a flow diagram.  

PubMed

Breaking bad news is neither an easy nor a popular task. Properly handled, however, it can be given in a positive way that the individual can both accept and understand. There may be a range of emotions and concerns following the telling of bad news. These need to be explored and worked through with each individual. This flow diagram describes the steps in this important process. PMID:8081554

Faulkner, A; Maguire, P; Regnard, C

1994-01-01

323

Representing the Study Site in a Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to help students learn the skills and value of the translating complex interactions among Earth System components into a simplified diagram. Students visit a study site, where they observe and recall their existing knowledge of air, water, soil, and living things to make a list of interconnections among the four Earth system components. They make predictions about the effects of a change in a system, inferring ways these changes affect the characteristics of other related components.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

324

Pore formation phase diagrams for lipid membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical lateral pressure for a pore formation and phase diagram of porous membrane are derived analytically as functions of the microscopic parameters of the lipid chains. The derivation exploits path-integral calculation of the free energy of the ensembles of semi-flexible strings and rigid rods that mimic the hydrophobic tails of lipids in the lipid bilayers and bolalipid membranes respectively. Analytical expressions for the area stretch/compressibility moduli of the membranes are derived in both models.

Mukhin, S. I.; Kheyfets, B. B.

2014-05-01

325

Using Diagrams and Models: 2.75  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the importance of abstraction and generalization in being able to use models and diagrams effectively, whether children are creating their own models to represent a situation and explain their thinking, or interpreting a provided model. The resource offers examples to illustrate these ideas as well as teaching strategies and activities in the areas of parity, mental addition, equivalent fractions, and multi-digit multiplication.

2012-09-26

326

Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O`Brien, M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Rudin, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ferguson, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McFee, J. [I.T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-11-30

327

From Farey sequences to resonance diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farey sequences were discovered in the beginning of the nineteenth century proving very useful in number theory. These series are found to be tightly related to tune resonance diagrams in accelerators. So far, no connection has been made between these two fields. This paper aims to serve as a bridge between these two areas of knowledge introducing the concept of resonance sequences for the most efficient exploration of the tune space.

Tomás, R.

2014-01-01

328

Interval Diagrams: Increasing Efficiency of Symbolic Real-Time Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we suggest interval diagram techniques for formal verification of real-time systems modeled by means of timed au- tomata. Interval diagram techniques are based on interval deci- sion diagrams (IDDs)—representing sets of system configurations of, e.g., timed automata—and interval mapping diagrams(IMDs)— modeling their transition behavior. IDDs are canonical rep resenta- tions of Boolean functions and allow for their

Karsten Strehl; Timed Automata

1999-01-01

329

The Critical Importance of Russell's Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of dwarf and giants stars, but not the nomenclature, was first established by Eijnar Hertzsprung in 1905; his first diagrams in support appeared in 1911. In 1913 Henry Norris Russell could demonstrate the effect far more strikingly because he measured the parallaxes of many stars at Cambridge, and could plot absolute magnitude against spectral type for many points. The general concept of dwarf and giant stars was essential in the galactic structure work of Harlow Shapley, Russell's first graduate student. In order to calibrate the period-luminosity relation of Cepheid variables, he was obliged to fall back on statistical parallax using only 11 Cepheids, a very sparse sample. Here the insight provided by the Russell diagram became critical. The presence of yellow K giant stars in globular clusters credentialed his calibration of the period-luminosity relation by showing that the calibrated luminosity of the Cepheids was comparable to the luminosity of the K giants. It is well known that in 1920 Shapley did not believe in the cosmological distances of Heber Curtis' spiral nebulae. It is not so well known that in 1920 Curtis' plot of the period-luminosity relation suggests that he didn't believe it was a physical relation and also he failed to appreciate the significance of the Russell diagram for understanding the large size of the Milky Way.

Gingerich, O.

2013-04-01

330

Using Functional Flow Diagrams to Enhance Technical Systems Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A treatment group of 20 aviation students used training manuals that presented functional flow diagrams before schematic diagrams. Comparison of data from 10 controls on a card-sort task showed that functional flow diagrams enhanced understanding of technical systems. (SK)

Satchwell, Richard E.

1997-01-01

331

30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section 556...Management, General § 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area...Act. (b) BOEM shall prepare leasing maps and official protraction diagrams of...

2013-07-01

332

Surveillance area as a multiplicatively weighted Voronoi diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the surveillance area as an ordered order-k multiplicatively weighted Voronoi diagram in R2. The boundaries between adjacent radars are the edges of the diagram, defined by the range ratio of radars taken pairwise. The radar range equation is used to describe the proximity rule necessary to generate the diagram. The proximity between a target and a radar

J. N. Portela; M. S. Alencar

2006-01-01

333

Generating Feynman diagrams and amplitudes with FeynArts 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Mathematica package FeynArts used for the generation and visualization of Feynman diagrams and amplitudes. The main features of version 3 are: generation of diagrams in three levels, user-definable model files, support for supersymmetric models, and publication-quality Feynman diagrams in PostScript or LaTeX.

Thomas Hahn

2001-01-01

334

A high-level block-diagram signal processing language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model of discrete-time computation underlying most block diagram languages makes them inappropriate for many important signal processing algorithms. A conceptual framework for a general high-level block diagram programming system is proposed. This framework, the closure model, is motivated by the representation of functions used in applicative languages such as LISP. An experimental block diagram language, BDL, based on this

G. Kopec

1979-01-01

335

Java classes for nonprocedural variogram modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of Java TM classes was written for variogram modeling to support research for US EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (ReVA). The modeling objectives of this research program are to use conceptual programming tools for numerical analysis for regional risk assessment. The classes presented use of object-oriented design elements, and their use is described for the benefit of programmers. To help facilitate their use, class diagrams and standard JavaDoc commenting were employed. Java's support for polymorphism and inheritance is used and these are described as ways to promote extension of these classes for other geostatistical applications. Among the advantages is the ease of programming, code reuse, and conceptual, rather than procedural implementation. A graphical application for variogram modeling that uses the classes is also provided and described. It can also be used by non-programmers. This application uses a generalized least-squares fitting algorithm for robust parametric variogram model fitting through the variogram cloud. This feature makes this program unique from other freely available variogram modeling programs, though the classes are presented primarily so they may be extended for use in other Java programs. More traditional variogram plotting and fitting utilities are also provided. This application is graphical and platform-neutral. It uses classes of the recently proposed Java API for linear algebra, called the JAMA package.

Faulkner, Barton R.

2002-04-01

336

Teachers in Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I argue for a closer read of the daily "class work" of teachers, as posited by Reay, 1998. In developing exploratory class portraits of four teachers who occupy distinctive social positions (two from working-class homes now teaching upper-middle-class children and two from upper-middle-class homes now teaching poor children), I…

Van Galen, Jane

2008-01-01

337

‘Does class count?’ Social class and counselling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the importance attached to social class by experienced practitioners taking part in a co-operative inquiry group. A review of the literature from the last thirty years indicates that there is very little research on class in relation to counselling and psychotherapy reported in the UK. Both authors position themselves as coming from working class origins. Nine co-researchers

Liz Ballinger; Jeannie Wright

2007-01-01

338

Does Class Size Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the significance of class size to student learning. Includes an overview of class size in various countries, the importance of teacher adaptability, and the Asian paradox of large classes allied to high test scores. (MM)

Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Brewer, Dominic J.; Gamoran, Adam; Willms, J. Douglas

2001-01-01

339

Urban Cluster Layout Based on Voronoi Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimum layout of urban system is one of important contents in urban planning. To make regional urban system planning more suitable to the requirements of urbanization development, this paper tests a quantitative method based on GIS & Voronoi diagram. Its workflows include calculating city competitiveness data, spreading the city competitiveness analysis by aid of spatial analysis and data mining functions in GIS, getting the structural characteristics of urban system, and proposing the corresponding optimum scheme of the allocation. This method is tested using the data collected from Shandong Province, China.

Xinqi, Zheng; Shuqing, Wang; Meichen, Fu; Lu, Zhao; Shujia, Yang

340

Predicting Allostery Wiring Diagrams within Motor Proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor proteins are intricate molecular machines that make use of allostery as a basis of their function. Fundamental questions in trying to understand the operational mechanism of the motors is, therefore, how allostery communicated is within the proteins, what are the pathways that transmit allosteric signals, how to model and predict them. We have proposed a normal-mode analysis based perturbation model that predicts the pathways based on the structure and chemical composition of the molecules. We use the model to investigate allosteric pathways (allostery wiring diagrams) within motor proteins myosin V and VI.

Tehver, Riina

2013-03-01

341

Acceptance diagrams for curved neutron guides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of acceptance diagrams is used to obtain analytic expressions for the intensity and spatial and angular distributions of the neutrons transmitted along a one-dimensional curved guide, provided that the length of the guide is greater than the minimum length necessary to eliminate direct radiation. The acceptance area for curved guides is parabolic in shape, and shows the asymmetry in the spatial distribution of the transmitted neutrons. From these formulations the average number of reflections can be determined as a function of wavelength.

Mildner, D. F. R.

1990-05-01

342

The Astronomer's H-R diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most people who've taken an astronomy course are familiar with the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. It was developed to show the relationships between the temperature (or colour) of a star and its luminosity. Following this premise and an original idea by Stuart Lowe, we asked ourselves if american astronomer as a group have a "Main Career Sequence" in the space of Peer Reviewed papers and "absolute" Google index. Here we expand on Stuart's original idea examining several cuts in publication and Google parameter space with the help of proper ADS data

Conti, Alberto; Lowe, S.; Accomazzi, A.; Di Milia, G.

2011-01-01

343

76 FR 63654 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...Official Protraction Diagram (OPD), Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official OCS Block Diagrams...OCS Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official OCS Shelf...

2011-10-13

344

76 FR 2919 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy...Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams...Diagram (OPD) and Supplemental Official OCS Block Diagrams (SOBDs) located in the...

2011-01-18

345

Instability Regions in the Upper HR Diagram  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following instability regions for blueward evolving supergiants are outlined and compared: (1) Areas in the Hertzsprung-Russell(HR) diagram where stars are dynamically unstable. (2) Areas where the effective acceleration in the upper part of the photospheres is negative, hence directed outward. (3) Areas where the sonic points of the stellar wind (Where wind velocity = sound velocity) are situated inside the photospheres, at a level deeper than tau(sub Ross) = 0.01. We compare the results with the positions of actual stars in the HR diagram and we find evidence that the recent strong contraction of the yellow hypergiant HR8752 was initiated in a period during which (g(sub eff)) is less than 0, whereupon the star became dynamically unstable. The instability and extreme shells around IRC+10420 are suggested to be related to three factors: (g(sub eff)) is less than 0; the sonic point is situated inside the photosphere; and the star is dynamically unstable.

deJager, Cornelis; Lobel, Alex; Nieuwenhuijzen, Hans; Stothers, Richard; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

346

Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

Soetikno, Darmadi; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

2014-03-01

347

Recent Results in Ring-Diagram Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ring-diagram technique was developed by Frank Hill 25 years ago and matured quickly during the late 1990s. It is nowadays one of the most commonly used techniques in local helioseismology. The method consists in the power spectral analysis of solar acoustic oscillations on small regions (2° to 30°) of the solar surface. The power spectrum resembles a set of trumpets nested inside each other and for a given frequency, it looks like a ring, hence the technique's name. It provides information on the horizontal flow field and thermodynamic structure in the layers immediately below the photosphere. With data regularly provided by MDI, GONG, and more recently HMI, many important results have been achieved. In recently years, these results include estimations of the meridional circulation and its evolution with solar cycle; flows associated with active regions, as well as, flow divergence and vorticity, and thermal structure beneath and around active regions. Much progress is expected with data now provided by HMI's high spatial resolution observations and high duty cycle. There are two data processing pipelines (GONG and HMI) providing free access to the data and the results of the ring-diagram analysis. Here we will discuss the most recent results and improvements in the technique, as well as, the many challenges that still remain.

Rabello-Soares, M. C.

2013-12-01

348

Colour Magnitude Diagrams of Transiting Exoplanets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour-Magnitude diagrams form a traditional way of representing luminous objects in the Universe and compare them to each others. Here, the photometric distances of 44 transiting exoplanetary systems were estimated. For seven of those, parallaxes confirm the methodology. From the combination of those measurements with fluxes obtained while planets were occulted by their host stars, colour-magnitude diagrams are composed in the near and mid IR. When possible, planets are plotted with field brown dwarfs who often have similar sizes and equilibrium temperatures, thus offering a natural empirical comparison sample. Exoplanets are also compared to the expected loci of pure blackbodies. In general planets do not agree with the brown dwarfs sequences, and neither do they match blackbodies. It is however possible to affirm that they are not featureless and that they display an increasing diversity in colour with decreasing intrinsic luminosity. A missing source of absorption within the [4.5 ?m] band, for some planets, would generally reconcile hot Jupiters with brown dwarfs’ cool atmospheres. Alternatively, measuring the emission of gas giants cooler than 1 000 K would disentangle whether planets’ atmospheres behave like brown dwarfs’ atmospheres, like blackbodies, or whether they form their own sequence.

Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.

2014-06-01

349

Preliminary Master Logic Diagram for ITER operation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the work performed to develop a Master Logic Diagram (MLD) for the operations phase of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The MLD is a probabilistic risk assessment tool used to identify the broad set of potential initiating events that could lead to an offsite radioactive or toxic chemical release from the facility under study. The MLD described here is complementary to the failure modes and effects analyses (FMEAs) that have been performed for ITER`s major plant systems in the engineering evaluation of the facility design. While the FMEAs are a bottom-up or component level approach, the MLD is a top-down or facility level approach to identifying the broad spectrum of potential events. Strengths of the MLD are that it analyzes the entire plant, depicts completeness in the accident initiator process, provides an independent method for identification, and can also identify potential system interactions. MLDs have been used successfully as a hazard analysis tool. This paper describes the process used for the ITER MLD to treat the variety of radiological and toxicological source terms present in the ITER design. One subtree of the nineteen page MLD is shown to illustrate the levels of the diagram.

Cadwallader, L.C. [INEEL, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Taylor, N.P.; Poucet, A.E. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1998-04-01

350

Isolated pulsar spin evolution on the diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We look at two contrasting spin-down models for isolated radio pulsars and, accounting for selection effects, synthesize observable populations. While our goal is to reproduce all of the observable characteristics, in this paper we pay particular attention to the form of the spin period versus period derivative () diagram and its dependence on various pulsar properties. We analyse the initial spin period, the braking index, the magnetic field, various beaming models as well as the pulsar's luminosity. In addition to considering the standard magnetic dipole model for pulsar spin-down, we also consider the recent hybrid model proposed by Contopoulos and Spitkovsky. The magnetic dipole model, however, does a better job of reproducing the observed pulsar population. We conclude that random alignment angles and period-dependent luminosity distributions are essential to reproduce the observed diagram. We also consider the time decay of alignment angles and attempt to reconcile various models currently being studied. We conclude that in order to account for recent evidence for the alignment found by Weltevrede and Johnston, the braking torque on a neutron star should not depend strongly on the inclination. Our simulation code is publicly available and includes a web-based interface to examine the results and make predictions for yields of current and future surveys.

Ridley, J. P.; Lorimer, D. R.

2010-05-01

351

Revisiting the phase diagram of hard ellipsoids.  

PubMed

In this work, the well-known Frenkel-Mulder phase diagram of hard ellipsoids of revolution [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985)] is revisited by means of replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. The method provides good sampling of dense systems and so, solid phases can be accessed without the need of imposing a given structure. At high densities, we found plastic solids and fcc-like crystals for semi-spherical ellipsoids (prolates and oblates), and SM2 structures [P. Pfleiderer and T. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 75, 020402 (2007)] for x : 1-prolates and 1 : x-oblates with x ? 3. The revised fluid-crystal and isotropic-nematic transitions reasonably agree with those presented in the Frenkel-Mulder diagram. An interesting result is that, for small system sizes (100 particles), we obtained 2:1- and 1.5:1-prolate equations of state without transitions, while some order is developed at large densities. Furthermore, the symmetric oblate cases are also reluctant to form ordered phases. PMID:22482570

Odriozola, Gerardo

2012-04-01

352

The Diagram as Story: Unfolding the Event-Structure of the Mathematical Diagram  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the role of narrative in decoding diagrams. I focus on two fundamental facets of narrative: (1) the recounting of causally related sequences of events, and (2) the positioning of the narrator through point-of-view and voice. In the first two sections of the paper I discuss philosophical and semiotic frameworks for making sense…

de Freitas, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

353

A syntactical foundation of class diagram algebra for enterprise service systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enterprise service system is large and complex and manages big and complicated data. A large set of partial data models is used in designing an enterprise service system because each service application consisting of an enterprise service system uses only a part of big and complicated data in most cases. These partial data models provide several complementary views on

Hidekazu Enjo; Motonari Tanabu; Junichi Iijima

2010-01-01

354

A step toward foundation of class diagram algebra for enterprise service systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enterprise service system is large and complex and manages big and complicated data. A large set of partial data models are used during designing an information system for a large enterprise because each service application consisting of an enterprise service system uses only a part of big and complicated data in most cases. The skill of modelers makes fluctuation

Hidekazu Enjo; Motonari Tanabu; Junichi Iijima

2009-01-01

355

Multi-input\\/multi-output block diagram grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-input\\/multi-output block diagram grammar for a block diagram with multiple inputs and\\/or multiple outputs is formalized in terms of a context-sensitive graph grammar. This grammar is defined by adding to the single-input, single-output block diagram grammar we proposed previously dummy nodes and new productions for dealing with multiple inputs and\\/or multiple outputs. A parser based on the multi-input\\/multi-output block

Yoshihiro Adachi; Suguru Kobayashi; Kensei Tsuchida

1998-01-01

356

Formalization of the data flow diagram rules for consistency check  

Microsoft Academic Search

In system development life cycle (SDLC), a system model can be developed\\u000ausing Data Flow Diagram (DFD). DFD is graphical diagrams for specifying,\\u000aconstructing and visualizing the model of a system. DFD is used in defining the\\u000arequirements in a graphical view. In this paper, we focus on DFD and its rules\\u000afor drawing and defining the diagrams. We then

Rosziati Ibrahim; Siow Yen yen

2010-01-01

357

Perturbation theory without diagrams: the polaron case.  

PubMed

Higher-order perturbative calculations in quantum (field) theory suffer from the factorial increase of the number of individual diagrams. Here I describe an approach which evaluates the total contribution numerically for finite temperature from the cumulant expansion of the corresponding observable followed by an extrapolation to zero temperature. This method (originally proposed by Bogolyubov and Plechko) is applied to the calculation of higher-order terms for the ground-state energy of the polaron. Using state-of-the-art multidimensional integration routines two new coefficients are obtained corresponding to a four- and five-loop calculation. Several analytical and numerical procedures have been implemented which were crucial for obtaining reliable results. PMID:19257164

Rosenfelder, R

2009-01-01

358

Analysis of Japanese banks’ historical tree diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using the historical data from the Japanese banks’ database at “The Bankers Library” of Japanese Banker Association, we analyze the historical network of banks from 1868 to 2006. Firstly, we define a bank every year by a particle and draw a space-time evolution process of merger, division, establishment, and failure by a tree diagram structure. We found that the distribution of the tree basin size of real data and simulation result are mostly fitting well. Secondly, we analyze the raw data of financial statements of banks collected by the National Diet library. We confirm that the distributions of the amount of deposits have fat-tail every year, however, small deviations are observed relating to governmental policy.

Ueno, Hiromichi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Takayasu, Misako

2007-09-01

359

Phase diagram of chirally imbalanced QCD matter  

SciTech Connect

We compute the QCD phase diagram in the plane of the chiral chemical potential and temperature using the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to the Polyakov loop. The chiral chemical potential accounts for effects of imbalanced chirality due to QCD sphaleron transitions which may emerge in heavy-ion collisions. We found three effects caused by the chiral chemical potential: the imbalanced chirality (i) tightens the link between deconfinement and chiral phase transitions; (ii) lowers the common critical temperature; (iii) strengthens the order of the phase transition by converting the crossover into the strong first order phase transition passing via the second order end point. Since the fermionic determinant with the chiral chemical potential has no sign problem, the chirally imbalanced QCD matter can be studied in numerical lattice simulations.

Chernodub, M. N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson, Parc de Grandmont, Tours, 37200 (France); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Nedelin, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P. O. Box 803, Uppsala, S-75108 (Sweden); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15

360

Calculation of multicomponent ceramic phase diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A data base is being developed for calculation of quasi-binary and quasi-ternary phase diagrams of ceramic systems. Previous segments of this base cover combinations of Cr 2O 3, MgO, Al 2O 3, SiO 2, CaO, Si 3N 4, AlN, BeO, Y 2O 3 and Ce 2O 3. Lattice stability, solution and compound phase parameters have been derived covering the liquid, spinel, corundum, periclase, crystobalite, tridymite, quartz, hexagonal and beta prime phases which appear in the binary systems composed of pairs of these compounds. Compound phases formed from specific binary combinations of these compounds (i.e. MgO·Cr 2O 3) have been characterized. This description is based on observed thermochemistry and phase diagrams for the binary systems of interest. Selected ternary systems have been computed using the foregoing data base for comparison with experimental sections in order to illustrate the usefulness of the data base. To date, 66 quasi-binary and 19 quasi-ternary systems have been calculated. The most recent set of papers extend the base to cover GeO 2, HfO 2, ZrO 2 and TiO 2. The components are the particular interest in recent developments of structural high temperature ceramics and applications requiring unusual toughness. The current work deals with four quasi-binary systems and four quasi-ternary systems which have been calculated over a wide range of temperatures. These samples demonstrate the capability of the data base and computational model for dealing with phase equilibria in multicomponent oxide systems over a wide range of conditions and compositions of practical interest.

Kaufman, Larry

1988-05-01

361

An improved Voronoi diagram model based on fuzzy interval theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering that the application of traditional Voronoi diagram in spatial division ignores the impact of road hierarchy, speed, road-block, one-way and some other influential factors on proximity, an improved Voronoi diagram model based on fuzzy interval theory is proposed in this paper by introducing different influential factors into the construction of Voronoi diagram in order to enhance the accuracy of spatial division and to meet application requirements. The idea of our improved Voronoi diagram model can be summarized as follows: Firstly, initial Voronoi diagram is built via point by point insertion algorithm. Secondly, fuzzy interval on all Voronoi edges is generated via geometric algorithm and is further used to represent each edge of Voronoi polygons. The size of fuzzy interval is determined by taking all influential factors into consideration. Thirdly, an improved Voronoi diagram with fuzzy boundaries is provided in which the proximity relationships between points in the fuzzy interval and the sites of Voronoi polygons which own a public edge are all proposed to be the nearest. Finally, the validity and performance of our improved Voronoi diagram is demonstrated through a typical application in emergency response system, in which the actual path distance is acted as influential factor. Experimental results show that with our improved Voronoi diagram optimal attendance station can be localized quickly and emergency response efficiency can be enhanced obviously. Besides, classification accuracy can be increased more than 20% compared with traditional Voronoi diagram.

Yan, Beibei; Shao, Zhenfeng; Zhou, Yang; Cheng, Qimin

2009-10-01

362

Visualization design and verification of Ada tasking using timing diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of timing diagrams is recommended in the design and testing of multi-task Ada programs. By displaying the task states vs. time, timing diagrams can portray the simultaneous threads of data flow and control which characterize tasking programs. This description of the system's dynamic behavior from conception to testing is a necessary adjunct to other graphical techniques, such as structure charts, which essentially give a static view of the system. A series of steps is recommended which incorporates timing diagrams into the design process. Finally, a description is provided of a prototype Ada Execution Analyzer (AEA) which automates the production of timing diagrams from VAX/Ada debugger output.

Vidale, R. F.; Szulewski, P. A.; Weiss, J. B.

1986-01-01

363

55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

364

54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

365

53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

366

VennDiagram: a package for the generation of highly-customizable Venn and Euler diagrams in R  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Visualization of orthogonal (disjoint) or overlapping datasets is a common task in bioinformatics. Few tools exist to automate the generation of extensively-customizable, high-resolution Venn and Euler diagrams in the R statistical environment. To fill this gap we introduce VennDiagram, an R package that enables the automated generation of highly-customizable, high-resolution Venn diagrams with up to four sets and Euler

Hanbo Chen; Paul C. Boutros

2011-01-01

367

Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagrams  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

Fellows, R.L. [ed.

1993-02-26

368

Distribution feeder one-line diagrams automatic generation from geographic diagrams based on GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic information systems (GIS) are computer-based systems designed to support the capture, management, manipulation, analysis, and modeling of spatially referenced data. At present, GIS has been extensively used in the energy management system and provides visualized platform to electrical distribution system analysis, design and operation, that is, AM\\/FM\\/GIS. One-line diagrams are widely used to represent the electrical distribution system current

Xianqi Li; Xiaoliang Feng; Zhiyuan Zeng; Xuejun Xu; Yonschuan Zhang

2008-01-01

369

Domain-specific languages and diagram customization for a concurrent engineering environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major open question for advocates of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is the question of how system and subsystem engineers will work together. The Systems Modeling Language (SysML), like any language intended for a large audience, is in tension between the desires for simplicity and for expressiveness. In order to be more expressive, many specialized language elements may be introduced, which will unfortunately make a complete understanding of the language a more daunting task. While this may be acceptable for systems modelers, it will increase the challenge of including subsystem engineers in the modeling effort. One possible answer to this situation is the use of Domain-Specific Languages (DSL), which are fully supported by the Unified Modeling Language (UML). SysML is in fact a DSL for systems engineering. The expressive power of a DSL can be enhanced through the use of diagram customization. Various domains have already developed their own schematic vocabularies. Within the space engineering community, two excellent examples are the propulsion and telecommunication subsystems. A return to simple box-and-line diagrams (e.g., the SysML Internal Block Diagram) are in many ways a step backward. In order allow subsystem engineers to contribute directly to the model, it is necessary to make a system modeling tool at least approximate in accessibility to drawing tools like Microsoft PowerPoint and Visio. The challenge is made more extreme in a concurrent engineering environment, where designs must often be drafted in an hour or two. In the case of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Team X concurrent design team, a subsystem is specified using a combination of PowerPoint for drawing and Excel for calculation. A pilot has been undertaken in order to meld the drawing portion and the production of master equipment lists (MELs) via a SysML authoring tool, MagicDraw. Team X currently interacts with its customers in a process of sharing presentations. There are severa- inefficiencies that arise from this situation. The first is that a customer team must wait two weeks to a month (which is 2-4 times the duration of most Team X studies themselves) for a finalized, detailed design description. Another is that this information must be re-entered by hand into the set of engineering artifacts and design tools that the mission concept team uses after a study is complete. Further, there is no persistent connection to Team X or institutionally shared formulation design tools and data after a given study, again reducing the direct reuse of designs created in a Team X study. This paper presents the underpinnings of subsystem DSLs as they were developed for this pilot. This includes specialized semantics for different domains as well as the process by which major categories of objects were derived in support of defining the DSLs. The feedback given to us by the domain experts on usability, along with a pilot study with the partial inclusion of these tools is also discussed.

Cole, B.; Dubos, G.; Banazadeh, P.; Reh, J.; Case, K.; Wang, Y.; Jones, S.; Picha, F.

370

Students' Perceptions of Roundhouse Diagramming: A Middle-School Viewpoint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the effects in a multiple case study of Roundhouse diagram construction and use on meaningful learning of science concepts in a 6th grade classroom. Concludes that the students typically gained a greater understanding of science explanations by constructing the diagrams. (Author/MM)

Ward, Robin E.; Wandersee, James H.

2002-01-01

371

The Effect of Causal Diagrams on Text Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the effect of studying a causal diagram on comprehension of causal relationships from an expository science text. A causal diagram is a type of visual display that explicitly represents cause-effect relationships. In Experiment 1, readers between conditions did not differ with respect to memory for main ideas, but the readers who…

McCrudden, Matthew T.; Schraw, Gregory; Lehman, Stephen; Poliquin, Anne

2007-01-01

372

Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles: The Theory of Piercings.  

PubMed

Euler diagrams are effective tools for visualizing set intersections. They have a large number of application areas ranging from statistical data analysis to software engineering. However, the automated generation of Euler diagrams has never been easy: given an abstract description of a required Euler diagram, it is computationally expensive to generate the diagram. Moreover, the generated diagrams represent sets by polygons, sometimes with quite irregular shapes which make the diagrams less comprehensible. In this paper we address these two issues by developing the theory of piercings, where we define single piercing curves and double piercing curves. We prove that if a diagram can be built inductively by successively adding piercing curves under certain constraints then it can be drawn with circles, which are more aesthetically pleasing than arbitrary polygons. The theory of piercings is developed at the abstract level. In addition, we present a Java implementation that, given an inductively pierced abstract description, generates an Euler diagram consisting only of circles within polynomial time. PMID:20855916

Stapleton, Gem; Zhang, Leishi; Howse, John; Rodgers, Peter

2010-09-01

373

Application of quaternary phase diagrams to compound semiconductor processing  

SciTech Connect

Isobaric, isothermal phase diagrams are a molar representation of condensed phases in equilibrium with each other at a fixed temperature, pressure, and composition. Since three or four elements are usually involved at a fabricated interface in a semiconductor device, knowledge of the appropriate ternary or quaternary phase diagram is important for optimizing the processing parameters and designing long term stability of devices. While the use of phase diagrams is well-established in the fields of metallurgy, ceramics and mineralogy, only recently have phase diagrams been employed to provide a framework for understanding thin film reactions on a substrate, encountered in semiconductor processing. Even though there are many examples of applications of ternary phase diagrams in the semiconductor literature (for instance, metallization of GaAs, the use of refractory metal silicides for metallization layers in VLSI devices and oxidation of III-V compounds), the same is not true for quaternary phase diagrams. To date, the only application is oxidation of mercury cadmium telluride. This lack of examples is not warranted, as four elements are often involved at a critical interface in compound semiconductor processing and devices. This paper reports on the progress made to remedy this situation by considering the application of quaternary phase diagrams to understanding and predicting the behavior of II-VI thin film interfaces in photovoltaic devices under annealing conditions. Moreover, for the first time, solid solubility is taken into account for quaternary phase diagrams of semiconductor systems.

Sinclair, R.

1994-10-01

374

Do students use and understand free-body diagrams?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics education literature recommends using multiple representations to help students understand concepts and solve problems. However, there is little research concerning why students use the representations and whether those who use them are more successful. This study addresses these questions using free-body diagrams (diagrammatic representations used in problems involving forces) as a type of representation. We conducted a two-year quantitative and qualitative study of studentsâ use of free-body diagrams while solving physics problems. We found that when students are in a course that consistently emphasizes the use of free-body diagrams, the majority of them do use diagrams on their own to help solve exam problems even when they receive no credit for drawing the diagrams. We also found that students who draw diagrams correctly are significantly more successful in obtaining the right answer for the problem. Lastly, we interviewed students to uncover their reasons for using free-body diagrams. We found that high achieving students used the diagrams to help solve the problems and as a tool to evaluate their work while low achieving students only used representations as aids in the problem-solving process.

Rosengrant, David; Van Heuvelen, Alan; Etkina, Eugenia

2014-03-31

375

Do students use and understand free-body diagrams?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics education literature recommends using multiple representations to help students understand concepts and solve problems. However, there is little research concerning why students use the representations and whether those who use them are more successful. This study addresses these questions using free-body diagrams (diagrammatic representations used in problems involving forces) as a type of representation. We conducted a two-year quantitative and qualitative study of studentsâ use of free-body diagrams while solving physics problems. We found that when students are in a course that consistently emphasizes the use of free-body diagrams, the majority of them do use diagrams on their own to help solve exam problems even when they receive no credit for drawing the diagrams. We also found that students who draw diagrams correctly are significantly more successful in obtaining the right answer for the problem. Lastly, we interviewed students to uncover their reasons for using free-body diagrams. We found that high achieving students used the diagrams to help solve the problems and as a tool to evaluate their work while low achieving students only used representations as aids in the problem-solving process.

Rosengrant, David; Van Heuvelen, Alan; Etkina, Eugenia

2010-06-29

376

Doniach diagram for ordered, disordered and underscreened Kondo lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Doniach's diagram has been originally proposed to describe the competition between the local Kondo effect and the inter-site RKKY interactions in cerium compounds. Here we discuss the extension of this diagram to different variations of Kondo lattice model. We consider (a) ordered cerium compounds where the competition between magnetic order and Kondo effect plays an important role, as in

B. Coqblin; J. R. Iglesias; N. B. Perkins; S. G. Magalhães; F. M. Zimmer

2008-01-01

377

Pourbaix ("E"-pH-M) Diagrams in Three Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"E"-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams provide an important graphical link between the thermodynamic calculations of potential, pH, equilibrium constant, concentration, and changes in Gibbs energy and the experimentally observed behavior of species in aqueous solutions. The utility of "E"-pH diagrams is extended with the introduction of an additional…

Pesterfield, Lester L.; Maddox, Jeremy B.; Crocker, Michael S.; Schweitzer, George K.

2012-01-01

378

Water, Water, Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional phase diagram for ordinary water substance, with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data is presented. Such an authentic diagram appears not to have been presented for water before, and may improve the understanding of its phase relationships. The nature of the IAPWS-95 equations, fitted to data, is discussed.

L. Glasser

2004-01-01

379

Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

Glasser, L.

2004-01-01

380

Knot symbols: A tool to describe and simplify knot diagrams  

SciTech Connect

A convenient representation of knot diagrams by abstract symbols is introduced. A set of simple moves, which are convenient combinations of the classic Reidemeister moves, is also introduced. These moves can be applied directly to the symbols to obtain simplified symbols (and therefore simplified diagrams) for the knot.

Bruschi, M. [Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy)

1996-04-01

381

An Introductory Idea for Teaching Two-Component Phase Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of two-component phase diagrams has attracted little attention in this "Journal," and it is hoped that this article will make a useful contribution. Current physical chemistry textbooks describe two-component phase diagrams adequately, but do so in a piecemeal fashion one section at a time; first solid-liquid equilibria, then…

Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.

2011-01-01

382

Argument Diagramming and Critical Thinking in Introductory Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a multi-study naturalistic quasi-experiment involving 269 students in a semester-long introductory philosophy course, we investigated the effect of teaching argument diagramming (AD) on students' scores on argument analysis tasks. An argument diagram is a visual representation of the content and structure of an argument. In each study, all of…

Harrell, Maralee

2011-01-01

383

Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

Chamizo, Jose A.

2012-01-01

384

Block Diagrams and Transfer Functions of the Synchronous Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synchronous machine can be represented by a simple and easily surveyed block diagram from which can be derived all possible transfer functions. Because of the introduction of complex representation of input and output quantities, this block diagram is valid for the positive as well as for the negative-sequence system of the stator. These transfer functions for the positive and

I. M. Canay

1966-01-01

385

Functional block diagrams and automated construction of event trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional block diagrams are introduced as graphical representations of the function of a system. A functional block provides the output of a system as the outcome of a joint event defined by the inputs to the system and its various states. Functional blocks corresponding to different subsystems are combined together to form a functional block diagram representing the functional characteristics

Ioannis A. Papazoglou

1998-01-01

386

BLOCKER: A block diagram editing utility, release notes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BLOCKER block diagram utility was written in the interest of promoting better software documentation. It allows the user to easily create block diagrams which can be stored within software source text files and printed out with standard line printing devices. In this way, sketches which are often drawn on paper during software coding can be kept in an organized

1986-01-01

387

Dynamic Reliability Block Diagrams VS Dynamic Fault Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability block diagrams (RBD), and fault trees (FT) are the most widely used formalisms in system reliability modeling. They implement two different approaches: in a reliability block diagram, the system is represented by components connected according to their function or reliability relationships, while fault trees show which combinations of the components failures will result in a system failure. Although RBD

Salvatore Distefano; Antonio Puliafito

2007-01-01

388

Block diagram-based modeling of manufacturing systems using  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to modeling of manufacturing systems is proposed. The model is based on block diagrams. The block can be a single machine, a single part or a factory. The interconnection of blocks in the block diagram correspond to routing of parts and resources through the manufacturing subsystems. The model is hierarchial - a network of blocks can be

Aleksey Imaev; Robert P. Judd

2009-01-01

389

Block Diagrams: A Tutorial Alternative to Dynamical Analogies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational advantages and disadvantages of dynamical analogy and block-diagram models for interdisciplinary systems are discussed. If the system equations are known, a block-diagram is a useful tutorial alternative to the conventional dynamical analogy. It is easily drawn and yields a direct, graphical representation of the system equations with block elements that are not required to be physical elements of a

D. Preis

1976-01-01

390

Data flow diagrams: reverse engineering production and animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose the use of interactive animation techniques as a support to reverse engineering processes oriented to the synthesis of semantic abstractions. Starting from data flow diagrams, a formal model, called dynamic data flow diagrams (DDFDs), has been defined, which can be used for the production of executable models of a software system. A strategy for the DDFD interactive

G. Canfora; L. Sansone; G. Visaggio

1992-01-01

391

Formal semantics for SA style data flow diagram specification languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using operational semantic techniques, we present a formal semantics for an extended variant of structured analysis style data flow diagrams. This semantics is intended to serve as a semantic foundation for many different specification languages that specify concurrent systems using a graphical notation similar to data flow diagrams. Besides allowing one to specify how information is processed, it allows one

Gary T. Leavens; Tim Wahls; Albert L. Baker

1999-01-01

392

Automated Analysis of Doppler Ultrasound Velocity Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly automated method for the identification and quantization of maximum blood velocity curves from Doppler ultrasound flow diagrams is presented. The method uses an image processing scheme to analyze video-recorded image sequences of flow diagrams. The sequences are acquired, a sequence of images relating to chronological cardiac cycles is extracted, and a maximum blood velocity envelope is determined and

Juerg Tschirren; Ronald M. Lauer; Milan Sonka

2001-01-01

393

Features of Fatigue Diagrams under Fretting-Corrosion Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The peculiarities of a fatigue diagram under fretting-corrosion conditions are examined: a method of the accelerated construction of the diagram is proposed, based on the known criteria of cyclic strength and also on the results on an investigation made f...

V. N. Stepanov

1969-01-01

394

Using a Spreadsheet To Explore Melting, Dissolving and Phase Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares phase diagrams relating to the solubilities and melting points of various substances in textbooks with those generated by a spreadsheet using data from the literature. Argues that differences between the diagrams give rise to new chemical insights. (Author/MM)

Goodwin, Alan

2002-01-01

395

The new interconversion algorithm between ladder diagram and instruction list  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the application of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), ladder diagram is visual and easy to control by engineering staff, besides, instruction list is easily convert into assembly language program, so they are favored by technicians, so that the research of interconversion between ladder diagram and instruction list become a key technique in development of PLC. The conversion algorithm in present

Li Dandan; Cai Qixian; Pei Feng

2010-01-01

396

Diagrams in Mathematics: To Draw or Not to Draw?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the use of diagrams as self-explanatory tools. It considers the use of diagrams, in general, and more specifically, examines research that is currently being undertaken in the broad field of visualisation. The research participants referred to in this article were Advanced Certificate of Education students and the paper…

Mudaly, Vimolan

2012-01-01

397

Symbol-and-Arrow Diagrams in Teaching Pharmacokinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbol-and-arrow diagrams are helpful adjuncts to equations derived from pharmacokinetic models. Both show relationships among dependent and independent variables. Diagrams show only qualitative relationships, but clearly show which variables are dependent and which are independent, helping students understand complex but important functional…

Hayton, William L.

1990-01-01

398

ARE SOCIAL CLASSES DYING?  

Microsoft Academic Search

New forms of social stratification are emerging. Much of our thinking about stratification - from Marx, Weber, and others - must be recast to capture these new developments. Social class was the key theme of past stratification work. Yet class is an increasingly outmoded concept. Class stratification implies that people can be differentiated hierarchically on one or more criteria into

Terry Nichols Clark; Seymour Martin Lipset

1991-01-01

399

Does class size matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes pupil-specific public school data unavailable in previous studies and applies instrumental variable econometric methods to account for non-random allocation of students to different class sizes and the endogeneity of the class size variable. By using better data and improved statistical techniques, this paper shows that there are returns to investing in smaller classes for certain students and

Karen Akerhielm

1995-01-01

400

Pilot Class Testing: Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics derived from test score data from the pilot classes participating in the Washington Foreign Language Program are presented in tables in this report. An index accompanies the tables, itemizing the classes by level (FLES, middle, and high school), grade test, language skill, and school. MLA-Coop test performances for each class were…

Washington Univ., Seattle. Washington Foreign Language Program.

401

Adaptive training class statistics.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formulas are derived for updating the mean vector and covariance matrix of a training class as new training fields are included and old training fields deleted from the class. These statistics of the class are expressed in terms of the already available statistics of the fields.

Kan, E. P. F.

1973-01-01

402

First-Class Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the activity described in this article, students will explore how variables in a first-class lever, specifically arm length, position of the fulcrum, and placement of the load, affect the effort needed to lift the load. To begin the lesson, demonstrate to the class how a first-class lever works and review what is meant by the terms fulcrum,…

Hesser, Kathi; Buck, Gayle; Dopp, Sandra

2005-01-01

403

Vesicle computers: Approximating a Voronoi diagram using Voronoi automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irregular arrangements of vesicles filled with excitable and precipitating chemical systems are imitated by Voronoi automata --- finite-state machines defined on a planar Voronoi diagram. Every Voronoi cell takes four states: resting, excited, refractory and precipitate. A resting cell excites if it has at least one excited neighbour; the cell precipitates if a ratio of excited cells in its neighbourhood to its number of neighbours exceed certain threshold. To approximate a Voronoi diagram on Voronoi automata we project a planar set onto automaton lattice, thus cells corresponding to data-points are excited. Excitation waves propagate across the Voronoi automaton, interact with each other and form precipitate in result of the interaction. Configuration of precipitate represents edges of approximated Voronoi diagram. We discover relation between quality of Voronoi diagram approximation and precipitation threshold, and demonstrate feasibility of our model in approximation Voronoi diagram of arbitrary-shaped objects and a skeleton of a planar shape.

Adamatzky, Andrew; de Lacy Costello, Ben; Holley, Julian; Gorecki, Jerzy; Bull, Larry

2011-07-01

404

Efficient Computation of 3D Clipped Voronoi Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Voronoi diagram is a fundamental geometry structure widely used in various fields, especially in computer graphics and geometry computing. For a set of points in a compact 3D domain (i.e. a finite 3D volume), some Voronoi cells of their Voronoi diagram are infinite, but in practice only the parts of the cells inside the domain are needed, as when computing the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Such a Voronoi diagram confined to a compact domain is called a clipped Voronoi diagram. We present an efficient algorithm for computing the clipped Voronoi diagram for a set of sites with respect to a compact 3D volume, assuming that the volume is represented as a tetrahedral mesh. We also describe an application of the proposed method to implementing a fast method for optimal tetrahedral mesh generation based on the centroidal Voronoi tessellation.

Yan, Dong-Ming; Wang, Wenping; Lévy, Bruno; Liu, Yang

405

Calculation of Gallium-metal-Arsenic phase diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical contacts and metallization to GaAs solar cells must survive at high temperatures for several minutes under specific mission scenarios. The determination of which metallizations or alloy systems that are able to withstand extreme thermal excursions with minimum degradation to solar cell performance can be predicted by properly calculated temperature constitution phase diagrams. A method for calculating a ternary diagram and its three constituent binary phase diagrams is briefly outlined and ternary phase diagrams for three Ga-As-X alloy systems are presented. Free energy functions of the liquid and solid phase are approximated by the regular solution theory. Phase diagrams calculated using this method are presented for the Ga-As-Ge and Ga-As-Ag systems.

Scofield, J. D.; Davison, J. E.; Ray, A. E.; Smith, S. R.

1991-01-01

406

Operator approach to analytical evaluation of Feynman diagrams  

SciTech Connect

The operator approach to analytical evaluation of multiloop Feynman diagrams is proposed. We show that the known analytical methods of evaluation of massless Feynman integrals, such as the integration-by-parts method and the method of 'uniqueness' (which is based on the star-triangle relation), can be drastically simplified by using this operator approach. To demonstrate the advantages of the operator method of analytical evaluation of multiloop Feynman diagrams, we calculate ladder diagrams for the massless {phi}{sup 3} theory (analytical results for these diagrams are expressed in terms of multiple polylogarithms). It is shown how operator formalism can be applied to calculation of certain massive Feynman diagrams and investigation of the Lipatov integrable chain model.

Isaev, A. P., E-mail: isaevap@theor.jinr.r [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogolyubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)

2008-05-15

407

Failure diagrams for unidirectional fiber metal-matrix composites  

SciTech Connect

Pertinent failure processes in unidirectional fiber metal-matrix composites (MMCs) have been identified and analyzed. The critical conditions for interface delamination in several composites are compared with the theoretical delamination diagram proposed by He and Hutchinson, in which interface delamination and fiber fracture are delineated on the basis of their relative toughness values. It is shown that the delamination diagram does not provide information about the extent of interface cracking or the onset of fiber bridging. An alternative failure diagram that depicts composite fracture processes, such as matrix yielding followed by fiber fracture, interface cracking, and fiber bridging, is proposed. Development of the composite failure diagram via micromechanical modeling of individual mechanisms is presented together with experimental results from the literature. Good correlation between theory and experiment suggests that the composite failure diagram might be used for tailoring composite properties through control of the dominant fracture mechanism.

Chan, K.S. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States))

1993-07-01

408

Finite calculation of divergent self-energy diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using dispersive techniques, it is possible to avoid ultraviolet divergences in the calculation of Feynman diagrams, making subsequent regularization of divergent diagrams unnecessary. We give a simple introduction to the most important features of such dispersive techniques in the framework of the so-called finite causal perturbation theory. The method is also applied to the "divergent" general massive two-loop sunrise self-energy diagram, where it leads directly to an analytic expression for the imaginary part of the diagram in accordance with the literature, whereas the real part can be obtained by a single integral dispersion relation. It is pointed out that dispersive methods have been known for decades and have been applied to several nontrivial Feynman diagram calculations.

Aste, A.; Trautmann, D.

2003-12-01

409

Molecular crystal global phase diagrams. I. Method of construction.  

PubMed

A method is described to produce global phase diagrams for single-component molecular crystals with separable internal and external modes. The phase diagrams present the equilibrium crystalline phase as a function of the coefficients of a general intermolecular potential based on rotational symmetry-adapted basis functions. It is assumed that phase transitions are driven by orientational ordering of molecules with a fixed time-averaged shape. The mean-field approximation is utilized and the process begins in a high-temperature disordered reference state, then spontaneous symmetry-breaking phase transitions and phase structure information at lower temperature are sought. The information is mapped onto phase diagrams using the intermolecular expansion coefficients as independent variables. This is illustrated by global phase diagrams for molecules having tetrahedral symmetry (e.g. carbon tetrachloride, adamantane and white phosphorus). Uses of global phase diagrams include crystal structure data mining, guidance for crystal design and enumeration of likely or missing polymorphic structures. PMID:15507746

Mettes, Jonathan A; Keith, J Brandon; McClurg, Richard B

2004-11-01

410

Core collapse supernovae in the QCD phase diagram  

SciTech Connect

We compare two classes of hybrid equations of state with a hadron-to-quark matter phase transition in their application to core collapse supernova simulations. The first one uses the quark bag model and describes the transition to three-flavor quark matter at low critical densities. The second one employs a Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model with parameters describing a phase transition to two-flavor quark matter at higher critical densities. These models possess a distinctly different temperature dependence of their transition densities which turns out to be crucial for the possible appearance of quark matter in supernova cores. During the early post-bounce accretion phase quark matter is found only if the phase transition takes place at sufficiently low densities as in the study based on the bag model. The increase critical density with increasing temperature, as obtained for our PNJL parametrization, prevents the formation of quark matter. The further evolution of the core collapse supernova as obtained applying the quark bag model leads to a structural reconfiguration of the central protoneutron star where, in addition to a massive pure quark matter core, a strong hydrodynamic shock wave forms and a second neutrino burst is released during the shock propagation across the neutrinospheres. We discuss the severe constraints in the freedom of choice of quark matter models and their parametrization due to the recently observed 2M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator} pulsar and their implications for further studies of core collapse supernovae in the QCD phase diagram.

Fischer, T., E-mail: t.fischer@gsi.de [Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, GSI (Germany); Blaschke, D. [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics (Poland); Hempel, M. [University of Basel, Department of Physics (Switzerland); Klaehn, T.; Lastowiecki, R. [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics (Poland); Liebendoerfer, M. [University of Basel, Department of Physics (Switzerland); Martinez-Pinedo, G. [Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, GSI (Germany); Pagliara, G.; Sagert, I. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (Germany); Sandin, F. [Lulea Tekniska Universitet, Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, EISLAB (Sweden); Schaffner-Bielich, J. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (Germany); Typel, S. [Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, GSI (Germany)

2012-05-15

411

Stability diagram for the forced Kuramoto model.  

PubMed

We analyze the periodically forced Kuramoto model. This system consists of an infinite population of phase oscillators with random intrinsic frequencies, global sinusoidal coupling, and external sinusoidal forcing. It represents an idealization of many phenomena in physics, chemistry, and biology in which mutual synchronization competes with forced synchronization. In other words, the oscillators in the population try to synchronize with one another while also trying to lock onto an external drive. Previous work on the forced Kuramoto model uncovered two main types of attractors, called forced entrainment and mutual entrainment, but the details of the bifurcations between them were unclear. Here we present a complete bifurcation analysis of the model for a special case in which the infinite-dimensional dynamics collapse to a two-dimensional system. Exact results are obtained for the locations of Hopf, saddle-node, and Takens-Bogdanov bifurcations. The resulting stability diagram bears a striking resemblance to that for the weakly nonlinear forced van der Pol oscillator. PMID:19123638

Childs, Lauren M; Strogatz, Steven H

2008-12-01

412

Stability diagram for the forced Kuramoto model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the periodically forced Kuramoto model. This system consists of an infinite population of phase oscillators with random intrinsic frequencies, global sinusoidal coupling, and external sinusoidal forcing. It represents an idealization of many phenomena in physics, chemistry, and biology in which mutual synchronization competes with forced synchronization. In other words, the oscillators in the population try to synchronize with one another while also trying to lock onto an external drive. Previous work on the forced Kuramoto model uncovered two main types of attractors, called forced entrainment and mutual entrainment, but the details of the bifurcations between them were unclear. Here we present a complete bifurcation analysis of the model for a special case in which the infinite-dimensional dynamics collapse to a two-dimensional system. Exact results are obtained for the locations of Hopf, saddle-node, and Takens-Bogdanov bifurcations. The resulting stability diagram bears a striking resemblance to that for the weakly nonlinear forced van der Pol oscillator.

Childs, Lauren M.; Strogatz, Steven H.

2008-12-01

413

Schematic diagram of (VDT) - open throat design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schematic diagram of Variable-Density Tunnel (VDT) - open throat design. Eastman Jacobs and Ira Abbott note in NACA TR 416 (p. 305) that a serious fire destroyed the tunnel (not the steel shell) in August 1927. The original design had a closed-throat test section five feet in diameter. After the fire it was decided to convert to an open throat design as depicted here. Jacobs and Abbott reported that this design was not satisfactory. 'The difficulties, which included excessive vibration, unsteady velocity at the test section, a rather large pressure gradient along the axis of the test section, and excessive effects of extraneous air currents on the balance, were overcome by rebuilding parts of the tunnel.' L2742.03: After a fire in August 1927 destroyed the VDT (not the steel shell), engineers decided to replace the original closed throat design with an open throat test section. This was wholly unsatisfactory and was immediately replaced with a new closed-throat design. Eastman Jacobs and Ira Abbott wrote: 'The whole interior structure was changed to the closed-throat type. A new exit cone having a smaller divergence angle and a new entrance cone having a better form were built. The synchronous-drive motor was replaced by a direct-current motor. These changes were completed in December, 1930.' (NACA TR No. 416, p. 305)

1928-01-01

414

The Dy-Zn phase diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dysprosium-zinc phase diagram has been investigated over its entire composition range by using differential thermal analysis, (DTA) metallographic analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Seven intermetallic phases have been found and their structures confirmed. DyZn, DyZn2, Dy13Zn58, and Dy2Zn17 melt congruently at 1095 °C, 1050 °C, 930 °C, and 930 °C, respectively. DyZn3, Dy3Zn11, and DyZn12 form through peritectic reactions at 895 °C, about 900 °C and 685 °C, respectively. Four eutectic reactions occur at 850 °C and 30.0 at pct Zn (between (Dy) and DyZn), 990 °C and 60.0 at pct Zn (between DyZn and DyZn2), 885 °C and 76.0 at pct Zn (between DyZn3 and Dy3Zn11), and 875 °C and 85.0 at pct Zn (involving Dy13Zn58 and Dy2Zn17). The Dy-rich end presents a catatectic equilibrium; a degenerate invariant effect has been found in the Zn-rich region. The phase equilibria of the Dy-Zn alloys are discussed and compared with those of the other known RE-Zn systems (RE=rare earth metal) in view of the regular change in the relative stabilities of the phases across the lanthanide series

Saccone, A.; Cardinale, A. M.; Delfino, S.; Ferro, R.

2003-03-01

415

Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

2002-01-01

416

Differencing logical UML models  

Microsoft Academic Search

UMLDiff is a heuristic algorithm for automatically detecting the changes that the logical design of an object-oriented software system\\u000a has gone through, as the subject system evolved from one version to the next. UMLDiff requires as input two models of the logical design of the system, corresponding to two of its versions. It produces as output\\u000a a set of change

Zhenchang Xing; Eleni Stroulia

2007-01-01

417

A class of three-loop models with neutrino mass and dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a class of three-loop models for neutrino mass in which dark matter plays a key role in enabling the mass diagram. The simplest models in this class have Majorana dark matter and include the proposal of Krauss, Nasri and Trodden; we identify the remaining related models, including the viable colored variants. The next-to-simplest models use either more multiplets and/or a slight modification of the loop-diagram, and predict inert N-tuplet scalar dark matter.

Chen, Chian-Shu; McDonald, Kristian L.; Nasri, Salah

2014-06-01

418

The high-z quasar Hubble Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recent discoveries have made it possible for us to begin using high-z quasars as standard candles to construct a Hubble Diagram (HD) at z > 6. These are (1) the recognition from reverberation mapping that a relationship exists between the optical/UV luminosity and the distance of line-emitting gas from the central ionizing source. Thus, together with a measurement of the velocity of the line-emitting gas, e.g., via the width of BLR lines, such as Mg II, a single observation can therefore in principle provide a determination of the black hole's mass; and (2) the identification of quasar ULAS J1120+0641 at z = 7.085, which has significantly extended the redshift range of these sources, providing essential leverage when fitting theoretical luminosity distances to the data. In this paper, we use the observed fluxes and Mg II line-widths of these sources to show that one may reasonably test the predicted high-z distance versus redshift relationship, and we assemble a sample of 20 currently available high-z quasars for this exercise. We find a good match between theory and observations, suggesting that a more complete, high-quality survey may indeed eventually produce an HD to complement the highly-detailed study already underway (e.g., with Type Ia SNe, GRBs, and cosmic chronometers) at lower redshifts. With the modest sample we have here, we show that the Rh = ct Universe and ?CDM both fit the data quite well, though the smaller number of free parameters in the former produces a more favorable outcome when we calculate likelihoods using the Akaike, Kullback, and Bayes Information Criteria. These three statistical tools result in similar probabilities, indicating that the Rh = ct Universe is more likely than ?CDM to be correct, by a ratio of about 85% to 15%.

Melia, Fulvio

2014-01-01

419

Research principles and the construction of mnemonic diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mnemonic diagrams are defined as a variety of information display devices, the essential element of which is conventional graphical presentation of technological or functional-operational links in a controlled system or object. Graphically displaying the operational structure of an object, the interd dependence between different parameters, and the interdependence between indicators and control organs, the mneomonic diagram reduces the load on the operator's memory and facilitates perception and reprocessing of information and decision making, while at the same time playing the role of visual support to the information activity of the operator. The types of mnemonic diagrams are listed.

Venda, V. F.; Mitkin, A. A.

1973-01-01

420

Denitrifying sulfide removal by enriched microbial consortium: Kinetic diagram.  

PubMed

Denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process simultaneously removes nitrate, sulfide and organic matters in the same reactor. This study isolated eight DSR strains and composed a microbial consortium to reveal the stoichiometry and kinetics of autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic denitrification (DSR). A novel kinetic diagram based on mass and electron balances was proposed to graphically interpret the system kinetics and identify the accessible regime where DSR reactions can be applied. Demonstration of the use of the proposed diagram showed the easy assessment of DSR system performance by the status on the diagram. PMID:24874878

Lee, Duu-Jong; Wong, Biing-Teo

2014-07-01

421

Sloan Digital Sky Survey - H-R Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, containing information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, provides students with the opportunity to make a H-R Diagram for different star systems. It goes through the relation between the color of a star and its surface temperature, in order to obtain a preliminary diagram. Then, using data from the Hipparcos probe, and the Pleiades system, the student is able to calculate the distance to several stars, which leads to the final version of the Diagram. The same concept is applied to Globular Clusters, and the student is able to tell the age of it by looking at its color.

2009-09-16

422

Physics of high contrast gratings: a band diagram insight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generalize the theoretical modelling of high contrast gratings (HCGs) to arbitrary incidence angle. We unveil the HCG band diagram with HCG supermode formulism, and present the intriguing connections between HCG and 1D photonic crystal (PhC). We show, for the first time, HCG and PhC can be unified in the same theoretical analysis architecture. They differentiate themselves by operating at different regimes in the band diagram. The HCG band diagram not only provides a powerful tool to study both HCG and PhC, but also to design various optical components with different functionalities on the HCG-based optoelectronics platform.

Yang, Weijian; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

2013-03-01

423

Feynman-Goldstone diagrams in a time-dependent basis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalization of many-fermion Feynman-Goldstone diagrams is derived based on a time-dependent unperturbed Hamiltonian along with a time-dependent reference state. In lowest order, the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations follow immediately from the same arguments which lead to static Hartree-Fock when the basis is time independent. Systematic corrections to the time-dependent Hartree-Fock mean-field approximation are obtained through higher order diagrams. [NUCLEAR STRUCTURE Generalization of Feynman-Goldstone diagrams to a time-dependent reference state. Diagrammatic derivation of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations and their systematic corrections.

Baranger, Michel; Zahed, Ismail

1984-03-01

424

Cu-Zn binary phase diagram and diffusion couples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this paper are to learn: (1) what information a binary phase diagram can yield; (2) how to construct and heat treat a simple diffusion couple; (3) how to prepare a metallographic sample; (4) how to operate a metallograph; (5) how to correlate phases found in the diffusion couple with phases predicted by the phase diagram; (6) how diffusion couples held at various temperatures could be used to construct a phase diagram; (7) the relation between the thickness of an intermetallic phase layer and the diffusion time; and (8) the effect of one species of atoms diffusing faster than another species in a diffusion couple.

Mccoy, Robert A.

1992-01-01

425

Translating the Object Constraint Language into the Java Modelling Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Object Constraint Language OCL is a textual specification language that could be used for constraining the modelling elements that occur in UML diagrams. Typical constraints include class invariants and preconditions and postconditions of operations. The Java Modelling Language (JML) is a behavioural interface specification language designed for specifying Java classes and interfaces. This paper defines a translation of OCL

Ali Hamie

2004-01-01

426

Class network routing  

DOEpatents

Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

Bhanot, Gyan (Princeton, NJ) [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT) [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY) [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY) [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY) [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY) [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY) [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY) [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY) [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY) [Bedford Hills, NY

2009-09-08

427

47 CFR 80.867 - Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment...867 Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment...tools, testing equipment, instruction books and circuit diagrams to enable...

2013-10-01

428

Online, Bigger Classes May Be Better Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his work as a professor, Stephen Downes used to feel that he was helping those who least needed it. His students at places like the University of Alberta already had a leg up in life and could afford the tuition. When a colleague suggested they co-teach an online class in learning theory at the University of Manitoba, in 2008, Downes welcomed…

Parry, Marc

2010-01-01

429

Class and Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone is dependent on caring labor. Because women's labor is financially beneficial to global capitalism, gender is inseparable from class, regardless of the specific national or cultural contexts.

Hart, Mechthild

2005-01-01

430

The neodymium-gold phase diagram  

SciTech Connect

The Nd-Au phase diagram was studied in the 0 to 100 at. pct Au composition range by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Six intermetallic phases were identified, the crystallographic structures were determined or confirmed, and the melting behavior was determined, as follows: Nd{sub 2}Au, orthorhombic oP12-Co{sub 2}Si type, peritectic decomposition at 810 C; NdAu, R.T. form, orthorhombic oP8-FeB type, H.T. forms, orthorhombic oC8-CrB type and, at a higher temperature, cubic cP2-CsCl type, melting point 1470 C; Nd{sub 3}Au{sub 4}, trigonal hR42-Pu{sub 3}Pd{sub 4} type, peritectic decomposition at 1250 C; Nd{sub 17}Au{sub 36}, tetragonal tP106-Nd{sub 17}Au{sub 36} type, melting point 1170 C; Nd{sub 14}Au{sub 51}, hexagonal hP65-Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} type, melting point 1210 C; and NdAu{sub 6}, monoclinic mC28-PrAu{sub 6} type, peritectic decomposition at 875 C. Four eutectic reactions were found, respectively, at 19.0 at. pct Au and 655 C, at 63.0 at. pct Au and 1080 C, at 72.0 at. pct Au and 1050 C, and, finally, at 91.0 at. pct Au and 795 C. A catatectic decomposition of the ({beta}Nd) phase, at 825 C and {approx}1 at. pct Au, was also found. The results are briefly discussed and compared to those for the other rare earth-gold (R-Au) systems. A short discussion of the general alloying behavior of the coinage metals (Cu, Ag, and Au) with the rare-earth metals is finally presented.

Saccone, A.; Maccio, D.; Delfino, S.; Ferro, R. [Sezione di Chimica Inorganicae Metallurgia, Genova (Italy)

1999-05-01

431

An Empirical HR Diagram for WN Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The one-dimensional WN classification defined by Smith (1968, MNRAS 138, 109), based primarily on the relative strengths of Nsiii -- Nsv lines, has been described as unsuccessful because it fails to define a unique luminosity and temperature for a given spectral type (e.g. Conti ea 1983, ApJ 268, 228). Part of the problem lies in the lumping of ``weak'' and ``strong'' lined stars (Hiltner & Schild 1966, ApJ 143,770 ``A'' and ``B'' types) into the same spectral bins. Recently Hamann, Koesterke, & Wessolowski (1993, AA 274, 397) (HKW) have determined the luminosities and temperatures for 60% of the 71 apparently single WN stars in the updated Sixth Galactic WR Catalog of van der Hucht ea (1988, AA 199, 217), from the equivalent widths (EW) of Hesiilam 5412 and Hesilam 5876. I use their data to plot the EW_{lambda 5412} as a function of the ratio EW_{lambda 5412} / EW_{lambda 5876}. This plot shows a clear separation between ``weak'' lined and ``strong'' lined WN stars with a dividing line at EW_{lambda 5412} = --35 Angstroms. Both the strong and weak line sequences follow the N ionization classification along their respective curves. There is also a hint of a further bifurcation in the weak line sequence. I argue that this is an empirical HR diagram for the WN stars because for each sequence (weak and strong); there is a linear correlation between temperature and the equivalent width ratio, and an inverse linear correlation between the absolute visual magnitude and the EW_{lambda 5412}. (This second correlation is just the ``Baldwin Effect'' for WR stars; noted by Morris ea 1993, ApJ 414, L25). I will discuss a similar classification system by Smith, Shara, & Moffat (1995, IAUSymp 163, 48) who have suggested using the FWHM of Hesiilam 4686 in place of EW_{lambda 5412} and an additional third dimension measuring the H/He abundance ratio. I will also discuss the use of alternate luminosity (EW_{lambda 4686}) and temperature (EW_{lambda 4686} / EW_{lambda 10830}) indicators. This work has been supported by NAG5-619.

McCandliss, Stephan R.

1995-05-01

432

Geometrical Approach to the Evaluation of Multileg Feynman Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A connection between one-loop N-point Feynman diagrams and certain geometrical quantities in non-Euclidean geometry is discussed. A geometrical way to calculate the corresponding Feynman integrals is considered.

Davydychev, Andrei I.; Delbourgo, Robert

1998-10-01

433

8. Photocopy of top half of an 1855 organizational diagram ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Photocopy of top half of an 1855 organizational diagram of the New York and Erie Railroad. Original in the collections of the Library of Congress. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

434

9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram of the New York and Erie Railroad. Original in the collections of the Library of Congress. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

435

22. Power plant engine pipingcompressed air piping diagram and sections, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Power plant engine piping-compressed air piping diagram and sections, sheet 81 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

436

TOPICAL REVIEW: The Hopf algebra approach to Feynman diagram calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hopf algebra structure underlying Feynman diagrams which governs the process of renormalization in perturbative quantum field theory is reviewed. Recent progress is briefly summarized with an emphasis on further directions of research.

Kurusch Ebrahimi-Fard; Dirk Kreimer

2005-01-01

437

Exercises in Drawing and Utilizing Free-Body Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds that students taking algebra-based introductory physics have difficulty with one- and two-body problems in particle mechanics. Provides graded exercises for drawing and utilizing free-body diagrams. (CCM)

Fisher, Kurt

1999-01-01

438

High-temperature phase diagram of sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical point is calculated and a high-temperature phase diagram is constructed for sodium chloride with allowance for the structural phase transition between B1 and B2 polymorphs of NaCl crystal.

Savintsev, A. P.; Gavasheli, Yu. O.

2011-11-01

439

Airbus A320 Braking as Predicate-Action Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the Predicate-Action Diagrams of Lamport to express the de- scription of the operation of the Airbus A320 braking systems contained in the Flight Crew Operating Manual. This helps identify ambiguities and incompleteness.

Peter B. Ladkin

440

Temperature control in continuous furnace by structural diagram method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamentals of the structural diagram method for distributed parameter systems (DPSs) are presented and reviewed. An example is given to illustrate the application of this method for control design.

Xia, Lei; Hartley, Tom T.

1991-01-01

441

Influence diagrams and decision trees for severe accident management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of relevant methodologies based on Influence Diagrams (IDs), Decision Trees (DTs), and Containment Event Trees (CETs) was conducted to assess the practicality of these methods for the selection of effective strategies for Severe Accident Manageme...

W. W. J. Goetz

1996-01-01

442

Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The left side originally related in Gowin's Vee with philosophies, theories, models, laws or regularities now agrees with Toulmin's concepts (language, models as representation techniques and application procedures). Mexican science teachers without experience in science education research used the heuristic diagram to learn about the history of chemistry considering also in the left side two different historical times: past and present. Through a semantic differential scale teachers' attitude to the heuristic diagram was evaluated and its usefulness was demonstrated.

Chamizo, José A.

2012-05-01

443

Influence diagrams as oil spill decision science tools  

EPA Science Inventory

Making inferences on risks to ecosystem services (ES) from ecological crises can be more reliably handled using decision science tools. Influence diagrams (IDs) are probabilistic networks that explicitly represent the decisions related to a problem and evidence of their influence...

444

61. THREE LINE WIRING DIAGRAM, 33 KV & NO. 1 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

61. THREE LINE WIRING DIAGRAM, 33 KV & NO. 1 TRANS BANK, SANTA ANA NO. 1 HYDRO PLANT, OCTOBER 27, 1958. SCE drawing no. 428058-1. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

445

Workshop on Applications of Phase Diagrams in Metallurgy and Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A workshop was held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., January 10-12, 1977, to assess the current national and international status of phase diagram determinations and evaluations for alloys, ceramics and semiconductors; to determine ...

L. H. Bennett G. C. Carter

1977-01-01

446

75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...publication, the following NAD 83-based Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas, with revision dates as indicated, are now available. The BOEMRE in accordance with its authority and...

2010-10-05

447

Limits to Open Class Performance?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the limits to open class performance. The contents include: 1) Standard Class; 2) 15m/Racing Class; 3) Open Class; and 4) Design Solutions associated with assumptions, limiting parameters, airfoil performance, current trends, and analysis.

Bowers, Albion H.

2007-01-01

448

The Life Cycle of the Star/H-R Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a great resources with online lessons providing student inquiry as they learn about the life cycle of the star as well as the usages of the H-R diagram. The images provide students a conceptual understanding of the life cycle of the star and how it applies to the H-R diagram. My students enjoyed the interactive lab tools as well as the online formative assessment questions.

Http://www.cpet.ufl.edu/sift/

2011-10-14

449

CUEMAP: A tool for generating hierarchical charts and dataflow diagrams  

SciTech Connect

CUEMAP is a preprocessor to the MAPPER program, which generates report quality visual aids. CUEMAP uses text blocks, symbols, and line connectors to lay out hierarchical charts and dataflow diagrams. A grid is specified as a reference point on which the labels and symbols can be placed. Connectors are added to complete the diagram. Modifications and enhancements require knowledge of the MAPPER syntax. 1 ref., 2 figs.

Lee, J.W.

1987-12-01

450

Evaluation of multi-box diagrams in six dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple method which simplifies the evaluation of the on-shell multiple box diagrams reducing them to triangle type ones. For the L-loop diagram one gets the expression in terms of Feynman parameters with 2 L-fold integration. As examples we consider the 2 and 3 loops cases, the numerical integration up to six loops is also presented. The method is valid in six dimensions where neither UV not IR divergences appear.

Kazakov, D. I.

2014-04-01

451

Towards a Cosmological Hubble Diagram for Type II-PSupernovae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first high-redshift Hubble diagram for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) based upon five events at redshift upto z â0.3. This diagram was constructed using photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and absorption line spectroscopy from the Keck observatory. The method used to measure distances to these supernovae is based on recent work by Hamuy&Pinto (2002)

Peter Nugent; Mark Sullivan; Richard Ellis; Avishay Gal-Yam; Douglas C. Leonard; D. Andrew Howell; Pierre Astier; Raymond G. Carlberg; Alex Conley; Sebastien Fabbro; Dominique Fouchez; James D. Neill; Reynald Pain; Kathy Perrett; Chris J. Pritchet; Nicolas Regnault

2006-01-01

452

Toward a Cosmological Hubble Diagram for Type IIP Supernovae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first high-redshift Hubble diagram for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) based on five events at redshift up to z~0.3. This diagram was constructed using photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and absorption-line spectroscopy from the Keck Observatory. The method used to measure distances to these supernovae is based on recent work by Hamuy & Pinto

Peter Nugent; Mark Sullivan; Richard Ellis; Avishay Gal-Yam; Douglas C. Leonard; D. Andrew Howell; Pierre Astier; Raymond G. Carlberg; Alex Conley; Sebastien Fabbro; Dominique Fouchez; James D. Neill; Reynald Pain; Kathy Perrett; Chris J. Pritchet; Nicolas Regnault

2006-01-01

453

A spinor technique in symbolic Feynman diagram calculation mesons  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a recursive diagrammatic method for evaluating tree-level Feynman diagrams involving multi-fermions which interact through gauge bosons (gluons or photons). Based on this method, a package called COMPUTE, which can generate and calculate all the possible Feynman diagrams for exclusive processes in perturbative QCD, has been developed (available in both Mathematics and Maple). As an example, a calculation of the nucleon Compton scattering amplitude is given.

A. Pang; C. Ji

1994-02-17

454

Blockm-a block diagram modelling interface and its applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A MATLAB-based menu-driven multi-input multi-output linear system block diagram modeling program called BLOCKM is presented. This program can be used very easily to enter complicated models described in block diagram form. The state-space representation of the system can then easily be found and processed in the MATLAB environment. The F-14 benchmark problem is used as an example to show the

D. Xue; D. P. Atherton

1992-01-01

455

Selecting samples for paleointensity measurements with FORC diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleointensity data are vital for a better knowledge of deep-earth processes. The paleointensity database is limited by the high failure rate of paleointensity analysis. Excluding thermal alteration, failure is usually caused by the presence of multi-domain (MD) grains and interactions among grains, two properties that can be identified using first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams. We measured FORC diagrams on about

C. Carvallo; A. Roberts; R. Leonhardt; C. Laj; C. Kissel; M. Perrin; P. Camps

2005-01-01

456

Semantic specification and verification of data flow diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data Flow Diagram (DFD) has been widely used in Software Engineering as means of requirement analysis and system specification.\\u000a However, one defect of DFD approach remains untackled: the lack of formal semantics has brought about a lot of problems. In\\u000a this paper, we model Data Flow Diagram as networks of concurrent processes. With the use of temporal logic language XYZ\\/E,

Tong Liu; C. S. Tang

1991-01-01

457

Modelling the phase diagram of magnetic shape memory Heusler alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have modelled the phase diagram of magnetic shape memory alloys of the Heusler type by using the phenomenological Ginzburg–Landau theory. When fixing the parameters by realistic values taken from experiment we are able to reproduce most details of, for example, the phase diagram of Ni2+xMn1?xGa in the (T, x) plane. We present the results of ab initio calculations of

P Entel; V D Buchelnikov; V V Khovailo; A T Zayak; W A Adeagbo; M E Gruner; H C Herper; E F Wassermann

2006-01-01

458

Transport Phase Diagram of Homogeneously Disordered Superconducting Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a phase diagram in temperature-magnetic field-disorder space for homogeneously disordered superconducting tantalum thin films. Phases are phenomenologically identified by the nonlinear transport characteristics that are unique in each phase. The resulting phase diagram shows that a direct superconductor-insulator transition is prohibited at any disorder because the superconducting phase is completely surrounded by the intervening metallic phase.

Yize Li; Carlos L. Vicente; Jongsoo Yoon

2009-01-01

459

Archform Comparisons between Skeletal Class II and III Malocclusions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crown)and WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridge)were employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2). In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects.

Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, TianMin; Li, CuiYing

2014-01-01

460

Multivectors: Nine components represented on a ternary diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of graphical representation of data need to keep pace with increasingly complex data manipulation. Conventional ternary diagrams allow the presentation of three components as a point in a plane. Multivector diagrams allow plotting of up to nine components in one ternary diagram by representing compositions not as points but as vectors sharing a "triple-point". The triple point represents the composition of three sets of three components (triads). The vector arms represent the composition within triads. Multivector diagrams can be used to illustrate individual samples or multiple samples. The techniques for computing, plotting, reading and interpreting multiple vectors follow the same rules as a conventional ternary diagram such that any of the nine components or groups of components can be compared directly or with the aid of simple projections. Although the mathematical and statistical implications of this graphical representation are not presented, it is demonstrated that the technique is useful for visual assessment of compositions and key compositional ratios. Multivector diagrams can be applied to any system where a graphical representation of up to nine components may be useful. Multivectors are applied to examples from whole rock geochemistry, whole rock modal mineralogy, mineral alteration, chemical weathering and groundwater chemistry.

Smith, John V.; Beermann, Eberhard

2006-04-01

461

Public Libraries and Social Class  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The paper argues that there is an intrinsic link between social exclusion and social class, that social exclusion is endemic to capitalism, and that the class system pervades every aspect of society, including library usage. After reviewing different models of social stratification, the paper identifies three main classes, the capitalist class, the middle class and the working class. The

John Pateman

462

Noun Classes in Tikar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of noun classes in Tikar, a Benue-Congo language spoken in west central Cameroon, looks at patterns in the noun class system, concord system (possessives, demonstratives, demonstrative adjectives, demonstrative pronouns, third-person pronouns, relative pronouns, copula, adjectivals, and numerals) with an eye to determining whether…

Stanley-Thorne, Carol

463

The Big Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bigger classes are the reality for more and more teachers across the country. In the 2010-11 school year, 57 percent of districts increased their class sizes, and 65 percent anticipate doing so in 2011-12, according to a December 2010 survey by the American Association of School Administrators. So how do teachers cope? Experts and veteran teachers…

Adams, Caralee

2011-01-01

464

Teaching Large Evening Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

Wambuguh, Oscar

2008-01-01

465

Lightweight dependent classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive research efforts have been devoted to implement a group of type-safe mutually recursive classes; recently, proposals for separating each member of the group as a reusable and composable programming unit have also been presented. One problem of these proposals is verbosity of the source programs; we have to declare a recursive type parameter to parameterize each mutually recursive class

Tetsuo Kamina; Tetsuo Tamai

2008-01-01

466

Class Scheduling Preferences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to ascertain students' preferences for the number of times a class should meet each week, 375 questionnaires administered to students during the 1989 summer session at Cuyahoga Community College, Western Campus (Ohio) were evaluated. Results indicated that 49% of respondents preferred classes meeting twice each week, and 29% preferred…

Richards, Irving E.; And Others

467

What can we learn by comparing students' diagram-construction processes with the mathematical conceptions inferred from their explanations with completed diagrams?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite recent research interest in student-created diagrams, little research has systematically investigated students' diagram-construction processes, meaning the order and manner in which students create markings as they physically generate diagrams. In this study, we characterize the various processes students use to create diagrams that represent a quadratic motion situation involving increasing speed, and we explore how these diagram-construction processes are related to students' conceptions of speed as inferred from their explanations with their completed diagrams. Previous literature suggests contrasting predictions regarding whether or not students' diagram-construction processes are closely related (from our perspective as researchers) to students' inferred conceptions. We see the study as having value for research and practice by raising new questions related to diagram-construction processes, pointing to the potential formative assessment value of attending to diagram-construction processes, and demonstrating the need for the development of theory to explain the relationships identified by this study.

Lobato, Joanne; Hohensee, Charles; Diamond, Jaime Marie

2014-01-01

468

OntoDiagram: automatic diagram generation for congenital heart defects in pediatric cardiology.  

PubMed

In pediatric cardiology as well as many other medical specialties, the accurate portrayal of a large volume of patient information is crucial to providing good patient care. Our research aims at utilizing clinical and spatial ontologies representing the human heart, to automatically generate a Mullins-like diagram based on a patient's information in the cardiology databases. Our ontology allows an intuitive way of modeling congenital defects with the structure of the human heart. A prototype system has been implemented using Protege and the Java Advanced Imaging package , and is currently under testing at the Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics. A pilot study showed the diagrammatical representation and characterization of congenital heart defects can be used to facilitate a better understanding of a complex congenital heart defects. PMID:16779141

Vishwanath, Kartik; Viswanath, Venkatesh; Drake, William; Lee, Yugyung

2005-01-01

469

Planar diagrams from optimization for concave potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a toy model of a heteropolymer chain capable of forming planar secondary structures typical for RNA molecules. In this model, the sequential intervals between neighboring monomers along a chain are considered as quenched random variables, and energies of nonlocal bonds are assumed to be concave functions of those intervals. A few factors are neglected: the contribution of loop factors to the partition function, the variation in energies of different types of complementary nucleotides, the stacking interactions, and constraints on the minimal size of loops. However, the model captures well the formation of folded structures without pseudoknots in an arbitrary sequence of nucleotides. Using the optimization procedure for a special class of concave-type potentials, borrowed from optimal transport analysis, we derive the local difference equation for the ground state free energy of the chain with the planar (RNA-like) architecture of paired links. We consider various distribution functions of intervals between neighboring monomers (truncated Gaussian and scale free) and demonstrate the existence of a topological crossover from sequential to essentially nested configurations of paired links.

Nechaev, S. K.; Sobolevski, A. N.; Valba, O. V.

2013-01-01

470

Planar diagrams from optimization for concave potentials.  

PubMed

We propose a toy model of a heteropolymer chain capable of forming planar secondary structures typical for RNA molecules. In this model, the sequential intervals between neighboring monomers along a chain are considered as quenched random variables, and energies of nonlocal bonds are assumed to be concave functions of those intervals. A few factors are neglected: the contribution of loop factors to the partition function, the variation in energies of different types of complementary nucleotides, the stacking interactions, and constraints on the minimal size of loops. However, the model captures well the formation of folded structures without pseudoknots in an arbitrary sequence of nucleotides. Using the optimization procedure for a special class of concave-type potentials, borrowed from optimal transport analysis, we derive the local difference equation for the ground state free energy of the chain with the planar (RNA-like) architecture of paired links. We consider various distribution functions of intervals between neighboring monomers (truncated Gaussian and scale free) and demonstrate the existence of a topological crossover from sequential to essentially nested configurations of paired links. PMID:23410278

Nechaev, S K; Sobolevski, A N; Valba, O V

2013-01-01

471

Doniach Phase Diagram, Revisited: From Ferromagnet to Fermi Liquid in Pressurized CeRu[sub 2] Ge[sub 2  

SciTech Connect

We present the resistivity and ac susceptibility of CeRu[sub 2]Ge [sub 2] at pressures p up to 130thinspthinspkbar. Pressure transforms the system from a ferromagnet into a nonordering Fermi liquid (FL). The suppression of magnetic order at p[sub c]=67 kbar is accompanied by non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior. By comparing our results to isoelectronic CeRu[sub 2]( Ge[sub 1[minus]x]Si [sub x])[sub 2] we derive a unified hybridization J phase diagram for the entire material class. The phase diagram is characterized by the FL and Kondo energy scales T[sub FL] and T[sub K] , with the NFL behavior appearing at T[sub FL]=0 K , while T[sub K] remains finite and a smoothly increasing function of J . [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

Suellow, S.; Aronson, M.C. (Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120 (United States)); Rainford, B.D. (Department of Physics, Southampton University, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)); Haen, P. (Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperature CNRS, Grenoble (France))

1999-04-01

472

Doniach Phase Diagram, Revisited: From Ferromagnet to Fermi Liquid in Pressurized CeRu{sub 2} Ge{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

We present the resistivity and ac susceptibility of CeRu{sub 2}Ge {sub 2} at pressures p up to 130thinspthinspkbar. Pressure transforms the system from a ferromagnet into a nonordering Fermi liquid (FL). The suppression of magnetic order at p{sub c}=67 kbar is accompanied by non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior. By comparing our results to isoelectronic CeRu{sub 2}( Ge{sub 1{minus}x}Si {sub x}){sub 2} we derive a unified hybridization J phase diagram for the entire material class. The phase diagram is characterized by the FL and Kondo energy scales T{sub FL} and T{sub K} , with the NFL behavior appearing at T{sub FL}=0 K , while T{sub K} remains finite and a smoothly increasing function of J . {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Suellow, S.; Aronson, M.C. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120 (United States); Rainford, B.D. [Department of Physics, Southampton University, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Haen, P. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperature CNRS, Grenoble (France)

1999-04-01

473

Methods and Technologies of XML Data Modeling for IP Mode Intelligent Measuring & Controlling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the IP mode intelligent measuring & controlling system (IMIMCS). Based on object-oriented modeling technology of UML and XML Schema, the innovative methods and technologies of some key problems for XML data modeling in the IMIMCS were especially discussed, including refinement for systemic business by means of use-case diagram of UML, the confirmation of the content of XML data model and logic relationship of the objects of XML Schema with the aid of class diagram of UML, the mapping rules from the UML object model to XML Schema. Finally, the application of the IMIMCS based on XML for a modern greenhouse was presented. The results show that the modeling methods of the measuring & controlling data in the IMIMCS involving the multi-layer structure and many operating systems process strong reliability and flexibility, guarantee uniformity of complex XML documents and meet the requirement of data communication across platform.

Liu, G. X.; Hong, X. B.; Liu, J. G.

2006-10-01

474

In Thyroidectomized Patients with Thyroid Cancer, a Serum Thyrotropin of 30 ?U/mL After Thyroxine Withdrawal Is Not Always Adequate for Detecting an Elevated Stimulated Serum Thyroglobulin  

PubMed Central

Background The thyrotropin (TSH) level or duration of thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) required to detect stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) monitoring is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the TSH cutoff of >30??U/mL as a means to detect stimulated Tg ?2?ng/mL after THW (THW-Tg?2), and sensitivity of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) questionnaire for detecting hypothyroid symptoms. Methods This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study done at a tertiary academic medical center. Forty-seven patients with DTC undergoing their first Tg stimulation or after previously abnormal Tg stimulation had weekly measurements of TSH and Tg during the 4 weeks THW, and repeated questionnaire assessments. Results TSH did not reach a plateau in any patient, and in those whose Tg did not remain undetectable, Tg continued to rise. Seventy-five percent of patients had an undetectable Tg <0.2?ng/mL at baseline (95% were <0.5?mg/mL) with 16% remaining undetectable throughout THW. The majority of patients (72.7% and 97.8%) achieved TSH >30??U/mL by 3 and 4 weeks THW, respectively. Of the 15 patients with maximum stimulated THW-Tg?2, 38% were detected before the minimal TSH >30??U/mL cutoff. At 2 weeks THW, 3 had a TSH>30??U/mL, and none of them had Tg ?2?ng/mL. At 3 weeks THW, 11 had a TSH >30??U/mL, and 64% of them had Tg ?2?ng/mL. Only 60% were detected at 3-week THW regardless of their TSH level. Eighty-six percent were detected by TSH 60–<80??U/mL. Conversely, all patients whose serum Tg was <0.2?ng/mL when their serum TSH was >20??U/mL did not achieve a THW-Tg?2. Conclusion The minimal TSH cutoff of >30??U/mL was inadequate to detect many patients with final stimulated THW-Tg?2 during complete THW. TSH >80–100??U/mL was a better cutoff, achieved in only 53% after 4-week THW. Conversely, we propose a preliminary THW-stopping rule for ending THW early in selected patients. In patients with a Tg <0.2?ng/mL when TSH >20??U/mL, all had a final stimulated Tg ?2?ng/mL, potentially saving qualifying patients 40% of THW duration compared to 4-week THW. FACIT-F correlated with TSH, but was not sensitive to detect mild hypothyroidism.

Valle, Laticia A.; Gorodeski Baskin, Revital L.; Porter, Kyle; Sipos, Jennifer A.; Khawaja, Raheela; Ringel, Matthew D.

2013-01-01

475

7 CFR 1006.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price. ...Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price. ...parish FIPS Class I price adjustment FL ALACHUA 12001...

2010-01-01

476

7 CFR 1007.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.... Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price....parishFIPS Class I price adjustmentAL AUTAUGA01001...

2009-01-01

477

7 CFR 1007.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.... Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price....parishFIPS Class I price adjustmentAL AUTAUGA01001...

2010-01-01

478

7 CFR 1006.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price. ...Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price. ...parish FIPS Class I price adjustment FL ALACHUA 12001...

2009-01-01

479

7 CFR 1005.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price. ...Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price. ...parish FIPS Class I price adjustment GA CATOOSA 13047...

2010-01-01

480

7 CFR 1005.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price. ...Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price. ...parish FIPS Class I price adjustment GA CATOOSA 13047...

2009-01-01

481

Class II Microcins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into\\u000a two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational\\u000a modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as\\u000a a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end,

Gaëlle Vassiliadis; Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón; Jean Peduzzi

2011-01-01

482

The Eddington Limit Upper Boudary for Cool Stars on the HR Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined the properties of cool, low metallicity, super-massive forming stars, which may exist at high redshift. We seek to address the location of the Eddington limit and possible evolution scenarios for such stars. The location of the modified Eddington limit was determined across the Hertzsprung Russell Diagram by using Kurucz model atmospheres. Radiative acceleration and ? max = grad}/g{mass were calculated for a range of gravities at specific temperatures from model atmospheres that accounted for presence of convection zones. Results for Teff and mass gravity were converted to a location on the HR Diagram using a mass luminosity relation that fit upper main sequence stars and extrapolated to ? electron\\:scattering = 1 for very massive stars. Models were calculated for both Z/Z? = 1.0 and 0.03. On the hot side of the HR Diagram, our results agree well with the modified Eddington limit derived by Lamers and Noordhoek (1993) and Ulmer and Fitzpatrick (1998). Our results also agree well with the Humphreys-Davidson limit for the most luminous stars, reaching a minimal Lmax at about 12000 K. Our results extend to stars on the cool side of this minimum. We find that the opacity decreases well below the fully ionized electron scattering opacity allowing the upper limit to reach values 104 higher than the H-D limit at Teff = 5000 K for Z/Z? = 1 and 105 higher for Z/Z? = 0.03. This apex region might be of interest for two classes of stars. a) Luminous Blue Variables could reach the cool apex region by crossing the divide from the Blue Hypergiant region to the yellow side during their outburst phases. b) The collapse and formation of the earliest generation of super-massive stars could also lead to objects that might be found observationally only as hyperluminous cool stars and not as Wolf-Rayet type hot stars as is commonly assumed.

Mendygral, P. J.; Babler, B. L.; Cassinelli, J. P.

2002-12-01

483

Applying Relational Algebra in 3D Graphical Software Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programming in the large is generally supported by tools al- lowing to design software in a graphical manner. 2D representations of object-oriented classes and their relations, such as e.g. UML diagrams, serve for automatically generating code frames and hence allow to ma- nipulate code by manipulating these diagrams. We focus on 3D represen- tations of various relations between classes implemented

Rudolf Berghammer; Alexander Fronk

2003-01-01

484

Inside the Middle Class  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the middle class thinking? And who exactly is in the middle class? This thoughtful 169-page report from the Pew Research Center looks at the attitudes and lives of the American middle class in a way that will fascinate journalists, policy practitioners, and others. The report was released in April 2008, and visitors can read the entire report at their leisure, or they can also glance over an executive summary. The document is divided into two large chapters: "A Self Portrait" and "A Statistical Report". Along the way, visitors will note that there are numerous graphs, charts, and tables sprinkled through the text that help visually illuminate key patterns and trends. Overall, the report offers up a number of interesting findings, including the observation that about half of all Americans think of themselves as middle class and that for the past two decades middle income Americans have been spending and borrowing more.

2008-01-01

485

Incremental recognition in gesture-based and syntax-directed diagram editors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagram editing is an attractive application of gestural interfaces and pen-based computers which promise a new input paradigm where users communicate with computers in diagram languages by using gestures. A key problem in building gesture-based diagram editors is the recognition of handsketched diagrams. Existing approaches concentrate either on gesture recognition or on parsing visual languages, there has been a lack

Rui Zhao; Siemens Nixdorf

1993-01-01

486

Improvement of EMC by applying ambiguity and environmental diagrams to the design of radar waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for improving the electromagnetic compatibility of a radar system with respect to its operating electromagnetic environment and to assess RF spectrum usage is presented. The technique involves the use of the ambiguity diagram derived from the waveform and the construction of environmental diagrams for the radar. Overlays of the ambiguity diagram upon the environmental diagram, along desired target

M. D. Aasen

1976-01-01

487

Improvement of EMC by Applying Ambiguity and Environmental Diagrams to the Design of Radar Waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for improving the electromagnetic compatibility of a radar system with respect to its operating electromagnetic environment and to assess RF spectrum usage is presented. The technique involves the use of the ambiguity diagram derived from the waveform and the construction of environinental diagrams for the radar. Overlays of the ambiguity diagram upon the environmental diagram, along desired target

Marvin Aasen

1976-01-01

488

Analysis of Energy Consumption in 159 Countries by Triangular Pyramid Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a triangular diagram (also known as a ternary diagram) and triangular pyramid diagram (TPD) to analyze energy consumption data by energy type. To consider the energy problem, it is important to understand the energy type breakdown of the energy consumption. A triangular diagram is effective for the analysis of data of three different energy types. We can classify

Kotoh Hiroshi; Yanai Hiroshi

489

Phase diagram of doped BaFe2As2 superconductor under broken C4 symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a minimal multi-orbital tight-binding model with realistic hopping parameters that breaks the symmetry of the point group by lowering it from C4 to D2d. The model accurately describes the Fermi surface evolution of the electron, BaFe2-xCoxAs2, and hole, Ba1-yKyFe2As2, doped compounds. Since in this class of materials the competing superconductivity and co-linear antiferromagnetism rely on the evolution of the Fermi surface with doping, we investigated the phase diagram with a mean-field t-U-V Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation. Our results match the experimental electron-doped phase diagram. Furthermore, the model is in reasonable agreement with the experimental hole-doped part with only one set of t, U and V parameters. The self-consistently calculated superconducting order parameter exhibits s+/-d pairing symmetry in the entire doping range. It is the subtle result of competing interactions in the multi-orbital mean-field Hamiltonian based on the broken C4 symmetry and might be observable in STM and ARPES experiments.

Tai, Yuan-Yen; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Graf, Matthias J.; Ting, C. S.

2013-03-01

490

Attractive emulsion droplets probe the phase diagram of jammed granular matter  

PubMed Central

It remains an open question whether statistical mechanics approaches apply to random packings of athermal particles. Although a jamming phase diagram has recently been proposed for hard spheres with varying friction, here we use a frictionless emulsion system in the presence of depletion forces to sample the available phase space of packing configurations. Using confocal microscopy, we access their packing microstructure and test the theoretical assumptions. As a function of attraction, our packing protocol under gravity leads to well-defined jammed structures in which global density initially increases above random close packing and subsequently decreases monotonically. Microscopically, the fluctuations in parameters describing each particle, such as the coordination number, number of neighbors, and local packing fraction, are for all attractions in excellent agreement with a local stochastic model, indicating that long-range correlations are not important. Furthermore, the distributions of local cell volumes can be collapsed onto a universal curve using the predicted k-gamma distribution, in which the shape parameter k is fixed by the polydispersity while the effect of attraction is captured by rescaling the average cell volume. Within the Edwards statistical mechanics framework, this result measures the decrease in compactivity with global density, which represents a direct experimental test of a jamming phase diagram in athermal systems. The success of these theoretical tools in describing yet another class of materials gives support to the much-debated statistical physics of jammed granular matter.

Jorjadze, Ivane; Pontani, Lea-Laetitia; Newhall, Katherine A.; Brujic, Jasna

2011-01-01

491

Phase diagram and strong-coupling fixed point in the disordered O(n) loop model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the phase diagram and critical properties of the two-dimensional disordered O(n) loop model. The renormalization group (RG) flow is extracted from the landscape of the effective central charge c obtained by the transfer matrix method. We find a line of multicritical fixed points (FPs) at strong randomness for n > nc ? 0.5. We also find a line of stable random FPs for nc < n < 1, whose c and critical exponents agree well with the 1 ? n expansion results. The multicritical FP at n = 1 has c = 0.4612(4), which suggests that it belongs to the universality class of the Nishimori point in the random-bond Ising model. For n > 2, we find another critical line that connects the hard-hexagon FP in the pure model to a finite-randomness zero-temperature FP .

Shimada, H.; Jacobsen, J. L.; Kamiya, Y.

2014-03-01

492

Phase diagram of Sr on Si(001): A first-principles study  

SciTech Connect

The best known method for growing epitaxial oxides on silicon requires the deposition of 1/2 monolayer of an alkaline earth metal, usually Sr, as the first step; however, the details of this process are not well understood. Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we compute the total energies and vibrational free energies of several classes of Sr on Si(001) structures. These structures, in particular those with submonolayer Si reconstructions, allow us to explain the observed phase diagram of submonolayer Sr on Si(001). We analyze the electronic states of key structures using maximally localized Wannier functions and present simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images of key structures and find that they compare well with recent experiments. Our results clarify the role of temperature in epitaxial oxide growth on silicon, predict an experimentally verified low temperature path to epitaxy, and may be important in finding pathways to epitaxy between silicon and other oxides.

Garrity, Kevin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8120 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8120 (United States)

2009-08-15

493

Repeated Structures Found After the Solar Maximum in the Butterfly Diagrams of Coronal Holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the solar cycle evolution on the coronal hole space-time distribution is well known, for polar as well as for equatorial isolated sources of high speed solar wind. Among them the long-lived coronal holes occurrence from the sunspot cycle 21 on is investigated, using the coronal hole catalogue based on HeI (1083 nm) observations (Sanchez-Ibarra and Barraza-Paredes). In at least these two solar cycles (n. 21 and n. 22) a similar structure in the latitude-time diagram of coronal holes is found. The area occurs shortly after the solar maximum at around ~35° heliolatitude and consists of over several Carrington Rotations stable coronal holes (>5 Carr. Rot.s). The diagonal disappears 2-3 years later at the helioequator. Furthermore, the analysis results in a close relation between long-lived isolated coronal holes and the soft X-class flares.

Hofer, M. Y.; Storini, M.

2003-09-01

494

Global phase diagram for binary alloys with one magnetic component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the global mean-field phase diagram for a binary alloy that contains one magnetic component. We obtain 12 types of system phase diagrams, each of which displays a different interaction of chemical (segregration or ordering) and magnetic (ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic) long-range order. Our results follow from the known features of the phase diagrams along the symmetric sections of Griffiths's three-component (spin-1) model when both uniform and sublattice ordered states are considered. The multiple-phase coexistence and associated multicritical states of the spin-1 model appear in alloy language linked to previously unknown features such as first-order magnetic to paramagnetic transitions within chemically ordered phases, phase segregation among two magnetically ordered states, and first-order field-induced transitions.

Talanquer, V.; Varea, C.; Robledo, A.

1989-04-01

495

Activated sludge process control--development of operational diagrams.  

PubMed

Hindered batch settling experiments were performed on activated sludge generated from dairy wastewater and combined (Dairy-Domestic mixture 1:3) wastewater for different initial Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) concentrations from 2g/L to 20 g/L for varied Mean Cell Residence Time (MCRT) for 5 to 15 days. Bio kinetic coefficients of combined wastewater were determined using a bench scale Continues Flow Stirred Tank Reactor (CFSTR). Vesilind parameters were also determined experimentally. Operational diagrams for long-term fluctuations in plant inflow and substrate concentration have been prepared. The allowable overflow rate to prevent process failure can be predicted from the chart. The adjustments to be made in recycling ratio and MCRT in case of fluctuations could also be predicted from the operational diagrams. From the operating diagrams plotted for both dairy and combined wastewater, it was noticed that, combined wastewater treatment provide greater operational flexibility than treating dairy waste separately. PMID:17365299

Jeyanthi, J; Saseetharan, M K

2007-02-15

496

Generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) using Feynman-like diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single scattering events recorded in surface seismic data do not fully illuminate the subsurface structure, especially if it is complicated. In such cases, multiple internal scatterings (internal multiples) can help improve the illumination. We devise a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) procedure that maps internal multiple energy to their true location with a relatively mild addition to the computational cost. GIMI theory relies heavily on seismic interferometry, which often involves cumbersome algebra, especially when one is dealing with high-order terms in the perturbation series. To make the derivations, and inference of the results easier, we introduce Feynman-like diagrams to represent different terms of the perturbation series (solution to the Lippman-Schwinger equation). The rules we define for the diagrams allow operations like convolution and cross-correlation in the series to be compressed in diagram form. The application of the theory to a double scattering example demonstrates the power of the method.

Zuberi, M. A. H.; Alkhalifah, Tariq

2014-06-01

497

The three dimensionality of triple quantum dot stability diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the full three dimensionality of an electrostatically calculated stability diagram for triple quantum dots. The stability diagram maps out the favored charge configuration of the system as a function of potential shifts due to gate voltages. For triple dots only a three-dimensional visualization allows for the complete identification of all its components. Those are most notably the so-called quadruple points where four electronic configurations are degenerate, and quantum cellular automata processes. The exact positions of these features within the stability diagram are now revealed. Furthermore, the influence on transport is studied by comparing the model with a two-path triple quantum dot made with local anodic oxidation. The two-path setup allows us to study the influence of the dots' arrangement.

Rogge, M. C.; Haug, R. J.

2009-11-01

498

Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, ``Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.`` The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG&G Idaho, Inc.`s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

Rudin, M.J.

1992-10-01

499

Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.'' The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG G Idaho, Inc.'s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

Rudin, M.J.

1992-10-01

500

Interpretation of the Hubble diagram in a nonhomogeneous universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the standard cosmological framework, the Hubble diagram is interpreted by assuming that the light emitted by standard candles propagates in a spatially homogeneous and isotropic spacetime. However, the light from “point sources”—such as supernovae—probes the Universe on scales where the homogeneity principle is no longer valid. Inhomogeneities are expected to induce a bias and a dispersion of the Hubble diagram. This is investigated by considering a Swiss-cheese cosmological model, which (1) is an exact solution of the Einstein field equations, (2) is strongly inhomogeneous on small scales, but (3) has the same expansion history as a strictly homogeneous and isotropic universe. By simulating Hubble diagrams in such models, we quantify the influence of inhomogeneities on the measurement of the cosmological parameters. Though significant in general, the effects reduce drastically for a universe dominated by the cosmological constant.

Fleury, Pierre; Dupuy, Hélène; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

2013-06-01