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Sample records for uml class diagram

  1. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…

  2. Supporting Collaborative Learning and Problem-Solving in a Constraint-Based CSCL Environment for UML Class Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Nilufar; Mitrovic, Antonija; Irwin, Warwick

    2007-01-01

    We present COLLECT-UML, a constraint-based intelligent tutoring system (ITS) that teaches object-oriented analysis and design using Unified Modelling Language (UML). UML is easily the most popular object-oriented modelling technology in current practice. While teaching how to design UML class diagrams, COLLECT-UML also provides feedback on…

  3. Scrutinizing UML Activity Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Fedaghi, Sabah

    Building an information system involves two processes: conceptual modeling of the “real world domain” and designing the software system. Object-oriented methods and languages (e.g., UML) are typically used for describing the software system. For the system analysis process that produces the conceptual description, object-oriented techniques or semantics extensions are utilized. Specifically, UML activity diagrams are the “flow charts” of object-oriented conceptualization tools. This chapter proposes an alternative to UML activity diagrams through the development of a conceptual modeling methodology based on the notion of flow.

  4. Program Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program called "Rational Sequence" generates Universal Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams of a target Java program running on a Java virtual machine (JVM). Rational Sequence thereby performs a reverse engineering function that aids in the design documentation of the target Java program. Whereas previously, the construction of sequence diagrams was a tedious manual process, Rational Sequence generates UML sequence diagrams automatically from the running Java code.

  5. UML activity diagram swimlanes in logic controller design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobelny, Michał; Grobelna, Iwona

    2015-12-01

    Logic controller behavior can be specified using various techniques, including UML activity diagrams and control Petri nets. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. Application of both specification types in one project allows to take benefits from both of them. Additional elements of UML models make it possible to divide a specification into some parts, considered from other point of view (logic controller, user or system). The paper introduces an idea to use UML activity diagrams with swimlanes to increase the understandability of design models.

  6. UML activity diagrams in requirements specification of logic controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał

    2015-12-01

    Logic controller specification can be prepared using various techniques. One of them is the wide understandable and user-friendly UML language and its activity diagrams. Using formal methods during the design phase increases the assurance that implemented system meets the project requirements. In the approach we use the model checking technique to formally verify a specification against user-defined behavioral requirements. The properties are usually defined as temporal logic formulas. In the paper we propose to use UML activity diagrams in requirements definition and then to formalize them as temporal logic formulas. As a result, UML activity diagrams can be used both for logic controller specification and for requirements definition, what simplifies the specification and verification process.

  7. minimUML: A Minimalist Approach to UML Diagramming for Early Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Scott A.; Perez-Quinones, Manuel A.; Edwards, Stephen H.

    2005-01-01

    In introductory computer science courses, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is commonly used to teach basic object-oriented design. However, there appears to be a lack of suitable software to support this task. Many of the available programs that support UML focus on developing code and not on enhancing learning. Programs designed for…

  8. Doclet To Synthesize UML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    The RoseDoclet computer program extends the capability of Java doclet software to automatically synthesize Unified Modeling Language (UML) content from Java language source code. [Doclets are Java-language programs that use the doclet application programming interface (API) to specify the content and format of the output of Javadoc. Javadoc is a program, originally designed to generate API documentation from Java source code, now also useful as an extensible engine for processing Java source code.] RoseDoclet takes advantage of Javadoc comments and tags already in the source code to produce a UML model of that code. RoseDoclet applies the doclet API to create a doclet passed to Javadoc. The Javadoc engine applies the doclet to the source code, emitting the output format specified by the doclet. RoseDoclet emits a Rose model file and populates it with fully documented packages, classes, methods, variables, and class diagrams identified in the source code. The way in which UML models are generated can be controlled by use of new Javadoc comment tags that RoseDoclet provides. The advantage of using RoseDoclet is that Javadoc documentation becomes leveraged for two purposes: documenting the as-built API and keeping the design documentation up to date.

  9. An Investigation of Difficulties Experienced by Students Developing Unified Modelling Language (UML) Class and Sequence Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sien, Ven Yu

    2011-01-01

    Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is not an easy subject to learn. There are many challenges confronting students when studying OOAD. Students have particular difficulty abstracting real-world problems within the context of OOAD. They are unable to effectively build object-oriented (OO) models from the problem domain because they…

  10. Automatic Synthesis of UML Designs from Requirements in an Iterative Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Whittle, Jon; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is gaining wide popularity for the design of object-oriented systems. UML combines various object-oriented graphical design notations under one common framework. A major factor for the broad acceptance of UML is that it can be conveniently used in a highly iterative, Use Case (or scenario-based) process (although the process is not a part of UML). Here, the (pre-) requirements for the software are specified rather informally as Use Cases and a set of scenarios. A scenario can be seen as an individual trace of a software artifact. Besides first sketches of a class diagram to illustrate the static system breakdown, scenarios are a favorite way of communication with the customer, because scenarios describe concrete interactions between entities and are thus easy to understand. Scenarios with a high level of detail are often expressed as sequence diagrams. Later in the design and implementation stage (elaboration and implementation phases), a design of the system's behavior is often developed as a set of statecharts. From there (and the full-fledged class diagram), actual code development is started. Current commercial UML tools support this phase by providing code generators for class diagrams and statecharts. In practice, it can be observed that the transition from requirements to design to code is a highly iterative process. In this talk, a set of algorithms is presented which perform reasonable synthesis and transformations between different UML notations (sequence diagrams, Object Constraint Language (OCL) constraints, statecharts). More specifically, we will discuss the following transformations: Statechart synthesis, introduction of hierarchy, consistency of modifications, and "design-debugging".

  11. Neutrosophic Diagram and Classes of Neutrosophic Paradoxes, or To the Outer-Limits of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2011-06-01

    These paradoxes are called ``neutrosophic'' since they are based on indeterminacy (or neutrality, i.e. neither true nor false), which is the third component in neutrosophic logic. We generalize the Venn Diagram to a Neutrosophic Diagram, which deals with vague, inexact, ambiguous, illdefined ideas, statements, notions, entities with unclear borders. We define the neutrosophic truth table and introduce two neutrosophic operators (neuterization and antonymization operators) and we give many classes of neutrosophic paradoxes that may occur in sciences.

  12. Comprehensive Aspectual UML Approach to Support AspectJ

    PubMed Central

    Magableh, Aws; Shukur, Zarina; Mohd. Ali, Noorazean

    2014-01-01

    Unified Modeling Language is the most popular and widely used Object-Oriented modelling language in the IT industry. This study focuses on investigating the ability to expand UML to some extent to model crosscutting concerns (Aspects) to support AspectJ. Through a comprehensive literature review, we identify and extensively examine all the available Aspect-Oriented UML modelling approaches and find that the existing Aspect-Oriented Design Modelling approaches using UML cannot be considered to provide a framework for a comprehensive Aspectual UML modelling approach and also that there is a lack of adequate Aspect-Oriented tool support. This study also proposes a set of Aspectual UML semantic rules and attempts to generate AspectJ pseudocode from UML diagrams. The proposed Aspectual UML modelling approach is formally evaluated using a focus group to test six hypotheses regarding performance; a “good design” criteria-based evaluation to assess the quality of the design; and an AspectJ-based evaluation as a reference measurement-based evaluation. The results of the focus group evaluation confirm all the hypotheses put forward regarding the proposed approach. The proposed approach provides a comprehensive set of Aspectual UML structural and behavioral diagrams, which are designed and implemented based on a comprehensive and detailed set of AspectJ programming constructs. PMID:25136656

  13. Mapping the UMLS Semantic Network into general ontologies.

    PubMed

    Burgun, A; Bodenreider, O

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the compatibility between an ontology of the biomedical domain (the UMLS Semantic Network) and two other ontologies: the Upper Cyc Ontology (UCO) and WordNet. 1) We manually mapped UMLS Semantic Types to UCO. One fifth of the UMLS Semantic Types had exact mapping to UCO types. UCO provides generic concepts and a structure that relies on a larger number of categories, despite its lack of depth in the biomedical domain. 2) We compared semantic classes in the UMLS and WordNet. 2% of the UMLS concepts from the Health Disorder class were present in WordNet, and compatibility between classes was 48%. WordNet, as a general language-oriented ontology is a source of lay knowledge, particularly important for consumer health applications. PMID:11833483

  14. Automatic Debugging Support for UML Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Design of large software systems requires rigorous application of software engineering methods covering all phases of the software process. Debugging during the early design phases is extremely important, because late bug-fixes are expensive. In this paper, we describe an approach which facilitates debugging of UML requirements and designs. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a set of notations for object-orient design of a software system. We have developed an algorithm which translates requirement specifications in the form of annotated sequence diagrams into structured statecharts. This algorithm detects conflicts between sequence diagrams and inconsistencies in the domain knowledge. After synthesizing statecharts from sequence diagrams, these statecharts usually are subject to manual modification and refinement. By using the "backward" direction of our synthesis algorithm. we are able to map modifications made to the statechart back into the requirements (sequence diagrams) and check for conflicts there. Fed back to the user conflicts detected by our algorithm are the basis for deductive-based debugging of requirements and domain theory in very early development stages. Our approach allows to generate explanations oil why there is a conflict and which parts of the specifications are affected.

  15. BGen: A UML Behavior Network Generator Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Reder, Leonard J.; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    BGen software was designed for autogeneration of code based on a graphical representation of a behavior network used for controlling automatic vehicles. A common format used for describing a behavior network, such as that used in the JPL-developed behavior-based control system, CARACaS ["Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing" (NPO-43635), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 10 (October 2008), page 40] includes a graph with sensory inputs flowing through the behaviors in order to generate the signals for the actuators that drive and steer the vehicle. A computer program to translate Unified Modeling Language (UML) Freeform Implementation Diagrams into a legacy C implementation of Behavior Network has been developed in order to simplify the development of C-code for behavior-based control systems. UML is a popular standard developed by the Object Management Group (OMG) to model software architectures graphically. The C implementation of a Behavior Network is functioning as a decision tree.

  16. Implementation of UML Schema to RDBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagni, M.; Ventouras, S.; Parton, G.

    2012-04-01

    Multiple disciplines - especially those within the earth and physical sciences, and increasingly those within social science and medical fields - require Geographic Information (GI) i.e. information concerning phenomena implicitly or explicitly associated with a location relative to the Earth [1]. Therefore geographic datasets are increasingly being shared, exchanged and frequently used for purposes other than those for which they were originally intended. The ISO Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211) together with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) provide a series of standards and guidelines for developing application schemas which should: a) capture relevant conceptual aspects of the data involved; and b) be sufficient to satisfy previously defined use-cases of a specific or cross-domain concerns. In addition, the Hollow World technology offers an accessible and industry-standardised methodology for creating and editing Application Schema UML models which conform to international standards for interoperable GI [2]. We present a technology which seamlessly transforms an Application Schema UML model to a relational database model (RDBM). This technology, using the same UML information model, complements the XML transformation of an information model produced by the FullMoon tool [2]. In preparation for the generation of a RDBM the UML model is first mapped to a collection of OO classes and relationships. Any external dependencies that exist are then resolved through the same mechanism. However, a RDBM does not support a hierarchical (relational) data structure - a function that may be required by UML models. Previous approaches have addressed this problem through use of nested sets or an adjacent list to represent such structure. Our unique strategy addresses the hierarchical data structure issue, whether singular or multiple inheritance, by hiding a delegation pattern within an OO class. This permits the object-relational mapping (ORM) software used to generate the RDBM to easily map the class into the RDBM. In other words the particular structure of the resulting OO class may expose a "composition-like aspect" to the ORM whilst maintaining an "inherited-like aspect" for use within an OO program. This methodology has been used to implement a software application to manages the new CEDA metadata model which is based on MOLES 3.4, Python, Django and SQLAlchemy.

  17. Real-time multispectral imaging system for online poultry fecal inspection using UML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Kise, Michio; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Smith, Douglas P.; Thai, Chi N.

    2006-10-01

    A prototype real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses has been developed. The prototype system includes a common aperture camera with three optical trim filters (517, 565 and 802-nm wavelength), which were selected by visible/NIR spectroscopy and validated by a hyperspectral imaging system with decision tree algorithm. The on-line testing results showed that the multispectral imaging technique can be used effectively for detecting feces (from duodenum, ceca, and colon) and ingesta on the surface of poultry carcasses with a processing speed of 140 birds per minute. This paper demonstrated both multispectral imaging hardware and real-time image processing software. For the software development, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) design approach was used for on-line application. The UML models included class, object, activity, sequence, and collaboration diagram. User interface model included seventeen inputs and six outputs. A window based real-time image processing software composed of eleven components, which represented class, architecture, and activity. Both hardware and software for a real-time fecal detection were tested at the pilot-scale poultry processing plant. The run-time of the software including online calibration was fast enough to inspect carcasses on-line with an industry requirement. Based on the preliminary test at the pilot-scale processing line, the system was able to acquire poultry images in real-time. According to the test results, the imaging system is reliable for the harsh environments and UML based image processing software is flexible and easy to be updated when additional parameters are needed for in-plant trials.

  18. A UML Profile for State Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Alex; Rasmussen, Robert

    2010-01-01

    State Analysis is a systems engineering methodology for the specification and design of control systems, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The methodology emphasizes an analysis of the system under control in terms of States and their properties and behaviors and their effects on each other, a clear separation of the control system from the controlled system, cognizance in the control system of the controlled system's State, goal-based control built on constraining the controlled system's States, and disciplined techniques for State discovery and characterization. State Analysis (SA) introduces two key diagram types: State Effects and Goal Network diagrams. The team at JPL developed a tool for performing State Analysis. The tool includes a drawing capability, backed by a database that supports the diagram types and the organization of the elements of the SA models. But the tool does not support the usual activities of software engineering and design - a disadvantage, since systems to which State Analysis can be applied tend to be very software-intensive. This motivated the work described in this paper: the development of a preliminary Unified Modeling Language (UML) profile for State Analysis. Having this profile would enable systems engineers to specify a system using the methods and graphical language of State Analysis, which is easily linked with a larger system model in SysML (Systems Modeling Language), while also giving software engineers engaged in implementing the specified control system immediate access to and use of the SA model, in the same language, UML, used for other software design. That is, a State Analysis profile would serve as a shared modeling bridge between system and software models for the behavior aspects of the system. This paper begins with an overview of State Analysis and its underpinnings, followed by an overview of the mapping of SA constructs to the UML metamodel. It then delves into the details of these mappings and the constraints associated with them. Finally, we give an example of the use of the profile for expressing an example SA model.

  19. Using Diagrams versus Text for Spaced Restudy: Effects on Learning in 10th Grade Biology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergey, Bradley W.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Kirchgessner, Mandy L.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Spaced restudy has been typically tested with written learning materials, but restudy with visual representations in actual classrooms is under-researched. We compared the effects of two spaced restudy interventions: A Diagram-Based Restudy (DBR) warm-up condition and a business-as-usual Text-Based Restudy (TBR) warm-up…

  20. Using Diagrams versus Text for Spaced Restudy: Effects on Learning in 10th Grade Biology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergey, Bradley W.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Kirchgessner, Mandy L.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Spaced restudy has been typically tested with written learning materials, but restudy with visual representations in actual classrooms is under-researched. We compared the effects of two spaced restudy interventions: A Diagram-Based Restudy (DBR) warm-up condition and a business-as-usual Text-Based Restudy (TBR) warm-up

  1. UML Profiles for Design Decisions and Non-Functional Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Liming; Gorton, Ian

    2007-06-30

    A software architecture is composed of a collection of design decisions. Each design decision helps or hinders certain Non-Functional Requirements (NFR). Current software architecture views focus on expressing components and connectors in the system. Design decisions and their relationships with non-functional requirements are often captured in separate design documentation, not explicitly expressed in any views. This disassociation makes architecture comprehension and architecture evolution harder. In this paper, we propose a UML profile for modeling design decisions and an associated UML profile for modeling non-functional requirements in a generic way. The two UML profiles treat design decisions and nonfunctional requirements as first-class elements. Modeled design decisions always refer to existing architectural elements and thus maintain traceability between the two. We provide a mechanism for checking consistency over this traceability. An exemplar is given as

  2. Metaphor and Numerical Diagrams in the Arithmetical Activity of a Fourth-Grade Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenz-Ludlow, Adalira

    2004-01-01

    Fourth-grade students who participated in a yearlong, whole-class teaching experiment not only reconceptualized natural numbers but also generated flexible solution strategies to perform numerical computations mentally and in writing. Students' reconceptualization of number was mediated by their perceived resemblance between the physical action of…

  3. Transforming Functional Requirements from UML into BPEL to Efficiently Develop SOA-Based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vemulapalli, Anisha; Subramanian, Nary

    The intended behavior of any system such as services, tasks or functions can be captured by functional requirements of the system. As our dependence on online services has grown steadily, the web applications are being developed employing the SOA. BPEL4WS provides a means for expressing functional requirements of an SOA-based system by providing constructs to capture business goals and objectives for the system. In this paper we propose an approach for transforming user-centered requirements captured using UML into a corresponding BPEL specification, where the business processes are captured by means of use-cases from which UML sequence diagrams and activity diagrams are extracted. Subsequently these UML models are mapped to BPEL specifications that capture the essence of the initial business requirements to develop the SOA-based system by employing CASE tools. A student housing system is used as a case study to illustrate this approach and the system is validated using NetBeans.

  4. UMLS-Interface and UMLS-Similarity : Open Source Software for Measuring Paths and Semantic Similarity

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Bridget T.; Pedersen, Ted; Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.

    2009-01-01

    A number of computational measures for determining semantic similarity between pairs of biomedical concepts have been developed using various standards and programming platforms. In this paper, we introduce two new open-source frameworks based on the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These frameworks consist of the UMLS-Similarity and UMLS-Interface packages. UMLS-Interface provides path information about UMLS concepts. UMLS-Similarity calculates the semantic similarity between UMLS concepts using several previously developed measures and can be extended to include new measures. We validate the functionality of these frameworks by reproducing the results from previous work. Our frameworks constitute a significant contribution to the field of biomedical Natural Language Processing by providing a common development and testing platform for semantic similarity measures based on the UMLS. PMID:20351894

  5. A conceptual graphs modeling of UMLS components.

    PubMed

    Joubert, M; Miton, F; Fieschi, M; Robert, J J

    1995-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) of the U.S. National Library of Medicine is a complex collection of terms, concepts, and relationships derived from standard classifications. Potential applications would benefit from a high level representation of its components. This paper proposes a conceptual representation of both the Metathesaurus and the Semantic Network of the UMLS based on conceptual graphs. It shows that the addition of a dictionary of concepts to the UMLS knowledge base allows the capability to exploit it pertinently. This dictionary defines more precisely the core concepts and adds constraints on their use. Constraints are dedicated to guide an "intelligent" browsing of the UMLS knowledge sources. PMID:8591348

  6. Modeling Value Chain Analysis of Distance Education using UML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Anal; Mukherjee, Soumen

    2010-10-01

    Distance education continues to grow as a methodology for the delivery of course content in higher education in India as well as abroad. To manage this growing demand and to provide certain flexibility, there must be certain strategic planning about the use of ICT tools. Value chain analysis is a framework for breaking down the sequence of business functions into a set of activities through which utility could be added to service. Thus it can help to determine the competitive advantage that is enjoyed by an institute. To implement these business functions certain visual representation is required. UML allows for this representation by using a set of structural and behavioral diagrams. In this paper, the first section defines a framework for value chain analysis and highlights its advantages. The second section gives a brief overview of related work in this field. The third section gives a brief discussion on distance education. The fourth section very briefly introduces UML. The fifth section models value chain of distance education using UML. Finally we discuss the limitations and the problems posed in this domain.

  7. Aspect-Oriented Subprogram Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    The Rational Sequence computer program described elsewhere includes a subprogram that utilizes the capability for aspect-oriented programming when that capability is present. This subprogram is denoted the Rational Sequence (AspectJ) component because it uses AspectJ, which is an extension of the Java programming language that introduces aspect-oriented programming techniques into the language

  8. Teaching Object-Oriented Modelling Using UML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boberić-Krstićev, Danijela; Tešendić, Danijela

    2011-09-01

    The paper elaborates on experiences and lessons learned from the course on object-oriented analyses and design at the Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad. In the paper we identify a set of issues concerning teaching modeling and UML. It is described experience of teaching UML to students with and without previous knowledge of object-oriented programming.

  9. Integrating the UMLS into VNS Retriever.

    PubMed Central

    Barber, S.; Fowler, J.; Long, K. B.; Dargahi, R.; Meyer, B.

    1992-01-01

    We are developing a networked resource for the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System. We call this resource the UMLS Retriever, which is an instance of our VNS Retriever architecture. Our prototype user interface makes use of the Virtual Notebook System Browser. The development of a networked UMLS service will result in numerous advantages to our user community. PMID:1482881

  10. Sculpting the UMLS Refined Semantic Network

    PubMed Central

    Morrey, C. Paul; Perl, Yehoshua; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Ling; Chen, Yan; Geller, James

    2014-01-01

    Background The Refined Semantic Network (RSN) for the UMLS was previously introduced to complement the UMLS Semantic Network (SN). The RSN partitions the UMLS Metathesaurus (META) into disjoint groups of concepts. Each such group is semantically uniform. However, the RSN was initially an order of magnitude larger than the SN, which is undesirable since to be useful, a semantic network should be compact. Most semantic types in the RSN represent combinations of semantic types in the UMLS SN. Such a “combination semantic type” is called Intersection Semantic Type (IST). Many ISTs are assigned to very few concepts. Moreover, when reviewing those concepts, many semantic type assignment inconsistencies were found. After correcting those inconsistencies many ISTs, among them some that contradicted UMLS rules, disappeared, which made the RSN smaller. Objective The authors performed a longitudinal study with the goal of reducing the size of the RSN to become compact. This goal was achieved by correcting inconsistencies and errors in the IST assignments in the UMLS, which additionally helped identify and correct ambiguities, inconsistencies, and errors in source terminologies widely used in the realm of public health. Methods In this paper, we discuss the process and steps employed in this longitudinal study and the intermediate results for different stages. The sculpting process includes removing redundant semantic type assignments, expanding semantic type assignments, and removing illegitimate ISTs by auditing ISTs of small extents. However, the emphasis of this paper is not on the auditing methodologies employed during the process, since they were introduced in earlier publications, but on the strategy of employing them in order to transform the RSN into a compact network. For this paper we also performed a comprehensive audit of 168 “small ISTs” in the 2013AA version of the UMLS to finalize the longitudinal study. Results Over the years it was found that the editors of the UMLS introduced some new inconsistencies that resulted in the reintroduction of unwarranted ISTs that had already been eliminated as a result of their previous corrections. Because of that, the transformation of the RSN into a compact network covering all necessary categories for the UMLS was slowed down. The corrections suggested by an audit of the 2013AA version of the UMLS achieve a compact RSN of equal magnitude as the UMLS SN. The number of ISTs has been reduced to 336. We also demonstrate how auditing the semantic type assignments of UMLS concepts can expose other modeling errors in the UMLS source terminologies, e.g., SNOMED CT, LOINC, and RxNORM that are important for health informatics. Such errors would otherwise stay hidden. Conclusions It is hoped that the UMLS curators will implement all required corrections and use the RSN along with the SN when maintaining and extending the UMLS. When used correctly, the RSN will support the prevention of the accidental introduction of inconsistent semantic type assignments into the UMLS. Furthermore, this way the RSN will support the exposure of other hidden errors and inconsistencies in health informatics terminologies, which are sources of the UMLS. Notably, the development of the RSN materializes the deeper, more refined Semantic Network for the UMLS that its designers envisioned originally but had not implemented. PMID:25422719

  11. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  12. Integration of a standard gastrointestinal endoscopy terminology in the UMLS Metathesaurus.

    PubMed

    Tringali, Michele; Hole, William T; Srinivasan, Suresh

    2002-01-01

    MST(c), a standard terminology for gastrointestinal endoscopy reporting, was integrated in the January 2002 UMLS Metathesaurus in order to ease the practical interoperability of clinical data repositories in gastroenterology. The integration required full specification of names, resolution of discrepancies between English, French and Italian versions of MST, appropriate categorization with UMLS Semantic Types and MST-level Class attributes, assignment of explicit intra-table (and some useful inter-table) relationships mainly at concept level but also at the source level in order to retain and fully represent the original explicit and implicit MST organization. Main results, problems encountered and future plans are discussed. PMID:12463935

  13. UMLS knowledge for biomedical language processing.

    PubMed Central

    McCray, A T; Aronson, A R; Browne, A C; Rindflesch, T C; Razi, A; Srinivasan, S

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes efforts to provide access to the free text in biomedical databases. The focus of the effort is the development of SPECIALIST, an experimental natural language processing system for the biomedical domain. The system includes a broad coverage parser supported by a large lexicon, modules that provide access to the extensive Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Knowledge Sources, and a retrieval module that permits experiments in information retrieval. The UMLS Metathesaurus and Semantic Network provide a rich source of biomedical concepts and their interrelationships. Investigations have been conducted to determine the type of information required to effect a map between the language of queries and the language of relevant documents. Mappings are never straightforward and often involve multiple inferences. PMID:8472004

  14. Roundhouse Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Robin E.; Wandersee, James

    2000-01-01

    Students must understand key concepts through reasoning, searching out related concepts, and making connections within multiple systems to learn science. The Roundhouse diagram was developed to be a concise, holistic, graphic representation of a science topic, process, or activity. Includes sample Roundhouse diagrams, a diagram checklist, and…

  15. Interpreting natural language queries using the UMLS.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S. B.; Aguirre, A.; Peng, P.; Cimino, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes AQUA (A QUery Analyzer), the natural language front end of a prototype information retrieval system. AQUA translates a user's natural language query into a representation in the Conceptual Graph formalism. The graph is then used by subsequent components to search various resources such as databases of the medical literature. The focus of the parsing method is on semantics rather than syntax, with semantic restrictions being provided by the UMLS Semantic Net. The intent of the approach is to provide a method that can be emulated easily in applications that require simple natural language interfaces. PMID:8130481

  16. An ontological analysis of the UMLS Metathesaurus.

    PubMed Central

    Pisanelli, D. M.; Gangemi, A.; Steve, G.

    1998-01-01

    Paper-based terminology systems cannot satisfy anymore the new desiderata of healthcare information systems: the demand for re-use and sharing of patient data, their transmission and the need of semantic-based criteria for purposive statistical aggregation. The unambiguous communication of complex and detailed medical concepts is now a crucial feature of medical information systems. Ontologies can support a more effective data and knowledge sharing in medicine. In this paper we briefly survey our ontological analysis and integration of various top-levels of terminologies and we report the main results of the ontological analysis of the UMLS Metathesaurus. PMID:9929331

  17. Entropy Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Norman C.

    1996-08-01

    New displays, called entropy diagrams, show graphically how entropy changes compete in physicochemical processes. Examples of entropy diagrams are given for an equilibrium vaporization, a spontaneous evaporation into a vacuum, a vapor-pressure lowering due to the presence of an involatile solute, a chemical reaction under standard-state conditions and at equilibrium, an osmotic equilibrium, and an electrochemical equilibrium in a galvanic cell. On these diagrams entropy contributions due to standard-state changes, dilutions, and energy exchanges with thermal reservoirs are shown algebraically as well as diagrammatically. Entropy diagrams are useful for illustrating entropy analyses in which all transformations of matter and energy are related to entropy effects.

  18. Concepts and Synonymy in the UMLS Metathesaurus

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Gary H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper advances a detailed exploration of the complex relationships among terms, concepts, and syn­onymy in the UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) Metathesaurus, and proposes the study and under­standing of the Metathesaurus from a model-theoretic perspective. Initial sections provide the background and motivation for such an approach, and a careful informal treatment of these notions is offered as a con­text and basis for the formal analysis. What emerges from this is a set of puzzles and confusions in the Metathesaurus and its literature pertaining to synonymy and its relation to terms and concepts. A model theory for a segment of the Metathesaurus is then constructed, and its adequacy relative to the informal treatment is demonstrated. Finally, it is shown how this approach clarifies and addresses the puzzles educed from the informal discussion, and how the model-theoretic perspective may be employed to eval­uate some fundamental criticisms of the Metathesaurus. For users of the UMLS, two significant results of this analysis are a rigorous clarification of the different senses of synonymy that appear in treatments of the Metathesaurus and an illustration of the dangers in computing inferences involving ambiguous terms. PMID:19838995

  19. Versatile user interface using UMLS Metathesaurus.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Yan, J S; Strasberg, H R; Melmon, K L

    2000-01-01

    One of the obstacles for a successful search in the biomedical field is that different vocabularies are used by different databases but more than one database is usually needed to respond adequately to a healthcare professional's query. A typical searcher usually is unfamiliar with these vocabularies and the sophisticated measures to narrow or broaden a search. As a result, a failed search is often due to using "inappropriate" search terms. We have developed a highly interactive and versatile user interface, SHINE Refined Search (SHINE RS). It uses medical concepts from the UMLS Metathesaurus as the building block to help searchers find "appropriate" search terms for their queries. The results of our preliminary usability assessment are promising and demonstrate the potential to improve retrieval results. PMID:11080012

  20. Representing Thoughts, Words, and Things in the UMLS

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Keith E.; Oliver, Diane E.; Spackman, Kent A.; Shortliffe, Edward H.

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe a framework, based on the Ogden-Richards semiotic triangle, for understanding the relationship between the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and the source terminologies from which the UMLS derives its content. They pay particular attention to UMLS's Concept Unique Identifier (CUI) and the sense of “meaning” it represents as contrasted with the sense of “meaning” represented by the source terminologies. The CUI takes on emergent meaning through linkage to terms in different terminology systems. In some cases, a CUI's emergent meaning can differ significantly from the original sources' intended meanings of terms linked by that CUI. Identification of these different senses of meaning within the UMLS is consistent with historical themes of semantic interpretation of language. Examination of the UMLS within such a historical framework makes it possible to better understand the strengths and limitations of the UMLS approach for integrating disparate terminologic systems and to provide a model, or theoretic foundation, for evaluating the UMLS as a Possible World—that is, as a mathematical formalism that represents propositions about some perspective or interpretation of the physical world. PMID:9760390

  1. HRT-UML: a design method for hard real-time systems based on the UML notation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Massimo; Mazzini, Silvia; di Natale, Marco; Lipari, Giuseppe

    2002-07-01

    The Hard Real-Time-Unified Modelling Language (HRT-UML) method aims at providing a comprehensive solution to the modeling of Hard Real Time systems. The experience shows that the design of Hard Real-Time systems needs methodologies suitable for the modeling and analysis of aspects related to time, schedulability and performance. In the context of the European Aerospace community a reference method for design is Hierarchical Object Oriented Design (HOOD) and in particular its extension for the modeling of hard real time systems, Hard Real-Time-Hierarchical Object Oriented Design (HRT-HOOD), recommended by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the development of on-board systems. On the other hand in recent years the Unified Modelling Language (UML) has been gaining a very large acceptance in a wide range of domains, all over the world, becoming a de-facto international standard. Tool vendors are very active in this potentially big market. In the Aerospace domain the common opinion is that UML, as a general notation, is not suitable for Hard Real Time systems, even if its importance is recognized as a standard and as a technological trend in the near future. These considerations suggest the possibility of replacing the HRT-HOOD method with a customized version of UML, that incorporates the advantages of both standards and complements the weak points. This approach has the clear advantage of making HRT-HOOD converge on a more powerful and expressive modeling notation. The paper identifies a mapping of the HRT-HOOD semantics into the UML one, and proposes a UML extension profile, that we call HRT-UML, based on the UML standard extension mechanisms, to fully represent HRT-HOOD design concepts. Finally it discusses the relationships between our profile and the UML profile for schedulability, performance and time, adopted by OMG in November 2001.

  2. Unambiguous UML Composite Structures: The OMEGA2 Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ober, Iulian; Dragomir, Iulia

    Starting from version 2.0, UML introduced hierarchical composite structures, which are a very expressive way of defining complex software architectures, but which have a very loosely defined semantics in the standard. In this paper we propose a set of consistency rules that ensure UML composite structures are unambiguous and can be given a precise semantics. Our primary application of the static consistency rules defined in this paper is within the OMEGA UML profile [6], but these rules are general and applicable to other hierarchical component models based on the same concepts, such as MARTE GCM or SysML. The rule set has been formalized in OCL and is currently used in the OMEGA UML compiler.

  3. Linking biomedical language information and knowledge resources: GO and UMLS.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, I N; Cantor, M N; Gelman, R; Hartel, F; Lussier, Y A

    2003-01-01

    Integration of various informatics terminologies will be an essential activity towards supporting the advancement of both the biomedical and clinical sciences. The GO consortium has developed an impressive collection of biomedical terms specific to genes and proteins in a variety of organisms. The UMLS is a composite collection of various medical terminologies, pioneered by the National Library of Medicine. In the present study, we examine a variety of techniques for mapping terms from one terminology (GO) to another (UMLS), and describe their respective performances for a small, curated data set attained from the National Cancer Institute, which had precision values ranging from 30% (100% recall) to 95% (74% recall). Based on each technique's performance, we comment on how each can be used to enrich an existing terminology (UMLS) in future studies and how linking biological terminologies to UMLS differs from linking medical terminologies. PMID:12603048

  4. Evaluation of a UMLS Auditing Process of Semantic Type Assignments.

    PubMed

    Gu, Huanying Helen; Hripcsak, George; Chen, Yan; Morrey, C Paul; Elhanan, Gai; Cimino, James; Geller, James; Perl, Yehoshua

    2007-01-01

    The UMLS is a terminological system that integrates many source terminologies. Each concept in the UMLS is assigned one or more semantic types from the Semantic Network, an upper level ontology for biomedicine. Due to the complexity of the UMLS, errors exist in the semantic type assignments. Finding assignment errors may unearth modeling errors. Even with sophisticated tools, discovering assignment errors requires manual review. In this paper we describe the evaluation of an auditing project of UMLS semantic type assignments. We studied the performance of the auditors who reviewed potential errors. We found that four auditors, interacting according to a multi-step protocol, identified a high rate of errors (one or more errors in 81% of concepts studied) and that results were sufficiently reliable (0.67 to 0.70) for the two most common types of errors. However, reliability was low for each individual auditor, suggesting that review of potential errors is resource-intensive. PMID:18693845

  5. Sophia: A Expedient UMLS Concept Extraction Annotator

    PubMed Central

    Divita, Guy; Zeng, Qing T; Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Duvall, Scott; Nebeker, Jonathan; Samore, Matthew H.

    2014-01-01

    An opportunity exists for meaningful concept extraction and indexing from large corpora of clinical notes in the Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic medical record. Currently available tools such as MetaMap, cTAKES and HITex do not scale up to address this big data need. Sophia, a rapid UMLS concept extraction annotator was developed to fulfill a mandate and address extraction where high throughput is needed while preserving performance. We report on the development, testing and benchmarking of Sophia against MetaMap and cTAKEs. Sophia demonstrated improved performance on recall as compared to cTAKES and MetaMap (0.71 vs 0.66 and 0.38). The overall f-score was similar to cTAKES and an improvement over MetaMap (0.53 vs 0.57 and 0.43). With regard to speed of processing records, we noted Sophia to be several fold faster than cTAKES and the scaled-out MetaMap service. Sophia offers a viable alternative for high-throughput information extraction tasks. PMID:25954351

  6. State-Transition Diagrams for Biologists

    PubMed Central

    Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines. PMID:22844438

  7. State-transition diagrams for biologists.

    PubMed

    Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines. PMID:22844438

  8. UML as a cell and biochemistry modeling language.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ken; White, Tony

    2005-06-01

    The systems biology community is building increasingly complex models and simulations of cells and other biological entities, and are beginning to look at alternatives to traditional representations such as those provided by ordinary differential equations (ODE). The lessons learned over the years by the software development community in designing and building increasingly complex telecommunication and other commercial real-time reactive systems, can be advantageously applied to the problems of modeling in the biology domain. Making use of the object-oriented (OO) paradigm, the unified modeling language (UML) and Real-Time Object-Oriented Modeling (ROOM) visual formalisms, and the Rational Rose RealTime (RRT) visual modeling tool, we describe a multi-step process we have used to construct top-down models of cells and cell aggregates. The simple example model described in this paper includes membranes with lipid bilayers, multiple compartments including a variable number of mitochondria, substrate molecules, enzymes with reaction rules, and metabolic pathways. We demonstrate the relevance of abstraction, reuse, objects, classes, component and inheritance hierarchies, multiplicity, visual modeling, and other current software development best practices. We show how it is possible to start with a direct diagrammatic representation of a biological structure such as a cell, using terminology familiar to biologists, and by following a process of gradually adding more and more detail, arrive at a system with structure and behavior of arbitrary complexity that can run and be observed on a computer. We discuss our CellAK (Cell Assembly Kit) approach in terms of features found in SBML, CellML, E-CELL, Gepasi, Jarnac, StochSim, Virtual Cell, and membrane computing systems. PMID:15888343

  9. Shortest Path Edit Distance for Enhancing UMLS Integration and Audit.

    PubMed

    Rudniy, Alex; Geller, James; Song, Min

    2010-01-01

    Expansion of the UMLS is an important long-term research project. This paper proposes Shortest Path Edit Distance (SPED) as an algorithm for improving existing source-integration and auditing techniques. We use SPED as a string similarity measure for UMLS terms that are known to be synonyms because they are assigned to the same concept. We compare SPED with several other well known string matching algorithms using two UMLS samples as test bed. One of those samples is SNOMED-based. SPED transforms the task of calculating edit distance among two strings into a problem of finding a shortest path from a source to a destination in a node and link graph. In the algorithm, the two strings are used to construct the graph. The Pulling algorithm is applied to find a shortest path, which determines the string similarity value. SPED was superior for one of the data sets, with a precision of 0.6. PMID:21347068

  10. Vehicle System Management Modeling in UML for Ares I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Newton W.; Biehn, Bradley A.; Curry, Tristan D.; Martinez, Mario R.

    2011-01-01

    The Spacecraft & Vehicle Systems Department of Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for modeling the Vehicle System Management for the Ares I vehicle which was a part of the now canceled Constellation Program. An approach to generating the requirements for the Vehicle System Management was to use the Unified Modeling Language technique to build and test a model that would fulfill the Vehicle System Management requirements. UML has been used on past projects (flight software) in the design phase of the effort but this was the first attempt to use the UML technique from a top down requirements perspective.

  11. Software cost estimation using class point metrics (CPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghode, Aditi; Periyasamy, Kasilingam

    2011-12-01

    Estimating cost for the software project is one of the most important and crucial task to maintain the software reliability. Many cost estimation models have been reported till now, but most of them have significant drawbacks due to rapid changes in the technology. For example, Source Line Of Code (SLOC) can only be counted when the software construction is complete. Function Point (FP) metric is deficient in handling Object Oriented Technology, as it was designed for procedural languages such as COBOL. Since Object-Oriented Programming became a popular development practice, most of the software companies started applying the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The objective of this research is to develop a new cost estimation model with the application of class diagram for the software cost estimation.

  12. Visualization of Learning Scenarios with UML4LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laforcade, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Present Educational Modelling Languages are used to formally specify abstract learning scenarios in a machine-interpretable format. Current tooling does not provide teachers/designers with some graphical facilities to help them in reusing existent scenarios. They need human-readable representations. This paper discusses the UML4LD experimental…

  13. Rewriting and suppressing UMLS terms for improved biomedical term identification

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Identification of terms is essential for biomedical text mining.. We concentrate here on the use of vocabularies for term identification, specifically the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). To make the UMLS more suitable for biomedical text mining we implemented and evaluated nine term rewrite and eight term suppression rules. The rules rely on UMLS properties that have been identified in previous work by others, together with an additional set of new properties discovered by our group during our work with the UMLS. Our work complements the earlier work in that we measure the impact on the number of terms identified by the different rules on a MEDLINE corpus. The number of uniquely identified terms and their frequency in MEDLINE were computed before and after applying the rules. The 50 most frequently found terms together with a sample of 100 randomly selected terms were evaluated for every rule. Results Five of the nine rewrite rules were found to generate additional synonyms and spelling variants that correctly corresponded to the meaning of the original terms and seven out of the eight suppression rules were found to suppress only undesired terms. Using the five rewrite rules that passed our evaluation, we were able to identify 1,117,772 new occurrences of 14,784 rewritten terms in MEDLINE. Without the rewriting, we recognized 651,268 terms belonging to 397,414 concepts; with rewriting, we recognized 666,053 terms belonging to 410,823 concepts, which is an increase of 2.8% in the number of terms and an increase of 3.4% in the number of concepts recognized. Using the seven suppression rules, a total of 257,118 undesired terms were suppressed in the UMLS, notably decreasing its size. 7,397 terms were suppressed in the corpus. Conclusions We recommend applying the five rewrite rules and seven suppression rules that passed our evaluation when the UMLS is to be used for biomedical term identification in MEDLINE. A software tool to apply these rules to the UMLS is freely available at http://biosemantics.org/casper. PMID:20618981

  14. Evaluation Methodology for UML and GML Application Schemas Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chojka, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    INSPIRE Directive implementation in Poland has caused the significant increase of interest in making spatial data and services available, particularly among public administration and private institutions. This entailed a series of initiatives that aim to harmonise different spatial data sets, so to ensure their internal logical and semantic coherence. Harmonisation lets to reach the interoperability of spatial databases, then among other things enables joining them together. The process of harmonisation requires either working out new data structures or adjusting existing data structures of spatial databases to INSPIRE guidelines and recommendations. Data structures are described with the use of UML and GML application schemas. Although working out accurate and correct application schemas isn't an easy task. There should be considered many issues, for instance recommendations of ISO 19100 series of Geographic Information Standards, appropriate regulations for given problem or topic, production opportunities and limitations (software, tools). In addition, GML application schema is deeply connected with UML application schema, it should be its translation. Not everything that can be expressed in UML, though can be directly expressed in GML, and this can have significant influence on the spatial data sets interoperability, and thereby the ability to valid data exchange. For these reasons, the capability to examine and estimate UML and GML application schemas quality, therein also the capability to explore their entropy, would be very important. The principal subject of this research is to propose an evaluation methodology for UML and GML application schemas quality prepared in the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography in Poland within the INSPIRE Directive implementation works.

  15. Intervocabulary Mapping Within the UMLS: The Role of Lexical Matching*

    PubMed Central

    Sherertz, D.D.; Tuttle, M.S.; Blois, M.S.; Erlbaum, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Within the NLM's UMLS Project, one challenge is mapping concepts from one information resource to another. While a complete solution to this problem requires construction of a comprehensive biomedical thesaurus, the present research provides evidence that considerable progress can be made with a straightforward lexical approach. Furthermore, such a lexical approach is the only practical way to begin construction of, and maintain, any such thesaurus. Related research has demonstrated the regularity of word usage within the context of biomedicine. This regularity suggests that mapping between biomedical information resources that have a constrained vocabulary can use lexical matching techniques with considerable success. A method has been developed to map ‘phrases’ from candidate sources to MeSH. In one experiment, this method attempts to map 834 disease names from the disease descriptions composed at UCSF for the UMLS. In a second experiment, the same method attempts to map disease attributes from these diseases.

  16. Extending a natural language parser with UMLS knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    McCray, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past several years our research efforts have been directed toward the identification of natural language processing methods and techniques for improving access to biomedical information stored in computerized form. To provide a testing ground for some of these ideas we have undertaken the development of SPECIALIST, a prototype system for parsing and accessing biomedical text. The system includes linguistic and biomedical knowledge. Linguistic knowledge involves rules and facts about the grammar of the language. Biomedical knowledge involves rules and facts about the domain of biomedicine. The UMLS knowledge sources, Meta-1 and the Semantic Network, as well as the UMLS test collection, have recently contributed to the development of the SPECIALIST system. PMID:1807586

  17. Quantum phase transition, O(3) universality class, and phase diagram of the spin- (1)/(2) Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a distorted honeycomb lattice: A tensor renormalization-group study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Gong, Shou-Shu; Zhao, Yang; Su, Gang

    2010-05-01

    The spin- (1)/(2) Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the distorted honeycomb (DHC) lattice is studied by means of the tensor renormalization-group method. It is unveiled that the system has a quantum phase transition of second order between the gapped quantum dimer phase and a collinear Nel phase at the critical point of coupling ratio ?c?0.54 , where the quantum critical exponents ??0.69(2) and ??1.363(8) are obtained. The quantum criticality is found to fall into the O(3) universality class. A ground-state phase diagram in the field-coupling ratio plane is proposed, where the phases such as the dimer, semiclassical Nel, and polarized phases are identified. A link between the present spin system to the boson Hubbard model on the DHC lattice is also discussed.

  18. Auto-Coding UML Statecharts for Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, Edward G; Clark, Ken; Watney, Garth J.

    2006-01-01

    Statecharts have been used as a means to communicate behaviors in a precise manner between system engineers and software engineers. Hand-translating a statechart to code, as done on some previous space missions, introduces the possibility of errors in the transformation from chart to code. To improve auto-coding, we have developed a process that generates flight code from UML statecharts. Our process is being used for the flight software on the Space Interferometer Mission (SIM).

  19. Conceptual Model of Clinical Governance Information System for Statistical Indicators by Using UML in Two Sample Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Farzandipoor, Mehrdad; Arabfard, Masoud; Hosseini, Azam Haj Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was investigating situation and presenting a conceptual model for clinical governance information system by using UML in two sample hospitals. Background: However, use of information is one of the fundamental components of clinical governance; but unfortunately, it does not pay much attention to information management. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in October 2012- May 2013. Data were gathered through questionnaires and interviews in two sample hospitals. Face and content validity of the questionnaire has been confirmed by experts. Data were collected from a pilot hospital and reforms were carried out and Final questionnaire was prepared. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and SPSS 16 software. Results: With the scenario derived from questionnaires, UML diagrams are presented by using Rational Rose 7 software. The results showed that 32.14 percent Indicators of the hospitals were calculated. Database was not designed and 100 percent of the hospital’s clinical governance was required to create a database. Conclusion: Clinical governance unit of hospitals to perform its mission, do not have access to all the needed indicators. Defining of Processes and drawing of models and creating of database are essential for designing of information systems. PMID:27147804

  20. Conceptual Model of Clinical Governance Information System for Statistical Indicators by Using UML in Two Sample Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Farzandipoor, Mehrdad; Arabfard, Masoud; Hosseini, Azam Haj Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was investigating situation and presenting a conceptual model for clinical governance information system by using UML in two sample hospitals. Background: However, use of information is one of the fundamental components of clinical governance; but unfortunately, it does not pay much attention to information management. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in October 2012- May 2013. Data were gathered through questionnaires and interviews in two sample hospitals. Face and content validity of the questionnaire has been confirmed by experts. Data were collected from a pilot hospital and reforms were carried out and Final questionnaire was prepared. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and SPSS 16 software. Results: With the scenario derived from questionnaires, UML diagrams are presented by using Rational Rose 7 software. The results showed that 32.14 percent Indicators of the hospitals were calculated. Database was not designed and 100 percent of the hospital’s clinical governance was required to create a database. Conclusion: Clinical governance unit of hospitals to perform its mission, do not have access to all the needed indicators. Defining of Processes and drawing of models and creating of database are essential for designing of information systems. PMID:24825933

  1. SSBRP Communication & Data System Development using the Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the standard method for specifying, visualizing, and documenting the artifacts of an object-oriented system under development. UML is the unification of the object-oriented methods developed by Grady Booch and James Rumbaugh, and of the Use Case Model developed by Ivar Jacobson. This paper discusses the application of UML by the Communications and Data Systems (CDS) team to model the ground control and command of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) User Operations Facility (UOF). UML is used to define the context of the system, the logical static structure, the life history of objects, and the interactions among objects.

  2. Associating clinical archetypes through UMLS Metathesaurus term clusters.

    PubMed

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Sánchez-Alonso, Salvador; Sicilia, Miguel-Angel

    2012-06-01

    Clinical archetypes are modular definitions of clinical data, expressed using standard or open constraint-based data models as the CEN EN13606 and openEHR. There is an increasing archetype specification activity that raises the need for techniques to associate archetypes to support better management and user navigation in archetype repositories. This paper reports on a computational technique to generate tentative archetype associations by mapping them through term clusters obtained from the UMLS Metathesaurus. The terms are used to build a bipartite graph model and graph connectivity measures can be used for deriving associations. PMID:20827566

  3. Dependability Modeling and Assessment in UML-Based Software Development

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Simona; Merseguer, José; Petriu, Dorina C.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of software nonfunctional properties (NFP) is an important problem in software development. In the context of model-driven development, an emerging approach for the analysis of different NFPs consists of the following steps: (a) to extend the software models with annotations describing the NFP of interest; (b) to transform automatically the annotated software model to the formalism chosen for NFP analysis; (c) to analyze the formal model using existing solvers; (d) to assess the software based on the results and give feedback to designers. Such a modeling→analysis→assessment approach can be applied to any software modeling language, be it general purpose or domain specific. In this paper, we focus on UML-based development and on the dependability NFP, which encompasses reliability, availability, safety, integrity, and maintainability. The paper presents the profile used to extend UML with dependability information, the model transformation to generate a DSPN formal model, and the assessment of the system properties based on the DSPN results. PMID:22988428

  4. Dependability modeling and assessment in UML-based software development.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Simona; Merseguer, José; Petriu, Dorina C

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of software nonfunctional properties (NFP) is an important problem in software development. In the context of model-driven development, an emerging approach for the analysis of different NFPs consists of the following steps: (a) to extend the software models with annotations describing the NFP of interest; (b) to transform automatically the annotated software model to the formalism chosen for NFP analysis; (c) to analyze the formal model using existing solvers; (d) to assess the software based on the results and give feedback to designers. Such a modeling→analysis→assessment approach can be applied to any software modeling language, be it general purpose or domain specific. In this paper, we focus on UML-based development and on the dependability NFP, which encompasses reliability, availability, safety, integrity, and maintainability. The paper presents the profile used to extend UML with dependability information, the model transformation to generate a DSPN formal model, and the assessment of the system properties based on the DSPN results. PMID:22988428

  5. Collocation analysis for UMLS knowledge-based word sense disambiguation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of knowledge-based word sense disambiguation (WSD) approaches depends in part on the information available in the reference knowledge resource. Off the shelf, these resources are not optimized for WSD and might lack terms to model the context properly. In addition, they might include noisy terms which contribute to false positives in the disambiguation results. Methods We analyzed some collocation types which could improve the performance of knowledge-based disambiguation methods. Collocations are obtained by extracting candidate collocations from MEDLINE and then assigning them to one of the senses of an ambiguous word. We performed this assignment either using semantic group profiles or a knowledge-based disambiguation method. In addition to collocations, we used second-order features from a previously implemented approach. Specifically, we measured the effect of these collocations in two knowledge-based WSD methods. The first method, AEC, uses the knowledge from the UMLS to collect examples from MEDLINE which are used to train a Naïve Bayes approach. The second method, MRD, builds a profile for each candidate sense based on the UMLS and compares the profile to the context of the ambiguous word. We have used two WSD test sets which contain disambiguation cases which are mapped to UMLS concepts. The first one, the NLM WSD set, was developed manually by several domain experts and contains words with high frequency occurrence in MEDLINE. The second one, the MSH WSD set, was developed automatically using the MeSH indexing in MEDLINE. It contains a larger set of words and covers a larger number of UMLS semantic types. Results The results indicate an improvement after the use of collocations, although the approaches have different performance depending on the data set. In the NLM WSD set, the improvement is larger for the MRD disambiguation method using second-order features. Assignment of collocations to a candidate sense based on UMLS semantic group profiles is more effective in the AEC method. In the MSH WSD set, the increment in performance is modest for all the methods. Collocations combined with the MRD disambiguation method have the best performance. The MRD disambiguation method and second-order features provide an insignificant change in performance. The AEC disambiguation method gives a modest improvement in performance. Assignment of collocations to a candidate sense based on knowledge-based methods has better performance. Conclusions Collocations improve the performance of knowledge-based disambiguation methods, although results vary depending on the test set and method used. Generally, the AEC method is sensitive to query drift. Using AEC, just a few selected terms provide a large improvement in disambiguation performance. The MRD method handles noisy terms better but requires a larger set of terms to improve performance. PMID:21658291

  6. Caution: Venn Diagrams Ahead!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmins, Dovie L.; Winters, J. Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Two perspectives of the term "Venn diagram" reflect the typical differences in the uses of Venn diagrams in the subject areas of mathematics and language arts. These differences are subtle; nevertheless, they can potentially be confusing. In language arts, the circles in a Venn diagram typically represent things that can be compared and…

  7. Leveraging the UML Metamodel: Expressing ORM Semantics Using a UML Profile

    SciTech Connect

    CUYLER,DAVID S.

    2000-11-01

    Object Role Modeling (ORM) techniques produce a detailed domain model from the perspective of the business owner/customer. The typical process begins with a set of simple sentences reflecting facts about the business. The output of the process is a single model representing primarily the persistent information needs of the business. This type of model contains little, if any reference to a targeted computerized implementation. It is a model of business entities not of software classes. Through well-defined procedures, an ORM model can be transformed into a high quality objector relational schema.

  8. Source authenticity in the UMLS--a case study of the Minimal Standard Terminology.

    PubMed

    Elhanan, Gai; Huang, Kuo-Chuan; Perl, Yehoshua

    2010-12-01

    As the UMLS integrates multiple source vocabularies, the integration process requires that certain adaptation be applied to the source. Our interest is in examining the relationship between the UMLS representation of a source vocabulary and the source vocabulary itself. We investigated the integration of the Minimal Standard Terminology (MST) into the UMLS in order to examine how close its UMLS representation is to the source MST. The MST was conceived as a "minimal" list of terms and structure intended for use within computer systems to facilitate standardized reporting of gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations. Although the MST has an overall schema and implied relationship structure, many of the UMLS integrated MST terms were found to be hierarchically orphaned, and with lateral relationships that do not closely adhere to the source MST. Thus, the MST representation within the UMLS significantly differs from that of the source MST. These representation discrepancies may affect the usability of the MST representation in the UMLS for knowledge acquisition. Furthermore, they pose a problem from the perspective of application developers. While these findings may not necessarily apply to other source terminologies, they highlight the conflict between preservation of authentic concept orientation and the UMLS overall desire to provide fully specified names for all source terms. PMID:20692366

  9. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A method and a computer program are presented to calculate probability of system success from an arbitrary reliability block diagram. The class of reliability block diagrams that can be handled include any active/standby combination of redundancy, and the computations include the effects of dormancy and switching in any standby redundancy. The mechanics of the program are based on an extension of the probability tree method of computing system probabilities.

  10. Students' Different Understandings of Class Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boustedt, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a

  11. Students' Different Understandings of Class Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boustedt, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a…

  12. Visual Modelling of Data Warehousing Flows with UML Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardillo, Jesús; Golfarelli, Matteo; Rizzi, Stefano; Trujillo, Juan

    Data warehousing involves complex processes that transform source data through several stages to deliver suitable information ready to be analysed. Though many techniques for visual modelling of data warehouses from the static point of view have been devised, only few attempts have been made to model the data flows involved in a data warehousing process. Besides, each attempt was mainly aimed at a specific application, such as ETL, OLAP, what-if analysis, data mining. Data flows are typically very complex in this domain; for this reason, we argue, designers would greatly benefit from a technique for uniformly modelling data warehousing flows for all applications. In this paper, we propose an integrated visual modelling technique for data cubes and data flows. This technique is based on UML profiling; its feasibility is evaluated by means of a prototype implementation.

  13. Auditing Hierarchical Cycles to Locate Other Inconsistencies in the UMLS

    PubMed Central

    Halper, Michael; Morrey, C. Paul; Chen, Yan; Elhanan, Gai; Hripcsak, George; Perl, Yehoshua

    2011-01-01

    A cycle in the parent relationship hierarchy of the UMLS is a configuration that effectively makes some concept(s) an ancestor of itself. Such a structural inconsistency can easily be found automatically. A previous strategy for disconnecting cycles is to break them with the deletion of one or more parent relationships—irrespective of the correctness of the deleted relationships. A methodology is introduced for auditing of cycles that seeks to discover and delete erroneous relationships only. Cycles involving three concepts are the primary consideration. Hypotheses about the high probability of locating an erroneous parent relationship in a cycle are proposed and confirmed with statistical confidence and lend credence to the auditing approach. A cycle may serve as an indicator of other non-structural inconsistencies that are otherwise difficult to detect automatically. An extensive auditing example shows how a cycle can indicate further inconsistencies. PMID:22195107

  14. Augmenting GRATEFUL MED with the UMLS Metathesaurus: an initial evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Jachna, J S; Powsner, S M; Miller, P L

    1993-01-01

    Clinicians in patient care settings must be able to locate relevant recent medical literature quickly. Computer literacy is increasing, but many clinicians remain ill at ease with search strategies for online bibliographic databases. As part of an ongoing project to simplify the translation of clinical questions into effective searches, a Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus tool was designed. The authors compared bibliographic searches by relatively inexperienced users employing only GRATEFUL MED to searches done using GRATEFUL MED augmented with this tool. The users were clinicians examining questions related to a test set of clinical cases. Their problems and successes were monitored; the results suggest that the addition of a thesaurus helps resolve some problems in citation retrieval that trouble the novice user. By helping the user understand indexing terms in context and by reducing typing errors, a thesaurus can help provide an intelligent solution to lexical mismatches in bibliographic retrieval. PMID:8428185

  15. Tracking meaning over time in the UMLS Metathesaurus.

    PubMed

    Powell, Tammy; Srinivasan, Suresh; Nelson, Stuart J; Hole, William T; Roth, Laura; Olenichev, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System(R) (UMLS) Metathesaurus contains records arranged by concept or meaning. Each concept contains a unique identifier (CUI) that can be used to track the concept over time. Since the January 2001 release, the Metathesaurus has included the file MRCUI that contains mappings for CUIs that disappear. This paper describes the processes that facilitated this effort and the ongoing effort to find suitable mappings for concepts whose meanings no longer exist in the Metathesaurus. This study highlights the need to identify missed synonymy prior to a release. It also shows a need to work more closely with source providers to identify the closest match in the Metathesaurus when they eliminate terms from their vocabularies. PMID:12463898

  16. Automated UMLS-Based Comparison of Medical Forms

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Martin; Fritz, Fleur; Krumm, Rainer; Breil, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Medical forms are very heterogeneous: on a European scale there are thousands of data items in several hundred different systems. To enable data exchange for clinical care and research purposes there is a need to develop interoperable documentation systems with harmonized forms for data capture. A prerequisite in this harmonization process is comparison of forms. So far to our knowledge an automated method for comparison of medical forms is not available. A form contains a list of data items with corresponding medical concepts. An automatic comparison needs data types, item names and especially item with these unique concept codes from medical terminologies. The scope of the proposed method is a comparison of these items by comparing their concept codes (coded in UMLS). Each data item is represented by item name, concept code and value domain. Two items are called identical, if item name, concept code and value domain are the same. Two items are called matching, if only concept code and value domain are the same. Two items are called similar, if their concept codes are the same, but the value domains are different. Based on these definitions an open-source implementation for automated comparison of medical forms in ODM format with UMLS-based semantic annotations was developed. It is available as package compareODM from http://cran.r-project.org. To evaluate this method, it was applied to a set of 7 real medical forms with 285 data items from a large public ODM repository with forms for different medical purposes (research, quality management, routine care). Comparison results were visualized with grid images and dendrograms. Automated comparison of semantically annotated medical forms is feasible. Dendrograms allow a view on clustered similar forms. The approach is scalable for a large set of real medical forms. PMID:23861827

  17. The UMLS project: making the conceptual connection between users and the information they need.

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, B L; Lindberg, D A

    1993-01-01

    Conceptual connections between users and information sources depend on an accurate representation of the content of available information sources, an accurate representation of specific user information needs, and the ability to match the two. Establishing such connections is a principal function of medical librarians. The goal of the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project is to facilitate the development of conceptual connections between users and relevant machine-readable information. The UMLS model involves a combination of three centrally developed Knowledge Sources (a Metathesaurus, a Semantic Network, and an Information Sources Map) and a variety of smart interface programs that make use of these Knowledge Sources to help users in different environments find machine-readable information relevant to their particular practice or research problems. The third experimental edition of the UMLS Knowledge Sources was issued in the fall of 1992. Current priorities for the UMLS project include developing applications that make use of the Knowledge Sources and using feedback from these applications to guide ongoing enhancement and expansion of the Knowledge Sources. Medical librarians are involved heavily in the direction of the UMLS project, in the development of the Knowledge Sources, and in their experimental application. The involvement of librarians in reviewing, testing, and providing feedback on UMLS products will increase the likelihood that the UMLS project will achieve its goal of improving access to machine-readable biomedical information. PMID:8472002

  18. The UMLS project: making the conceptual connection between users and the information they need.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, B L; Lindberg, D A

    1993-04-01

    Conceptual connections between users and information sources depend on an accurate representation of the content of available information sources, an accurate representation of specific user information needs, and the ability to match the two. Establishing such connections is a principal function of medical librarians. The goal of the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project is to facilitate the development of conceptual connections between users and relevant machine-readable information. The UMLS model involves a combination of three centrally developed Knowledge Sources (a Metathesaurus, a Semantic Network, and an Information Sources Map) and a variety of smart interface programs that make use of these Knowledge Sources to help users in different environments find machine-readable information relevant to their particular practice or research problems. The third experimental edition of the UMLS Knowledge Sources was issued in the fall of 1992. Current priorities for the UMLS project include developing applications that make use of the Knowledge Sources and using feedback from these applications to guide ongoing enhancement and expansion of the Knowledge Sources. Medical librarians are involved heavily in the direction of the UMLS project, in the development of the Knowledge Sources, and in their experimental application. The involvement of librarians in reviewing, testing, and providing feedback on UMLS products will increase the likelihood that the UMLS project will achieve its goal of improving access to machine-readable biomedical information. PMID:8472002

  19. Assessing Modal Aspects of OntoUML Conceptual Models in Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Alessander Botti; Guizzardi, Giancarlo; Braga, Bernardo F. B.; Almeida, Joo Paulo A.

    Assessing the quality of conceptual models is key to ensure that conceptual models can be used effectively as a basis for understanding, agreement and construction of information systems. This paper proposes an approach to assess conceptual models defined in OntoUML by transforming these models into specifications in the logic-based language Alloy. These Alloy specifications include the modal axioms of the theory underlying OntoUML, allowing us to validate the modal meta-properties of the OntoUML types and part-whole relations.

  20. Integrating Diagrams and Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Patricia; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on diagrams giving overviews of complex technical information as facilitators for adult subjects using computers to learn about the business activities of a fictitious family. Finds that features of the author's control over the reader's encounter with the diagram influences whether readers will interrupt their reading to study the…

  1. Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiosi, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HR-diagram), pioneered independently by EJNAR HERTZSPRUNG and HENRY NORRIS RUSSELL, is a plot of the star luminosity versus the surface temperature. It stems from the basic relation for an object emitting thermal radiation as a black body: ...

  2. Enriching the structure of the UMLS semantic network.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael H.; Geller, James; Cimino, James J.

    2002-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System's (UMLS's) Semantic Network (SN)---consisting of a network of semantic types---has a two-tree structure, where each semantic type has at most one parent semantic type. This arrangement is restrictive because some semantic types are, by their definition, specializations of several parents. As a proposed enhancement to the SN, its semantic types have previously been partitioned into groups, each of which contains semantic types of some specific area. However, some groups of this proposed partition contain forest (i.e., multiple-tree) structures or even isolated semantic types. Both situations imply a disconnected internal structure. Connectivity is actually one way to assess the proposed "semantic validity" principle for partitions. It is a desired, although not required, property. In this paper, we introduce a methodology for identifying "missing" IS-A links and adding them to the SN. This process transforms the SN into a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) structure, with semantic types permitted to have multiple parents. A result of our methodology is the transformation of the proposed SN partition into groups satisfying the connectivity property. PMID:12463963

  3. [Identification of meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams].

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei-hong

    2008-08-01

    In acu-moxibustion literature, there are two kinds of diagrams, meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams. Because they are very similar in outline, and people now have seldom seen the typical ancient meridian diagrams, meridian-acupoint diagrams have been being incorrectly considered to be the meridian diagrams for a long time. It results in confusion in acu-moxibustion academia. The present paper stresses its importance in academic research and introduces some methods for identifying them correctly. The key points for identification of meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams are: the legend of diagrams and the drawing style of the ancient charts. In addition, the author makes a detailed explanation about some acu-moxibustion charts which are easily confused. In order to distinguish meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams correctly, he or she shoulnd understand the diagrams' intrinsic information as much as possible and make a comprehensive analysis about them. PMID:18928123

  4. Square Source Type Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density function of moment tensor's eigenvalues P(λ1, λ2, λ3) depends only on the scalar moment [(λ12+λ22+λ32)/2]0.5. Even if this is not the real case, the easiness of calculating the areal density is useful when we compare the results of analyzing real data with that of analyzing background noise.

  5. Consumer Health Concepts That Do Not Map to the UMLS: Where Do They Fit?

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Smith, Catherine Arnott; Divita, Guy; Kim, Hyeoneui; Browne, Allen C.; Leroy, Gondy; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study has two objectives: first, to identify and characterize consumer health terms not found in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus (2007 AB); second, to describe the procedure for creating new concepts in the process of building a consumer health vocabulary. How do the unmapped consumer health concepts relate to the existing UMLS concepts? What is the place of these new concepts in professional medical discourse? Design The consumer health terms were extracted from two large corpora derived in the process of Open Access Collaboratory Consumer Health Vocabulary (OAC CHV) building. Terms that could not be mapped to existing UMLS concepts via machine and manual methods prompted creation of new concepts, which were then ascribed semantic types, related to existing UMLS concepts, and coded according to specified criteria. Results This approach identified 64 unmapped concepts, 17 of which were labeled as uniquely “lay” and not feasible for inclusion in professional health terminologies. The remaining terms constituted potential candidates for inclusion in professional vocabularies, or could be constructed by post-coordinating existing UMLS terms. The relationship between new and existing concepts differed depending on the corpora from which they were extracted. Conclusion Non-mapping concepts constitute a small proportion of consumer health terms, but a proportion that is likely to affect the process of consumer health vocabulary building. We have identified a novel approach for identifying such concepts. PMID:18436906

  6. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A new method of obtaining power spectral distribution of gravity waves as a function of ground-based horizontal phase speed and propagation direction from airglow observations has recently been proposed. To explain gravity wave power spectrum anisotropy, a new gravity wave transmission diagram was developed in this study. Gravity wave transmissivity depends on the existence of critical and turning levels for waves that are determined by background horizontal wind distributions. Gravity wave transmission diagrams for different horizontal wavelengths in simple background horizontal winds with constant vertical shear indicate that the effects of the turning level reflection are significant and strongly dependent on the horizontal wavelength.

  7. JuFiT: A Configurable Rule Engine for Filtering and Generating New Multilingual Umls Terms

    PubMed Central

    Hellrich, Johannes; Schulz, Stefan; Buechel, Sven; Hahn, Udo

    2015-01-01

    We here describe JuFiT, an easily adjustable rule engine which allows to filter non-natural terms (i.e., ones usually not occurring in running citation texts) from the Umls metathesaurus and even adds new terms to the UMLS (by rewriting non-natural terms). Unlike previous attempts (with MetaMap or Casper), JuFiT serves multilingual purposes in that it runs for English, Spanish, French, German and Dutch documents, as well – the most prominent European languages in terms of UMLS coverage. We evaluated JuFiT under a variety of experimental conditions and found evidence that it increases annotation quality for English, and most likely also for German and Spanish. PMID:26958195

  8. Plug-and-play UMLS knowledge source server using web services and portlets.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Karen E; Bangalore, Anantha; Browne, Allen

    2006-01-01

    The UMLS is large and complex and presents significant challenges in retrieving information in a comprehensive way. Typical users of the UMLSKS (UMLS Knowledge Source Server) run the gamut in terms of knowledge of the UMLS and retrieval needs from the UMLSKS. Even though we as developers of the UMLSKS have always strived to create a truly modular and flexible system, we felt that the available technology until recently was not mature enough to create a loosely coupled, plug-and-play UMLSKS. In the past year we became convinced that web services and portal technology had sufficiently matured to allow us to develop such a system. In this poster, we present the details of the new plug-and-play UMLSKS that has been in development for about a year. PMID:17238740

  9. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and

  10. Reading Diagrams. Pipefitter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

    Developed by the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these curriculum materials for the occupational area of pipefitting contain a lesson that deals with reading diagrams. The lesson consists of an objective, instruction, and 10 exercises. Three types of problems are provided in each exercise: "try it,""apply it," and "go…

  11. Reading Diagrams. E & I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

    Developed by the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these curriculum materials for the area of electrical and instrumentation contain a lesson that deals with reading diagrams. The lesson consists of an objective, instruction, and 10 exercises. The objective for the lesson is for the student to learn to locate and apply…

  12. Reading Diagrams. Millwright.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

    Developed by the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these curriculum materials for the occupational area of millwright contain a lesson that deals with reading diagrams. The lesson consists of an objective, instruction, and 10 exercises. Three types of problems are provided in each exercise: "try it,""apply it," and "go with…

  13. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and…

  14. Understanding Network Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Robert

    A survey of a range of introductory university level textbooks in the social sciences found little use of network diagrams (NDs), i.e., graphic representations of processes, organizations, systems, and mechanisms. NDs can be viewed as a text/picture hybrid medium with titles and captions serving to qualify and identify the meaning and status of…

  15. On Argument and Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneupper, Charles W.

    1978-01-01

    Responds to Charles Willard's recommendations (in an article in "Communication Monographs," November 1976) that argument be viewed as an attempt to establish formal relationships among symbolic structures. Demonstrates flaws in this redefinition and shows argument diagrams to be theoretically and practically justifiable. (JMF)

  16. Non-planar on-shell diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Sebastián; Galloni, Daniele; Penante, Brenda; Wen, Congkao

    2015-06-01

    We initiate a systematic study of non-planar on-shell diagrams in SYM and develop powerful technology for doing so. We introduce canonical variables generalizing face variables, which make the d log form of the on-shell form explicit. We make significant progress towards a general classification of arbitrary on-shell diagrams by means of two classes of combinatorial objects: generalized matching and matroid polytopes. We propose a boundary measurement that connects general on-shell diagrams to the Grassmannian. Our proposal exhibits two important and non-trivial properties: positivity in the planar case and it matches the combinatorial description of the diagrams in terms of generalized matroid polytopes. Interestingly, non-planar diagrams exhibit novel phenomena, such as the emergence of constraints on Plücker coordinates beyond Plücker relations when deleting edges, which are neatly captured by the generalized matching and matroid polytopes. This behavior is tied to the existence of a new type of poles in the on-shell form at which combinations of Plücker coordinates vanish. Finally, we introduce a prescription, applicable beyond the MHV case, for writing the on-shell form as a function of minors directly from the graph.

  17. Arranging ISO 13606 archetypes into a knowledge base using UML connectors.

    PubMed

    Kopanitsa, Georgy

    2014-01-01

    To enable the efficient reuse of standard based medical data we propose to develop a higher-level information model that will complement the archetype model of ISO 13606. This model will make use of the relationships that are specified in UML to connect medical archetypes into a knowledge base within a repository. UML connectors were analysed for their ability to be applied in the implementation of a higher-level model that will establish relationships between archetypes. An information model was developed using XML Schema notation. The model allows linking different archetypes of one repository into a knowledge base. Presently it supports several relationships and will be advanced in future. PMID:24743069

  18. Nonthermal Radio Emission and the HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Perhaps the most reliable indicator of non-radiative heating/momentum in a stellar atmosphere is the presence of nonthermal radio emission. To date, 77 normal stellar objects have been detected and identified as nonthermal sources. These stellar objects are tabulated herein. It is apparent that non-thermal radio emission is not ubiquitous across the HR diagram. This is clearly the case for the single stars; it is not as clear for the binaries unless the radio emission is associated with their late-type components. Choosing to make this association, the single stars and the late-type components are plotted together. The following picture emerges: (1) there are four locations on the HR diagram where non-thermal radio stars are found; (2) the peak incoherent 5 GHz luminosities show a suprisingly small range for stars within each class; (3) the fraction of stellar energy that escapes as radio emission can be estimated by comparing the integrated maximum radio luminosity to the bolometric luminosity; (4) there are no apparent differences in L sub R between binaries with two cool components, binaries with one hot and one cool component, and single stars for classes C and D; and (5) The late-type stars (classes B, C, and D) are located in parts of the HR diagram where there is reason to suspect that the surfaces of the stars are being braked with respect to their interiors.

  19. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists.2 These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams,3 energy bar charts,4 electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and animations.5 However, instructors have limited choices when they want to help their students understand impulse and momentum. One of the only available options is the impulse-momentum bar chart.6 The bar charts can effectively show the magnitude of the momentum as well as help students understand conservation of momentum, but they do not easily show the actual direction. This paper highlights a new representation instructors can use to help their students with momentum and impulse—the impulse-momentum diagram (IMD).

  20. TEP process flow diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Wilms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan; Coons, James; Kubic, William

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  1. Quality evaluation of value sets from cancer study common data elements using the UMLS semantic groups

    PubMed Central

    Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to develop an approach to evaluate the quality of terminological annotations on the value set (ie, enumerated value domain) components of the common data elements (CDEs) in the context of clinical research using both unified medical language system (UMLS) semantic types and groups. Materials and methods The CDEs of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Data Standards Repository, the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) concepts and the UMLS semantic network were integrated using a semantic web-based framework for a SPARQL-enabled evaluation. First, the set of CDE-permissible values with corresponding meanings in external controlled terminologies were isolated. The corresponding value meanings were then evaluated against their NCI- or UMLS-generated semantic network mapping to determine whether all of the meanings fell within the same semantic group. Results Of the enumerated CDEs in the Cancer Data Standards Repository, 3093 (26.2%) had elements drawn from more than one UMLS semantic group. A random sample (n=100) of this set of elements indicated that 17% of them were likely to have been misclassified. Discussion The use of existing semantic web tools can support a high-throughput mechanism for evaluating the quality of large CDE collections. This study demonstrates that the involvement of multiple semantic groups in an enumerated value domain of a CDE is an effective anchor to trigger an auditing point for quality evaluation activities. Conclusion This approach produces a useful quality assurance mechanism for a clinical study CDE repository. PMID:22511016

  2. "UML Quiz": Automatic Conversion of Web-Based E-Learning Content in Mobile Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Franqué, Alexander; Tellioglu, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    Many educational institutions use Learning Management Systems to provide e-learning content to their students. This often includes quizzes that can help students to prepare for exams. However, the content is usually web-optimized and not very usable on mobile devices. In this work a native mobile application ("UML Quiz") that imports…

  3. Visualization of health information with predications extracted using natural language processing and filtered using the UMLS.

    PubMed

    Miller, Trudi; Leroy, Gondy

    2008-01-01

    Increased availability of and reliance on written health information can tax the abilities of unskilled readers. We are developing a system that uses natural language processing to extract phrases, identify medical terms using the UMLS, and visualize the propositions. This system substantially reduces the amount of information a consumer must read, while providing an alternative to traditional prose based text. PMID:18999136

  4. Diagrams of airplane stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batemen, H

    1921-01-01

    In this report a study is made of the effect on longitudinal and lateral oscillations of an airplane of simultaneous variations in two resistance derivatives while the remainder of the derivatives are constant. The results are represented by diagrams in which the two variable resistance derivatives are used as coordinates, and curves are plotted along which the modulus of decay of a long oscillation has a constant value. The same type of analysis is also carried out for the stability of the parachute. In discussing the stability of the helicopter it is concluded that the gyroscopic effect on stability will be greater than in the case of the airplane.

  5. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, Chia Swee

    2015-04-24

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  6. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Chia Swee

    2015-04-01

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the `tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  7. Warped penguin diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Csaki, Csaba; Grossman, Yuval; Tanedo, Philip; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2011-04-01

    We present an analysis of the loop-induced magnetic dipole operator in the Randall-Sundrum model of a warped extra dimension with anarchic bulk fermions and an IR brane-localized Higgs. These operators are finite at one-loop order and we explicitly calculate the branching ratio for {mu}{yields}e{gamma} using the mixed position/momentum space formalism. The particular bound on the anarchic Yukawa and Kaluza-Klein (KK) scales can depend on the flavor structure of the anarchic matrices. It is possible for a generic model to either be ruled out or unaffected by these bounds without any fine-tuning. We quantify how these models realize this surprising behavior. We also review tree-level lepton flavor bounds in these models and show that these are on the verge of tension with the {mu}{yields}e{gamma} bounds from typical models with a 3 TeV Kaluza-Klein scale. Further, we illuminate the nature of the one-loop finiteness of these diagrams and show how to accurately determine the degree of divergence of a five-dimensional loop diagram using both the five-dimensional and KK formalism. This power counting can be obfuscated in the four-dimensional Kaluza-Klein formalism and we explicitly point out subtleties that ensure that the two formalisms agree. Finally, we remark on the existence of a perturbative regime in which these one-loop results give the dominant contribution.

  8. Impact decision support diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    One way to frame the job of planetary defense is to find the optimal approach for finding the optimal approach to NEO mitigation. This requires a framework for defining in advance what should be done under various circumstances. The two-dimensional action matrix from the recent NRC report Defending Planet Earth can be generalized to a notional Impact Decision Support Diagram by extending it into a third dimension. The NRC action matrix incorporated two important axes: size and time-to-impact, but probability of impact is also critical (it is part of the definitions of both the Torino and Palermo scales). Uncertainty has been neglected, but is also crucial. It can be incorporated by subsuming it into the NEO size axis by redefining size to be three standard deviations greater than the best estimate, thereby providing a built-in conservative margin. The independent variable is time-to-impact, which is known with high precision. The other two axes are both quantitative assessments of uncertainty and are both time dependent. Thus, the diagram is entirely an expression of uncertainty. The true impact probability is either one or zero, and the true size does not change. The domain contains information about the current uncertainty, which changes with time (as opposed to reality, which does not change).

  9. Argument Diagramming: The Araucaria Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Glenn; Reed, Chris

    Formal arguments, such as those used in science, medicine and law to establish a conclusion by providing supporting evidence, are frequently represented by diagrams such as trees and graphs. We describe the software package Araucaria which allows textual arguments to be marked up and represented as standard, Toulmin or Wigmore diagrams. Since each of these diagramming techniques was devised for a particular domain or argumentation, we discuss some of the issues involved in translating between diagrams. The exercise of translating between different diagramming types illustrates that any one diagramming system often cannot capture all of the nuances inherent in an argument. Finally, we describe some areas, such as critical thinking courses in colleges and universities and the analysis of evidence in court cases, where Araucaria has been put to practical use.

  10. Structural Group-based Auditing of Missing Hierarchical Relationships in UMLS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Gu, Huanying(Helen); Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James

    2009-01-01

    The Metathesaurus of the UMLS was created by integrating various source terminologies. The inter-concept relationships were either integrated into the UMLS from the source terminologies or specially generated. Due to the extensive size and inherent complexity of the Metathesaurus, the accidental omission of some hierarchical relationships was inevitable. We present a recursive procedure which allows a human expert, with the support of an algorithm, to locate missing hierarchical relationships. The procedure starts with a group of concepts with exactly the same (correct) semantic type assignments. It then partitions the concepts, based on child-of hierarchical relationships, into smaller, singly rooted, hierarchically connected subgroups. The auditor only needs to focus on the subgroups with very few concepts and their concepts with semantic type reassignments. The procedure was evaluated by comparing it with a comprehensive manual audit and it exhibits a perfect error recall. PMID:18824248

  11. Relating UMLS semantic types and task-based ontology to computer-interpretable clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anand; Ciccarese, Paolo; Quaglini, Silvana; Stefanelli, Mario; Caffi, Ezio; Boiocchi, Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Medical knowledge in clinical practice guideline (GL) texts is the source of task-based computer-interpretable clinical guideline models (CIGMs). We have used Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic types (STs) to understand the percentage of GL text which belongs to a particular ST. We also use UMLS semantic network together with the CIGM-specific ontology to derive a semantic meaning behind the GL text. In order to achieve this objective, we took nine GL texts from the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) and marked up the text dealing with a particular ST. The STs we took into consideration were restricted taking into account the requirements of a task-based CIGM. We used DARPA Agent Markup Language and Ontology Inference Layer (DAML + OIL) to create the UMLS and CIGM specific semantic network. For the latter, as a bench test, we used the 1999 WHO-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. We took into consideration the UMLS STs closest to the clinical tasks. The percentage of the GL text dealing with the ST "Health Care Activity" and subtypes "Laboratory Procedure", "Diagnostic Procedure" and "Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure" were measured. The parts of text belonging to other STs or comments were separated. A mapping of terms belonging to other STs was done to the STs under "HCA" for representation in DAML + OIL. As a result, we found that the three STs under "HCA" were the predominant STs present in the GL text. In cases where the terms of related STs existed, they were mapped into one of the three STs. The DAML + OIL representation was able to describe the hierarchy in task-based CIGMs. To conclude, we understood that the three STs could be used to represent the semantic network of the task-bases CIGMs. We identified some mapping operators which could be used for the mapping of other STs into these. PMID:14664031

  12. Validation of clinical problems using a UMLS-based semantic parser.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, H S; Hsu, C; Law, V; Safran, C

    1998-01-01

    The capture and symbolization of data from the clinical problem list facilitates the creation of high-fidelity patient resumes for use in aggregate analysis and decision support. We report on the development of a UMLS-based semantic parser and present a preliminary evaluation of the parser in the recognition and validation of disease-related clinical problems. We randomly sampled 20% of the 26,858 unique non-dictionary clinical problems entered into OMR (Online Medical Record) between 1989 and August, 1997, and eliminated a series of qualified problem labels, e.g., history-of, to obtain a dataset of 4122 problem labels. Within this dataset, the authors identified 2810 labels (68.2%) as referring to a broad range of disease-related processes. The parser correctly recognized and validated 1398 of the 2810 disease-related labels (49.8 +/- 1.9%) and correctly excluded 1220 of 1312 non-disease-related labels (93.0 +/- 1.4%). 812 of the 1181 match failures (68.8%) were caused by terms either absent from UMLS or modifiers not accepted by the parser; 369 match failures (31.2%) were caused by labels having patterns not recognized by the parser. By enriching the UMLS lexicon with terms commonly found in provider-entered labels, it appears that performance of the parser can be significantly enhanced over a few subsequent iterations. This initial evaluation provides a foundation from which to make principled additions to the UMLS lexicon locally for use in symbolizing clinical data; further research is necessary to determine applicability to other health care settings. PMID:9929330

  13. Using Meta-1-The 1st Version of the UMLS Metathesaurus

    PubMed Central

    Tuttle, Mark; Sherertz, David; Olson, Nels; Erlbaum, Mark; Sperzel, David; Fuller, Lloyd; Nelson, Stuart

    1990-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is developing the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to provide uniform access to the world's biomedical knowledge. The foundation of the UMLS is a metathesaurus of concept names, or terms. Meta-1, the first version of the Metathesaurus, was synthesized from existing biomedical nomenclatures and classification systems, and it contains in excess of 100,000 terms, including all those from MeSH and DSM, and a portion of those from SNOMED, ICD, CPT, LCSH, COSTAR and other sources. These names are arranged and labeled so as to help answer the questions, “What is it called?” and “Where can I find out more about it?” We refer to the first question as the naming problem, and the second as the location problem, respectively. We think of Meta-1 as a source of lexical diversity and semantic locality with which to address these problems in biomedicine. While the NLM will be using Meta-1 in the UMLS, non-NLM developers and users may wish to use Meta-1 to help solve their own naming and location problems

  14. Diagonal Slices of 3D Young Diagrams in the Approach of Maya Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Li-Qiang; Wang, Li-Fang; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    According to the correspondence between 2D Young diagrams and Maya diagrams and the relation between 2D and 3D Young diagrams, we construct 3D Young diagrams in the approach of Maya diagrams. Moreover, we formulate the generating function of 3D Young diagrams, which is the MacMahon function in terms of Maya diagrams.

  15. Potential-pH Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    1982-01-01

    Potential-pH diagrams show the domains of redoxpotential and pH in which major species are most stable. Constructing such diagrams provides students with opportunities to decide what species must be considered, search literature for equilibrium constants and free energies of formation, and practice in using the Nernst equation. (Author/JN)

  16. English Pyramids: Using Hierarchical Diagrams for Communication Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tia; Sheetz-Brunetti, Judy

    The pyramid, or hierarchical diagram, is used in teaching writing English as a second language (ESL) as a visual representation of the way English speakers and writers organize ideas, for comparison with discourse organization in other cultures. A common problem of ESL students is an inability to organize ideas hierarchically. One class activity…

  17. Computing operating diagrams of bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Pavlou, S

    1999-05-28

    The operating diagram of a bioreactor is an illustrative way to present the effect that the operating conditions have on its long-term behavior. It can be constructed if a mathematical model of the bioreactor is available. The procedure for constructing the operating diagram consists in analyzing the dynamic behavior of the system of the differential equations of the model. Some methods are described that can be used in computing operating diagrams of bioreactors. They are based on numerical bifurcation techniques for systems of differential equations. Both cases of bioreactors with constant and periodically varying operating conditions are considered. PMID:10483097

  18. Particles, Feynman Diagrams and All That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Quantum fields are introduced in order to give students an accurate qualitative understanding of the origin of Feynman diagrams as representations of particle interactions. Elementary diagrams are combined to produce diagrams representing the main features of the Standard Model.

  19. Atemporal diagrams for quantum circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Robert B.; Wu Shengjun; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2006-05-15

    A system of diagrams is introduced that allows the representation of various elements of a quantum circuit, including measurements, in a form which makes no reference to time (hence 'atemporal'). It can be used to relate quantum dynamical properties to those of entangled states (map-state duality), and suggests useful analogies, such as the inverse of an entangled ket. Diagrams clarify the role of channel kets, transition operators, dynamical operators (matrices), and Kraus rank for noisy quantum channels. Positive (semidefinite) operators are represented by diagrams with a symmetry that aids in understanding their connection with completely positive maps. The diagrams are used to analyze standard teleportation and dense coding, and for a careful study of unambiguous (conclusive) teleportation. A simple diagrammatic argument shows that a Kraus rank of 3 is impossible for a one-qubit channel modeled using a one-qubit environment in a mixed state.

  20. Teaching Tip: Using Activity Diagrams to Model Systems Analysis Techniques: Teaching What We Preach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lending, Diane; May, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Activity diagrams are used in Systems Analysis and Design classes as a visual tool to model the business processes of "as-is" and "to-be" systems. This paper presents the idea of using these same activity diagrams in the classroom to model the actual processes (practices and techniques) of Systems Analysis and Design. This tip…

  1. Phase diagrams of decomposing nanoalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirinyan, A. S.; Gusak, A. M.

    2004-02-01

    The thermodynamics of nucleation and decomposition in small isolated particles are considered. There exist three possibilities: phase separation, prohibition of decomposition and a metastable state. We investigate the peculiarities of phase diagrams related to depletion of the nanosize parent phase even at the nucleation stage. For small particles the equilibrium diagram becomes split (and shifted and size dependent). Concentration, size and temperature hystereses take place. Size-dependent 'critical supersaturation', increasing with decreasing size, has been analysed.

  2. Exploiting the UMLS Metathesaurus for extracting and categorizing concepts representing signs and symptoms to anatomically related organ systems

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Le-Thuy T.; Divita, Guy; Carter, Marjorie E.; Judd, Joshua; Samore, Matthew H.; Gundlapalli, Adi V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop a method to exploit the UMLS Metathesaurus for extracting and categorizing concepts found in clinical text representing signs and symptoms to anatomically related organ systems. The overarching goal is to classify patient reported symptoms to organ systems for population health and epidemiological analyses. Materials and methods Using the concepts’ semantic types and the inter-concept relationships as guidance, a selective portion of the concepts within the UMLS Metathesaurus was traversed starting from the concepts representing the highest level organ systems. The traversed concepts were chosen, filtered, and reviewed to obtain the concepts representing clinical signs and symptoms by blocking deviations, pruning superfluous concepts, and manual review. The mapping process was applied to signs and symptoms annotated in a corpus of 750 clinical notes. Results The mapping process yielded a total of 91,000 UMLS concepts (with approximately 300,000 descriptions) possibly representing physical and mental signs and symptoms that were extracted and categorized to the anatomically related organ systems. Of 1864 distinct descriptions of signs and symptoms found in the 750 document corpus, 1635 of these (88%) were successfully mapped to the set of concepts extracted from the UMLS. Of 668 unique concepts mapped, 603 (90%) were correctly categorized to their organ systems. Conclusion We present a process that facilitates mapping of signs and symptoms to their organ systems. By providing a smaller set of UMLS concepts to use for comparing and matching patient records, this method has the potential to increase efficiency of information extraction pipelines. PMID:26362345

  3. Colaborated Architechture Framework for Composition UML 2.0 in Zachman Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermawan; Hastarista, Fika

    2016-01-01

    Zachman Framework (ZF) is the framework of enterprise architechture that most widely adopted in the Enterprise Information System (EIS) development. In this study, has been developed Colaborated Architechture Framework (CAF) to collaborate ZF with Unified Modeling Language (UML) 2.0 modeling. The CAF provides the composition of ZF matrix that each cell is consist of the Model Driven architechture (MDA) from the various UML models and many Software Requirement Specification (SRS) documents. Implementation of this modeling is used to develops Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). Because ERP have a coverage of applications in large numbers and complexly relations, it is necessary to use Agile Model Driven Design (AMDD) approach as an advanced method to transforms MDA into components of application modules with efficiently and accurately. Finally, through the using of the CAF, give good achievement in fullfilment the needs from all stakeholders that are involved in the overall process stage of Rational Unified Process (RUP), and also obtaining a high satisfaction to fullfiled the functionality features of the ERP software in PT. Iglas (Persero) Gresik.

  4. Interactive query workstation: a demonstration of the practical use of UMLS knowledge sources.

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, C.; Barnett, G. O.; Blewett, D. R.; Hassan, L. J.; Grundmeier, R.; Merz, R.; Kahn, J. A.; Gnassi, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive Query Workstation (IQW) has been developed to provide clinicians with a uniform program interface for retrieving medical-related information from various computer-based information resources. These resources can vary in content (bibliographic databases, drug information, general medical text databases), function (article retrieval, differential diagnosis, drug interaction detection, or drug dosage and administration information), and media formats (local hard disk, CD-ROM, local area network, or distant telecommunication link). IQW allows modular addition of new resources as well as extension of previously installed resources. The National Library of Medicine's three Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Knowledge Sources, the Metathesaurus (Meta), the Semantic Network, and the Information Sources Map (ISM) have been incorporated into many aspects of IQW. Meta provides information about medical terminology and aids IQW in isolating the basic concepts from a clinician's question. The Semantic Network provides information about the categorization of concepts and possible relations between concepts. It also assists IQW in determining which queries are appropriate for a set of concepts contained in the clinician's question. The ISM provides information about the content available from a computer-based resources and aids IQW in selecting an appropriate resource from which to collect information. The computer-based resource selection is performed without user intervention. This interactive demonstration shows an environment which increases the accessibility of medical information to clinicians by utilizing the three UMLS Knowledge Sources. PMID:1483001

  5. A Semantic-based Approach for Exploring Consumer Health Questions Using UMLS

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Licong; Tao, Shiqiang; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    NetWellness is a non-profit web service providing high quality health information. It has been in operation since 1995 with over 13 million visits per year by consumers across the world in recent years. Consumer questions in NetWellness have been answered by medical and health professional faculties at three Ohio partner universities: Case Western Reserve University, the Ohio State University, and University of Cincinnati. However, the resident interface in NetWellness is ineffective in searching existing questions that have already been carefully answered by experts in an easy-to-understand manner. In our previous work, we presented a Conjunctive Exploratory Navigation Interface (CENI) reusing NetWellness’ 120 pre-defined health topics in assisting question retrieval. This paper presents a novel semantic-based search interface called Semantic Conjunctive Exploratory Navigation Interface (SCENI), using UMLS concepts as topics. 60,000 questions were tagged by UMLS Concept Unique Identifies (CUIs), with each question allowing multiple possible tags. Using a slightly modified 5-point Likert scale for relevance, SCENI reveals improved precision and relevance (precision: 93.47%, relevance: 4.31) in comparison to CENI using NetWellness’ pre-defined topics alone (precision: 77.85%, relevance: 3.3) and NetWellness’ resident search interface (precision: 50.62%, relevance: 1.97), on a set of sample queries. PMID:25954347

  6. Global quantum Hall phase diagram from visibility diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandelier, F.; Georgelin, Y.; Masson, T.; Wallet, J.-C.

    2002-09-01

    Starting from a framework encoding rather simple symmetry principle based on modular subgroups, we construct a zero temperature global phase diagram for the QHE. This phase diagram is found to involve two insulating phases. One noticeable prediction is the possibility to have direct transitions from an insulting phase to any integer ν as well as ν=1/(2 k+1) ( k∈ N) fractional quantum Hall liquid phases which seems to agree with some recent experimental observations. We also propose selection rules for the possible plateau-plateau (and plateau-insulator) transitions which may constitute testable predictions.

  7. Automatically Assessing Graph-Based Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pete; Smith, Neil; Waugh, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    To date there has been very little work on the machine understanding of imprecise diagrams, such as diagrams drawn by students in response to assessment questions. Imprecise diagrams exhibit faults such as missing, extraneous and incorrectly formed elements. The semantics of imprecise diagrams are difficult to determine. While there have been…

  8. Matched designs and causal diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Mansournia, Mohammad A; Hernán, Miguel A; Greenland, Sander

    2013-01-01

    We use causal diagrams to illustrate the consequences of matching and the appropriate handling of matched variables in cohort and case-control studies. The matching process generally forces certain variables to be independent despite their being connected in the causal diagram, a phenomenon known as unfaithfulness. We show how causal diagrams can be used to visualize many previous results about matched studies. Cohort matching can prevent confounding by the matched variables, but censoring or other missing data and further adjustment may necessitate control of matching variables. Case-control matching generally does not prevent confounding by the matched variables, and control of matching variables may be necessary even if those were not confounders initially. Matching on variables that are affected by the exposure and the outcome, or intermediates between the exposure and the outcome, will ordinarily produce irremediable bias. PMID:23918854

  9. Phase diagrams and crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkrbec, Jan

    1980-04-01

    Phase diagrams are briefly treated as generalized property-composition relationships, with respect to crystal technology optimization. The treatment is based on mutual interaction of three systems related to semiconductors: (a) the semiconducting material systems, (b0 the data bank, (c) the system of crystallization methods. A model is proposed enabling optimatization on the path from application requirements to the desired material. Further, several examples of the selection as to the composition of LED and laser diode material are given. Some of molten-solution-zone methods are being successfully introduced for this purpose. Common features of these methods, the application of phase diagrams, and their pecularities compared with other crystallization methods are illustrated by schematic diagrams and by examples. LPE methods, particularly the steady-state LPE methods such as Woodall's ISM and Nishizawa's TDM-CVP, and the CAM-S (Crystallization Method Providing Composition Autocontrol in Situ) have been chosen as examples. Another approach of exploiting phase diagrams for optimal material selection and for determination of growth condition before experimentation through a simple calculation is presented on InP-GaP solid solutions. Ternary phase diagrams are visualized in space through calculation and constructions based on the corresponding thermodynamic models and anaglyphs. These make it easy to observe and qualitatively analyze the crystallization of every composition. Phase diagrams can be also used as a powerful tool for the deduction of new crystallization methods. Eutectic crystallization is an example of such an approach where a modified molten-solution-zone method can give a sandwich structure with an abrupt concentration change. The concentration of a component can range from 0 to 100% in the different solid phases.

  10. Fast Formal Analysis of Requirements via "Topoi Diagrams"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Tim; Powell, John; Houle, Michael E.; Kelly, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Early testing of requirements can decrease the cost of removing errors in software projects. However, unless done carefully, that testing process can significantly add to the cost of requirements analysis. We show here that requirements expressed as topoi diagrams can be built and tested cheaply using our SP2 algorithm, the formal temporal properties of a large class of topoi can be proven very quickly, in time nearly linear in the number of nodes and edges in the diagram. There are two limitations to our approach. Firstly, topoi diagrams cannot express certain complex concepts such as iteration and sub-routine calls. Hence, our approach is more useful for requirements engineering than for traditional model checking domains. Secondly, out approach is better for exploring the temporal occurrence of properties than the temporal ordering of properties. Within these restrictions, we can express a useful range of concepts currently seen in requirements engineering, and a wide range of interesting temporal properties.

  11. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  12. The Butterfly Diagram internal structure .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, M.

    A new graphic representation of the spotgroup distribution with respect to time and latitude is presented. At variance with Maunder's Butterfly Diagram, which registers the mere presence of spotgroups, the diagram presented here accounts for the spotgroup area. It shows that spotgroups aggregate in a few small, heavenly spotted portions (``knots'') of the diagram. Each knot is the signature of a photospheric region tightly limited in latitude, active for a short time. The butterfly diagram is but a cluster of knots and the spot zone is the latitude range inside which knots activate. The cycle is a sequence of knots activations and extinctions. Even though knots show the overall tendency to appear at lower and lower latitudes as the cycle goes on, a knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones. The examination of the knot distribution inside the ``butterfly wings'' suggests that - at any cycle and at any hemisphere - two ``activity waves" drift equatorward at a rate roughly twice the drift rate of the spot zone as a whole.

  13. A UMLS-based method for integrating information databases into an Intranet.

    PubMed Central

    Volot, F.; Joubert, M.; Fieschi, M.; Fieschi, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Internet and the World Wide Web provide today end-users with capabilities to access universally to information in various and heterogeneous databases. The biomedical domain benefits from this new technology, specially for information retrieval by searching and browsing various sites. Nevertheless, end-users may be disoriented by specific ways to access information on different servers. In the framework of an Intranet design and development, we present a method for integrating information databases based on knowledge sources of the UMLS. The method provides designers of a Web site with facilities to implement an easy and homogeneous access to information. The pages are built dynamically and displayed according to a style sheet and their content stored in a database during the design phase. The database also describes the links between pages. Moreover, this organization provides administrators with powerful capabilities to manage Web sites. PMID:9357675

  14. Fostering Multilinguality in the UMLS: A Computational Approach to Terminology Expansion for Multiple Languages

    PubMed Central

    Hellrich, Johannes; Hahn, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We here report on efforts to computationally support the maintenance and extension of multilingual biomedical terminology resources. Our main idea is to treat term acquisition as a classification problem guided by term alignment in parallel multilingual corpora, using termhood information coming from of a named entity recognition system as a novel feature. We report on experiments for Spanish, French, German and Dutch parts of a multilingual UMLS-derived biomedical terminology. These efforts yielded 19k, 18k, 23k and 12k new terms and synonyms, respectively, from which about half relate to concepts without a previously available term label for these non-English languages. Based on expert assessment of a novel German terminology sample, 80% of the newly acquired terms were judged as reasonable additions to the terminology. PMID:25954371

  15. Prototyping an institutional IAIMS/UMLS information environment for an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Miller, P L; Paton, J A; Clyman, J I; Powsner, S M

    1992-07-01

    The paper describes a prototype information environment designed to link network-based information resources in an integrated fashion and thus enhance the information capabilities of an academic medical center. The prototype was implemented on a single Macintosh computer to permit exploration of the overall "information architecture" and to demonstrate the various desired capabilities prior to full-scale network-based implementation. At the heart of the prototype are two components: a diverse set of information resources available over an institutional computer network and an information sources map designed to assist users in finding and accessing information resources relevant to their needs. The paper describes these and other components of the prototype and presents a scenario illustrating its use. The prototype illustrates the link between the goals of two National Library of Medicine initiatives, the Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS) and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). PMID:1326371

  16. Toward a Bio-Medical Thesaurus: Building the Foundation of the UMLS

    PubMed Central

    Tuttle, Mark S.; Blois, Marsden S.; Erlbaum, Mark S.; Nelson, Stuart J.; Sherertz, David D.

    1988-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is being designed to provide a uniform user interface to heterogeneous machine-readable bio-medical information resources, such as bibliographic databases, genetic databases, expert systems and patient records.1 Such an interface will have to recognize different ways of saying the same thing, and provide links to ways of saying related things. One way to represent the necessary associations is via a domain thesaurus. As no such thesaurus exists, and because, once built, it will be both sizable and in need of continuous maintenance, its design should include a methodology for building and maintaining it. We propose a methodology, utilizing lexically expanded schema inversion, and a design, called T. Lex, which together form one approach to the problem of defining and building a bio-medical thesaurus. We argue that the semantic locality implicit in such a thesaurus will support model-based reasoning in bio-medicine.2

  17. Fostering Multilinguality in the UMLS: A Computational Approach to Terminology Expansion for Multiple Languages.

    PubMed

    Hellrich, Johannes; Hahn, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We here report on efforts to computationally support the maintenance and extension of multilingual biomedical terminology resources. Our main idea is to treat term acquisition as a classification problem guided by term alignment in parallel multilingual corpora, using termhood information coming from of a named entity recognition system as a novel feature. We report on experiments for Spanish, French, German and Dutch parts of a multilingual UMLS-derived biomedical terminology. These efforts yielded 19k, 18k, 23k and 12k new terms and synonyms, respectively, from which about half relate to concepts without a previously available term label for these non-English languages. Based on expert assessment of a novel German terminology sample, 80% of the newly acquired terms were judged as reasonable additions to the terminology. PMID:25954371

  18. Multi-tier Internet Architecture with Java, UML and OOA &D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, J.

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is the fourth and final element in NASA's family of ``Great Observatories'' and is set for a December 2001 launch. SIRTF will provide infrared imaging and spectroscopy in the 3 to 180-micron wavelength range. SIRTF will deploy an Internet Java application, the SIRTF Planning and Observation Tools (SPOT) to facilitate the proposal creation, editing and monitoring processes. Java will provide a development and runtime environment capable of supporting the diverse and globally dispersed astronomical community. The SPOT will provide a means of standardized input of observation parameters that can be integrated into the mission planning function using predefined workflow processes. The use of highly automated workflow processes will help keep the Development and Operations budgets within their current cost constraints. The Science Operations Application Server (SOAS) is being designed and developed to support the SPOT and Science Operations System (SOS). SOAS will provide integration of back end services such as database, astronomical catalogs, and estimation software and legacy software libraries. Development of this application server architecture required the design and development of an object communications architecture and software deployment mechanism. The object communications architecture makes use of the built in serialization capabilities of Java and the Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) for implementation. The software deployment mechanism is designed to provide initial software installation and an automated update facility and is implemented using a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) software package. Enterprise Java Beans will be developed and deployed within the SOAS to satisfy requests to the DBMS for proposal processing. This presentation will also cover the synergy between the UML and Java. The SOAS development team will utilize OOA&D, the UML and Java to design, document and implement the SOAS.

  19. Spectral Determinants on Mandelstam Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillairet, Luc; Kalvin, Victor; Kokotov, Alexey

    2015-11-01

    We study the regularized determinant of the Laplacian as a functional on the space of Mandelstam diagrams (noncompact translation surfaces glued from finite and semi-infinite cylinders). A Mandelstam diagram can be considered as a compact Riemann surface equipped with a conformal flat singular metric {|?|^2} , where {?} is a meromorphic one-form with simple poles such that all its periods are pure imaginary and all its residues are real. The main result is an explicit formula for the determinant of the Laplacian in terms of the basic objects on the underlying Riemann surface (the prime form, theta-functions, the canonical meromorphic bidifferential) and the divisor of the meromorphic form {?} . As an important intermediate result we prove a decomposition formula of the type of Burghelea-Friedlander-Kappeler for the determinant of the Laplacian for flat surfaces with cylindrical ends and conical singularities.

  20. Unveiling the butterfly diagram structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    2011-06-01

    A Butterfly Diagram showing the spotted area distribution is presented. The diagram reveals that most of the spotted area is concentrated in few, small portions (``knots'') of the butterfly wings. A knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in a seemingly random way; accordingly, the spot mean latitude abruptly drifts equatorward or even poleward at any knot activation, in spite of any smoothing procedure. The description, assuming that spots scatter around the ``spot mean latitude'' steadily drifting equatorward, is questioned. In a relevant number of cases, knots appear to be arranged in two roughly parallel, oblique streams, the ``spot mean latitude'' being located in the underspotted band lying between these streams.

  1. The Butterfly Diagram Internal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    2013-06-01

    A time-latitude diagram, where the spotgroup area is taken into account, is presented for cycles 12 through 23. The results show that the spotted area is concentrated in few, small portions ("knots") of the Butterfly Diagram (BD). The BD may be described as a cluster of knots. Knots are distributed in the butterfly wings in a seemingly randomly way. A knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in spite of the prevalent tendency to appear at lower and lower latitudes. Accordingly, the spotted area centroid, far from continuously drifting equatorward, drifts poleward or remains stationary in any hemisphere for significant fractions (≈ 1/3) of the cycle total duration. In a relevant number of semicycles, knots seem to form two roughly parallel, oblique "chains", separated by an underspotted band. This picture suggests that two (or more) "activity streams" approach the equator at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  2. Spectral Determinants on Mandelstam Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillairet, Luc; Kalvin, Victor; Kokotov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We study the regularized determinant of the Laplacian as a functional on the space of Mandelstam diagrams (noncompact translation surfaces glued from finite and semi-infinite cylinders). A Mandelstam diagram can be considered as a compact Riemann surface equipped with a conformal flat singular metric {|ω|^2}, where {ω} is a meromorphic one-form with simple poles such that all its periods are pure imaginary and all its residues are real. The main result is an explicit formula for the determinant of the Laplacian in terms of the basic objects on the underlying Riemann surface (the prime form, theta-functions, the canonical meromorphic bidifferential) and the divisor of the meromorphic form {ω}. As an important intermediate result we prove a decomposition formula of the type of Burghelea-Friedlander-Kappeler for the determinant of the Laplacian for flat surfaces with cylindrical ends and conical singularities.

  3. INCONEL 718: A solidification diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorovsky, G. A.; Cieslak, M. J.; Headley, T. J.; Romig, A. D.; Hammetter, W. F.

    1989-10-01

    As part of a program studying weldability of Ni-base superalloys, results of an integrated analytical approach are used to generate a constitution diagram for INCONEL 718* in the temperature range associated with solidification. Differential thermal analysis of wrought material and optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and analytical electron microscopy of gas tungsten arc welds are used in conjunction with solidification theory to generate data points for this diagram. The important features of the diagram are an austenite (γ)/Laves phase eutectic which occurs at ≈19.1 wt pct Nb between austenite containing ≈9.3 wt pct Nb and a Laves phase which contains ≈22.4 wt pct Nb. The distribution coefficient for Nb was found to be ≈0.5. The solidification sequence of INCONEL 718 was found to be (1) proeutectic γ, followed by (2) a γ/NbC eutectic at ≈1250°C, followed by (3) continued γ solidification, followed by (4) a γ/Laves phase eutectic at ≈1200°C. An estimate of the volume fraction eutectic is made using the Scheil solidification model, and the fraction of each phase in the eutectic is calculated via the lever rule. These are compared with experimentally determined values and found to be in good agreement.

  4. Arrows in Comprehending and Producing Mechanical Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Julie; Tversky, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical systems have structural organizations--parts, and their relations--and functional organizations--temporal, dynamic, and causal processes--which can be explained using text or diagrams. Two experiments illustrate the role of arrows in diagrams of mechanical systems. In Experiment 1, people described diagrams with or without arrows,…

  5. Understanding machines from text and diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegarty, Mary; Just, Marcel A.

    1987-12-01

    Instructional materials typically use both text and diagrams to explain how machines work. In this paper we give an account of what information is involved in understanding a mechanical device and the role that diagrams might play in communicating this information. We propose a model of how people read a text and inspect an accompanying diagram which states that people inspect diagrams for three reasons: (1) to form a representation of information read in the text, (2) to reactivate information that has already been represented, and (3) to encode information that is absent from the text. Using data from subjects' eye fixations while they read a text and inspected an accompanying diagram, we find that low-ability subjects need to inspect diagrams more often than high-ability text. The data also suggest that knowledge of what is relevant in a diagram might be a prerequisite for encoding new information from a diagram. Instructional materials typically use both text and diagrams to explain how machines work. In this paper we give an account of what information is involved in understanding a mechanical device and the role that diagrams might play in communicating this information. We propose a model of how people read a text and inspect an accompanying diagram which states that people inspect diagrams for three reasons: (1) to form a representation of information read in the text; (2) to reactivate information that was alsready represented, and *3) to encode information that is absent from the text. Uinsg data from subjects' eye fixations while they read a text and inspected an accompanying diagram, we find that low-ability subjects need to inspect diagrmas more often than high-ability tesxt. The data also suggest that knowledge of what is relevant in a diagram might be a prerequisite and encoding information on a diagram.

  6. What Kinds of Perceptions and Daily Learning Behaviors Promote Students' Use of Diagrams in Mathematics Problem Solving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uesaka, Yuri; Manalo, Emmanuel; Ichikawa, Shin'ichi

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated factors promoting the use of self-constructed diagrams by examining students' perceptions and daily class activities, and comparing Japanese (n = 291) and New Zealand (n = 323) students. Algebra word problems and a questionnaire were administered. The results revealed that the New Zealand students used diagrams more often…

  7. Origin and use of crystallization phase diagrams.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Crystallization phase diagrams are frequently used to conceptualize the phase relations and also the processes taking place during the crystallization of macromolecules. While a great deal of freedom is given in crystallization phase diagrams owing to a lack of specific knowledge about the actual phase boundaries and phase equilibria, crucial fundamental features of phase diagrams can be derived from thermodynamic first principles. Consequently, there are limits to what can be reasonably displayed in a phase diagram, and imagination may start to conflict with thermodynamic realities. Here, the commonly used `crystallization phase diagrams' are derived from thermodynamic excess properties and their limitations and appropriate use is discussed. PMID:25760697

  8. The butterfly diagram internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, M.

    2010-07-01

    This work originates from the need of getting a picture of the spot zone that is sharp enough to efficiently help us place tighter and more realistic constraints than we would usually do on dynamo models, in order to improve their predictive performance. This paper questions the confidence in Maunder’s Butterfly Diagram (BD) as the fundamental tool for describing the magnetic flux large-scale distribution and presents a new version of the time-latitude diagram for cycles 21 through 23, where spot groups are given proportional relevance to their area. The diagram presented here confirms the active regions’ well-known tendency to repeatedly appear in a few photospheric regions (“ activity nests”) tightly limited in latitude, active for a short time. Activity nests leave their signature in the BD, in the form of small portions (“ knots”) characterized by the spotted area high density. The BD may be described as a cluster of knots. A knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones; accordingly, the spot mean latitude abruptly drifts equatorward or even poleward, even though the knot’s prevalent tendency is to appear at lower and lower latitudes. A careful inspection of the BD suggests that its intricate fine structure may be (partially) disentangled by recognizing that, in any hemisphere, the activity is split into two or more distinct “activity waves” (out of phase compared to each other), drifting equatorward at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole. Preliminary computations confirm this suggestion.

  9. Structure-retention diagrams of ceramides established for their identification.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Karen; Chaminade, Pierre; Baillet, Arlette

    2002-10-11

    Molecular species analysis of ceramides was carried out using porous graphitic carbon with gradient elution: chloroform-methanol from 45:55 to 85:15 with a slope at 2.7%/min. These conditions gave a linear relationship between retention data and structure of ceramides. It was demonstrated that linearity occurred when a high slope value of linear gradient elution was used. Thereby the linear diagram was evolved by plotting the adjusted retention time against the total number of carbon atoms of ceramide molecules. Each line represents one ceramide class. Such a Structure-Retention Diagram describes ceramide retention and thus constitutes an identification method using only retention data. This Structure-Retention Diagram was assessed and compared to another obtained from octadesyl-grafted silica in terms of their reproducibility, precision and ability to provide ceramide identification. Better identification was obtained using the results from both Structure-Retention Diagrams. This approach with a two-dimensional separation system allowed to take advantage of the specificity of both identification models. PMID:12437165

  10. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, Guido; Lusso, Elisabeta

    2015-09-01

    We present a new method to test the cosmological model at high z, and measure the cosmological parameters, based on the non-linear correlation between UV and X-ray luminosity in quasars. While the method can be successfully tested with the data available today, a deep X-ray survey matching the future LSST and Euclid quasar catalogs is needed to achieve a high precision. Athena could provide a Hubble diagram for quasar analogous to that available today for supernovae, but extending up to z>6.

  11. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, E. T. K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  12. Developing the earthquake markup language and database with UML and XML schema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan A.; Babaei, Abbed

    2005-11-01

    Seismic information is commonly shared across networks, and stored in heterogeneous databases that are maintained by different and autonomous groups. Because the metadata of the seismic information is generally not structured, information loss commonly occurs when data is transmitted from one source to another. Minimizing such information loss and enhancing information interchange over the Web require construction of specific markup languages for each part of seismology. The sub-disciplinary data syntax and vocabularies allow construction of corresponding relational databases to store and interchange the structured data. Developing modular data structures and databases for each sub-discipline allows composition of new languages through reuse, and enables future extension of the vocabulary and maintenance of the knowledge base. In this paper, we show how to design the conceptual and logical models for a small set of seismology that deals with earthquake ( EarthquakeML). We discuss the application of the UML to the design and mapping of the object model into W3 XML Schema and database. The emphasis is on designing components that can be reused across discipline, and reduce redundancies by developing type libraries. We show how to map the XML schema into a relational data model; and implement the EarthquakeDB with the Microsoft Access DBMS.

  13. A model-based design and validation approach with OMEGA-UML and the IF toolset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-hafaiedh, Imene; Constant, Olivier; Graf, Susanne; Robbana, Riadh

    2009-03-01

    Intelligent, embedded systems such as autonomous robots and other industrial systems are becoming increasingly more heterogeneous with respect to the platforms on which they are implemented, and thus the software architecture more complex to design and analyse. In this context, it is important to have well-defined design methodologies which should be supported by (1) high level design concepts allowing to master the design complexity, (2) concepts for the expression of non-functional requirements and (3) analysis tools allowing to verify or invalidate that the system under development will be able to conform to its requirements. We illustrate here such an approach for the design of complex embedded systems on hand of a small case study used as a running example for illustration purposes. We briefly present the important concepts of the OMEGA-RT UML profile, we show how we use this profile in a modelling approach, and explain how these concepts are used in the IFx verification toolbox to integrate validation into the design flow and make scalable verification possible.

  14. Magnetized effective QCD phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Dominguez, C. A.; Hernández, L. A.; Loewe, M.; Zamora, R.

    2015-11-01

    The QCD phase diagram in the temperature vs quark chemical potential plane is studied in the presence of a magnetic field, using the linear sigma model coupled to quarks. It is shown that the decrease of the couplings with increasing field strength obtained in this model leads to the critical temperature for the phase transition to decrease with increasing field intensity (inverse magnetic catalysis). This happens provided that plasma screening is properly accounted for. It is also found that with increasing field strength the location of the critical end point in the phase diagram moves toward lower values of the critical quark chemical potential and larger values of the critical temperature. In addition, the critical end point approaches the temperature axis for large values of the magnetic field. We argue that a similar behavior is to be expected in QCD, since the physical impact of the magnetic field, regardless of strength, is to produce a spatial dimension reduction, whereby virtual quark-antiquark pairs are closer on average and thus the strength of their interaction decreases due to asymptotic freedom.

  15. Cell flipping in permutation diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golumbic, Martin Charles; Kaplang, Haim

    Permutation diagrams have been used in circuit design to model a set of single point nets crossing a channel, where the minimum number of layers needed to realize the diagram equals the clique number ω(G) of its permutation graph, the value of which can be calculated in O(n log n) time. We consider a generalization of this model motivated by "standard cell" technology in which the numbers on each side of the channel are partitioned into consecutive subsequences, or cells, each of which can be left unchanged or flipped (i.e., reversed). We ask, for what choice of fiippings will the resulting clique number be minimum or maximum. We show that when one side of the channel is fixed (no flipping), an optimal flipping for the other side can be found in O(n log n) time for the maximum clique number. We prove that the general problem is NP-complete for the minimum clique number and O(n 2) for the maximum clique number. Moreover, since the complement of a permutation graph is also a permutation graph, the same complexity results hold for the independence number.

  16. "Racializing" Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  17. Diagramming the Never Ending Story: Student-generated diagrammatic stories integrate and retain science concepts improving science literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillsbury, Ralph T.

    This research examined an instructional strategy called Diagramming the Never Ending Story: A method called diagramming was taught to sixth grade students via an outdoor science inquiry ecology unit. Students generated diagrams of the new ecology concepts they encountered, creating explanatory 'captions' for their newly drawn diagrams while connecting them in a memorable story. The diagramming process culminates in 20-30 meter-long murals called the Never Ending Story: Months of science instruction are constructed as pictorial scrolls, making sense of all new science concepts they encounter. This method was taught at a North Carolina "Public" Charter School, Children's Community School, to measure its efficacy in helping students comprehend scientific concepts and retain them thereby increasing science literacy. There were four demographically similar classes of 20 students each. Two 'treatment' classes, randomly chosen from the four classes, generated their own Never Ending Stories after being taught the diagramming method. A Solomon Four-Group Design was employed: Two Classes (one control, one treatment) were administered pre- and post; two classes received post tests only. The tests were comprised of multiple choice, fill-in and extended response (open-ended) sections. Multiple choice and fill-in test data were not statistically significant whereas extended response test data confirm that treatment classes made statistically significant gains.

  18. Higher-order gravitational lensing reconstruction using Feynman diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Yadav, Amit P.S.; Waalewijn, Wouter J. E-mail: amanohar@ucsd.edu E-mail: ayadav@physics.ucsd.edu

    2014-09-01

    We develop a method for calculating the correlation structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) using Feynman diagrams, when the CMB has been modified by gravitational lensing, Faraday rotation, patchy reionization, or other distorting effects. This method is used to calculate the bias of the Hu-Okamoto quadratic estimator in reconstructing the lensing power spectrum up to  O (φ{sup 4}) in the lensing potential φ. We consider both the diagonal noise TT TT, EB EB, etc. and, for the first time, the off-diagonal noise TT TE, TB EB, etc. The previously noted large  O (φ{sup 4}) term in the second order noise is identified to come from a particular class of diagrams. It can be significantly reduced by a reorganization of the φ expansion. These improved estimators have almost no bias for the off-diagonal case involving only one B component of the CMB, such as EE EB.

  19. Community detection by graph Voronoi diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deritei, Dávid; Lázár, Zsolt I.; Papp, István; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Sumi, Róbert; Varga, Levente; Ravasz Regan, Erzsébet; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and efficient community detection in networks is a key challenge for complex network theory and its applications. The problem is analogous to cluster analysis in data mining, a field rich in metric space-based methods. Common to these methods is a geometric, distance-based definition of clusters or communities. Here we propose a new geometric approach to graph community detection based on graph Voronoi diagrams. Our method serves as proof of principle that the definition of appropriate distance metrics on graphs can bring a rich set of metric space-based clustering methods to network science. We employ a simple edge metric that reflects the intra- or inter-community character of edges, and a graph density-based rule to identify seed nodes of Voronoi cells. Our algorithm outperforms most network community detection methods applicable to large networks on benchmark as well as real-world networks. In addition to offering a computationally efficient alternative for community detection, our method opens new avenues for adapting a wide range of data mining algorithms to complex networks from the class of centroid- and density-based clustering methods.

  20. Mathematical review on source-type diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, Naofumi; Ohta, Kazuaki; Ide, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    A source-type diagram is a visualization tool used to display earthquake sources, including double-couples, compensated linear vector dipoles, and isotropic deformation. Together with recent observations of non-double-couple events in a variety of tectonic settings, it is important to be able to recognize the source type intuitively from a representative diagram. Since previous works have proposed diagrams created using a range of projections, we review these diagrams in the framework of the moment tensor eigenvalue space. For further applications, we also provide complete formulas for conversion between moment tensor representation and the coordinate system of each diagram style. Using both a global catalog and synthetic data, we discuss differences between types of diagrams and the relative effectiveness of each.

  1. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    PubMed Central

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology. PMID:14695886

  2. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168-173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology.

  3. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C. PMID:24320387

  4. A Regime Diagram for Subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegman, D. R.; Farrington, R.; Capitanio, F. A.; Schellart, W. P.

    2009-12-01

    Regime diagrams and associated scaling relations have profoundly influenced our understanding of planetary dynamics. Previous regime diagrams characterized the regimes of stagnant-lid, small viscosity contrast, transitional, and no-convection for temperature-dependent (Moresi and Solomatov, 1995), and non-linear power law rheologies (Solomatov and Moresi, 1997) as well as stagnant-lid, sluggish-lid, and mobile-lid regimes once the finite strength of rock was considered (Moresi and Solomatov, 1998). Scalings derived from such models have been the cornerstone for parameterized models of thermal evolution of rocky planets and icy moons for the past decade. While such a theory can predict the tectonic state of a planetary body, it is still rather incomplete in regards to predicting tectonics. For example, the mobile-lid regime is unspecific as to how continuous lithospheric recycling should occur on a terrestrial planet. Towards this goal, Gerya et al., (2008) advanced a new regime diagram aiming to characterize when subduction would manifest itself as a one-sided or two-sided downwelling and either symmetric or asymmetric. Here, we present a regime diagram for the case of a single-sided, asymmetric type of subduction (most Earth-like type). Using a 3-D numerical model of a free subduction, we describe a total of 5 different styles of subduction that can possibly occur. Each style is distinguished by its upper mantle slab morphology resulting from the sinking kinematics. We provide movies to illustrate the different styles and their progressive time-evolution. In each regime, subduction is accommodated by a combination of plate advance and slab rollback, with associated motions of forward plate velocity and trench retreat, respectively. We demonstrate that the preferred subduction mode depends upon two essential controlling factors: 1) buoyancy of the downgoing plate and 2) strength of plate in resisting bending at the hinge. We propose that a variety of subduction regimes are generated primarily as a product of two mechanisms. The first mechanism is that of the competition between the weight of the slab and the strength of the plate, which can be understood in terms of the applied bending moment, and this competition results in a particular radius of curvature (for which we provide a simple scaling theory). The second mechanism is the interaction between the slab and the more viscous lower mantle, which produces each regime's distinct slab morphology. Thus, the emergence of five distinct styles of subduction is a direct consequence of the presence of the modest barrier to flow into the lower mantle. Although only 2 of these styles presently operate on Earth, the possibility exists that other modes may have been the predominant mode in the past. Based on these models, we propose that the lithosphere is the primary factor in describing key elements of the plate tectonics system over time, rather than the convecting mantle. We discuss the various factors that may have influenced secular changes in Earth's tectonic behavior, some of which may have interesting consequences for the geochemical evolution of the Earth.

  5. Employing UMLS for generating hints in a tutoring system for medical problem-based learning.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Hameedullah; Haddawy, Peter; Suebnukarn, Siriwan

    2012-06-01

    While problem-based learning has become widely popular for imparting clinical reasoning skills, the dynamics of medical PBL require close attention to a small group of students, placing a burden on medical faculty, whose time is over taxed. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) offer an attractive means to increase the amount of facilitated PBL training the students receive. But typical intelligent tutoring system architectures make use of a domain model that provides a limited set of approved solutions to problems presented to students. Student solutions that do not match the approved ones, but are otherwise partially correct, receive little acknowledgement as feedback, stifling broader reasoning. Allowing students to creatively explore the space of possible solutions is exactly one of the attractive features of PBL. This paper provides an alternative to the traditional ITS architecture by using a hint generation strategy that leverages a domain ontology to provide effective feedback. The concept hierarchy and co-occurrence between concepts in the domain ontology are drawn upon to ascertain partial correctness of a solution and guide student reasoning towards a correct solution. We describe the strategy incorporated in METEOR, a tutoring system for medical PBL, wherein the widely available UMLS is deployed and represented as the domain ontology. Evaluation of expert agreement with system generated hints on a 5-point likert scale resulted in an average score of 4.44 (Spearman's ?=0.80, p<0.01). Hints containing partial correctness feedback scored significantly higher than those without it (Mann Whitney, p<0.001). Hints produced by a human expert received an average score of 4.2 (Spearman's ?=0.80, p<0.01). PMID:22429987

  6. Satake diagrams of affine Kac Moody algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, L. K.; Pati, K. C.

    2006-02-01

    Satake diagrams of affine Kac-Moody algebras (untwisted and twisted) are obtained from their Dynkin diagrams. These diagrams give a classification of restricted root systems associated with these algebras. In the case of simple Lie algebras, these root systems and Satake diagrams correspond to symmetric spaces which have recently found many physical applications in quantum integrable systems, quantum transport problems, random matrix theories etc. We hope these types of root systems may have similar applications in theoretical physics in future and may correspond to symmetric spaces analogue of affine Kac-Moody algebras if they exist.

  7. Multiple representations and free-body diagrams: Do students benefit from using them?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengrant, David R.

    2007-12-01

    Introductory physics students have difficulties understanding concepts and solving problems. When they solve problems, they use surface features of the problems to find an equation to calculate a numerical answer often not understanding the physics in the problem. How do we help students approach problem solving in an expert manner? A possible answer is to help them learn to represent knowledge in multiple ways and then use these different representations for conceptual understanding and problem solving. This solution follows from research in cognitive science and in physics education. However, there are no studies in physics that investigate whether students who learn to use multiple representations are in fact better problem solvers. This study focuses on one specific representation used in physics--a free body diagram. A free-body diagram is a graphical representation of forces exerted on an object of interest by other objects. I used the free-body diagram to investigate five main questions: (1) If students are in a course where they consistently use free body diagrams to construct and test concepts in mechanics, electricity and magnetism and to solve problems in class and in homework, will they draw free-body diagrams on their own when solving exam problems? (2) Are students who use free-body diagrams to solve problems more successful then those who do not? (3) Why do students draw free-body diagrams when solving problems? (4) Are students consistent in constructing diagrams for different concepts in physics and are they consistent in the quality of their diagrams? (5) What are possible relationships between features of a problem and how likely a student will draw a free body diagram to help them solve the problem? I utilized a mixed-methods approach to answer these questions. Questions 1, 2, 4 and 5 required a quantitative approach while question 3 required a qualitative approach, a case study. When I completed my study, I found that if students are in an environment which fosters the use of representations for problem solving and for concept development, then the majority of students will consistently construct helpful free-body diagrams and use them on their own to solve problems. Additionally, those that construct correct free-body diagrams are significantly more likely to successfully solve the problem. Finally, those students that are high achieving tend to use diagrams more and for more reasons then students who have low course grades. These findings will have major impacts on how introductory physics instructors run their classes and how curriculums are designed. These results favor a problem solving strategy that is rich with representations.

  8. Vesicle deformation by microtubules: A phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsellem, Virginie; Cardoso, Olivier; Tabeling, Patrick

    1998-10-01

    The experimental investigation of vesicles deformed by the growth of encapsulated microtubules shows that the axisymmetric morphologies can be classified into ovals, lemons, φ, cherries, dumbbells, and pearls. A geometrical phase diagram is established. Numerical minimization of the elastic energy of the membrane reproduces satisfactorily well the observed morphologies and the corresponding phase diagram.

  9. FeynChois: System for automating the process of Feynman diagram generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chul-Woo

    We have developed a DTD (Document Type Definition) for an XML (Extensible Markup Language) document for describing Feynman rules of quantum field theoretical models---the document is called FeynPage. A FeynPage can be any XML document that conforms to the FeynPage DTD. A FeynPage can be understood by a human or a computer program that is aware of the FeynPage DTD. We have also developed a Feynman diagram generator, which has been named FeynChois. It provides a user with a full GUI (Graphical User Interface) environment. More importantly, FeynChois knows how to read FeynPage. When FeynChois is asked by a user to generate diagrams, it will first look up the rules in the FeynPage; then, it will generate diagrams according to the rules for any process specified by the user. If the Feynman rules in a FeynPage are modified, FeynChois will generate diagrams according to the modified rules. What FeynChois generates are actually Java(TM) objects that represent Feynman diagrams. These objects are graphically displayed in the GUI. A user can edit, remove, and/or save the diagrams mostly by mouse operations. The Java classes for Feynman diagram objects together with FeynPage and FeynChois make up the FeynChois system. The dissertation details what the FeynChois system is and how it works.

  10. Phase Diagram of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often been subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood - resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety, in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN, in different chemical environments, at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 15 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 673 K. The present study has been supported by the U.S. DHS under Award Number 2008-ST-061-ED0001.

  11. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  12. Operations space diagram for ECRH and ECCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindslev, Henrik

    2004-07-01

    A Clemmov-Mullaly-Allis (CMA) type diagram, the ECW-CMA diagram, for representing the operational possibilities of electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECRH/ECCD) systems for fusion plasmas is presented. In this diagram, with normalized density and normalized magnetic field coordinates, the parameter range in which it is possible to achieve a given task (e.g. O-mode current drive for stabilizing a neoclassical tearing mode) appears as a region. With also the Greenwald density limit shown, this diagram condenses the information on operational possibilities, facilitating the overview required at the design phase. At the operations phase it may also prove useful in setting up experimental scenarios by showing operational possibilities, avoiding the need for survey type ray-tracing at the initial planning stages. The diagram may also serve the purpose of communicating operational possibilities to non-experts. JET and ITER like plasmas are used, but the method is generic.

  13. Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, B. W.; Mardahl, P. J.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Haworth, M. D.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Franzi, M.

    2009-09-01

    Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron impacts, combined with multiplication of the secondary populations, were determined to be the likely causes of the poor microwave window performance in the original configuration.

  14. Lessons learned from a pilot implementation of the UMLS information sources map.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, P L; Frawley, S J; Wright, L; Roderer, N K; Powsner, S M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the software design issues involved in implementing an operational information sources map (ISM) knowledge base (KB) and system of navigational tools that can help medical users access network-based information sources relevant to a biomedical question. DESIGN: A pilot biomedical ISM KB and associated client-server software (ISM/Explorer) have been developed to help students, clinicians, researchers, and staff access network-based information sources, as part of the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) multi-institutional Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project. The system allows the user to specify and constrain a search for a biomedical question of interest. The system then returns a list of sources matching the search. At this point the user may request 1) further information about a source, 2) that the list of sources be regrouped by different criteria to allow the user to get a better overall appreciation of the set of retrieved sources as a whole, or 3) automatic connection to a source. RESULTS: The pilot system operates in client-server mode and currently contains coded information for 121 sources. It is in routine use from approximately 40 workstations at the Yale School of Medicine. The lessons that have been learned are that: 1) it is important to make access to different versions of a source as seamless as possible, 2) achieving seamless, cross-platform access to heterogeneous sources is difficult, 3) significant differences exist between coding the subject content of an electronic information resource versus that of an article or a book, 4) customizing the ISM to multiple institutions entails significant complexities, and 5) there are many design trade-offs between specifying searches and viewing sets of retrieved sources that must be taken into consideration. CONCLUSION: An ISM KB and navigational tools have been constructed. In the process, much has been learned about the complexities of development and evaluation in this new environment, which are different from those for Gopher, wide area information servers (WAIS), World-Wide-Web (WWW), and MOSAIC resources. PMID:7743314

  15. Faceting diagram for sticky steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutsu, Noriko

    2016-03-01

    Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT) zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS) model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model) on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL), which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → ) . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111) surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the <101> direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.

  16. Cutting Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    Provides critical reviews of three books, "The Political Economy of Social Class", "Ethnicity: Theory and Experience," and "Ethnicity in the United States," focusing on the political economy of social class and ethnicity. (Author/AM)

  17. Algorithmic Identification for Wings in Butterfly Diagrams.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illarionov, E. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. Two algorithms of cluster analysis, namely DBSCAN and C-means, have demonstrated their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Here we generalize the method for continuous tracers, give results concerning the migration velocities and presented clusters for 12 - 20 cycles.

  18. Using a network menu and the UMLS Information Sources Map to facilitate access to online reference materials.

    PubMed Central

    Clyman, J I; Powsner, S M; Paton, J A; Miller, P L

    1993-01-01

    As computer technology advances, clinicians and biomedical researchers are becoming more dependent upon information from online databases and information systems. By using specially configured computer workstations and high-speed computer networks, it is now possible to access this information in a rapid and straightforward manner. To empower users by providing these capabilities, the authors are assembling a variety of network workstations to be located throughout Yale-New Haven Medical Center. At the heart of the workstation is NetMenu, a program designed to help users connect to a number of important online information systems, including a hospital order entry and results reporting system, a drug reference, bibliographic retrieval systems, and educational programs. In addition, as part of the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project, the authors have developed a local prototype of the UMLS Information Sources Map (ISM) and a companion query assistant program to complement the NetMenu in helping users select and connect automatically to information services relevant to a particular question. The ISM query assistant draws from a listing of many online information sources accessible via local and international networks. PMID:8472006

  19. Class Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Siobhan; Lumsden, Linda S.

    1994-01-01

    The items featured in this annotated bibliography touch on several aspects of the multifaceted class-size debate. Allen Odden reviews the literature and contends that class-size reduction should be used "sparingly and strategically." C. M. Achilles and colleagues examines two different class-size situations and find student test performance in the…

  20. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, G.; Lusso, E.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method to test the ΛCDM cosmological model and to estimate cosmological parameters based on the nonlinear relation between the ultraviolet and X-ray luminosities of quasars. We built a data set of 1138 quasars by merging several samples from the literature with X-ray measurements at 2 keV and SDSS photometry, which was used to estimate the extinction-corrected 2500 Å flux. We obtained three main results: (1) we checked the nonlinear relation between X-ray and UV luminosities in small redshift bins up to z˜ 6, confirming that the relation holds at all redshifts with the same slope; (2) we built a Hubble diagram for quasars up to z˜ 6, which is well matched to that of supernovae in the common z = 0-1.4 redshift interval and extends the test of the cosmological model up to z˜ 6; and (3) we showed that this nonlinear relation is a powerful tool for estimating cosmological parameters. Using the present data and assuming a ΛCDM model, we obtain {{{Ω }}}M = 0.22{}-0.08+0.10 and {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }} = 0.92{}-0.30+0.18 ({{{Ω }}}M = 0.28 ± 0.04 and {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }} = 0.73 +/- 0.08 from a joint quasar-SNe fit). Much more precise measurements will be achieved with future surveys. A few thousand SDSS quasars already have serendipitous X-ray observations from Chandra or XMM-Newton, and at least 100,000 quasars with UV and X-ray data will be made available by the extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array all-sky survey in a few years. The Euclid, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, and Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics surveys will further increase the sample size to at least several hundred thousand. Our simulations show that these samples will provide tight constraints on the cosmological parameters and will allow us to test for possible deviations from the standard model with higher precision than is possible today.

  1. Five Year Results of US Intergroup/RTOG 9704 With Postoperative CA 19-9 {<=}90 U/mL and Comparison to the CONKO-001 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Adam C.; Winter, Kathryn; Hoffman, John P.; Regine, William F.; Abrams, Ross A.; Safran, Howard; Benson, Alan B.; MacDonald, John; Willett, Christopher G.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trial 9704 was the largest randomized trial to use adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer. This report analyzes 5-year survival by serum level of tumor marker CA 19-9 of {<=}90 vs >90 U/mL and compares results to the those of the CONKO-001 trial. Methods and Materials: CA 19-9 expression was analyzed as a dichotomized variable ({<=}90 vs >90 U/mL). Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify the impact of the CA 19-9 value on overall survival (OS). Actuarial estimates of OS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Both univariate (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-4.3, P<.0001) and multivariate (HR = 3.1; 95% CI, 2.2-4.2, P<.0001) analyses demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in OS for CA 19-9 serum level of {>=}90 U/mL. For patients in the gemcitabine (Gem) treatment arm with CA 19-9 <90 U/mL, median survival was 21 months. For patients with CA 19-9 {>=}90 U/mL, this number dropped to 10 months. In patients with pancreatic head tumors in the Gem treatment arm with RT quality assurance per protocol and CA 19-9 of <90 U/mL, median survival and 5-year rate were 24 months and 34%. In comparison, the median survival and 5-year OS rate for patients in the Gem arm of the CONKO trial were 22 months and 21%. Conclusions: This analysis demonstrates that patients with postresection CA 19-9 values {>=}90 U/mL had a significantly worse survival. Patients with pancreatic head tumors treated with Gem with CA 19-9 serum level of <90 U/mL and per protocol RT had favorable survival compared to that seen in the CONKO trial. CA 19-9 is a stratification factor for the current RTOG adjuvant pancreas trial (0848).

  2. A Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn; Miyake, Robert; Dodge, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    The presentation describes a Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool. It is used by JPL's Team X in studying missions during the Pre-Phase A. It helps generate cost and mass estimates using proprietary data bases.

  3. Veitch diagram plotter simplifies Boolean functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. K.

    1964-01-01

    This device for simplifying the plotting of a Veitch diagram consists of several overlays for blocking out the unwanted squares. This method of plotting the various input combinations to a computer is used in conjunction with the Boolean functions.

  4. An Improved Mnemonic Diagram for Thermodynamic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J.

    1989-01-01

    Considers pressure, volume, entropy, temperature, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and internal energy. Suggests the mnemonic diagram is for use with simple systems that are defined as macroscopically homogeneous, isotropic, uncharged, and chemically inert. (MVL)

  5. A Phase Diagram for Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Winter, Lisa; Pernak, Rick

    2015-04-01

    Using the data from the NOAA/GOES X-ray observations of ~50,000 flares, we develop a Phase Diagram for solar flares. Such a Solar Flare Phase Diagram helps to trace the underlying energy structure of solar flares, and provides a prediction framework. The temperature (maximum ratio of short (0.5 - 4 A) to long band (1-8 A) band) and background solar x-ray radiation (at 1-8 A band) forms the basis of the phase diagram. Using the phase diagram and relevant statistical analysis, we derive insights into the eruptive nature of flares during the solar-cycle ramp (ramp up to and ramp down from solar maximum) phases and peak phase of the solar cycle.

  6. Architecture flow diagrams under teamwork reg sign

    SciTech Connect

    Nicinski, T.

    1992-02-01

    The Teamwork CASE tool allows Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) to be maintained for structured analysis. Fermilab has extended teamwork under UNIX{trademark} to permit Hatley and Pirbhai Architecture Flow Diagrams (AFDs) to be associated with DFDs and subsequently maintained. This extension, called TWKAFD, allows a user to open an AFD, graphically edit it, and replace it into a TWKAFD maintained library. Other aspects of Hatley and Pirbhai's methodology are supported. This paper presents a quick tutorial on Architecture Diagrams. It then describes the user's view of TWKAFD, the experience incorporating it into teamwork, and the successes with using the Architecture Diagram methodology along with the shortcomings of using the teamwork/TWKAFD tool. 8 refs.

  7. ISS EPS Orbital Replacement Unit Block Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.

    2001-01-01

    The attached documents are being provided to Switching Power Magazine for information purposes. This magazine is writing a feature article on the International Space Station Electrical Power System, focusing on the switching power processors. These units include the DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU), the Bi-directional Charge/Discharge Unit (BCDU), and the Sequential Shunt Unit (SSU). These diagrams are high-level schematics/block diagrams depicting the overall functionality of each unit.

  8. A universal structured-design diagramer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Program (FLOWCHARTER) generates standardized flowcharts and concordances for development and debugging of programs in any language. User describes programming-language grammar, providing syntax rules in Backus-Naur form (BNF), list of semantic rules, and set of concordance rules. Once grammar is described, user supplies only source code of program to be diagrammed. FLOWCHARTER automatically produces flow diagram and concordance. Source code for program is written for PASCAL Release 2 compiler, as distributed by University of Minnesota.

  9. Lattice and Phase Diagram in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Maria Paola

    2008-10-13

    Model calculations have produced a number of very interesting expectations for the QCD Phase Diagram, and the task of a lattice calculations is to put these studies on a quantitative grounds. I will give an overview of the current status of the lattice analysis of the QCD phase diagram, from the quantitative results of mature calculations at zero and small baryochemical potential, to the exploratory studies of the colder, denser phase.

  10. Elementary diagrams in nuclear and neutron matter

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    Variational calculations of nuclear and neutron matter are currently performed using a diagrammatic cluster expansion with the aid of nonlinear integral equations for evaluating expectation values. These are the Fermi hypernetted chain (FHNC) and single-operator chain (SOC) equations, which are a way of doing partial diagram summations to infinite order. A more complete summation can be made by adding elementary diagrams to the procedure. The simplest elementary diagrams appear at the four-body cluster level; there is one such E{sub 4} diagram in Bose systems, but 35 diagrams in Fermi systems, which gives a level of approximation called FHNC/4. We developed a novel technique for evaluating these diagrams, by computing and storing 6 three-point functions, S{sub xyz}(r{sub 12}, r{sub 13}, r{sub 23}), where xyz (= ccd, cce, ddd, dde, dee, or eee) denotes the exchange character at the vertices 1, 2, and 3. All 35 Fermi E{sub 4} diagrams can be constructed from these 6 functions and other two-point functions that are already calculated. The elementary diagrams are known to be important in some systems like liquid {sup 3}He. We expect them to be small in nuclear matter at normal density, but they might become significant at higher densities appropriate for neutron star calculations. This year we programmed the FHNC/4 contributions to the energy and tested them in a number of simple model cases, including liquid {sup 3}He and Bethe`s homework problem. We get reasonable, but not exact agreement with earlier published work. In nuclear and neutron matter with the Argonne v{sub 14} interaction these contributions are indeed small corrections at normal density and grow to only 5-10 MeV/nucleon at 5 times normal density.

  11. Evaluating the Efficacy of an Animation to Enhance Understanding of First Motion Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    Having taught the interpretation of first motion diagrams (sometimes referred to as "beach ball diagrams" due to their appearance) in an Introduction to Physical Geology class over many semesters, I was frustrated with the hand-waving this effort entailed when describing static diagrams. I searched for a computer animation that would show how the initial ground motions in an earthquake correspond to the various shaded regions in each first motion diagram, but was not able to find such a pedagogical tool in existence. I decided to work with the staff of my University's Faculty Computing Services to create something that would serve this need. We designed and constructed an animation of strike-slip motions, which can be seen at http://people.hofstra.edu/alex_smiros/earthquake/grid_22march2011.swf. A still image of the animation appears in Figure 1. In order to see if utilizing this visualization enhanced student understanding of the difficult concepts involved in interpreting first motion diagrams, I compared scores on test questions involving first motion diagrams from two different semester iterations of the course: one was taught without utilizing the animation, and one was taught with utilization of the animation.

  12. Shock dynamics of phase diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, Antonio

    2014-04-15

    A thermodynamic phase transition denotes a drastic change of state of a physical system due to a continuous change of thermodynamic variables, as for instance pressure and temperature. The classical van der Waals equation of state is the simplest model that predicts the occurrence of a critical point associated with the gas–liquid phase transition. Nevertheless, below the critical temperature theoretical predictions of the van der Waals theory significantly depart from the observed physical behaviour. We develop a novel approach to classical thermodynamics based on the solution of Maxwell relations for a generalised family of nonlocal entropy functions. This theory provides an exact mathematical description of discontinuities of the order parameter within the phase transition region, it explains the universal form of the equations of state and the occurrence of triple points in terms of the dynamics of nonlinear shock wave fronts. -- Highlights: •A new generalisation of van der Waals equation of state. •Description of phase transitions in terms of shock dynamics of state curves. •Proof of the universality of equations of state for a general class of models. •Interpretation of triple points as confluence of classical shock waves. •Correspondence table between thermodynamics and nonlinear conservation laws.

  13. Students' Understanding of Diagrams for Solving Word Problems: A Framework for Assessing Diagram Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poch, Apryl L.; van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    A visual representation, such as a diagram, can be a powerful strategy for solving mathematical word problems. However, using a representation to solve mathematical word problems is not as simple as it seems! Many students with learning disabilities struggle to use a diagram effectively and efficiently. This article provides a framework for…

  14. Students' Understanding of Diagrams for Solving Word Problems: A Framework for Assessing Diagram Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poch, Apryl L.; van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    A visual representation, such as a diagram, can be a powerful strategy for solving mathematical word problems. However, using a representation to solve mathematical word problems is not as simple as it seems! Many students with learning disabilities struggle to use a diagram effectively and efficiently. This article provides a framework for

  15. The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.

    2015-01-01

    Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…

  16. The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.

    2015-01-01

    Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,

  17. Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

  18. The Use of Computational Diagrams and Nomograms in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Richard K.; Simpson, William A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of computational diagrams and nomographs for the calculations that frequently occur in college administration is examined. Steps in constructing a nomograph and a four-dimensional computational diagram are detailed, and uses of three- and four-dimensional diagrams are covered. Diagrams and nomographs are useful in the following cases: (1)…

  19. Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how

  20. Science Visual Literacy: Learners' Perceptions and Knowledge of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTigue, Erin M.; Flowers, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing meaning from science texts relies not only on comprehending the words but also the diagrams and other graphics. The goal of this study was to explore elementary students' perceptions of science diagrams and their skills related to diagram interpretation. 30 students, ranging from second grade through middle school, completed a diagram

  1. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  2. Sunset Science. II. A useful diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrew T.; Kattawar, George W.

    1998-06-01

    We present diagrams that show how layers in atmospheric thermal structure are related to the altitudes at which they are seen tangentially. These dip diagrams show that the inferior mirage greatly magnifies the apparent angular size of the lowest few centimeters of atmosphere. Conversely, inversion layers below eye level are compressed even to zero apparent thickness, in ducts. The diagrams show that, even when distant objects are miraged, the ray crossings occur beyond the lowest point on each ray where the line of sight is tangent to a horizontal surface in the atmosphere. Therefore the apparent altitudes of these tangent points are a monotonic function of their actual heights in the atmosphere. This monotonicity explains an apparent paradox in low-Sun images.

  3. The Butterfly diagram leopard skin pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    A time-latitude diagram where spotgroups are given proportional relevance to their area is presented. The diagram reveals that the spotted area distribution is higly dishomogeneous, most of it being concentrated in few, small portions (``knots'') of the Butterfly Diagram; because of this structure, the BD may be properly described as a cluster of knots. The description, assuming that spots scatter around the ``spot mean latitude'' steadily drifting equatorward, is challenged. Indeed, spots cluster around at as many latitudes as knots; a knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in a seemingly random way; accordingly, the spot mean latitude abruptly drifts equatorward or even poleward at any knot activation, in spite of any smoothing procedure. Preliminary analyses suggest that the activity splits, in any hemisphere, into two or more distinct ``activity waves'', drifting equatorward at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  4. Minkowski diagram in relativity and holography.

    PubMed

    Abramson, N

    1988-05-01

    Now that ultrashort laser pulses can be used in holography, the temporal and spatial resolution approach the same order of magnitude. In that case the limited speed of light sometimes causes large measuring errors if correction methods are not introduced. Therefore, we want to revive the Minkowski diagram, which was invented in 1908 to visualize relativistic relations between time and space. We show how this diagram in a modified form can be used to derive both the static holodiagram, used for conventional holography, including ultrahigh-speed recordings of wavefronts, and a dynamic holodiagram used for studying the apparent distortions of objects recorded at relativistic speeds. PMID:20531662

  5. B-Fe-U Phase Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Marta; Carvalho, Patrícia Almeida; Mardolcar, Umesh Vinaica; Tougait, Olivier; Noël, Henri; Gonçalves, António Pereira

    2014-04-01

    The liquidus projection of the U-rich corner of the B-Fe-U phase diagram is proposed based on X-ray powder diffraction measurements, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy observations complemented with energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. Two ternary reactions in this U-rich region were observed and their approximate temperatures were established. In addition, an overview of the complete phase diagram is given, including the liquidus projection; isothermal sections at 1053 K, 1223 K, and 1373 K (780 °C, 950 °C, and 1100 °C); and a U:(Fe,B) = 1:5 isopleth.

  6. Theoretical phase diagrams for solid H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surh, Michael P.; Runge, K. J.

    1994-07-01

    Possible phase diagrams for solid molecular para-hydrogen in the 0-200 GPa pressure regime are constructed on the basis of ab initio calculations. Structures for the broken symmetry phase (BSP) and H-A phase have recently been proposed under the assumption that the molecules are centered on sites of a hexagonal close-packed lattice with the ideal c/a ratio, i.e., only molecular orientational and electronic changes are allowed. Symmetry considerations then dictate the simplest phase diagrams consistent with experimental observations, although the possibility of additional transitions cannot be ruled out. A simple model is introduced to describe the BSP and H-A transitions.

  7. Birthing Classes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Available? Many childbirth classes embrace a particular philosophy about pregnancy and birth. The two most common ... used method in the United States. The Lamaze philosophy holds that birth is a normal, natural, and ...

  8. Galaxy emission line classification using three-dimensional line ratio diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Scharwächter, Julia; Basurah, Hassan M.; Ali, Alaa; Amer, Morsi A.

    2014-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) line ratio diagnostic diagrams have become a key tool in understanding the excitation mechanisms of galaxies. The curves used to separate the different regions—H II-like or excited by an active galactic nucleus (AGN)—have been refined over time but the core technique has not evolved significantly. However, the classification of galaxies based on their emission line ratios really is a multi-dimensional problem. Here we exploit recent software developments to explore the potential of three-dimensional (3D) line ratio diagnostic diagrams. We introduce the ZQE diagrams, which are a specific set of 3D diagrams that separate the oxygen abundance and the ionization parameter of H II region-like spectra and also enable us to probe the excitation mechanism of the gas. By examining these new 3D spaces interactively, we define the ZE diagnostics, a new set of 2D diagnostics that can provide the metallicity of objects excited by hot young stars and that cleanly separate H II region-like objects from the different classes of AGNs. We show that these ZE diagnostics are consistent with the key log [N II]/Hα versus log [O III]/Hβ diagnostic currently used by the community. They also have the advantage of attaching a probability that a given object belongs to one class or the other. Finally, we discuss briefly why ZQE diagrams can provide a new way to differentiate and study the different classes of AGNs in anticipation of a dedicated follow-up study.

  9. Galaxy Emission Line Classification Using Three-dimensional Line Ratio Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Scharwächter, Julia; Basurah, Hassan M.; Ali, Alaa; Amer, Morsi A.

    2014-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) line ratio diagnostic diagrams have become a key tool in understanding the excitation mechanisms of galaxies. The curves used to separate the different regions—H II-like or excited by an active galactic nucleus (AGN)—have been refined over time but the core technique has not evolved significantly. However, the classification of galaxies based on their emission line ratios really is a multi-dimensional problem. Here we exploit recent software developments to explore the potential of three-dimensional (3D) line ratio diagnostic diagrams. We introduce the \\cal {ZQE} diagrams, which are a specific set of 3D diagrams that separate the oxygen abundance and the ionization parameter of H II region-like spectra and also enable us to probe the excitation mechanism of the gas. By examining these new 3D spaces interactively, we define the \\cal {ZE} diagnostics, a new set of 2D diagnostics that can provide the metallicity of objects excited by hot young stars and that cleanly separate H II region-like objects from the different classes of AGNs. We show that these \\cal {ZE} diagnostics are consistent with the key log [N II]/Hα versus log [O III]/Hβ diagnostic currently used by the community. They also have the advantage of attaching a probability that a given object belongs to one class or the other. Finally, we discuss briefly why \\cal {ZQE} diagrams can provide a new way to differentiate and study the different classes of AGNs in anticipation of a dedicated follow-up study.

  10. The Binary Temperature-Composition Phase Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Philip C.; Reeves, James H.; Messina, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The equations for the liquid and gas lines in the binary temperature-composition phase diagram are derived by approximating that delta(H)[subscript vap] of the two liquids are equal. It is shown that within this approximation, the resulting equations are not too difficult to present in an undergraduate physical chemistry lecture.

  11. Drawing conformal diagrams for a fractal landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2005-06-15

    Generic models of cosmological inflation and the recently proposed scenarios of a recycling universe and the string theory landscape predict spacetimes whose global geometry is a stochastic, self-similar fractal. To visualize the complicated causal structure of such a universe, one usually draws a conformal (Carter-Penrose) diagram. I develop a new method for drawing conformal diagrams, applicable to arbitrary 1+1-dimensional spacetimes. This method is based on a qualitative analysis of intersecting lightrays and thus avoids the need for explicit transformations of the spacetime metric. To demonstrate the power and simplicity of this method, I present derivations of diagrams for spacetimes of varying complication. I then apply the lightray method to three different models of an eternally inflating universe (scalar-field inflation, recycling universe, and string theory landscape) involving the nucleation of nested asymptotically flat, de Sitter and/or anti-de Sitter bubbles. I show that the resulting diagrams contain a characteristic fractal arrangement of lines.

  12. Enhanced Pomeron diagrams: Resummation of unitarity cuts

    SciTech Connect

    Ostapchenko, S.

    2008-02-01

    Unitarity cuts of enhanced Pomeron diagrams are analyzed in the framework of the Reggeon field theory. Assuming the validity of the Abramovskii-Gribov-Kancheli cutting rules, we derive a complete set of cut nonloop enhanced graphs and observe important cancellations between certain subclasses of the latter. We demonstrate also how the present method can be generalized to take into consideration Pomeron loop contributions.

  13. Constructing Causal Diagrams to Learn Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterday, Matthew W.; Aleven, Vincent; Scheines, Richard; Carver, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems like "What should we do about global warming?" are ill-defined in large part because we do not agree on a system to represent them the way we agree Algebra problems should be represented by equations. As a first step toward building a policy deliberation tutor, we investigated: (a) whether causal diagrams help students learn to…

  14. Computer-Generated Diagrams for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Mark A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes 10 computer programs used to draw diagrams usually drawn on chalkboards, such as addition of three vectors, vector components, range of a projectile, lissajous figures, beats, isotherms, Snell's law, waves passing through a lens, magnetic field due to Helmholtz coils, and three curves. Several programming tips are included. (JN)

  15. Spin wave Feynman diagram vertex computation package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Alexander; Javernick, Philip; Datta, Trinanjan

    Spin wave theory is a well-established theoretical technique that can correctly predict the physical behavior of ordered magnetic states. However, computing the effects of an interacting spin wave theory incorporating magnons involve a laborious by hand derivation of Feynman diagram vertices. The process is tedious and time consuming. Hence, to improve productivity and have another means to check the analytical calculations, we have devised a Feynman Diagram Vertex Computation package. In this talk, we will describe our research group's effort to implement a Mathematica based symbolic Feynman diagram vertex computation package that computes spin wave vertices. Utilizing the non-commutative algebra package NCAlgebra as an add-on to Mathematica, symbolic expressions for the Feynman diagram vertices of a Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet are obtained. Our existing code reproduces the well-known expressions of a nearest neighbor square lattice Heisenberg model. We also discuss the case of a triangular lattice Heisenberg model where non collinear terms contribute to the vertex interactions.

  16. Construction of Lax operators from weight diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

    1991-05-01

    We show that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to read-off the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax pair generates the modified KdV equations, and have been shown in some cases to produce acceptable solutions of the string equation of matrix models.

  17. Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

  18. Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

  19. Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

  20. Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials

  1. Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to "independently" access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow,…

  2. Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to "independently" access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow,

  3. Phase diagram of spiking neural networks.

    PubMed

    Seyed-Allaei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    In computer simulations of spiking neural networks, often it is assumed that every two neurons of the network are connected by a probability of 2%, 20% of neurons are inhibitory and 80% are excitatory. These common values are based on experiments, observations, and trials and errors, but here, I take a different perspective, inspired by evolution, I systematically simulate many networks, each with a different set of parameters, and then I try to figure out what makes the common values desirable. I stimulate networks with pulses and then measure their: dynamic range, dominant frequency of population activities, total duration of activities, maximum rate of population and the occurrence time of maximum rate. The results are organized in phase diagram. This phase diagram gives an insight into the space of parameters - excitatory to inhibitory ratio, sparseness of connections and synaptic weights. This phase diagram can be used to decide the parameters of a model. The phase diagrams show that networks which are configured according to the common values, have a good dynamic range in response to an impulse and their dynamic range is robust in respect to synaptic weights, and for some synaptic weights they oscillates in α or β frequencies, independent of external stimuli. PMID:25788885

  4. Constructing Causal Diagrams to Learn Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterday, Matthew W.; Aleven, Vincent; Scheines, Richard; Carver, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems like "What should we do about global warming?" are ill-defined in large part because we do not agree on a system to represent them the way we agree Algebra problems should be represented by equations. As a first step toward building a policy deliberation tutor, we investigated: (a) whether causal diagrams help students learn to

  5. Weight diagram construction of Lax operators

    SciTech Connect

    Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

    1991-10-01

    We review and expand methods introduced in our previous paper. It is proved that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to construct the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax operator is in the Miura-like form and generates the modified KdV equations. The algorithm is extended to the super-symmetric case.

  6. Patient-level meta-analysis of the EDITION 1, 2 and 3 studies: glycaemic control and hypoglycaemia with new insulin glargine 300 U/ml versus glargine 100 U/ml in people with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ritzel, R; Roussel, R; Bolli, G B; Vinet, L; Brulle-Wohlhueter, C; Glezer, S; Yki-Järvinen, H

    2015-01-01

    Aims To conduct a patient-level meta-analysis of the EDITION 1, 2 and 3 studies, which compared the efficacy and safety of new insulin glargine 300 U/ml (Gla-300) with insulin glargine 100 U/ml (Gla-100) in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on basal and mealtime insulin, basal insulin and oral antihyperglycaemic drugs, or no prior insulin, respectively. Methods The EDITION studies were multicentre, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, phase IIIa studies, with similar designs and endpoints. A patient-level meta-analysis of the studies enabled these endpoints to be examined over 6 months in a large population with T2DM (Gla-300, n = 1247; Gla-100, n = 1249). Results No significant study-by-treatment interactions across studies were found, enabling them to be pooled. The mean change in glycated haemoglobin was comparable for Gla-300 and Gla-100 [each −1.02 (standard error 0.03)%; least squares (LS) mean difference 0.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.08 to 0.07)%]. Annualized rates of confirmed (≤3.9 mmol/l) or severe hypoglycaemia were lower with Gla-300 than with Gla-100 during the night (31% difference in rate ratio over 6 months) and at any time (24 h, 14% difference). Consistent reductions were observed in percentage of participants with ≥1 hypoglycaemic event. Severe hypoglycaemia at any time (24 h) was rare (Gla-300: 2.3%; Gla-100: 2.6%). Weight gain was low (<1 kg) in both groups, with less gain with Gla-300 [LS mean difference −0.28 kg (95% CI −0.55 to −0.01); p = 0.039]. Both treatments were well tolerated, with similar rates of adverse events. Conclusion Gla-300 provides comparable glycaemic control to Gla-100 in a large population with a broad clinical spectrum of T2DM, with consistently less hypoglycaemia at any time of day and less nocturnal hypoglycaemia. PMID:25929311

  7. Impersonal parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2003-10-01

    An objective process for estimation of star cluster parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams is introduced, with direct inclusion of multiple stars, a least-squares fitting criterion, and standard error estimates. No role is played by conventional isochrones. Instead the quantity compared between observation and theory is the density of points (areal ) as it varies over the diagram. With as the effective observable quantity, standard parameter adjustment theory can be brought to bear on HR diagram analysis. Here we use the method of differential corrections with a least-squares fitting criterion, but any of the many known fitting methods should be applicable to comparison of observed and theoretical distributions. Diverse numerical schemes were developed to make the overall algorithm workable, including two that improve differentiability of by rendering point distributions effectively equivalent to continuous distributions in certain respects. Statistics of distributions are handled not via Monte Carlo methods but by the Functional Statistics Algorithm (hereafter FSA), a statistical algorithm that has been developed for HR diagram fitting but should serve as an alternative to Monte Carlo in many other applications. FSA accomplishes the aims of Monte Carlo with orders of magnitude less computation. Analysis of luminosity functions is included within the HR diagram algorithm as a special case. Areal density analysis of HR diagrams is acceptably fast because we handle stellar evolution via approximation functions, whose output also is more precisely differentiable than that of a full stellar evolution program. Evolution by approximation functions is roughly a million times as fast as full evolution and has virtually no numerical noise. The algorithmic ideas that lead to objective solutions can be applied to many kinds of HR diagram analysis that are now done subjectively. The present solution program is limited by speed considerations to use of one evolution program and exploration of variations in evolutionary physics is left for future versions. The program has miscellaneous refinements, such as allowing for distributions of chemical composition and interstellar extinction, as well as inclusion of binary star evolution, but so far not all have been tried in solutions. An algorithm is described for dealing with field stars directly in terms of , but has not yet been actively implemented. A synthetic globular cluster with known properties is analysed to demonstrate parameter convergence, solution consistency and comparison with known answers.

  8. Improving high school physical science students' understanding of the electromagnetic spectrum: A modified diagram approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quebedeaux, James Edward

    The focus of this study was to identify major conceptual difficulties that selected public high school physical science students encounter in understanding a standard electromagnetic spectrum diagram. A research-driven, modified version of that standard diagram was used in this study to determine the value added to student understanding of electromagnetic waves. A content analysis was performed on electromagnetic spectrum diagrams found in US textbooks from the 1950s through the present. A class of public high school physical science students participated in a study consisting of four activities conducted during a three-week unit. Students were given a pre- and post-achievement test and a pre- and post-survey on the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. At the conclusion of each activity, selected students were interviewed and each co-constructed a concept map with the researcher. The Electromagnetic Spectrum Literacy Rubric (ESLR) was designed and used to assess students' conceptual understanding periodically as they proceeded through the unit study. A mixed methods analysis was performed, employing both qualitative and quantitative data. A paired t-test determined that there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.014) between the pre- and post-achievement test scores for the class of students participating in the unit study. Effect sizes also determined that students have difficulties with mathematical calculations and wave properties. These topics present conceptual challenges which must be overcome to understand and use an electromagnetic spectrum diagram effectively.

  9. A Simple Approach for Boundary Improvement of Euler Diagrams.

    PubMed

    Simonetto, Paolo; Archambault, Daniel; Scheidegger, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    General methods for drawing Euler diagrams tend to generate irregular polygons. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that smoother contours make these diagrams easier to read. In this paper, we present a simple method to smooth the boundaries of any Euler diagram drawing. When refining the diagram, the method must ensure that set elements remain inside their appropriate boundaries and that no region is removed or created in the diagram. Our approach uses a force system that improves the diagram while at the same time ensuring its topological structure does not change. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach through case studies and quantitative evaluations. PMID:26529723

  10. Colored HOMFLY polynomials of knots presented as double fat diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, An.; Ramadevi, P.; Singh, Vivek Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Many knots and links in S 3 can be drawn as gluing of three manifolds with one or more four-punctured S 2 boundaries. We call these knot diagrams as double fat graphs whose invariants involve only the knowledge of the fusion and the braiding matrices of four -strand braids. Incorporating the properties of four-point conformal blocks in WZNW models, we conjecture colored HOMFLY polynomials for these double fat graphs where the color can be rectangular or non-rectangular representation. With the recent work of Gu-Jockers, the fusion matrices for the non-rectangular [21] representation, the first which involves multiplicity is known. We verify our conjecture by comparing with the [21] colored HOMFLY of many knots, obtained as closure of three braids. The conjectured form is computationally very effective leading to writing [21]-colored HOMFLY polynomials for many pretzel type knots and non-pretzel type knots. In particular, we find class of pretzel mutants which are distinguished and another class of mutants which cannot be distinguished by [21] representation. The difference between the [21]-colored HOMFLY of two mutants seems to have a general form, with A-dependence completely defined by the old conjecture due to Morton and Cromwell. In particular, we check it for an entire multi-parametric family of mutant knots evaluated using evolution method.

  11. Class Trash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity in which students calculate the amount and types of trash thrown out by their class at school to investigate how much trash is generated, where it goes, and speculate about alternatives. Students need to be familiar with the concepts of weight, volume, and numbers. (MCO)

  12. Pions in the quark matter phase diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Zablocki, D.; Blaschke, D.; Anglani, R.

    2008-08-29

    The relationship between mesonic correlations and quantum condensates in the quark matter phase diagram is explored within a quantum field theoretical approach of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type. Mean-field values in the scalar meson and diquark channels are order parameters signaling the occurrence of quark condensates, entailing chiral symmetry breaking ({chi}SB) and color superconductivity (2SC) in quark matter. We investigate the spectral properties of scalar and pseudoscalar meson excitations in the phase diagram in Gaussian approximation and show that outside the {chi}SB region where the pion is a zero-width bound state, there are two regions where it can be considered as a quasi-bound state with a lifetime exceeding that of a typical heavy-ion collision fireball: (A) the high-temperature {chi}SB crossover region at low densities and (B) the high-density color superconducting phase at temperatures below 100 MeV.

  13. Prediction of boron carbon nitrogen phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Sanxi; Zhang, Hantao; Widom, Michael

    We studied the phase diagram of boron, carbon and nitrogen, including the boron-carbon and boron-nitrogen binaries and the boron-carbon-nitrogen ternary. Based on the idea of electron counting and using a technique of mixing similar primitive cells, we constructed many ''electron precise'' structures. First principles calculation is performed on these structures, with either zero or high pressures. For the BN binary, our calculation confirms that a rhmobohedral phase can be stablized at high pressure, consistent with some experimental results. For the BCN ternary, a new ground state structure is discovered and an Ising-like phase transition is suggested. Moreover, we modeled BCN ternary phase diagram and show continuous solubility from boron carbide to the boron subnitride phase.

  14. Modeling the Round Earth through Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalkar, Shamin; Ramadas, Jayashree

    Earlier studies have found that students, including adults, have problems understanding the scientifically accepted model of the Sun-Earth-Moon system and explaining day-to-day astronomical phenomena based on it. We have been examining such problems in the context of recent research on visual-spatial reasoning. Working with middle school students in India, we have developed a pedagogical sequence to build the mental model of the Earth and tried it in three schools for socially and educationally disadvantaged students. This pedagogy was developed on the basis of (1) a reading of current research in imagery and visual-spatial reasoning and (2) students' difficulties identified during the course of pretests and interviews. Visual-spatial tools such as concrete (physical) models, gestures, and diagrams are used extensively in the teaching sequence. The building of a mental model is continually integrated with drawing inferences to understand and explain everyday phenomena. The focus of this article is inferences drawn with diagrams.

  15. Phase diagram of a single lane roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-03-01

    Using the cellular automata model, we numerically study the traffic dynamic in a single lane roundabout system of four entry/exit points. The boundaries are controlled by the injecting rates α1, α2 and the extracting rate β. Both the system with and without Splitter Islands of width Lsp are considered. The phase diagram in the (α1 , β) space and its variation with the roundabout size, Pagg (i.e. the probability of aggressive entry), and Pexit (i.e. the probability of preferential exit) are constructed. The results show that the phase diagram in both cases consists of three phases: free flow, congested and jammed. However, as Lsp increases the free flow phase enlarges while the congested and jammed ones shrink. On the other hand, the short sized roundabout shows better performance in the free flow phase while the large one is more optimal in the congested phase. The density profiles are also investigated.

  16. Phase Coexistence in a Dynamic Phase Diagram.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Luigi; Coppola, Luigi; Balog, Sandor; Mortensen, Kell; Ranieri, Giuseppe A; Olsson, Ulf

    2015-08-01

    Metastability and phase coexistence are important concepts in colloidal science. Typically, the phase diagram of colloidal systems is considered at the equilibrium without the presence of an external field. However, several studies have reported phase transition under mechanical deformation. The reason behind phase coexistence under shear flow is not fully understood. Here, multilamellar vesicle (MLV)-to-sponge (L3 ) and MLV-to-Lα transitions upon increasing temperature are detected using flow small-angle neutron scattering techniques. Coexistence of Lα and MLV phases at 40 °C under shear flow is detected by using flow NMR spectroscopy. The unusual rheological behavior observed by studying the lamellar phase of a non-ionic surfactant is explained using (2) H NMR and diffusion flow NMR spectroscopy with the coexistence of planar lamellar-multilamellar vesicles. Moreover, a dynamic phase diagram over a wide range of temperatures is proposed. PMID:26083451

  17. Krajewski diagrams and the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Christoph A.

    2009-04-15

    This paper provides a complete list of Krajewski diagrams representing the standard model of particle physics. We will give the possible representations of the algebra and the anomaly free lifts which provide the representation of the standard model gauge group on the fermionic Hilbert space. The algebra representations following from the Krajewski diagrams are not complete in the sense that the corresponding spectral triples do not necessarily obey to the axiom of Poincare duality. This defect may be repaired by adding new particles to the model, i.e., by building models beyond the standard model. The aim of this list of finite spectral triples (up to Poincare duality) is therefore to provide a basis for model building beyond the standard model.

  18. Penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Weonjong

    2005-01-01

    We calculate, at the one-loop level, penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermion operators constructed using various fat links. The main result is that diagonal mixing coefficients with penguin operators are identical between the unimproved operators and the improved operators using such fat links as Fat7, Fat7+Lepage, Fat7, HYP (I) and HYP (II). In addition, it turns out that the off-diagonal mixing vanishes for those constructed using fat links of Fat7, Fat7 and HYP (II). This is a consequence of the fact that the improvement by various fat links changes only the mixing with higher dimension operators and off-diagonal operators. The results of this paper, combined with those for current-current diagrams, provide complete matching at the one-loop level with all corrections of O(g{sup 2}) included.

  19. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O`Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  20. Diagnostic Diagrams of Electron Density Versus Excitation for Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesgo-Tirado, H.; López, J. A.

    2002-02-01

    Diagnostic diagrams of electron density-excitation for a sample of 613 Planetary Nebulae (PNe) are presented. New empirical limits for these diagrams are derived from the H alpha /[N II] and H alpha /[S II] ratios.

  1. 75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official... Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas, with... informational purposes only. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams in the North Atlantic,...

  2. Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

  3. Regime Diagrams for K-Theory Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ronald B.

    2011-06-01

    In atmospheric dispersion, the "non-Gaussian" effects of gravitational settling, the vertical gradient in diffusivity and the surface deposition do not enter uniformly but rather break up parameter space into several discrete regimes. Here, we describe regime diagrams that are constructed for K-theory dispersion of effluent from a surface line source in unsheared inhomogeneous turbulence, using a previously derived Fourier-Hankel method. This K-theory formulation differs from the traditional one by keeping a non-zero diffusivity at the ground. This change allows for turbulent exchange between the canopy and the atmosphere and allows new natural length scales to emerge. The axes on the regime diagrams are non-dimensional distance defined as the ratio of downwind distance to the characteristic length scale for each effect. For each value of the ratio of settling speed to the K gradient, two to four regimes are found. Concentration formulae are given for each regime. The regime diagrams allow real dispersion problems to be categorized and the validity of end-state concentration formulae to be judged.

  4. Recognition and processing of logic diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Ahmed M.; Bashandy, Ahmed R.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper we present a vision system that is capable of interpreting schematic logic diagrams, i.e. determine the output as a logic function of the inputs. The system is composed of a number of modules each designed to perform a specific subtask. Each module bears a minor contribution in the form of a new mixture of known algorithms or extensions to handle actual real life image imperfections which researchers tend to ignore when they develop their theoretical foundations. The main contribution, thus, is not in any individual module, it is rather in their integration to achieve the target job. The system is organized more or less in a classical fashion. Aside from the image acquisition and preprocessing modules, interesting modules include: the segmenter, the identifier, the connector and the grapher. A good segmentation output is one reason for the success of the presented system. Several novelties exist in the presented approach. Following segmentation the type of each logic gate is determined and its topological connectivity. The logic diagram is then transformed to a directed acyclic graph in which the final node is the output logic gate. The logic function is then determined by backtracking techniques. The system is not only aimed at recognition applications. In fact its main usage may be to target other processing applications such as storage compression and graphics modification and manipulation of the diagram as is explained.

  5. The Critical Importance of Russell's Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    2013-04-01

    The idea of dwarf and giants stars, but not the nomenclature, was first established by Eijnar Hertzsprung in 1905; his first diagrams in support appeared in 1911. In 1913 Henry Norris Russell could demonstrate the effect far more strikingly because he measured the parallaxes of many stars at Cambridge, and could plot absolute magnitude against spectral type for many points. The general concept of dwarf and giant stars was essential in the galactic structure work of Harlow Shapley, Russell's first graduate student. In order to calibrate the period-luminosity relation of Cepheid variables, he was obliged to fall back on statistical parallax using only 11 Cepheids, a very sparse sample. Here the insight provided by the Russell diagram became critical. The presence of yellow K giant stars in globular clusters credentialed his calibration of the period-luminosity relation by showing that the calibrated luminosity of the Cepheids was comparable to the luminosity of the K giants. It is well known that in 1920 Shapley did not believe in the cosmological distances of Heber Curtis' spiral nebulae. It is not so well known that in 1920 Curtis' plot of the period-luminosity relation suggests that he didn't believe it was a physical relation and also he failed to appreciate the significance of the Russell diagram for understanding the large size of the Milky Way.

  6. Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-08-01

    The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a φ4 interaction to three-loop order.

  7. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal

  8. The Problem of Labels in E-Assessment of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayal, Ambikesh; Shepperd, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explore a problematic aspect of automated assessment of diagrams. Diagrams have partial and sometimes inconsistent semantics. Typically much of the meaning of a diagram resides in the labels; however, the choice of labeling is largely unrestricted. This means a correct solution may utilize differing yet semantically equivalent…

  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-30

    This executive summary contains a description of the logic diagram format; some examples from the diagram (Vol. 2) and associated technology evaluation data sheets (Vol. 3); a complete (albeit condensed) listing of the RA, D&D, and WM problems at ORNL; and a complete listing of the technology rankings for all the areas covered by the diagram.

  10. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  11. The Classroom as Rhizome: New Strategies for Diagramming Knotted Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article calls attention to the unexamined role of diagrams in educational research and offers examples of alternative diagramming practices or tools that shed light on classroom interaction as a rhizomatic process. Drawing extensively on the work of Latour, Deleuze and Guattari, and Chatelet, this article explores the power of diagramming as…

  12. Science Visual Literacy: Learners' Perceptions and Knowledge of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTigue, Erin M.; Flowers, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing meaning from science texts relies not only on comprehending the words but also the diagrams and other graphics. The goal of this study was to explore elementary students' perceptions of science diagrams and their skills related to diagram interpretation. 30 students, ranging from second grade through middle school, completed a diagram…

  13. 30 CFR 256.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 256.8 Section 256.8..., General § 256.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately platted as... 12(d) of the Act. (b) The MMS shall prepare leasing maps and official protraction diagrams of...

  14. Phase diagram and entanglement of two interacting topological Kitaev chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herviou, Loïc; Mora, Christophe; Le Hur, Karyn

    2016-04-01

    A superconducting wire described by a p -wave pairing and a Kitaev Hamiltonian exhibits Majorana fermions at its edges and is topologically protected by symmetry. We consider two Kitaev wires (chains) coupled by a Coulomb-type interaction and study the complete phase diagram using analytical and numerical techniques. A topological superconducting phase with four Majorana fermions occurs until moderate interactions between chains. For large interactions, both repulsive and attractive, by analogy with the Hubbard model, we identify Mott phases with Ising-type magnetic order. For repulsive interactions, the Ising antiferromagnetic order favors the occurrence of orbital currents spontaneously breaking time-reversal symmetry. By strongly varying the chemical potentials of the two chains, quantum phase transitions towards fully polarized (empty or full) fermionic chains occur. In the Kitaev model, the quantum critical point separating the topological superconducting phase and the polarized phase belongs to the universality class of the critical Ising model in two dimensions. When increasing the Coulomb interaction between chains, then we identify an additional phase corresponding to two critical Ising theories (or two chains of Majorana fermions). We confirm the existence of such a phase from exact mappings and from the concept of bipartite fluctuations. We show the existence of negative logarithmic corrections in the bipartite fluctuations, as a reminiscence of the quantum critical point in the Kitaev model. Other entanglement probes such as bipartite entropy and entanglement spectrum are also used to characterize the phase diagram. The limit of large interactions can be reached in an equivalent setup of ultracold atoms and Josephson junctions.

  15. Particle diagrams and statistics of many-body random potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Rupert A.; Müller, Sebastian

    2015-05-01

    We present a method using Feynman-like diagrams to calculate the statistical properties of random many-body potentials. This method provides a promising alternative to existing techniques typically applied to this class of problems, such as the method of supersymmetry and the eigenvector expansion technique pioneered in Benet et al. (2001). We use it here to calculate the fourth, sixth and eighth moments of the average level density for systems with m bosons or fermions that interact through a random k-body Hermitian potential (k ≤ m); the ensemble of such potentials with a Gaussian weight is known as the embedded Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (eGUE) (Mon and French, 1975). Our results apply in the limit where the number l of available single-particle states is taken to infinity. A key advantage of the method is that it provides an efficient way to identify only those expressions which will stay relevant in this limit. It also provides a general argument for why these terms have to be the same for bosons and fermions. The moments are obtained as sums over ratios of binomial expressions, with a transition from moments associated to a semi-circular level density for m < 2 k to Gaussian moments in the dilute limit k ≪ m ≪ l. Regarding the form of this transition, we see that as m is increased, more and more diagrams become relevant, with new contributions starting from each of the points m = 2 k , 3 k , … , nk for the 2 nth moment.

  16. Generic Phase Diagram of Binary Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Alexei

    Emergence of a large variety of self-assembled superlattices is a dramatic recent trend in the fields of nanoparticle and colloidal sciences. Motivated by this development, we propose a model that combines simplicity with a remarkably rich phase behavior, applicable to a wide range of such self-assembled systems. Those include nanoparticle and colloidal assemblies driven by DNA-mediated interactions, electrostatics, and possibly, by controlled drying. In our model, a binary system of Large and Small hard sphere (L and S)interact via selective short-range (''sticky'') attraction. In its simplest version, this Binary Sticky Sphere model features attraction only between 'S' and 'L' particles, respectively. We demonstrate that in the limit when this attraction is sufficiently strong compared to kT, the problem becomes purely geometrical: the thermodynamically preferred state should maximize the number of S-L contacts. A general procedure for constructing the phase diagram as a function of system composition f, and particle size ratio r, is outlined. In this way, the global phase behavior can be calculated very efficiently, for a given set of plausible candidate phases. Furthermore, the geometric nature of the problem enables us to generate those candidate phases through a well defined and intuitive construction. We calculate the phase diagrams both for 2D and 3D systems, and compare the results with existing experiments. Most of the 3D superlattices observed to date are featured in our phase diagram, while several more are yet to be discovered. The research was carried out at the CFN, DOE Office of Science Facility, at BNL, under Contract No. DE-SC0012704.

  17. Deriving binary phase diagrams for chromonic materials in water mixtures via fluorescence spectroscopy: cromolyn and water.

    PubMed

    Van Hecke, Gerald R; Karukstis, Kerry K; Rayermann, Scott

    2015-01-14

    We report here the first example of a new and novel method of determining the binary temperature-composition phase diagram of a chromonic material in water using its intrinsic fluorescence. Disodium cromoglycate, or cromolyn, is an anti-allergy medicine representative of a class of compounds known as the chromonics. We have discovered that cromolyn's fluorescence is very sensitive to the polarity, hence structure, of the phase it exhibits. The fluorescence signal shifts its wavelength maximum and its shape depending on whether the cromolyn is a single phase or in coexisting phases. Since the signal due to individual phases can be identified, the fluorescence signal can reveal the temperature-induced transitions between single phase and phase coexistence regions. By studying such fluorescence data for different compositions, an isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram may be constructed. We present here a phase diagram derived from fluorescence studies that is in agreement with previous determinations using other techniques. Our results suggest that the binary phase diagrams of other intrinsically fluorescent chromonic materials, such as perylene monoimide and bisimide derivatives used in organic optoelectronic devices, solar cells, and light-emitting diodes, can be studied in water using an analogous fluorescence approach. PMID:25412321

  18. Complexation of DNA with positive spheres: Phase diagram of charge inversion and reentrant condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2001-10-01

    The phase diagram of a water solution of DNA and oppositely charged spherical macroions is studied. DNA winds around spheres to form beads-on-a-string complexes resembling the chromatin 10 nm fiber. At small enough concentration of spheres these "artificial chromatin" complexes are negative, while at large enough concentrations of spheres the charge of DNA is inverted by the adsorbed spheres. Charges of complexes stabilize their solutions. In the plane of concentrations of DNA and spheres the phases with positive and negative complexes are separated by another phase, which contains the condensate of neutral DNA-spheres complexes. Thus, when the concentration of spheres grows, DNA-spheres complexes experience condensation and resolubilization (or reentrant condensation). Phenomenological theory of the phase diagram of reentrant condensation and charge inversion is suggested. Parameters of this theory are calculated by microscopic theory. It is shown that an important part of the effect of a monovalent salt on the phase diagram can be described by the nontrivial renormalization of the effective linear charge density of DNA wound around a sphere, due to the Onsager-Manning condensation. We argue that our phenomenological phase diagram or reentrant condensation is generic to a large class of strongly asymmetric electrolytes. Possible implications of these results for the natural chromatin are discussed.

  19. Phase diagram of a Schelling segregation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvin, L.; Vannimenus, J.; Nadal, J.-P.

    2009-07-01

    The collective behavior in a variant of Schellings segregation model is characterized with methods borrowed from statistical physics, in a context where their relevance was not conspicuous. A measure of segregation based on cluster geometry is defined and several quantities analogous to those used to describe physical lattice models at equilibrium are introduced. This physical approach allows to distinguish quantitatively several regimes and to characterize the transitions between them, leading to the building of a phase diagram. Some of the transitions evoke empirical sudden ethnic turnovers. We also establish links with spin-1 models in physics. Our approach provides generic tools to analyze the dynamics of other socio-economic systems.

  20. Diagram of Saturn V Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is a good cutaway diagram of the Saturn V launch vehicle showing the three stages, the instrument unit, and the Apollo spacecraft. The chart on the right presents the basic technical data in clear detail. The Saturn V is the largest and most powerful launch vehicle in the United States. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multistage, multiengine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams. Development of the Saturn V was the responsibility of the Marshall Space Flight Center at Huntsville, Alabama, directed by Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  1. Failure Assessment Diagram for Titanium Brazed Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Jones, Justin S.; Powell, Mollie M.; Puckett, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction equation was used to predict failure in Ti-4V-6Al joints brazed with Al 1100 filler metal. The joints used in this study were geometrically similar to the joints in the brazed beryllium metering structure considered for the ATLAS telescope. This study confirmed that the interaction equation R(sub sigma) + R(sub Tau) = 1, where R(sub sigma) and R(sub Tau)are normal and shear stress ratios, can be used as conservative lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in ATLAS brazed joints as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD).

  2. Group Theory Factors for Feynman Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ritbergen, T.; Schellekens, A. N.; Vermaseren, J. A. M.

    We present algorithms for the group independent reduction of group theory factors of Feynman diagrams. We also give formulas and values for a large number of group invariants in which the group theory factors are expressed. This includes formulas for various contractions of symmetric invariant tensors, formulas and algorithms for the computation of characters and generalized Dynkin indices and trace identities. Tables of all Dynkin indices for all exceptional algebras are presented, as well as all trace identities to order equal to the dual Coxeter number. Further results are available through efficient computer algorithms.

  3. Toward a phase diagram for stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, K.

    1999-08-01

    A display of the tentatively basic parameters of stocks, i.e. the daily closing price and the daily transaction volume is presented eliminating the time variable between them. The “phase diagram” looks like a triangular region similar to the two-phase region of traffic diagrams. The data is taken for two companies (SGP and OXHP) which present different long-range correlations in the closing price value as examined by the linearly Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) statistical method. Substructures are observed in the “phase diagram” as due to changes in management policy, e.g. stock splits.

  4. Class distinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.

  5. Alternative diagnostic diagrams and the `forgotten' population of weak line galaxies in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid Fernandes, R.; Stasińska, G.; Schlickmann, M. S.; Mateus, A.; Vale Asari, N.; Schoenell, W.; Sodré, L.

    2010-04-01

    A numerous population of weak line galaxies (WLGs) is often left out of statistical studies on emission-line galaxies (ELGs) due to the absence of an adequate classification scheme, since classical diagnostic diagrams, such as [OIII]/Hβ versus [NII]/Hα (the BPT diagram), require the measurement of at least four emission lines. This paper aims to remedy this situation by transposing the usual divisory lines between star-forming (SF) galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) hosts and between Seyferts and LINERs to diagrams that are more economical in terms of line quality requirements. By doing this, we rescue from the classification limbo a substantial number of sources and modify the global census of ELGs. More specifically, (1) we use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to constitute a suitable sample of 280000 ELGs, one-third of which are WLGs. (2) Galaxies with strong emission lines are classified using the widely applied criteria of Kewley et al., Kauffmann et al. and Stasińska et al. to distinguish SF galaxies and AGN hosts and Kewley et al. to distinguish Seyferts from LINERs. (3) We transpose these classification schemes to alternative diagrams keeping [NII]/Hα as a horizontal axis, but replacing Hβ by a stronger line (Hα or [OII]), or substituting the ionization-level sensitive [OIII]/Hβ ratio with the equivalent width of Hα (WHα). Optimized equations for the transposed divisory lines are provided. (4) We show that nothing significant is lost in the translation, but that the new diagrams allow one to classify up to 50 per cent more ELGs. (5) Introducing WLGs in the census of galaxies in the local Universe increases the proportion of metal-rich SF galaxies and especially LINERs. In the course of this analysis, we were led to make the following points. (i) The Kewley et al. BPT line for galaxy classification is generally ill-used. (ii) Replacing [OIII]/Hβ by WHα in the classification introduces a change in the philosophy of the distinction between LINERs and Seyferts, but not in its results. Because the WHα versus [NII]/Hα diagram can be applied to the largest sample of ELGs without loss of discriminating power between Seyferts and LINERs, we recommend its use in further studies. (iii) The dichotomy between Seyferts and LINERs is washed out by WLGs in the BPT plane, but it subsists in other diagnostic diagrams. This suggests that the right wing in the BPT diagram is indeed populated by at least two classes, tentatively identified with bona fide AGN and `retired' galaxies that have stopped forming stars and are ionized by their old stellar populations.

  6. Magnetic phase diagrams of UNiGe

    SciTech Connect

    Nakotte, H.; Hagmusa, I.H.; Klaasse, J.C.P.; Nakotte, H.; Lacerda, A.H.; Hagmusa, I.H.; Klaasse, J.C.P.

    1997-11-01

    UNiGe undergoes two magnetic transitions in zero field. Here, the magnetic diagrams of UNiGe for B {parallel} b and B {parallel} c are reported. We performed temperatures scans of the magnetization in static magnetic fields up to 19.5T applied along the b and c axes. For both orientations 3 magnetic phases have been identified in the B-T diagrams. We confirmed the previously reported phase boundaries for B {parallel} c, and in addition we determined the location of the phase boundaries for B {parallel} b. We discuss a possible relationship of the two zero-field antiferromagnetic phases (commensurate: T<42K; incommensurate: 42K

  7. Phase diagrams of disordered Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapourian, Hassan; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2016-02-01

    Weyl semimetals are gapless quasitopological materials with a set of isolated nodal points forming their Fermi surface. They manifest their quasitopological character in a series of topological electromagnetic responses including the anomalous Hall effect. Here, we study the effect of disorder on Weyl semimetals while monitoring both their nodal/semimetallic and topological properties through computations of the localization length and the Hall conductivity. We examine three different lattice tight-binding models which realize the Weyl semimetal in part of their phase diagram and look for universal features that are common to all of the models, and interesting distinguishing features of each model. We present detailed phase diagrams of these models for large system sizes and we find that weak disorder preserves the nodal points up to the diffusive limit, but does affect the Hall conductivity. We show that the trend of the Hall conductivity is consistent with an effective picture in which disorder causes the Weyl nodes move within the Brillouin zone along a specific direction that depends deterministically on the properties of the model and the neighboring phases to the Weyl semimetal phase. We also uncover an unusual (nonquantized) anomalous Hall insulator phase which can only exist in the presence of disorder.

  8. Isolated pulsar spin evolution on the diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, J. P.; Lorimer, D. R.

    2010-05-01

    We look at two contrasting spin-down models for isolated radio pulsars and, accounting for selection effects, synthesize observable populations. While our goal is to reproduce all of the observable characteristics, in this paper we pay particular attention to the form of the spin period versus period derivative () diagram and its dependence on various pulsar properties. We analyse the initial spin period, the braking index, the magnetic field, various beaming models as well as the pulsar's luminosity. In addition to considering the standard magnetic dipole model for pulsar spin-down, we also consider the recent hybrid model proposed by Contopoulos and Spitkovsky. The magnetic dipole model, however, does a better job of reproducing the observed pulsar population. We conclude that random alignment angles and period-dependent luminosity distributions are essential to reproduce the observed diagram. We also consider the time decay of alignment angles and attempt to reconcile various models currently being studied. We conclude that in order to account for recent evidence for the alignment found by Weltevrede and Johnston, the braking torque on a neutron star should not depend strongly on the inclination. Our simulation code is publicly available and includes a web-based interface to examine the results and make predictions for yields of current and future surveys.

  9. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-03-01

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  10. Revisiting the phase diagram of hard ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odriozola, Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the well-known Frenkel-Mulder phase diagram of hard ellipsoids of revolution [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985), 10.1080/00268978500101971] is revisited by means of replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. The method provides good sampling of dense systems and so, solid phases can be accessed without the need of imposing a given structure. At high densities, we found plastic solids and fcc-like crystals for semi-spherical ellipsoids (prolates and oblates), and SM2 structures [P. Pfleiderer and T. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 75, 020402 (2007)] for x : 1-prolates and 1 : x-oblates with x ≥ 3. The revised fluid-crystal and isotropic-nematic transitions reasonably agree with those presented in the Frenkel-Mulder diagram. An interesting result is that, for small system sizes (100 particles), we obtained 2:1- and 1.5:1-prolate equations of state without transitions, while some order is developed at large densities. Furthermore, the symmetric oblate cases are also reluctant to form ordered phases.

  11. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy Puspita, Dila Sidarto, Kuntjoro A. Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  12. Revisiting the phase diagram of hard ellipsoids.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the well-known Frenkel-Mulder phase diagram of hard ellipsoids of revolution [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985)] is revisited by means of replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. The method provides good sampling of dense systems and so, solid phases can be accessed without the need of imposing a given structure. At high densities, we found plastic solids and fcc-like crystals for semi-spherical ellipsoids (prolates and oblates), and SM2 structures [P. Pfleiderer and T. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 75, 020402 (2007)] for x : 1-prolates and 1 : x-oblates with x ≥ 3. The revised fluid-crystal and isotropic-nematic transitions reasonably agree with those presented in the Frenkel-Mulder diagram. An interesting result is that, for small system sizes (100 particles), we obtained 2:1- and 1.5:1-prolate equations of state without transitions, while some order is developed at large densities. Furthermore, the symmetric oblate cases are also reluctant to form ordered phases. PMID:22482570

  13. Automated D/3 to Visio Analog Diagrams

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-08-10

    ADVAD1 reads an ASCII file containing the D/3 DCS MDL input for analog points for a D/3 continuous database. It uses the information in the files to create a series of Visio files representing the structure of each analog chain, one drawing per Visio file. The actual drawing function is performed by Visio (requires Visio version 4.5+). The user can configure the program to select which fields in the database are shown on the diagrammore » and how the information is to be presented. This gives a visual representation of the structure of the analog chains, showing selected fields in a consistent manner. Updating documentation can be done easily and the automated approach eliminates human error in the cadding process. The program can also create the drawings far faster than a human operator is capable, able to create approximately 270 typical diagrams in about 8 minutes on a Pentium II 400 MHz PC. The program allows for multiple option sets to be saved to provide different settings (i.e., different fields, different field presentations, and /or different diagram layouts) for various scenarios or facilities on one workstation. Option sets may be exported from the Windows registry to allow duplication of settings on another workstation.« less

  14. Instability Regions in the Upper HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deJager, Cornelis; Lobel, Alex; Nieuwenhuijzen, Hans; Stothers, Richard; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The following instability regions for blueward evolving supergiants are outlined and compared: (1) Areas in the Hertzsprung-Russell(HR) diagram where stars are dynamically unstable. (2) Areas where the effective acceleration in the upper part of the photospheres is negative, hence directed outward. (3) Areas where the sonic points of the stellar wind (Where wind velocity = sound velocity) are situated inside the photospheres, at a level deeper than tau(sub Ross) = 0.01. We compare the results with the positions of actual stars in the HR diagram and we find evidence that the recent strong contraction of the yellow hypergiant HR8752 was initiated in a period during which (g(sub eff)) is less than 0, whereupon the star became dynamically unstable. The instability and extreme shells around IRC+10420 are suggested to be related to three factors: (g(sub eff)) is less than 0; the sonic point is situated inside the photosphere; and the star is dynamically unstable.

  15. Phase diagram of a quantum Coulomb wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferr, G.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.

    2015-12-01

    We report the quantum phase diagram of a one-dimensional Coulomb wire obtained using the path-integral Monte Carlo method. The exact knowledge of the nodal points of this system permits us to find the energy in an exact way, solving the sign problem which spoils fermionic calculations in higher dimensions. The results obtained allow for the determination of the stability domain, in terms of density and temperature, of the one-dimensional Wigner crystal. At low temperatures, the quantum wire reaches the quantum-degenerate regime, which is also described by the diffusion Monte Carlo method. Increasing the temperature, the system transforms to a classical Boltzmann gas, which we simulate using classical Monte Carlo. At large enough density, we identify a one-dimensional ideal Fermi gas which remains quantum up to higher temperatures than in two- and three-dimensional electron gases. The obtained phase diagram and the energetic and structural properties of this system are relevant to experiments with electrons in quantum wires and to Coulomb ions in one-dimensional confinement.

  16. The Diagram as Story: Unfolding the Event-Structure of the Mathematical Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of narrative in decoding diagrams. I focus on two fundamental facets of narrative: (1) the recounting of causally related sequences of events, and (2) the positioning of the narrator through point-of-view and voice. In the first two sections of the paper I discuss philosophical and semiotic frameworks for making sense…

  17. Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Semantic and Spatial Representations of Scientific Diagrams During Text-Diagram Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2015-02-01

    We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our results showed that the text-diagram referencing strategy was commonly used. However, some readers adopted other reading strategies, such as reading the diagram or text first. We found all readers who had referred to the diagram spent roughly the same amount of time reading and performed equally well. However, some participants who ignored the diagram performed more poorly on questions that tested understanding of basic facts. This result indicates that dual coding theory may be a possible theory to explain the phenomenon. Eye movement patterns indicated that at least some readers had extracted semantic information of the scientific terms when first looking at the diagram. Readers who read the scientific terms on the diagram first tended to spend less time looking at the same terms in the text, which they read after. Besides, presented clear diagrams can help readers process both semantic and spatial information, thereby facilitating an overall understanding of the article. In addition, although text-first and diagram-first readers spent similar total reading time on the text and diagram parts of the article, respectively, text-first readers had significantly less number of saccades of text and diagram than diagram-first readers. This result might be explained as text-directed reading.

  18. Sliding stiff diagrams: A sophisticated ground water analytical tool

    SciTech Connect

    Tonjes, D.J.; Heil, J.H.; Black, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    Stiff diagrams are a multivariate method of analysis used to describe the chemical state of ground water. The use of stiff diagrams to describe multiconstituent contamination sites, such as landfills, has distinct advantages over single constituent analyses. Problems associated with traditional Stiff diagram analyses, such as diagram attenuation, can be addressed by allowing the scale of the diagram to vary with the ionic strength of the analyzed sample. The use of these sliding scale Stiff diagrams reveals the chemical state of the ground water over wide ranges of constituent concentrations and thus allows for sensitive and sophisticated depictions of complicated contamination sites in a fashion that is extremely difficult to replicate with single constituent analyses. This approach has possible applications for understanding and tracing the mixing and chemical changes in uncontaminated settings.

  19. Analysis of Japanese banks’ historical tree diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Takayasu, Misako

    2007-09-01

    By using the historical data from the Japanese banks’ database at “The Bankers Library” of Japanese Banker Association, we analyze the historical network of banks from 1868 to 2006. Firstly, we define a bank every year by a particle and draw a space-time evolution process of merger, division, establishment, and failure by a tree diagram structure. We found that the distribution of the tree basin size of real data and simulation result are mostly fitting well. Secondly, we analyze the raw data of financial statements of banks collected by the National Diet library. We confirm that the distributions of the amount of deposits have fat-tail every year, however, small deviations are observed relating to governmental policy.

  20. Phase diagram of nondegenerate twisted mass fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horkel, Derek P.; Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2014-11-01

    We determine the phase diagram and pion spectrum for Wilson and twisted-mass fermions in the presence of nondegeneracy between the up and down quarks and discretization errors, using Wilson and twisted-mass chiral perturbation theory. We find that the C P -violating phase of the continuum theory (which occurs for sufficiently large nondegeneracy) is continuously connected to the Aoki phase of the lattice theory with degenerate quarks. We show that discretization effects can, in some cases, push simulations with physical masses closer to either the C P -violating phase or another phase not present in the continuum, so that at sufficiently large lattice spacings physical-point simulations could lie in one of these phases.

  1. Global Phase Diagram in Layered Organic Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Guo, Yaowu

    2014-03-01

    Layered organic superconductors serve as model systems for Mott physics with geometrical frustration. The global phase diagram of such system is obtained by using Gutzwiller variational method to study a Hubbard model including a spin exchange coupling term. Five possible candidates of ground state are obtained respectively, including a spin liquid insulating state at large on-site Coulomb repulsion U and large lattice frustration t'/t, an antiferromagnetic state at large U and small t'/t , two Gossamer superconducting states at medium U with either gapless dx 2 - y 2-wave (small t'/t) or gapped d +id-wave symmetry (large t'/t) , and a metallic Fermi liquid state at small U. Moreover, we study the evolution of double occupancy number d in terms of different U and t'/t parameters mimicking the pressure effect. Our results are qualitatively consistent with main experimental results in organic superconductors. -/abstract- Billing ID: 814549 Member I

  2. Phase diagram in the entanglement PNJL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, A.; Kalinovsky, Y.; Toneev, V.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the vector interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with Polyakov loop are studied in combination with the entanglement interaction between the quark and pure gauge sectors. We investigate the QCD phase diagram and find that the first order chiral phase transition at finite baryon chemical potentials and its critical endpoint disappear for sufficiently large values of the vector interaction constant Gv. The presence of an entanglement interaction between quark and pure gauge sectors leads to an increase of the value Gv for which the first order transition disappears. The influence of a nonzero Gv on the curvature of the crossover boundary in the T - ? plane nearby ?= 0 is also examined for both cases.

  3. Phase diagram of magnetic vortex dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. Y.; Galkiewicz, A. T.; Crowell, P. A.

    2012-05-01

    The dynamics of a magnetic vortex are influenced profoundly by nonlinear effects at large and small amplitudes. For example, a strongly driven magnetic vortex is unstable with respect to internal deformation, leading to reversal of its core magnetization. At small amplitudes, a nonlinear response is associated with pinning of the vortex core. Given these phenomena, there is an acute need for a global picture of vortex dynamics over a wide range of excitation amplitudes and frequencies. We have constructed a phase diagram of vortex dynamics in permalloy (Ni80Fe20) disks by probing the response spectrum over four orders of magnitude in excitation power. We identify the boundary separating pinned and unpinned dynamics in a phase space of amplitude and frequency. Our approach allows for a highly quantitative analysis of the pinning potential for localized defects and can be used to trace the dynamics of a single vortex from deep in the pinning regime to the onset of core reversal.

  4. The Phase Diagram of Superionic Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiming; Clark, Bryan; Car, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Using the variable cell Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics method, we study the phase diagram of superionic ice from 200GPa to 2.5TPa. We present evidence that at very high pressure the FCC structure of the oxygen sublattice may become unstable allowing for a new superionic ice phase, in which the oxygen sublattice takes the P21 structure found in zero-temperature total energy calculations. We also report on how the melting temperature of the hydrogen sublattice is affected by this new crystalline structure of the oxygen sublattice. This work was supported by the NSF under grant DMS-1065894(J.S. and R.C.) and PHY11-25915(B.C.).

  5. Phase diagrams of bosonic ABn chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, G. J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2016-04-01

    The A B N - 1 chain is a system that consists of repeating a unit cell with N sites where between the A and B sites there is an energy difference of λ. We considered bosons in these special lattices and took into account the kinetic energy, the local two-body interaction, and the inhomogenous local energy in the Hamiltonian. We found the charge density wave (CDW) and superfluid and Mott insulator phases, and constructed the phase diagram for N = 2 and 3 at the thermodynamic limit. The system exhibited insulator phases for densities ρ = α/ N, with α being an integer. We obtained that superfluid regions separate the insulator phases for densities larger than one. For any N value, we found that for integer densities ρ, the system exhibits ρ + 1 insulator phases, a Mott insulator phase, and ρ CDW phases. For non-integer densities larger than one, several CDW phases appear.

  6. Basic primitives for molecular diagram sketching

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A collection of primitive operations for molecular diagram sketching has been developed. These primitives compose a concise set of operations which can be used to construct publication-quality 2 D coordinates for molecular structures using a bare minimum of input bandwidth. The input requirements for each primitive consist of a small number of discrete choices, which means that these primitives can be used to form the basis of a user interface which does not require an accurate pointing device. This is particularly relevant to software designed for contemporary mobile platforms. The reduction of input bandwidth is accomplished by using algorithmic methods for anticipating probable geometries during the sketching process, and by intelligent use of template grafting. The algorithms and their uses are described in detail. PMID:20923555

  7. Understanding starch gelatinization: The phase diagram approach.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, Jonas; Wojtasz, Joanna; Fyhr, Peter; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2015-09-20

    By constructing a detailed phase diagram for the potato starch-water system based on data from optical microscopy, synchrotron X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry, we show that gelatinization can be interpreted in analogy with a eutectic transition. The phase rule explains why the temperature of the gelatinization transition (G) is independent on water content. Furthermore, the melting (M1) endotherm observed in DSC represents a liquidus line; the temperature for this event increases with increasing starch concentration. Both the lamellar spacing and the inter-helix distance were observed to decrease with increasing starch content for starch concentrations between approximately 65 wt% and 75 wt%, while the inter-helix distance continued decreasing upon further dehydration. Understanding starch gelatinization has been a longstanding challenge. The novel approach presented here shows interpretation of this phenomenon from a phase equilibria perspective. PMID:26050889

  8. Phase diagram of twisted mass lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Stephen R.; Wu, Jackson M.S.

    2004-11-01

    We use the effective chiral Lagrangian to analyze the phase diagram of two-flavor twisted mass lattice QCD as a function of the normal and twisted masses, generalizing previous work for the untwisted theory. We first determine the chiral Lagrangian including discretization effects up to next-to-leading order (NLO) in a combined expansion in which m{sub {pi}}{sup 2}/(4{pi}f{sub {pi}}){sup 2}{approx}a{lambda} (a being the lattice spacing, and {lambda}={lambda}{sub QCD}). We then focus on the region where m{sub {pi}}{sup 2}/(4{pi}f{sub {pi}}){sup 2}{approx}(a{lambda}){sup 2}, in which case competition between leading and NLO terms can lead to phase transitions. As for untwisted Wilson fermions, we find two possible phase diagrams, depending on the sign of a coefficient in the chiral Lagrangian. For one sign, there is an Aoki phase for pure Wilson fermions, with flavor and parity broken, but this is washed out into a crossover if the twisted mass is nonvanishing. For the other sign, there is a first order transition for pure Wilson fermions, and we find that this transition extends into the twisted mass plane, ending with two symmetrical second order points at which the mass of the neutral pion vanishes. We provide graphs of the condensate and pion masses for both scenarios, and note a simple mathematical relation between them. These results may be of importance to numerical simulations.

  9. Time-temperature-transformation diagrams with more than one nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The structures of time-temperature-transformation diagrams of glasses which crystallize the combined homogeneous and heterogeneous crystallization mechanisms are examined. Considerations are given to the factors which might produce more than one extremum in such diagrams. Specific nucleation and growth models are used, and the influence of the parameters which appear in the nucleation and growth rate expressions upon the structure of the diagrams is evaluated.

  10. Gamma-Ray Burst Class Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Roiger, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    Guided by the Supervised pattern recognition algorithm C4.5, we examine the three gamma-ray burst classes identified by Mukherjee et al. C4.5 provides strong statistical support for this classification. However, with C4.5 and our knowledge of the BATSE instrument, we demonstrate that Class 3 (intermediate fluence, intermediate duration, soft) does not have to be a distinct source population: statistical/systematic errors in measuring burst attributes combined with the well-known hardness/intensity correlation can cause low peak flux Class I (high fluence, long, intermediate hardness) bursts to take on Class 3 characteristics naturally. Based on our hypothesis that the third class is not a distinct one, we provide rules so that future events can be placed in either Class I or Class 2 (low fluence, short, hard). Using classified bursts from the BATSE 4B Catalog, we plot log(N>P) vs. log(P) curves and study spectral features of each class. We find that the two classes are relatively distinct on the basis of spectral parameters, alpha, Beta, and E(sub peak) alone. Although this does not indicate a better basis for classification, it does suggest that different physical conditions exist for Class I and Class 2 bursts. In the process of studying burst class characteristics, we identify a new bias that affects measurement of burst fluences and durations. Using a simple model of how burst duration can be underestimated, we generally characterize how this fluence duration bias affects BATSE measurements, and demonstrate the type of effect it can have on the BATSE fluence vs. peak flux diagram.

  11. 53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  12. 54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  13. 55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  14. On the nonequilibrium diagram technique: derivation, some features, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arseev, P. I.

    2015-12-01

    We review the succession of ideas underlying the emergence of the nonequilibrium diagram technique (Keldysh diagram technique). Simple examples are used to illustrate the implementation of the technique and to demonstrate possible difficulties and the ways to overcome them. Together with well-known facts, some lesser-discussed details are considered, in particular, whether the so-called three-component technique is necessary. Several applications of the nonequilibrium diagram technique are discussed including, notably, tunneling systems and linear response problems. We hope that some parts of the review can be useful even for the reader familiar with the nonequilibrium diagram technique.

  15. Visualization design and verification of Ada tasking using timing diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidale, R. F.; Szulewski, P. A.; Weiss, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The use of timing diagrams is recommended in the design and testing of multi-task Ada programs. By displaying the task states vs. time, timing diagrams can portray the simultaneous threads of data flow and control which characterize tasking programs. This description of the system's dynamic behavior from conception to testing is a necessary adjunct to other graphical techniques, such as structure charts, which essentially give a static view of the system. A series of steps is recommended which incorporates timing diagrams into the design process. Finally, a description is provided of a prototype Ada Execution Analyzer (AEA) which automates the production of timing diagrams from VAX/Ada debugger output.

  16. Wellformedness properties in Euler diagrams: which should be used?

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Peter; Zhang, Leishi; Purchase, Helen

    2012-07-01

    Euler diagrams are often used to visualize intersecting data sets in applications such as criminology; genetics, medicine, and computer file systems. One interesting aspect of these diagrams is that some data sets cannot be drawn without breaking one or more "wellformedness properties," which are considered to reduce the user comprehension of the diagrams. However, it is possible to draw the same data with different diagrams, each of which breaks different wellformedness properties. Hence, some properties are "swappable," so motivating the study of which of the alternatives would be best to use. This paper reports on the two empirical studies to determine how wellformedness properties affect comprehension. One study was with abstract data, the other was with concrete data that visualized students' enrollment on university modules. We have results from both studies that imply that diagrams with concurrency or disconnected zones perform less well than other some other properties. Further, we have no results that imply that diagrams with brushing points adversely affect performance. Our data also indicate that nonsimple curves are preferred less than diagrams with other properties. These results will inform both human diagram designers and the developers of automated drawing systems on the best way to visualize data using Euler diagrams. PMID:22577151

  17. Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-08-15

    The ''basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a {phi}{sup 4} interaction to three-loop order. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  18. Hints for families of gamma-ray bursts improving the Hubble diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, Vincenzo F.; Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2013-09-01

    As soon as their extragalactic origins were established, the hope to make gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) standardizeable candles to probe the very high-z universe has opened the search for scaling relations between redshift-independent observable quantities and distance-dependent ones. Although some remarkable success has been achieved, the empirical correlations thus found are still affected by a significant intrinsic scatter which downgrades the precision in the inferred GRB Hubble diagram. We investigate here whether this scatter may come from fitting together objects belonging to intrinsically different classes. To this end, we rely on a cladistics analysis to partition GRBs in homogenous families according to their rest-frame properties. Although the poor statistics prevent us from drawing a definitive answer, we find that both the intrinsic scatter and the coefficients of the Epeak-Eiso and Epeak-L correlations significantly change depending on which sub-sample is fitted. It turns out that the fit to the full sample leads to a scaling relation which approximately follows the diagonal of the region delimited by the fits to each homogenous class. We therefore argue that a preliminary identification of the class a GRB belongs to is necessary in order to select the right scaling relation to be used in order to not bias the distance determination and hence the Hubble diagram.

  19. Overture: The grid classes

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, K.; Brown, D.; Chesshire, G.; Henshaw, W.

    1997-01-01

    Overture is a library containing classes for grids, overlapping grid generation and the discretization and solution of PDEs on overlapping grids. This document describes the Overture grid classes, including classes for single grids and classes for collections of grids.

  20. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.L.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

  1. Domain-Specific Languages and Diagram Customization for a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Bjorn; Dubos, Greg; Banazadeh, Payam; Reh, Jonathan; Case, Kelley; Wang, Yeou-Fang; Jones, Susan; Picha, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A major open question for advocates of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is the question of how system and subsystem engineers will work together. The Systems Modeling Language (SysML), like any language intended for a large audience, is in tension between the desires for simplicity and for expressiveness. In order to be more expressive, many specialized language elements may be introduced, which will unfortunately make a complete understanding of the language a more daunting task. While this may be acceptable for systems modelers, it will increase the challenge of including subsystem engineers in the modeling effort. One possible answer to this situation is the use of Domain-Specific Languages (DSL), which are fully supported by the Unified Modeling Language (UML). SysML is in fact a DSL for systems engineering. The expressive power of a DSL can be enhanced through the use of diagram customization. Various domains have already developed their own schematic vocabularies. Within the space engineering community, two excellent examples are the propulsion and telecommunication subsystems. A return to simple box-and-line diagrams (e.g., the SysML Internal Block Diagram) are in many ways a step backward. In order allow subsystem engineers to contribute directly to the model, it is necessary to make a system modeling tool at least approximate in accessibility to drawing tools like Microsoft PowerPoint and Visio. The challenge is made more extreme in a concurrent engineering environment, where designs must often be drafted in an hour or two. In the case of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Team X concurrent design team, a subsystem is specified using a combination of PowerPoint for drawing and Excel for calculation. A pilot has been undertaken in order to meld the drawing portion and the production of master equipment lists (MELs) via a SysML authoring tool, MagicDraw. Team X currently interacts with its customers in a process of sharing presentations. There are several inefficiencies that arise from this situation. The first is that a customer team must wait two weeks to a month (which is 2-4 times the duration of most Team X studies themselves) for a finalized, detailed design description. Another is that this information must be re-entered by hand into the set of engineering artifacts and design tools that the mission concept team uses after a study is complete. Further, there is no persistent connection to Team X or institutionally shared formulation design tools and data after a given study, again reducing the direct reuse of designs created in a Team X study. This paper presents the underpinnings of subsystem DSLs as they were developed for this pilot. This includes specialized semantics for different domains as well as the process by which major categories of objects were derived in support of defining the DSLs. The feedback given to us by the domain experts on usability, along with a pilot study with the partial inclusion of these tools is also discussed.

  2. Domain-specific languages and diagram customization for a concurrent engineering environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, B.; Dubos, G.; Banazadeh, P.; Reh, J.; Case, K.; Wang, Y.; Jones, S.; Picha, F.

    A major open question for advocates of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is the question of how system and subsystem engineers will work together. The Systems Modeling Language (SysML), like any language intended for a large audience, is in tension between the desires for simplicity and for expressiveness. In order to be more expressive, many specialized language elements may be introduced, which will unfortunately make a complete understanding of the language a more daunting task. While this may be acceptable for systems modelers, it will increase the challenge of including subsystem engineers in the modeling effort. One possible answer to this situation is the use of Domain-Specific Languages (DSL), which are fully supported by the Unified Modeling Language (UML). SysML is in fact a DSL for systems engineering. The expressive power of a DSL can be enhanced through the use of diagram customization. Various domains have already developed their own schematic vocabularies. Within the space engineering community, two excellent examples are the propulsion and telecommunication subsystems. A return to simple box-and-line diagrams (e.g., the SysML Internal Block Diagram) are in many ways a step backward. In order allow subsystem engineers to contribute directly to the model, it is necessary to make a system modeling tool at least approximate in accessibility to drawing tools like Microsoft PowerPoint and Visio. The challenge is made more extreme in a concurrent engineering environment, where designs must often be drafted in an hour or two. In the case of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Team X concurrent design team, a subsystem is specified using a combination of PowerPoint for drawing and Excel for calculation. A pilot has been undertaken in order to meld the drawing portion and the production of master equipment lists (MELs) via a SysML authoring tool, MagicDraw. Team X currently interacts with its customers in a process of sharing presentations. There are severa- inefficiencies that arise from this situation. The first is that a customer team must wait two weeks to a month (which is 2-4 times the duration of most Team X studies themselves) for a finalized, detailed design description. Another is that this information must be re-entered by hand into the set of engineering artifacts and design tools that the mission concept team uses after a study is complete. Further, there is no persistent connection to Team X or institutionally shared formulation design tools and data after a given study, again reducing the direct reuse of designs created in a Team X study. This paper presents the underpinnings of subsystem DSLs as they were developed for this pilot. This includes specialized semantics for different domains as well as the process by which major categories of objects were derived in support of defining the DSLs. The feedback given to us by the domain experts on usability, along with a pilot study with the partial inclusion of these tools is also discussed.

  3. Scratched-XY Universality and Phase Diagram of Disordered 1D Bosons in Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    The superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition in a 1D system with weak links belongs to the so-called scratched-XY universality class, provided the irrenormalizable exponent ζ characterizing the distribution of weak links is smaller than 2 / 3 . With a combination of worm-algorithm Monte Carlo simulations and asymptotically exact analytics, we accurately trace the position of the scratched-XY critical line on the ground-state phase diagram of bosonic Hubbard model at unity filling. In particular, we reveal the location of the tricritical point separating the scratched-XY criticality from the Giamarchi-Schulz one.

  4. Gamma-Ray Burst Class Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Roiger, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    Guided by the supervised pattern recognition algorithm C4.5 developed by Quinlan in 1986, we examine the three gamma-ray burst classes identified by Mukherjee et al. in 1998. C4.5 provides strong statistical support for this classification. However, with C4.5 and our knowledge of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) instrument, we demonstrate that class 3 (intermediate fluence, intermediate duration, soft) does not have to be a distinct source population: statistical/systematic errors in measuring burst attributes combined with the well-known hardness/intensity correlation can cause low peak flux class 1 (high fluence, long, intermediate hardness) bursts to take on class 3 characteristics naturally. Based on our hypothesis that the third class is not a distinct one, we provide rules so that future events can be placed in either class 1 or class 2 (low fluence, short, hard). We find that the two classes are relatively distinct on the basis of Band's work in 1993 on spectral parameters alpha, beta, and E (sub peak) alone. Although this does not indicate a better basis for classification, it does suggest that different physical conditions exist for class 1 and class 2 bursts. In the process of studying burst class characteristics, we identify a new bias affecting burst fluence and duration measurements. Using a simple model of how burst duration can be underestimated, we show how this fluence duration bias can affect BATSE measurements and demonstrate the type of effect it can have on the BATSE fluence versus peak flux diagram.

  5. Pourbaix ("E"-pH-M) Diagrams in Three Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesterfield, Lester L.; Maddox, Jeremy B.; Crocker, Michael S.; Schweitzer, George K.

    2012-01-01

    "E"-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams provide an important graphical link between the thermodynamic calculations of potential, pH, equilibrium constant, concentration, and changes in Gibbs energy and the experimentally observed behavior of species in aqueous solutions. The utility of "E"-pH diagrams is extended with the introduction of an additional

  6. Diagramming Word Problems: A Strategic Approach for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    While often recommended as a strategy to use in order to solve word problems, drawing a diagram is a complex process that requires a good depth of understanding. Many middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle to use diagrams in an effective and efficient manner. This article presents information for teaching middle…

  7. Diagramming Word Problems: A Strategic Approach for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    While often recommended as a strategy to use in order to solve word problems, drawing a diagram is a complex process that requires a good depth of understanding. Many middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle to use diagrams in an effective and efficient manner. This article presents information for teaching middle

  8. Diagrams in Mathematics: To Draw or Not to Draw?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudaly, Vimolan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of diagrams as self-explanatory tools. It considers the use of diagrams, in general, and more specifically, examines research that is currently being undertaken in the broad field of visualisation. The research participants referred to in this article were Advanced Certificate of Education students and the paper…

  9. Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, L.

    2004-01-01

    The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

  10. Authoring Diagram-Based CBA with CourseMarker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Colin A.; Bligh, Brett; Symeonidis, Pavlos; Tsintsifas, Athanasios

    2009-01-01

    The CourseMarker system has been used to assess free-response computer based assessment (CBA) exercises since 1998. The aim of the studies reported here was to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of developing and deploying diagram-based exercises using DATsys, an authoring environment for diagram-based CBA, together with CourseMarker.…

  11. Using Cabri3D Diagrams for Teaching Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accascina, Giuseppe; Rogora, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    Cabri3D is a potentially very useful software for learning and teaching 3D geometry. The dynamic nature of the digital diagrams produced with it provides a useful aid for helping students to better develop concept images of geometric concepts. However, since any Cabri3D diagram represents three-dimensional objects on the two dimensional screen of…

  12. Improving Students' Diagram Comprehension with Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Perez, Tony C.; Fitzhugh, Shannon L.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Wills, Theodore W.; Tanaka, Jacqueline C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested whether students can be taught to better understand conventional representations in diagrams, photographs, and other visual representations in science textbooks. The authors developed a teacher-delivered, workbook-and-discussion-based classroom instructional method called Conventions of Diagrams (COD). The authors trained 1…

  13. Diagram, Gesture, Agency: Theorizing Embodiment in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use the work of philosopher Gilles Chatelet to rethink the gesture/diagram relationship and to explore the ways mathematical agency is constituted through it. We argue for a fundamental philosophical shift to better conceptualize the relationship between gesture and diagram, and suggest that such an approach might open up new…

  14. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamizo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

  15. An Introductory Idea for Teaching Two-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of two-component phase diagrams has attracted little attention in this "Journal," and it is hoped that this article will make a useful contribution. Current physical chemistry textbooks describe two-component phase diagrams adequately, but do so in a piecemeal fashion one section at a time; first solid-liquid equilibria, then

  16. Quark diagrams and the. cap omega. /sup -/ nonleptonic decays

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, W.A.

    1980-09-01

    The quark-diagram model for nonleptonic two-body baryon decays is discussed and applied to the decay of the ..cap omega../sup -/ particle. Current algebra is not employed, but the relation between the quark diagrams and current algebra is explored.

  17. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamizo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The

  18. Figures of Thought: The Use of Diagrams in Teaching Sociology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Recommends how chalkboard displays of well-designed diagrams can be used in sociology courses on the college level to complement verbal lectures. Specific advantages of diagrams are that they appeal through visual imagery to the right hemisphere of the brain and encourage a nonverbal dimension to the teacher's presentation. (Author/DB)

  19. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 230 - Diagrams and Drawings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagrams and Drawings B Appendix B to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Pt. 230, App. B Appendix B to Part 230—Diagrams and...

  20. Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles: The Theory of Piercings.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Gem; Leishi Zhang; Howse, John; Rodgers, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Euler diagrams are effective tools for visualizing set intersections. They have a large number of application areas ranging from statistical data analysis to software engineering. However, the automated generation of Euler diagrams has never been easy: given an abstract description of a required Euler diagram, it is computationally expensive to generate the diagram. Moreover, the generated diagrams represent sets by polygons, sometimes with quite irregular shapes that make the diagrams less comprehensible. In this paper, we address these two issues by developing the theory of piercings, where we define single piercing curves and double piercing curves. We prove that if a diagram can be built inductively by successively adding piercing curves under certain constraints, then it can be drawn with circles, which are more esthetically pleasing than arbitrary polygons. The theory of piercings is developed at the abstract level. In addition, we present a Java implementation that, given an inductively pierced abstract description, generates an Euler diagram consisting only of circles within polynomial time. PMID:20855916

  1. Diversions: Spatial Thinking Tasks--Cube Diagrams and Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, John

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates spatial thinking tasks through cube diagrams and drawings. The author talks about the pentacube diagram that is based on the principle that a vertical cube-edge is shown "vertically". The author describes how to extend isometric drawing to include triangular wedges that are made by slicing single cubes, bi-cubes,…

  2. The Effect of Causal Diagrams on Text Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Schraw, Gregory; Lehman, Stephen; Poliquin, Anne

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effect of studying a causal diagram on comprehension of causal relationships from an expository science text. A causal diagram is a type of visual display that explicitly represents cause-effect relationships. In Experiment 1, readers between conditions did not differ with respect to memory for main ideas, but the readers who…

  3. 27 CFR 44.88 - Description and diagram of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Description and diagram of... Warehouse Proprietors § 44.88 Description and diagram of premises. The premises to be used by an export... the bond by number and street. Where such premises consist of less than an entire building, a...

  4. 30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section 556.8... Management, General 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately... operation under section 12(d) of the Act. (b) BOEM shall prepare leasing maps and official...

  5. 30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section 556.8... Management, General 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately... operation under section 12(d) of the Act. (b) BOEM shall prepare leasing maps and official...

  6. 30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section 556.8... Management, General 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately... operation under section 12(d) of the Act. (b) BOEM shall prepare leasing maps and official...

  7. Diagram This Headline in One Minute, if You Can

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landecker, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Say "sentence diagramming" to people of a certain age, and one gets different reactions. Say it to most college students, and one gets a blank look. But not from the 24 students in Lucy Ferriss's "Constructing Thought," a half-credit course in the English department at Trinity College. They know how to diagram a sentence--and they are passionate…

  8. Argument Diagramming and Critical Thinking in Introductory Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Maralee

    2011-01-01

    In a multi-study naturalistic quasi-experiment involving 269 students in a semester-long introductory philosophy course, we investigated the effect of teaching argument diagramming (AD) on students' scores on argument analysis tasks. An argument diagram is a visual representation of the content and structure of an argument. In each study, all of…

  9. Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area. Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams, and over recent years a rich variety of…

  10. Using a Spreadsheet To Explore Melting, Dissolving and Phase Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Compares phase diagrams relating to the solubilities and melting points of various substances in textbooks with those generated by a spreadsheet using data from the literature. Argues that differences between the diagrams give rise to new chemical insights. (Author/MM)

  11. Pourbaix ("E"-pH-M) Diagrams in Three Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesterfield, Lester L.; Maddox, Jeremy B.; Crocker, Michael S.; Schweitzer, George K.

    2012-01-01

    "E"-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams provide an important graphical link between the thermodynamic calculations of potential, pH, equilibrium constant, concentration, and changes in Gibbs energy and the experimentally observed behavior of species in aqueous solutions. The utility of "E"-pH diagrams is extended with the introduction of an additional…

  12. An Introductory Idea for Teaching Two-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of two-component phase diagrams has attracted little attention in this "Journal," and it is hoped that this article will make a useful contribution. Current physical chemistry textbooks describe two-component phase diagrams adequately, but do so in a piecemeal fashion one section at a time; first solid-liquid equilibria, then…

  13. QCD Phase Diagram Using Dyson-Schwinger Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yuxin; Qin Sixue; Chang Lei; Roberts, Craig D.

    2011-05-24

    We describe briefly the Dyson-Schwinger equation approach of QCD and the study of the QCD phase diagram in this approach. The phase diagram in terms of the temperature and chemical potential, and that in the space of coupling strength and current-quark mass are given.

  14. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  15. Phase diagram of colloid-rod system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, S. K.; Xiao, Xuhui

    2010-01-01

    The semigrand ensemble theory [H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, W. C. K. Poon, P. N. Pusey, A. Stroobants, and P. B. Warren, Europhys. Lett. 20, 559 (1992)] in conjunction with the fundamental measure density functional theory [V. B. Warshavsky and X. Song, Phys. Rev. E 69, 061113 (2004)] are used to construct the Helmholtz free energy densities of a mixture of uncharged colloidal hard spheres and colloidal rods in its solid and liquid phases. Given these free energy density functions, we apply the free energy density minimization method [G. F. Wang and S. K. Lai, Phys. Rev. E 70, 051402 (2004)] to crosshatch the system's regions of phases in coexistence. The calculated results show that the triangular area bounded by gas-liquid, gas-solid, and liquid-solid coexisting two phases which has been called the coexistence region of gas-liquid-solid corresponds in fact to sets of two phases in coexistence. The phase boundaries which define our calculated coexistence domains compare very well with previous theoretical calculations. The relevance of the phase-diagram domains to three phases in coexistence will be discussed.

  16. Schematic diagram of (VDT) - open throat design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1928-01-01

    Schematic diagram of Variable-Density Tunnel (VDT) - open throat design. Eastman Jacobs and Ira Abbott note in NACA TR 416 (p. 305) that a serious fire destroyed the tunnel (not the steel shell) in August 1927. The original design had a closed-throat test section five feet in diameter. After the fire it was decided to convert to an open throat design as depicted here. Jacobs and Abbott reported that this design was not satisfactory. 'The difficulties, which included excessive vibration, unsteady velocity at the test section, a rather large pressure gradient along the axis of the test section, and excessive effects of extraneous air currents on the balance, were overcome by rebuilding parts of the tunnel.' L2742.03: After a fire in August 1927 destroyed the VDT (not the steel shell), engineers decided to replace the original closed throat design with an open throat test section. This was wholly unsatisfactory and was immediately replaced with a new closed-throat design. Eastman Jacobs and Ira Abbott wrote: 'The whole interior structure was changed to the closed-throat type. A new exit cone having a smaller divergence angle and a new entrance cone having a better form were built. The synchronous-drive motor was replaced by a direct-current motor. These changes were completed in December, 1930.' (NACA TR No. 416, p. 305)

  17. ELECTRON CORRELATION AND PLUTONIUM PHASE DIAGRAMS

    SciTech Connect

    A. LAWSON; J. ROBERTS; ET AL

    2001-05-01

    The energy and entropy curves for unalloyed Pu mark the extent of our progress toward an understanding of the phase diagrams presented at the beginning of the paper; it is clear that there is still a long way to go. It would be desirable to evaluate the vibrational thermodynamic functions from measured phonon spectra. However, this may require the growth of single crystals, if the PDF method using powder diffraction proves impractical for Pu. The measurement of inelastic phonon densities of states from polycrystalline samples might be a practical method for all phases of Pu. Estimates of the electronic contributions to the thermodynamics have been derived from the work of Wallace (1998). It would be of interest to compare these with theoretical estimates to evaluate the role of electron correlation in the phase stability of plutonium metal. As emphasized by Wallace, this will be an ''enormous challenge'' to electronic structure theory. In particular, we need a more predictive understanding of how narrow bands in Pu stabilize idiosyncratic crystal structures (Soederlind et al., 1995 and Soederlind, 1998) Materials Properties.

  18. Operator approach to analytical evaluation of Feynman diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. P.

    2008-05-01

    The operator approach to analytical evaluation of multiloop Feynman diagrams is proposed. We show that the known analytical methods of evaluation of massless Feynman integrals, such as the integration-by-parts method and the method of “uniqueness” (which is based on the star-triangle relation), can be drastically simplified by using this operator approach. To demonstrate the advantages of the operator method of analytical evaluation of multiloop Feynman diagrams, we calculate ladder diagrams for the massless ϕ 3 theory (analytical results for these diagrams are expressed in terms of multiple polylogarithms). It is shown how operator formalism can be applied to calculation of certain massive Feynman diagrams and investigation of the Lipatov integrable chain model.

  19. Operator approach to analytical evaluation of Feynman diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Isaev, A. P.

    2008-05-15

    The operator approach to analytical evaluation of multiloop Feynman diagrams is proposed. We show that the known analytical methods of evaluation of massless Feynman integrals, such as the integration-by-parts method and the method of 'uniqueness' (which is based on the star-triangle relation), can be drastically simplified by using this operator approach. To demonstrate the advantages of the operator method of analytical evaluation of multiloop Feynman diagrams, we calculate ladder diagrams for the massless {phi}{sup 3} theory (analytical results for these diagrams are expressed in terms of multiple polylogarithms). It is shown how operator formalism can be applied to calculation of certain massive Feynman diagrams and investigation of the Lipatov integrable chain model.

  20. Calculation of Gallium-metal-Arsenic phase diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scofield, J. D.; Davison, J. E.; Ray, A. E.; Smith, S. R.

    1991-01-01

    Electrical contacts and metallization to GaAs solar cells must survive at high temperatures for several minutes under specific mission scenarios. The determination of which metallizations or alloy systems that are able to withstand extreme thermal excursions with minimum degradation to solar cell performance can be predicted by properly calculated temperature constitution phase diagrams. A method for calculating a ternary diagram and its three constituent binary phase diagrams is briefly outlined and ternary phase diagrams for three Ga-As-X alloy systems are presented. Free energy functions of the liquid and solid phase are approximated by the regular solution theory. Phase diagrams calculated using this method are presented for the Ga-As-Ge and Ga-As-Ag systems.

  1. Updating the Nomographical Diagrams for Dimensioning the Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Maria T.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the time period needed for structures design it is strongly recommended to use nomographical diagrams. The base for formation and updating the nomographical diagrams, stands on the charts presented by different technical publications. The updated charts use the same algorithm and calculation elements as the former diagrams in accordance to the latest prescriptions and European standards. The result consists in a chart, having the same properties, similar with the nomogragraphical diagrams already in us. As a general conclusion, even in our days, the nomographical diagrams are very easy to use. Taking into consideration the value of the moment it's easy to find out the necessary reinforcement area and vice-verse, having the reinforcement area you can find out the capable moment. It still remains a useful opportunity for pre-sizing and designs the reinforced concrete sections.

  2. Particle–hole ring diagrams for fermions in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, N.

    2014-11-15

    The set of particle–hole ring diagrams for a many-fermion system in two dimensions is studied. The complex-valued polarization function is derived in detail and shown to be expressible in terms of square-root functions. For a contact-interaction the perturbative contributions to the energy per particle Ē(k{sub f}) are calculated in a closed analytical form from third up to twelfth order. The resummation of the particle–hole ring diagrams to all orders is studied and a pronounced dependence on the dimensionless coupling parameter α is found. There is a substantial difference between the complete ring-sum with all exchange-type diagrams included and the standard resummation of the leading n-ring diagrams only. The spin factor S{sub n}(g) associated to the nth order ring diagrams is derived for arbitrary spin-degeneracy g.

  3. Understanding fine magnetic particle systems through use of first-order reversal curve diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Andrew P.; Heslop, David; Zhao, Xiang; Pike, Christopher R.

    2014-12-01

    First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams are constructed from a class of partial magnetic hysteresis loops known as first-order reversal curves and are used to understand magnetization processes in fine magnetic particle systems. A wide-ranging literature that is pertinent to interpretation of FORC diagrams has been published in the geophysical and solid-state physics literature over the past 15 years and is summarized in this review. We discuss practicalities related to optimization of FORC measurements and important issues relating to the calculation, presentation, statistical significance, and interpretation of FORC diagrams. We also outline a framework for interpreting the magnetic behavior of magnetostatically noninteracting and interacting single domain, superparamagnetic, multidomain, single vortex, and pseudosingle domain particle systems. These types of magnetic behavior are illustrated mainly with geological examples relevant to paleomagnetism, rock magnetism, and environmental magnetism. These technical, experimental, and interpretational considerations are relevant to applications that range from improving particulate media for magnetic recording in materials science, to providing a foundation for understanding geomagnetic recording by rocks in geophysics, to interpreting depositional, microbiological, and environmental processes in sediments.

  4. The time course of information extraction from instructional diagrams.

    PubMed

    Eitel, Alexander; Scheiter, Katharina; Schüler, Anne

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated which information is extracted from a brief glance at an instructional diagram to assess its possible contribution for learning with text and diagrams. An experimental paradigm from scene perception research was used to study diagrams. University students (N = 20) saw pictures showing a scene or instructional diagrams for four different presentation times (50 msec. vs 250 msec. vs 1,000 msec. vs 3,000 msec.). Following presentation of a picture or diagram, respectively, participants were asked to verify a statement about its gist, details, and the functioning (for diagrams only). Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to analyze verification accuracy for statements about gist, details, and the functioning as well as the eye movements (i.e., fixation durations and saccade amplitudes) during picture inspection. In both scenes and instructional diagrams, gist but not details were accurately identified from a first glance at the picture (i.e., at 50 msec. and 250 msec.). In contrast, verification accuracy for gist and details increased at a slower rate in instructional diagrams than in scene pictures over presentation times. Moreover, the characteristic function of increasing fixation durations with increasing inspection time was found in scenes, but not in instructional diagrams. Taken together, results suggest that both types of illustrations are processed differently at longer inspection times; however, patterns of early information extraction are similar, namely that the gist but far less information about details is extracted. Results imply people are able to extract an instructional diagram's global spatial structure from a first glance, which may be helpful to learning from text. PMID:23409583

  5. Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Semantic and Spatial Representations of Scientific Diagrams during Text-Diagram Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our

  6. Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Semantic and Spatial Representations of Scientific Diagrams during Text-Diagram Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our…

  7. Accuracy and reliability of rater estimates in relation to number of diagrams in a standard area diagram set

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Error in rater estimates of plant disease severity occur, and standard area diagrams (SADs) help improve accuracy and reliability. The effects of diagram number in a SAD set on accuracy and reliability is unknown. The objective of this study was to compare estimates of pecan scab severity made witho...

  8. Effects of Three Diagram Instruction Methods on Transfer of Diagram Comprehension Skills: The Critical Role of Inference While Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Bergey, Bradley W.; Fitzhugh, Shannon; Newcombe, Nora; Wills, Theodore W.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Tanaka, Jacqueline C.

    2013-01-01

    Can students be taught to better comprehend the diagrams in their textbooks? Can such teaching transfer to uninstructed diagrams in the same domain or even in a new domain? What methods work best for these goals? Building on previous research showing positive results compared to control groups in both laboratory studies and short-term…

  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part B, Remedial Action

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1. and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. Remedial action is the focus of Vol. 2, Pt. B, which has been divided into the three necessary subelements of the RA: characterization, RA, and robotics and automation. Each of these sections address general ORNL problems, which are then broken down by problem area/constituents and linked to potential remedial technologies. The diagrams also contain summary information about a technology`s status, its science and technology needs, and its implementation needs.

  10. Dynamic phase diagram of soft nanocolloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sudipta; Camargo, Manuel; Stellbrink, Jörg; Allgaier, Jürgen; Radulescu, Aurel; Lindner, Peter; Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Likos, Christos N.; Richter, Dieter

    2015-08-01

    We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study covering micro-, meso- and macroscopic length and time scales, which enables us to establish a generalized view in terms of structure-property relationship and equilibrium dynamics of soft colloids. We introduce a new, tunable block copolymer model system, which allows us to vary the aggregation number, and consequently its softness, by changing the solvophobic-to-solvophilic block ratio (m : n) over two orders of magnitude. Based on a simple and general coarse-grained model of the colloidal interaction potential, we verify the significance of interaction length σint governing both structural and dynamic properties. We put forward a quantitative comparison between theory and experiment without adjustable parameters, covering a broad range of experimental polymer volume fractions (0.001 <= φ <= 0.5) and regimes from ultra-soft star-like to hard sphere-like particles, that finally results in the dynamic phase diagram of soft colloids. In particular, we find throughout the concentration domain a strong correlation between mesoscopic diffusion and macroscopic viscosity, irrespective of softness, manifested in data collapse on master curves using the interaction length σint as the only relevant parameter. A clear reentrance in the glass transition at high aggregation numbers is found, recovering the predicted hard-sphere (HS) value in the hard-sphere like limit. Finally, the excellent agreement between our new experimental systems with different but already established model systems shows the relevance of block copolymer micelles as a versatile realization of soft colloids and the general validity of a coarse-grained approach for the description of the structure and dynamics of soft colloids.We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study covering micro-, meso- and macroscopic length and time scales, which enables us to establish a generalized view in terms of structure-property relationship and equilibrium dynamics of soft colloids. We introduce a new, tunable block copolymer model system, which allows us to vary the aggregation number, and consequently its softness, by changing the solvophobic-to-solvophilic block ratio (m : n) over two orders of magnitude. Based on a simple and general coarse-grained model of the colloidal interaction potential, we verify the significance of interaction length σint governing both structural and dynamic properties. We put forward a quantitative comparison between theory and experiment without adjustable parameters, covering a broad range of experimental polymer volume fractions (0.001 <= φ <= 0.5) and regimes from ultra-soft star-like to hard sphere-like particles, that finally results in the dynamic phase diagram of soft colloids. In particular, we find throughout the concentration domain a strong correlation between mesoscopic diffusion and macroscopic viscosity, irrespective of softness, manifested in data collapse on master curves using the interaction length σint as the only relevant parameter. A clear reentrance in the glass transition at high aggregation numbers is found, recovering the predicted hard-sphere (HS) value in the hard-sphere like limit. Finally, the excellent agreement between our new experimental systems with different but already established model systems shows the relevance of block copolymer micelles as a versatile realization of soft colloids and the general validity of a coarse-grained approach for the description of the structure and dynamics of soft colloids. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SANS, DLS and Rheology data modeling. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR03702F

  11. The high-z quasar Hubble Diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Melia, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Two recent discoveries have made it possible for us to begin using high-z quasars as standard candles to construct a Hubble Diagram (HD) at z > 6. These are (1) the recognition from reverberation mapping that a relationship exists between the optical/UV luminosity and the distance of line-emitting gas from the central ionizing source. Thus, together with a measurement of the velocity of the line-emitting gas, e.g., via the width of BLR lines, such as Mg II, a single observation can therefore in principle provide a determination of the black hole's mass; and (2) the identification of quasar ULAS J1120+0641 at z = 7.085, which has significantly extended the redshift range of these sources, providing essential leverage when fitting theoretical luminosity distances to the data. In this paper, we use the observed fluxes and Mg II line-widths of these sources to show that one may reasonably test the predicted high-z distance versus redshift relationship, and we assemble a sample of 20 currently available high-z quasars for this exercise. We find a good match between theory and observations, suggesting that a more complete, high-quality survey may indeed eventually produce an HD to complement the highly-detailed study already underway (e.g., with Type Ia SNe, GRBs, and cosmic chronometers) at lower redshifts. With the modest sample we have here, we show that the R{sub h} = ct Universe and ΛCDM both fit the data quite well, though the smaller number of free parameters in the former produces a more favorable outcome when we calculate likelihoods using the Akaike, Kullback, and Bayes Information Criteria. These three statistical tools result in similar probabilities, indicating that the R{sub h} = ct Universe is more likely than ΛCDM to be correct, by a ratio of about 85% to 15%.

  12. Dynamic phase diagram of soft nanocolloids.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sudipta; Camargo, Manuel; Stellbrink, Jörg; Allgaier, Jürgen; Radulescu, Aurel; Lindner, Peter; Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Likos, Christos N; Richter, Dieter

    2015-09-01

    We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study covering micro-, meso- and macroscopic length and time scales, which enables us to establish a generalized view in terms of structure-property relationship and equilibrium dynamics of soft colloids. We introduce a new, tunable block copolymer model system, which allows us to vary the aggregation number, and consequently its softness, by changing the solvophobic-to-solvophilic block ratio (m : n) over two orders of magnitude. Based on a simple and general coarse-grained model of the colloidal interaction potential, we verify the significance of interaction length σint governing both structural and dynamic properties. We put forward a quantitative comparison between theory and experiment without adjustable parameters, covering a broad range of experimental polymer volume fractions (0.001 ≤ϕ≤ 0.5) and regimes from ultra-soft star-like to hard sphere-like particles, that finally results in the dynamic phase diagram of soft colloids. In particular, we find throughout the concentration domain a strong correlation between mesoscopic diffusion and macroscopic viscosity, irrespective of softness, manifested in data collapse on master curves using the interaction length σint as the only relevant parameter. A clear reentrance in the glass transition at high aggregation numbers is found, recovering the predicted hard-sphere (HS) value in the hard-sphere like limit. Finally, the excellent agreement between our new experimental systems with different but already established model systems shows the relevance of block copolymer micelles as a versatile realization of soft colloids and the general validity of a coarse-grained approach for the description of the structure and dynamics of soft colloids. PMID:26219628

  13. Color-Magnitude Diagram for M14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhart, Erik; McCombs, T.; Murphy, B. W.; Darragh, A.; Liu, Z.; Conroy, K. E.

    2013-01-01

    RR Lyrae variable stars are useful tools in determining a number of physical characteristics of their parent globular clusters. In an effort to determine the properties of the globular cluster M14 we used the SARA 0.9-meter telescope located at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) to do time-series photometry of known and previously unknown RR Lyrae variable stars. M14 lies near the Galactic plane and thus is highly reddened with an E(B-V)=0.6. We obtained R images during the summer of 2010 and V images during the summer of 2012 of M14. The images were analyzed using the DAOPHOT/ALLFRAME package of Stetson (1987,1994) to create a preliminary color magnitude diagram (CMD) of M14. Using our previous results from Conroy et al. (2012) we positively identified the positions of 64 of the 112 known RR Lyrae variables on the CMD. We find considerable spread in both the V magnitudes and color of the RR Lyrae variables indicating a significant amount of differential reddening on relatively small scales. This is also seen in the giant branch which shows up to a 0.15 magnitude spread in V- R color. We also found the median magnitude of the RR Lyrae variable stars and hence the horizontal branch to be 17.2. Because RR Lyrae stars can provide an estimation of reddening our next step will be to apply the technique of Blanco (1992) to our sample of RR0-type RR Lyrae variables to obtain a two-dimensional reddening map across the face of the cluster.

  14. Phase diagram for the transition from photonic crystals to dielectric metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Rybin, Mikhail V; Filonov, Dmitry S; Samusev, Kirill B; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Limonov, Mikhail F

    2015-01-01

    Photonic crystals and dielectric metamaterials represent two different classes of artificial media but are often composed of similar structural elements. The question is how to distinguish these two types of periodic structures when their parameters, such as permittivity and lattice constant, vary continuously. Here we discuss transition between photonic crystals and dielectric metamaterials and introduce the concept of a phase diagram, based on the physics of Mie and Bragg resonances. We show that a periodic photonic structure transforms into a metamaterial when the Mie gap opens up below the lowest Bragg bandgap where the homogenization approach can be justified and the effective permeability becomes negative. Our theoretical approach is confirmed by microwave experiments for a metacrystal composed of tubes filled with heated water. This analysis yields deep insight into the properties of periodic structures, and provides a useful tool for designing different classes of electromagnetic materials with variable parameters. PMID:26626302

  15. Phase diagram for the transition from photonic crystals to dielectric metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Rybin, Mikhail V.; Filonov, Dmitry S.; Samusev, Kirill B.; Belov, Pavel A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Limonov, Mikhail F.

    2015-01-01

    Photonic crystals and dielectric metamaterials represent two different classes of artificial media but are often composed of similar structural elements. The question is how to distinguish these two types of periodic structures when their parameters, such as permittivity and lattice constant, vary continuously. Here we discuss transition between photonic crystals and dielectric metamaterials and introduce the concept of a phase diagram, based on the physics of Mie and Bragg resonances. We show that a periodic photonic structure transforms into a metamaterial when the Mie gap opens up below the lowest Bragg bandgap where the homogenization approach can be justified and the effective permeability becomes negative. Our theoretical approach is confirmed by microwave experiments for a metacrystal composed of tubes filled with heated water. This analysis yields deep insight into the properties of periodic structures, and provides a useful tool for designing different classes of electromagnetic materials with variable parameters. PMID:26626302

  16. Phase diagram for the transition from photonic crystals to dielectric metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybin, Mikhail V.; Filonov, Dmitry S.; Samusev, Kirill B.; Belov, Pavel A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Limonov, Mikhail F.

    2015-12-01

    Photonic crystals and dielectric metamaterials represent two different classes of artificial media but are often composed of similar structural elements. The question is how to distinguish these two types of periodic structures when their parameters, such as permittivity and lattice constant, vary continuously. Here we discuss transition between photonic crystals and dielectric metamaterials and introduce the concept of a phase diagram, based on the physics of Mie and Bragg resonances. We show that a periodic photonic structure transforms into a metamaterial when the Mie gap opens up below the lowest Bragg bandgap where the homogenization approach can be justified and the effective permeability becomes negative. Our theoretical approach is confirmed by microwave experiments for a metacrystal composed of tubes filled with heated water. This analysis yields deep insight into the properties of periodic structures, and provides a useful tool for designing different classes of electromagnetic materials with variable parameters.

  17. Teachers in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I argue for a closer read of the daily "class work" of teachers, as posited by Reay, 1998. In developing exploratory class portraits of four teachers who occupy distinctive social positions (two from working-class homes now teaching upper-middle-class children and two from upper-middle-class homes now teaching poor children), I…

  18. Plotting and Analyzing Data Trends in Ternary Diagrams Made Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Cédric M.

    2004-04-01

    Ternary plots are used in many fields of science to characterize a system based on three components. Triangular plotting is thus useful to a broad audience in the Earth sciences and beyond. Unfortunately, it is typically the most expensive commercial software packages that offer the option to plot data in ternary diagrams, and they lack features that are paramount to the geosciences, such as the ability to plot data directly into a standardized diagram and the possibility to analyze temporal and stratigraphic trends within this diagram. To address these issues, δPlot was developed with a strong emphasis on ease of use, community orientation, and availability free of charges. This ``freeware'' supports a fully graphical user interface where data can be imported as text files, or by copying and pasting. A plot is automatically generated, and any standard diagram can be selected for plotting in the background using a simple pull-down menu. Standard diagrams are stored in an external database of PDF files that currently holds some 30 diagrams that deal with different fields of the Earth sciences. Using any drawing software supporting PDF, one can easily produce new standard diagrams to be used with δPlot by simply adding them to the library folder. An independent column of values, commonly stratigraphic depths or ages, can be used to sort the data sets.

  19. Use of influence diagrams to structure medical decisions.

    PubMed

    Nease, R F; Owens, D K

    1997-01-01

    Influence diagrams are compact representations of decision problems that are mathematically equivalent to decision trees. The authors present five important principles for structuring a decision as an influence diagram: 1) start at the value node and work back to the decision nodes; 2) draw the arcs in the direction that makes the probabilities easiest to assess; 3) use informational arcs to specify which events will have been observed at the time each decision is made; 4) ensure that missing arcs reflect intentional assertions about conditional independence and the timing of observations; and 5) ensure that there are no cycles in the influence diagram. They then build an influence diagram for the problem of staging non-small-cell lung cancer as an illustration. Influence diagrams offer several strengths for structuring medical decisions. They represent graphically and compactly the probabilistic relationships between parameters in the model. Influence diagrams also allow the model to be structured in a fashion that eases the necessary probability assessments, regardless of whether the assessments are based on available evidence or on expert judgment. Influence diagrams provide an important complement to decision trees, especially for representing probabilistic relationships among variables in a decision model. PMID:9219186

  20. The UBV Color Evolution of Classical Novae. II. Color-Magnitude Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko

    2016-04-01

    We have examined the outburst tracks of 40 novae in the color-magnitude diagram (intrinsic B - V color versus absolute V magnitude). After reaching the optical maximum, each nova generally evolves toward blue from the upper right to the lower left and then turns back toward the right. The 40 tracks are categorized into one of six templates: very fast nova V1500 Cyg fast novae V1668 Cyg, V1974 Cyg, and LV Vul moderately fast nova FH Ser and very slow nova PU Vul. These templates are located from the left (blue) to the right (red) in this order, depending on the envelope mass and nova speed class. A bluer nova has a less massive envelope and faster nova speed class. In novae with multiple peaks, the track of the first decay is more red than that of the second (or third) decay, because a large part of the envelope mass had already been ejected during the first peak. Thus, our newly obtained tracks in the color-magnitude diagram provide useful information to understand the physics of classical novae. We also found that the absolute magnitude at the beginning of the nebular phase is almost similar among various novae. We are able to determine the absolute magnitude (or distance modulus) by fitting the track of a target nova to the same classification of a nova with a known distance. This method for determining nova distance has been applied to some recurrent novae, and their distances have been recalculated.

  1. Cu-Zn binary phase diagram and diffusion couples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to learn: (1) what information a binary phase diagram can yield; (2) how to construct and heat treat a simple diffusion couple; (3) how to prepare a metallographic sample; (4) how to operate a metallograph; (5) how to correlate phases found in the diffusion couple with phases predicted by the phase diagram; (6) how diffusion couples held at various temperatures could be used to construct a phase diagram; (7) the relation between the thickness of an intermetallic phase layer and the diffusion time; and (8) the effect of one species of atoms diffusing faster than another species in a diffusion couple.

  2. On the Sn-Bi-Ag ternary phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattner, Ursula R.; Boettinger, William J.

    1994-07-01

    The selection and evaluation of Pb-free solders requires information that is best determined through a knowledge of ternary and higher order phase diagrams. As part of an ongoing program on Pb-free solder phase diagrams at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, a thermodynamic model is formulated for the Sn-Bi-Ag phase diagram. Thermodynamic functions for the various phases obtained by fitting measured data for the three constituent binary systems are extrapolated to the ternary system using the method of Muggianu. Modeling results are compared to preliminary experimental data for the ternary system and are applied in the calculation of the solidification path.

  3. Using UMLS to construct a generalized hierarchical concept-based dictionary of brain functions for information extraction from the fMRI literature.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Mei-Yu; Chen, Chien-Chung; Chen, Jyh-Horng

    2009-10-01

    With a rapid progress in the field, a great many fMRI studies are published every year, to the extent that it is now becoming difficult for researchers to keep up with the literature, since reading papers is extremely time-consuming and labor-intensive. Thus, automatic information extraction has become an important issue. In this study, we used the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to construct a hierarchical concept-based dictionary of brain functions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first generalized dictionary of this kind. We also developed an information extraction system for recognizing, mapping and classifying terms relevant to human brain study. The precision and recall of our system was on a par with that of human experts in term recognition, term mapping and term classification. Our approach presented in this paper presents an alternative to the more laborious, manual entry approach to information extraction. PMID:19393340

  4. Cosmological test with the QSO Hubble diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, M.; Melia, F.; Lusso, E.; Risaliti, G.

    2016-03-01

    A Hubble diagram (HD) has recently been constructed in the redshift range 0 ≲ z ≲ 6.5 using a nonlinear relation between the ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray luminosities of quasi stellar objects (QSOs). The Type Ia Supernovae (SN) HD has already provided a high-precision test of cosmological models, but the fact that the QSO distribution extends well beyond the supernova range (z ≲ 1.8), in principle provides us with an important complementary diagnostic whose significantly greater leverage in z can impose tighter constraints on the distance versus redshift relationship. In this paper, we therefore perform an independent test of nine different cosmological models, among which six are expanding, while three are static. Many of these are disfavored by other kinds of observations (including the aforementioned Type Ia SNe). We wish to examine whether the QSO HD confirms or rejects these earlier conclusions. We find that four of these models (Einstein-de Sitter, the Milne universe, the static universe with simple tired light and the static universe with plasma tired light) are excluded at the > 99% C.L. The quasi-steady state model is excluded at > 95% C.L. The remaining four models (ΛCDM/wCDM, the Rh = ct universe, the Friedmann open universe and a static universe with a linear Hubble law) all pass the test. However, only ΛCDM/wCDM and Rh = ct also pass the Alcock-Paczyński (AP) test. The optimized parameters in ΛCDM/wCDM are Ωm = 0.20-0.20+0.24 and wde = -1.2-∞+1.6 (the dark energy equation-of-state). Combined with the AP test, these values become Ωm = 0.38-0.19+0.20 and wde = -0.28-0.40+0.52. But whereas this optimization of parameters in ΛCDM/wCDM creates some tension with their concordance values, the Rh = ct universe has the advantage of fitting the QSO and AP data without any free parameters.

  5. Modeling Yin-Yang balance in tai-chi diagram with a melting-freezing rotating device part 3 — The contemporary tai-chi diagram, the yuan-chi diagram and the Fu Xi's eight trigrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sui; Chen, Tzu-Fang

    2002-11-01

    The physical model describing the Yin-Yang balance in the tai-chi diagram via the melting and freezing processes in a rotating device presented in parts 1 and 2 is further developed for the contemporary tai-chi diagram and in the yuan-chi diagram. The contemporary tai-chi diagram shown in Fig.1 is a simplification form of the ancient tai-chi diagram presented in Reference [2]. There are two semi-circles forming the interface curve between the yin and yang in the contemporary tai-chi diagram. By knowing the location of the interface between the yin and yang in the contemporary tai-chi diagram, the requirement for the simulation model is to find the condition to match the interface location. The simplification changes not only the structure but also the physical insight of the ancient tai-chi diagram, which will be described in the present study. The yuan-chi diagram shown in Fig.2 is the combination of the Master Chen’s tai-chi diagram presented in References [1,2] and the contemporary tai-chi diagram. The formulation of the yuan-chi diagram is similar to that of contemporary tai-chi diagram. The Fu Xi’s eight trigrams present three levels of yin-yang relation that are a natural result from the contemporary tai-chi diagram, which will be described in the last part of this study.

  6. Design of an UML conceptual model and implementation of a GIS with metadata information for a seismic hazard assessment cooperative project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Y.; Escalante, M. P.

    2009-04-01

    This work illustrates the advantages of using a Geographic Information System in a cooperative project with researchers of different countries, such as the RESIS II project (financed by the Norwegian Government and managed by CEPREDENAC) for seismic hazard assessment of Central America. As input data present different formats, cover distinct geographical areas and are subjected to different interpretations, data inconsistencies may appear and their management get complicated. To achieve data homogenization and to integrate them in a GIS, it is required previously to develop a conceptual model. This is accomplished in two phases: requirements analysis and conceptualization. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used to compose the conceptual model of the GIS. UML complies with ISO 19100 norms and allows the designer defining model architecture and interoperability. The GIS provides a frame for the combination of large geographic-based data volumes, with an uniform geographic reference and avoiding duplications. All this information contains its own metadata following ISO 19115 normative. In this work, the integration in the same environment of active faults and subduction slabs geometries, combined with the epicentres location, has facilitated the definition of seismogenetic regions. This is a great support for national specialists of different countries to make easier their teamwork. The GIS capacity for making queries (by location and by attributes) and geostatistical analyses is used to interpolate discrete data resulting from seismic hazard calculations and to create continuous maps as well as to check and validate partial results of the study. GIS-based products, such as complete, homogenised databases and thematic cartography of the region, are distributed to all researchers, facilitating cross-national communication, the project execution and results dissemination.

  7. 76 FR 2919 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and...

  8. 76 FR 54787 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY... revised North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram,...

  9. The Fermion Representation of Quantum Toroidal Algebra on 3D Young Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Li-Qiang; Wang, Li-Fang; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jie

    2014-07-01

    We develop an equivalence between the diagonal slices and the perpendicular slices of 3D Young diagrams via Maya diagrams. Furthermore, we construct the fermion representation of quantum toroidal algebra on the 3D Young diagrams perpendicularly sliced.

  10. 9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram of the New York and Erie Railroad. Original in the collections of the Library of Congress. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  11. 8. Photocopy of top half of an 1855 organizational diagram ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of top half of an 1855 organizational diagram of the New York and Erie Railroad. Original in the collections of the Library of Congress. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  12. Influence diagrams as oil spill decision science tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    Making inferences on risks to ecosystem services (ES) from ecological crises can be more reliably handled using decision science tools. Influence diagrams (IDs) are probabilistic networks that explicitly represent the decisions related to a problem and evidence of their influence...

  13. View southwest of carousel displaying schematic diagrams of electrical system; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest of carousel displaying schematic diagrams of electrical system; operators console switchboard #1 is at lower right of photograph - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 61. THREE LINE WIRING DIAGRAM, 33 KV & NO. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. THREE LINE WIRING DIAGRAM, 33 KV & NO. 1 TRANS BANK, SANTA ANA NO. 1 HYDRO PLANT, OCTOBER 27, 1958. SCE drawing no. 428058-1. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. 30 CFR 256.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Oil, Gas, and Sulphur Management, General § 256.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the...

  16. 21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  17. 22. Power plant engine pipingcompressed air piping diagram and sections, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Power plant engine piping-compressed air piping diagram and sections, sheet 81 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  18. Exercises in Drawing and Utilizing Free-Body Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kurt

    1999-01-01

    Finds that students taking algebra-based introductory physics have difficulty with one- and two-body problems in particle mechanics. Provides graded exercises for drawing and utilizing free-body diagrams. (CCM)

  19. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, José A.

    2012-05-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The left side originally related in Gowin's Vee with philosophies, theories, models, laws or regularities now agrees with Toulmin's concepts (language, models as representation techniques and application procedures). Mexican science teachers without experience in science education research used the heuristic diagram to learn about the history of chemistry considering also in the left side two different historical times: past and present. Through a semantic differential scale teachers' attitude to the heuristic diagram was evaluated and its usefulness was demonstrated.

  20. Temperature control in continuous furnace by structural diagram method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, Lei; Hartley, Tom T.

    1991-01-01

    The fundamentals of the structural diagram method for distributed parameter systems (DPSs) are presented and reviewed. An example is given to illustrate the application of this method for control design.

  1. Penguin diagram dominance in radiative weak decays of bottom baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Kohara, Yoji

    2005-05-01

    Radiative weak decays of antitriplet bottom baryons are studied under the assumption of penguin diagram dominance and flavor-SU(3) (or SU(2)) symmetry. Relations among decay rates of various decay modes are derived.

  2. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. Architecture flow diagrams under teamwork{reg_sign}

    SciTech Connect

    Nicinski, T.

    1992-02-01

    The Teamwork CASE tool allows Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) to be maintained for structured analysis. Fermilab has extended teamwork under UNIX{trademark} to permit Hatley and Pirbhai Architecture Flow Diagrams (AFDs) to be associated with DFDs and subsequently maintained. This extension, called TWKAFD, allows a user to open an AFD, graphically edit it, and replace it into a TWKAFD maintained library. Other aspects of Hatley and Pirbhai`s methodology are supported. This paper presents a quick tutorial on Architecture Diagrams. It then describes the user`s view of TWKAFD, the experience incorporating it into teamwork, and the successes with using the Architecture Diagram methodology along with the shortcomings of using the teamwork/TWKAFD tool. 8 refs.

  4. Flame Deflector Section, Elevation, Water Supply Flow Diagram, Exploded ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Flame Deflector - Section, Elevation, Water Supply Flow Diagram, Exploded Deflector Manifolds, and Interior Perspective - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. p-T diagram of the system copper-tellurium

    SciTech Connect

    Pashinkin, A.S.; Amirov, R.A.; Pavlova, L.M.

    1986-05-01

    Copper telluride is a promising semiconductor material for high-temperature thermoelectric generators. To develop a technology for a material of specific properties, the authors study the p-T-x diagram of the copper-tellurium system. Comparison of the resulting experimental data with the computed p-T diagram of the copper-tellurium system indicates mutual correspondence and confirms the adequacy of the model chosen for compound dissociation in the liquid phase.

  6. Summary diagrams for coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model skill assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, Jason K.; Kindle, John C.; Shulman, Igor; Penta, Bradley; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Helber, Robert; Arnone, Robert A.

    2009-02-01

    The increasing complexity of coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem models may require skill assessment methods that both quantify various aspects of model performance and visually summarize these aspects within compact diagrams. Hence summary diagrams, such as the Taylor diagram [Taylor, 2001, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, D7, 7183-7192], may meet this requirement by exploiting mathematical relationships between widely known statistical quantities in order to succinctly display a suite of model skill metrics in a single plot. In this paper, sensitivity results from a coupled model are compared with Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite ocean color data in order to assess the utility of the Taylor diagram and to develop a set of alternatives. Summary diagrams are only effective as skill assessment tools insofar as the statistical quantities they communicate adequately capture differentiable aspects of model performance. Here we demonstrate how the linear correlation coefficients and variance comparisons (pattern statistics) that constitute a Taylor diagram may fail to identify other potentially important aspects of coupled model performance, even if these quantities appear close to their ideal values. An additional skill assessment tool, the target diagram, is developed in order to provide summary information about how the pattern statistics and the bias (difference of mean values) each contribute to the magnitude of the total Root-Mean-Square Difference (RMSD). In addition, a potential inconsistency in the use of RMSD statistics as skill metrics for overall model and observation agreement is identified: underestimates of the observed field's variance are rewarded when the linear correlation scores are less than unity. An alternative skill score and skill score-based summary diagram is presented.

  7. Construction of Penrose Diagrams for Dynamic Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Beth A.; Lindesay, James

    2008-01-01

    A set of Penrose diagrams is constructed in order to examine the large-scale causal structure of black holes with dynamic horizons. Coordinate dependencies of significant features, such as the event horizon and radial mass scale, are demonstrated on the diagrams. Unlike in static Schwarzschild geometries, the radial mass scale is clearly seen to differ from the horizon. Trajectories for photons near the horizon are briefly discussed.

  8. A'Campo-Gusein-Zade diagrams as partially ordered sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'yuta, G. G.

    2001-08-01

    The real analogues of many results about complex monodromies of singularities can be formulated and proved in terms of partial orderings on A'Campo-Gusein-Zade diagrams, the real versions of Coxeter-Dynkin diagrams of singularities. In this paper it is proved that the only diagrams among the A'Campo-Gusein-Zade diagrams of singularities that determine partially ordered sets of finite type (in the sense of representations of a quiver) are the diagrams of simple singularities. To encode the real decompositions of a singularity the analogue of Vasilev invariants turn out to be surjections of a partially ordered set onto a chain. Formulae are proved for Arnold (mod 2)-invariants of plane curves in terms of the corresponding A'Campo-Gusein-Zade diagrams. We define, in the context of higher Bruhat orders, higher partially ordered sets and we describe their connection with the higher M-Morsifications An. We also consider certain previously known results about real singularities from the point of view of partially ordered sets.

  9. Using Fluid Inclusions to Bring Phase Diagrams to Life in a Guided Inquiry Instructional Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farver, J. R.; Onasch, C.

    2011-12-01

    A fundamental concept in mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry is the generation and interpretation of phase diagrams for various systems. We have developed an exercise to strengthen student's familiarity with and confidence in employing phase diagrams by using fluid inclusions. The activity follows the 5Es (Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Extension, Evaluation) guided inquiry instructional model in order to best facilitate student learning. The exercise follows an activity adapted from Brady (1992) wherein students collect data to generate the phase diagram for the Ice-Water-NaCl system. The engagement activity involves using a USGS-type fluid inclusion heating-cooling stage with a camera and projection system. We typically employ either a doubly-polished quartz sample or a cleaved section of fluorite and select a typical two phase (L + V) aqueous inclusion. Students first observe the inclusion at room temperature and pressure and are asked to predict what would happen if the sample is heated. Students then watch as the sample is heated to its homogenization temperature (Th) and are asked to explain what they see. The sample is then cooled until completely frozen and then slowly warmed until the first ice melting (at the eutectic, Te) and then until all ice melts (Tm). Again, students are asked to explain what they see and, if necessary, they are guided to remember the earlier phase diagram activity. The process is then repeated while students follow along the appropriate phase diagrams. In this fashion, students literally see the changes in phases present and their relative abundances as they move through the phase diagram. The engagement activity generates student interest in the exercise to insure minds-on as well as hands-on exploration. The exploration activities involve students observing and describing a wide range of fluid inclusion types (e.g., CO2, daughter crystals, multiple inclusion trails, etc) and hands-on collection of Th and Tm data for a selected sample. Using a fluorite sample (Denton Mine) yields excellent results and a meaningful extension activity. Each student collects Th and Tm data that are then combined and class histograms are generated and interpreted. At this point, a general explanation of fluid inclusions is provided to bring together the student's observations and to assess their understanding. The extension activity involves using the Th, Te, and Tm data obtained for primary inclusions to constrain the true trapping temperature (Tt). The isochore is calculated and plotted on a P-T plot. Using the geothermal gradient for the sample locale, students calculate the hydrostatic and lithostatic gradients for the region and plot these on the P-T diagram in order to constrain the possible range in Tt. Finally, based upon the salinity and Tt range, students determine what ore fluid type is represented (MVT). The evaluation includes observation of participation, answers to questions posed during the engagement activity, and a written report that includes answers to refining and open-ended questions as well as a reflection on their learning. This activity strengthens student's understanding of phase diagrams while introducing them to the importance of fluids in the crust.

  10. Planar diagrams from optimization for concave potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaev, S. K.; Sobolevski, A. N.; Valba, O. V.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a toy model of a heteropolymer chain capable of forming planar secondary structures typical for RNA molecules. In this model, the sequential intervals between neighboring monomers along a chain are considered as quenched random variables, and energies of nonlocal bonds are assumed to be concave functions of those intervals. A few factors are neglected: the contribution of loop factors to the partition function, the variation in energies of different types of complementary nucleotides, the stacking interactions, and constraints on the minimal size of loops. However, the model captures well the formation of folded structures without pseudoknots in an arbitrary sequence of nucleotides. Using the optimization procedure for a special class of concave-type potentials, borrowed from optimal transport analysis, we derive the local difference equation for the ground state free energy of the chain with the planar (RNA-like) architecture of paired links. We consider various distribution functions of intervals between neighboring monomers (truncated Gaussian and scale free) and demonstrate the existence of a topological crossover from sequential to essentially nested configurations of paired links.

  11. "Phase diagram" of a mean field game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiecicki, Igor; Gobron, Thierry; Ullmo, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Mean field games were introduced by J-M. Lasry and P-L. Lions in the mathematical community, and independently by M. Huang and co-workers in the engineering community, to deal with optimization problems when the number of agents becomes very large. In this article we study in detail a particular example called the "seminar problem" introduced by O. Guéant, J-M. Lasry, and P-L. Lions in 2010. This model contains the main ingredients of any mean field game but has the particular feature that all agents are coupled only through a simple random event (the seminar starting time) that they all contribute to form. In the mean field limit, this event becomes deterministic and its value can be fixed through a self consistent procedure. This allows for a rather thorough understanding of the solutions of the problem, through both exact results and a detailed analysis of various limiting regimes. For a sensible class of initial configurations, distinct behaviors can be associated to different domains in the parameter space. For this reason, the "seminar problem" appears to be an interesting toy model on which both intuition and technical approaches can be tested as a preliminary study toward more complex mean field game models.

  12. Galaxy evolution across the optical emission-line diagnostic diagrams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; García-Marín, M.; Eckart, A.; Zuther, J.; Hopkins, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The discovery of the M - σ relation, the local galaxy bimodality, and the link between black-hole and host-galaxy properties have raised the question of whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) play a role in galaxy evolution. AGN feedback is one of the biggest observational challenges of modern extragalactic astrophysics. Several theoretical models implement AGN feedback to explain the observed galaxy luminosity function and, possibly, the color and morphological transformation of spiral galaxies into passive ellipticals. Aims: For understanding the importance of AGN feedback, a study of the AGN populations in the radio-optical domain is crucial. A mass sequence linking star-forming galaxies and AGN has already been noted in previous works, and it is now investigated as a possible evolutionary sequence. Methods: We observed a sample of 119 intermediate-redshift (0.04 ≤ z< 0.4) SDSS-FIRST radio emitters with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope at 4.85 and 10.45 GHz and obtained spectral indices. The sample includes star-forming galaxies, composite galaxies (with mixed contribution to line emission from star formation and AGN activity), Seyferts, and low ionization narrow emission region (LINER) galaxies. With these sources we search for possible evidence of spectral evolution and a link between optical and radio emission in intermediate-redshift galaxies. Results: We find indications of spectral index flattening in high-metallicity star-forming galaxies, composite galaxies, and Seyferts. This "flattening sequence" along the [NII]-based emission-line diagnostic diagram is consistent with the hardening of galaxy ionizing field, thanks to nuclear activity. After combining our data with FIRST measurements at 1.4 GHz, we find that the three-point radio spectra of Seyferts and LINERs show substantial differences, which are attributable to small radio core components and larger (arcsecond sized) jet/lobe components, respectively. A visual inspection of FIRST images seems to confirm this hypothesis. Conclusions: Galaxies along this sequence are hypothesized to be transitioning from the active star-forming galaxies (blue cloud) to the passive elliptical galaxies (red sequence). This supports the suggestion that AGN both play a role in shutting down star formation and allow the transition from one galaxy class to the other. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Electrochemical phase diagrams for Ti oxides from density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liang-Feng; Rondinelli, James M.

    2015-12-01

    Developing an accurate simulation method for the electrochemical stability of solids, as well as understanding the physics related with its accuracy, is critically important for improving the performance of compounds and predicting the stability of new materials in aqueous environments. Herein we propose a workflow for the accurate calculation of first-principles electrochemical phase (Pourbaix) diagrams. With this scheme, we study the electrochemical stabilities of Ti and Ti oxides using density-functional theory. First, we find the accuracy of an exchange-correlation functional in predicting formation energies and electrochemical stabilities is closely related with the electronic exchange interaction therein. Second, the metaGGA and hybrid functionals with a more precise description of the electronic exchange interaction lead to a systematic improvement in the accuracy of the Pourbaix diagrams. Furthermore, we show that accurate Ti Pourbaix diagrams also require that thermal effects are included through vibrational contributions to the free energy. We then use these diagrams to explain various experimental electrochemical phenomena for the Ti-O system, and show that if experimental formation energies for Ti oxides, which contain contributions from defects owing to their generation at high (combustion) temperatures, are directly used to predict room temperature Pourbaix diagrams then significant inaccuracies result. In contrast, the formation energies from accurate first-principles calculations, e.g., using metaGGA and hybrid functionals, are found to be more reliable. Finally, to facilitate the future application of our accurate electrochemical phase equilibria diagrams, the variation of the Ti Pourbaix diagrams with aqueous ion concentration is also provided.

  14. Aeroflex Technology as Class-Y Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Jong-ook; Agarwal, Shri; Popelar, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Modern space field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices with increased functional density and operational frequency, such as Xilinx Virtex 4 (V4) and S (V5), are packaged in non-hermetic ceramic flip chip forms. These next generation space parts were not qualified to the MIL-PRF-38535 Qualified Manufacturer Listing (QML) class-V when they were released because class-V was only intended for hermetic parts. In order to bring Xilinx V5 type packages into the QML system, it was suggested that class-Y be set up as a new category. From 2010 through 2014, a JEDEC G12 task group developed screening and qualification requirements for Class-Y products. The Document Standardization Division of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has completed an engineering practice study. In parallel with the class-Y efforts, the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) program has funded JPL to study potential reliability issues of the class-Y products. The major hurdle of this task was the absence of adequate research samples. Figure 1-1 shows schematic diagrams of typical structures of class-Y type products. Typically, class-Y products are either in ceramic flip chip column grid array (CGA) or land grid array (LGA) form. In class-Y packages, underfill and heat spread adhesive materials are directly exposed to the spacecraft environment due to their non-hermeticity. One of the concerns originally raised was that the underfill material could degrade due to the spacecraft environment and negatively impact the reliability of the package. In order to study such issues, it was necessary to use ceramic daisy chain flip chip package samples so that continuity of flip chip solder bumps could be monitored during the reliability tests. However, none of the commercially available class-Y daisy chain parts had electrical connections through flip chip solder bumps; only solder columns were daisy chained, which made it impossible to test continuity of flip chip solder bumps without using extremely costly functional parts. Among space parts manufacturers who were interested in producing class-Y products, Aeroflex Microelectronic Solutions-HiRel had been developing assembly processes using their internal R&D classy type samples. In early 2012, JPL and Aeroflex initiated a collaboration to study reliability of the Aeroflex technology as a class-Y demonstrator.

  15. A Community Based Systems Diagram of Obesity Causes

    PubMed Central

    Allender, Steven; Owen, Brynle; Kuhlberg, Jill; Lowe, Janette; Nagorcka-Smith, Phoebe; Whelan, Jill; Bell, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity. Methods Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12) built a community model that progressed from connection circles to causal loop diagrams using scripts from the system dynamics literature. Participants began this work in identifying change over time in causes and effects of childhood obesity within their community. The initial causal loop diagram was then reviewed and elaborated by 50 community leaders over a full day session. Results The process created a causal loop diagram representing community perceptions of determinants and causes of obesity. The causal loop diagram can be broken down into four separate domains; social influences; fast food and junk food; participation in sport; and general physical activity. Discussion This causal loop diagram can provide the basis for community led planning of a prevention response that engages with multiple levels of existing settings and systems. PMID:26153893

  16. Phase diagrams: a graphical representation of linkage relations.

    PubMed

    Rösgen, Jörg; Hinz, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-04-18

    It is shown here that phase diagrams of ligand-binding biological macromolecules provide a powerful tool for the analysis of reaction mechanisms. The present study provides simple rules for the construction and interpretation of such phase diagrams. We give examples for the derivation of reaction schemes for macromolecules that can bind two different kinds of ligands. By sampling one dimension of a phase diagram it is possible to reconstruct the second dimension, including the correct stoichiometry, positive and negative linkage between the ligands and equilibrium binding constants for the complete series of reactions. The discussion is generalised to temperature and pressure-dependent phase diagrams. To exemplify the new diagram method we analyse the pH-dependent binding of trans-beta-indole acrylic acid to apo-Trp repressor, the pH-dependent thermal denaturation of alpha-chymotrypsinogen A, calcium binding and denaturation of annexin I, high affinity zinc binding to a metallo-beta-lactamase and high-pressure and temperature denaturation of RNase A and staphylococcal nuclease. PMID:12684012

  17. The Pathway Tools cellular overview diagram and Omics Viewer

    PubMed Central

    Paley, Suzanne M.; Karp, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    The Pathway Tools cellular overview diagram is a visual representation of the biochemical network of an organism. The overview is automatically created from a Pathway/Genome Database describing that organism. The cellular overview includes metabolic, transport and signaling pathways, and other membrane and periplasmic proteins. Pathway Tools supports interrogation and exploration of cellular biochemical networks through the overview diagram. Furthermore, a software component called the Omics Viewer provides visual analysis of whole-organism datasets using the overview diagram as an organizing framework. For example, gene expression and metabolomics measurements, alone or in combination, can be painted onto the overview, as can computed whole-organism datasets, such as predicted reaction-flux values. The cellular overview and Omics Viewer provide a mechanism whereby biologists can apply the pattern-recognition capabilities of the human visual system to analyze large-scale datasets in a biologically meaningful context. SRI's BioCyc.org website provides overview diagrams for more than 200 organisms. This article describes enhancements to the overview made since a 1999 publication, including the automatic layout capability, expansion of the cellular machinery that it includes, new semantic zooming and poster-generating capabilities, and extension of the Omics Viewer to support painting of metabolites, animations and zooming to individual pathway diagrams. PMID:16893960

  18. Hidden and Nonstandard Bifurcation Diagram of an Alternate Quadratic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, G.; Romera, M.; Danca, M.-F.; Martin, A.; Orue, A. B.; Montoya, F.; Encinas, L. Hernández

    Alternate quadratic systems A : xn+1 = 1 ‑ axn2,if n is even 1 ‑ a∗xn2,if n is odd andB : xn+1 = 1 ‑ a∗xn2,if n is even 1 ‑ axn2, if n is odd, where a and a∗ are different parameters, seem to be interval maps in a range of the parameter values. However, after a careful graphical analysis of their bifurcation diagrams we conclude that this is true only for system B, but not for system A. In system A we find a hidden and nonstandard bifurcation diagram (“hidden” because it is not visible at normal resolution and “nonstandard” because the bifurcation diagram is empty for some ranges of the parameter values). The different behavior of the underlying critical polynomial in the range of parameter values in both alternate quadratic systems explains why the hidden and nonstandard bifurcation diagram is present in system A and not in system B. The analysis of the Lyapunov exponent also shows both the existence and the different behavior of the hidden bifurcation diagram of system A.

  19. The Pathway Tools cellular overview diagram and Omics Viewer.

    PubMed

    Paley, Suzanne M; Karp, Peter D

    2006-01-01

    The Pathway Tools cellular overview diagram is a visual representation of the biochemical network of an organism. The overview is automatically created from a Pathway/Genome Database describing that organism. The cellular overview includes metabolic, transport and signaling pathways, and other membrane and periplasmic proteins. Pathway Tools supports interrogation and exploration of cellular biochemical networks through the overview diagram. Furthermore, a software component called the Omics Viewer provides visual analysis of whole-organism datasets using the overview diagram as an organizing framework. For example, gene expression and metabolomics measurements, alone or in combination, can be painted onto the overview, as can computed whole-organism datasets, such as predicted reaction-flux values. The cellular overview and Omics Viewer provide a mechanism whereby biologists can apply the pattern-recognition capabilities of the human visual system to analyze large-scale datasets in a biologically meaningful context. SRI's BioCyc.org website provides overview diagrams for more than 200 organisms. This article describes enhancements to the overview made since a 1999 publication, including the automatic layout capability, expansion of the cellular machinery that it includes, new semantic zooming and poster-generating capabilities, and extension of the Omics Viewer to support painting of metabolites, animations and zooming to individual pathway diagrams. PMID:16893960

  20. Partial Fe-Ti alloy phase diagrams at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Yamane, Toshimi; Hisayuki, Koji; Nakao, Riyuichiro; Minamino, Yoritoshi; Araki, Hideki; Hirao, Keiichi

    1999-11-01

    Recently, high pressure treatments such as hot isostatic pressing have become more familiar in industrial processes. The high pressure induces changes of both the phase equilibrium and the kinetics of the phase transformation in alloys. The iron-rich phase diagrams under high pressure have been previously reported in the Fe-Mo, Fe-W, Fe-Cr, Fe-V, and Fe-Si systems, which have the {gamma} loop in the iron-rich side at the ordinary pressure. These systems exhibit the astonishing changes in phase equilibrium under high pressure: the {gamma} loop expands under high pressure, and especially the {gamma} loop type phase diagrams of Fe-Mo and Fe-W systems transform to the {gamma} shrink type phase diagram at higher pressures. So, it is very interesting to investigate the effect of high pressure on phase equilibrium in the {gamma} loop phase diagram of the Fe-Ti system, which is practically important for hydrogen storage alloys, titanium clad steels, and so on. Therefore, the authors have established the iron-rich Fe-Ti phase diagrams at the high pressure up to 2.7 GPa.

  1. Topological pumping in class-D superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibertini, Marco; Fazio, Rosario; Polini, Marco; Taddei, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    We study adiabatic pumping at a normal metal/class-D superconductor hybrid interface when superconductivity is induced through the proximity effect in a spin-orbit coupled nanowire in the presence of a tilted Zeeman field. When the induced order parameter in the nanowire is nonuniform, the phase diagram has isolated trivial regions surrounded by topological ones. We show that in this case the pumped charge is quantized in units of the elementary charge e and has a topological nature.

  2. On the Disposition of Maunders' Origninal Butterfly Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, T. J.

    2000-05-01

    On 21 May 1940, Annie S. D. Maunder mailed the original drawing of the celebrated ``Maunder Butterfly Diagram" to Stephen A., and his daughter Margaret L., Ionides. Later that same year Stephen and Margaret gave the diagram ``on indefinite loan" to Walter Orr Roberts, then the Superintendent of Fremont Pass Station of the Harvard College Observatory. The framed diagram remains on display today at the scion of that organization, the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in Boulder Colorado. Drawing upon the original correspondences, this contribution recounts the story behind the travels of the ``Maunder Butterfly" during the second World War. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

  3. Interpretation of the Hubble diagram in a nonhomogeneous universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Pierre; Dupuy, Hélène; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2013-06-01

    In the standard cosmological framework, the Hubble diagram is interpreted by assuming that the light emitted by standard candles propagates in a spatially homogeneous and isotropic spacetime. However, the light from “point sources”—such as supernovae—probes the Universe on scales where the homogeneity principle is no longer valid. Inhomogeneities are expected to induce a bias and a dispersion of the Hubble diagram. This is investigated by considering a Swiss-cheese cosmological model, which (1) is an exact solution of the Einstein field equations, (2) is strongly inhomogeneous on small scales, but (3) has the same expansion history as a strictly homogeneous and isotropic universe. By simulating Hubble diagrams in such models, we quantify the influence of inhomogeneities on the measurement of the cosmological parameters. Though significant in general, the effects reduce drastically for a universe dominated by the cosmological constant.

  4. A redetermination of the succinonitrile-water phase diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. E., Jr.; Frazier, D. O.; Kaukler, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    The phase diagram of the water/succinonitrile system often used in modeling binary metallic alloys is determined experimentally using a laser scattering method. Triply distilled and zone-refined succinonitrile is placed in a jacketed water-cooled vessel with a magnetic mixer and a copper-constantan thermocouple, and the melting point is determined under vacuum and under Ar by observing the response of a photodiode placed opposite a laser source as the chamber is cooled and reheated. Then water is added, and the eutectic and monotectic temperatures and the entire phase diagram are determined under Ar. The results are presented in a table and graph and compared to those of Schreinemakers (1897): significant discrepancies are noted and attributed to impurities in the succinonitrile used by Schreinemakers. The importance of accurate phase diagrams for modeling binary alloys is stressed.

  5. Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, M.J.

    1992-10-01

    This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.'' The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG G Idaho, Inc.'s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

  6. Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, M.J.

    1992-10-01

    This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, ``Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.`` The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG&G Idaho, Inc.`s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

  7. Cluster analysis for pattern recognition in solar butterfly diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illarionov, E.; Sokoloff, D.; Arlt, R.; Khlystova, A.

    2011-07-01

    We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. We apply two algorithms of cluster analysis for this purpose, namely DBSCAN and C-means, and demonstrate their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Then we apply the method to historical data concerning the solar activity in the 18th century (Staudacher data). The method separates the two wings for Cycle 2, but fails to separate them for Cycle 1. In our opinion, this finding supports the interpretation of the Staudacher data as an indication of the unusual nature of the solar cycle in the 18th century.

  8. Generation of Finite Life Distributional Goodman Diagrams for Reliability Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kececioglu, D.; Guerrieri, W. N.

    1971-01-01

    The methodology of developing finite life distributional Goodman diagrams and surfaces is described for presenting allowable combinations of alternating stress and mean stress to the design engineer. The combined stress condition is that of an alternating bending stress and a constant shear stress. The finite life Goodman diagrams and surfaces are created from strength distributions developed at various ratios of alternating to mean stress at particular cycle life values. The conclusions indicate that the Von Mises-Hencky ellipse, for cycle life values above 1000 cycles, is an adequate model of the finite life Goodman diagram. In addition, suggestions are made which reduce the number of experimental data points required in a fatigue data acquisition program.

  9. Influence Diagram Use With Respect to Technology Planning and Investment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.; DeHoff, Bryan; Rhodes, Russel E.

    2009-01-01

    Influence diagrams are relatively simple, but powerful, tools for assessing the impact of choices or resource allocations on goals or requirements. They are very general and can be used on a wide range of problems. They can be used for any problem that has defined goals, a set of factors that influence the goals or the other factors, and a set of inputs. Influence diagrams show the relationship among a set of results and the attributes that influence them and the inputs that influence the attributes. If the results are goals or requirements of a program, then the influence diagram can be used to examine how the requirements are affected by changes to technology investment. This paper uses an example to show how to construct and interpret influence diagrams, how to assign weights to the inputs and attributes, how to assign weights to the transfer functions (influences), and how to calculate the resulting influences of the inputs on the results. A study is also presented as an example of how using influence diagrams can help in technology planning and investment. The Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) used this technique to examine the impact of R&D spending on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of a space transportation system. The question addressed was the effect on the recurring and the non-recurring portions of LCC of the proportion of R&D resources spent to impact technology objectives versus the proportion spent to impact operational dependability objectives. The goals, attributes, and the inputs were established. All of the linkages (influences) were determined. The weighting of each of the attributes and each of the linkages was determined. Finally the inputs were varied and the impacts on the LCC determined and are presented. The paper discusses how each of these was accomplished both for credibility and as an example for future studies using influence diagrams for technology planning and investment planning.

  10. Attractive emulsion droplets probe the phase diagram of jammed granular matter

    PubMed Central

    Jorjadze, Ivane; Pontani, Lea-Laetitia; Newhall, Katherine A.; Bruji?, Jasna

    2011-01-01

    It remains an open question whether statistical mechanics approaches apply to random packings of athermal particles. Although a jamming phase diagram has recently been proposed for hard spheres with varying friction, here we use a frictionless emulsion system in the presence of depletion forces to sample the available phase space of packing configurations. Using confocal microscopy, we access their packing microstructure and test the theoretical assumptions. As a function of attraction, our packing protocol under gravity leads to well-defined jammed structures in which global density initially increases above random close packing and subsequently decreases monotonically. Microscopically, the fluctuations in parameters describing each particle, such as the coordination number, number of neighbors, and local packing fraction, are for all attractions in excellent agreement with a local stochastic model, indicating that long-range correlations are not important. Furthermore, the distributions of local cell volumes can be collapsed onto a universal curve using the predicted k-gamma distribution, in which the shape parameter k is fixed by the polydispersity while the effect of attraction is captured by rescaling the average cell volume. Within the Edwards statistical mechanics framework, this result measures the decrease in compactivity with global density, which represents a direct experimental test of a jamming phase diagram in athermal systems. The success of these theoretical tools in describing yet another class of materials gives support to the much-debated statistical physics of jammed granular matter. PMID:21368191

  11. Colour-magnitude diagrams of transiting Exoplanets - I. Systems with parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.

    2014-03-01

    Broad-band flux measurements centred around [3.6 μm] and [4.5 μm] obtained with Spitzer during the occultation of seven extrasolar planets by their host stars have been combined with parallax measurements to compute the absolute magnitudes of these planets. Those measurements are arranged in two colour-magnitude diagrams. Because most of the targets have sizes and temperatures similar to brown dwarfs, they can be compared to one another. In principle, this should permit inferences about exoatmospheres based on knowledge acquired by decades of observations of field brown dwarfs and ultracool stars' atmospheres. Such diagrams can assemble all measurements gathered so far and will provide help in the preparation of new observational programmes. In most cases, planets and brown dwarfs follow similar sequences. HD 2094589b and GJ 436b are found to be outliers, so is the night side of HD 189733b. The photometric variability associated with the orbital phase of HD 189733b is particularly revealing. The planet exhibits what appears like a spectral type and chemical transition between its day and night sides: HD 189733b straddles the L-T spectral class transition, which would imply different cloud coverage on each hemisphere. Methane absorption could be absent at its hotspot but present over the rest of the planet.

  12. Phase diagram of mechanically stretched DNA: The salt effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amar; Singh, Navin

    2013-05-01

    The cations, in the form of salt, present in a solution containing DNA play a crucial role in the opening of the two strands of DNA. We use a simple non-linear model and investigate the role of these cations on the mechanical unzipping of DNA. The Hamiltonian is modified to incorporate the solvent effect and the presence of these cations in the solution. We calculate the melting temperature as well as the critical force that is required to unzip the DNA molecule as a function of salt concentration of the solution. The phase diagrams are found to be in close agreement with the experimental phase diagrams.

  13. Strain-Temperature-Transformation (STT) Diagram for Soft Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shoubo; Xiong, Wentao; Wang, Xiaorong

    Soft materials comprise a variety of physical states that are easily deformed by shear stains or thermal fluctuations. They include suspensions, colloids, polymers, foams, gels, liquid crystals, and a number of biological materials. In this contribution, a generalized strain-temperature-transformation (STT) diagram for many soft materials is presented in which the physical states encountered are related to the strain and temperature changes. The boundary defined for the solid-to-liquid transformation in the STT diagram displays a surprising Z-shaped curve. We discuss this feature with respect to the physical nature of materials.

  14. Phase diagram of the ground states of DNA condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Trinh X.; Trinh, Hoa Lan; Giacometti, Achille; Podgornik, Rudolf; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Maritan, Amos

    2015-12-01

    The phase diagram of the ground states of DNA in a bad solvent is studied for a semiflexible polymer model with a generalized local elastic bending potential characterized by a nonlinearity parameter x and effective self-attraction promoting compaction. x =1 corresponds to the wormlike chain model. Surprisingly, the phase diagram as well as the transition lines between the ground states are found to be a function of x . The model provides a simple explanation for the results of prior experimental and computational studies and makes predictions for the specific geometries of the ground states. The results underscore the impact of the form of the microscopic bending energy at macroscopic observable scales.

  15. Trini Diagram: imaging emotional identity 3D positioning tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Clino T.

    1999-12-01

    The possibility of associating an easy-to-use mental 3D model with a computer interface is the main innovation of the Trini Diagram. For the first time, data of an emotional character can be positioned in relation to one another, permitting an intersubjective interpretation and treatment using computer tools. One of the potential applications for this new technique is that of the 'interfacing engine' for cataloging and retrieval in image banks. The Trini Diagram can also become a fundamental architecture for the construction of 'subjective interfaces' for a new form of man-machine interaction.

  16. Size Dependent Phase Diagrams of Nickel-Carbon Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnin, Y.; Zappelli, A.; Amara, H.; Ducastelle, F.; Bichara, C.

    2015-11-01

    The carbon rich phase diagrams of nickel-carbon nanoparticles, relevant to catalysis and catalytic chemical vapor deposition synthesis of carbon nanotubes, are calculated for system sizes up to about 3 nm (807 Ni atoms). A tight binding model for interatomic interactions drives the grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations used to locate solid, core shell and liquid stability domains, as a function of size, temperature, and carbon chemical potential or concentration. Melting is favored by carbon incorporation from the nanoparticle surface, resulting in a strong relative lowering of the eutectic temperature and a phase diagram topology different from the bulk one. This should lead to a better understanding of the nanotube growth mechanisms.

  17. Theoretical phase diagrams for solid H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Surh, M.P.; Runge, K.J.

    1993-07-01

    Possible phase diagrams for solid molecular para-hydrogen in the 0-200 GPa pressure regime are constructed on the basis of ab initio calculations. Structures for the broken symmetry phase (BSP) and H-A phase have recently been proposed under the assumption that the molecules are centered on sites of a hexagonal close-packed lattice with the ideal c/a ratio, i.e., only molecular orientational and electronic changes are allowed. Symmetry considerations then dictate the simplest phase diagrams consistent with experimental observations, although the possibility of additional transitions cannot be ruled out. A simple model is introduced to describe the BSP and H-A transitions.

  18. First-Class Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, Kathi; Buck, Gayle; Dopp, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    In the activity described in this article, students will explore how variables in a first-class lever, specifically arm length, position of the fulcrum, and placement of the load, affect the effort needed to lift the load. To begin the lesson, demonstrate to the class how a first-class lever works and review what is meant by the terms fulcrum,…

  19. Phase diagram of 4D field theories with chiral anomaly from holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, Martin; Leiber, Julian; Macedo, Rodrigo P.

    2016-03-01

    Within gauge/gravity duality, we study the class of four dimensional CFTs with chiral anomaly described by Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory in five dimensions. In particular we determine the phase diagram at finite temperature, chemical potential and magnetic field. At high temperatures the solution is given by an electrically and magnetically charged AdS Reissner-Nordstroem black brane. For sufficiently large Chern-Simons coupling and at sufficiently low temperatures and small magnetic fields, we find a new phase with helical order, breaking translational invariance spontaneously. For the Chern-Simons couplings studied, the phase transition is second order with mean field exponents. Since the entropy density vanishes in the limit of zero temperature we are confident that this is the true ground state which is the holographic version of a chiral magnetic spiral.

  20. Repeated Structures Found After the Solar Maximum in the Butterfly Diagrams of Coronal Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, M. Y.; Storini, M.

    2003-09-01

    The influence of the solar cycle evolution on the coronal hole space-time distribution is well known, for polar as well as for equatorial isolated sources of high speed solar wind. Among them the long-lived coronal holes occurrence from the sunspot cycle 21 on is investigated, using the coronal hole catalogue based on HeI (1083 nm) observations (Sanchez-Ibarra and Barraza-Paredes). In at least these two solar cycles (n. 21 and n. 22) a similar structure in the latitude-time diagram of coronal holes is found. The area occurs shortly after the solar maximum at around ~35° heliolatitude and consists of over several Carrington Rotations stable coronal holes (>5 Carr. Rot.s). The diagonal disappears 2-3 years later at the helioequator. Furthermore, the analysis results in a close relation between long-lived isolated coronal holes and the soft X-class flares.

  1. Granular Transformation and Irreducible Element Judgment Theory Based on Pictorial Diagrams.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ling; Wan, Qing

    2016-02-01

    As an important tool for data analysis and knowledge processing, formal concept analysis has been applied to many fields. Currently, granular computing (GrC) provides a novel approach for data analysis. In this paper, pictorial diagrams of a formal context are first defined based on equivalence relations. And then, from the viewpoint of GrC, the transformation between equivalence classes and three kinds of concepts (formal concept, property oriented concept, and object oriented concept) in formal contexts are studied. Further, using the relationships between arrow relations proposed by Wille and Ganter and irreducible elements of a concept lattice, the new judgment theorems for join(meet)-irreducible elements of a concept lattice, join-irreducible elements of a property oriented concept lattice and an object oriented concept lattice are achieved. PMID:25474816

  2. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Measuring Ternary Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodworth, Jennifer K.; Terrance, Jacob C.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is presented for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in which the ternary phase diagram of water, 1-propanol and n-heptane is measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The experiment builds upon basic concepts of NMR spectral analysis, typically taught in the undergraduate…

  3. Energy Diagrams for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions: Concepts and Misconcepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aledo, J. Carlos; Lobo, Carolina; del Valle, Alicia Esteban

    2003-01-01

    Despite the utility that energy diagrams have as a teaching and learning tool, a survey of their use, in seven popular Biochemistry textbooks, reveals that there is certain confusion around this topic. In our opinion, this confusion arises from the reluctance of authors to consider and indicate the conditions under which the reaction being

  4. Equations of State and Phase Diagrams of Ammonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    We present equations of state relating the phases and a three-dimensional phase diagram for ammonia with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data and including recent information on the high-pressure solid phases. This presentation follows similar articles on carbon dioxide and water published in this…

  5. 62. Historic propellant piping diagram of oxidant pit at Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Historic propellant piping diagram of oxidant pit at Building 202, January 6, 1956. NASA GRC drawing no. CF-101644. (On file at NASA Glenn Research Center). - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. 33. Historic photo of section diagram of Building 202, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Historic photo of section diagram of Building 202, April 30, 1958. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-47807. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. Interpreting Evolutionary Diagrams: When Topology and Process Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.; Shade, Courtney K.

    2010-01-01

    The authors argue that some diagrams in biology textbooks and the popular press presented as depicting evolutionary relationships suggest an inappropriate (anagenic) conception of evolutionary history. The goal of this research was to provide baseline data that begin to document how college students conceptualize the evolutionary relationships…

  8. 40. Photograph of a line drawing. 'FLOW DIAGRAM FOR BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photograph of a line drawing. 'FLOW DIAGRAM FOR BUILDING G-1.' Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Holston Defense Corporation. December 1, 1965. Delineator: V. N.J. Drawing # 7651-1007-528. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  9. 55. Photocopy of scale diagram (from Station 'L' office files, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Photocopy of scale diagram (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) Portland General Electric in house drawing, 1926 PLAN DEPICTING THE LOCATION OF THE CONDENSATE UNITS BUILDING L1 - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 54. Photocopy of diagram (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photocopy of diagram (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) General Electric Company pamphlet, c.1930 SECTIONAL ELEVATION OF THE 35,000 KW GENERATOR BUILDING L5 - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 51. Photocopy of diagram (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of diagram (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) General Electric Company pamphlet, c.1923 SECTIONAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE 6,000 KW TURBINE GENERATOR BUILDING L1 - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  12. 53. Photocopy of diagram (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of diagram (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) General Electric Company pamphlet, c.1925 SECTIONAL ELEVATION OF THE 20,000 KW GENERATOR BUILDING L1 - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  13. Using Tree Diagrams as an Assessment Tool in Statistics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the potential of the tree diagram, a type of graphic organizer, as an assessment tool to measure students' knowledge structures in statistics education. Students' knowledge structures in statistics have not been sufficiently assessed in statistics, despite their importance. This article first presents the rationale and method…

  14. Bi-phase transition diagrams of metallic thin multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.C.; Liu, W.; Jiang, Q. . E-mail: jiangq@jlu.edu.cn

    2005-02-01

    Phase transitions of metallic multilayers induced by differences in interface energy are considered thermodynamically, based on a thermodynamic model for interface energy and the Goldschmidt premise for lattice contraction. Bi-phase transition diagrams of Co/Cr, Zr/Nb, Ti/Nb and Ti/Al multilayers are constructed, which are in agreement with experimental results.

  15. 4d-polytopes described by Coxeter diagrams and quaternions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koca, Mehmet

    2011-03-01

    4D-polytopes and their dual polytopes can be described as the orbits of the rank-4 Coxeter-Weyl groups. Their symmetries follow from the quaternionic descriptions of the rank-4 Coxeter-Dynkin diagrams. There exists a one to one correspondence between the finite subgroups of quaternions and the rank-4 Coxeter-Weyl groups.

  16. Cognitive Activities in Complex Science Text and Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Snyder-Hogan, Lindsey E.; Luciw-Dubas, Ulana A.

    2010-01-01

    Ainsworth's (2006) DeFT framework posits that different representations may lead learners to use different strategies. We wanted to investigate whether students use different strategies, and more broadly, different cognitive activities in diagrams vs. in running text. In order to do so, we collected think-aloud protocol and other measures from 91…

  17. Introducing the Circular Flow Diagram to Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daraban, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    The circular flow of income diagram is a simplified representation of the functioning of a free-market economic system. It illustrates how businesses interact with the other economic participants within the key macroeconomic markets that coordinate the flow of income through the national economy. Therefore, it can provide students of business with…

  18. Expanding Application of the Wiggers Diagram to Teach Cardiovascular Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jamie R.; Wang, Jiun-Jr

    2014-01-01

    Dr. Carl Wiggers' careful observations have provided a meaningful resource for students to learn how the heart works. Throughout the many years from his initial reports, the Wiggers diagram has been used, in various degrees of complexity, as a fundamental tool for cardiovascular instruction. Often, the various electrical and mechanical plots…

  19. View southwest of carousel displaying schematic diagrams of electrical system; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest of carousel displaying schematic diagrams of electrical system; carousel has been rotated 180 degrees to show schematics on opposite side; operators console switchboard #1 is at lower right of photograph - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  1. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Measuring Ternary Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodworth, Jennifer K.; Terrance, Jacob C.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is presented for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in which the ternary phase diagram of water, 1-propanol and n-heptane is measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The experiment builds upon basic concepts of NMR spectral analysis, typically taught in the undergraduate

  2. Visualising Knowledge from Chat Debates in Argument Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen, T.; Marttunen, M.; Laurinen, L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether combining chat discussion and construction of an argument diagram stimulates students to formulate new ideas in practising argumentation. In this study, 16 secondary school students discussed vivisection and gender equality in pairs using both free and structured chat tools. In structured chat, the students selected

  3. Systems Analysis of Learning Theory through Causal Influence Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Ann C.; Stewart, Loraine M.

    The components of complex domains have dynamic, interdependent relationships that are often unstable. A useful method for representing relationships among elements in complex systems is causal influence diagramming, often described as concept mapping. This study employs the use of software applications, traditional assessment, and case studies to

  4. Integrating Mathematics and Science: Ecology and Venn Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leszczynski, Eliza; Munakata, Mika; Evans, Jessica M.; Pizzigoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to integrate mathematics and science have been widely recognized by mathematics and science educators. However, successful integration of these two important school disciplines remains a challenge. In this article, a mathematics and science activity extends the use of Venn diagrams to a life science context and then circles back to a…

  5. Maxima and O-C Diagrams for 489 Mira Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, T.

    2013-11-01

    Maxima for 489 Mira stars have been compiled. They were computed with data from AAVSO, AFOEV, VSOLJ, and BAA-VSS and collected from published maxima. The result is presented in a mysql database and on web pages with O-C diagrams, periods and some statistical information for each star.

  6. The Resonant Count Diagram and Solar g Mode Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, D. B.; Demarque, P.

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is provided to support the hypothesis that, because of the particular frequency separations of the solar g modes, resonant three-wave interactions stimulate only a selected few g modes. A resonant count diagram was obtained by plotting the total number of possible resonant three-wave interactions or a given beat frequency against the inverse of the beat frequency (the beat period), within a given frequency tolerance. The 1 = 1, 2, 3, 4 g modes calculated by Christensen-Dalsgaard, Gough and Morgan (1979) for a standard model of the Sun were used. The diagram has a significant peak at 160 minutes as well as other peaks at longer periods. The g modes that Delache and Scherrer (1983) tentatively identified from the Crimea-Stanford data were also plotted. These modes were found to correspond with the other peaks in the diagram. This coincidence between the observed g modes and the peaks in the resonant count diagram suggest that the observed g modes do owe their observability to resonant three-wave interactions.

  7. Software Tool Integrating Data Flow Diagrams and Petri Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Tavana, Madjid

    2010-01-01

    Data Flow Diagram - Petri Net (DFPN) is a software tool for analyzing other software to be developed. The full name of this program reflects its design, which combines the benefit of data-flow diagrams (which are typically favored by software analysts) with the power and precision of Petri-net models, without requiring specialized Petri-net training. (A Petri net is a particular type of directed graph, a description of which would exceed the scope of this article.) DFPN assists a software analyst in drawing and specifying a data-flow diagram, then translates the diagram into a Petri net, then enables graphical tracing of execution paths through the Petri net for verification, by the end user, of the properties of the software to be developed. In comparison with prior means of verifying the properties of software to be developed, DFPN makes verification by the end user more nearly certain, thereby making it easier to identify and correct misconceptions earlier in the development process, when correction is less expensive. After the verification by the end user, DFPN generates a printable system specification in the form of descriptions of processes and data.

  8. Analysing Collisions Using Minkowski Diagrams in Momentum Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokor, Nandor

    2011-01-01

    Momentum space and Minkowski diagrams are powerful tools for interpreting and analysing relativistic collisions in one or two spatial dimensions. All relevant quantities that characterize a collision, including the mass, velocity, momentum and energy of the interacting particles, both before and after collision, can be directly seen from a single…

  9. Energy Diagram for the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Drawing a schematic energy diagram for the decomposition of H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] catalyzed by MnO[subscript 2] through a simple thermometric measurement outlined in this study is intended to integrate students' understanding of thermochemistry and kinetics of chemical reactions. The reaction enthalpy, delta[subscript r]H, is

  10. Phase diagram of the disordered Bose-Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Gurarie, V.; Pollet, L.; Prokof'ev, N. V.; Svistunov, B. V.; Troyer, M.

    2009-12-01

    We establish the phase diagram of the disordered three-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model at unity filling which has been controversial for many years. The theorem of inclusions, proven by Pollet et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140402 (2009)] states that the Bose-glass phase always intervenes between the Mott insulating and superfluid phases. Here, we note that assumptions on which the theorem is based exclude phase transitions between gapped (Mott insulator) and gapless phases (Bose glass). The apparent paradox is resolved through a unique mechanism: such transitions have to be of the Griffiths type when the vanishing of the gap at the critical point is due to a zero concentration of rare regions where extreme fluctuations of disorder mimic a regular gapless system. An exactly solvable random transverse field Ising model in one dimension is used to illustrate the point. A highly nontrivial overall shape of the phase diagram is revealed with the worm algorithm. The phase diagram features a long superfluid finger at strong disorder and on-site interaction. Moreover, bosonic superfluidity is extremely robust against disorder in a broad range of interaction parameters; it persists in random potentials nearly 50 ({exclamation_point}) times larger than the particle half-bandwidth. Finally, we comment on the feasibility of obtaining this phase diagram in cold-atom experiments, which work with trapped systems at finite temperature.

  11. Using Tree Diagrams as an Assessment Tool in Statistics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the potential of the tree diagram, a type of graphic organizer, as an assessment tool to measure students' knowledge structures in statistics education. Students' knowledge structures in statistics have not been sufficiently assessed in statistics, despite their importance. This article first presents the rationale and method

  12. Equations of State and Phase Diagrams of Ammonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    We present equations of state relating the phases and a three-dimensional phase diagram for ammonia with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data and including recent information on the high-pressure solid phases. This presentation follows similar articles on carbon dioxide and water published in this

  13. Block diagrams of the radar interface and control unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Interface and Control Unit is the heart of the radar module, which occupies one complex channel of the High-Speed Data Acquisition System of the Goldstone Solar System Radar. Block diagrams of the interface unit are presented as an aid to understanding its operation and interconnections to the rest of the radar module.

  14. Phase stabilities at a glance: stability diagrams of nickel dipnictides.

    PubMed

    Bachhuber, F; Rothballer, J; Söhnel, T; Weihrich, R

    2013-12-01

    In the course of the recent advances in chemical structure prediction, a straightforward type of diagram to evaluate phase stabilities is presented based on an expedient example. Crystal structures and energetic stabilities of dipnictides NiPn2 (Pn = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) are systematically investigated by first principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the generalized gradient approximation to treat exchange and correlation. These dipnictides show remarkable polymorphism that is not yet understood systematically and offers room for the discovery of new phases. Relationships between the concerned structures including the marcasite, the pyrite, the arsenopyrite/CoSb2, and the NiAs2 types are highlighted by means of common structural fragments. Electronic stabilities of experimentally known and related AB2 structure types are presented graphically in so-called stability diagrams. Additionally, competing binary phases are taken into consideration in the diagrams to evaluate the stabilities of the title compounds with respect to decomposition. The main purpose of the stability diagrams is the introduction of an image that enables the estimation of phase stabilities at a single glance. Beyond that, some of the energetically favored structure types can be identified as potential new phases. PMID:24320392

  15. Sun Shading Diagrams for School Buildings. Educational Building Report 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooij, D.

    This publication provides data on the angles governing the design of sunshading devices for educational buildings in the countries of the Asian region and gives examples of the ways in which these data can be used. Different methods of excluding direct sunlight from teaching spaces are illustrated in a series of diagrams that show exclusion by…

  16. Energy Diagrams for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions: Concepts and Misconcepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aledo, J. Carlos; Lobo, Carolina; del Valle, Alicia Esteban

    2003-01-01

    Despite the utility that energy diagrams have as a teaching and learning tool, a survey of their use, in seven popular Biochemistry textbooks, reveals that there is certain confusion around this topic. In our opinion, this confusion arises from the reluctance of authors to consider and indicate the conditions under which the reaction being…

  17. Energy Diagram for the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Drawing a schematic energy diagram for the decomposition of H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] catalyzed by MnO[subscript 2] through a simple thermometric measurement outlined in this study is intended to integrate students' understanding of thermochemistry and kinetics of chemical reactions. The reaction enthalpy, delta[subscript r]H, is…

  18. USING THE HASSE DIAGRAM TECHNIQUE TO PRIORITIZE POTENTIAL PBTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The identification of chemicals with PBT (Persistence, Bioaccumulation,Toxicity) potential is of major interest to many organizations. In the present study about 2800 commercially important chemicals are included.

    Initially Hasse Diagram Technique (HDT) has been applied to...

  19. Design of Interactive Diagrams Structured upon Generic Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerushalmy, Michal; Naftaliev, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to study the emerging questions about design of mathematical tasks that could support the solving of challenging problems, we designed two settings of interactive diagrams that share an example represented as an animation of multi-process motion but differ in their organizational functions. The interactive settings, each comprising…

  20. The Effect of Diagrams on Online Reading Processes and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Magliano, Joseph P.; Schraw, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    This work examined how adjunct displays influence college readers' moment-by-moment processing of text and the products of reading, using reading time (Experiments 1 & 2), and think-aloud methodologies (Experiment 3). Participants did or did not study a diagram before reading a text. Overall, the reading time data, think-aloud data, and recall…

  1. Generalized Diagrams as a Tool for Young Children's Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Barbara J.; Slovin, Hannah

    2004-01-01

    Measure Up is a research and development project that uses findings from Davydov (1975) and others to introduce mathematics through measurement and algebra in grades 1-3. This paper illustrates the use of generalized diagrams and symbols in solving word problems for a group of 10 children selected from a grade 3 Measure Up classroom. Students use…

  2. Charts/diagrams of the Variable Density Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1928-01-01

    This diagram, based on a LMAL drawing from 1928, illustrates the Lab's plan for correcting the turbulent airflow that had plagued the original Variable Density Tunnel. Notice in particular the change from open-throat to closed-throat test section.

  3. Gamma-ray burst color-color diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Paciesas, W. S.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.

    1993-01-01

    We calculate the spectral hardness ratios for several intense gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which have sufficient statistics in four energy channels. We study the evolution of these hardness ratios during the events using color-color diagrams (CCDs) and we attempt a preliminary classification of GRBs based on their CCD evolution.

  4. Integrating Mathematics and Science: Ecology and Venn Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leszczynski, Eliza; Munakata, Mika; Evans, Jessica M.; Pizzigoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to integrate mathematics and science have been widely recognized by mathematics and science educators. However, successful integration of these two important school disciplines remains a challenge. In this article, a mathematics and science activity extends the use of Venn diagrams to a life science context and then circles back to a

  5. Guitar Scales in Music Notation and Tablature Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Petra

    This study guide was designed to help high school students learn the basic skills in classical guitar playing, technique, fingerboard knowledge, and musicianship. The introduction describes how to read the music notation that is presented in traditional music form and also in tablature diagrams showing finger positioning in the guitar neck.

  6. Failure Assessment Diagram for Brazed 304 Stainless Steel Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yory

    2011-01-01

    Interaction equations were proposed earlier to predict failure in Albemet 162 brazed joints. Present study demonstrates that the same interaction equations can be used for lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in 304 stainless steel joints brazed with silver-based filler metals as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagrams (FAD).

  7. Phase stabilities at a glance: Stability diagrams of nickel dipnictides

    SciTech Connect

    Bachhuber, F.; School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland ; Rothballer, J.; Weihrich, R.; Söhnel, T.; Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, The New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University Auckland, Auckland

    2013-12-07

    In the course of the recent advances in chemical structure prediction, a straightforward type of diagram to evaluate phase stabilities is presented based on an expedient example. Crystal structures and energetic stabilities of dipnictides NiPn{sub 2} (Pn = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) are systematically investigated by first principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the generalized gradient approximation to treat exchange and correlation. These dipnictides show remarkable polymorphism that is not yet understood systematically and offers room for the discovery of new phases. Relationships between the concerned structures including the marcasite, the pyrite, the arsenopyrite/CoSb{sub 2}, and the NiAs{sub 2} types are highlighted by means of common structural fragments. Electronic stabilities of experimentally known and related AB{sub 2} structure types are presented graphically in so-called stability diagrams. Additionally, competing binary phases are taken into consideration in the diagrams to evaluate the stabilities of the title compounds with respect to decomposition. The main purpose of the stability diagrams is the introduction of an image that enables the estimation of phase stabilities at a single glance. Beyond that, some of the energetically favored structure types can be identified as potential new phases.

  8. A martensite boundary on the WRC-1992 diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Kotecki, D.J.

    1999-05-01

    The upper martensite boundary line from the Schaeffler diagram for stainless steel weld metals can be transposed to the WRC-1992 diagram. However, magnetic measurements and longitudinal face bend tests of weld metals do not show good correspondence to this boundary. Many deposit compositions of lower chromium and nickel equivalents than those along Schaeffler`s transposed martensite boundary show no martensite as-deposited and pass a 2T longitudinal face bend test. Based upon magnetic measurements and bend tests of about 100 weld metal compositions, obtained as single-pass submerged arc deposits on ASTM A36 mild steel, a new martensite boundary is proposed for addition to the WRC-1992 diagram. This boundary separates compositions that exhibit no magnetic response attributable to martensite and pass a 2T longitudinal face bend test from compositions that have magnetic response that indicates the presence of as-deposited martensite and fail the bend test. Because manganese is part of neither the chromium equivalent nor the nickel equivalent on the WRC-1992 diagram, the line is specific to the Mn level considered in the tests--approximately 1%--that is suitable for most stainless steel cladding and dissimilar metal joining situations. It is probably conservative for deposits of much higher Mn content.

  9. The Use of Kruskal-Newton Diagrams for Differential Equations

    SciTech Connect

    T. Fishaleck and R.B. White

    2008-02-19

    The method of Kruskal-Newton diagrams for the solution of differential equations with boundary layers is shown to provide rapid intuitive understanding of layer scaling and can result in the conceptual simplification of some problems. The method is illustrated using equations arising in the theory of pattern formation and in plasma physics.

  10. Penrose-Carter Diagram for a Uniformly Accelerated Observer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semay, Claude

    2007-01-01

    A uniformly accelerated observer can build his proper system of coordinates in a delimited sector of the flat Minkowski spacetime. The properties of the position and time coordinate lines for such an observer are studied and compared with the coordinate lines for an inertial observer in a Penrose-Carter diagram for this spacetime.

  11. Application of Analytic Geometry to Ternary and Quaternary Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCarthy, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Advantages of representing ternary and quaternary composition diagrams by means of rectangular coordinates were pointed out in a previous paper (EJ 288 693). A further advantage of that approach is that analytic geometry, based on rectangular coordinates, is directly applicable as demonstrated by the examples presented. (JN)

  12. Expanding Application of the Wiggers Diagram to Teach Cardiovascular Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jamie R.; Wang, Jiun-Jr

    2014-01-01

    Dr. Carl Wiggers' careful observations have provided a meaningful resource for students to learn how the heart works. Throughout the many years from his initial reports, the Wiggers diagram has been used, in various degrees of complexity, as a fundamental tool for cardiovascular instruction. Often, the various electrical and mechanical plots

  13. Visualising Knowledge from Chat Debates in Argument Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen, T.; Marttunen, M.; Laurinen, L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether combining chat discussion and construction of an argument diagram stimulates students to formulate new ideas in practising argumentation. In this study, 16 secondary school students discussed vivisection and gender equality in pairs using both free and structured chat tools. In structured chat, the students selected…

  14. Computer-Generated Phase Diagrams for Binary Mixtures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolls, Kenneth R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Computer programs that generate projections of thermodynamic phase surfaces through computer graphics were used to produce diagrams representing properties of water and steam and the pressure-volume-temperature behavior of most of the common equations of state. The program, program options emphasizing thermodynamic features of interest, and…

  15. Dynamical phase diagram of Gaussian wave packets in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, H.; Neff, T.; Fleischmann, R.

    2016-03-01

    We study the dynamics of self-trapping in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) loaded in deep optical lattices with Gaussian initial conditions, when the dynamics is well described by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE). In the literature an approximate dynamical phase diagram based on a variational approach was introduced to distinguish different dynamical regimes: diffusion, self-trapping, and moving breathers. However, we find that the actual DNLSE dynamics shows a completely different diagram than the variational prediction. We calculate numerically a detailed dynamical phase diagram accurately describing the different dynamical regimes. It exhibits a complex structure that can readily be tested in current experiments in BECs in optical lattices and in optical waveguide arrays. Moreover, we derive an explicit theoretical estimate for the transition to self-trapping in excellent agreement with our numerical findings, which may be a valuable guide as well for future studies on a quantum dynamical phase diagram based on the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian.

  16. Strength diagrams of fibrous composites with unidirectional structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanova, V. S.; Ustinov, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of the composite strength on the volume proportion of fiber and the transfer factor is analyzed. Four types of diagrams are constructed for the strength of composites as a function of the volume proportion of fibers and the transfer factor.

  17. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  18. The effects of using diagramming as a representational technique on high school students' achievement in solving math word problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Banmali

    Methods and procedures for successfully solving math word problems have been, and continue to be a mystery to many U.S. high school students. Previous studies suggest that the contextual and mathematical understanding of a word problem, along with the development of schemas and their related external representations, positively contribute to students' accomplishments when solving word problems. Some studies have examined the effects of diagramming on students' abilities to solve word problems that only involved basic arithmetic operations. Other studies have investigated how instructional models that used technology influenced students' problem solving achievements. Still other studies have used schema-based instruction involving students with learning disabilities. No study has evaluated regular high school students' achievements in solving standard math word problems using a diagramming technique without technological aid. This study evaluated students' achievement in solving math word problems using a diagramming technique. Using a quasi-experimental experimental pretest-posttest research design, quantitative data were collected from 172 grade 11 Hispanic English language learners (ELLS) and African American learners whose first language is English (EFLLs) in 18 classes at an inner city high school in Northern New Jersey. There were 88 control and 84 experimental students. The pretest and posttest of each participating student and samples of the experimental students' class assignments provided the qualitative data for the study. The data from this study exhibited that the diagramming method of solving math word problems significantly improved student achievement in the experimental group (p<.01) compared to the control group. The study demonstrated that urban, high school, ELLs benefited from instruction that placed emphasis on the mathematical vocabulary and symbols used in word problems and that both ELLs and EFLLs improved their problem solving success through careful attention to the creation and labeling of diagrams to represent the mathematics involved in standard word problems. Although Learnertype (ELL, EFLL), Classtype (Bilingual and Mixed), and Gender (Female, Male) were not significant indicators of student achievement, there was significant interaction between Treatment and Classtype at the level of the Bilingual students ( p<.01) and between Treatment and Learnertype at the level of the ELLs (p<.01).

  19. Class and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mechthild

    2005-01-01

    Everyone is dependent on caring labor. Because women's labor is financially beneficial to global capitalism, gender is inseparable from class, regardless of the specific national or cultural contexts.

  20. Online, Bigger Classes May Be Better Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Marc

    2010-01-01

    In his work as a professor, Stephen Downes used to feel that he was helping those who least needed it. His students at places like the University of Alberta already had a leg up in life and could afford the tuition. When a colleague suggested they co-teach an online class in learning theory at the University of Manitoba, in 2008, Downes welcomed…

  1. Flow diagram analysis of electrical fatalities in construction industry.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Yuan; Ikhwan, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    The current study reanalyzed 250 electrical fatalities in the construction industry from 1996 to 2002 into seven patterns based on source of electricity (power line, energized equipment, improperly installed or damaged equipment), direct contact or indirect contact through some source of injury (boom vehicle, metal bar or pipe, and other conductive material). Each fatality was coded in terms of age, company size, experience, performing tasks, source of injury, accident cause and hazard pattern. The Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) was applied to the coded data of the fatal electrocution to find a subset of predictors that might derive meaningful classifications or accidents scenarios. A series of Flow Diagrams was constructed based on CHAID result to illustrate the flow of electricity travelling from electrical source to human body. Each of the flow diagrams can be directly linked with feasible prevention strategies by cutting the flow of electricity. PMID:22317293

  2. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.L.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This report is part A of Volume 3 concerning characterization, decontamination, and dismantlement.

  3. Temperature dependence of emulsion morphologies and the dispersion morphology diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H. ); Covatch, G.C.; Lim, Kyunghee )

    1991-02-07

    The recently constructed dispersion morphology diagram predicts that for amphiphile/oil/water systems there exists a range of concentrations within which only OL/AQ (oil-in-water) emulsions form and another range of concentrations for which the emulsion morphology is always AQ/OL (water-in-soil), regardless of whether the temperature is below the lower critical end-point temperature, above the upper critical end point, or between these two temperatures. These predictions contradict the PIT (phase inversion temperature) idea, that below the PIT amphiphile/oil/water systems for only oil-in-water emulsions and above the PIT they form only water-in-oil emulsions. By using electrical conductivity measurements to determine the emulsion morphologies at different temperatures for systems of constant composition, the authors show for the system studied that the previous predictions of the dispersion morphology diagram are correct.

  4. The HS chromaticity diagram and the Lmn colour space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohnal, Miroslav

    2006-03-01

    In this paper a new HS chromaticity diagram for 10-degree observer with more linear colour distribution is presented. Both, the spectral locus and curve of purple colours generate unity circle -the HS diagram. By using the CIE lightness L as the third dimension, the Lrnn colour space is generated. This new colour space is embedded into cylinder radius of 100 (it stands for chroma) and height of 100 (it stands for lightness). If n is plotted against m the points in resulting Lmn-space are not uniquely related to chromaticity because their position depends on the value of L. The colours of all object-colour stimuli fall within this cylinder boundary. The spectrum locus of the monochromatic stimuli is generally well outside the boundary of object-colour stimuli.

  5. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.L.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

  6. Phase diagram of Mo at high pressure and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M

    2008-10-01

    We report values of the Poisson Ratios for shock compressed Mo, calculated from the sound speed measurements, which provide evidence that the 210 GPa ({approx}4100K) transition cannot be a bcc-hcp transition, as originally proposed. Instead, we find the transition is from the bcc to a noncrystalline phase. For pressures above 210 GPa, the Poisson Ratio increases steadily with increasing temperature, approaching the liquid value of 0.5 at 390 GPa({approx}10,000K), suggesting the presence of a noncrystalline solid-liquid mixture. Free energy model calculations were used to show that the low melting slope of Mo, and the phase diagram, can be explained by the presence of local liquid structures. A new phase diagram is proposed for Mo that is constrained by the experimental evidence.

  7. Modification of the He3 Phase Diagram by Anisotropic Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. G.; Zhelev, N.; Smith, E. N.; Pollanen, J.; Halperin, W. P.; Parpia, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Motivated by the recent prediction that uniaxially compressed aerogel can stabilize the anisotropic A phase over the isotropic B phase, we measure the pressure dependent superfluid fraction of He3 entrained in 10% axially compressed, 98% porous aerogel. We observe that a broad region of the temperature-pressure phase diagram is occupied by the metastable A phase. The reappearance of the A phase on warming from the B phase, before superfluidity is extinguished at Tc, is in contrast to its absence in uncompressed aerogel. The phase diagram is modified from that of pure He3, with the disappearance of the polycritical point (PCP) and the appearance of a region of A phase extending below the PCP of bulk He3, even in zero applied magnetic field. The expected alignment of the A phase texture by compression is not observed.

  8. State-Transition Diagram for Visual Programming Tool GUEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obu, Yuka; Maruo, Kazuhiro; Yonekura, Tatsuhiro; Kamada, Masaru; Okamoto, Shusuke

    Many people have been interested in Web 2.0, which is a new concept of Web service. Web sites became sources of information and functionality that enables users to create new content of their own. For this demand, more versatile browsers that enables users to edit and display content based on their creative concepts and preferences are required. Motivated by this demand, we have developed a state-transition diagram-based Web browser programming scheme that supports participatory Web use and enables end-user to interact with Web content. We implemented a prototype of our scheme called GUEST (Graphical User interface Editor by State-transition Diagram). GUEST enables users to define behaviors of a Web browser easily. However, there are some parts of complexity of user interfaces that prevent the users’ intuitive understanding in the original version of GUEST. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on user interface, and introduce a new concept of the design.

  9. Size Dependent Phase Diagrams of Nickel-Carbon Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Magnin, Y; Zappelli, A; Amara, H; Ducastelle, F; Bichara, C

    2015-11-13

    The carbon rich phase diagrams of nickel-carbon nanoparticles, relevant to catalysis and catalytic chemical vapor deposition synthesis of carbon nanotubes, are calculated for system sizes up to about 3 nm (807 Ni atoms). A tight binding model for interatomic interactions drives the grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations used to locate solid, core shell and liquid stability domains, as a function of size, temperature, and carbon chemical potential or concentration. Melting is favored by carbon incorporation from the nanoparticle surface, resulting in a strong relative lowering of the eutectic temperature and a phase diagram topology different from the bulk one. This should lead to a better understanding of the nanotube growth mechanisms. PMID:26613451

  10. Design of processes with reactive distillation line diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Bessling, B.; Schembecker, G.; Simmrock, K.H.

    1997-08-01

    On the basis of the transformation of concentration coordinates, the concept of reactive distillation lines is developed. It is applied to study the feasibility of a reactive distillation with an equilibrium reaction on all trays of a distillation column. The singular points in the distillation line diagrams are characterized in terms of nodes and saddles. Depending on the characterization of the reactive distillation line diagrams, it can be decided whether a column with two feed stages is required. On the basis of the reaction space concept, a procedure for identification of reactive distillation processes is developed, in which the reactive distillation column has to be divided into reactive and nonreactive sections. This can be necessary to overcome the limitations in separation which result from the chemical equilibrium. The concentration profile of this combined reactive/nonreactive distillation column is estimated using combined reactive/nonreactive distillation lines.

  11. Phase diagram of a bulk 1d lattice Coulomb gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Démery, V.; Monsarrat, R.; Dean, D. S.; Podgornik, R.

    2016-01-01

    The exact solution, via transfer matrix, of the simple one-dimensional lattice Coulomb gas (1d LCG) model can reproduce peculiar features of ionic liquid capacitors, such as overscreening, layering, and camel- and bell-shaped capacitance curves. Using the same transfer matrix method, we now compute the bulk properties of the 1d LCG in the constant voltage ensemble. We unveil a phase diagram with rich structure exhibiting low-density disordered and high-density ordered phases, separated by a first-order phase transition at low temperature; the solid state at full packing can be ordered or not, depending on the temperature. This phase diagram, which is strikingly similar to its three-dimensional counterpart, also sheds light on the behaviour of the confined system.

  12. Measurement uncertainty of liquid chromatographic analyses visualized by Ishikawa diagrams.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Veronika R

    2003-09-01

    Ishikawa, or cause-and-effect diagrams, help to visualize the parameters that influence a chromatographic analysis. Therefore, they facilitate the set up of the uncertainty budget of the analysis, which can then be expressed in mathematical form. If the uncertainty is calculated as the Gaussian sum of all uncertainty parameters, it is necessary to quantitate them all, a task that is usually not practical. The other possible approach is to use the intermediate precision as a base for the uncertainty calculation. In this case, it is at least necessary to consider the uncertainty of the purity of the reference material in addition to the precision data. The Ishikawa diagram is then very simple, and so is the uncertainty calculation. This advantage is given by the loss of information about the parameters that influence the measurement uncertainty. PMID:14558938

  13. Si-Ge-metal ternary phase diagram calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, J. P.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1990-01-01

    Solution crystal growth and doping conditions of Si-Ge alloys used for high-temperature thermoelectric generation are determined here. Liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) has been successfully employed recently to obtain single-crystalline homogeneous layers of Si-Ge solid solutions from a liquid metal solvent. Knowledge of Si-Ge-metallic solvent ternary phase diagrams is essential for further single-crystal growth development. Consequently, a thermodynamic equilibrium model was used to calculate the phase diagrams of the Si-Ge-M systems, including solid solubilities, where M is Al, Ga, In, Sn, Pb, Sb, or Bi. Good agreement between calculated liquidus and solidus data and experimental DTA and microprobe results was obtained. The results are used to compare the suitability of the different systems for crystal growth (by LPE-type process).

  14. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Phase Diagrams: Fifty Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Avraham; Kröger, Martin; Winnik, Françoise M

    2015-12-14

    In 1968, Heskins and Guillet published the first systematic study of the phase diagram of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), at the time a "young polymer" first synthesized in 1956. Since then, PNIPAM became the leading member of the growing families of thermoresponsive polymers and of stimuli-responsive, "smart" polymers in general. Its thermal response is unanimously attributed to its phase behavior. Yet, in spite of 50 years of research, a coherent quantitative picture remains elusive. In this Review we survey the reported phase diagrams, discuss the differences and comment on theoretical ideas regarding their possible origins. We aim to alert the PNIPAM community to open questions in this reputably mature domain. PMID:26612195

  15. Numerical Simulation of Nonperiodic Rail Operation Diagram Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yongsheng; Wang, Bingbing; Zeng, Junwei; Wang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    This paper succeeded in utilizing cellular automata (CA) model to simulate the process of the train operation under the four-aspect color light system and getting the nonperiodic diagram of the mixed passenger and freight tracks. Generally speaking, the concerned models could simulate well the situation of wagon in preventing trains from colliding when parking and restarting and of the real-time changes the situation of train speeds and displacement and get hold of the current train states in their departures and arrivals. Finally the model gets the train diagram that simulates the train operation in different ratios of the van and analyzes some parameter characters in the process of train running, such as time, speed, through capacity, interval departing time, and departing numbers. PMID:25435863

  16. TIME-TEMPERATURE-TRANSFORMATION (TTT) DIAGRAMS FOR FUTURE WASTE COMPOSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, A.; Edwards, T.

    2010-07-08

    As a part of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms defined by the Department of Energy - Office of Environmental Management, the waste form stability must be determined for each of the projected high-level waste (HLW) types at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, WAPS 1.4.1 requires the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) to be defined and time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams to be developed. The T{sub g} of a glass is an indicator of the approximate temperature where the supercooled liquid converts to a solid on cooling or conversely, where the solid begins to behave as a viscoelastic solid on heating. A TTT diagram identifies the crystalline phases that can form as a function of time and temperature for a given waste type or more specifically, the borosilicate glass waste form. In order to assess durability, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) was used and the durability results compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measurement of glass transition temperature and the development of TTT diagrams have already been performed for the seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected compositions as defined in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and in SRNL-STI-2009-00025. Additional phase transformation information exists for other projected compositions, but overall these compositions did not cover composition regions estimated for future waste processing. To develop TTT diagrams for future waste types, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated two caches of glass from reagent grade oxides to simulate glass compositions which would be likely processed with and without Al dissolution. These were used for glass transition temperature measurement and TTT diagram development. The glass transition temperatures of both glasses were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and were recorded to be 448 C and 452 C. Using the previous TTT diagrams as guidance, subsamples of each glass were isothermally heat treated for 1 to 768 hours at temperatures between 500 C to 1000 C. Each of the heat treated samples, along with quenched and centerline canister cooled (CCC) treated samples, were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the PCT. Maximum crystallization was detected in samples treated at 700 C and 600 C for more than 96 hours in both glasses. Phases crystallized were similar in composition if not the same as those found in the previous TTT studies. Six different crystalline phases were detected, including nepheline, aegirine, lithium silicate, trevorite (spinel based), krinovite, and calcium magnesium iron silicon oxide. Overall, phases were spinel (iron) based, lithium metasilicate, sodium aluminosilicate or alkali transition metal silicate in composition. No new crystalline families were detected. Durability, as measured by the PCT, decreased when lithium silicate or nepheline crystals were present. The conclusions of this study were consistent with previous studies. In order to continue to meet the requirements of the WCP, a simplified strategy is suggested for the generation of future TTT diagrams. Only extremely significant changes in composition resulting from processing strategy changes would require generating more TTT diagrams.

  17. Use of influence diagrams in gas transfer system option prioritization

    SciTech Connect

    Heger, A.S.; Garcia, M.D.

    1995-08-01

    A formal decision-analysis methodology was applied to aid the Department of Energy (DOE) in deciding which of several gas transfer system (GTS) options should be selected. The decision objectives for this case study, i.e., risk and cost, were directly derived from the DOE guidelines. Influence diagrams were used to define the structure of the decision problem and clearly delineate the flow if information. A set of performance matrices wee used in conjunction with the influence diagrams to assess and evaluate the degree to which the objectives of the case study were met. These performance measures were extracted from technical models, design and operating data, and professional judgments. The results were aggregated to provide an overall evaluation of the different design options of the gas transfer system. Consequently, the results of this analysis were used as an aid to DOE to select a viable GTS option.

  18. A Wittgenstein Approach to the Learning of OO-Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmboe, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The paper uses Ludwig Wittgenstein's theories about the relationship between thought, language, and objects of the world to explore the assumption that OO-thinking resembles natural thinking. The paper imports from research in linguistic philosophy to computer science education research. I show how UML class diagrams (i.e., an artificial

  19. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  20. Flow Effects on the Flammability Diagrams of Solid Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, J. L.; Ceamanos, J.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Long, R. T.; Torero, J. L.; Quintiere, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    A research program is currently underway with the final objective of developing a fundamental understanding of the controlling mechanisms underlying the flammability diagrams of solid combustible materials and their derived fire properties. Given that there is a high possibility of an accidental fire occurring in a space-based facility, understanding the fire properties of materials that will be used in such facilities is of critical importance. With this purpose, the flammability diagrams of the materials, as those produced by the Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Test (LIFT) apparatus and by a new forced flow device, the Forced Flow Ignition and Flame Spread Test (FIST) apparatus, will be obtained. The specific objective of the program is to apply the new flammability apparatus, which will more accurately reflect the potential ambient conditions of space-based environments, to the characterization of the materials for space applications. This paper presents a parametric study of oxidizer flow effects on the ignition curve of the flammability diagrams of PMMA. The dependence of the ignition delay time on the external radiant flux and either the sample width (LIFT) or the flow velocity (FIST) has been studied. Although preliminary, the results indicate that natural and forced convection flow changes, affect the characteristics of the ignition curves of the flammability diagrams. The major effect on the ignition time appears to be due to convective transfer variations at the fuel surface. At high radiant fluxes or high flow velocities, however, it appears that gas phase processes become increasingly important, affecting the overall ignition delay time. A numerical analysis of the solid fuel heating and pyrolysis has also been developed. The theoretical predictions approximate the experiments well for conditions in which the gas phase induction time is negligible.