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1

Formal Redesign of UML Class Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study a formal concept of redesign for object-oriented specifications. This concept corresponds to the UML notion of abstraction. The notion of refinement, which has been extensively studied also at the formal level, models well incremental approach where new requirements are added, but can not be changed. This assumption is usually not satisfied in software engineering pro-

Piotr Kosiuczenko

2001-01-01

2

Mapping UML Class Diagrams into Object-Relational Schemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the SQL:2003 standard has been completed by introducing corrections and new capabilities to the SQL:1999. With databases complying with the two standards more complex applications can be developed. For database design, in the literature it is possible to find articles about the mapping steps from an entity-relationship model and from UML class diagrams to relational schemas, with less frequency

María Fernanda Golobisky; Aldo Vecchietti

3

TCD: A Text-Based UML Class Diagram Notation and Its Model Converters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among several diagrams defined in UML, the class diagram is particularly useful through entire software development process, from early domain analysis stages to later maintenance stages. However conventional UML environments are often inappropriate for collaborative modeling in physically remote locations, such as exchanging models on a public mailing list via email. To overcome this issue, we propose a new diagram notation, called "TCD" (Text-based uml Class Diagram), for describing UML class diagrams using ASCII text. Since text files can be easily created, modified and exchanged in anywhere by any computing platforms, TCD facilitates the collaborative modeling with a number of unspecified people. Moreover, we implemented model converters for converting in both directions between UML class diagrams described in the XMI form and those in the TCD form. By using the converters, the reusability of models can be significantly improved because many of UML modeling tools support the XMI for importing and exporting modeling data.

Washizaki, Hironori; Akimoto, Masayoshi; Hasebe, Atsushi; Kubo, Atsuto; Fukazawa, Yoshiaki

4

ITP\\/OCL: A Rewriting-Based Validation Tool for UML+OCL Static Class Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the ITP\\/OCL tool, a rewriting-based tool that supports automatic validation of UML class diagrams\\u000a with respect to OCL constraints. Its implementation is directly based on the equational specification of UML+OCL class diagrams.\\u000a It is written entirely in Maude making extensive use of its reflective capabilities. We also give notice of the Visual ITP\\/OCL,\\u000a a Java

Manuel Clavel; Marina Egea

2006-01-01

5

Transformation of B specifications into UML class diagrams and state machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a rule-based approach for transforming B ab- stract machines into UML diagrams. We believe that im- portant insight into the structure underlying a B model can be gained by representing it in UML, for example in order to explain the model to stakeholders that are not experts in the B formalism. We focus on the generation of class

Houda Fekih; Leila Jemni Ben Ayed; Stephan Merz

2006-01-01

6

Efficient recognition of finite satisfiability in UML class diagrams: Strengthening by propagation of disjoint constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models lie at the heart of the emerging Model-driven Engineering approach. In order to guarantee precise, consistent and correct models, there is an urgent need for efficient reasoning methods for verifying model correctness. This paper extends and strengthens our previous work on efficient recognition of finite satisfiability problems in UML class diagrams with constrained generalization sets. First, algorithm FiniteSat is

Azzam Maraee; M. Balaban

2009-01-01

7

Automatic Detection of Incomplete Instances of Structural Patterns in UML Class Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for the detection of structural patterns based on UML class diagrams is presented. By using a fuzzy-like evaluation mechanism the introduced approach is able to recognize not only entire patterns but also incomplete instances. Referring to structural patterns in general the knowledge about used patterns assists a developer not only while maintaining or reverse engi- neering existing software,

Sven Wenzel

2005-01-01

8

Supporting collaborative learning and problem-solving in a constraint-based CSCL environment for UML class diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present COLLECT-UML, a constraint-based intelligent tutoring system (ITS) that teaches object-oriented analysis and design\\u000a using Unified Modelling Language (UML). UML is easily the most popular object-oriented modelling technology in current practice.\\u000a While teaching how to design UML class diagrams, COLLECT-UML also provides feedback on collaboration. Being one of constraint-based\\u000a tutors, COLLECT-UML represents the domain knowledge as a set of

Nilufar Baghaei; Antonija Mitrovic; Warwick Irwin

2007-01-01

9

Integrating UML diagrams for production control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes to use SDL block diagrams, UML class diagrams, and UML behavior diagrams like collaboration diagrams, activity diagrams, and statecharts as a visual programming language. We describe a modeling approach for flexible, autonomous production agents, which are used for the decentralization of production control systems. In order to generate a (Java) implementation of a production control system from

Hans J. Köhler; Ulrich Nickel; Jörg Niere; Albert Zündorf

2000-01-01

10

Scrutinizing UML Activity Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building an information system involves two processes: conceptual modeling of the “real world domain” and designing the software system. Object-oriented methods and languages (e.g., UML) are typically used for describing the software system. For the system analysis process that produces the conceptual description, object-oriented techniques or semantics extensions are utilized. Specifically, UML activity diagrams are the “flow charts” of object-oriented conceptualization tools. This chapter proposes an alternative to UML activity diagrams through the development of a conceptual modeling methodology based on the notion of flow.

Al-Fedaghi, Sabah

11

Extending UML 2 Activity Diagrams with Business Intelligence Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data Warehouse (DWH) information is accessed by business proc- esses. Today, no conceptual models exist that make the relationship between the DWH and the business processes transparent. In this paper, we extend a business process modeling diagram, namely the UML 2 activity diagram with a UML profile, which allows to make this relationship explicit. The model is tested with example

Veronika Stefanov; Beate List; Birgit Korherr

2005-01-01

12

Interpretation of UML Sequence Diagrams as Causality Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a UML Interaction diagrams (Sequence diagrams (SD), Collaboration diagrams or Communication diagrams) lack a formal semantics;\\u000a they include some amount of ambiguity so that formal techniques cannot be applied e.g. for automatically deriving the behavior\\u000a of the objects (as Statecharts or State-Transition diagrams) from the SD where they appear. To overcome this situation, this\\u000a paper first analyses and simplifies the semantic

Christophe Sibertin-blanc; Omar Tahir; Janette Cardoso

2005-01-01

13

Proposed Notation for Exception Handling in UML 2 Sequence Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a way to handle exceptions in sequence diagrams. The proposal is inspired by the UML 2 Testing Profiles (U2TP) default mechanism and introduces the use of multiple logical levels of sequence diagrams and what we call dynamic gate matching. The suggested notation distinguishes exception flow from the normal flow of control, creating a visual separation, and providing a

Oddleif Halvorsen; Øystein Haugen

2006-01-01

14

EXTENDING FEATURE DIAGRAMS WITH UML MULTIPLICITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature diagrams are an important product of domain analysis for product lines or system families, respectively. They describe relations between requirements and distin- guish between common and variable characteristics. Fea- ture diagrams, as part of the feature model, form the basis for configuring the system. Current principles do not sup- ply a complete description of the semantics of relation- ships

Matthias Riebisch; Kai Böllert; Detlef Streitferdt; Ilka Philippow

15

Using UML Collaboration Diagrams for Static Checking and Test Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software testing can only be formalized and quantified when a solid basis for test generation can be defined. Tests are commonly generated from program source code, graphical models of software (such as control flow graphs), and specifications\\/requirements. UML collaboration diagrams represent a significant opportunity for testing because they precisely describe how the functions the software provides are connected in a

Aynur Abdurazik; A. Jefferson Offutt

2000-01-01

16

Comparative Study on DFD to UML Diagrams Transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of legacy systems use nowadays were modeled and documented using\\u000astructured approach. Expansion of these systems in terms of functionality and\\u000amaintainability requires shift towards object-oriented documentation and\\u000adesign, which has been widely accepted by the industry. In this paper, we\\u000apresent a survey of the existing Data Flow Diagram (DFD) to Unified Modeling\\u000alanguage (UML) transformation techniques. We

Atif A. A. Jilani; Muhammad Usman; Aamer Nadeem

2011-01-01

17

Language and Tool Support for Class and State Machine Refinement in UML-B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UML-B is a ‘UML-like’ graphical front end for Event-B that provides support for object-oriented modelling concepts. In particular, UML-B supports class diagrams and state machines, concepts that are not explicitly supported in plain Event-B. In Event-B, refinement is used to relate system models at different abstraction levels. The same abstraction-refinement concepts can also be applied in UML-B. This paper introduces the notions of refined classes and refined state machines to enable refinement of classes and state machines in UML-B. Together with these notions, a technique for moving an event between classes to facilitate abstraction is also introduced. Our work makes explicit the structures of class and state machine refinement in UML-B. The UML-B drawing tool and Event-B translator are extended to support the new refinement concepts. A case study of an auto teller machine (ATM) is presented to demonstrate application and effectiveness of refined classes and refined state machines.

Said, Mar Yah; Butler, Michael; Snook, Colin

18

Mapping UML Diagrams to a Petri Net Notation for System Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

UML statecharts are widely used to specify the dynamic behaviours of systems . To support systematic simulation of such models, we propose an approach to map systems specified using UML diagrams to colored Petri net notations. Simulation results are provided in form of self-defined trace files and Message Sequence Charts. A prototype tool is described. One unique feature of our

Zhaoxia Hu; Sol M. Shatz

2004-01-01

19

UML 2 activity model support for systems engineering functional flow diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares Activity models of the Unified Modeling Language, version 2 (UML 2) (OMG (Object Management Group), UML 2.0 superstructure specification, August 2003, http:\\/\\/www.omg.org\\/cgi-bin\\/doc?ptc\\/03-08-02), to a widely-used systems engineering (SE) flow diagram, the Enhanced Functional Flow Block Diagram (EFFBD) (J. Long, Relationships between common graphical representations in system engineering, ViTech Corporation, 2002), and to the requirements for functional flow

Conrad Bock

2003-01-01

20

A Collaborative Support Approach on UML Sequence Diagrams for Aspect-Oriented Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AOP and its broader application on software projects brings the importance to provide the separation between aspects and OO components at design time, to leverage the understanding of AO systems, promote aspects' reuse and obtain the benefits of AO modularization. Since the UML is a standard for modeling OO systems, it can be applied to model the decoupling between aspects and OO components. The application of UML to this area is the subject of constant study and is the focus of this paper. In this paper it is presented an extension based on the default UML meta-model, named MIMECORA-DS, to show object-object, object-aspect and aspect-aspect interactions applying the UML's sequence diagram. This research also presents the application of MIMECORA-DS in a case example, to assess its applicability.

de Almeida Naufal, Rafael; Silveira, Fábio F.; Guerra, Eduardo M.

21

Toward the Reverse Engineering of UML Sequence Diagrams for Distributed Java Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a methodology and instrumentation infrastructure toward the reverse engineering of UML (Unified Modeling Language) sequence diagrams from dynamic analysis. One motivation is, of course, to help people understand the behavior of systems with no (complete) documentation. However, such reverse-engineered dynamic models can also be used for quality assurance purposes. They can, for example, be compared with design

Lionel C. Briand; Yvan Labiche; Johanne Leduc

2006-01-01

22

Applying a UML Extension to Build Use Cases Diagrams in a Secure Mobile Grid Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems based on Grid computing have not traditionally been developed through suitable methodologies and have not taken into account security requirements throughout their development, offering technical security solutions only during the implementation stages. We are creating a development methodology for the construction of information systems based on Grid Computing, which is highly dependent on mobile devices, in which security plays a highly important role. One of the activities in this methodology is the requirements analysis which is use-case driven. In this paper, we build use case diagrams for a real mobile Grid application by using a UML-extension, called GridUCSec-Profile, through which it is possible to represent specific mobile Grid features and security aspects for use case diagrams, thus obtaining diagrams for secure mobile Grid environments.

Rosado, David G.; Fernández-Medina, Eduardo; López, Javier

23

Agent Oriented Analysis Using Message\\/UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the MESSAGE\\/UML agent oriented softwareengineering methodology and illustrates it on an analysis casestudy. The methodology covers MAS analysis and design and isintended for use in mainstream software engineering departments.MESSAGE extends UML by contributing agent knowledge levelconcepts, and diagrams with notations for viewing them. Thediagrams extend UML class and activity diagrams.Categories and Subject DescriptorsD.2.1 [Software Engineering]:...

Giovanni Caire; Wim Coulier; Francisco J. Garijo; Jorge J. Gómez-sanz; Juan Pavón; Francisco Leal; Paulo Chainho; Paul E. Kearney; Jamie Stark; Richard Evans; Philippe Massonet

2001-01-01

24

Designing Design Constraints in the UML Using Join Point Designation Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design errors cause high costs during the development of software, since such errors are often detected quite late in the software development process. Hence, it is desirable to prevent design errors as early as possible, i.e. it is necessary to specify constraints on the software design. While there are a number of approaches available that permit to specify such constraints, a common problem of those is that the developers need to specify constraints in a different language than their design language. However, this reduces the acceptance of such approaches, as developers need a different language just for the purpose of specifying constraints. This paper proposes an approach that permits to specify constraints within the UML by using Join Point Designation Diagrams (JPDDs).

Stricker, Vanessa; Hanenberg, Stefan; Stein, Dominik

25

Object Modeling of RDF Schema for Converting UML Class Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With increasing amounts of information on the web and the need to access it accurately, it is very important to standardize\\u000a metadata and to store and manage the metadata system. The RDF (Resource Description Framework) is a framework for representing,\\u000a exchanging, and reusing metadata. In this paper, we propose rules and an algorithm to convert the RDF schema into a

Jin-sung Kim; Chun-sik Yoo; Mi-kyung Lee; Yong-sung Kim

2005-01-01

26

UML Diagrams to Object Petri Net Models: An Approach for Modeling and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

UML, being the industry standard as a common OO modeling language needs a well -defined semantic base for its notation. Formalization of the graphical notation enables automated processing and analysis tasks. Object Petri nets (OPN) can provide a formal semantic framework for the UML notations plus the behavioral modeling\\/ analysis strength needed by system designers. This paper describes a methodology

John Anil Saldhana; Sol M. Shatz

2000-01-01

27

Designing Class Methods from Dataflow Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for designing the class methods of an information system is described. The method is part of FOOM - Functional and Object-Oriented Methodology. In the analysis phase of FOOM, two models defining the users' requirements are created: a conceptual data model - an initial class diagram; and a functional model - hierarchical OO-DFDs (object-oriented dataflow diagrams). Based on these models, a well-defined process of methods design is applied. First, the OO-DFDs are converted into transactions, i.e., system processes that supports user task. The components and the process logic of each transaction are described in detail, using pseudocode. Then, each transaction is decomposed, according to well-defined rules, into class methods of various types: basic methods, application-specific methods and main transaction (control) methods. Each method is attached to a proper class; messages between methods express the process logic of each transaction. The methods are defined using pseudocode or message charts.

Shoval, Peretz; Kabeli-Shani, Judith

28

TURTLE: A Real-Time UML Profile Supported by a Formal Validation Toolkit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a UML 1.5 profile named TURTLE (Timed UML and RT-LOTOS Environment) endowed with a formal semantics given in terms of RT-LOTOS. TURTLE relies on UML's extensibility mechanisms to enhance class and activity diagrams. Class diagrams are extended with specialized classes named Tclasses, which communicate and synchronize through gates. Also, associations between Tclasses are attributed by a composition operator

Ludovic Apvrille; Jean-pierre Courtiat; Christophe Lohr; Pierre De Saqui-sannes

2004-01-01

29

Semi-Automatically Inducing Semantic Classes of Clinical Research Eligibility Criteria Using UMLS and Hierarchical Clustering  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel approach to learning semantic classes of clinical research eligibility criteria. It uses the UMLS Semantic Types to represent semantic features and the Hierarchical Clustering method to group similar eligibility criteria. By establishing a gold standard using two independent raters, we evaluated the coverage and accuracy of the induced semantic classes. On 2,718 random eligibility criteria sentences, the inter-rater classification agreement was 85.73%. In a 10-fold validation test, the average Precision, Recall and F-score of the classification results of a decision-tree classifier were 87.8%, 88.0%, and 87.7% respectively. Our induced classes well aligned with 16 out of 17 eligibility criteria classes defined by the BRIDGE model. We discuss the potential of this method and our future work.

Luo, Zhihui; Johnson, Stephen B.; Weng, Chunhua

2010-01-01

30

Connecting UML and VDM++ with Open Tool Support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most formal method notations are text based, while tools used in industry often use graphical notations, such as UML. This paper demonstrates how the power of both approaches can be combined by providing the automatic translation of VDM++ models to and from UML. The translation is implemented as a plugin for the popular Eclipse development environment by the open-source Overture initiative. Both UML class diagrams and sequence diagrams can be translated, the latter enabling the novel ability to link with the combinatorial test facility of Overture.

Lausdahl, Kenneth; Lintrup, Hans Kristian Agerlund; Larsen, Peter Gorm

31

Evaluating data flow diagrams and class diagrams in usability laboratory experiments (CADPRO Pilot #2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a second pilot experiment for the CADPRO project taking into account a number of the recommendations arising from the first pilot. Three subjects produced data flow diagrams and class diagrams in a usability laboratory setting. Characteristics of subjects' solutions are discussed and the usefulness of profiles of product delivery and constraint activations against time is determined.

SHINGO TAKADA; LOUISE SCOTT; ANDY BROOKS

32

Extending and Formalizing UML 2.0 Activity Diagrams for the Specification of Time-Constrained Business Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In real world, most business processes are subject to time constraints. Equally important as the execution of a process is the time in which it is to be performed. A time constrained business process can be defined as a process whose correct behavior depends not only on the results obtained, but also on the time it is carried out. UML

Kawtar Benghazi Akhlaki; José Luis Garrido; Manuel Noguera; María Visitación Hurtado; Lawrence Chung

2010-01-01

33

Reverse engineering of UML specifications from java programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, we outline a reverse engineering approach for UML specifications in form of class diagrams from Java bytecode. After a brief introduction to the subject we present some analyses which go beyond mere enumeration of methods and fields. A glance onto some related work shows that there seems to be no pat solution for the reverse engineering

Martin Keschenau

2004-01-01

34

Building UML Class Diagram Maintainability Prediction Models Based on Early Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that the usage of metrics in the analysis and design of object oriented (OO) software can help designers make better decisions is gaining relevance in software measurement arena. Moreover, the necessity of having early indicators of external quality attributes, such as maintainability, based on early metrics is growing. In addition to this, the aim is to show how

Marcela Genero; Mario Piattini; M. Esperanza Manso; Giovanni Cantone

2003-01-01

35

An empirical study on the efficiency of different design pattern representations in UML class diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design patterns are recognized in the software engineering community as useful solutions to recurring design problems that\\u000a improve the quality of programs. They are more and more used by developers in the design and implementation of their programs.\\u000a Therefore, the visualization of the design patterns used in a program could be useful to efficiently understand how it works.\\u000a Currently, a

Gerardo Cepeda Porras; Yann-Gaël Guéhéneuc

2010-01-01

36

Automatic Generation of Integrated Formal Models Corresponding to UML System Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a complex model transformation that takes two related UML models as input (class diagrams and state machines) and outputs an integrated formal model. The transformation is achieved using the Epsilon model management framework and has involved the definition of new CSP and B metamodels. The target model is a CSPB specification (a fusion of CSP and B) that can be used to analyse the source UML. Through a comparative study we conclude that the code written using Epsilon is more concise than the equivalent model-to-text transformation achieved using the iUML toolset.

Treharne, Helen; Turner, Edward; Paige, Richard F.; Kolovos, Dimitrios S.

37

Formalization of Object Behavior and Interactions from UML Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

UML, being the industry standard as a common OO modeling language, needs a well-defined semantic base for its notation. Formalization of the graphical notation enables automated processing and analysis tasks. This paper describes a methodology for synthesis of a Petri net model from UML diagrams. The approach is based on deriving Object Net Models from UML statechart diagrams and connecting

John Anil Saldhana; Sol M. Shatz; Zhaoxia Hu

2001-01-01

38

Tools for secure systems development with UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

For model-based development to be a success in practice, it needs to have a convincing added-value associated with its use.\\u000a Our goal is to provide such added-value by developing tool-support for the analysis of UML models against difficult system\\u000a requirements. Towards this goal, we describe a UML verification framework supporting the construction of automated requirements\\u000a analysis tools for UML diagrams.

Jan Jürjens; Pasha Shabalin

2007-01-01

39

In Practice: UML Software Architecture and Design Description  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Unified Modeling Language has attracted many organizations and practitioners. UML is now the de facto modeling language for software development. Several features account for its popularity: it's a standardized notation, rich in expressivity; UML 2.0 provides 13 diagram types that enable modeling several different views and abstraction levels. Furthermore, UML supports domain-specific extensions using stereotypes and tagged values. Finally,

Christian F. J. Lange; Michel R. V. Chaudron; Johan Muskens

2006-01-01

40

MATA: A Unified Approach for Composing UML Aspect Models Based on Graph Transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes MATA (Modeling Aspects Using a Transformation Approach), a UML aspect-oriented modeling (AOM) technique that uses graph transformations to specify and compose aspects. Graph transformations provide a unified approach for aspect modeling in that the methods presented here can be applied to any modeling language with a well-defined metamodel. This paper, however, focuses on UML class diagrams, sequence diagrams and state diagrams. MATA takes a different approach to AOM since there are no explicit joinpoints. Rather, any model element can be a joinpoint, and composition is a special case of model transformation. The graph transformation execution engine, AGG, is used in MATA to execute model compositions, and critical pair analysis is used to automatically detect structural interactions between different aspect models. MATA has been applied to a number of realistic case studies and is supported by a tool built on top of IBM Rational Software Modeler.

Whittle, Jon; Jayaraman, Praveen; Elkhodary, Ahmed; Moreira, Ana; Araújo, João

41

The Ontology UML Profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UML profile is a concept used for adapting the basic UML constructs to a specific purpose. Essentially, this means introducing new kinds of modeling elements by extending the basic ones, and adding the new elements to the modeler’s repertoire of tools. Also, free-form information can be attached to the new modeling elements. The Ontology UML Profile extends UML in a standard way to enable ontology modeling in the widely used UML modeling tools.

Gaševic, Dragan; Djuric, Dragan; Devedžic, Vladan

42

A Survey of UML Based Regression Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regression testing is the process of ensuring software quality by analyzing whether changed parts behave as intended, and unchanged parts are not affected by the modifications. Since it is a costly process, a lot of techniques are proposed in the research literature that suggest testers how to build regression test suite from existing test suite with minimum cost. In this paper, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of using UML diagrams for regression testing and analyze that UML model helps in identifying changes for regression test selection effectively. We survey the existing UML based regression testing techniques and provide an analysis matrix to give a quick insight into prominent features of the literature work. We discuss the open research issues like managing and reducing the size of regression test suite, prioritization of the test cases that would be helpful during strict schedule and resources that remain to be addressed for UML based regression testing.

Fahad, Muhammad; Nadeem, Aamer

43

A Dynamic Mathematical Model and Vector Block Diagrams for a Class of Hybrid Field Synchronous Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new dynamic mathematical model and new block diagrams for a newly emerging class of salient-pole hybrid-field synchronous motors (HFSM) that have rotor field by both permanent magnet and winding. The proposed new mathematical model has the following completeness and generality. 1) It consists of three consistent basic equations such as circuit, torque and energy-transmission equations. 2) It deals with pole saliency and contains non-saliency as a special case. 3) It is a dynamic model and contains static one as a special case. 4) It is established in the general reference frame including stator and rotor reference frames as special cases. The proposed new block diagrams using vector signals for salient-pole HFSM is established based on the new model. It has the following attractive features. 1) It succeeds in realizing clear configurations with physically meaningful vector signals, which are helpful for understanding motor electromagnetic mechanism and useful for designing controllers for the salient-pole HFSM. 2) Vector signals utilized as transfer signals between blocks are defined in the general reference frame. Consequently, the vector-signal block diagrams in the frame can be directly and easily reduced to the ones in such a specific frame as stator and rotor frames. 3) It is compact. Two typical and compact but sufficiently general vector-signal block diagrams are newly presented.

Shinnaka, Shinji

44

UML-PSI: The UML Performance Simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe UML- , a software performance evaluation tool based on process-oriented simulation. The tool can be used to evaluate performances of software systems which are described at a high level of abstraction. This allows the software modeler to estimate the system performances before actually building it, at the design phase. We consider software specifications as Unified

Moreno Marzolla; Simonetta Balsamo

2004-01-01

45

UMLAnT: an Eclipse plugin for animating and testing UML designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the UML Animator and Tester (UMLAnT), which is an Eclipse plug-in for animating and testing UML models. UMLAnT can be used both by developers in the software industry and students who are learning concepts in object-oriented modeling. UMLAnT helps designers visualize the behavior specified in a UML model by displaying animated object diagrams and sequence diagrams. UMLAnT allows

Trung T. Dinh-trong; Sudipto Ghosh; Michael Hamilton; Brent Wilkins

2005-01-01

46

Formalizing Spider Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geared to complement UML and to the specification of large software systems by non-mathematicians,spider di- agrams are a visual language that generalizes the popu- lar and intuitive Venn diagrams and Euler circles. The language design emphasized scalability and expressiveness while retaining intuitiveness. In this extended abstract we describe spider diagrams from a mathematical standpoint and show how their formal semantics

Joseph Gil; John Howse; Stuart Kent

1999-01-01

47

Sequence Diagrams for Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several kinds of UML diagrams for convenient modelling of behaviour, but these diagrams can be hardly used for modelling mobility. The situa- tion is not very different in the case of agent languages. There exist already some pro- posals for modelling mobility of interacting agents by graphical notations, but these notations are rather not very intuitive and hard

Piotr Kosiuczenko

2002-01-01

48

Application of the UML in Modeling SCORM-Conformant Contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to date, there is no standardized notation scheme for modeling SCORM-conformant contents. It is a time-consuming process to build up a new and widely-acceptable notation scheme for SCORM-conformant contents rather than using the existing and standardized UML. This paper presents how standard and extended UML diagrams were applied in representing various artifacts that are created during the course of

Shueh-cheng Hu

2005-01-01

49

Representing clinical guidelines in UMl: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Clinical guidelines can be represented using models, such as GLIF, specifically designed for healthcare guidelines. This paper demonstrates that they can also be modelled using a mainstream business modelling language such as UML. The paper presents a guideline in GLIF and as UML activity diagrams, and then presents a mapping of GLIF primitives to UML. The potential benefits of using a mainstream modelling language are outlined. These include availability of advanced modelling tools, transfer between modelling tools, and automation via business workflow technology. PMID:15460739

Hederman, Lucy; Smutek, Daniel; Wade, Vincent; Knape, Thomas

2002-01-01

50

Translation from UML to Markov Model: A Performance Modeling Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance engineering focuses on the quantitative investigation of the behavior of a system during the early phase of the system development life cycle. Bearing this on mind, we delineate a performance modeling framework of the application for communication system that proposes a translation process from high level UML notation to Continuous Time Markov Chain model (CTMC) and solves the model for relevant performance metrics. The framework utilizes UML collaborations, activity diagrams and deployment diagrams to be used for generating performance model for a communication system. The system dynamics will be captured by UML collaboration and activity diagram as reusable specification building blocks, while deployment diagram highlights the components of the system. The collaboration and activity show how reusable building blocks in the form of collaboration can compose together the service components through input and output pin by highlighting the behavior of the components and later a mapping between collaboration and system component identified by deployment diagram will be delineated. Moreover the UML models are annotated to associate performance related quality of service (QoS) information which is necessary for solving the performance model for relevant performance metrics through our proposed framework. The applicability of our proposed performance modeling framework in performance evaluation is delineated in the context of modeling a communication system.

Khan, Razib Hayat; Heegaard, Poul E.

51

Extending UML to Improve the Representation of Design Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several design patterns are defined to make systems more flexible and extensible. The main goal of this work is to show how the representation of this kind of patterns, which we refer to as configuration design patterns, can be vastly improved through extensions to the diagrams used to model t hem. An extension to the UML design notation to b

Marcus Fontoura; Carlos Lucena

2001-01-01

52

Extended UML with role modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

UML is widely accepted and applied by the international software industry. UML is a powerful language for Object-oriented\\u000a modeling, designing, and implementing software systems, but its Use-Case method for requirement analysis and modeling software\\u000a patterns has some explicit drawbacks. For more complete UML, this paper proposes the Role Use-Case modeling and its glyphs,\\u000a and provides an instance of requirement analysis

He Ke-qing; Jiang Hong; He Fei; Ying Shi

2001-01-01

53

Formalizing Causal Block Diagrams for Modeling a Class of Hybrid Dynamic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to formalize the semantics of causal block diagrams, a language that is extensively used in the design of technical systems. The formalization is based on lambda calculus, and implemented in the declarative functional language Haskell. Specifically, the combination of discrete-time and continuous-time computations, hybrid dynamic systems, is concentrated on. It shows how in many cases this combination

Ben Denckla; Pieter J. Mosterman

2005-01-01

54

Evaluating Using Animation to Improve Understanding of Sequence Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experiment whereby the benefit of using animation to improve the comprehensibility of UML sequence diagrams is assessed. The paper hypothesizes that through animation the control flow of sequence diagram will become more evident. The development a system that seeks to enable stakeholders to better interpret UML modeling behaviour is described. This system aims to provide dynamic

Elizabeth Burd; Dawn Overy; Ady Wheetman

2002-01-01

55

Implementation of UML Schema to RDBM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple disciplines - especially those within the earth and physical sciences, and increasingly those within social science and medical fields - require Geographic Information (GI) i.e. information concerning phenomena implicitly or explicitly associated with a location relative to the Earth [1]. Therefore geographic datasets are increasingly being shared, exchanged and frequently used for purposes other than those for which they were originally intended. The ISO Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211) together with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) provide a series of standards and guidelines for developing application schemas which should: a) capture relevant conceptual aspects of the data involved; and b) be sufficient to satisfy previously defined use-cases of a specific or cross-domain concerns. In addition, the Hollow World technology offers an accessible and industry-standardised methodology for creating and editing Application Schema UML models which conform to international standards for interoperable GI [2]. We present a technology which seamlessly transforms an Application Schema UML model to a relational database model (RDBM). This technology, using the same UML information model, complements the XML transformation of an information model produced by the FullMoon tool [2]. In preparation for the generation of a RDBM the UML model is first mapped to a collection of OO classes and relationships. Any external dependencies that exist are then resolved through the same mechanism. However, a RDBM does not support a hierarchical (relational) data structure - a function that may be required by UML models. Previous approaches have addressed this problem through use of nested sets or an adjacent list to represent such structure. Our unique strategy addresses the hierarchical data structure issue, whether singular or multiple inheritance, by hiding a delegation pattern within an OO class. This permits the object-relational mapping (ORM) software used to generate the RDBM to easily map the class into the RDBM. In other words the particular structure of the resulting OO class may expose a "composition-like aspect" to the ORM whilst maintaining an "inherited-like aspect" for use within an OO program. This methodology has been used to implement a software application to manages the new CEDA metadata model which is based on MOLES 3.4, Python, Django and SQLAlchemy.

Nagni, M.; Ventouras, S.; Parton, G.

2012-04-01

56

An integrated framework with UML and Object-Z for developing a precise and understandable specification: the light control case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a framework that integrates a graphical specification technique (UML) with a formal specification technique (Object-Z) to support requirements elicitation and analysis activities. Various UML diagrams are used to specify the system from different concerns during the early requirements elicitation and analysis stage. The information captured in the diagrams is used to develop a complete Object-Z specification. This paper presents

Soon-kyeong Kim; David A. Carrington

2000-01-01

57

Standardizing Clinical Trials Workflow Representation in UML for International Site Comparison  

PubMed Central

Background With the globalization of clinical trials, a growing emphasis has been placed on the standardization of the workflow in order to ensure the reproducibility and reliability of the overall trial. Despite the importance of workflow evaluation, to our knowledge no previous studies have attempted to adapt existing modeling languages to standardize the representation of clinical trials. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a computational language that can be used to model operational workflow, and a UML profile can be developed to standardize UML models within a given domain. This paper's objective is to develop a UML profile to extend the UML Activity Diagram schema into the clinical trials domain, defining a standard representation for clinical trial workflow diagrams in UML. Methods Two Brazilian clinical trial sites in rheumatology and oncology were examined to model their workflow and collect time-motion data. UML modeling was conducted in Eclipse, and a UML profile was developed to incorporate information used in discrete event simulation software. Results Ethnographic observation revealed bottlenecks in workflow: these included tasks requiring full commitment of CRCs, transferring notes from paper to computers, deviations from standard operating procedures, and conflicts between different IT systems. Time-motion analysis revealed that nurses' activities took up the most time in the workflow and contained a high frequency of shorter duration activities. Administrative assistants performed more activities near the beginning and end of the workflow. Overall, clinical trial tasks had a greater frequency than clinic routines or other general activities. Conclusions This paper describes a method for modeling clinical trial workflow in UML and standardizing these workflow diagrams through a UML profile. In the increasingly global environment of clinical trials, the standardization of workflow modeling is a necessary precursor to conducting a comparative analysis of international clinical trials workflows.

de Carvalho, Elias Cesar Araujo; Jayanti, Madhav Kishore; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Kozan, Andreia M. O.; Rodrigues, Maria J.; Shah, Jatin; Loures, Marco R.; Patil, Sunita; Payne, Philip; Pietrobon, Ricardo

2010-01-01

58

Real-time multispectral imaging system for online poultry fecal inspection using UML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses has been developed. The prototype system includes a common aperture camera with three optical trim filters (517, 565 and 802-nm wavelength), which were selected by visible/NIR spectroscopy and validated by a hyperspectral imaging system with decision tree algorithm. The on-line testing results showed that the multispectral imaging technique can be used effectively for detecting feces (from duodenum, ceca, and colon) and ingesta on the surface of poultry carcasses with a processing speed of 140 birds per minute. This paper demonstrated both multispectral imaging hardware and real-time image processing software. For the software development, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) design approach was used for on-line application. The UML models included class, object, activity, sequence, and collaboration diagram. User interface model included seventeen inputs and six outputs. A window based real-time image processing software composed of eleven components, which represented class, architecture, and activity. Both hardware and software for a real-time fecal detection were tested at the pilot-scale poultry processing plant. The run-time of the software including online calibration was fast enough to inspect carcasses on-line with an industry requirement. Based on the preliminary test at the pilot-scale processing line, the system was able to acquire poultry images in real-time. According to the test results, the imaging system is reliable for the harsh environments and UML based image processing software is flexible and easy to be updated when additional parameters are needed for in-plant trials.

Park, Bosoon; Kise, Michio; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Smith, Douglas P.; Thai, Chi N.

2006-10-01

59

Generating Tests from UML Specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Although most industry testing of complex software is conductedat the system level, most formal research has focused on theunit level.Asaresult,mostsystemlevel testing techniques are only describedinformally. This paper presents a novel technique that adaptspre-de#ned state-based speci#cation test data generation criteria to generatetest cases from UML statecharts. UML statecharts provide a solidbasis for test generation in a form that can be

A. Jefferson Offutt; Aynur Abdurazik

1999-01-01

60

Understanding UML - Pains and Rewards  

Microsoft Academic Search

UML is there — it’s accepted, it’s booming, and even more: it’s a standard. From telecom to train systems to avionics: using\\u000a UML to capture the system is “in”. But do we really understand what we model?\\u000a \\u000a This talk takes for granted, that models are alive, are executable, are used to explore the design space, are used to communicate\\u000a design

Werner Damm

2001-01-01

61

Querying UML Models using OCL and Prolog: A Performance Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size of unified modeling language (UML) models used in practice is very large and ranges up to hundreds and thousands of classes. Querying of these models is used to support their quality assessment by information filtering and aggregating. For both, human cognition and automated analysis, there is a need for fast querying. In this context performance of model queries

Joanna Chimiak-opoka; Michael Felderer; Chris Lenz; Christian Lange

2008-01-01

62

The UMLS Knowledge Source server.  

PubMed

The UMLS Knowledge Source server is an evolving tool for accessing information stored in the UMLS Knowledge Sources. The system architecture is based on the client-server paradigm wherein remote site users send their requests to a centrally managed server at the U.S. National Library of Medicine. The client programs can run on platforms supporting the TCP/IP communication protocol. Access to the system is provided through a command-line interface and through an Application Programming Interface. PMID:8591140

McCray, A T; Razi, A

1995-01-01

63

UML Profiles for Design Decisions and Non-Functional Requirements  

SciTech Connect

A software architecture is composed of a collection of design decisions. Each design decision helps or hinders certain Non-Functional Requirements (NFR). Current software architecture views focus on expressing components and connectors in the system. Design decisions and their relationships with non-functional requirements are often captured in separate design documentation, not explicitly expressed in any views. This disassociation makes architecture comprehension and architecture evolution harder. In this paper, we propose a UML profile for modeling design decisions and an associated UML profile for modeling non-functional requirements in a generic way. The two UML profiles treat design decisions and nonfunctional requirements as first-class elements. Modeled design decisions always refer to existing architectural elements and thus maintain traceability between the two. We provide a mechanism for checking consistency over this traceability. An exemplar is given as

Zhu, Liming; Gorton, Ian

2007-06-30

64

Refactoring UML models: using openarchitectureware to measure uml model quality and perform pattern matching on UML models with OCL queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In object oriented software development, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) [21] has become the de-facto modeling standard. UML plays an important role for software factories, in which a high quality abstract UML model is the primary source of input used to generate a working system. While there are many tools that enable assisted refactoring of source code, there are few

Twan Van Enckevort

2009-01-01

65

Transforming Functional Requirements from UML into BPEL to Efficiently Develop SOA-Based Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intended behavior of any system such as services, tasks or functions can be captured by functional requirements of the system. As our dependence on online services has grown steadily, the web applications are being developed employing the SOA. BPEL4WS provides a means for expressing functional requirements of an SOA-based system by providing constructs to capture business goals and objectives for the system. In this paper we propose an approach for transforming user-centered requirements captured using UML into a corresponding BPEL specification, where the business processes are captured by means of use-cases from which UML sequence diagrams and activity diagrams are extracted. Subsequently these UML models are mapped to BPEL specifications that capture the essence of the initial business requirements to develop the SOA-based system by employing CASE tools. A student housing system is used as a case study to illustrate this approach and the system is validated using NetBeans.

Vemulapalli, Anisha; Subramanian, Nary

66

A UML profile for the OBO relation ontology  

PubMed Central

Background Ontologies have increasingly been used in the biomedical domain, which has prompted the emergence of different initiatives to facilitate their development and integration. The Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry consortium provides a repository of life-science ontologies, which are developed according to a set of shared principles. This consortium has developed an ontology called OBO Relation Ontology aiming at standardizing the different types of biological entity classes and associated relationships. Since ontologies are primarily intended to be used by humans, the use of graphical notations for ontology development facilitates the capture, comprehension and communication of knowledge between its users. However, OBO Foundry ontologies are captured and represented basically using text-based notations. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) provides a standard and widely-used graphical notation for modeling computer systems. UML provides a well-defined set of modeling elements, which can be extended using a built-in extension mechanism named Profile. Thus, this work aims at developing a UML profile for the OBO Relation Ontology to provide a domain-specific set of modeling elements that can be used to create standard UML-based ontologies in the biomedical domain. Results We have studied the OBO Relation Ontology, the UML metamodel and the UML profiling mechanism. Based on these studies, we have proposed an extension to the UML metamodel in conformance with the OBO Relation Ontology and we have defined a profile that implements the extended metamodel. Finally, we have applied the proposed UML profile in the development of a number of fragments from different ontologies. Particularly, we have considered the Gene Ontology (GO), the PRotein Ontology (PRO) and the Xenopus Anatomy and Development Ontology (XAO). Conclusions The use of an established and well-known graphical language in the development of biomedical ontologies provides a more intuitive form of capturing and representing knowledge than using only text-based notations. The use of the profile requires the domain expert to reason about the underlying semantics of the concepts and relationships being modeled, which helps preventing the introduction of inconsistencies in an ontology under development and facilitates the identification and correction of errors in an already defined ontology.

2012-01-01

67

Traffic-aware stress testing of distributed systems based on UML models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stress test methodology aimed at increasing chances of discovering faults related to network traffic in distributed systems is presented. The technique uses the UML 2.0 model of the distributed system under test, augmented with timing information, and is based on an analysis of the control flow in sequence diagrams. It yields stress test requirements that are made of specific

Vahid Garousi; Lionel C. Briand; Yvan Labiche

2006-01-01

68

Test Data Generation from UML State Machine Diagrams using GAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic test data generation helps testers to validate software against user requirements more easily. Test data can be generated from many sources; for example, experience of testers, source program, or software specification. Selecting a proper test data set is a decision making task. Testers have to decide what test data that they should use, and a heuristic technique is needed

Chartchai Doungsa-ard; Keshav P. Dahal; M. Alamgir Hossain; Taratip Suwannasart

2007-01-01

69

A methodological approach to the formal specification of real-time systems by transformation of UML-RT design models  

Microsoft Academic Search

By following a methodological approach, introduced in a previous work, a correct system specification in terms of CSP+T process algebra is systematically obtained from the UML-RT model of a real-time software system. Among other contributions, this article aims at integrating collaboration diagrams into our approach to facilitate the specification of capsules in UML-RT design models. Thus, an improved systematic transformation

Kawtar Benghazi Akhlaki; Manuel I. Capel; Juan Antonio Holgado Terriza; Luis E. Mendoza Morales

2007-01-01

70

Experiences from using a UML-based method for trust analysis in an industrial project on electronic procurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on experiences from using a UML-based method for trust analysis in an industrial project. The overall aim\\u000a of the trust analysis method is to provide a sound basis for making trust policy decisions. The method makes use of UML sequence\\u000a diagrams extended with constructs for probabilistic choice and subjective belief, as well as the capture of policy

Tormod V. Håvaldsrud; Olav S. Ligaarden; Per Myrseth; Atle Refsdal; Ketil Stølen; Jon Ølnes

2010-01-01

71

Modeling Value Chain Analysis of Distance Education using UML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distance education continues to grow as a methodology for the delivery of course content in higher education in India as well as abroad. To manage this growing demand and to provide certain flexibility, there must be certain strategic planning about the use of ICT tools. Value chain analysis is a framework for breaking down the sequence of business functions into a set of activities through which utility could be added to service. Thus it can help to determine the competitive advantage that is enjoyed by an institute. To implement these business functions certain visual representation is required. UML allows for this representation by using a set of structural and behavioral diagrams. In this paper, the first section defines a framework for value chain analysis and highlights its advantages. The second section gives a brief overview of related work in this field. The third section gives a brief discussion on distance education. The fourth section very briefly introduces UML. The fifth section models value chain of distance education using UML. Finally we discuss the limitations and the problems posed in this domain.

Acharya, Anal; Mukherjee, Soumen

2010-10-01

72

Executable\\/Translatable UML and Systems Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 2003 the Object Management Group (OMG) released an RFP for cus- tomisation of the Unied Modeling Language (UML) to support the modeling of a wide range of systems including software, hardware, people, procedures and fa- cilities within the framework of OMG's Model Driven Architecture (MDA). Much of the response to this RFP has focused on how the UML

Shayne R. Flint; Clive V. Boughton

2003-01-01

73

Teaching Object-Oriented Modelling Using UML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper elaborates on experiences and lessons learned from the course on object-oriented analyses and design at the Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad. In the paper we identify a set of issues concerning teaching modeling and UML. It is described experience of teaching UML to students with and without previous knowledge of object-oriented programming.

Boberi?-Krsti?ev, Danijela; Tešendi?, Danijela

2011-09-01

74

Characterizing Communication Channel Deadlocks in Sequence Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract UML sequence diagrams,(SDs) are a mainstay of requirements specifications for communication protocols. Mauw and Reniers’ algebraic (MRA) semantics formally specifies a behaviour for these SDs that guarantees deadlock free processes. Practitioners commonly use communication semantics that differ from MRA, which may result in deadlocks. For example FIFO, token ring, etc. We define a process algebra that is an extension

Bill Mitchell

2008-01-01

75

Description of ITRF construction using UML notation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), as a practical realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS), is based on long-term observations of four techniques: Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), DORIS. As a consequence contribution to ITRF of each of the mentioned techniques is different (e.g. origin of ITRF2008 was determined basing on SLR, scale using SLR and VLBI, and orientation was the result of all four techniques). ITRF is updated regularly with the most recent versions being ITRF97, ITRF2000, ITRF2005, ITRF2008. ITRF2008 is based on reprocessed solutions (time series of station positions and Earth Orientation Parameters) of all four techniques. The paper presents procedure of determining ITRF2008 using UML (Unified Modeling Language) - one of the graphical notations commonly used for information modeling. Concepts are represented as classes with their names, attributes, and different kinds of links between them. The main purpose of this paper is a comprehensive description of relationships between basic terms related to ITRF.

Pa?nicka, M.; Szafranek, K.; Zwirowicz-Rutkowska, A.

2012-04-01

76

Formal Definition of UML's Package Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

: UML is the first OO modeling language with a useful modularizationand information hiding concept. It supports nesting, import, and refinement ofso-called packages. This paper translates UML's informal package definition intopredicate logic formulas and solves some open problems concerning the visibilityof exported and imported modeling elements.Furthermore, the formulas will be transformed into a specification based on PROgrammedGraph REwriting Systems. We

A. Schurr; Rwth Aachen

1998-01-01

77

Formal Specification of Real-Time Systems by Transformation of UML-RT Design Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are motivated to complement our methodology by integrating collaboration diagrams to facilitate the specification of capsules in UML-RT design models. An improved systematic transformation method to derive a cor- rect and complete formal system specification of real-time systems is estab- lished. This article aims at integrating temporal requirements in the design stage of the life cycle of a real-time

Kawtar Benghazi Akhlaki; Manuel I. Capel; Juan Antonio Holgado Terriza; Luis E. Mendoza Morales

2006-01-01

78

A UML Profile to Model Safety-Critical Embedded Real-Time Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. To enable the description of safety-related software, a UML profile based on standards is presented. An inherently safe structure associated with well proven constructs, e.g., subsets of the real-time programming language PEARL according to DIN 66253-2 and of Function Block Diagrams according to IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499, resp., as well as a safety-oriented execution architecture based on concepts

Shourong Lu; Wolfgang A. Halang

2007-01-01

79

The double-mode nature of the HADS star GSC 00144-03031 and the Petersen diagram of the class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The double-mode pulsation of GSC 00144-03031 has been detected when searching for COROT targets. A very large dataset composed of 4722 photometric measurements was collected at six observatories in Europe and America. There is no hint of the excitation of additional modes (down to 0.6 mmag) and therefore GSC 00144-03031 seems to be a pure double-mode pulsator, with a very short fundamental radial mode (P = 84 min). From uvby? photometry and evolutionary tracks it appears to be a Pop. I star with M = 1.75 M?, located in the middle of the instability strip, close to the Zero-Age Main Sequence. We also discovered other new double-mode pulsators in the databases of large-scale projects: OGLE BW2_V142, OGLE BW1_V207, ASAS3 094303-1707.3, ASAS3 000116-6037.0, NSVS 3234596 and NSVS 3324715. An observational Petersen diagram is presented and explained by means of new models. A common sequence connecting Pop. I stars from the shortest to the longest periods is proposed and the spreads in the period ratios are ascribed to different metallicities (at the shortest periods) and to different masses (at the longest ones).

Poretti, E.; Suárez, J. C.; Niarchos, P. G.; Gazeas, K. D.; Manimanis, V. N.; van Cauteren, P.; Lampens, P.; Wils, P.; Alonso, R.; Amado, P. J.; Belmonte, J. A.; Butterworth, N. D.; Martignoni, M.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Moskalik, P.; Robertson, C. W.

2005-09-01

80

UML Metamodel Formalization with Object-Z: the State Machine Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a formalization using Object-Z of the State Ma- chine package in the UML metamodel. In the specification, the abstract syntax and the static and dynamic semantics for each individual model construct in the package are grouped together and encapsulated within a single Object-Z class. For f ormalizing the dynamic semantics, a denotational semantics of the c on-

Soon-Kyeong Kim; David Carrington

2000-01-01

81

USP: modeling security protocol with UML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of security protocols is difficult and extremely complicated. In this paper, we presents a framework for modeling security protocol, UML extension for security protocol (USP), which makes it possible to the development of security protocols in an intuitive and visual way. For further security analysis of USP model, we refer to a precisely defined semantics of behavioral aspects. The formal semantics of a simplified fragment of UML builds on dynamic semantics of UML State Machines. As a case study, Denning-Sacco protocol will be described with USP. Moreover, the security protocol described with USP can be converted to an implementation or connected with existing formal analysis framework if appropriate converter tools are available.

Li, Zhitang; Xie, Yunfeng; Li, Weiming

2006-10-01

82

Model-Driven Theme/UML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theme/UML is an existing approach to aspect-oriented modelling that supports the modularisation and composition of concerns, including crosscutting ones, in design. To date, its lack of integration with model-driven engineering (MDE) techniques has limited its benefits across the development lifecycle. Here, we describe our work on facilitating the use of Theme/UML as part of an MDE process. We have developed a transformation tool that adopts model-driven architecture (MDA) standards. It defines a concern composition mechanism, implemented as a model transformation, to support the enhanced modularisation features of Theme/UML. We evaluate our approach by applying it to the development of mobile, context-aware applications-an application area characterised by many non-functional requirements that manifest themselves as crosscutting concerns.

Carton, Andrew; Driver, Cormac; Jackson, Andrew; Clarke, Siobhán

83

Representation of Nursing Terminologies in UMLS  

PubMed Central

There are seven nursing terminologies or classifications that are considered a standard to support nursing practice in the U.S. Harmonizing these terminologies will enhance the interoperability of clinical data documented across nursing practice. As a first step to harmonize the nursing terminologies, the purpose of this study was to examine how nursing problems or diagnostic concepts from select terminologies were cross-mapped in Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). A comparison analysis was conducted by examining whether cross-mappings available in UMLS through concept unique identifiers were consistent with cross-mappings conducted by human experts. Of 423 concepts from three terminologies, 411 (97%) were manually cross-mapped by experts to the International Classification for Nursing Practice. The UMLS semantic mapping among the 411 nursing concepts presented 33.6% accuracy (i.e., 138 of 411 concepts) when compared to expert cross-mappings. Further research and collaboration among experts in this field are needed for future enhancement of UMLS.

Kim, Tae Youn; Coenen, Amy; Hardiker, Nicholas; Bartz, Claudia C.

2011-01-01

84

Towards a Calculus for UML-RT Specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unified modeling language (UML) developed under the coordinationof the Object Management Group (OMG) is one of the most important standardsfor the specification and design of object-oriented systems. This standardis currently tuned for real-time applications in the form of a new proposal,UML for Real-Time (UML-RT), by Rational Software Corporation and ObjecTimeLimited. Because of the importance of UML-RT we are investigatingits

R. Grosu; M. Broy; B. Selic; Gh. Stefanescu

1998-01-01

85

Performance Monitoring Based on UML Performance Profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a way of measuring software performance metrics such as response time, throughput, and resource utilization. It is obvious that performance-related Quality of Service (QoS) is one of the important factors which are satisfied for users' needs. The proposed approach uses UML performance profile for the performance specification and aspect-oriented paradigm for the performance measurement. Code instrumentation in AOP is a mechanism to insert source code for performance measurement into business logic code. We used AspectJ, an aspect-oriented extension to the Java. AspectJ code for performance measurement is separated from Java code for functional requirements. Both AspectJ and Java code can be woven together for the performance measurement. The key component of the proposed approach is an AspectJ code generator. It creates AspectJ code for the performance measurement from the UML [1] models containing performance profile.

Kim, Dong Kwan; Kim, Chul Jin; Cho, Eun Sook

86

Venn Diagrams and Logic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math lesson from Illuminations uses Venn diagrams to illustrate direct, indirect and transitive reasoning. Students will learn the definitions of direct, indirect and transitive reasoning and give examples of each. Several student activity sheets are included. The material is intended for grades 9-12 and should require 2 and a half class periods to complete.

2011-01-04

87

Venn Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive problem provides an opportunity for children to become familiar with Venn diagrams, while reinforcing knowledge of number properties. Students must place the numbers from 1 to 40 into a Venn diagram of two sets with an intersection. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

2007-09-01

88

Duality Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duality between the s- and t-channel descriptions of strong-interaction scattering amplitudes and the assumption that in every channel the scattering proceeds via nonexotic resonances are exhibited by simple diagrams. The diagrams lead to simple derivations of some known consequences of these assumptions as well as to many new predictions which can be tested experimentally.

Haim Harari

1969-01-01

89

Automated security hardening for evolving UML models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing security-critical software correctly and securely is dicult. To address this problem, there has been a significant amount of work over the last 10 years on providing model-based development approaches based on the Unified Modeling Language which aim to raise the trustworthiness of security-critical systems, some of them including tools allowing the user to check whether a UML model satisfies

Jan Jürjens

2011-01-01

90

Constructing Precise Object Relation Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Object Relation Diagram (ORD) of a program is a class interdependence diagram which has applications in a wide variety of software engineering problems (e.g., in- tegration testing, integration coverage analysis, regression testing, impact analysis, program understanding, and re- verse engineering). Because the imprecision of the ORD directly affects the practicality of its usage, it is important to investigate techniques

Ana Milanova; Atanas Rountev; Barbara G. Ryder

2002-01-01

91

From AOP to UML - A Bottom-Up Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This position paper takes a bottom-up approach that ana- lyzes the suitability of UML for modeling aspect-oriented soft- ware, and compares it with the UML support for modeling object-oriented software. We first introduce the basic concepts of AspectJ, a state-of-the-art aspect-oriented programming lan- guage, and then take a naïve approach using standard UML, as it is, for modeling these concepts.

Mohamed Mancona Kandé; Jörg Kienzle; Alfred Strohmeier

2002-01-01

92

An Industrial Study Using UML Design Metrics for Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many web applications have evolved from simple HTML pages to complex applications that are difficult to maintain. In order\\u000a to control the maintenance of web applications quantitative metrics and models for predicting web applications maintainability\\u000a must be used. This paper introduces new design metrics for measuring the maintainability of web applications from class diagrams.\\u000a The metrics are based on Web

Emad Ghosheh; Sue Black; Jihad Qaddour

2008-01-01

93

UML for the Design of Secure Databases: Integrating Security Levels, User Roles, and Constraints in the Database Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we argue the importance of security in databases, and the need to consider security as a fundamental requirement in their development to be integrated at all stages of design, instead of being an isolated and marginal requirement. We propose an extension of the Use Case and Class models of UML using their standard extension mechanisms (stereotypes, tagged

Eduardo Fernández-Medina; Alfonso Martínez; Carlos Medina; Mario Piattini

94

Managing Model Quality in UML-Based Software Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of UML and MDA, models play an increasingly important role in software development. Hence, the management of the quality of models is of key importance for completing projects succesfully. However, existing approaches towards software quality focus on the implementation and execution of systems. These existing quality models cannot be straightforwardly mapped to the domain of UML models

Christian F. J. Lange; Michel R. V. Chaudron

2005-01-01

95

A Proposed Method to Project Planning from UML Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method that integrates UML- based modeling techniques into system project planning and scheduling. The power of the model-driven engineering (MDE) is not limited to automate the development of object oriented systems. Its characteristics can also be exploited in managerial activities, since application of domain-specific extensions can support complementing UML models with project planning features. A case

Akos Sz

96

Assessing Thesaurus-Based Query Expansion Using the UMLS Metathesaurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Assess query expansion using thesaurus relationships and definitions in the UMLS Metathesaurus for improving searching performance. Methods: The queries from a MEDLINE test collection (OHSUMED) were expanded using synonym, hierarchical, and related term information as well as term definitions from the UMLS Metathesaurus. Documents were retrieved from a word-statistical retrieval system and assessed for recall and precision based on

William Hersh; Susan Price; Larry Donohoe

2000-01-01

97

Compositional Hazard Analysis of UML Component and Deployment Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general trend towards complex technical systems with embedded software results in an increasing demand for dependable high quality software. The UML as an advanced object-oriented technology provides in principle the essential concepts which are required to handle the increasing complexity of these safety-critical software systems. However, the current and forthcoming UML versions do not directly apply to the outlined

Holger Giese; Matthias Tichy; Daniela Schilling

2004-01-01

98

Bridging UML and Safety-Critical Software Development Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach combining the respective strengths of UML and SCADE to develop safety-critical systems. By using UML to specify the system's high-level requirements and architecture, and then SCADE to formally specify the software behavior, we provide a seamless flow from the initial requirement analysis phase down to the final integration on the target platform. This flow is

Alain Le Guennec; Bernard Dion

99

On challenges of model transformation from UML to Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the de facto lan- guage used in the industry for software specifications. Once an application has been specified, Model Driven Architecture (MDA) techniques can be ap- plied to generate code from such specifications. Since implementing a system based on a faulty design requires additional cost and effort, it is important to analyse the UML

Kyriakos Anastasakis; Behzad Bordbar; Geri Georg; Indrakshi Ray

2010-01-01

100

Phase Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handout and problem set is a stand alone tutorial that introduces students to the basics of phase diagrams and the phase rule. It is a rather lengthy exercise, suitable as a homework assignment. It can replace lectures and yields superior learning.

Perkins, Dexter

101

Venn diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These online resources offer varied opportunities to work with Venn diagrams, one of many tools used in logic and reasoning. Their use is especially helpful in learning foundational notions of definition and set theory. One of the five Process Standards promoted by NCTM, Reasoning and Proof requires middle school students to sharpen such skills as they learn to develop mathematical argument.

National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Middle School Portal Staff

2008-03-10

102

Thermodynamic Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic data such as equilibrium constants, standard cell potentials, molar enthalpies of formation, and standard entropies of substances can be a very useful basis for an organized presentation of knowledge in diverse areas of applied chemistry. Thermodynamic data can become particularly useful when incorporated into thermodynamic diagrams that are designed to be easy to recall, to serve as a basis for reconstructing previous knowledge, and to determine whether reactions can occur exergonically or only with the help of an external energy source. Few students in our chemistry-based courses would want to acquire the depth of knowledge or rigor of professional thermodynamicists. But they should nevertheless learn how to make good use of thermodynamic data in their professional occupations that span the chemical, biological, environmental, and medical laboratory fields. This article discusses examples of three thermodynamic diagrams that have been developed for this purpose. They are the thermodynamic energy account (TEA), the total entropy scale, and the thermodynamic scale diagrams. These diagrams help in the teaching and learning of thermodynamics by bringing the imagination into the process of developing a better understanding of abstract thermodynamic functions, and by allowing the reader to keep track of specialist thermodynamic discourses in the literature.

Chaston, Scot

1999-02-01

103

State-transition diagrams for biologists.  

PubMed

It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines. PMID:22844438

Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

2012-07-23

104

State-Transition Diagrams for Biologists  

PubMed Central

It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines.

Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Veronique

2012-01-01

105

Representing Thoughts, Words, and Things in the UMLS  

PubMed Central

The authors describe a framework, based on the Ogden-Richards semiotic triangle, for understanding the relationship between the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and the source terminologies from which the UMLS derives its content. They pay particular attention to UMLS's Concept Unique Identifier (CUI) and the sense of “meaning” it represents as contrasted with the sense of “meaning” represented by the source terminologies. The CUI takes on emergent meaning through linkage to terms in different terminology systems. In some cases, a CUI's emergent meaning can differ significantly from the original sources' intended meanings of terms linked by that CUI. Identification of these different senses of meaning within the UMLS is consistent with historical themes of semantic interpretation of language. Examination of the UMLS within such a historical framework makes it possible to better understand the strengths and limitations of the UMLS approach for integrating disparate terminologic systems and to provide a model, or theoretic foundation, for evaluating the UMLS as a Possible World—that is, as a mathematical formalism that represents propositions about some perspective or interpretation of the physical world.

Campbell, Keith E.; Oliver, Diane E.; Spackman, Kent A.; Shortliffe, Edward H.

1998-01-01

106

A tutorial on flow diagrams: A tool for developing the structure of multicomponent phase diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tabular form of multiphase equilibria in temperature- or pressure-ordered sequence, often referred to as flow diagrams,\\u000a shows the interrelations that exist among the various types or classes of equilibria in a system. These interrelations establish\\u000a the structures of the various forms of phase diagrams. Flow diagrams have been used to simplify the presentation of complex\\u000a ternary phase diagrams. However,

R. G. Connell

1994-01-01

107

HRT-UML: a design method for hard real-time systems based on the UML notation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hard Real-Time-Unified Modelling Language (HRT-UML) method aims at providing a comprehensive solution to the modeling of Hard Real Time systems. The experience shows that the design of Hard Real-Time systems needs methodologies suitable for the modeling and analysis of aspects related to time, schedulability and performance. In the context of the European Aerospace community a reference method for design is Hierarchical Object Oriented Design (HOOD) and in particular its extension for the modeling of hard real time systems, Hard Real-Time-Hierarchical Object Oriented Design (HRT-HOOD), recommended by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the development of on-board systems. On the other hand in recent years the Unified Modelling Language (UML) has been gaining a very large acceptance in a wide range of domains, all over the world, becoming a de-facto international standard. Tool vendors are very active in this potentially big market. In the Aerospace domain the common opinion is that UML, as a general notation, is not suitable for Hard Real Time systems, even if its importance is recognized as a standard and as a technological trend in the near future. These considerations suggest the possibility of replacing the HRT-HOOD method with a customized version of UML, that incorporates the advantages of both standards and complements the weak points. This approach has the clear advantage of making HRT-HOOD converge on a more powerful and expressive modeling notation. The paper identifies a mapping of the HRT-HOOD semantics into the UML one, and proposes a UML extension profile, that we call HRT-UML, based on the UML standard extension mechanisms, to fully represent HRT-HOOD design concepts. Finally it discusses the relationships between our profile and the UML profile for schedulability, performance and time, adopted by OMG in November 2001.

D'Alessandro, Massimo; Mazzini, Silvia; di Natale, Marco; Lipari, Giuseppe

2002-07-01

108

Software cost estimation using class point metrics (CPM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating cost for the software project is one of the most important and crucial task to maintain the software reliability. Many cost estimation models have been reported till now, but most of them have significant drawbacks due to rapid changes in the technology. For example, Source Line Of Code (SLOC) can only be counted when the software construction is complete. Function Point (FP) metric is deficient in handling Object Oriented Technology, as it was designed for procedural languages such as COBOL. Since Object-Oriented Programming became a popular development practice, most of the software companies started applying the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The objective of this research is to develop a new cost estimation model with the application of class diagram for the software cost estimation.

Ghode, Aditi; Periyasamy, Kasilingam

2011-12-01

109

Exploring the UMLS: a rough sets based theoretical framework.  

PubMed Central

The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) [1] has a unique and leading position in the evolution of thesauri and metathesauri. Features that set it apart are: its composition from more than fifty component health care vocabularies; the sophisticated UMLS ontology linking the Metathesaurus with structures such as the Semantic Network and the SPECIALIST lexicon; and the high level of social collaboration invested in its construction and growth. It is our thesis that in order to successfully harness such a complex vocabulary for text retrieval we need sophisticated methods derived from a deeper understanding of the UMLS system. Thus we propose a theoretical framework based on the theory of rough sets, that supports the systematic and exploratory investigation of the UMLS Metathesaurus for text retrieval. Our goal is to make it more feasible for individuals such as patients and health care professionals to access relevant information at the point of need.

Srinivasan, P.

1999-01-01

110

Tracing the Rationale Behind UML Model Change Through Argumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neglecting traceability—i.e., the ability to describe and follow the life of a requirement—is known to entail misunderstanding and miscommunication, leading to the engineering of poor quality systems. Following the simple principles that (a) changes to UML model instances ought be justified to the stakeholders, (b) justification should proceed in a structured manner to ensure rigor in discussions, critique, and revisions of model instances, and (c) the concept of argument instantiated in a justification process ought to be well defined and understood, the present paper introduces the UML Traceability through Argumentation Method (UML-TAM) to enable the traceability of design rationale in UML while allowing the appropriateness of model changes to be checked by analysis of the structure of the arguments provided to justify such changes.

Jureta, Ivan J.; Faulkner, Stéphane

111

An Infrastructure for UML-Based Code Generation Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) techniques in the domain of distributed embedded real-time systems are gain importance in order to cope with the increasing design complexity of such systems. This paper discusses an infrastructure created to build GenERTiCA, a flexible tool that supports a MDE approach, which uses aspect-oriented concepts to handle non-functional requirements from embedded and real-time systems domain. GenERTiCA generates source code from UML models, and also performs weaving of aspects, which have been specified within the UML model. Additionally, this paper discusses the Distributed Embedded Real-Time Compact Specification (DERCS), a PIM created to support UML-based code generation tools. Some heuristics to transform UML models into DERCS, which have been implemented in GenERTiCA, are also discussed.

Wehrmeister, Marco A.; Freitas, Edison P.; Pereira, Carlos E.

112

Specification and Verification of Model Transformations Using UML-RSDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe techniques for the specification and verification of model transformations using a combination of UML and formal methods. The use of UML 2 notations to specify model transformations facilitates the integration of model transformations with other software development processes. Extracts from three large case studies of the specification of model transformations are given, to demonstrate the practical application of the approach.

Lano, Kevin; Kolahdouz-Rahimi, Shekoufeh

113

Venn Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unions, intersections, and differences: This can all be quite confusing to students trying to enter the potentially tricky world of Venn Diagrams. Fortunately, Alfredo Jiminez of Pennsylvania State University, Hazleton has created this handy Flash-enabled teaching application designed to provide students with an engaging way to learn about this subject. The project is party of the Digital Classroom Resources at the MAA Mathematical Sciences Digital Library, and visitors will find this particular learning activity quite easy to use. The interactive tool contains seven sections, including those dealing with the principles of union and intersection, distributive properties, and De Morgan's laws. Within each section, visitors can try their hand with a series of short questions and then take advantage of some review materials and, of course, a few basic tests.

Jiminez, Alfredo

114

Semantic Mappings and Locality of Nursing Diagnostic Concepts in UMLS  

PubMed Central

One solution for enhancing the interoperability between nursing information systems, given the availability of multiple nursing terminologies, is to cross-map existing nursing concepts. The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) developed and distributed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is a knowledge resource containing cross-mappings of various terminologies in a unified framework. While the knowledge resource has been available for the last two decades, little research on the representation of nursing terminologies in UMLS has been conducted. As a first step, UMLS semantic mappings and concept locality were examined for nursing diagnostic concepts or problems selected from three terminologies (i.e., CCC, ICNP, and NANDA-I) along with corresponding SNOMED CT concepts. The evaluation of UMLS semantic mappings was conducted by measuring the proportion of concordance between UMLS and human expert mappings. The semantic locality of nursing diagnostic concepts was assessed by examining the associations of select concepts and the placement of the nursing concepts on the Semantic Network and Group. The study found that the UMLS mappings of CCC and NANDA-I concepts to SNOMED CT were highly concordant to expert mappings. The level of concordance in mappings of ICNP to SNOMED CT, CCC and NANDA-I within UMLS was relatively low, indicating the need for further research and development. Likewise, the semantic locality of ICNP concepts could be further improved. Various stakeholders need to collaborate to enhance the NLM knowledge resource and the interoperability of nursing data within the discipline as well as across health-related disciplines.

Kim, Tae Youn; Coenen, Amy; Hardiker, Nicholas

2011-01-01

115

Describing different brain computer interface systems through a unique model: a UML implementation.  

PubMed

All the protocols currently implemented in brain computer interface (BCI) experiments are characterized by different structural and temporal entities. Moreover, due to the lack of a unique descriptive model for BCI systems, there is not a standard way to define the structure and the timing of a BCI experimental session among different research groups and there is also great discordance on the meaning of the most common terms dealing with BCI, such as trial, run and session. The aim of this paper is to provide a unified modeling language (UML) implementation of BCI systems through a unique dynamic model which is able to describe the main protocols defined in the literature (P300, mu-rhythms, SCP, SSVEP, fMRI) and demonstrates to be reasonable and adjustable according to different requirements. This model includes a set of definitions of the typical entities encountered in a BCI, diagrams which explain the structural correlations among them and a detailed description of the timing of a trial. This last represents an innovation with respect to the models already proposed in the literature. The UML documentation and the possibility of adapting this model to the different BCI systems built to date, make it a basis for the implementation of new systems and a mean for the unification and dissemination of resources. The model with all the diagrams and definitions reported in the paper are the core of the body language framework, a free set of routines and tools for the implementation, optimization and delivery of cross-platform BCI systems. PMID:18607780

Quitadamo, Lucia Rita; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Bianchi, Luigi

2008-07-08

116

CASE tools and UML: state of the ART.  

PubMed

With increasing need for automated tools to assist complex systems development, software design methods are becoming popular. This article analyzes the state of art in computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools and unified modeling language (UML), focusing on their evolution, merits, and industry usage. It identifies managerial issues for the tools' adoption and recommends an action plan to select and implement them. While CASE and UML offer inherent advantages like cheaper, shorter, and efficient development cycles, they suffer from poor user satisfaction. The critical success factors for their implementation include, among others, management and staff commitment, proper corporate infrastructure, and user training. PMID:11378982

Agarwal, S

2001-05-01

117

Revising the UML Collaborations: A Well-Founded Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We first argue that in some software development areas the need emerges of modelling structural and behavioural aspects of a community of objects cooperating to achieve a specific purpose, say a cooperation, for short. The notion of cooperation is formalized, with a first citizenship status, in the UML 2, as a collaboration. There are however some unclear and problematic spots both on some syntactic and semantic aspects of the UML collaboration. The main goal of this paper is to present first a much simplified metamodel for defining a collaboration, still producing the same notation, with an associated semantics. Rather surprisingly different useful semantic interpretations may be given and are discussed.

Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna

118

MDA: Revenge of the Modelers or UML Utopia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling is at the core of many disciplines, but it is especially important in engineering because it facilitates communication and constructs complex things from smaller parts. Model engineering or model-driven development, treats software development as a set of transformations between successive models from requirements to analysis, to design, to implementation, to deployment. We discuss UML and MDA tools for developing

Dave A. Thomas

2004-01-01

119

UML based specifications of PDM product structure and workflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the use of a UML approach for the specifications of a PDM system (product data management) implementation. A PDM system enables the management of the whole product data and related information about its entire lifecycle.The main goal of this paper is to highlight the added value of using an object-oriented approach for modelling, specifying and implementing

Benoît Eynard; Thomas Gallet; Pierre Nowak; Lionel Roucoules

2004-01-01

120

Semantic mappings and locality of nursing diagnostic concepts in UMLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One solution for enhancing the interoperability between nursing information systems, given the availability of multiple nursing terminologies, is to cross-map existing nursing concepts. The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) developed and distributed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is a knowledge resource containing cross-mappings of various terminologies in a unified framework. While the knowledge resource has been available for

Tae Youn Kim; Amy Coenen; Nicholas Hardiker

121

Visualization of Learning Scenarios with UML4LD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present Educational Modelling Languages are used to formally specify abstract learning scenarios in a machine-interpretable format. Current tooling does not provide teachers/designers with some graphical facilities to help them in reusing existent scenarios. They need human-readable representations. This paper discusses the UML4LD experimental…

Laforcade, Pierre

2007-01-01

122

Using UMLS metathesaurus concepts to describe medical images: dermatology vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web servers at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) displayed images of ten skin lesions to practicing dermatologists and provided an online form for capturing text they used to describe the pictures. The terms were submitted to the UMLS Metathesaurus (Meta). Concepts retrieved, their semantic types, definitions and synonyms, were returned to each subject in a second web-based form. Subjects

James W. Woods; Charles A. Sneiderman; Kamran Hameed; Michael J. Ackerman; Charlie Hatton

2006-01-01

123

15 Software Product Line Engineering with the UML: Deriving Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software product line engineering introduces two new dimensions into the traditional engineering of software-based systems: the variability modeling and the product derivation. The variability gathers characteristics that differ from one product to another, while the product derivation is defined as a complete process of building products from the product line. Software Product Line Engineering with the UML has received a

T. Ziadi; J.-M. Jézéquel

124

Stochastic Dependability Analysis of System Architecture Based on UML Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work in this paper1 is devoted to the definition of a dependability modeling and model based evaluation approach based on UML models. It is to be used in the early phases of the system design to capture system dependability attributes like reliability and availability, thus providing guidelines for the choice among different architectural and design solutions. We show how

Andrea Bondavalli; István Majzik; András Pataricza

125

Stochastic Dependability Analysis of System Architecture Based on UML Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work in this paper1 is devoted to the definition of a dependability modeling and model based evaluation approach based on UML models. It is to be used in the early phases of the system design to capture system dependability attributes like reliability and availability, thus providing guidelines for the choice among different architectural and design solutions. We show how

István Majzik; András Pataricza; Andrea Bondavalli

2002-01-01

126

Teaching UML Modeling Before Programming at the High School Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes experience teaching modeling at the high school level prior to teaching programming and embedded control. An implementation- independent form of UML modeling is being used to teach students to analyze various applications, systems and problem domains. The objective is to introduce the abstract thinking processes involved in modeling before introducing the more concrete thought processes involved in

Cortland Starrett

2007-01-01

127

A discrete-time UML semantics for concurrency and communication in safety-critical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We defin eas,ubsetkrtUML of UML which,is rich enough,to express such modelling entities of UML, used in real-time applications, as active objects, dynamic object creation and destruction, dynamically changing communication topologies ,c ombinations of synchronous and asynchronous communication, and shared memory usage through object attributes. We define a formal interleaving semantics,for this kernel language,by associating with each model,M ? krtUML

Werner Damm; Bernhard Josko; Amir Pnueli; Angelika Votintseva

2005-01-01

128

Efficient software quality assurance approaches oriented to UML models in real life  

Microsoft Academic Search

UML is accepted by far as the standard notation for OO development. UML models have a widespread use in today's software practices. Any initiative to improve software quality assurance (SQA) should assume that a high percentage of deliverables to be controlled are currently based on the use of UML notation. But real life projects are strongly influenced by the need

Luis Fernández; Pedro J. Lara; Juan José Cuadrado

129

Phase Diagrams and Chemographic Projections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is a good way to get students thinking about the phase rule, metastable and stable reactions and phase diagrams. The exercise contains a lot of reading, and is suitable for in-class work or for homework. The idea is that students can do this on their own with little help from their instructor. The students only answer a few questions making this is more of a tutorial than a worksheet.

Perkins, Dexter

130

Diagrams about Thoughts about Thoughts about Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of diagrammatic reasoning often focuses on computational models of diagram use rather than on studies of human performance. This paper considers diagrams as a notational system that can be used and studied in an experimental context. It presents a review of the experimental psychology literature rather than a complete theoretical framework, and is intended as an introduction to

Alan F. Blackwell

1997-01-01

131

Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.  

PubMed Central

The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans.

Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

1991-01-01

132

Students' Different Understandings of Class Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a…

Boustedt, Jonas

2012-01-01

133

Nesting in Euler Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the notion of nesting in Euler diagrams, and how nesting aects the interpretation and construction of such diagrams. After setting up the necessary definitions for Euler diagrams at concrete syntax and abstract levels, the notion of nestedness is introduced at the concrete level, then an equivalent notion is given at the abstract level. The natural progression to

Jean Flower; John Howse; John Taylor

2003-01-01

134

UML\\/MDA Reality Check: Heterogenous Architecture Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This talk looks at the OMG’s Model-Driven Architecture initiative and at UML from the perspective of an innovative approach\\u000a to engineering software for space missions at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Mission Data System (MDS) project\\u000a at JPL breaks the conventional mold of space möission software blending two heterogenous software architecture styles: state\\u000a analysis (the idea that \\

Nicolas F. Rouquette

2003-01-01

135

Mapping product structures between CAD and PDM systems using UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The product data exchange,between heterogeneous,CAD and PDM systems is a crucial issue for the integration of product development systems. STEP offers an efficient mechanism,of product data exchange,between heterogeneous,systems. This paper introduces a UML-based mapping,methodology,for the product data models. The suggested mapping,method,has been applied to exchange,the product structure data between a CAD system and a PDM system. Based on the

Oh Youchon; Soon-hung Han; Hyowon Suh

2001-01-01

136

Slicing Hierarchical Automata for Model Checking UML Statecharts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical Automata has been widely used in modeling dynamic aspects of reactive software, such as in UML Statecharts. At\\u000a the same time, model checking is an automatic technique to ensure the correctness of software models, where state space explosion\\u000a is the main obstacle to applying this technique in large scale applications. The paper presents a method for slicing hierarchical\\u000a automata

Ji Wang; Wei Dong; Qi Zhi-Chang

2002-01-01

137

A DIAGRAM APPROACH TO AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF JSP\\/SERVLET WEB APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We defined diagrams called Web transition diagrams to rep- resent overall behavior of Web applications. Using these diagrams, we can generate server program type Web ap- plications such as CGI-based Web applications, and server page type Web applications such as ASP-based Web appli- cations. The purpose of this paper is to design Web transi- tion diagrams to represent wider class

Kornkamol Jamroendararasame; Tetsuya Suzuki; Takehiro Tokuda

138

Implementing Meta-1: The First Version of the UMLS Metathesaurus*  

PubMed Central

The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is being designed to provide uniform access to computer-based resources in biomedicine. For the foreseeable future, the foundation of the UMLS will be a metathesaurus of concepts, synthesized from existing sources, including MeSH, SNOMED, ICD-9-CM, CPT-4, DSM-III and other biomedical nomenclatures and classification systems. In Meta-1, the first version of the Metathesaurus, the synthesis is being implemented using a three-part methodology: 1) Concept names (terms) and intra-source relationships, such as synonymy, have been extracted from each source, and converted to a homogeneous representation; 2) inter-source lexical matches have been used to combine terms from different sources into Metathesaurus entries; and 3) some 30,000 of these entries, those containing MeSH terms and a selected sample of terms from other domains, will be reviewed by humans, enhanced, and modified, as appropriate. This methodology must eventually support incremental development and an audit trail, and it must preserve relationships added during human review. The 30,000 Meta-1 entries will contain in excess of 60,000 biomedical terms, and these terms will participate in more than 100,000 thesaurus relationships. These “normative” relationships will be supplemented by “empirical” relationships computed from certain UMLS resources. The first of the empirical relationships will be counts of the occurrence and co-occurrence of Meta-1 concepts in MEDLINE.

Tuttle, Mark; Sherertz, David; Erlbaum, Mark; Olson, Nels; Nelson, Stuart

1989-01-01

139

Constraint Diagram Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagrammatic human-computer interfaces are now becoming standard. In the near future, diagrammatic front-ends, such as those of UML-based CASE tools, will be required to offer a much more intelligent behavior than just editing. Yet there is very little formal support and there are almost no tools available for the construction of such environments. The present paper introduces a constraint-based formalism

Bernd Meyer

1999-01-01

140

Towards an Integrated Quality Assessment and Improvement Approach for UML Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models defined using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) are nowadays common parts of software documentations, specifications and sometimes even implementations. However, there\\u000a is a broad variety of how UML is used. Reasons can be found, for example, in the lack of generally accepted modeling norms\\u000a and guidelines, the semi-formal semantics of UML, or the complexity of the language. In practice,

Akhtar Ali Jalbani; Jens Grabowski; Helmut Neukirchen; Benjamin Zeiss

2009-01-01

141

A conceptual model for information retrieval with UMLS.  

PubMed Central

Information retrieval in large information databases is a non-deterministic process which needs a sequence of search steps generally. One of the main problems to which the end-users are faced is to parse efficiently their questions into the query language that the computer systems allow. Conceptual graphs were initially designed for natural language analysis and understanding. Due to their closeness to semantic networks, their expressiveness is powerful enough to be applied to knowledge representation and use by computer systems. This work demonstrates that conceptual graphs are a suitable means to model the end-users querieson the basis of the thesaurus and the semantic network of the UMLS project.

Joubert, M.; Fieschi, M.; Robert, J. J.

1993-01-01

142

Aligning Structured and Unstructured Medical Problems Using UMLS  

PubMed Central

This paper reports a pilot study to align medical problems in structured and unstructured EHR data using UMLS. A total of 120 medical problems in discharge summaries were extracted using NLP software (MedLEE) and aligned with 87 ICD-9 diagnoses for 19 non-overlapping hospital visits of 4 patients. The alignment accuracy was evaluated by a medical doctor. The average overlap of medical problems between the two data sources obtained by our automatic alignment method was 23.8%, which was about half of the manual review result, 43.56%. We discuss the implications for related research in integrating structured and unstructured EHR data.

Carlo, Lorena; Chase, Herbert S.; Weng, Chunhua

2010-01-01

143

Experiences in Model Driven Verification of Behavior with UML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model Driven Development (MDD) focuses on the intensive use of models during software development. In this paradigm, models are the central development artifact: transformations are used to derive executable programs, or tests for a given platform. This makes building quality models a cost-effective approach, as the models can be reused for many analysis or generation goals, and not just document a design. However, high quality models are needed for the approach to be successful. Hence the goal of performing analysis of high-level behavioral specifications such as UML, to enhance their quality and detect defects or ensure desired behavior.

Kordon, Fabrice; Thierry-Mieg, Yann

144

The BFKL Pomeron calculus: Summing enhanced diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to sum over a class of enhanced diagrams, and derive a new Pomeron Green function. It is found that this sum gives the Pomeron contribution to the scattering amplitude that decreases with energy. In other words, we found that the total cross section of two colourless dipoles of small but equal sizes, falls down at high energies.

Levin, E.; Miller, J.

2012-07-01

145

Overcoming an Obstacle in Expanding a UMLS Semantic Type Extent  

PubMed Central

This paper strives to overcome a major problem encountered by a previous expansion methodology for discovering concepts highly likely to be missing a specific semantic type assignment in the UMLS. This methodology is the basis for an algorithm that presents the discovered concepts to a human auditor for review and possible correction. We analyzed the problem of the previous expansion methodology and discovered that it was due to an obstacle constituted by one or more concepts assigned the UMLS Semantic Network semantic type Classification. A new methodology was designed that bypasses such an obstacle without a combinatorial explosion in the number of concepts presented to the human auditor for review. The new expansion methodology with obstacle avoidance was tested with the semantic type Experimental Model of Disease and found over 500 concepts missed by the previous methodology that are in need of this semantic type assignment. Furthermore, other semantic types suffering from the same major problem were discovered, indicating that the methodology is of more general applicability. The algorithmic discovery of concepts that are likely missing a semantic type assignment is possible even in the face of obstacles, without an explosion in the number of processed concepts.

Chen, Yan; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James

2011-01-01

146

Structure Flow Diagram Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Structure Flow Diagram Generator provides the user with a convenient, easy-to-use, and less time-consuming way of diagramming the overall structure of a program. It allows for several options including segment and overlay numbers, and the inclusion of...

S. M. Adams

1989-01-01

147

Lenses and Ray Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first time that students will draw technical ray diagrams (in previous experiments, they simply sketched the rays). They need a little instruction in drawing ray diagrams before they can do it, so the activity is not purely inquiry. But it is

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

148

Failure diagrams for unidirectional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pertinent failure processes in unidirectional fiber metal-matrix composites (MMCs) have been identified and analyzed. The critical conditions for interface delamination in several composites are compared with the theoretical delamination diagram proposed by He and Hutchinson, in which interface delamination and fiber fracture are delineated on the basis of their relative tough-ness values. It is shown that the delamination diagram does

K. S. Chan

1993-01-01

149

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HR-diagram), pioneered independently by EJNAR HERTZSPRUNG and HENRY NORRIS RUSSELL, is a plot of the star luminosity versus the surface temperature. It stems from the basic relation for an object emitting thermal radiation as a black body: ...

Chiosi, C.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

150

Collocation analysis for UMLS knowledge-based word sense disambiguation  

PubMed Central

Background The effectiveness of knowledge-based word sense disambiguation (WSD) approaches depends in part on the information available in the reference knowledge resource. Off the shelf, these resources are not optimized for WSD and might lack terms to model the context properly. In addition, they might include noisy terms which contribute to false positives in the disambiguation results. Methods We analyzed some collocation types which could improve the performance of knowledge-based disambiguation methods. Collocations are obtained by extracting candidate collocations from MEDLINE and then assigning them to one of the senses of an ambiguous word. We performed this assignment either using semantic group profiles or a knowledge-based disambiguation method. In addition to collocations, we used second-order features from a previously implemented approach. Specifically, we measured the effect of these collocations in two knowledge-based WSD methods. The first method, AEC, uses the knowledge from the UMLS to collect examples from MEDLINE which are used to train a Naïve Bayes approach. The second method, MRD, builds a profile for each candidate sense based on the UMLS and compares the profile to the context of the ambiguous word. We have used two WSD test sets which contain disambiguation cases which are mapped to UMLS concepts. The first one, the NLM WSD set, was developed manually by several domain experts and contains words with high frequency occurrence in MEDLINE. The second one, the MSH WSD set, was developed automatically using the MeSH indexing in MEDLINE. It contains a larger set of words and covers a larger number of UMLS semantic types. Results The results indicate an improvement after the use of collocations, although the approaches have different performance depending on the data set. In the NLM WSD set, the improvement is larger for the MRD disambiguation method using second-order features. Assignment of collocations to a candidate sense based on UMLS semantic group profiles is more effective in the AEC method. In the MSH WSD set, the increment in performance is modest for all the methods. Collocations combined with the MRD disambiguation method have the best performance. The MRD disambiguation method and second-order features provide an insignificant change in performance. The AEC disambiguation method gives a modest improvement in performance. Assignment of collocations to a candidate sense based on knowledge-based methods has better performance. Conclusions Collocations improve the performance of knowledge-based disambiguation methods, although results vary depending on the test set and method used. Generally, the AEC method is sensitive to query drift. Using AEC, just a few selected terms provide a large improvement in disambiguation performance. The MRD method handles noisy terms better but requires a larger set of terms to improve performance.

2011-01-01

151

How to Interpret Circuit Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents an explanation of how to interpret circuit diagrams. Two diagrams show the difference between a "short hand" circuit diagram and a more detailed one. The detailed circuit diagram is useful for those first learning circuits in an effort to eventually understand the "short hand" diagram without difficulty.

Lesurf, Jim

2013-06-07

152

Executable HybridUML and Its Application to Train Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors introduce an extension of UML for the pur- pose of hybrid systems modeling. The construction uses the profile mechanism of UML 2.0 which is the standard procedure for extending the Unified Modeling Language. The \\

Kirsten Berkenkötter; Stefan Bisanz; Ulrich Hannemann; Jan Peleska

2004-01-01

153

Logic-based assessment of the compatibility of UMLS ontology sources  

PubMed Central

Background The UMLS Metathesaurus (UMLS-Meta) is currently the most comprehensive effort for integrating independently-developed medical thesauri and ontologies. UMLS-Meta is being used in many applications, including PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov. The integration of new sources combines automatic techniques, expert assessment, and auditing protocols. The automatic techniques currently in use, however, are mostly based on lexical algorithms and often disregard the semantics of the sources being integrated. Results In this paper, we argue that UMLS-Meta’s current design and auditing methodologies could be significantly enhanced by taking into account the logic-based semantics of the ontology sources. We provide empirical evidence suggesting that UMLS-Meta in its 2009AA version contains a significant number of errors; these errors become immediately apparent if the rich semantics of the ontology sources is taken into account, manifesting themselves as unintended logical consequences that follow from the ontology sources together with the information in UMLS-Meta. We then propose general principles and specific logic-based techniques to effectively detect and repair such errors. Conclusions Our results suggest that the methodologies employed in the design of UMLS-Meta are not only very costly in terms of human effort, but also error-prone. The techniques presented here can be useful for both reducing human effort in the design and maintenance of UMLS-Meta and improving the quality of its contents.

2011-01-01

154

Digital Sound Recorder: A case study on designing embedded systems using the UML notation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This document,is an example,of the object-oriented analysis and design of an embedded,system using the Unified Modelling Language (UML). The analysed system is a digital sound recorder, or Dictaphone. The design has been implemented,using an embedded,processor and the C++ programming language. Keywords: object-oriented design, UML, embedded systems. TUCS Research Group

Ivan Porres Paltor; Johan Lilius

155

Research Paper: Consumer Health Concepts That Do Not Map to the UMLS: Where Do They Fit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study has two objectives: first, to identify and characterize consumer health terms not found in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus (2007 AB); second, to describe the procedure for creating new concepts in the process of building a consumer health vocabulary. How do the unmapped consumer health concepts relate to the existing UMLS concepts? What is the place

Alla Keselman; Catherine Arnott-Smith; Guy Divita; Hyeoneui Kim; Allen C. Browne; Gondy Leroy; Qing Zeng-Treitler

2008-01-01

156

Transforming Usability Engineering Requirements into Software Engineering Specifications: From PUF to UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is widely used by Software Engineers as the basis of analysis and design in software development. While UML is very strong at specifying the structure and functionality of the application, it is seldom used to its potential to specify usability-related information. The Putting Usability First (PUF) methodology of Usability Engineering identifies and specifies usability-related information.

Jim Carter; Jun Liu; Kevin Schneider; David Fourney

157

30 THINGS THAT GO WRONG IN OBJECT MODELLING WITH UML 1.3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors offer a catalogue of problems experienced by developers, using various object modelling techniques brought into prominence by the widespread adoption of UML standard notations. The catalogue is revised to reflect changes made between UML versions 1.1 and 1.3, in which a number of semantic inconsistencies in the notation were fixed. Notwithstanding this, developers still seem to create inordinate

Anthony J H Simons; Ian Graham

1999-01-01

158

Towards a UML profile for QoS: a contribution in the reliability domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-functional attributes of software\\/hardware systems are aspects of interest to embed in modeling notations. In the last few years, extensions of UML in this direction have been proposed, and some of them have been recently adopted as final specifications, such as the UML Profile for Schedulability, Performance, and Time. In this paper we intend to further contribute to the integration

Vittorio Cortellessa; Antonio Pompei

2004-01-01

159

Searching for information on the Internet using the UMLS and Medical World Search.  

PubMed Central

Medical World Search is a search engine for medical information on the Internet that distinguishes itself from other search engines by its built-in knowledge of medical terminology through its use of the National Library of Medicine's UMLS and its carefully selected but large database of medical sites. After discussing some of the previous uses of the UMLS for medical information retrieval, we describe the Medical World Search system. In October 1996, Medical World Search became operational on the World Wide Web at http:@www.mwsearch.poly.edu. It has been operating uninterrupted since then. We review our experiences with creating a search engine for medical information on the Internet and using the UMLS in this application. The UMLS has some clear advantages in this application. Some aspects of the UMLS also decrease its usefulness in information retrieval. Medical World Search's usage by medical information seekers is summarized. future directions for research are outlined.

Suarez, H. H.; Hao, X.; Chang, I. F.

1997-01-01

160

A UML Profile for Developing Databases that Conform to the Third Manifesto  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Third Manifesto (TTM) presents the principles of a relational database language that is free of deficiencies and ambiguities of SQL. There are database management systems that are created according to TTM. Developers need tools that support the development of databases by using these database management systems. UML is a widely used visual modeling language. It provides built-in extension mechanism that makes it possible to extend UML by creating profiles. In this paper, we introduce a UML profile for designing databases that correspond to the rules of TTM. We created the first version of the profile by translating existing profiles of SQL database design. After that, we extended and improved the profile. We implemented the profile by using UML CASE system StarUML™. We present an example of using the new profile. In addition, we describe problems that occurred during the profile development.

Eessaar, Erki

161

Automated UMLS-Based Comparison of Medical Forms  

PubMed Central

Medical forms are very heterogeneous: on a European scale there are thousands of data items in several hundred different systems. To enable data exchange for clinical care and research purposes there is a need to develop interoperable documentation systems with harmonized forms for data capture. A prerequisite in this harmonization process is comparison of forms. So far – to our knowledge – an automated method for comparison of medical forms is not available. A form contains a list of data items with corresponding medical concepts. An automatic comparison needs data types, item names and especially item with these unique concept codes from medical terminologies. The scope of the proposed method is a comparison of these items by comparing their concept codes (coded in UMLS). Each data item is represented by item name, concept code and value domain. Two items are called identical, if item name, concept code and value domain are the same. Two items are called matching, if only concept code and value domain are the same. Two items are called similar, if their concept codes are the same, but the value domains are different. Based on these definitions an open-source implementation for automated comparison of medical forms in ODM format with UMLS-based semantic annotations was developed. It is available as package compareODM from http://cran.r-project.org. To evaluate this method, it was applied to a set of 7 real medical forms with 285 data items from a large public ODM repository with forms for different medical purposes (research, quality management, routine care). Comparison results were visualized with grid images and dendrograms. Automated comparison of semantically annotated medical forms is feasible. Dendrograms allow a view on clustered similar forms. The approach is scalable for a large set of real medical forms.

Dugas, Martin; Fritz, Fleur; Krumm, Rainer; Breil, Bernhard

2013-01-01

162

Plutonium Predominance Region Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four plutonium predominance region diagrams, a technique for estimating the solubility of hydrous plutonium(IV) oxide, and a method for comparing valence state distributions of uranium, neptunium and plutonium are described.

G. L. Silver

1975-01-01

163

Venn Diagram Shape Sorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps students explore attributes of objects by sorting different sized, colored, shapes into Venn Diagrams. The user chooses the type of Venn Diagram including 2 intersecting circles, 2 non-intersecting circles, or a single circle. Two modes include "make the rule," where users create the rules of the circles and then sort, or "guess the rule," where users attempt to sort the shapes into the circles in order to guess the rule the computer has chosen.

2005-01-01

164

Failure diagrams for unidirectional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pertinent failure processes in unidirectional fiber metal-matrix composites (MMCs) have been identified and analyzed. The\\u000a critical conditions for interface delamination in several composites are compared with the theoretical delamination diagram\\u000a proposed by He and Hutchinson, in which interface delamination and fiber fracture are delineated on the basis of their relative\\u000a tough-ness values. It is shown that the delamination diagram does

K. S. Chan

1993-01-01

165

Experiences of using rational rose\\/visio for UML modeling in an undergraduate software engineering course: a student perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, Visio has been used as the UML modeling tool for the software engineering concept course at IUP (Indiana University Of Pennsylvania). Two years ago, Rational Rose (Rose) was introduced in parallel. Students now have a choice of using either tool for UML modeling. Since the introduction of Rose, about 100 students have used both tools for UML

Aydaen Lynch; Darynn Flango; Rob Smith; Matthew Lang

2004-01-01

166

UV-diagram: A Voronoi diagram for uncertain data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voronoi diagram is an important technique for answering nearest-neighbor queries for spatial databases. In this paper, we study how the Voronoi diagram can be used on uncertain data, which are inherent in scientific and busines s applications. In particular, we propose the Uncertain-Voronoi Diagram (or UV-diagram in short). Conceptually, the data space is divided into distinct \\

Reynold Cheng; Xike Xie; Man Lung Yiu; Jinchuan Chen; Liwen Sun

2010-01-01

167

Attributed Programmed Graph Grammars and Their Application to Schematic Diagram Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attributed programmed graph grammars are introduced in this paper and their application to the interpretation of schematic diagrams is proposed. In contrast with most of the approaches to syntactic pattern recognition, where the grammar controls a parser, the grammar in our system is used as a generative tool. Two classes of diagrams are studied, namely circuit diagrams and flowcharts. The

Horst Bunke

1982-01-01

168

Is It Important to Explain a Theorem? A Case Study on UML and {ALCQI}  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Description Logics (DL) are quite well-established as underlying logics for KR. {ALC} is a basic description logic. ER and UML are among the most used semiformal artifacts in computer science. The DL-community has shown that one needs to go a bit further to reason on ER and UML models. {ALCQI} is able to express most of the features involved in an ER and UML modeling. DL-Lite would also be taken for doing this, although it might be more verbose.

Haeusler, Edward Hermann; Rademaker, Alexandre

169

Minkowski Diagram Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minkowski Diagram model displays the spacetime diagrams for two inertial observers. One or two events may be displayed and moved with the mouse. Optionally, the corresponding light cones may be shown, as well as the simultaneity lines in both reference frames. The spacetime interval is automatically computed. The simulation may be used to discuss simultaneity and causality in special relativity. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. The Minkowski Diagram model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_special_relativity_minkowski.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Please note that this resource requires at least version 1.5 of Java (JRE).

Aguirregabiria, Juan

2011-09-09

170

Attributed programmed graph grammars and their application to schematic diagram interpretation.  

PubMed

Attributed programmed graph grammars are introduced in this paper and their application to the interpretation of schematic diagrams is proposed. In contrast with most of the approaches to syntactic pattern recognition, where the grammar controls a parser, the grammar in our system is used as a generative tool. Two classes of diagrams are studied, namely circuit diagrams and flowcharts. The task is in either case to extract a description from an input diagram. PMID:22499631

Bunke, H

1982-06-01

171

Applying AUML and UML 2 in the Multi-agent Systems Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the viability of the AUML and UML languages employment, from the latter's version 2.0 on, in the multi-agent systems project. In this article some works that have used UML for the project of systems that involved agents, as well as some AOSE (Agent Oriented Software Engineering) methodologies that use in some way UML or AUML (or both), are presented. Immediately afterwards the article approaches the AUML language, highlighting the innovations proposed by same and how it can be applied to the multi-agent systems project, identifying its advantages and disadvantages. After that, the paper passes on to describe how UML, from its version 2.0 on, has bypassed AUML and how the former can be applied to the multiagent systems project, pinpointing its positive aspects and its deficiencies.

Guedes, Gilleanes Thorwald Araujo; Vicari, Rosa Maria

172

Functional schematic diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carefully planned schematic diagram will simplify the study and servicing of electronic equipment. Whereas a conventional schematic merely shows the electrical components and how they are connected, a functional schematic will place these parts on the drawing in such a way as to delineate the circuits they build. This circuit concept versus component concept is the main thesis of

S. H. Larick

1946-01-01

173

Impulse-Momentum Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and…

Rosengrant, David

2011-01-01

174

Hierarchical Hybrid Block Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block diagram languages are now commonly used to design and even implement embedded systems. In the design phase, they are used to model both plant and controller, typically with continuous and discrete modeling respectively. The semantics of these lan- guages are often vague and\\/or complex, which is fine for some users but leaves others puzzled by the behav- iors they

Ben Denckla; Pieter J. Mosterman

175

Knots and Feynman Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Introduction; 2. Perturbative quantum field theory; 3. The Hopf algebra structure of renormalization; 4. Rationality: no knots, no transcendentals; 5. The simplest link diagrams; 6. Necessary topics from knot theory; 7. Knots to numbers; 8. One-loop words; 9. Euler-Zagier sums; 10. Knots and transcendentals; 11. The 4-term relation; 12. Hopf algebras, non-commutative geometry, and what else?

Kreimer, Dirk

2000-07-01

176

Acyclic Jacobi Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a simple new combinatorial model to study spaces of acyclic Jacobi diagrams, in which they are identified with algebras of words modulo operations. This provides a starting point for a word-problem type combinatorial investigation of such spaces, and provides fresh insights on known results.

Daniel Moskovich

2005-01-01

177

Chromatic Number of Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conditions concerning a partially ordered set (poset (P)) and an orientation for an undirected graph diagram are given. An explicit construction of an order P with given chi(D(P)) is given. This order is the interval order, as N free. This leads to specia...

J. Gustedt S. Felsner M. Morvan J. Rampon

1991-01-01

178

Automatic Resolution of Ambiguous Terms Based on Machine Learning and Conceptual Relations in the UMLS  

PubMed Central

Motivation. The UMLS has been used in natural language processing applications such as information retrieval and information extraction systems. The mapping of free-text to UMLS concepts is important for these applications. To improve the mapping, we need a method to disambiguate terms that possess multiple UMLS concepts. In the general English domain, machine-learning techniques have been applied to sense-tagged corpora, in which senses (or concepts) of ambiguous terms have been annotated (mostly manually). Sense disambiguation classifiers are then derived to determine senses (or concepts) of those ambiguous terms automatically. However, manual annotation of a corpus is an expensive task. We propose an automatic method that constructs sense-tagged corpora for ambiguous terms in the UMLS using MEDLINE abstracts. Methods. For a term W that represents multiple UMLS concepts, a collection of MEDLINE abstracts that contain W is extracted. For each abstract in the collection, occurrences of concepts that have relations with W as defined in the UMLS are automatically identified. A sense-tagged corpus, in which senses of W are annotated, is then derived based on those identified concepts. The method was evaluated on a set of 35 frequently occurring ambiguous biomedical abbreviations using a gold standard set that was automatically derived. The quality of the derived sense-tagged corpus was measured using precision and recall. Results. The derived sense-tagged corpus had an overall precision of 92.9% and an overall recall of 47.4%. After removing rare senses and ignoring abbreviations with closely related senses, the overall precision was 96.8% and the overall recall was 50.6%. Conclusions. UMLS conceptual relations and MEDLINE abstracts can be used to automatically acquire knowledge needed for resolving ambiguity when mapping free-text to UMLS concepts.

Liu, Hongfang; Johnson, Stephen B.; Friedman, Carol

2002-01-01

179

General Framework for the Description of QoS in UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

UML is useful for modeling object-oriented systems, their behavior and interaction. However, UML currently does not support the modeling of quality of service (QoS) criteria, such as the reliability and accuracy (i.e., quality). A QoS framework provides support to ensure consistency in modeling various qualities of service. It supports a general categorization of different kinds of QoS; including QoS that

Miguel A. De Miguel; Ciudad Universitaria

2003-01-01

180

Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram model uses light-trajectories to show the effect of relative motion when observing (recording) events in special relativity. In the default scenario, an explosion (an event) at the center of a right-moving stick occurs at t=0 and the arrival of the explosion light signal at each end is recorded. The arrival event at the left end occurs before the arrival event at the right end because the stick is moving. How do the location and time of these events change if they are observed in a reference frame (the Other Frame) in which the stick is stationary?   The Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram model was written for the study of special relativity the Lorentz transformation using spacetime diagrams and is a supplemental simulation for an article by Sebastien Cromier and Richard Steinberg "The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts" in the The Physics Teacher 48 (9), 598-601 (2010). Initial conditions, such as the locations of the explosion and the detectors, can be adjusted by dragging before the simulation is run. The slider can be used to change the speed of the stick. A third view shows the stick and the wavefront in space. More importantly, a checkbox allows users to compare the predictions of Galilean and special relativity in order to observe how the assumption of a constant speed of light leads to the relativity of simultaneity.   The Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_sr_SimultaneitySpacetimeDiagram.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2010-10-07

181

The Workup of Penetrometer Diagrams (Snyatie i Obrabotka Plotnomernykh Diagram).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During studies of operation and testing of agricultural machines and tools, penetrometers are used to plot diagrams for determining the density of the soil. The recorded registrations of the penetrometer diagrams as a function of the depth of cone submerg...

V. I. Buromski

1972-01-01

182

Automatic construction of intelligent diagram editors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intelligent diagram is a recent metaphor for diagramming in which the underlying graphic editor parses the diagram as it is being constructed, performing error correction and collecting geometric constraints which capture the relationships between diagram components. During diagram manipulation a constraint solver uses these geometric constraints to maintain the diagram’s semantics. We describe the Penguins system. This automates the

Sitt Chen Chok; Kim Marriott

1998-01-01

183

Schematic transformation diagrams for steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the diffusional transformations of austenite and concludes that separate C-curves are required for pearlite, upper bainite, lower bainite and isothermal martensite. A schematic isothermal transformation diagram incorporating the four curves is presented for a plain carbon eutectoid steel and used to develop a schematic continuous cooling transformation diagram. These diagrams are shown to be more compatible with

Noel F. Kennon

1978-01-01

184

Modeling process flow using diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the practice of process improvement, tools such as the flowchart, the value-stream map (VSM), and a variety of ad hoc variants of such diagrams are commonly used. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear, precise, and consistent framework for the use of such flow diagrams in process improvement projects. The paper finds that traditional diagrams, such

Benjamin Kemper; Jeroen de Mast; Michel Mandjes

2010-01-01

185

Sorting Helps for Voronoi Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that, using standard models of computation, ?(n logn) time is required to build a Voronoi diagram forn point sites. This follows from the fact that a Voronoi diagram algorithm can be used to sort. However, if the sites are sorted\\u000a before we start, can the Voronoi diagram be built any faster? We show that for certain

L. Paul Chew; Steven Fortune

1997-01-01

186

Diagram Techniques for Confluence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We,develop,diagram,techniques,for proving,confluence,in abstract reductions,systems. The underlying,theory,gives a systematic,and,uniform framework in which a number of known results, widely scattered throughout the literature, can be understood. These results include Newman’s lemma, Lemma 3.1 of Winkler and Buchberger, the HindleyRosen lemma, the Request lemmas of Staples, the Strong Confluence lemma of Huet, the lemma,of De Bruijn.,, 1998 Academic,Press

Marc Bezem; Jan Willem Klop; Vincent Van Oostrom

1998-01-01

187

Diagram Techniques for Confluence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop diagram techniques for proving confluence in abstract reductions systems. The underlying theory gives a systematic and uniform framework in which a number of known results, widely scattered throughout the literature, can be understood. These results include Newman's\\u000aLemma (1942), Lemma 3.1 of Winkler and Buchberger (1985), the\\u000aHindley-Rosen Lemma (1964), the Request Lemmas of Staples (1975),\\u000athe Strong

M. A. Bezem; J. W. Klop; V. van Oostrom

1996-01-01

188

TEP process flow diagram  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

189

Phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol phase diagrams.  

PubMed

Two mono-cis-unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid molecules, having very different gel-liquid crystalline phase transition temperatures as a consequence of the relative positions of the double bond, exhibit PC:cholesterol phase diagrams that are very similar to each other and to that obtained previously for a fully saturated PC:cholesterol mixture (Vist, M. R., and J. H. Davis. 1990. Biochemistry 29:451-464). This leads to the conjecture that PC:cholesterol membrane phase diagrams have a universal form which is relatively independent of the precise chemical structure of the PC molecule. One feature of this phase diagram is the observation over a wide temperature range of a fluid but highly conformationally ordered phase at bilayer concentrations of more than approximately 25 mol% cholesterol. This ;liquid ordered' phase is postulated to be the relevant physical state for many biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, that contain substantial amounts of cholesterol or equivalent sterols. PMID:19431848

Thewalt, J L; Bloom, M

1992-10-01

190

Consumer Health Concepts That Do Not Map to the UMLS: Where Do They Fit?  

PubMed Central

Objective This study has two objectives: first, to identify and characterize consumer health terms not found in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus (2007 AB); second, to describe the procedure for creating new concepts in the process of building a consumer health vocabulary. How do the unmapped consumer health concepts relate to the existing UMLS concepts? What is the place of these new concepts in professional medical discourse? Design The consumer health terms were extracted from two large corpora derived in the process of Open Access Collaboratory Consumer Health Vocabulary (OAC CHV) building. Terms that could not be mapped to existing UMLS concepts via machine and manual methods prompted creation of new concepts, which were then ascribed semantic types, related to existing UMLS concepts, and coded according to specified criteria. Results This approach identified 64 unmapped concepts, 17 of which were labeled as uniquely “lay” and not feasible for inclusion in professional health terminologies. The remaining terms constituted potential candidates for inclusion in professional vocabularies, or could be constructed by post-coordinating existing UMLS terms. The relationship between new and existing concepts differed depending on the corpora from which they were extracted. Conclusion Non-mapping concepts constitute a small proportion of consumer health terms, but a proportion that is likely to affect the process of consumer health vocabulary building. We have identified a novel approach for identifying such concepts.

Keselman, Alla; Smith, Catherine Arnott; Divita, Guy; Kim, Hyeoneui; Browne, Allen C.; Leroy, Gondy; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

2008-01-01

191

An Evaluation of the UMLS in Representing Corpus Derived Clinical Concepts  

PubMed Central

We performed an evaluation of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) in representing concepts derived from medical narrative documents from three domains: chest x-ray reports, discharge summaries and admission notes. We detected concepts in these documents by identifying noun phrases (NPs) and N-grams, including unigrams (single words), bigrams (word pairs) and trigrams (word triples). After removing NPs and N-grams that did not represent discrete clinical concepts, we processed the remaining with the UMLS MetaMap program. We manually reviewed the results of MetaMap processing to determine whether MetaMap found full, partial or no representation of the concept. For full representations, we determined whether post-coordination was required. Our results showed that a large portion of concepts found in clinical narrative documents are either unrepresented or poorly represented in the current version of the UMLS Metathesaurus and that post-coordination was often required in order to fully represent a concept.

Friedlin, Jeff; Overhage, Marc

2011-01-01

192

Argument Diagramming: The Araucaria Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formal arguments, such as those used in science, medicine and law to establish a conclusion by providing supporting evidence, are frequently represented by diagrams such as trees and graphs. We describe the software package Araucaria which allows textual arguments to be marked up and represented as standard, Toulmin or Wigmore diagrams. Since each of these diagramming techniques was devised for a particular domain or argumentation, we discuss some of the issues involved in translating between diagrams. The exercise of translating between different diagramming types illustrates that any one diagramming system often cannot capture all of the nuances inherent in an argument. Finally, we describe some areas, such as critical thinking courses in colleges and universities and the analysis of evidence in court cases, where Araucaria has been put to practical use.

Rowe, Glenn; Reed, Chris

193

Indexing Anatomical Phrases in Neuro-Radiology Reports to the UMLS 2005AA  

PubMed Central

This work describes a methodology to index anatomical phrases to the 2005AA release of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). A phrase chunking tool based on Natural Language Processing (NLP) was developed to identify semantically coherent phrases within medical reports. Using this phrase chunker, a set of 2,551 unique anatomical phrases was extracted from brain radiology reports. These phrases were mapped to the 2005AA release of the UMLS using a vector space model. Precision for the task of indexing unique phrases was 0.87.

Bashyam, Vijayaraghavan; Taira, Ricky K.

2005-01-01

194

A proposal for incorporating health level seven (HL7) vocabulary in the UMLS Metathesaurus.  

PubMed Central

The HL7 Vocabulary Technical Committee (TC) was organized to select and maintain the vocabulary used in HL7 messages. The goal is to make implementations of the Version 3 HL7 Standard more plug-and-play compatible. In order to make the vocabulary readily accessible to the public, HL7 is collaborating with the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) to include HL7 vocabulary in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. This article describes a proposal for how HL7 data elements and coded values can be represented accurately in the relational tables of the UMLS Metathesaurus.

Huff, S. M.; Bidgood, W. D.; Cimino, J. J.; Hammond, W. E.

1998-01-01

195

Schematic transformation diagrams for steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the diffusional transformations of austenite and concludes that separateC-curves are required for pearlite, upper bainite, lower bainite and isothermal martensite. A schematic isothermal transformation\\u000a diagram incorporating the four curves is presented for a plain carbon eutectoid steel and used to develop a schematic continuous\\u000a cooling transformation diagram. These diagrams are shown to be more compatible with the

Noel F. Kennon

1978-01-01

196

A computational model of information retrieval with UMLS.  

PubMed Central

A high level representation of data would clarify the complex collection of medical concepts, terms and relationships derived from standard classifications that the Unified Medical Language System contains. A conceptual model is described which represents the data structure. A second objective of this conceptual model is to provide users with the capability to build queries to information databases as easily as possible on the basis of this data structure. The methods used to build this model are semantic networks and conceptual graphs. The object-oriented computational model which implements this conceptual model is detailed. It reuses part of the generic C++ classes of the National Institutes of Health library. New classes are added to this library to implement the needed functionalities.

Robert, J. J.; Joubert, M.; Nal, L.; Fieschi, M.

1994-01-01

197

Graphical process diagrams ion—views and diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process design (and description) is largely an ad hoc discipline composed of several diagramming techniques with no clear definition of the process characteristics described by any one, usually with no definition of the relationship between the diagrams, and in most cases with no definition of the process design stages. This is in sharp contrast with product description and design, where

KOSTIA MANDEL

1990-01-01

198

Spider Diagrams of Order and a Hierarchy of Star-Free Regular Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spider diagram logic forms a fragment of the constraint diagram logic and was designed to be primarily used as a diagrammatic\\u000a software specification tool. Our interest is in using the logical basis of spider diagrams and the existing known equivalences\\u000a between certain logics, formal language theory classes and some automata to inform the development of diagrammatic logics.\\u000a Such developments

Aidan Delaney; John Taylor; Simon Thompson

2008-01-01

199

Interactive Law Encoding Diagrams for learning and instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law Encoding Diagrams (LEDs) appear to be effective for learning and instruction, because they make the underlying relations of a domain more readily accessible than do traditional representations. Two systems of interactive computer based LEDs are described. The empirical evaluation of one system is reviewed. The potential of LEDs is analysed in terms of how they support different classes of

Peter C. H. Cheng

1999-01-01

200

English Pyramids: Using Hierarchical Diagrams for Communication Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The pyramid, or hierarchical diagram, is used in teaching writing English as a second language (ESL) as a visual representation of the way English speakers and writers organize ideas, for comparison with discourse organization in other cultures. A common problem of ESL students is an inability to organize ideas hierarchically. One class activity…

Johnson, Tia; Sheetz-Brunetti, Judy

201

UML-based modeling and model-driven development of distributed control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of UML throughout the design process of low-cost distributed control systems is here proposed. In absence of a unique standard for the hardware and the software the only way to proceed is to conduct the control systempsilas design at a high level of abstraction, deferring integration issues to the physical layer implementation phase. The first contribution of the

Francesco Basile; Pasquale Chiacchio; Domenico Del Grosso

2008-01-01

202

Formal performance analysis and simulation of UML\\/SysML models for ESL design  

Microsoft Academic Search

UML2 and SysML try to adopt techniques known from soft- ware development to systems engineering. However, the focus has been put on modeling aspects until now and quantitative perfor- mance analysis is not adequately taken into account in early de- sign stages of the system. In this paper, we present our approach for formal and simulation based performance analysis of

Alexander Viehl; Timo Schönwald; Oliver Bringmann; Wolfgang Rosenstiel

2006-01-01

203

UML Vs. Classical Vs. Rhapsody Statecharts: Not All Models Are Created Equal  

Microsoft Academic Search

State machines, represented by statecharts or statechart dia- grams, are an important formalism for behavioural modelling. According to the research literature, the most popular statechart formalisms ap- pear to be Classical, UML, and that implemented by Rhapsody. These three formalisms seem to be very similar; however, there are several key syntactic and semantic difierences. These difierences are enough that a

Michelle L. Crane; Juergen Dingel

2005-01-01

204

A Prophylactic Approach to Teaching UML in an Undergraduate Introduction to Software Engineering Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years, medicine has employed prophylaxis to keep us healthy, borrowing from the old adage that 'an ounce of prevention is worth more than a pound of cure'. The approach to teaching UML presented in this paper uses the same concept, along with principles of Piaget's cognitive theory of learning. It is our hypothesis that if the misconceptions that lie

Rochelle Elva; David A. Workman

205

A Semantic Fusion Approach Between Medical Images and Reports Using UMLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main challenges in content-based image retrieval still remains to bridge the gap between low-level features and seman- tic information. In this paper, we present our first results concerning a medical image retrieval approach using a semantic medical image and report indexing within a fusion framework, based on the Unified Medi- cal Language System (UMLS) metathesaurus. We propose

Daniel Racoceanu; Caroline Lacoste; Roxana Teodorescu; Nicolas Vuillemenot

2006-01-01

206

Design and Reduction of UML-PN Models of Power Plant's Fault Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to analysis models of fault management systems in power plants, a method combining software engineering techniques and DEDS (discrete event dynamic system, DEDS) models was put forward in this paper. Fault detection system was proposed as an example to set up models. Firstly, the UML charts and corresponding Petri nets were founded. Then, in order to optimize the

Xin Yang; Lijuan Chen; Mou Chen; Dake Zhou

2009-01-01

207

CUTA4UML: bridging the gap between informal and formal requirements for dynamic system aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe our integrated approach to improve requirements elicitation and system specification by supporting a strong and direct involvement of all stakeholders, including non technical personnel, in the early phases of a project. This so-called CUTA4UML approach comprises a framework of methods, tools and feedback cycles that is based on the concept of Participatory Design (PD) and

Ivonne Erfurth; Wilhelm Rossak

2010-01-01

208

Quality evaluation of value sets from cancer study common data elements using the UMLS semantic groups  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study is to develop an approach to evaluate the quality of terminological annotations on the value set (ie, enumerated value domain) components of the common data elements (CDEs) in the context of clinical research using both unified medical language system (UMLS) semantic types and groups. Materials and methods The CDEs of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Data Standards Repository, the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) concepts and the UMLS semantic network were integrated using a semantic web-based framework for a SPARQL-enabled evaluation. First, the set of CDE-permissible values with corresponding meanings in external controlled terminologies were isolated. The corresponding value meanings were then evaluated against their NCI- or UMLS-generated semantic network mapping to determine whether all of the meanings fell within the same semantic group. Results Of the enumerated CDEs in the Cancer Data Standards Repository, 3093 (26.2%) had elements drawn from more than one UMLS semantic group. A random sample (n=100) of this set of elements indicated that 17% of them were likely to have been misclassified. Discussion The use of existing semantic web tools can support a high-throughput mechanism for evaluating the quality of large CDE collections. This study demonstrates that the involvement of multiple semantic groups in an enumerated value domain of a CDE is an effective anchor to trigger an auditing point for quality evaluation activities. Conclusion This approach produces a useful quality assurance mechanism for a clinical study CDE repository.

Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

2012-01-01

209

Dynamic power management for UML modeled applications on multiprocessor SoC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a novel scheme of dynamic power management for UML modeled applications that are executed on a multiprocessor System-on-Chip (SoC) in a distributed manner. The UML models for both application and architecture are designed according to a well-defined UML profile for embedded system design, called TUT-Profile. Application processes are considered as elementary units of distributed execution, and their mapping on a multiprocessor SoC can be dynamically changed at run-time. Our approach on the dynamic power management balances utilized processor resources against current workload at runtime by (1) observing the processor and workload statistics, (2) re-evaluating the amount of required resources (i.e. the number of active processors), and (3) re-mapping the application processes to the minimum set of active processors. The inactive processors are set to a power-save state by using clock-gating. The approach integrates the well-known power management techniques tightly with the UML based design of embedded systems in a novel way. We evaluated the dynamic power management with a WLAN terminal implemented on a multiprocessor SoC on Altera Stratix II FPGA containing up to five Nios II processors and dedicated hardware accelerators. Measurements proved up to 21% savings in the power consumption of the whole FPGA board.

Kukkala, Petri; Arpinen, Tero; Setälä, Mikko; Hännikäinen, Marko; Hämäläinen, Timo D.

2007-02-01

210

UML-Based Analysis of Embedded Systems Using a Mapping to VHDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for developing and modeling embedded sys- tems and rigorously verifying behavior before committing to code are increasingly important. A number of object- oriented techniques and notations have been introduced, but recently, it appears that the Unified Modeling Lan- guage (UML) could be a notation broad enough in scope to represent a variety of domains and gain widespread use. Currently,

William E. Mcumber; Betty H. C. Cheng

1999-01-01

211

Schematic Diagrams, XML and Accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes work in progress at Oxford Brookes University. The aim of the project is to define a higher-level diagram description language for the World Wide Web, which captures the structure and the semantics of a diagram and enables the generation of accessible presentations in different modalities such as speech, text, graphic, etc. This project, called Graphical Structure Semantic

Zaineb Ben Fredj; David A. Duce

2003-01-01

212

Potential-pH Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Potential-pH diagrams show the domains of redoxpotential and pH in which major species are most stable. Constructing such diagrams provides students with opportunities to decide what species must be considered, search literature for equilibrium constants and free energies of formation, and practice in using the Nernst equation. (Author/JN)|

Barnum, Dennis W.

1982-01-01

213

CLIMATE DIAGRAM - MILES CITY, MT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research conducted across the Great Plains has shown precipitation and temperature are the main factors affecting plant growth and development. A climate diagram was constructed with long-term (96-year) climate records from Miles City, Montana. The diagram describes the climate of the area. Maximum ...

214

VORONOI DIAGRAMS AND ORNAMENTAL DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of points in the plane induces a Voronoi diagram, a division of the plane based on proximity to points in the set. Voronoi diagrams have been used extensively in engineering and scientific disciplines, but the possibility of using them for creating abstract ornamental designs is largely unexplored. I present some techniques for creating attractive ornamental designs using Voronoi

Craig S. Kaplan

1999-01-01

215

Time-Based Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a variation of Voronoi diagram, or time-based Voronoi diagram, for a set S of points in the presence of transportation lines or highways in the plane. A shortest time-distance path from a query point to any given point in S is a path that takes the least travelling time. The travelling speeds and hence travelling times of the

D. T. Lee; Chung-Shou Liao; Wei-Bung Wang

216

The asymptotics of the return map of a singular point with fixed Newton diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exhibit a large class of nondegenerate singular points in which necessary and sufficient conditions are given for monodromy. We compute the generalized first Lyapunov value, which is expressed in terms of the Newton diagram of the singular point. The computational algorithm proposed is based on writing the return map as the composition of transition mappings constructed using the diagram.

F. S. Berezovskaya; N. B. Medvedeva

1992-01-01

217

Spider Diagrams: A Diagrammatic Reasoning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spider diagrams combine and extend Venn diagrams and Euler circles to express constraints on sets and their relationships with other sets. These diagrams can be used in conjunction with object-oriented modelling notations such as the Unified Modelling Language. This paper summarises the main syntax and semantics of spider diagrams. It also introduces inference rules for reasoning with spider diagrams and

John Howse; Fernando Molina; John Taylor; Stuart Kent; JOSEPH YOSSI GIL

2001-01-01

218

Particles, Feynman Diagrams and All That  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Quantum fields are introduced in order to give students an accurate qualitative understanding of the origin of Feynman diagrams as representations of particle interactions. Elementary diagrams are combined to produce diagrams representing the main features of the Standard Model.|

Daniel, Michael

2006-01-01

219

Atemporal diagrams for quantum circuits  

SciTech Connect

A system of diagrams is introduced that allows the representation of various elements of a quantum circuit, including measurements, in a form which makes no reference to time (hence 'atemporal'). It can be used to relate quantum dynamical properties to those of entangled states (map-state duality), and suggests useful analogies, such as the inverse of an entangled ket. Diagrams clarify the role of channel kets, transition operators, dynamical operators (matrices), and Kraus rank for noisy quantum channels. Positive (semidefinite) operators are represented by diagrams with a symmetry that aids in understanding their connection with completely positive maps. The diagrams are used to analyze standard teleportation and dense coding, and for a careful study of unambiguous (conclusive) teleportation. A simple diagrammatic argument shows that a Kraus rank of 3 is impossible for a one-qubit channel modeled using a one-qubit environment in a mixed state.

Griffiths, Robert B.; Wu Shengjun; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M. [Physics Department, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Physics Department, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282 (United States)

2006-05-15

220

Phase diagrams of magnetic nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical expressions for the total magnetic energy of two characteristic internal configurations of nanometric tubes are calculated. A magnetic phase diagram with respect to the aspect ratio of the tubes is obtained which allows a discussion about the possibility of getting ensembles of nanotubes with low coercive fields. A comparison with recently reported coercive fields of three different cobalt nanotube arrays agrees well with the phase diagram derived here.

Escrig, J.; Landeros, P.; Altbir, D.; Vogel, E. E.; Vargas, P.

2007-01-01

221

Introduction to Ternary Phase Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is intended as a group exercise to help students learn the fundamentals of using ternary phase diagrams. It is a much better way for students to learn about the diagrams than to lecture to them. Good students will be able to walk through this with little assistance from the instructor.Weaker students will struggle and need help from peers or instructors. The entire exercise takes 1-2 hours for most.

Perkins, Dexter

222

Diagram Designer 1.23  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Turning out flowcharts and diagrams for presentations can be quite a hassle, so it's nice to lean about the Diagram Designer application. With the program's interface, visitors can take advantage of the customizable object palette, slide show viewer, and the ability to plot mathematical expressions. This version also allows users to import various image file formats, such as jpeg and gif files. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer.

Vinther, Michael

223

Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Euler diagrams are a popular and intuitive visualization tool which are used in a wide variety of application areas, including\\u000a biological and medical data analysis. As with other data visualization methods, such as graphs, bar charts, or pie charts,\\u000a the automated generation of an Euler diagram from a suitable data set would be advantageous, removing the burden of manual\\u000a data

Gem Stapleton; Leishi Zhang; John Howse; Peter Rodgers

2010-01-01

224

The UMLS Knowledge Source Server: An Experience in Web 2.0 Technologies  

PubMed Central

The UMLS Knowledge Source Server (UMLSKS), developed at the National Library of Medicine (NLM), makes the knowledge sources of the Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS ®) available to the research community over the Internet. In 2003, the UMLSKS was redesigned utilizing state-of-the-art technologies available at that time. That design offered a significant improvement over the prior version but presented a set of technology-dependent issues that limited its functionality and usability. Four areas of desired improvement were identified: software interfaces, web interface content, system maintenance/deployment, and user authentication. By employing next generation web technologies, newer authentication paradigms and further refinements in modular design methods, these areas could be addressed and corrected to meet the ever increasing needs of UMLSKS developers. In this paper we detail the issues present with the existing system and describe the new system’s design using new technologies considered entrants in the Web 2.0 development era

Thorn, Karen E.; Bangalore, Anantha K.; Browne, Allen C.

2007-01-01

225

An evaluation of the source selection elements of the prototype UMLS Information Sources Map.  

PubMed Central

The Information Sources Map (ISM) is a component of the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project. The ISM is intended to provide both human-readable and machine-interpretable information about the content, scope, and access conditions for various information sources such as databases, expert systems, and the organizations which make these information sources available. Automated source selection is supported by three types of indexing in the ISM: Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms and subheadings; Semantic Types from the UMLS Semantic Network; and Semantic Type Relations, which depict pairs of semantic types joined by a relationship chosen from the Semantic Network. This paper reports a study of the recall and precision of the source selection elements in the prototype version of the ISM.

Masys, D. R.

1992-01-01

226

A technique for semantic classification of unknown words using UMLS resources.  

PubMed Central

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a tool for transforming natural text into codable form. Success of NLP systems is contingent on a well constructed semantic lexicon. However, creation and maintenance of these lexicons is difficult, costly and time consuming. The UMLS contains semantic and syntactic information of medical terms, which may be used to automate some of this task. Using UMLS resources we have observed that it is possible to define one semantic type by its syntactic combinations with other types in a corpus of discharge summaries. These patterns of combination can then be used to classify words which are not in the lexicon. The technique was applied to a corpus for a single semantic type and generated a list of 875 words which matched the classification criteria for that type. The words were ranked by number of patterns matched and the top 95 words were correctly typed with 80% accuracy.

Campbell, D. A.; Johnson, S. B.

1999-01-01

227

UMLS Content Views Appropriate for NLP Processing of the Biomedical Literature vs. Clinical Text  

PubMed Central

Identification of medical terms in free text is a first step in such Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks as automatic indexing of biomedical literature and extraction of patients’ problem lists from the text of clinical notes. Many tools developed to perform these tasks use biomedical knowledge encoded in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. We continue our exploration of automatic approaches to creation of subsets (UMLS content views) which can support NLP processing of either the biomedical literature or clinical text. We found that suppression of highly ambiguous terms in the conservative AutoFilter content view can partially replace manual filtering for literature applications, and suppression of two character mappings in the same content view achieves 89.5% precision at 78.6% recall for clinical applications.

Demner-Fushman, Dina; Mork, James G.; Shooshan, Sonya E.; Aronson, Alan R.

2010-01-01

228

UMLS content views appropriate for NLP processing of the biomedical literature vs. clinical text.  

PubMed

Identification of medical terms in free text is a first step in such Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks as automatic indexing of biomedical literature and extraction of patients' problem lists from the text of clinical notes. Many tools developed to perform these tasks use biomedical knowledge encoded in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. We continue our exploration of automatic approaches to creation of subsets (UMLS content views) which can support NLP processing of either the biomedical literature or clinical text. We found that suppression of highly ambiguous terms in the conservative AutoFilter content view can partially replace manual filtering for literature applications, and suppression of two character mappings in the same content view achieves 89.5% precision at 78.6% recall for clinical applications. PMID:20152935

Demner-Fushman, Dina; Mork, James G; Shooshan, Sonya E; Aronson, Alan R

2010-02-10

229

MedWeaver: integrating decision support, literature searching, and Web exploration using the UMLS Metathesaurus.  

PubMed Central

Integrating functions from disparate and widely-distributed information systems has been an interest of the medical informatics community for some time. Barriers to progress have included the lack of network-accessible information sources, inadequate methods for inter-system messaging, and lack of vocabulary translation services. With the advent of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the evolution of the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), it is now possible to develop applications that integrate functions from diverse, distributed systems. In this paper we describe one such system, MedWeaver, a WWW application that integrates functions from a decision support application (DXplain), a literature searching system (WebMedline), and a clinical Web searching system (CliniWeb) using the UMLS Metathesaurus for vocabulary translation. This system demonstrates how application developers can design systems around anticipated clinical information needs and then draw together the needed content and functionality from diverse sources.

Detmer, W. M.; Barnett, G. O.; Hersh, W. R.

1997-01-01

230

Study of C4ISR Architecture Simulation Validation with UML and Object-Based Petri Nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

C4ISR (command, control, communication, computer, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance) architecture is the important method to ensure the quality of system design. One method of C4ISR architecture validation is to transform the C4ISR architecture products to executable models. Through analyzing model execution process and result, the performance of C4ISR architecture can be tested. Based on the different advantage of UML (Unified

Xiaohui Bai

2008-01-01

231

Effective Mapping of Biomedical Text to the UMLS Metathesaurus: The MetaMap Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The UMLS® Metathesaurus®, the largest thesaurus... This paper describes MetaMap, a program developed at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to map biomedical text to the Metathesaurus or, equivalently, to discover Metathesaurus concepts referred to in text. MetaMap uses a knowledge intensive approach based on symbolic, natural language processing (NLP) and computational linguistic techniques. Besides being applied for both

Alan R. Aronson

2001-01-01

232

Utilizing UML and system dynamics to optimize the Eco-environmental Impacts evaluation and prediction models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, the eco-environmental impacts (EI) systems of large-scale projects, such as the cascade hydropower projects, are complex systems with the characteristics of non-linear and dynamics. However, through integrating information technologies with complex system concepts, the system modeling and operating of complex system could become quantitative and easy to be computerized. This paper adopts UML and system dynamics (SD) as system

Yaqin Fu; Qiuwen Zhang; Cheng Wang

2008-01-01

233

Research Paper: Expanding the Extent of a UMLS Semantic Type via Group Neighborhood Auditing  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveEach Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concept is assigned one or more semantic types (ST). A dynamic methodology for aiding an auditor in finding concepts that are missing the assignment of a given ST, S is presented.DesignThe first part of the methodology exploits the previously introduced Refined Semantic Network and accompanying refined semantic types (RST) to help narrow the search

Yan Chen; Huanying Gu; Yehoshua Perl; Michael Halper; Junchuan Xu

2009-01-01

234

A Queuing Theory and Systems Modeling Course Based on Unified Modeling Language (UML)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents the implementation of a new teaching method in the way that a queuing theory and systems modeling or simulation\\u000a course can be done. It also presents how this method was evaluated by the teachers and the students that attended the course\\u000a and answered a questionnaire. This course is based on the use of Unified Modeling Language (UML)

Athanasios Perdos; George Stephanides; Alexander Chatzigeorgiou

2010-01-01

235

Alignment of the UMLS semantic network with BioTop: methodology and assessment  

PubMed Central

Motivation: For many years, the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic network (SN) has been used as an upper-level semantic framework for the categorization of terms from terminological resources in biomedicine. BioTop has recently been developed as an upper-level ontology for the biomedical domain. In contrast to the SN, it is founded upon strict ontological principles, using OWL DL as a formal representation language, which has become standard in the semantic Web. In order to make logic-based reasoning available for the resources annotated or categorized with the SN, a mapping ontology was developed aligning the SN with BioTop. Methods: The theoretical foundations and the practical realization of the alignment are being described, with a focus on the design decisions taken, the problems encountered and the adaptations of BioTop that became necessary. For evaluation purposes, UMLS concept pairs obtained from MEDLINE abstracts by a named entity recognition system were tested for possible semantic relationships. Furthermore, all semantic-type combinations that occur in the UMLS Metathesaurus were checked for satisfiability. Results: The effort-intensive alignment process required major design changes and enhancements of BioTop and brought up several design errors that could be fixed. A comparison between a human curator and the ontology yielded only a low agreement. Ontology reasoning was also used to successfully identify 133 inconsistent semantic-type combinations. Availability: BioTop, the OWL DL representation of the UMLS SN, and the mapping ontology are available at http://www.purl.org/biotop/. Contact: stschulz@uni-freiburg.de

Schulz, Stefan; Beisswanger, Elena; van den Hoek, Laszlo; Bodenreider, Olivier; van Mulligen, Erik M.

2009-01-01

236

UMLS-based Conceptual Queries to Biomedical Information Databases : An Overview of the Project ARIANE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of the project ARIANE is to model and implement seamless, natural, and easy-to-use interfaces with various kinds of heterogeneous biomedical information databases.DesignA conceptual model of some of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) knowledge sources has been developed to help end-users to query information databases. A query is represented by a conceptual graph that translates the deep structure

Michel Joubert; Marius Fieschi; Jean-Jacques Robert; Françoise Volot; Dominique Fieschi

1998-01-01

237

A First Step Towards Hw\\/Sw Partitioning of UML Specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel methodology tailored to design embedded systems, taking into account the emerging market needs, such as hw\\/sw partitioning, object-orientedspecifications, overall design costs and early analysis of design alternatives. The proposal tackles the problem by considering UML as the starting point for system-level description and uses a customization of Function Point analysis and COCOMO to provide cost

William Fornaciari; P. Micheli; Fabio Salice; L. Zampella

2003-01-01

238

Using WordNet to improve the mapping of data elements to UMLS for data sources integration.  

PubMed

Each biomedical system has its own way of naming the pieces of information it contains, i.e., of defining its data elements (DEs). Integrating DEs facilitates the integration of biomedical resources. However, the mapping of DEs to the UMLS is ambiguous in many cases, when any correspondence is found at all. We propose to evaluate the potential contribution of a more general terminology: WordNet. Our method is based on synonyms, definitions, and structural properties of the terminologies. We applied it to a set of 474 DEs extracted from eleven biomedical sources. We show that WordNet can improve the direct mapping of DEs to UMLS when used to validate and disambiguate UMLS direct mappings. WordNet can also help identify indirect mappings of DEs to the UMLS. PMID:17238406

Mougin, Fleur; Burgun, Anita; Bodenreider, Olivier

2006-01-01

239

Using Meta-1-The 1st Version of the UMLS Metathesaurus  

PubMed Central

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is developing the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to provide uniform access to the world's biomedical knowledge. The foundation of the UMLS is a metathesaurus of concept names, or terms. Meta-1, the first version of the Metathesaurus, was synthesized from existing biomedical nomenclatures and classification systems, and it contains in excess of 100,000 terms, including all those from MeSH and DSM, and a portion of those from SNOMED, ICD, CPT, LCSH, COSTAR and other sources. These names are arranged and labeled so as to help answer the questions, “What is it called?” and “Where can I find out more about it?” We refer to the first question as the naming problem, and the second as the location problem, respectively. We think of Meta-1 as a source of lexical diversity and semantic locality with which to address these problems in biomedicine. While the NLM will be using Meta-1 in the UMLS, non-NLM developers and users may wish to use Meta-1 to help solve their own naming and location problems

Tuttle, Mark; Sherertz, David; Olson, Nels; Erlbaum, Mark; Sperzel, David; Fuller, Lloyd; Nelson, Stuart

1990-01-01

240

Problems in causal loop diagrams revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reemerging problem Word-and-arrow diagrams (causal-loop diagrams, influence diagrams, cognitive maps, and the like) are enjoying widespread use in the system dynamics and systems thinking communities. It is increasingly common to see these diagrams with links labeled \\

George P. Richardson

1997-01-01

241

Characteristics of Group Development of Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

One contributing factor to the lack of widespread usage of software for collaborative development of diagrams is the high degree of variability in the requirements for such software. The requirements are categorized in terms of diagram characteristics and diagram creation strategies. Various measures are proposed to characterize a potential collaborative diagramming need and to compare it to potential software systems.

Jeffrey D. Campbell

2002-01-01

242

Phase diagram of water between hydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that there are at least two classes of quasi-two-dimensional solid water into which liquid water confined between hydrophobic surfaces freezes spontaneously and whose hydrogen-bond networks are as fully connected as those of bulk ice. One of them is the monolayer ice and the other is the bilayer solid which takes either a crystalline or an amorphous form. Here we present the phase transformations among liquid, bilayer amorphous (or crystalline) ice, and monolayer ice phases at various thermodynamic conditions, then determine curves of melting, freezing, and solid-solid structural change on the isostress planes where temperature and intersurface distance are variable, and finally we propose a phase diagram of the confined water in the temperature-pressure-distance space. PMID:15836349

Koga, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Hideki

2005-03-01

243

CLASS for Class  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faculty and students from the School of Meteorology at the University of Oklahoma and staff members from the Atmospheric Technology Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) participated in a special course given during the last two weeks of May 1992. The purpose of the course was to give students the opportunity to use the NCAR mobile CLASS

Howard B. Bluestein

1993-01-01

244

Diagrams for laser materials processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical heat flow model is used to identify dimensionless parameter groups which determine the temperature field produced in a material by a scanning laser beam. The groups are used to plot experimental data for metallic alloys on a processing diagram for a range of continuous CO2 laser treatments. Practical operating regions for each type of treatment are thus identified, which coincide with those predicted using the heat flow model. The model is extended in order to construct more detailed diagrams for transformation hardening, surface melting and keyhole welding, which quantify the depth of treatment. By using realistic estimates of certain poorly-known process variables, good agreement is observed between measured and predicted data. Methods for optimizing processing parameters with respect to various criteria are presented for transformation hardening. The diagrams, which are constructed on a personal computer, are a useful tool for summarizing current data, optimizing practical processing parameters, and assessing the potential of novel laser treatments on new materials.

Ion, J. C.; Shercliff, H. R.; Ashby, M. F.

1992-07-01

245

Matched designs and causal diagrams.  

PubMed

We use causal diagrams to illustrate the consequences of matching and the appropriate handling of matched variables in cohort and case-control studies. The matching process generally forces certain variables to be independent despite their being connected in the causal diagram, a phenomenon known as unfaithfulness. We show how causal diagrams can be used to visualize many previous results about matched studies. Cohort matching can prevent confounding by the matched variables, but censoring or other missing data and further adjustment may necessitate control of matching variables. Case-control matching generally does not prevent confounding by the matched variables, and control of matching variables may be necessary even if those were not confounders initially. Matching on variables that are affected by the exposure and the outcome, or intermediates between the exposure and the outcome, will ordinarily produce irremediable bias. PMID:23918854

Mansournia, Mohammad A; Hernán, Miguel A; Greenland, Sander

2013-06-01

246

Pseudohaptic interaction with knot diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make progress in understanding knot theory, we need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots, which are continuous in three dimensions (3-D) but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal is to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch two-dimensional (2-D) knot diagrams by taking advantage of a collision-sensing controller and explore their underlying smooth structures through a continuous motion. Recent advances of interaction techniques have been made that allow progress in this direction. Pseudohaptics that simulate haptic effects using pure visual feedback can be used to develop such an interactive system. We outline one such pseudohaptic knot diagram interface. Our interface derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing 2-D knot diagrams and provides haptic-like sensations to facilitate the creation and exploration of knot diagrams. A centerpiece of the interaction model simulates a physically reactive mouse cursor, which is exploited to resolve the apparent conflict between the continuous structure of the actual smooth knot and the visual discontinuities in the knot diagram representation. Another value in exploiting pseudohaptics is that an acceleration (or deceleration) of the mouse cursor (or surface locator) can be used to indicate the slope of the curve (or surface) of which the projective image is being explored. By exploiting these additional visual cues, we proceed to a full-featured extension to a pseudohaptic four-dimensional (4-D) visualization system that simulates the continuous navigation on 4-D objects and allows us to sense the bumps and holes in the fourth dimension. Preliminary tests of the software show that main features of the interface overcome some expected perceptual limitations in our interaction with 2-D knot diagrams of 3-D knots and 3-D projective images of 4-D mathematical objects.

Weng, Jianguang; Zhang, Hui

2012-07-01

247

Traffic on Bidirectional Ant Trails: Coarsening Behaviour and Fundamental Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate traffic on preexisting ant trails using minimal cellular automaton models. We focus on generic properties of\\u000a the models like the coarsening of particles and the fundamental diagrams. Crucial differences between the biand the unidirectional\\u000a model are also discussed. However, based on the coarsening behaviour both models belong to the same universality class. Furthermore\\u000a it will be shown how

Alexander John; Ambarish Kunwar; Alireza Namazi; Andreas Schadschneider; Debashish Chowdhury; Katushiro Nishinari

248

Electronegativity and hardness as coordinates in structure stability diagrams.  

PubMed Central

With electronegativity and hardness of an atom defined as 1/2(I + A) and 1/2(I - A), respectively, where I and A are the ionization potential and electron affinity, electronegativity difference and hardness sum are proposed as coordinates in structure stability diagrams. With these coordinates a successful topological classification of the crystal structures of octet and suboctet binary compounds is obtained, and a clear delineation of the structural classes portraying chemical periodicity is found.

Shankar, S; Parr, R G

1985-01-01

249

The Butterfly Diagram internal structure .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new graphic representation of the spotgroup distribution with respect to time and latitude is presented. At variance with Maunder's Butterfly Diagram, which registers the mere presence of spotgroups, the diagram presented here accounts for the spotgroup area. It shows that spotgroups aggregate in a few small, heavenly spotted portions (``knots'') of the diagram. Each knot is the signature of a photospheric region tightly limited in latitude, active for a short time. The butterfly diagram is but a cluster of knots and the spot zone is the latitude range inside which knots activate. The cycle is a sequence of knots activations and extinctions. Even though knots show the overall tendency to appear at lower and lower latitudes as the cycle goes on, a knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones. The examination of the knot distribution inside the ``butterfly wings'' suggests that - at any cycle and at any hemisphere - two ``activity waves" drift equatorward at a rate roughly twice the drift rate of the spot zone as a whole.

Ternullo, M.

250

Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

2011-01-01

251

Concrete and Abstract Voronoi Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is

Rolf Klein

1989-01-01

252

Animated Diagram: Sedimentary Rock Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash-enabled diagram provides a scheme for sedimentary rock identification accompanied by pop-up images of the rocks. Rolling the mouse over highlighted boxes links texture, grain size, composition, and map symbols to images of a variety of sedimentary rocks. The animation is downloadable.

253

Validation of Causal Loop Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present techniques for manually assessing the structural validity of each link in a causal loop diagram (CLD). A link is defined as consisting of an origination quantity, a destination quantity and a connection edge between them. Each link is considered as a separate and distinct causal hypothesis whose validity should stand on its own merits. Following

James R. Burns

254

Telesynergy V3 Wiring Diagram  

Cancer.gov

Extron 8 port Video/Audio Switch WAVE Camera Telesynergy v3 Wiring Diagram ISDN T1/PRI Module CTRLR 0 Legend: S-Video Audio VGA DVI USB RS-232 Serial Microphone Ethernet Planar C5i AMD Exam Cam Canon Document Camera Olympus BX51 Sony DVD Recorder JVC

255

QCD phase diagram: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this review is to summarize the contemporary understanding of the QCD phase di- agram as a function of temperature T and baryo-chemical potential µB . The focus is on recent theoretical developments due to lattice simulations of the phase diagram.

Stephanov, Misha

2006-12-01

256

Precipitation and the Sounding Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This undergraduate meteorology tutorial deals with the interplay between the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere and the temperature of the ascending air in the formation of precipitation. Students learn about the dry and moist adiabatic lapse rates, reading and interpreting sounding diagrams, and determining the change in temperature as air parcels rise or sink.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-01-01

257

Stability diagrams for Landau damping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherent modes which are present when there is no incoherent tune spread may be absent when such a spread exists. Such modes are “Landau damped”. There is instead an incoherent spectrum, a continuum of an infinite number of frequencies, which will decohere (filament), thus not leading to collective instabilities. A stability diagram indicates when Landau damping will be effective. It

J. Scott Berg; Francesco Ruggiero

1997-01-01

258

Voronoi Diagrams on Periodic Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A periodic graph models various natural and artificial periodic patterns with repetitions of a given static graph, and have vast applications in crystallography, scheduling, VLSI circuits and systems of uniform recurrence equations. This paper considers a graph Voronoi diagram for a given subset of vertices on a periodic graph. The simplest two-dimensional periodic graph is a square lattice, and the

Norie Fu; Hiroshi Imai; Sonoko Moriyama

2010-01-01

259

A metaschema of the UMLS based on a partition of its semantic network.  

PubMed Central

The Unified Medical Language System's (UMLS's) Semantic Network (SN) provides an important conceptual abstraction that helps orient users to the vast knowledge content of its Metathesaurus. However, the SN is itself large and complex, and can also benefit from an additional abstract view of its own. In this paper, we present a metaschema that serves such a purpose. This metaschema is derived from a previously developed partitioning methodology for the SN. The metaschema is formally defined, and used to provide partial compact views of the SN.

Halper, M. H.; Chen, Z.; Geller, J.; Perl, Y.

2001-01-01

260

Developing a UMLS-based indexing tool for health science repository system.  

PubMed

One of the important procedures during the operation of an Institutional Repository System (IRS) is to categorize and index the submitted digital objects. Based on current practice, human catalogers are frequently involved in this process to make accurate categorization. Funded by NLM development grant, we are developing an UMLS-based indexing tool. The tool will be integrated or plug-in into most IRS, and categorize and assign MeSH headings and keywords to text-based digital objects automatically. PMID:17238776

Zhang, Dongming; Roderer, Nancy K; Huang, Guang; Zhao, Xin

2006-01-01

261

Causal Construction of the Massless Vertex Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The massless one-loop vertex diagram is constructed by exploiting the causal structure of the diagram in configuration space, which can be translated directly into dispersive relations in momentum space.

Aste, Andreas

2006-11-01

262

Hero's journey in bifurcation diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hero's journey is a narrative structure identified by several authors in comparative studies on folklore and mythology. This storytelling template presents the stages of inner metamorphosis undergone by the protagonist after being called to an adventure. In a simplified version, this journey is divided into three acts separated by two crucial moments. Here we propose a discrete-time dynamical system for representing the protagonist's evolution. The suffering along the journey is taken as the control parameter of this system. The bifurcation diagram exhibits stationary, periodic and chaotic behaviors. In this diagram, there are transition from fixed point to chaos and transition from limit cycle to fixed point. We found that the values of the control parameter corresponding to these two transitions are in quantitative agreement with the two critical moments of the three-act hero's journey identified in 10 movies appearing in the list of the 200 worldwide highest-grossing films.

Monteiro, L. H. A.; Mustaro, P. N.

2012-06-01

263

Adding pattern related information in structural and behavioral diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design patterns capture the distilled experience of expert designers. The compositions of design patterns may reuse design experience and solve a set of problems. Design patterns and their compositions are usually modeled using unified modeling language (UML). When a design pattern is applied or composed with other patterns, the pattern-related information may be lost because UML does not track this

Jing Dong

2004-01-01

264

Development of a cross-thesaurus with Internet-based refinement supported by UMLS.  

PubMed

Combinatorial terminological systems are appearing, to solve the issues related to flexibility and precision of representation requested by modern healthcare information systems and in particular by messaging standards. The development of a robust system of descriptors ('cross-thesaurus') is a crucial activity in the production of combinatorial terminological systems. We developed a tool (I-BROWSE) to produce a cross-thesaurus by analysing existing terminological corpora. To facilitate the work of experts and to produce re-usable results, our application interacts via the Internet with the UMLS Knowledge Sources Server. We applied our tool on 6372 dissections on surgical procedures produced in the project GALEN-IN-USE, as a part of the internal Quality Assurance Program. Support from UMLS seems mostly promising about descriptors on , , and . Additional assistance can be given to domain experts on less frequent descriptors on pervasive modifiers. We plan to apply our tool also to production of terminological standards in CEN, as a part of a world-wide process of gradual convergence and transformation of coding systems into second-generation systems and terminological services. PMID:10075129

Dessena, S; Mori, A R; Galeazzi, E

1999-01-01

265

The architecture of the CMS Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System using UML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The architecture of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring software system is presented. This system has been installed and commissioned on the trigger online computers and is currently used for data taking. It has been designed to handle the trigger configuration and monitoring during data taking as well as all communications with the main run control of CMS. Furthermore its design has foreseen the provision of the software infrastructure for detailed testing of the trigger system during beam down time. This is a medium-size distributed system that runs over 40 PCs and 200 processes that control about 4000 electronic boards. The architecture of this system is described using the industry-standard Universal Modeling Language (UML). This way the relationships between the different subcomponents of the system become clear and all software upgrades and modifications are simplified. The described architecture has allowed for frequent upgrades that were necessary during the commissioning phase of CMS when the trigger system evolved constantly. As a secondary objective, the paper provides a UML usage example and tries to encourage the standardization of the software documentation of large projects across the LHC and High Energy Physics community.

Magrans de Abril, Marc; Da Rocha Melo, Jose L.; Ghabrous Larrea, Carlos; Hammer, Josef; Hartl, Christian; Lazaridis, Christos

2011-12-01

266

Automatic Generation of Digital System Schematic Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic approach to the automatic generation of schematic diagrams for digital systems¿diagrams described as networks of modules¿provides useful CAD applications. This approach transforms guidelines. traditionally followed in manual drawings of schematic diagrams, into quantitative objectives. In view of the complex relationship between these objectives, the schematic design process is broken into a lengthy sequence of steps. We will attempt

Anshul Kumar; Anjali Arya; V. V. Swaminathan; Amit Misra

1986-01-01

267

White is green: new schematic diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new schematic diagrams are presented here that derive from the study of the value relationships of the primary colors of RGB computer and video color. The first diagram is a 'Truth Table' that presents true-false, on-off states of the three colors of RGB so that the colors are presented in the order of their brightness values. The second diagram

Hal Glicksman

2002-01-01

268

A Formal Semantics of Data Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents a full version of the formal semantics of data ow diagrams reported in [Larsen&93]. Data Flow Diagrams are used in Structured Analysis and are based on an abstract model for data flow transformations. The semantics consists of a collection of VDM functions, transforming an abstract syntax representation of a data flow diagram into an abstract syntax representation

Peter Gorm Larsen; Nico Plat; Hans Toetenel

1994-01-01

269

Retrieving Information from Data Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

For reverse engineering, we need tools that can extract information from documents written before routine digital storage was feasible. Documents contain both text and diagrams; data flow diagrams play a prominent role in software documents. Using current techniques, it is possible to recover the information in a data flow diagram by scanning the printed document and processing the data obtained.

Gregory Butler; Peter Grogono; Rajjan Shinghal; Indra A. Tjandra

1995-01-01

270

A Layout Algorithm for Data Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A layout algorithm is presented that allows the automatic drawing of data flow diagrams, a diagrammatic representation widely used in the functional analysis of information systems. A grid standard is defined for such diagrams, and aesthetics for a good readability are identified. The layout algorithm receives as input an abstract graph, specifying connectivity relations between the elements of the diagram,

Carlo Batini; Enrico Nardelli; Roberto Tamassia

1986-01-01

271

Semantics of the Domain of Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A domain of flow diagrams similar to that proposed by Scott, a domain of linear flow diagrams proposed by Goguen et al , a domain of decision table diagrams involving mfimtary branching, and a domain of processes based on the ideas of Milner and Beklc are each provided with a direct semantics, closely related to partial-function semantics, and a continuation

John C. Reynolds

1977-01-01

272

Arrows in Comprehending and Producing Mechanical Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mechanical systems have structural organizations--parts, and their relations--and functional organizations--temporal, dynamic, and causal processes--which can be explained using text or diagrams. Two experiments illustrate the role of arrows in diagrams of mechanical systems. In Experiment 1, people described diagrams with or without arrows,…

Heiser, Julie; Tversky, Barbara

2006-01-01

273

Calculations of forming limit diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The right-hand side of the forming limit diagram (FLD) was calculated using a Marciniak-Kuczynski analysis with a nonquadratic\\u000a anisotropic yield criterion. Effects of changing the strain-hardening exponent, n, strain-rate exponent, m, strain ratio,\\u000a R, stress exponent in the anisotropic yield criterion, a, and the inhomogeneity factor, f, were explored. For a ? 6, the effect\\u000a of R is negligible. The

Alejandro Graf; William F. Hosford

1990-01-01

274

T-X Phase Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 15 page tutorial and problem set designed to get students familiar with T-X diagrams, their implications, and uses. Students start by reading but, after 10-15 minutes, the room becomes noisy as they work their way through the questions at the end. Often there are "Eureka" moments as they all of a sudden grasp some fundamental principles. It is also interesting to hear them try to explain these insights to others.

Perkins, Dexter

275

INCONEL 718: A solidification diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program studying weldability of Ni-base superalloys, results of an integrated analytical approach are used to\\u000a generate a constitution diagram for INCONEL 718* in the temperature range associated with solidification. Differential thermal analysis of wrought material and optical and\\u000a scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and analytical electron microscopy of gas tungsten arc welds are\\u000a used in

G. A. Knorovsky; M. J. Cieslak; T. J. Headley; A. D. Romig; W. F. Hammetter

1989-01-01

276

Phase Diagram of Tetragonal Manganites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase diagram of La1-xSrxMnO3, as a function of hole doping x and tetragonal distortion c\\/a, which consists of ferromagnetic (FM), A-, C-, and G-type antiferromagnetic (AF) states, is obtained by the first-principles band structure calculations. Effects of tetragonal distortion on the magnetic ordering are discussed in terms of orbital ordering and anisotropy in the hopping integrals. The general sequence

Z. Fang; I. V. Solovyev; K. Terakura

2000-01-01

277

Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.

2012-01-01

278

INCONEL 718: A solidification diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a program studying weldability of Ni-base superalloys, results of an integrated analytical approach are used to generate a constitution diagram for INCONEL 718* in the temperature range associated with solidification. Differential thermal analysis of wrought material and optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and analytical electron microscopy of gas tungsten arc welds are used in conjunction with solidification theory to generate data points for this diagram. The important features of the diagram are an austenite (?)/Laves phase eutectic which occurs at ?19.1 wt pct Nb between austenite containing ?9.3 wt pct Nb and a Laves phase which contains ?22.4 wt pct Nb. The distribution coefficient for Nb was found to be ?0.5. The solidification sequence of INCONEL 718 was found to be (1) proeutectic ?, followed by (2) a ?/NbC eutectic at ?1250°C, followed by (3) continued ? solidification, followed by (4) a ?/Laves phase eutectic at ?1200°C. An estimate of the volume fraction eutectic is made using the Scheil solidification model, and the fraction of each phase in the eutectic is calculated via the lever rule. These are compared with experimentally determined values and found to be in good agreement.

Knorovsky, G. A.; Cieslak, M. J.; Headley, T. J.; Romig, A. D.; Hammetter, W. F.

1989-10-01

279

Diagramming the Never Ending Story: Student-generated diagrammatic stories integrate and retain science concepts improving science literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examined an instructional strategy called Diagramming the Never Ending Story: A method called diagramming was taught to sixth grade students via an outdoor science inquiry ecology unit. Students generated diagrams of the new ecology concepts they encountered, creating explanatory 'captions' for their newly drawn diagrams while connecting them in a memorable story. The diagramming process culminates in 20-30 meter-long murals called the Never Ending Story: Months of science instruction are constructed as pictorial scrolls, making sense of all new science concepts they encounter. This method was taught at a North Carolina "Public" Charter School, Children's Community School, to measure its efficacy in helping students comprehend scientific concepts and retain them thereby increasing science literacy. There were four demographically similar classes of 20 students each. Two 'treatment' classes, randomly chosen from the four classes, generated their own Never Ending Stories after being taught the diagramming method. A Solomon Four-Group Design was employed: Two Classes (one control, one treatment) were administered pre- and post; two classes received post tests only. The tests were comprised of multiple choice, fill-in and extended response (open-ended) sections. Multiple choice and fill-in test data were not statistically significant whereas extended response test data confirm that treatment classes made statistically significant gains.

Pillsbury, Ralph T.

280

Class Size.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The items featured in this annotated bibliography touch on several aspects of the multifaceted class-size debate. Allen Odden reviews the literature and contends that class-size reduction should be used "sparingly and strategically." C. M. Achilles and colleagues examines two different class-size situations and find student test performance in…

Underwood, Siobhan; Lumsden, Linda S.

1994-01-01

281

Phase diagram of tetragonal manganites  

PubMed

The phase diagram of La1-xSrxMnO3, as a function of hole doping x and tetragonal distortion c/a, which consists of ferromagnetic (FM), A-, C-, and G-type antiferromagnetic (AF) states, is obtained by the first-principles band structure calculations. Effects of tetragonal distortion on the magnetic ordering are discussed in terms of orbital ordering and anisotropy in the hopping integrals. The general sequence of the magnetic ground states, FM --> A-AF --> C-AF --> G-AF with increasing of x, is also explained based on the instability of FM states with respect to the spin-wave excitations. PMID:11019039

Fang; Solovyev; Terakura

2000-04-01

282

Automatic acquisition of synonyms from French UMLS for enhanced search of EHRs.  

PubMed

Currently, the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) approaches in order to improve search and exploration of electronic health records (EHRs) within healthcare information systems is not a common practice. One reason for this is the lack of suitable lexical resources: various types of such resources need to be collected or acquired. In this work, we propose a novel method for the acquisition of synonymous resources. This method is language-independent and relies on existence of structured terminologies. It enables to decipher hidden synonymous relations between simple words and terms on the basis of their syntactic analysis and exploitation of their compositionality. Applied to series of synonym terms from the French subset of the UMLS, the method shows 99% precision. The overlap between thus inferred terms and the existing sparse resources of synonyms is very low. PMID:18487831

Grabar, Natalia; Varoutas, Paul-Christophe; Rizand, Philippe; Livartowski, Alain; Hamon, Thierry

2008-01-01

283

Using the UMLS and Simple Statistical Methods to Semantically Categorize Causes of Death on Death Certificates  

PubMed Central

Cause of death data is an invaluable resource for shaping our understanding of population health. Mortality statistics is one of the principal sources of health information and in many countries the most reliable source of health data. 1 A quick classification process for this data can significantly improve public health efforts. Currently, cause of death data is captured in unstructured form requiring months to process. We think this process can be automated, at least partially, using simple statistical Natural Language Processing, NLP, techniques and the Unified Medical Language System, UMLS, as a vocabulary resource. A system, Medical Match Master, MMM, was built to exercise this theory. We evaluate this simple NLP approach in the classification of causes of death. This technique performed well if we engaged the use of a large biomedical vocabulary and applied certain syntactic maneuvers made possible by textual relationships within the vocabulary.

Riedl, Bill; Than, Nhan; Hogarth, Michael

2010-01-01

284

Prototyping an institutional IAIMS/UMLS information environment for an academic medical center.  

PubMed

The paper describes a prototype information environment designed to link network-based information resources in an integrated fashion and thus enhance the information capabilities of an academic medical center. The prototype was implemented on a single Macintosh computer to permit exploration of the overall "information architecture" and to demonstrate the various desired capabilities prior to full-scale network-based implementation. At the heart of the prototype are two components: a diverse set of information resources available over an institutional computer network and an information sources map designed to assist users in finding and accessing information resources relevant to their needs. The paper describes these and other components of the prototype and presents a scenario illustrating its use. The prototype illustrates the link between the goals of two National Library of Medicine initiatives, the Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS) and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). PMID:1326371

Miller, P L; Paton, J A; Clyman, J I; Powsner, S M

1992-07-01

285

A Power Consumption Analysis Technique Using UML-Based Design Models in Embedded Software Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the power consumption of embedded system depends on the operation of hardware devices, software behaviors give great effect to the power consumption because of its functionality and complexity growth. This paper proposes a power consumption estimation technique using design models of software to support energy-efficient embedded software development. Even though code-based power analysis techniques have been proposed, these techniques have demerits that the analysis time is long and feedback is not easy. Our proposed technique makes use of UML behavior models for the power consumption analysis in order to overcome the demerits of code-based analysis. When comparing with the existing code-based analysis, our technique can provide the power analysis result at earlier phase than implementation. Therefore, software engineer can apply our technique to select energy-efficient design decisions in embedded software development process.

Kim, Doo-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Phil; Hong, Jang-Eui

286

A UML 2.0 Profile to Model Block Cipher Algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current mobile digital communication systems must implement rigorous operations to guarantee high levels of confidentiality and integrity during transmission of critical information. To achieve higher performance, the security algorithms are usually implemented as dedicated hardware functional units attached to the main processing units of the embedded communication system. To save hardware resources, the designer usually performs a number of manipulations in the cipher algorithm lying at the core of the confidentiality and integrity operations to implement a simplified version of it that is suitable to be efficiently used in an embedded environment. This paper describes an extension to UML 2.0 to model the structure of contemporary block cipher algorithms, with the ultimate goal of synthesizing representations in a hardware description language from these models according to a model-driven development principle. This automated process should alleviate design complexity and increase the productivity of the developer during experimentation with different design alternatives.

Balderas-Contreras, Tomás; Rodriguez-Gomez, Gustavo; Cumplido, René

287

Relationship Structures and Semantic Type Assignments of the UMLS Enriched Semantic Network  

PubMed Central

Objective: The Enriched Semantic Network (ESN) was introduced as an extension of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Semantic Network (SN). Its multiple subsumption configuration and concomitant multiple inheritance make the ESN's relationship structures and semantic type assignments different from those of the SN. A technique for deriving the relationship structures of the ESN's semantic types and an automated technique for deriving the ESN's semantic type assignments from those of the SN are presented. Design: The technique to derive the ESN's relationship structures finds all newly inherited relationships in the ESN. All such relationships are audited for semantic validity, and the blocking mechanism is used to block invalid relationships. The mapping technique to derive the ESN's semantic type assignments uses current SN semantic type assignments and preserves nonredundant categorizations, while preventing new redundant categorizations. Results: Among the 426 newly inherited relationships, 326 are deemed valid. Seven blockings are applied to avoid inheritance of the 100 invalid relationships. Sixteen semantic types have different relationship structures in the ESN as compared to those in the SN. The mapping of semantic type assignments from the SN to the ESN avoids the generation of 26,950 redundant categorizations. The resulting ESN contains 138 semantic types, 149 IS-A links, 7,303 relationships, and 1,013,876 semantic type assignments. Conclusion: The ESN's multiple inheritance provides more complete relationship structures than in the SN. The ESN's semantic type assignments avoid the existing redundant categorizations appearing in the SN and prevent new ones that might arise due to multiple parents. Compared to the SN, the ESN provides a more accurate unifying semantic abstraction of the UMLS Metathesaurus.

Zhang, Li; Halper, Michael; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Cimino, James J.

2005-01-01

288

Structural Phase Diagram of Ca  

SciTech Connect

To help the understanding of the physical behavior of Ca{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, its phase diagram in the whole x concentration range was investigated taking into account the stability of phases and the possible coexistence of different structural phases. By careful analysis of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, we were able to observe the following phase diagram: (i) Orthorhombic phases were detected both in the region of 0 {le} x {le} 0.25 (O type phase with Ca site twelve fold coordinated) and in the region of 0.5 {le} x {le} 0.75 (O' type phase with Ca site ninefold coordinated). (ii) Phase segregation for 0.25 {le} x {le} 0.5 and for x > 0.75 that have not been reported previously, hexagonal YMnO{sub 3} segregates as a separate phase for x > 0.75, and for 0.25 {le} x {le} 0.5 the coexistence of Ca{sub 0.75}Y{sub 0.25}MnO{sub 3} (O) and Ca{sub 0.5}Y{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} (O') have to be included in the refinement for it to converge.

Vega, D.; Polla, G.; Leyva, A. G.; Konig, P.; Lanza, H.; Esteban, A.; Aliaga, H.; Causa, M. T.; Tovar, M.; Alascio, B.

2001-02-01

289

Improving UML with Petri nets 1 1 This work has been partially supported by Ministero della Ricerca Scientifica e Technologica under the SALADIM Project and by Polipecnico di Milano under the TATOOS Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

UML is the OMG standard notation for object-oriented modeling. It is easy, graphical and appealing, but in several cases still too imprecise. UML is strong as modeling means, supplies several different diagrammatic notations for representing the different aspects of a system under development, but lacks simulation and verifiability capabilities. This drawback comes from its semi-formal nature: UML is extremely precise

Luciano Baresi; Mauro Pezzè

2001-01-01

290

Some interesting color-magnitude diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some CCD color-magnitude diagrams for a few open clusters, global clusters, and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group are presented. Consideration is given to the open clusters NGC 7789, NGC 2818, NGC 6205, and NGC 6341, the spheroidal galaxy in Draco, the B, R color-magnitude diagram of Carina, and the B, R color-magnitude diagram for the dwarf spheroidal galaxy in Fornax.

Stetson, Peter B.

1997-07-01

291

Object Flow Definition for Refined Activity Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activity diagrams are a well-known means to model the control flow of system behavior. Their expressiveness can be enhanced\\u000a by using their object flow notation. In addition, we refine activities by pairs of pre- and post-conditions formulated by\\u000a interrelated object diagrams. To define a clear semantics for refined activity diagrams with object flow, we use a graph transformation\\u000a approach. Control

Stefan Jurack; Leen Lambers; Katharina Mehner; Gabriele Taentzer; Gerd Wierse

2009-01-01

292

Linking the Macroscopic and Submicroscopic Levels: Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explanations of chemical phenomena are nearly always focused at the sub-micro level, a level that cannot be observed, yet\\u000a are normally provided with diagrams at the symbolic level. These diagrams represent the macro and sub-micro levels of matter.\\u000a The connections between the macro level and the diagrams of the sub-micro level are not always apparent to students, indicating\\u000a a need

Bette Davidowitz; Gail Chittleborough

293

Multiresolution Approximations of Generalized Voronoi Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A framework to support multiresolution approximations of planar generalized Voronoi diagrams is presented. Our proposal is:\\u000a (1) A multiresolution model based on a quadtree data structure which encodes approximations of a generalized Voronoi diagram\\u000a at different levels of detail. (2) A user driven refinement strategy which generates from the quadtree a continuous polygonal\\u000a approximation of the Voronoi diagram.

Imma Boada; Narcís Coll; Joan Antoni Sellarès

2004-01-01

294

A Regime Diagram for Subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regime diagrams and associated scaling relations have profoundly influenced our understanding of planetary dynamics. Previous regime diagrams characterized the regimes of stagnant-lid, small viscosity contrast, transitional, and no-convection for temperature-dependent (Moresi and Solomatov, 1995), and non-linear power law rheologies (Solomatov and Moresi, 1997) as well as stagnant-lid, sluggish-lid, and mobile-lid regimes once the finite strength of rock was considered (Moresi and Solomatov, 1998). Scalings derived from such models have been the cornerstone for parameterized models of thermal evolution of rocky planets and icy moons for the past decade. While such a theory can predict the tectonic state of a planetary body, it is still rather incomplete in regards to predicting tectonics. For example, the mobile-lid regime is unspecific as to how continuous lithospheric recycling should occur on a terrestrial planet. Towards this goal, Gerya et al., (2008) advanced a new regime diagram aiming to characterize when subduction would manifest itself as a one-sided or two-sided downwelling and either symmetric or asymmetric. Here, we present a regime diagram for the case of a single-sided, asymmetric type of subduction (most Earth-like type). Using a 3-D numerical model of a free subduction, we describe a total of 5 different styles of subduction that can possibly occur. Each style is distinguished by its upper mantle slab morphology resulting from the sinking kinematics. We provide movies to illustrate the different styles and their progressive time-evolution. In each regime, subduction is accommodated by a combination of plate advance and slab rollback, with associated motions of forward plate velocity and trench retreat, respectively. We demonstrate that the preferred subduction mode depends upon two essential controlling factors: 1) buoyancy of the downgoing plate and 2) strength of plate in resisting bending at the hinge. We propose that a variety of subduction regimes are generated primarily as a product of two mechanisms. The first mechanism is that of the competition between the weight of the slab and the strength of the plate, which can be understood in terms of the applied bending moment, and this competition results in a particular radius of curvature (for which we provide a simple scaling theory). The second mechanism is the interaction between the slab and the more viscous lower mantle, which produces each regime's distinct slab morphology. Thus, the emergence of five distinct styles of subduction is a direct consequence of the presence of the modest barrier to flow into the lower mantle. Although only 2 of these styles presently operate on Earth, the possibility exists that other modes may have been the predominant mode in the past. Based on these models, we propose that the lithosphere is the primary factor in describing key elements of the plate tectonics system over time, rather than the convecting mantle. We discuss the various factors that may have influenced secular changes in Earth's tectonic behavior, some of which may have interesting consequences for the geochemical evolution of the Earth.

Stegman, D. R.; Farrington, R.; Capitanio, F. A.; Schellart, W. P.

2009-12-01

295

Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion.  

PubMed

Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168-173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology. PMID:14695886

Kirshner, Robert P

2003-12-26

296

Automatic Generation of Digital System Schematic Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a rigorours approach to automatic generation of schematic diagrams for digital systems described as networks of modules. This is very useful in comprehensive CAD environment. The approach is based on identification of some guidelines which are traditionally followed in mannual drawing of schematic diagrams. Theses guidelines are transformed into quantitative objectives. In view of the complex interrelationship

A. Arya; V. V. Swaminathan; A. Misra; A. Kumar

1985-01-01

297

Automatic generation of digital system schematic diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a rigorous approach to automatic generation of schematic diagrams for digital systems described as networks of modules. This is very useful in comprehensive CAD environment. The approach is based on identification of some guidelines which are traditionally followed in manual drawing of schematic diagrams. Theses guidelines are transformed into quantitative objectives. In view of the complex interrelationship

Anjali Arya; Anshul Kumar; V. V. Swaminathan; Amit Misra

1985-01-01

298

Calculation of Binary Eutectic Phase Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The phase diagrams of 65 simple binary eutectic phase diagrams are calculated from the properties of the elemental constituents. The liquid phase is assumed to behave as an ideal solution and the terminal solid solution regions were assumed to be ideal an...

J. E. Davison

1969-01-01

299

Building Path Diagrams for Multilevel Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multilevel models have come to play an increasingly important role in many areas of social science research. However, in contrast to other modeling strategies, there is currently no widely used approach for graphically diagramming multilevel models. Ideally, such diagrams would serve two functions: to provide a formal structure for deriving the…

Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.

2007-01-01

300

Generic Phase Diagram of Active Polar Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study theoretically the phase diagram of compressible active polar gels such as the actin network of eukaryotic cells. Using generalized hydrodynamics equations, we perform a linear stability analysis of the uniform states in the case of an infinite bidimensional active gel to obtain the dynamic phase diagram of active polar films. We predict, in particular, modulated flowing phases and

R. Voituriez; J. F. Joanny; J. Prost

2006-01-01

301

Dynamic Causality Diagram in Fault Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to overcomes some shortages of Belief Network dynamic causality diagram is put forward. Its knowledge expression, reasoning, probability computing and also the model of causality diagram used for system fault diagnosis, the model constructing method and reasoning algorithm are proposed. At last, an application example in the fault diagnosis of the nuclear power plant is given which shows

Qingsi Shi; Xinyuan Liang

2009-01-01

302

Influence diagram based on rough set theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conventional influence diagrams, the numerical models of uncertainty and imprecise knowledge from large-scaled data set is involved in the systems, the suitability of probability distributions is questioned. The influence diagrams model based on rough sets are proposed in this paper. In the framework, the causal relationships among the nodes and the decision rules are expressed with rough set theory.

Yueling Zhao; Hui Jin; Lihong Wang; Shuang Wang

2010-01-01

303

Diagrams based on structural object perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most diagrams, particularly those used in software engineering, are line drawings consisting of nodes drawn as rectangles or circles, and edges drawn as lines linking them. In the present paper we review some of the literature on human perception to develop guidelines for effective diagram drawing. Particular attention is paid to structural object recognition theory. According to this theory as

Pourang Irani; Colin Ware

2000-01-01

304

Hasse Diagram Generators and Petri Nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In (LJ06) Lorenz and Juhas raised the question of whether there exists a suitable formalism for the representation of infinite families of partial orders generated by Petri nets. Restricting ourselves to bounded p\\/t-nets, we propose Hasse diagram generators as an answer. We show that Hasse diagram generators are expressive enough to represent the partial order lan- guage of any bounded

Mateus De Oliveira Oliveira

2009-01-01

305

Fibonacci numbers when counting chord diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introduction. The combinatorics of drawing some chords in some circles arises in a section of knot theory called invariants of finite-type. We will see that the Fibonacci numbers are useful for counting certain forms of these chord diagrams. We also prove that most of the chord diagrams are null. 2. Definitions We begin with a vector space of chord

Jane Kraemer

306

Voronoi diagrams based on convex distance functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an “expanding waves” view of Voronoi diagrams that allows such diagrams to be defined for very general metrics and for distance measures that do not qualify as metrics. If a pebble is dropped into a still pond, circular waves move out from the point of impact. If n pebbles are dropped simultaneously, the places where wave fronts meet

L. Paul Chew

1985-01-01

307

Vesicle deformation by microtubules: A phase diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental investigation of vesicles deformed by the growth of encapsulated microtubules shows that the axisymmetric morphologies can be classified into ovals, lemons, ?, cherries, dumbbells, and pearls. A geometrical phase diagram is established. Numerical minimization of the elastic energy of the membrane reproduces satisfactorily well the observed morphologies and the corresponding phase diagram.

Emsellem, Virginie; Cardoso, Olivier; Tabeling, Patrick

1998-10-01

308

Diagrams and Descriptions in Acquiring Complex Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex systems such as a car brake, circulatory system, or legislative system can be c onveyed by language or diagrams. Such systems can be presented from structural or functional perspectives. In three e xperiments, we examine c ommunicating structure a nd function of mechanical systems (bike pump, car brake, pulley system) by text and diagrams in relation to mechanical ability.

Julie Heiser; Barbara Tversky

309

THE QCD PHASE DIAGRAM AT FINITE DENSITY.  

SciTech Connect

We study the density of states method to explore the phase diagram of the chiral transition on the temperature and quark chemical potential plane. Four quark flavours are used in the analysis. Though the method is quite expensive small lattices show an indication for a triple-point connecting three different phases on the phase diagram.

SCHMIDT, C.; FODOR, Z.; KATZ, S.

2005-07-25

310

Topology of ternary VLE diagrams: Elementary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classification of ternary vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) diagrams is a key to simple azeotropic dis- tillation analysis. We find that all ternary mixtures so far reported occurring in nature can be qualitatively represented by a combination of only four elementary cells. This greatly reduces the number of VLE diagram structures that need to be analyzed in order to reveal the

E. K. Hilmen; V. N. Kiva; S. Skogestad

2002-01-01

311

Semantic and Visual Encoding of Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed geometric diagrams capture a dynamic relationship between text and image that played a central role in ancient science and math- ematics. Euclid, Theodosius, Ptolemy, Archimedes and others constructed diagrams to geometrically model optics, astronomy, cartography, and hydro- statics. Each derived geometric properties from their models and interpreted their results with respect to the model's underlying semantics. Although dia- gram

Gabriel A. Weaver

312

Qualitative Motion Reasoning Based on Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative motion reasoning is an important approach to spatial commonsense reasoning. In this paper, we propose a qualitative motion reasoning method based on Voronoi diagrams. The method adopts the vicinity relationship to represent qualitative position and qualitative path. Specifically, the qualitative position is represented by the edges of the Voronoi diagram region the moving point falls in, and the qualitative

Xiaodong Wang; Shizhong Liao

2009-01-01

313

Word Extraction Using Area Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of word extraction based on the area Voronoi diagram is presented in this paper. Firstly, connected components are generated from the input image. Secondly, noise removal is performed including a special symbol detection technique to find some types of special symbols lying between words. Thirdly, base on the area Voronoi diagram, we select appropriate Voronoi edges which separate

Zhe Wang; Yue Lu; Chew Lim Tan

2003-01-01

314

Voronoi diagram computations for planar NURBS curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present robust and e-cient algorithms for computing Voronoi diagrams of planar freeform curves. Boundaries of the Voronoi diagram consist of portions of the bisec- tor curves between pairs of planar curves. Our scheme is based on computing critical structures of the Voronoi dia- grams, such as self-intersections and junction points of bi- sector curves. Since the geometric objects we

Joon-kyung Seong; Elaine Cohen; Gershon Elber

2008-01-01

315

Free-Body Diagrams: Necessary or Sufficient?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rutgers PAER group is working to help students develop various scientific abilities. One of the abilities is to create, understand and learn to use for qualitative reasoning and problem solving different representations of physical processes such as pictorial representations, motion diagrams, free-body diagrams, and energy bar charts. Physics education literature indicates that using multiple representations is beneficial for student understanding of physics ideas and for problem solving. We developed a special approach to construct and utilize free-body diagrams for representing physical phenomena and for problem solving. We will examine whether students draw free-body diagrams in solving problems when they know they will not receive credit for it; the consistency of their use in different conceptual areas; and if students who use free-body diagrams while solving problems in different areas of physics are more successful then those who do not.

Rosengrant, David; Van Heuvelen, A.; Etkina, Eugenia

2009-11-30

316

Building protein diagrams on the web with the residue-based diagram editor RbDe.  

PubMed

The residue-based diagram editor (RbDe) is web-based software that greatly simplifies the construction of schematic diagrams of proteins. Residue-based diagrams display the sequence of a given protein in the context of its secondary and tertiary structure. Such diagrams are frequently used to summarize mutations or sequence features, in the context of the overall topology of a protein. The initial version of RbDe was designed for transmembrane proteins and has enabled many users to create diagrams of large systems such as G protein-coupled receptors or transporters. We present an extended diagram editor that supports other families of proteins. Users can now import custom-diagram layouts, use them to render members of any protein family and generate high-quality output for publication purposes. RbDe is available free over the web, at http://icb.mssm.edu/crt/RbDe PMID:12824436

Skrabanek, Lucy; Campagne, Fabien; Weinstein, Harel

2003-07-01

317

A Web Terminology Server Using UMLS for the Description of Medical Procedures  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Model for Assistance in the Orientation of a User within Coding Systems (MAOUSSC) project has been designed to provide a representation for medical and surgical procedures that allows several applications to be developed from several viewpoints. It is based on a conceptual model, a controlled set of terms, and Web server development. The design includes the UMLS knowledge sources associated with additional knowledge about medico-surgical procedures. The model was implemented using a relational database. The authors developed a complete interface for the Web presentation, with the intermediary layer being written in PERL. The server has been used for the representation of medico-surgical procedures that occur in the discharge summaries of the national survey of hospital activities that is performed by the French Health Statistics Agency in order to produce inpatient profiles. The authors describe the current status of the MAOUSSC server and discuss their interest in using such a server to assist in the coordination of terminology tasks and in the sharing of controlled terminologies.

Burgun, Anita; Denier, Patrick; Bodenreider, Olivier; Botti, Genevieve; Delamarre, Denis; Pouliquen, Bruno; Oberlin, Philippe; Leveque, Jean M.; Lukacs, Bertrand; Kohler, Francois; Fieschi, Marius; Le Beux, Pierre

1997-01-01

318

A model-based design and validation approach with OMEGA-UML and the IF toolset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intelligent, embedded systems such as autonomous robots and other industrial systems are becoming increasingly more heterogeneous with respect to the platforms on which they are implemented, and thus the software architecture more complex to design and analyse. In this context, it is important to have well-defined design methodologies which should be supported by (1) high level design concepts allowing to master the design complexity, (2) concepts for the expression of non-functional requirements and (3) analysis tools allowing to verify or invalidate that the system under development will be able to conform to its requirements. We illustrate here such an approach for the design of complex embedded systems on hand of a small case study used as a running example for illustration purposes. We briefly present the important concepts of the OMEGA-RT UML profile, we show how we use this profile in a modelling approach, and explain how these concepts are used in the IFx verification toolbox to integrate validation into the design flow and make scalable verification possible.

Ben-Hafaiedh, Imene; Constant, Olivier; Graf, Susanne; Robbana, Riadh

2009-03-01

319

Developing the earthquake markup language and database with UML and XML schema  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic information is commonly shared across networks, and stored in heterogeneous databases that are maintained by different and autonomous groups. Because the metadata of the seismic information is generally not structured, information loss commonly occurs when data is transmitted from one source to another. Minimizing such information loss and enhancing information interchange over the Web require construction of specific markup languages for each part of seismology. The sub-disciplinary data syntax and vocabularies allow construction of corresponding relational databases to store and interchange the structured data. Developing modular data structures and databases for each sub-discipline allows composition of new languages through reuse, and enables future extension of the vocabulary and maintenance of the knowledge base. In this paper, we show how to design the conceptual and logical models for a small set of seismology that deals with earthquake ( EarthquakeML). We discuss the application of the UML to the design and mapping of the object model into W3 XML Schema and database. The emphasis is on designing components that can be reused across discipline, and reduce redundancies by developing type libraries. We show how to map the XML schema into a relational data model; and implement the EarthquakeDB with the Microsoft Access DBMS.

Babaie, Hassan A.; Babaei, Abbed

2005-11-01

320

Design and implementation of the SNMP agents for remote monitoring and control via UML and Petri nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

For large-scale and long-distance distributed systems, this paper proposes a systematical multiparadigm approach to develop the simple network management protocol (SNMP) agents for remote monitoring and control. The standard unified modeling language (UML) is adopted for modeling the system, and then the Petri-net model is applied to achieve both qualitative and quantitative analyses for the system's dynamic behavior. In real

Jin-Shyan Lee; Pau-Lo Hsu

2004-01-01

321

Tailoring online information retrieval to user's needs based on a logical semantic approach to natural language processing and UMLS mapping.  

PubMed

Depression can derail teenagers' lives and cause serious chronic health problems. Acquiring pertinent knowledge and skills supports care management, but retrieving appropriate information can be difficult. This poster presents a strategy to tailor online information to user attributes using a logical semantic approach to natural language processing (NLP) and mapping propositions to UMLS terms. This approach capitalizes on existing NLM resources and presents a potentially sustainable plan for meeting consumers and providers information needs. PMID:18694113

Kossman, Susan; Jones, Josette; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

2007-10-11

322

A Semantic Formalization of UML-RT Models with csp+t Processes Applicable to Real-time Systems Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a semi-formal language (like UML-RT) and a formal specification language (like CSP+T) are combined to obtain a Real-Time System (RTS) software specification, it is important to ensure the possibility of verifying the derived system design. A formal semantics of CSP+T temporal operators in terms of CSP trace semantics is presented here, and also a compositional refinement of CSP+T process

Manuel I. Capel; Luis E. Mendoza Morales; Kawtar Benghazi Akhlaki; Juan Antonio Holgado Terriza

2006-01-01

323

Prevalence of Ovarian Cancer among Women with a CA125 Level of 35 U\\/ml or Less  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The optimal upper limit of the normal range for CA125 in ovarian cancer screening is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of ovarian cancer among women in the Shizuoka Cohort Study on Ovarian Cancer Screening (SCSOCS) trial who had an abnormal ultrasound (US) and a CA125 level of 35 U\\/ml or less. Methods: Of 48,027 women enrolled in the SCSOCS

Hiroshi Kobayashi; Yoshihiko Yamada; Toshiyuki Sado; Mariko Sakata; Shozo Yoshida; Ryuji Kawaguchi; Seiji Kanayama; Hiroshi Shigetomi; Shoji Haruta; Yoriko Tsuji; Sachiyo Ueda; Takashi Kitanaka; Hidekazu Oi

2008-01-01

324

A UML-based object-oriented approach for design and simulation of a drug delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given complexity of the design and manufacturing processes of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) products, we present a\\u000a unified modeling language (UML) based design approach for multi-domain products or systems like MEMS to designing and evaluating\\u000a possible solutions at the early design stage to shorten their development time. Specifically, the proposed approach is used\\u000a to model and analyze a novel drug delivery

Qifeng Cui; Xuan F. Zha; Chengliang Liu; Wen F. Lu

2008-01-01

325

Animated diagrams in teaching statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated whether computer-animated graphics are more effective than static graphics in teaching statistics.\\u000a Four statistical concepts were presented and explained to students in class. The presentations included graphics either in\\u000a static or in animated form. The concepts explained were the multiplication of two matrices, the covariance of two random variables,\\u000a the method of least squares in

Karl F. Wender; J.-Sebastian Muehlboeck

2003-01-01

326

CUDD: CU Decision Diagram Package Release 2.2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CUDD package provides functions to manipulate Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) [5,3], Algebraic Decision Diagrams (ADDs) [1], and Zero suppressed Decision Diagrams (ZDDs) [12]. BDDs are used to represent switch functions

Fabio Somenzi

1998-01-01

327

Physics Classroom: Drawing Free-Body Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial explains how free body diagrams are used in solving problems involving Newton's Second Law. This tutorials demonstrates how to draw free body diagrams, what the diagram means to Physics, and includes practice problems for the student. This tutorial also includes other tutorials, animations, and student activities in other concepts of Physics. The Physics Classroom is a set of resources created for learners and teachers of high school physics. It includes comprehensive tutorials, problem sets with solutions, extra help for struggling students, Shockwave animations, multimedia learning modules, labs, and photo gallery.

Henderson, Tom

2011-10-03

328

Phase diagrams of self-organizing maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method which allows the analytic determination of phase diagrams in the self-organizing map, a model for the formation of topographic projection patterns in the brain and in signal processing applications. The method only requires an ansatz for the tesselation of the data space induced by the map, not for the explicit state of the map. We analytically obtain phase diagrams for various examples, including models for the development of orientation and ocular-dominance maps. The latter phase diagram exhibits transitions to broadening ocular-dominance patterns as observed in a recent experiment.

Bauer, H.-U.; Riesenhuber, M.; Geisel, T.

1996-09-01

329

The effects of Roundhouse diagram construction and use on meaningful science learning in the middle school classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research explored the effects of Roundhouse diagram construction and use on meaningful learning of science concepts in a 6th-grade science classroom. This investigation examined the transformation of students' science concepts as they became more proficient in constructing Roundhouse diagrams, what problems students encountered while constructing Roundhouse diagrams, and how choices of iconic images affected their progress in meaningfully learning science concepts as they constructed a series of Roundhouse diagrams. The process of constructing a Roundhouse diagram involved recognizing the learner's relevant existing concepts, evaluating the central concepts for a science lesson and breaking them down into their component parts, reconstructing the learner's conceptual framework by reducing the amount of detail efficiently, reviewing the reconstruction process, and linking each key concept to an iconic image. The researcher collected and analyzed qualitative and quantitative data to determine the effectiveness of the Roundhouse diagram. Data included field notes, observations, students' responses to Roundhouse diagram worksheets, students' perceptions from evaluation sheets, students' mastery of technique sheets, tapes and transcripts of students' interviews, student-constructed Roundhouse diagrams, and documentation of science grades both pre- and post-Roundhouse diagramming. This multiple case study focused on six students although the whole class was used for statistical purposes. Stratified purposeful sampling was used to facilitate comparisons as well as week-by-week comparisons of students' science grades and Roundhouse diagram scores to gain additional insight into the effectiveness of the Roundhouse diagramming method. Through participation in constructing a series of Roundhouse diagrams, middle school students gained a greater understanding of science concepts. Roundhouse diagram scores improved over time during the 10-week Roundhouse diagramming session. Students' science scores improved as they became more proficient in constructing the Roundhouse diagrams. The major problems associated with constructing Roundhouse diagrams were extracting the main ideas from the textbook, understanding science concepts in terms of whole/part relationships, paraphrasing sentences effectively, and sequencing events in an accurate order. A positive relationship existed for the case study group based on students' choices and drawings of iconic images and the meaningful learning of science concepts.

Ward, Robin Eichel

330

An Improved Mnemonic Diagram for Thermodynamic Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considers pressure, volume, entropy, temperature, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and internal energy. Suggests the mnemonic diagram is for use with simple systems that are defined as macroscopically homogeneous, isotropic, uncharged, and chemically inert. (MVL)|

Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J.

1989-01-01

331

ConcepTest: Relative Time Diagram #3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Match the features in the relative time diagram below with the events described in the short sentence. Assume all rocks are sedimentary unless otherwise indicated. Which unit is composed of granite and older than ...

332

ConcepTest: Relative Time Diagram #4  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Match the features in the relative time diagram below with the events described in the short sentence. Assume all rocks are sedimentary unless otherwise indicated. Which sedimentary unit did not experience contact ...

333

ConcepTest: Relative Time Diagram #2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Match the features in the relative time diagram below with the events described in the short sentences. Assume all rocks are sedimentary unless otherwise indicated. Which unit was formed before A but after E? a. C ...

334

ConcepTest: Relative Time Diagram #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Match the features in the relative time diagram below with the events described in the short sentence. Assume all rocks are sedimentary unless otherwise indicated. Which is the oldest rock unit? a. A b. B c. C d. D ...

335

Sloan Digital Sky Survey - Hubble Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, containing information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, provides projects and activities for advanced astronomy students. In this particular one, the user retraces Edwin Hubble's steps to discover that the Universe is expanding, by making a Hubble Diagram.

2010-01-07

336

Calculation of the Radar Vertical Coverage Diagram.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Algorithms are described for the calculation and plotting of radar vertical coverage diagrams. Two contour VCD algorithms are presented, with a brief discussion on the problem of numerical stability, and the effects of ship motion and frequency agility. (...

M. R. Battaglia

1984-01-01

337

Architecture flow diagrams under teamwork reg sign  

SciTech Connect

The Teamwork CASE tool allows Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) to be maintained for structured analysis. Fermilab has extended teamwork under UNIX{trademark} to permit Hatley and Pirbhai Architecture Flow Diagrams (AFDs) to be associated with DFDs and subsequently maintained. This extension, called TWKAFD, allows a user to open an AFD, graphically edit it, and replace it into a TWKAFD maintained library. Other aspects of Hatley and Pirbhai's methodology are supported. This paper presents a quick tutorial on Architecture Diagrams. It then describes the user's view of TWKAFD, the experience incorporating it into teamwork, and the successes with using the Architecture Diagram methodology along with the shortcomings of using the teamwork/TWKAFD tool. 8 refs.

Nicinski, T.

1992-02-01

338

Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams and Minimal Trellises.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ordered binary decision diagrams (OBDDs) are graph based data structures for representing Boolean functions. Minimal trellises are graphical representations of error correcting codes that play a prominent role in coding theory. This paper establishes a cl...

J. Lafferty A. Vardy

1998-01-01

339

Expanding the Extent of a UMLS Semantic Type via Group Neighborhood Auditing  

PubMed Central

Objective Each Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concept is assigned one or more semantic types (ST). A dynamic methodology for aiding an auditor in finding concepts that are missing the assignment of a given ST, S is presented. Design The first part of the methodology exploits the previously introduced Refined Semantic Network and accompanying refined semantic types (RST) to help narrow the search space for offending concepts. The auditing is focused in a neighborhood surrounding the extent of an RST, T (of S) called an envelope, consisting of parents and children of concepts in the extent. The audit moves outward as long as missing assignments are discovered. In the second part, concepts not reached previously are processed and reassigned T as needed during the processing of S's other RSTs. The set of such concepts is expanded in a similar way to that in the first part. Measurements The number of errors discovered is reported. To measure the methodology's efficiency, “error hit rates” (i.e., errors found in concepts examined) are computed. Results The methodology was applied to three STs: Experimental Model of Disease (EMD), Environmental Effect of Humans, and Governmental or Regulatory Activity. The EMD experienced the most drastic change. For its RST “EMD ? Neoplastic Process” (RST “EMD”) with only 33 (31) original concepts, 915 (134) concepts were found by the first (second) part to be missing the EMD assignment. Changes to the other two STs were smaller. Conclusion The results show that the proposed auditing methodology can help to effectively and efficiently identify concepts lacking the assignment of a particular semantic type.

Chen, Yan; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; Xu, Junchuan

2009-01-01

340

Azeotropic phase equilibrium diagrams: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the structural properties of vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) diagrams provides a fundamental understanding of the thermodynamic behavior of azeotropic mixtures upon distillation.In addition to a review of well-known fundamental work on the analysis of VLE diagrams, this survey comprises less-known published results, especially from the Russian literature. Some new results are also presented for the first time.

V. N. Kiva; E. K. Hilmen; S. Skogestad

2003-01-01

341

Interactive Image-Based Exploded View Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system for creating interactive exploded view diagrams using 2D images as input. This image-based approach enables us to directly support arbitrary rendering styles, eliminates the need for building 3D models, and allows us to leverage the abundance of existing static diagrams of complex objects. We have developed a set of semi-automatic authoring tools for quickly creating layered

Wilmot Li; Maneesh Agrawala; David Salesin

2004-01-01

342

A duality property of planar Feynman diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is found that the Fourier-transform of the amplitude of a planar Feynman diagram G can be written as the amplitude of the Feynman diagram G~, where G~ is the dual of G in the sense of graph theory of graph theory, the propagators of G~ being the Fourier-transformed of the ordinary ones. Associé au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

David, F.; Tuan, R. Hong

1985-08-01

343

Fluctuations and the QCD phase diagram  

SciTech Connect

In this contribution the role of quantum fluctuations for the QCD phase diagram is discussed. This concerns in particular the importance of the matter back-reaction to the gluonic sector. The impact of these fluctuations on the location of the confinement/deconfinement and the chiral transition lines as well as their interrelation are investigated. Consequences of our findings for the size of a possible quarkyonic phase and location of a critical endpoint in the phase diagram are drawn.

Schaefer, B.-J., E-mail: bernd-jochen.schaefer@uni-graz.at [Karl-Franzens-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik (Austria)

2012-06-15

344

Review Azeotropic phase equilibrium diagrams: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the structural properties of vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) diagrams provides a fundamental understanding of the thermodynamic behavior of azeotropic mixtures upon distillation. In addition to a review of well-known fundamental work on the analysis of VLE diagrams, this survey comprises less-known published results, especially from the Russian literature. Some new results are also presented for the 6rst time.

V. N. Kiva; E. K. Hilmen; S. Skogestad

345

Automated Theorem Proving in Euler Diagram Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagrammatic reasoning has the potential to be important in numerous application areas. This paper focuses on the simple,\\u000a but widely used, Euler diagrams that form the basis of many more expressive logics. We have implemented a diagrammatic theorem\\u000a prover, called Edith, which has access to four sound and complete sets of reasoning rules for Euler diagrams. Furthermore,\\u000a for each rule

Gem Stapleton; Judith Masthoff; Jean Flower; Andrew Fish

2007-01-01

346

Assessing-to-Learn Physics: Strobe Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains a concept question for introductory physics on the use of strobe diagrams to demonstrate acceleration. Given four different diagrams, users must decide which objects are accelerating. This item can be used as a "Question of The Day" or with an electronic classroom response system (Clickers). Background information and tips to elicit critical thinking are also provided. This item is part of a larger library of similar questions, which may be searched by grade level and topic.

2008-11-18

347

Algebraic decision diagrams and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present theory and experiments on the AlgebraicDecision Diagrams (ADD's). These diagrams extend BDD'sby allowing values from an arbitrary finite domain to be associatedwith the terminal nodes. We present a treatment foundedin boolean algebras and discuss algorithms and results in applicationslike matrix multiplication and shortest path algorithms.Furthermore, we outline possible applications of ADD's to logicsynthesis, formal verification,

R. Iris Bahar; Erica A. Frohm; Charles M. Gaona; Gary D. Hachtel; Enrico Macii; Abelardo Pardo; Fabio Somenzi

1993-01-01

348

Generalized Local Voronoi Diagram of Visible Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circular robot in unknown environment, populated by non-overlapping obstacles is considered. The robot is equipped with a discrete scanner e.g. laser range scanner. We present a method for local construction of a one-dimensional structure, similar to the generalized Voronoi diagram. We call this structure a generalized local Voronoi diagram (GLVD). GLVD is constructed from scan points of the visible

Rajko Mahkovic; Tomaz Slivnik

1998-01-01

349

A Theoretical Study of Parallel Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstractó In this paper, we concentrate on the problem of computing,a Voronoi diagram,using Hypercube,model of computation. The main,contribution of this work is the O(log, n) parallel algorithm for computing,Voronoi diagram on the Euclidean plane. Our technique parallelizes the wellknown,seemingly,inherent sequential technique of Shamos and Hoey, and makes use of a number of special properties of the dividing polygonal chain and

Rashid Muhammad

2006-01-01

350

Extraction, layout analysis and classification of diagrams in PDF documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagrams are a critical part of virtually all scientific and technical documents. Analyzing diagrams will be important for building comprehensive document retrieval systems. This paper focuses on the extraction and classification of diagrams from PDF documents. We study diagrams available in vector (not raster) format in online research papers. PDF files are parsed and their vector graphics components installed in

Robert P. Futrelle; Mingyan Shao; Chris Cieslik; Andrea Elaina Grimes

2003-01-01

351

Practical guidelines for the readability of IT-architecture diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the work done to establish guidelines for the creation of readable IT-architecture diagrams and gives some examples of guidelines and some examples of improved diagrams. These guidelines are meant to assist practicing IT-architects in preparing the diagrams to communicate their architectures to the various stakeholders. Diagramming has always been important in information technology (IT), but the recent

Henk Koning; Claire Dormann; Hans van Vliet

2002-01-01

352

Science Visual Literacy: Learners' Perceptions and Knowledge of Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructing meaning from science texts relies not only on comprehending the words but also the diagrams and other graphics. The goal of this study was to explore elementary students' perceptions of science diagrams and their skills related to diagram interpretation. 30 students, ranging from second grade through middle school, completed a diagram

McTigue, Erin M.; Flowers, Amanda C.

2011-01-01

353

Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

2010-01-01

354

Nesting in Euler Diagrams: syntax, semantics and construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the notion of nesting in Euler diagrams, and how nesting affects the interpretation and construction of such diagrams. After setting up the necessary definitions for concrete Euler diagrams (drawn in the plane) and abstract diagrams (having just formal structure), the notion of nestedness is defined at both concrete and abstract levels. The concept of a dual graph

Jean Flower; John Howse; John Taylor

2004-01-01

355

Detecting Arabic handwritten word baseline using Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology based on Voronoi diagram for detecting the Arabic handwritten word baseline. In this paper, the definition and background of Voronoi diagram has been explained. A short survey about the application of Voronoi diagram on the language recognition fields also presented. Finally, a method is proposed based on the Voronoi diagram

Atallah AL-Shatnawi; Khairuddin Omar

2009-01-01

356

Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron impacts, combined with multiplication of the secondary populations, were determined to be the likely causes of the poor microwave window performance in the original configuration.

Hoff, B. W.; Mardahl, P. J.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Haworth, M. D.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Franzi, M.

2009-09-01

357

Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron.  

PubMed

Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron impacts, combined with multiplication of the secondary populations, were determined to be the likely causes of the poor microwave window performance in the original configuration. PMID:19791954

Hoff, B W; Mardahl, P J; Gilgenbach, R M; Haworth, M D; French, D M; Lau, Y Y; Franzi, M

2009-09-01

358

Analyzing phase diagrams and phase transitions in networked competing populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase diagrams exhibiting the extent of cooperation in an evolutionary snowdrift game implemented in different networks are studied in detail. We invoke two independent payoff parameters, unlike a single payoff often used in most previous works that restricts the two payoffs to vary in a correlated way. In addition to the phase transition points when a single payoff parameter is used, phase boundaries separating homogeneous phases consisting of agents using the same strategy and a mixed phase consisting of agents using different strategies are found. Analytic expressions of the phase boundaries are obtained by invoking the ideas of the last surviving patterns and the relative alignments of the spectra of payoff values to agents using different strategies. In a Watts-Strogatz regular network, there exists a re-entrant phenomenon in which the system goes from a homogeneous phase into a mixed phase and re-enters the homogeneous phase as one of the two payoff parameters is varied. The non-trivial phase diagram accompanying this re-entrant phenomenon is quantitatively analyzed. The effects of noise and cooperation in randomly rewired Watts-Strogatz networks are also studied. The transition between a mixed phase and a homogeneous phase is identify to belong to the directed percolation universality class. The methods used in the present work are applicable to a wide range of problems in competing populations of networked agents.

Ni, Y.-C.; Yin, H. P.; Xu, C.; Hui, P. M.

2011-03-01

359

Simple yet complete heuristics for transforming data flow diagrams into Booch style diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some simple heuristics for transforming a requirements specification (for a non-real time application) expressed as a data flow diagram (DFD) into a design architecture expressed as an extended Booch diagram. This architecture provides a starting point for subsequent design refinement. The transformations based on simple heuristics were implemented in a research tool. We show that simple things

Swathi C. Solsi; Edward L. Jones

1991-01-01

360

Dynamic tactile diagram simplification on refreshable displays.  

PubMed

The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to independently access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow, cumbersome, and costly process. Refreshable haptic displays, which interact with computers, promise to make this access quicker, easier, and cheaper. One important aspect in converting visual to tactile diagrams is to simplify the diagram as otherwise it can be too difficult to interpret with touch. Enabling this to be under user control in an interactive environment, such as with refreshable displays, could allow users to avoid being overwhelmed by the diagrams at any instant in time while still retaining access to all information in "storage". Through this article the authors investigate whether two types of diagram simplification--boundary simplification and contextual simplification--showed potential utility in an interactive environment. Boundary simplification was found to be significantly helpful in answering general questions about borders on a geographic map, and contextual simplification was helpful in answering relational questions, as compared to using the original map unchanged. PMID:23527429

Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T V

2013-01-01

361

Translating the Object Constraint Language into First-order Predicate Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we define a translation of UML class diagrams with OCL constraints into first-order predicate logic. The goal is logical reasoning about UML models, realized by an interactive theorem prover. We put an emphasis on usability of the formulas resulting from the translation, and we have developed optimisations and heuristics to enhance the efficiency of the theorem proving

Bernhard Beckert; Uwe Keller; Peter H. Schmitt

362

Solving multiloop Feynman diagrams using light-front coordinates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the numerical values of scalar multiloop two-vertex Feynman diagrams, the generalized sunset diagrams, or watermelon diagrams, by integrating all but the longitudinal momenta analytically. For the longitudinal momenta we introduce one collective coordinate, which allows us to determine the numerical value of the diagram efficiently and to an arbitrary accuracy. The imaginary part and the threshold behavior of the diagram is also handled within this framework.

Ligterink, N. E.

2000-05-01

363

The organization of intrinsic computation: Complexity-entropy diagrams and the diversity of natural information processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intrinsic computation refers to how dynamical systems store, structure, and transform historical and spatial information. By graphing a measure of structural complexity against a measure of randomness, complexity-entropy diagrams display the different kinds of intrinsic computation across an entire class of systems. Here, we use complexity-entropy diagrams to analyze intrinsic computation in a broad array of deterministic nonlinear and linear stochastic processes, including maps of the interval, cellular automata, and Ising spin systems in one and two dimensions, Markov chains, and probabilistic minimal finite-state machines. Since complexity-entropy diagrams are a function only of observed configurations, they can be used to compare systems without reference to system coordinates or parameters. It has been known for some time that in special cases complexity-entropy diagrams reveal that high degrees of information processing are associated with phase transitions in the underlying process space, the so-called ``edge of chaos.'' Generally, though, complexity-entropy diagrams differ substantially in character, demonstrating a genuine diversity of distinct kinds of intrinsic computation.

Feldman, David P.; McTague, Carl S.; Crutchfield, James P.

2008-12-01

364

Improving high school physical science students' understanding of the electromagnetic spectrum: A modified diagram approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this study was to identify major conceptual difficulties that selected public high school physical science students encounter in understanding a standard electromagnetic spectrum diagram. A research-driven, modified version of that standard diagram was used in this study to determine the value added to student understanding of electromagnetic waves. A content analysis was performed on electromagnetic spectrum diagrams found in US textbooks from the 1950s through the present. A class of public high school physical science students participated in a study consisting of four activities conducted during a three-week unit. Students were given a pre- and post-achievement test and a pre- and post-survey on the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. At the conclusion of each activity, selected students were interviewed and each co-constructed a concept map with the researcher. The Electromagnetic Spectrum Literacy Rubric (ESLR) was designed and used to assess students' conceptual understanding periodically as they proceeded through the unit study. A mixed methods analysis was performed, employing both qualitative and quantitative data. A paired t-test determined that there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.014) between the pre- and post-achievement test scores for the class of students participating in the unit study. Effect sizes also determined that students have difficulties with mathematical calculations and wave properties. These topics present conceptual challenges which must be overcome to understand and use an electromagnetic spectrum diagram effectively.

Quebedeaux, James Edward

365

The Butterfly diagram leopard skin pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A time-latitude diagram where spotgroups are given proportional relevance to their area is presented. The diagram reveals that the spotted area distribution is higly dishomogeneous, most of it being concentrated in few, small portions (``knots'') of the Butterfly Diagram; because of this structure, the BD may be properly described as a cluster of knots. The description, assuming that spots scatter around the ``spot mean latitude'' steadily drifting equatorward, is challenged. Indeed, spots cluster around at as many latitudes as knots; a knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in a seemingly random way; accordingly, the spot mean latitude abruptly drifts equatorward or even poleward at any knot activation, in spite of any smoothing procedure. Preliminary analyses suggest that the activity splits, in any hemisphere, into two or more distinct ``activity waves'', drifting equatorward at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

Ternullo, Maurizio

2011-08-01

366

Analyzing genomes with cumulative skew diagrams.  

PubMed Central

A novel method of cumulative diagrams shows that the nucleotide composition of a microbial chromosome changes at two points separated by about a half of its length. These points coincide with sites of replication origin and terminus for all bacteria where such sites are known. The leading strand is found to contain more guanine than cytosine residues. This fact is used to predict origin and terminus locations in other bacterial and archaeal genomes. Local changes, visible as diagram distortions, may represent recent genome rearrangements, as demonstrated for two strains of Escherichia coli . Analysis of the diagrams of viral and mitochondrial genomes suggests a link between the base composition bias and the time spent by DNA in a single stranded state during replication.

Grigoriev, A

1998-01-01

367

Generic Phase Diagram of Active Polar Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study theoretically the phase diagram of compressible active polar gels such as the actin network of eukaryotic cells. Using generalized hydrodynamics equations, we perform a linear stability analysis of the uniform states in the case of an infinite bidimensional active gel to obtain the dynamic phase diagram of active polar films. We predict, in particular, modulated flowing phases and a macroscopic phase separation at high activity. This qualitatively accounts for experimental observations of various active systems, such as actomyosin gels, microtubules and kinesins in vitro solutions, or swimming bacterial colonies.

Voituriez, R.; Joanny, J. F.; Prost, J.

2006-01-01

368

Generic phase diagram of active polar films.  

PubMed

We study theoretically the phase diagram of compressible active polar gels such as the actin network of eukaryotic cells. Using generalized hydrodynamics equations, we perform a linear stability analysis of the uniform states in the case of an infinite bidimensional active gel to obtain the dynamic phase diagram of active polar films. We predict, in particular, modulated flowing phases and a macroscopic phase separation at high activity. This qualitatively accounts for experimental observations of various active systems, such as actomyosin gels, microtubules and kinesins in vitro solutions, or swimming bacterial colonies. PMID:16486647

Voituriez, R; Joanny, J F; Prost, J

2006-01-17

369

Phase diagrams of diluted transverse Ising nanowire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the phase diagrams of diluted Ising nanowire consisting of core and surface shell coupling by Jcs exchange interaction are studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique, in the presence of transverse fields in the core and in the surface shell. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. In particular, the effect of concentration c of magnetic atoms, the exchange interaction core/shell, the exchange in surface and the transverse fields in core and in surface shell of phase diagrams are investigated.

Bouhou, S.; Essaoudi, I.; Ainane, A.; Saber, M.; Ahuja, R.; Dujardin, F.

2013-06-01

370

Class distinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.

White, M. Catherine

371

Using a network menu and the UMLS Information Sources Map to facilitate access to online reference materials.  

PubMed Central

As computer technology advances, clinicians and biomedical researchers are becoming more dependent upon information from online databases and information systems. By using specially configured computer workstations and high-speed computer networks, it is now possible to access this information in a rapid and straightforward manner. To empower users by providing these capabilities, the authors are assembling a variety of network workstations to be located throughout Yale-New Haven Medical Center. At the heart of the workstation is NetMenu, a program designed to help users connect to a number of important online information systems, including a hospital order entry and results reporting system, a drug reference, bibliographic retrieval systems, and educational programs. In addition, as part of the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project, the authors have developed a local prototype of the UMLS Information Sources Map (ISM) and a companion query assistant program to complement the NetMenu in helping users select and connect automatically to information services relevant to a particular question. The ISM query assistant draws from a listing of many online information sources accessible via local and international networks.

Clyman, J I; Powsner, S M; Paton, J A; Miller, P L

1993-01-01

372

MIT Physics 8.02: Vector Field Diagram and Field Line Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet was designed to enhance understanding of electric field lines. By "drawing" lines from simulated charges on a color-coded field, the learner can explore vector field diagrams and form concepts about strength/direction of field lines. Sign and ratio of charge can be changed. This activity is appropriate for introductory and algebra-based physics classes. It is part of a larger collection of NSF-funded physics animations and simulations for use in the interactive classroom.

Belcher, John

2006-11-13

373

Analytic two-loop results for self-energy- and vertex-type diagrams with one non-zero mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a large class of two-loop self-energy- and vertex-type diagrams with only one non-zero mass (m) and the vertices also with only one non-zero external momentum squared (q2) the first few expansion coefficients are calculated by the large mass expansion. This allows us to ‘guess’ the general structure of these coefficients and to verify them in terms of certain classes

J. Fleischer; A. V. Kotikov; O. L. Veretin

1999-01-01

374

Enhancing the Expressiveness of Spider Diagram Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many visual languages based on Euler diagrams have emerged for expressing relationships between sets. The ex- pressive power of these languages varies, but the major- ity are monadic and some include equality. Spider dia- grams are one such language, being equivalent in expres- sive power to monadic first order logic with equality. Spi- ders are used to represent the existence

Gem Stapleton; John Howse

2006-01-01

375

Automated generation of analog schematic diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to the automated generation of analog schematic diagrams is presented. The algorithms expressly address the esthetic requirements for analog schematics. There are four major algorithms: (1) functional clustering; (2) block placement; (3) wiring between blocks; and (4) block expansion. Experiments show that schematics can be automatically generated with favorable run times for large networks. Typical SPICE networks of

L. D. Green; J. Andersen

1990-01-01

376

Learning from Diagrams: Theoretical and Instructional Considerations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the eight studies reported in this paper was two-fold: to identify some of the relationships that exist between the unique properties of diagrams and various aspects of cognitive processes and learning, and, subsequently, to derive principl...

W. D. Winn W. G. Holliday

1981-01-01

377

Yttrium. Properties, Phase Diagrams, Industrial Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book generalizes available literature data on the preparation and purification of yttrium, and also on its properties, phase diagrams, and the properties of its alloys. It also presents a survey of the most important branches of the application of ytt...

V. F. Terekhova E. M. Savitskii

1970-01-01

378

Identification of complete data flow diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Structure Design is generated with Data Flow Diagrams (DFD). DFD have been used for more than ten years, and they are still popular. The main drawback of DFD is the lack of mathematical foundation. The great demand for bigger and more sophisticated computer systems makes necessary the formulation of a formal theory for DFD. This theory will provide a

Federico Vazquez

1994-01-01

379

Enhanced Pomeron diagrams: Resummation of unitarity cuts  

SciTech Connect

Unitarity cuts of enhanced Pomeron diagrams are analyzed in the framework of the Reggeon field theory. Assuming the validity of the Abramovskii-Gribov-Kancheli cutting rules, we derive a complete set of cut nonloop enhanced graphs and observe important cancellations between certain subclasses of the latter. We demonstrate also how the present method can be generalized to take into consideration Pomeron loop contributions.

Ostapchenko, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Kernphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-02-01

380

Evaluating formal properties of feature diagram languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature diagrams (FDs) are a family of popular modelling languages, mainly used for managing variability in software product lines. FDs were first introduced by Kang et al. as part of the feature-oriented domain analysis (FODA) method back in 1990. Since then, various extensions of FODA FDs were devised to compensate for purported ambiguity and lack of precision and expressiveness. Recently,

Patrick Heymans; Pierre-yves Schobbens; Jean-christophe Trigaux; Yves Bontemps; Raimundas Matulevicius; Andreas Classen

2008-01-01

381

Constructing Causal Diagrams to Learn Deliberation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Policy problems like "What should we do about global warming?" are ill-defined in large part because we do not agree on a system to represent them the way we agree Algebra problems should be represented by equations. As a first step toward building a policy deliberation tutor, we investigated: (a) whether causal diagrams help students learn to…

Easterday, Matthew W.; Aleven, Vincent; Scheines, Richard; Carver, Sharon M.

2009-01-01

382

Isotactic Polystyrene Phase Diagrams and Physical Gelation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the gelation of isotactic polystyrene (iPS) solutions has been studied for a long time, no prior attempt has been made to measure phase diagrams of these solutions. This is surprising because it has been suggested that gelation occurs by liquid-l...

J. H. Aubert

1987-01-01

383

Computer-Generated Diagrams for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes 10 computer programs used to draw diagrams usually drawn on chalkboards, such as addition of three vectors, vector components, range of a projectile, lissajous figures, beats, isotherms, Snell's law, waves passing through a lens, magnetic field due to Helmholtz coils, and three curves. Several programming tips are included. (JN)|

Carle, Mark A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1986-01-01

384

Spectroscopic Determination of Ternary Phase Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ternary phase diagrams describe phase equilibria among three components as a function of composition at constant temperature and pressure. The system of n-propanol, n-heptane, and water exhibits a simple ternary diagram with two well-demarcated regions. One region represents complete liquid miscibility at high proportions of n-propanol. The second region delineates the compositions where two immiscible liquid phases coexist--a water-rich layer and a heptane-rich layer with distinct amounts of solubilized n-propanol. The ternary phase diagram for such partially miscible liquid systems is generally determined in an undergraduate laboratory experiment by both visual methods and classical techniques. Indeed, the demarcation between the one- and two-phase liquid regions is visually discernible through titrations of n-propanol-n-heptane mixtures with water until a second liquid phase appears. However, the compositions of the immiscible liquid phases within the two-phase region can not be determined using classical pH titrations or refractive index measurements. Acidic or basic species are absent, and n-heptane and n-propanol exhibit refractive indices that differ by only 0.002 at room temperature. We have designed a modern experiment using conventional absorbance or fluorescence spectroscopy to rapidly, accurately, ad conveniently construct the n-propanol-n-heptane-water ternary phase diagram.

Karukstis, Kerry K.; Avrantinis, Sara K.; Boegeman, Stephanie L.; Conner, Jeanie N.; Hackman, Blaine M.; Lindsay, Jennifer M.; Mandel, Alexander L.; Miller, Elizabeth J.

2000-06-01

385

NTNU Java: Free-Body Force Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet illustrates the forces on a block on an inclined plane. A free-body diagram shows the gravitational, normal, frictional and net force vectors. The weight, angle of the plane, and coefficient of friction can be changed by the user. The user can also apply an external force to the block. The motion resulting from the forces is not shown.

Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2005-02-07

386

Computer-Generated Diagrams for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 10 computer programs used to draw diagrams usually drawn on chalkboards, such as addition of three vectors, vector components, range of a projectile, lissajous figures, beats, isotherms, Snell's law, waves passing through a lens, magnetic field due to Helmholtz coils, and three curves. Several programming tips are included. (JN)

Carle, Mark A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1986-01-01

387

Forming limit diagrams: a micromechanical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for obtaining the forming limit diagram (FLD) from a micromechanical approach is proposed. Periodic representative volume elements (RVEs) characteristic for the microstructure of a two-phase material containing particles are subjected to biaxial stretching with different strain paths. In the course of straining, a groove forms and grows, finally leading to a stress drop in the overall response. This

H.-P Gänser; E. A Werner; F. D Fischer

2000-01-01

388

Time dependent determination of forming limit diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forming limit diagram (FLD) is a convenient tool for classification of sheet metals’ formability in the finite element analysis as well as in the press shop. The FLD indicates the maximum strain values which can be applied on a material without failure as a function of the strain condition. In contrast to the standardized evaluation method described in the

M. Merklein; A. Kuppert; M. Geiger

2010-01-01

389

Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

Vitz, Ed

2008-01-01

390

Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to "independently" access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow,…

Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

2013-01-01

391

Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

2011-01-01

392

Phase diagrams of charged colloidal particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have calculated the phase diagrams of charged colloidal particles in the parameter space. The free energies of different phases, which were used to determine the phase boundaries, were calculated variationally. The Einstein oscillators and the hard sphere fluid were used as the reference systems for the solid phases and the liquid, respectively. The interparticle interactions were approximated to be

Wan Y. Shih; Ilhan A. Aksay; Ryoichi Kikuchi

1987-01-01

393

Structural Validation of Causal Loop Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present techniques for manually testing the validity of each link in a causal loop diagram (CLD). A link is defined as consisting of an origination quantity, a destination quantity and a connection edge between them. Each link is considered as a separate and distinct causal hypothesis whose validity should stand on its own merits. Following Goldratt,

James R. Burns; Philip Musa

2001-01-01

394

Weight diagram construction of Lax operators  

SciTech Connect

We review and expand methods introduced in our previous paper. It is proved that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to construct the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax operator is in the Miura-like form and generates the modified KdV equations. The algorithm is extended to the super-symmetric case.

Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

1991-10-01

395

Multistate Block Diagrams and Fault Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how to model a multistate system with multistate components using binary variables. This modeling technique allows current binary algorithms for block diagrams and fault trees to be applied to multistate systems. Several multistate examples are presented, and some cases in which computational efficiency can be enhanced are discussed.

Alan P. Wood

1985-01-01

396

Magnetic phase diagram of MnSi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic phase diagram of MnSi was studied using small angle neutron scattering. The results were analysed using the three-dimensional resolution function and the scattering cross section to model the diffraction data. A small phase pocket (phase ‘A’) just below TN is found to be a modulated antiferromagnet.

B. Lebech; P. Harris; J. Skov Pedersen; K. Mortensen; C. I. Gregory; N. R. Bernhoeft; M. Jermy; S. A. Brown

1995-01-01

397

Dynamical mechanism for the hairpin diagram.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on the non-valence quark-antiquark and gluon constituent structure of mesons we give a reasonable dynamical mechanism which can induce the hairpin diagram without violating the well-observed OZI rule. We calculate the hairpin amplitudes of D deg. yi...

C. Chang X. Guo X. Li

1989-01-01

398

Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

2002-01-01

399

Failure Diagram for Chemically Assisted Crack Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A failure diagram that combines the thresholds for failure of a smooth specimen to that of a fracture mechanics specimen, similar to the modified Kitagawa diagram in fatigue, is presented. For a given material/environment system, the diagram defines conditions under which a crack initiated at the threshold stress in a smooth specimen becomes a propagating crack, by satisfying the threshold stress intensity of a long crack. In analogy with fatigue, it is shown that internal stresses or local stress concentrations are required to provide the necessary mechanical crack tip driving forces, on one hand, and reaction/transportation kinetics to provide the chemical potential gradients, on the other. Together, they help in the initiation and propagation of the cracks. The chemical driving forces can be expressed as equivalent mechanical stresses using the failure diagram. Both internal stresses and their gradients, in conjunction with the chemical driving forces, have to meet the minimum magnitude and the minimum gradients to sustain the growth of a microcrack formed. Otherwise, nonpropagating conditions will prevail or a crack formed will remain dormant. It is shown that the processes underlying the crack nucleation in a smooth specimen and the crack growth of a fracture mechanics specimen are essentially the same. Both require building up of internal stresses by local plasticity. The process involves intermittent crack tip blunting and microcrack nucleation until the crack becomes unstable under the applied stress.

Sadananda, K.; Vasudevan, A. K.

2011-02-01

400

Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

2011-01-01

401

A Generalized Wave Diagram for Moving Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many introductory physics texts1-5 accompany the discussion of the Doppler effect and the formation of shock waves with diagrams illustrating the effect of a source moving through an elastic medium. Typically these diagrams consist of a series of equally spaced dots, representing the location of the source at different times. These are surrounded by a series of successively smaller circles representing wave fronts (see Fig. 1). While such a diagram provides a clear illustration of the shock wave produced by a source moving at a speed greater than the wave speed, and also the resultant pattern when the source speed is less than the wave speed (the Doppler effect), the texts do not often show the details of the construction. As a result, the key connection between the relative distance traveled by the source and the distance traveled by the wave is not explicitly made. In this paper we describe an approach emphasizing this connection that we have found to be a useful classroom supplement to the usual text presentation. As shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the Doppler effect and the shock wave can be illustrated by diagrams generated by the construction that follows.

Alt, Robert; Wiley, Sam

2004-12-01

402

Drawing conformal diagrams for a fractal landscape  

SciTech Connect

Generic models of cosmological inflation and the recently proposed scenarios of a recycling universe and the string theory landscape predict spacetimes whose global geometry is a stochastic, self-similar fractal. To visualize the complicated causal structure of such a universe, one usually draws a conformal (Carter-Penrose) diagram. I develop a new method for drawing conformal diagrams, applicable to arbitrary 1+1-dimensional spacetimes. This method is based on a qualitative analysis of intersecting lightrays and thus avoids the need for explicit transformations of the spacetime metric. To demonstrate the power and simplicity of this method, I present derivations of diagrams for spacetimes of varying complication. I then apply the lightray method to three different models of an eternally inflating universe (scalar-field inflation, recycling universe, and string theory landscape) involving the nucleation of nested asymptotically flat, de Sitter and/or anti-de Sitter bubbles. I show that the resulting diagrams contain a characteristic fractal arrangement of lines.

Winitzki, Sergei [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 Munich (Germany)

2005-06-15

403

Interaction in collaborative computer supported diagram development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of computer programs have been developed to allow multiple people to work on the same document at the same time from different computers possibly in different locations. These allow groups to create and modify text and diagrams. A problem for people using these programs is that the physical constraints of working together are removed. For example, there is

Jeffrey D. Campbell

2004-01-01

404

Generalized Voronoi Diagrams for a Ladder: II. Efficient Construction of the Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a collection of algorithms, all running in timeO(n\\u000a 2 logn ? (n)\\u000a o(?(n)3)) for some fixed integers(where ?(n) is the inverse Ackermann's function), for constructing a skeleton representation of a suitably generalized “Voronoi diagram”\\u000a for a ladder moving in a two-dimensional space bounded by polygonal barriers consisting ofn line segments. This diagram, which is a two-dimensional subcomplex of

Colm Ó'dúnlaing; Micha Sharir; Chee-keng Yap

1987-01-01

405

Visualizing Flow Diagrams in WebSphere Studio Using SHriMP Views (Visualizing Flow Diagrams)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper describes the integration of an information visualization tool, called SHriMPViews, with IBM WebSphere Studio Application Developer Integration Edition, whichwas developed with Eclipse technology. Although SHriMP was originally developedfor visualizing programs, it is content-independent. We have re-targeted SHriMP forvisualizing flow diagrams. Flow diagrams, as supported by WebSphere Studio ApplicationDeveloper Integration Edition, can be hierarchically composed, thus...

Derek Rayside; Marin Litoiu

406

Algorithms and Programs for Consequence Diagram and Fault Tree Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A presentation of algorithms and programs for consequence diagram and sequential fault tree construction that are intended for reliability and disturbance analysis of large systems. The system to be analyzed must be given as a block diagram formed by mini...

E. Hollo J. R. Taylor

1976-01-01

407

Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a ?4 interaction to three-loop order.

Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

2000-08-01

408

Overture: The grid classes  

SciTech Connect

Overture is a library containing classes for grids, overlapping grid generation and the discretization and solution of PDEs on overlapping grids. This document describes the Overture grid classes, including classes for single grids and classes for collections of grids.

Brislawn, K.; Brown, D.; Chesshire, G.; Henshaw, W. [and others

1997-01-01

409

US Working-Class\\/Poverty-Class Divides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In arguing for more finely nuanced and inclusive understandings of class in the USA, I write as a 'poverty-class scholar' articulating an identity, experience, marginality, and concomitant consciousness and epistemology distinct from that of working-class academics. Both in and out of academe, representations of working- class identity are juxtaposed against and, thus, reinforce the 'otherness' of poor women who are

Vivyan C. Adair

2005-01-01

410

Phase diagram of 4He on graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-temperature phase diagram of 4He adsorbed on a single graphene sheet is studied by computer simulations of a system consisting of nearly a thousand helium atoms. In the first layer, two commensurate solid phases are observed with fillings 1/3 and 7/16, respectively, separated by a domain wall phase, as well as an incommensurate crystal at a higher coverage. No evidence of a thermodynamically stable superfluid phase is found for the first adlayer. Second-layer promotion occurs at a coverage of 0.111(4) Å-2. In the second layer, two phases are observed, namely a superfluid and an incommensurate solid, with no commensurate solid intervening between these two phases. The computed phase diagram closely resembles that predicted for helium on graphite.

Happacher, Jodok; Corboz, Philippe; Boninsegni, Massimo; Pollet, Lode

2013-03-01

411

Pions in the quark matter phase diagram  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between mesonic correlations and quantum condensates in the quark matter phase diagram is explored within a quantum field theoretical approach of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type. Mean-field values in the scalar meson and diquark channels are order parameters signaling the occurrence of quark condensates, entailing chiral symmetry breaking ({chi}SB) and color superconductivity (2SC) in quark matter. We investigate the spectral properties of scalar and pseudoscalar meson excitations in the phase diagram in Gaussian approximation and show that outside the {chi}SB region where the pion is a zero-width bound state, there are two regions where it can be considered as a quasi-bound state with a lifetime exceeding that of a typical heavy-ion collision fireball: (A) the high-temperature {chi}SB crossover region at low densities and (B) the high-density color superconducting phase at temperatures below 100 MeV.

Zablocki, D. [Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Wroclawski, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Blaschke, D. [Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Wroclawski, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Bogoliubov Laboratory for Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Anglani, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

2008-08-29

412

Modeling the Round Earth through Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier studies have found that students, including adults, have problems understanding the scientifically accepted model of the Sun-Earth-Moon system and explaining day-to-day astronomical phenomena based on it. We have been examining such problems in the context of recent research on visual-spatial reasoning. Working with middle school students in India, we have developed a pedagogical sequence to build the mental model of the Earth and tried it in three schools for socially and educationally disadvantaged students. This pedagogy was developed on the basis of (1) a reading of current research in imagery and visual-spatial reasoning and (2) students' difficulties identified during the course of pretests and interviews. Visual-spatial tools such as concrete (physical) models, gestures, and diagrams are used extensively in the teaching sequence. The building of a mental model is continually integrated with drawing inferences to understand and explain everyday phenomena. The focus of this article is inferences drawn with diagrams.

Padalkar, Shamin; Ramadas, Jayashree

413

Simple thermodynamic diagrams for real refrigeration systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic performance of real irreversible cooling and refrigeration systems (chillers) can be summarized in simple rectangular temperature-entropy diagrams, in analogy to classic pedagogical examples for idealized reversible devices. The key to translating complex dissipative losses into this graphical framework is the process average temperature-a factor that can be calculated from nonintrusive experimental measurements, for converting entropy production into lost work. An uncomplicated thermodynamic model is used to transform the governing chiller performance equations into an easily-interpreted graph. Examples based upon actual data from commercial work-driven (reciprocating) and heat-driven (absorption) chillers are presented, and are used to highlight the predominance of internal dissipation in determining chiller efficiency. With the thermodynamic diagram representation, the relative roles of each irreversibility source, as well as the reversible and endoreversible limits, become transparent.

Gordon, J. M.; Ng, K. C.; Chua, H. T.

1999-01-01

414

Invited Commentary: Causal diagrams and measurement bias.  

PubMed

Causal inferences about the effect of an exposure on an outcome may be biased by errors in the measurement of either the exposure or the outcome. Measurement errors of exposure and outcome can be classified into 4 types: independent nondifferential, dependent nondifferential, independent differential, and dependent differential. Here the authors describe how causal diagrams can be used to represent these 4 types of measurement bias and discuss some problems that arise when using measured exposure variables (e.g., body mass index) to make inferences about the causal effects of unmeasured constructs (e.g., "adiposity"). The authors conclude that causal diagrams need to be used to represent biases arising not only from confounding and selection but also from measurement. PMID:19755635

Hernán, Miguel A; Cole, Stephen R

2009-09-15

415

Krajewski diagrams and the standard model  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a complete list of Krajewski diagrams representing the standard model of particle physics. We will give the possible representations of the algebra and the anomaly free lifts which provide the representation of the standard model gauge group on the fermionic Hilbert space. The algebra representations following from the Krajewski diagrams are not complete in the sense that the corresponding spectral triples do not necessarily obey to the axiom of Poincare duality. This defect may be repaired by adding new particles to the model, i.e., by building models beyond the standard model. The aim of this list of finite spectral triples (up to Poincare duality) is therefore to provide a basis for model building beyond the standard model.

Stephan, Christoph A. [Institut fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, 14469 Potsdam (Germany)

2009-04-15

416

Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content With a "Bare Bones" Strategy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity

2010-07-01

417

Translating Data Flow Diagrams into Z (and Vice Versa).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of work into the integration of structured and formal methods, in particular, data flow diagrams and Z, are described. Data flow diagrams are given a formal, mathematical basis by defining rules to translate these diagrams into Z. Rules are al...

G. P. Randell

1990-01-01

418

Translating Data Flow Diagrams into Z (and Vice Versa).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of work into the integration of structured and formal methods, in particular, data flow diagrams and Z. Data flow diagrams are given a formal, mathematical basis by defining rules to translate these diagrams into Z. Rules...

G. P. Randell

1990-01-01

419

Compilation of Flow Diagrams into Target Code for Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a part of our work on the automatic generation of target code from Stateflow models. We focus on the flow diagrams from the Stateflow component of MATLAB and describe how flow diagram models can be compiled into target code for embedded systems. Moreover, the paper describes a method for analyzing flow diagrams, allowing an efficient

Achim Rettberg; Edwin Erpenbach; Jürgen Tacken; Carsten Rust; Bernd Kleinjohann

420

Triangular Diagrams Teach Steady and Dynamic Behaviour of Catalytic Reactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Illustrates how triangular diagrams can aid in presenting some of the rather complex transient interactions that occur among gas and surface species during heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The basic equations and numerical examples are described. Classroom use of the triangular diagram is discussed. Several diagrams and graphs are provided.…

Klusacek, K.; And Others

1989-01-01

421

Dinosaur Extinction: Causal Loop Diagram of Earth Feedback System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a causal loop diagram from system dynamics methodology showing the solar-earth-space energy flow system (the dominant flow system driving earth's surficial systems, including the biosphere) and interactive natural earthly processes that influence it. Also included is a discussion of the diagram, and a link to a page that explains how to read causal loop diagrams.

Mclean, Dewey M.; Tech, Virginia

422

Machine recognition of hand-drawn circuit diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of image processing techniques to recognition of hand-drawn circuit diagrams is presented. The scanned image of a diagram is pre-processed to remove noise and converted to bilevel. Morphological operations are applied to obtain a clean, connected representation using thinned lines. The diagram comprises of nodes, connections and components. Nodes and components are segmented using appropriate thresholds on a

B. Edwards; V. Chandran

2000-01-01

423

The Problem of Labels in E-Assessment of Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article we explore a problematic aspect of automated assessment of diagrams. Diagrams have partial and sometimes inconsistent semantics. Typically much of the meaning of a diagram resides in the labels; however, the choice of labeling is largely unrestricted. This means a correct solution may utilize differing yet semantically equivalent…

Jayal, Ambikesh; Shepperd, Martin

2009-01-01

424

Ride diagram: a tool for analysis of vehicle suspension settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new evaluation method for ride comfort, the ride diagram. The ride diagram is plotted from vehicle accelerations resulting from increased levels of excitation. The idea is to graphically visualize how the ride comfort changes with, for example, road unevenness or speed. The paper further focuses on investigating how fundamental suspension parameters affect the ride diagram shape.

K. Strandemar; B. Thorvald

2006-01-01

425

Generalization of an Interpolant Using Voronoi Diagrams in Two Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently the authors found a local coordinate property based on the planar Voronoi diagram that is simpler than the famous Sibson's local coordinates (R. Sibson, 1980; 1981), and proposed an interpolant using this property. The paper generalizes this property to general dimensions. The proof given in the paper enables us to use more general Voronoi diagrams, e.g., Laguerre Voronoi diagrams

Hisamoto Hiyoshi; Kokichi Sugihara

1999-01-01

426

An improved Voronoi diagram model based on fuzzy interval theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering that the application of traditional Voronoi diagram in spatial division ignores the impact of road hierarchy, speed, road-block, one-way and some other influential factors on proximity, an improved Voronoi diagram model based on fuzzy interval theory is proposed in this paper by introducing different influential factors into the construction of Voronoi diagram in order to enhance the accuracy of

Beibei Yan; Zhenfeng Shao; Yang Zhou; Qimin Cheng

2009-01-01

427

A flow phase diagram for helium superfluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of the flow phase diagram predicted by Volovik [JETP Lett. 78, 553 (2003)] is discussed based on the available experimental data for He II and 3He-B. The effective temperature-dependent but scale-independent Reynolds number Reeff?1\\/q?(1???)\\/?, where ? and ?? are the mutual friction parameters, and the superfluid Reynolds number characterizing the circulation\\u000a of the superfluid component in units of

L. Skrbek

2004-01-01

428

Characteristic Dynkin diagrams and W algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a classification of characteristic Dynkin diagrams for the AN, BN, CN and DN algebras. This classification is related to the classification of W(G, K) algebras arising from non-abelian Toda models, and we argue that it can give new insight on the structure of W algebras. On leave from absence of Laboratoire de Physique Théorique ENSLAPP, Chemin de Bellevue BP 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex, France.

Ragoucy, E.

1993-11-01

429

Space-efficient approximate Voronoi diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

(MATH) Given a set $S$ of $n$ points in $\\\\IR^d$, a {\\\\em $(t,\\\\epsilon)$-approximate Voronoi diagram (AVD)} is a partition of space into constant complexity cells, where each cell $c$ is associated with $t$ representative points of $S$, such that for any point in $c$, one of the associated representatives approximates the nearest neighbor to within a factor of $(1+\\\\epsilon)$. Like

Sunil Arya; Theocharis Malamatos; David M. Mount

2002-01-01

430

Magnetic phase diagram of bcc 3He  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete magnetic phase diagram of bcc solid 3He at a molar volume of 22.7 cm3\\/mol has been determined by pressure measurements at temperatures down to 250 muK in magnetic fields up to 7 T. The transition temperature between the paramagnetic phase and the high-field antiferromagnetic ordered phase increases with field and reaches a maximum (=0.96 mK) at 3 T.

Hiroshi Fukuyama; T. Fukuda; T. Okamoto; H. Akimoto; H. Ishimoto; S. Ogawa

1991-01-01

431

On forming limit stress diagram analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forming Limit Stress Diagrams (FLSDs) have been intensively studied and have been considered as being path-independent. This paper carries out a detailed study to examine the path-dependency of FLSDs based on different non-proportional loading histories, which are combinations of two linear strain paths. All simulations are based on crystal plasticity theory in conjunction with the M–K approach. It is confirmed

P. D. Wu; A. Graf; S. R. MacEwen; D. J. Lloyd; M. Jain; K. W. Neale

2005-01-01

432

Calculation of the forming limit diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is presented to help understand sheet metal deformation during forming. The particular purpose of this\\u000a model is to predict the forming limit diagram (FLD). The present model is an extension of a previous analysis by Jones and\\u000a Gillis (JG)[1] in which the deformation is idealized into three phases: (I) homogeneous deformation up to maximum load; (II) deformation

Wonjib Choi; Peter P. Gillis; S. E. Jones

1989-01-01

433

Using Diagrams and Models: 2.75  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the importance of abstraction and generalization in being able to use models and diagrams effectively, whether children are creating their own models to represent a situation and explain their thinking, or interpreting a provided model. The resource offers examples to illustrate these ideas as well as teaching strategies and activities in the areas of parity, mental addition, equivalent fractions, and multi-digit multiplication.

2012-09-26

434

Sloan Digital Sky Survey: The Hubble Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's website provides an excellent explanation of how Astronomers are able to use red-shift to explain the expansion of the universe. An activity is provided for a user to retrace Edwin Hubble's steps of measuring magnitudes and calculating redshifts to make a Hubble Diagram. These pages are part of a large set of projects and activities provided by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for advanced astronomy students.

2005-05-15

435

Phase diagram of dispersion of anisotropic particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the phase diagram of aqueous dispersions of colloidal plate-like charged particles (300 Å × 10 Å). Particle concentration\\u000a and ionic strength are the two parameters controlling the system. At fixed ionic strength, the suspensions undergo a sol\\/gel\\u000a transition without macroscopic phase separation. Shear rheology is used to monitor this transition and to locate the appearance\\u000a of the “mechanical

A. Mourchid; A. Delville; P. Levitz

436

Causal diagrams, gastroesophageal reflux and erosive oesophagitis.  

PubMed

Gastroesophageal reflux and its consequences have inspired numerous research questions in recent years: are non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and erosive oesophagitis phenotypic expressions of gastroesophageal reflux disease? Why do patients with NERD not respond to treatment as well as patients with erosive oesophagitis? What is the natural history of NERD? Causal diagrams, coupled with conditional probabilities, offer clear and surprising answers. PMID:22804828

Shahar, Eyal

2012-07-16

437

Phase Diagram of Strongly Interacting Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize the phase diagrams of SU, SO and Sp gauge theories as function of the number of flavors, colors, and matter representation as well as the ones of phenomenologically relevant chiral gauge theories such as the Bars-Yankielowicz and the generalized Georgi-Glashow models. We finally report on the intriguing possibility of the existence of gauge-duals for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories and the impact on their conformal window.

Sannino, Francesco

438

Phase Diagram of Strongly Interacting Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize the phase diagrams of SU, SO and Sp gauge theories as function of the number of flavors, colors, and matter representation as well as the ones of phenomenologically relevant chiral gauge theories such as the Bars-Yankielowicz and the generalized Georgi-Glashow models. We finally report on the intriguing possibility of the existence of gauge-duals for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories and the impact on their conformal window.

Sannino, Francesco

2011-01-01

439

The plutonium-oxygen phase diagram  

SciTech Connect

Identification of products formed by the reaction of plutonium metal with liquid water at 23{degree}C indicates that the plutonium-oxygen phase diagram is similar to the cerium-oxygen and praseodymium-oxygen diagrams. Quantitative measurements of H{sub 2} formation and analytical data suggest that a sequence of hydrolysis reactions produces oxide hydrides of trivalent plutonium, Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, mixed-valent oxides and PuO{sub 2}. The intermediate oxides are the n {equals} 7, 9, 10 and 12 members of the Pu{sub n}O{sub 2n{minus}2} homologous series. Properties of the residue formed by thermal decomposition of the initial hydrolysis product, plutonium monoxide monhydride (PuOH), are consistent with the formation of metastable plutonium monoxide. Crystal-chemical, thermodynamic, and kinetic factors are evaluated, but definitive assignment of the equilibrium Pu-O diagram is not possible. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Haschke, J.M.

1990-01-01

440

Improved Identification of Noun Phrases in Clinical Radiology Reports Using a High-Performance Statistical Natural Language Parser Augmented with the UMLS Specialist Lexicon  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a method of extracting noun phrases with full phrase structures from a set of clinical radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and to investigate the effects of using the UMLS® Specialist Lexicon to improve noun phrase identification within clinical radiology documents. Design: The noun phrase identification (NPI) module is composed of a sentence boundary detector, a statistical natural language parser trained on a nonmedical domain, and a noun phrase (NP) tagger. The NPI module processed a set of 100 XML-represented clinical radiology reports in Health Level 7 (HL7)® Clinical Document Architecture (CDA)–compatible format. Computed output was compared with manual markups made by four physicians and one author for maximal (longest) NP and those made by one author for base (simple) NP, respectively. An extended lexicon of biomedical terms was created from the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and used to improve NPI performance. Results: The test set was 50 randomly selected reports. The sentence boundary detector achieved 99.0% precision and 98.6% recall. The overall maximal NPI precision and recall were 78.9% and 81.5% before using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and 82.1% and 84.6% after. The overall base NPI precision and recall were 88.2% and 86.8% before using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and 93.1% and 92.6% after, reducing false-positives by 31.1% and false-negatives by 34.3%. Conclusion: The sentence boundary detector performs excellently. After the adaptation using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon, the statistical parser's NPI performance on radiology reports increased to levels comparable to the parser's native performance in its newswire training domain and to that reported by other researchers in the general nonmedical domain.

Huang, Yang; Lowe, Henry J.; Klein, Dan; Cucina, Russell J.

2005-01-01

441

Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) and Forming Limit Stress Diagram (FLSD) For Aluminum Alloy 3105  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper experimental and theoretical FLD and FLSD of AA3105 are investigated. For this purpose, the forming limit diagram of Aluminum alloy 3105 using out-of-plane test is evaluated experimentally. Also, base of emphasis of forming limit stress diagrams and using plasticity equations, the stress limits resulted from strain limits and then forming limit stress diagram obtained. Some of the

Mehdi. Safari; S. J. Hoseinipour; H. D. Azodi; Sh. Yousefzadeh

2011-01-01

442

Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and disease staging), psychology (stages of cognitive development), human development (pubertal stages) and chronic diseases (stages of dementia). Transition probabilities between successive stages are modeled as smoothly varying functions of age. Age-conditional references are calculated from the modeled probabilities by the mid-P value. It is possible to eliminate the influence of age by calculating standard deviation scores (SDS). The method is applied to the empirical data to produce reference charts on secondary sexual maturation. The mean of the empirical SDS in the reference population is close to zero, whereas the variance depends on age. The stage line diagram provides quick insight into both status (in SDS) and tempo (in SDS/year) of development of an individual child. Other measures (e.g. height SDS, body mass index SDS) from the same child can be added to the chart. Diagrams for sexual maturation are available as a web application at http://vps.stefvanbuuren.nl/puberty. The stage line diagram expresses status and tempo of discrete changes on a continuous scale. Wider application of these measures scores opens up new analytic possibilities. PMID:19260011

van Buuren, Stef; Ooms, Jeroen C L

2009-05-15

443

UCDA: Use Case Driven Development Assistant Tool for Class Model Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of class models using the Rational Unified Process (RUP) requires complete, correct and unambiguous use case specification documents. The Use Case Driven Development Assistant (UCDA) tool provides automated assistance in developing use case diagrams, writing use case specification documents and developing the analysis class models. UCDA uses a freely available natural language parser and Rational Rose's extensibility interface

Kalaivani Subramaniam; Dong Liu; Behrouz Homayoun Far; Armin Eberlein

2004-01-01

444

Evolutionary generation of unique input\\/output sequences for class behavioral testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object-oriented software is composed of classes. Their behaviors are usually modeled with state diagrams or finite state machines (FSMs). Testing classes is regarded as testing FSMs in which unique input\\/output (UIO) sequences are widely applied. The generation of UIO sequences is shown to be an undecidable problem. For these problems, genetic algorithms (GAs) may offer much promise. This paper reports

Jinhua Li; Wensheng Bao; Yun Zhao; Zhibing Ma; Huangzhen Dong

2009-01-01

445

Ground-state phase diagram of the one-dimensional half-filled extended Hubbard model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the ground-state phase diagram of the one-dimensional half-filled extended Hubbard model with on-site (U) and nearest-neighbor (V) repulsive interactions. In the first half of the paper, using the weak-coupling renormalization-group approach (g-ology) including second-order corrections to the coupling constants, we show that bond-charge-density-wave (BCDW) phase exists for U?2V in between charge-density-wave (CDW) and spin-density-wave (SDW) phases. We find that the umklapp scattering of parallel-spin electrons disfavors the BCDW state and leads to a bicritical point where the CDW-BCDW and SDW-BCDW continuous-transition lines merge into the CDW-SDW first-order transition line. In the second half of the paper, we investigate the phase diagram of the extended Hubbard model with either additional staggered site potential ? or bond alternation ?. Although the alternating site potential ? strongly favors the CDW state (that is, a band insulator), the BCDW state is not destroyed completely and occupies a finite region in the phase diagram. Our result is a natural generalization of the work by Fabrizio, Gogolin, and Nersesyan [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2014 (1999)], who predicted the existence of a spontaneously dimerized insulating state between a band insulator and a Mott insulator in the phase diagram of the ionic Hubbard model. The bond alternation ? destroys the SDW state and changes it into the BCDW state (or Peierls insulating state). As a result the phase diagram of the model with ? contains only a single critical line separating the Peierls insulator phase and the CDW phase. The addition of ? or ? changes the universality class of the CDW-BCDW transition from the Gaussian transition into the Ising transition.

Tsuchiizu, M.; Furusaki, A.

2004-01-01

446

Teachers in Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I argue for a closer read of the daily "class work" of teachers, as posited by Reay, 1998. In developing exploratory class portraits of four teachers who occupy distinctive social positions (two from working-class homes now teaching upper-middle-class children and two from upper-middle-class homes now teaching poor children), I…

Van Galen, Jane

2008-01-01

447

HF Class-E based multiplier circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a multiply by five class-E based multiplier circuit with a 32 MHz input signal is described and measurement results, performed on a prototype board, are presented and compared with a classical high frequency simulation tool. Here we don't propose a novel project methodology, but illustrate all the simulation steps and measurements results for an HF class E

Paolo Colucci; Giorgio Leuzzi; Vincenzo Stornelli

2010-01-01

448

Core collapse supernovae in the QCD phase diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare two classes of hybrid equations of state with a hadron-to-quark matter phase transition in their application to core collapse supernova simulations. The first one uses the quark bag model and describes the transition to three-flavor quark matter at low critical densities. The second one employs a Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model with parameters describing a phase transition to two-flavor quark matter at higher critical densities. These models possess a distinctly different temperature dependence of their transition densities which turns out to be crucial for the possible appearance of quark matter in supernova cores. During the early post-bounce accretion phase quark matter is found only if the phase transition takes place at sufficiently low densities as in the study based on the bag model. The increase critical density with increasing temperature, as obtained for our PNJL parametrization, prevents the formation of quark matter. The further evolution of the core collapse supernova as obtained applying the quark bag model leads to a structural reconfiguration of the central protoneutron star where, in addition to a massive pure quark matter core, a strong hydrodynamic shock wave forms and a second neutrino burst is released during the shock propagation across the neutrinospheres. We discuss the severe constraints in the freedom of choice of quark matter models and their parametrization due to the recently observed 2 M ? pulsar and their implications for further studies of core collapse supernovae in the QCD phase diagram.

Fischer, T.; Blaschke, D.; Hempel, M.; Klähn, T.; ?astowiecki, R.; Liebendörfer, M.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Pagliara, G.; Sagert, I.; Sandin, F.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.; Typel, S.

2012-05-01

449

The Diagram as Story: Unfolding the Event-Structure of the Mathematical Diagram  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the role of narrative in decoding diagrams. I focus on two fundamental facets of narrative: (1) the recounting of causally related sequences of events, and (2) the positioning of the narrator through point-of-view and voice. In the first two sections of the paper I discuss philosophical and semiotic frameworks for making sense…

de Freitas, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

450

Preliminary Master Logic Diagram for ITER operation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the work performed to develop a Master Logic Diagram (MLD) for the operations phase of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The MLD is a probabilistic risk assessment tool used to identify the broad set of potential initiating events that could lead to an offsite radioactive or toxic chemical release from the facility under study. The MLD described here is complementary to the failure modes and effects analyses (FMEAs) that have been performed for ITER`s major plant systems in the engineering evaluation of the facility design. While the FMEAs are a bottom-up or component level approach, the MLD is a top-down or facility level approach to identifying the broad spectrum of potential events. Strengths of the MLD are that it analyzes the entire plant, depicts completeness in the accident initiator process, provides an independent method for identification, and can also identify potential system interactions. MLDs have been used successfully as a hazard analysis tool. This paper describes the process used for the ITER MLD to treat the variety of radiological and toxicological source terms present in the ITER design. One subtree of the nineteen page MLD is shown to illustrate the levels of the diagram.

Cadwallader, L.C. [INEEL, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Taylor, N.P.; Poucet, A.E. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1998-04-01

451

Phase diagram of quantum square ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagram of quantum square ice - realized by the transverse-field Ising model on a checkerboard lattice - using both linear spin-wave (LSW) theory and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC). We generalize the model with different couplings between nearest (J1) and next-to-nearest (J2) neighbors on the checkerboard lattice. Our QMC approach generalizes the loop algorithm - very efficient in the study of constrained classical systems - to a ``brane algorithm'' for quantum systems. At the LSW level the vast degeneracy of the ground-state for J1=J2 and J2>J1 remains intact; moreover LSW theory breaks down in extended regions of the phase diagram, pointing at non-classical states [1]. Our QMC study goes beyond perturbative schemes and addresses directly the nature of the low-temperature phases. We have critically examined the possibility of a resonating-plaquette state for J1=J2, suggested by degenerate perturbation theory on the ice-rule manifold for weak fields. Our QMC results for finite fields confirm the absence of Néel or collinear order, but they do not confirm the presence of resonating-plaquette order, pointing at a possibly more complex non-classical state.[4pt] [1] L.-P. Henry et al., PRB 85, 134427 (2012).

Henry, Louis-Paul; Holdsworth, Peter; Mila, Frederic; Roscilde, Tommaso

2013-03-01

452

Teachers in Class  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I argue for a closer read of the daily “class work” of teachers, as posited by Reay, 1998. In developing exploratory class portraits of four teachers who occupy distinctive social positions (two from working-class homes now teaching upper-middle-class children and two from upper-middle-class homes now teaching poor children), I explore the class constraints within which teachers work.

Jane Van Galen

2008-01-01

453

On the Sn-Bi-Ag ternary phase diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection and evaluation of Pb-free solders requires information that is best determined through a knowledge of ternary and higher order phase diagrams. As part of an ongoing program on Pb-free solder phase diagrams at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, a thermodynamic model is formulated for the Sn-Bi-Ag phase diagram. Thermodynamic functions for the various phases obtained by

Ursula R. Kattner; William J. Boettinger

1994-01-01

454

Binary decision diagrams for first-order predicate logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an extension of Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) such that they can be used for predicatelogic. We present a sound and complete proof search method which we apply to a number of examples.Key Words & Phrases: Automatic Reasoning, Binary Decision Diagrams, First Order Predicate Logic.1 IntroductionIn 1986 Randy Bryant proposed to represent propositional formulas by Ordered Binary DecisionDiagrams (BDDs)

Jan Friso Groote; Olga Tveretina

2003-01-01

455

Quickest Paths, Straight Skeletons, and the City Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city Voronoi diagram is induced by quickest paths in the L 1plane, made faster by an isothetic transportation network. We investigate the rich geometric and algorithmic properties of city Voronoi diagrams, and report on their use in processing quickest-path queries. In doing so, we revisit the fact that not every Voronoi-type diagram has interpretations in both the distance model

Oswin Aichholzer; Franz Aurenhammer; Belén Palop

2004-01-01

456

Quickest paths, straight skeletons, and the city Voronoi diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city Voronoi diagram is induced by quickest paths, in the L 1 plane speeded up by an isothetic transportation network. We investigate the rich geometric and algorithmic properties of city Voronoi diagrams, and report on their use in processing quickest-path queries.In doing so, we revisit the fact that not every Voronoi-type diagram has interpretations in both the distance model

Oswin Aichholzer; Franz Aurenhammer; Belén Palop

2002-01-01

457

Traffic-aware Stress Testing of Distributed Real-Time Systems Based on UML Models in the Presence of Time Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous work, we reported and experimented with a stress testing methodology to detect network traffic- related real-time (RT) faults in distributed real-time systems (DRTSs) based on the design UML models. The stress methodology, referred to as time-shifting stress test methodology (TSSTM), aimed at increasing chances of discovering RT faults originating from network traffic overloads in DRTSs. The TSSTM

Vahid Garousi

2008-01-01

458

The use of diagrams in analogical problem solving.  

PubMed

In four experiments, we examined the impact of perceptual properties on the effectiveness of diagrams in analogical problem solving, using variants of convergence diagrams as source analogues for the radiation problem. Static diagrams representing the initial problematic state (one large line directed at a target) and the final state for a convergence solution (multiple converging lines) were not accessed spontaneously but were often used successfully once a hint to consider the diagram had been provided. The inaccessibility of static diagrams was not alleviated by adding additional diagrams to represent intermediate states (Experiment 1), but spontaneous access was improved by augmenting static diagrams with a verbal statement of the convergence principle (Experiment 3). Spontaneous retrieval and noticing were increased markedly by animating displays representing converging forces and thereby encouraging encoding of the lines as indicating motion toward a target (Experiments 3 and 4). However, neither static nor animated diagrams were effective when the arrows were reversed to imply divergence rather than convergence (Experiment 2). The results indicate that when animation encourages the interpretation of a diagram as a helpful source analogue, it can greatly enhance analogical transfer. PMID:11352204

Pedone, R; Hummel, J E; Holyoak, K J

2001-03-01

459

Diagram-Based Support for Collaborative Learning in Mathematical Exercise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the collaborative learning of mathematics in which learners effectively acquire knowledge of common exercises through discussion with other learners. During collaborative learning, learners sometimes cannot solve exercises successfully, because they cannot derive answers by themselves or they hesitate to propose answers through discussion. To cope with such situations, this paper proposes two support functions using diagrams to encourage active discussion, since diagrams are often used to graphically illustrate mathematical concepts. One function indicates the differences between learner diagrams and the group diagram in order to encourage participation in discussions. To compare the characteristics of diagrams drawn by different learners, internal representation of the diagram, which consists of types of figures and remarkable relations to other figures, is introduced. The other function provides hints in the group diagram so that all learners can consider their answers collaboratively through discussions. Since preparing hints for all exercises is difficult, rules for drawing supplementary figures, which are general methods for drawing supplementary figures that correspond to individual answering methods/formulas, are also developed. By applying available rules to current group diagram, appropriate supplementary figures that can solve current learning situations may be generated. The experimental results showed that the generated hints successfully increased the number of utterances in the groups. Moreover, learners were also able to derive answers by themselves and tended to propose more opinions in discussions when the uniqueness of their diagrams was indicated.

Kojiri, Tomoko; Murase, Yosuke; Watanabe, Toyohide

460

Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory  

SciTech Connect

The ''basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a {phi}{sup 4} interaction to three-loop order. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Andersen, Jens O. [Physics Department, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Braaten, Eric [Physics Department, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Strickland, Michael [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

2000-08-15

461

54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

462

53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

463

55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

464

Completion for Multiple Path Orderings Based on Precedence and Binary Decision Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a completion procedure (called MKBpo) for term rewriting systems. Based on the existing procedure MKB which works with multiple reduction orderings and the ATMS nodes, the MKBpo improves its performance by restricting the class of reduction orderings to precedence-based path orderings, representing them by logical functions in which a logical variable xfg represents the precedence f > g. By using BDD (binary decision diagrams) as a representation of logical functions, the procedure can be implemented efficiently. This makes it possible to save the number of quasi-parallel processes effectively and suppress the rapid increase in the amount of computation time asymptotically.

Yokoyama, Issei; Kurihara, Masahito

465

Phase diagram of water in carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

A phase diagram of water in single-walled carbon nanotubes at atmospheric pressure is proposed, which summarizes ice structures and their melting points as a function of the tube diameter up to 1.7 nm. The investigation is based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations over numerous thermodynamic states on the temperature-diameter plane. Spontaneous freezing of water in the simulations and the analysis of ice structures at 0 K suggest that there exist at least nine ice phases in the cylindrical space, including those reported by x-ray diffraction studies and those unreported by simulation or experiment. Each ice has a structure that maximizes the number of hydrogen bonds under the cylindrical confinement. The results show that the melting curve has many local maxima, each corresponding to the highest melting point for each ice form. The global maximum in the melting curve is located at approximately 11 A, where water freezes in a square ice nanotube. PMID:18162549

Takaiwa, Daisuke; Hatano, Itaru; Koga, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Hideki

2007-12-27

466

Microfluidic Evaporation for Phase Diagram Screening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a pervaporation-based microfluidic device to concentrate solutions in a controlled way. This allows us to develop chips for phase diagram screening,and to study both fundamental and technological issues, such as the impact of kinetic pathway of concentration on a variety of aqueous solutions (colloids, surfactants, polymers and mixtures of thereof). The first part of the presentation will deals with the characterization of the concentration process (including analytical results, numerical simulations, and experimental observations). It will be shown that our device is well suited for a wide range of particle sizes in the colloidal range. In the second part, we will present results obtained on several systems during (along) the concentration process (surfactants and polymers). On-chip FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) and microrheology measurements will be presented in addition to optical and fluorescence microscopy.

Moreau, Patrick; Salmon, Jean-Baptiste; Leng, Jacques

2007-11-01

467

Phase diagram of magnetic vortex dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of a magnetic vortex are influenced profoundly by nonlinear effects at large and small amplitudes. For example, a strongly driven magnetic vortex is unstable with respect to internal deformation, leading to reversal of its core magnetization. At small amplitudes, a nonlinear response is associated with pinning of the vortex core. Given these phenomena, there is an acute need for a global picture of vortex dynamics over a wide range of excitation amplitudes and frequencies. We have constructed a phase diagram of vortex dynamics in permalloy (Ni80Fe20) disks by probing the response spectrum over four orders of magnitude in excitation power. We identify the boundary separating pinned and unpinned dynamics in a phase space of amplitude and frequency. Our approach allows for a highly quantitative analysis of the pinning potential for localized defects and can be used to trace the dynamics of a single vortex from deep in the pinning regime to the onset of core reversal.

Chen, T. Y.; Galkiewicz, A. T.; Crowell, P. A.

2012-05-01

468

Phase Diagram of Disordered Quantum XY Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect of disorder on the phase-diagram of the 2D quantum XY model. Using a directed-loop Monte Carlo algorithm, we calculate the pair susceptibility and winding susceptibility in the spin-1/2 case with a random field in the z-direction. Starting from the ordered phase at low temperature in the clean limit, increasing either T or disorder strength causes a transition to a paramagnetic state. The thermal transition is, of course, the well-known Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transition in which there is a close connection between the pair and winding susceptibility at the transition. At the very lowest temperatures, we see evidence for the influence of a nearby quantum critical point.

Priyadarshee, Anand; Chandrasekharan, S.; Baranger, H. U.

2004-03-01

469

Phase diagram of chirally imbalanced QCD matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the QCD phase diagram in the plane of the chiral chemical potential and temperature using the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to the Polyakov loop. The chiral chemical potential accounts for effects of imbalanced chirality due to QCD sphaleron transitions which may emerge in heavy-ion collisions. We found three effects caused by the chiral chemical potential: the imbalanced chirality (i) tightens the link between deconfinement and chiral phase transitions; (ii) lowers the common critical temperature; (iii) strengthens the order of the phase transition by converting the crossover into the strong first order phase transition passing via the second order end point. Since the fermionic determinant with the chiral chemical potential has no sign problem, the chirally imbalanced QCD matter can be studied in numerical lattice simulations.

Chernodub, M. N.; Nedelin, A. S.

2011-05-01

470

Energy level diagrams for black hole orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spinning black hole with a much smaller black hole companion forms a fundamental gravitational system, like a colossal classical analog to an atom. In an appealing if imperfect analogy with atomic physics, this gravitational atom can be understood through a discrete spectrum of periodic orbits. Exploiting a correspondence between the set of periodic orbits and the set of rational numbers, we are able to construct periodic tables of orbits and energy level diagrams of the accessible states around black holes. We also present a closed-form expression for the rational q, thereby quantifying zoom-whirl behavior in terms of spin, energy and angular momentum. The black hole atom is not just a theoretical construct, but corresponds to extant astrophysical systems detectable by future gravitational wave observatories.

Levin, Janna

2009-12-01

471

Specification of Learning Content Using Feature Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main idea of a learning object (LO) is to break educational content down into small chunks that can be reused in various learning environments. When reused, such small chunks of educational content are combined in various ways leading to a great variability of the learning content. We propose using feature diagrams (FDs) for the specification of learning content at different layers of abstraction starting from the organization of teaching material in a lecture down to the specification and demonstration of particular software/hardware components. FDs can be used by (1) designers, teachers, and learners for graphical representation of domain knowledge in LOs; (2) programmers to specify and express variability-commonality relationships of LOs at a higher abstraction level to allow the development and implementation of generative LOs; and (3) researchers as a vehicle for analysis and better understanding of the e-Learning domain itself.

Damaševi?ius, Robertas

472

Phase diagram of half-doped manganites  

SciTech Connect

The phase diagram of half-doped manganites which may consist of experimentally observed ferromagnetic (FM), A-,C-, and charge-exchange (CE)-type antiferromagnetic (AF) states is obtained in terms of a model which is based on double exchange via degenerate e{sub g} orbitals, the on-site Coulomb interaction (U), and the nearest-neighbor Coulomb interaction (V). We find that, because of the strong spatial anisotropy of the electron hoppings, the on-site Coulomb interaction has different effects on these magnetic order states. As a result, large values of U suppress the FM state and favor the A- and C-type AF states. Moreover, we show that it is the interplay between the on-site and nearest-neighbor Coulomb repulsions that stabilizes the CE phase and results in the charge ordering in the state.

Shu, Zhenghuang; Dong, Jinming; Xing, D. Y.

2001-06-01

473

CCM flare modeling using sensor intensity diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compact Camera Module (CCM) is widely used in PDAs, Cellular phones and PC web cameras. Nowadays CCM image quality level should match with photo-quality in that frame, optics plays an important role. Among the whole set of optical parameters, flare is particularly threatening as it can waste the world-best-design associated to the world-best-manufacturing-process optics resulting to a simple piece of plastic without any value. Because it acts at the border between optical designer and mechanical designer fields, it is a challenging parameter to study. In this paper, after defining Flare parameter, we show a powerful method for tracking Flare among a complete CCM, through the use of the sensor's emitted intensity diagram. Following this procedure will prevent from random time consuming calculations on flare topic.

Ramel, Romain

2005-09-01

474

Safety class methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to safety class items.'' Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in

E. B. Donner; J. M. Low; C. R. Lux

1992-01-01

475

Safety class methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to ``safety class items.`` Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in

E. B. Donner; J. M. Low; C. R. Lux

1992-01-01

476

GRAPH 3-MANIFOLDS, SPLICE DIAGRAMS, SINGULARITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe how a coarse classification of graph manifolds can give clearer insight into their structure, and we relate this particularly to the man- ifolds that can occur as the links of points in normal complex surfaces. We relate this discussion to a special class of singularities; those of \\

WALTER D. NEUMANN

477

Revised phase diagram of the Gross-Neveu model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at nonzero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of

Michael Thies; Konrad Urlichs

2003-01-01

478

Diagrams in Mathematics: To Draw or Not to Draw?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the use of diagrams as self-explanatory tools. It considers the use of diagrams, in general, and more specifically, examines research that is currently being undertaken in the broad field of visualisation. The research participants referred to in this article were Advanced Certificate of Education students and the paper…

Mudaly, Vimolan

2012-01-01

479

Data flow diagrams: reverse engineering production and animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose the use of interactive animation techniques as a support to reverse engineering processes oriented to the synthesis of semantic abstractions. Starting from data flow diagrams, a formal model, called dynamic data flow diagrams (DDFDs), has been defined, which can be used for the production of executable models of a software system. A strategy for the DDFD interactive

G. Canfora; L. Sansone; G. Visaggio

1992-01-01

480

Technical Note - A Proposal to Simplify Data Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical note presents an adaptation of the data flow diagram (DFD) technique whereby each data store symbol represents a database rather than a single table. It is conjectured that this modification makes DFDs easier to create, understand, and maintain. It also reduces an overlap with the entity-relationship diagram technique by curtailing graphical manifestations of the data model in the

Ido Millet

1999-01-01

481

Do students use and understand free-body diagrams?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics education literature recommends using multiple representations to help students understand concepts and solve problems. However, there is little research concerning why students use the representations and whether those who use them are more successful. This study addresses these questions using free-body diagrams (diagrammatic representations used in problems involving forces) as a type of representation. We conducted a two-year quantitative and qualitative study of studentsâ use of free-body diagrams while solving physics problems. We found that when students are in a course that consistently emphasizes the use of free-body diagrams, the majority of them do use diagrams on their own to help solve exam problems even when they receive no credit for drawing the diagrams. We also found that students who draw diagrams correctly are significantly more successful in obtaining the right answer for the problem. Lastly, we interviewed students to uncover their reasons for using free-body diagrams. We found that high achieving students used the diagrams to help solve the problems and as a tool to evaluate their work while low achieving students only used representations as aids in the problem-solving process.

Rosengrant, David; Van Heuvelen, Alan; Etkina, Eugenia

2010-06-29

482

Diagram This Headline in One Minute, if You Can  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Say "sentence diagramming" to people of a certain age, and one gets different reactions. Say it to most college students, and one gets a blank look. But not from the 24 students in Lucy Ferriss's "Constructing Thought," a half-credit course in the English department at Trinity College. They know how to diagram a sentence--and they are passionate…

Landecker, Heidi

2009-01-01

483

DYNAMIC BIFURCATION DIAGRAMS FOR SOME MODELS IN ECONOMICS AND BIOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to determine the static bifurcation diagram (sbd) and dynamical bifurcation diagram (dbd) is proposed and the results for a few concrete problems are shown. 1. Historical premises For a long time, we were working in hydrodynamic stability theory (hsth) (1), just the period during which this field was quickly moving from an analytical towards a geometric and topological

Adelina Georgescu

484

Dynamic Reliability Block Diagrams VS Dynamic Fault Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability block diagrams (RBD), and fault trees (FT) are the most widely used formalisms in system reliability modeling. They implement two different approaches: in a reliability block diagram, the system is represented by components connected according to their function or reliability relationships, while fault trees show which combinations of the components failures will result in a system failure. Although RBD

Salvatore Distefano; Antonio Puliafito

2007-01-01

485

DEVELOPING SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODELS FROM CAUSAL LOOP DIAGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss how a Causal Loop diagram (CLD) can be la- beled and structured incrementally in order to nally transform it into a Stock and Flow diagram. A CLD does not contain enough information to describe a model uniquely. Hence the decisions on how to transform the CLD cannot be made auto- matically; they must be based

Thomas Binder; ANDREAS VOX; SALIM BELYAZID; MATS SVENSSON

2004-01-01

486

Using Tree Diagrams as an Assessment Tool in Statistics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the potential of the tree diagram, a type of graphic organizer, as an assessment tool to measure students' knowledge structures in statistics education. Students' knowledge structures in statistics have not been sufficiently assessed in statistics, despite their importance. This article first presents the rationale and method for using tree diagrams as assessment tools in statistics education, followed

Yue Yin

2012-01-01

487

Argument Diagramming and Critical Thinking in Introductory Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a multi-study naturalistic quasi-experiment involving 269 students in a semester-long introductory philosophy course, we investigated the effect of teaching argument diagramming (AD) on students' scores on argument analysis tasks. An argument diagram is a visual representation of the content and structure of an argument. In each study, all of…

Harrell, Maralee

2011-01-01

488

Knot symbols: A tool to describe and simplify knot diagrams  

SciTech Connect

A convenient representation of knot diagrams by abstract symbols is introduced. A set of simple moves, which are convenient combinations of the classic Reidemeister moves, is also introduced. These moves can be applied directly to the symbols to obtain simplified symbols (and therefore simplified diagrams) for the knot.

Bruschi, M. [Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy)

1996-04-01

489

Redetermination of succinonitrile (SCN)–camphor phase diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-melting temperature transparent organic materials have been extensively used to study the pattern formation and microstructure evolution. It proves to be very challenging to accurately determine the phase diagram since there is no viable way to measure the composition microscopically. In this paper, we presented the detailed experimental characterization of the phase diagram of succinonitrile (SCN)–camphor binary system. Differential scanning

Jing Teng; Shan Liu

2006-01-01

490

Diagram, Gesture, Agency: Theorizing Embodiment in the Mathematics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, we use the work of philosopher Gilles Chatelet to rethink the gesture/diagram relationship and to explore the ways mathematical agency is constituted through it. We argue for a fundamental philosophical shift to better conceptualize the relationship between gesture and diagram, and suggest that such an approach might open up new…

de Freitas, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Nathalie

2012-01-01

491

Using a Spreadsheet To Explore Melting, Dissolving and Phase Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares phase diagrams relating to the solubilities and melting points of various substances in textbooks with those generated by a spreadsheet using data from the literature. Argues that differences between the diagrams give rise to new chemical insights. (Author/MM)

Goodwin, Alan

2002-01-01

492

The Effect of Causal Diagrams on Text Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined the effect of studying a causal diagram on comprehension of causal relationships from an expository science text. A causal diagram is a type of visual display that explicitly represents cause-effect relationships. In Experiment 1, readers between conditions did not differ with respect to memory for main ideas, but the readers who…

McCrudden, Matthew T.; Schraw, Gregory; Lehman, Stephen; Poliquin, Anne

2007-01-01

493

Effects of causal loop diagrams on escalating commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that decision makers have the tendency to keep on investing in losing courses of action. The present study focuses on de-escalation and proposes causal loop diagrams as a technique to decrease escalating commitment in a failing action. The effectiveness of causal loop diagrams is also contrasted with the effect of receiving a list of important factors. Causal

Özge Pala; Dirk Vriens; Jac Vennix

494

Property-Part Diagrams: A Dependence Notation for Software Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some limitations of traditional dependence diagrams are explained, and a new notation that overcomes them is proposed. The key idea is to include in the diagram not only the parts of a system but also the properties that are assigned to them; dependences are shown as a relation not from parts to parts, but between properties and the parts (or

Daniel Jackson; Eunsuk Kang

495

Water, Water, Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional phase diagram for ordinary water substance, with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data is presented. Such an authentic diagram appears not to have been presented for water before, and may improve the understanding of its phase relationships. The nature of the IAPWS-95 equations, fitted to data, is discussed.

Glasser, L.

2004-03-01

496

Do students use and understand free-body diagrams?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics education literature recommends using multiple representations to help students understand concepts and solve problems. However, there is little research concerning why students use the representations and whether those who use them are more successful. This study addresses these questions using free-body diagrams (diagrammatic representations used in problems involving forces) as a type of representation. We conducted a two-year quantitative and qualitative study of students’ use of free-body diagrams while solving physics problems. We found that when students are in a course that consistently emphasizes the use of free-body diagrams, the majority of them do use diagrams on their own to help solve exam problems even when they receive no credit for drawing the diagrams. We also found that students who draw diagrams correctly are significantly more successful in obtaining the right answer for the problem. Lastly, we interviewed students to uncover their reasons for using free-body diagrams. We found that high achieving students used the diagrams to help solve the problems and as a tool to evaluate their work while low achieving students only used representations as aids in the problem-solving process.

Rosengrant, David; van Heuvelen, Alan; Etkina, Eugenia

2009-06-01

497

Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

Chamizo, Jose A.

2012-01-01

498

A sweepline algorithm for Euclidean Voronoi diagram of circles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented in this paper is a sweepline algorithm to compute the Voronoi diagram of a set of circles in a two-dimensional Euclidean space. The radii of the circles are non-negative and not necessarily equal. It is allowed that circles intersect each other, and a circle contains others. The proposed algorithm constructs the correct Voronoi diagram as a sweepline moves on

Li Jin; Donguk Kim; Lisen Mu; Deok-soo Kim; Shi-min Hu

2006-01-01

499

Symbol-and-Arrow Diagrams in Teaching Pharmacokinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Symbol-and-arrow diagrams are helpful adjuncts to equations derived from pharmacokinetic models. Both show relationships among dependent and independent variables. Diagrams show only qualitative relationships, but clearly show which variables are dependent and which are independent, helping students understand complex but important functional…

Hayton, William L.

1990-01-01

500

Diagram This Headline in One Minute, if You Can  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Say "sentence diagramming" to people of a certain age, and one gets different reactions. Say it to most college students, and one gets a blank look. But not from the 24 students in Lucy Ferriss's "Constructing Thought," a half-credit course in the English department at Trinity College. They know how to diagram a sentence--and they are passionate…

Landecker, Heidi

2009-01-01