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Microsoft Academic Search

La consideración de la temática ambiental en el espacio urbano, desde una perspectiva global es un fenómeno nuevo, al menos, en América Latina. Desde hace varias décadas, los esfuerzos por mejorar las condiciones ambientales en nuestras ciudades se limitaron a la construcción progresiva de sistema de captación de agua y transporte de aguas servidas, sistemas de recolección de basura, entre

Eduardo López Bastidas; Tania Goicochea Borrell



Zinc sérico en menores de 15 años de una comunidad rural del estado Lara  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract. The aim of this research was to determine the levels of serum zinc in a rural population under 15 years old, in Lara State, Venezuela, in order to know the deficiencies of this oligoelement and start the nutritional inter- vention by the involved organizations. The sample was made up of 310 subjects (M: 163; F: 147)

Yelitza Berné Peña; Jham Frank Papale; Mario Torres; Norelys Mendoza; Graciela Dellan Rodríguez; Diolisbeth Rodríguez; Zuly Briceño; José Miguel Moreno



Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: In adolescence are configured the ideals of life alter that will form the identity of the adult. According to OMS the prevalence it reaches 8% in young. The province of Corrientes has the highest indexes of suicides in Argentine. OBJETIVE: determinate the prevalence of anxiety and de- pression on teenagers in habitants of the rural population, and the coexistences

Alejandro Festorazzi Acosta; Alejandro Luis Rodríguez; Javier Andrés Lotero


Los Asentamientos Campesinos: Una Experiencia Panamena en Reforma Agraria (Rural Settlements: An Experiment on Agrarian Reformation in Panama).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The situation of the Panama rural population is analyzed through historical periods. The marked differences between the two zones of the country; the more sophisiticated area crossed by the Canal and the hinterland of the interior are contrasted. Comparis...

S. Heckadon



La Implementacion de la Tecnologia en el Salon de Clases: Una guia para los que toman decisiones en las escuelas rurales (Putting Technology into the Classroom: A Guide for Rural Decision Makers).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended for superintendents and central office staff in small, rural school districts who are considering ways of using technology in the classroom. It provides information about why technology is worth the trouble and what it can accomplish, lays out the basic issues and tasks involved in integrating technology into classroom…

Boethel, Martha; Dimock, K. Victoria; Hatch, Lin; Adams, Sharon, Ed.; Heath, Marilyn, Ed.


Rural Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rural development deals with two largely independent problems: (1) urban unemployment in small, nonmetropolitan cities and (2) rural poverty. Contrary to popular belief, unemployment is not an important cause of rural poverty. What overlap there is betwee...

L. F. Wheat



Rural Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course in rural studies, as part of the Home Economics curriculum at Worcester College of Education, provides students with the opportunity to grow their own vegetables and flowers, look after livestock, and experience a rural environment. (RY)

Tuckley, Betty; Hitchings, Jim



Rural Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be scientific, rural sociology must have a distinctive conceptual basis; therefore, defining "rural" has long been a major concern of rural sociologists. Recently faced with similar problems, political economists have revitalized the field of urban sociology by looking beyond the city to the social production of spatial forms under capitalism.…

Gilbert, Jess


Rural Agrobusiness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

Treillon, Roland; And Others



What Is Rural?  


... rural territory and populations." 3. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Services Rural Classification Page: http://www. ... Sources that Define Rural 1. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service for research and policy. The ...


Rural-Urban Connections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication combines three papers on rural and urban youth issues. "Key Issues Facing Rural Youth" (Daniel F. Perkins) notes that rural adolescents share the same concerns and exhibit the same problem behaviors as their urban counterparts. But in addition, geographic isolation presents problems unique to rural areas. A framework is proposed…

Perkins, Daniel F.; LaGreca, Anthony J.; Mullis, Ronald L.


Rural Development Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elements essential to an adequate framework for rural development in the U.S. are a national growth and development policy which includes a rural development strategy and definition of common problems and programmatic actions required to deal with them. Many past federal rural development programs (lacking a federal rural policy focus) have failed…

Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Economic Development Div.


The Rural Bellwether.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of "State Education Leader" contains eight articles on rural education. "The Rural Bellwether" (Kathy Christie) discusses declining enrollment in rural schools, rural problems with teacher shortages and special education funding, issues related to school size and school district size, and distance learning initiatives. "Iowa Links…

Walker, Sherry Freeland, Ed.



Rural Education: A Changing Landscape.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains symposium papers on the topic of rural education. The following facets of the subject are covered: Characteristics of rural youth and schooling; Problems and issues of rural education; and School improvement strategies for rural educat...

J. D. Stern



Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.


National Rural Health Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The antiquated image of the "old-time" family doctor traveling hundreds of miles to see patients widely dispersed across the rural landscape may remain in the minds of some persons, but the truth of the matter is that many persons in rural America have relatively little access to adequate health care. Advocating on the behalf of rural Americans (and their health) is the National Rural Health Association (NRHA). While some of the material on the site is available only to members, there is certainly enough publicly available information here to warrant several visits. On the site, visitors can read about rural health policy and read articles from the NRHA's own publication, The Journal of Rural Health. Of additional value is the NRHA issue papers and policy briefs section, which includes papers that cover topics such as the special needs of rural veterans and HIV/AIDS in rural America and its disproportionate impact on minority and multicultural populations.


Rural Health Concerns  


People in rural areas face some different health issues than people who live in towns and cities. Getting health care can ... long distances to get routine checkups and screenings. Rural areas often have fewer doctors and dentists, and ...


Rural and Rural Farm Population: 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This government report presents information on age, sex, labor force activities, and race and ethnic origin of the rural and rural farm population for 1987. Also included are fertility characteristics for the June 1987 Current Population Survey (CPS) supplement and data from the March 1987 CPS supplement on marital status, household, family…

Kalbacher, Judith Z.; DeAre, Diana



Energy for rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period

Frauke Urban; René M. J. Benders; Henri C. Moll



Agriculture and Rural Viability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.


Joining Rural Development Theory and Rural Education Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…

Hammer, Patricia Cahape


Rural Energy Policy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the development course of rural energy policy in China, discusses some special factors which influenced the rural energy development, and shows the effect of the main rural energy policies in the rural energy construction development,as well as provides further thinking about rural energy policy research of China in the future. Along with the urbanization, the proportion of



The Rural Challenge: Rural Schools and Communities Working as Partners for the Future of Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Annenberg Rural Challenge locates and funds exemplary rural public school programs to serve as models for rural education reform. The guiding theory of the Rural Challenge is that when rural schools base their teaching on the economy, ecology, history, and culture of their communities while fully engaging the community in the school's work,…

Annenberg Rural Challenge, Granby, CO.


Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the two issues of "Rural Mathematics Educator" published in 2002. This newsletter of the Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment, and Instruction in Mathematics (ACCLAIM) includes articles on rural mathematics education, as well as information and descriptions of professional development opportunities for…

Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002



Rural Development Chartbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various phases of rural development in the United States are examined using graphs and tables which provide such statistics as the urban-rural total population, migration status by race, farm population and outmigration, nonfarm nonmetropolitan growth rate, per capita personal income, earnings by industrial source, earnings by occupational group,…

Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.


Supporting Rural Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While city educators and "country" educators might argue whose hardships are greater, rural school leaders unquestionably recognize that their greatest challenge today is building, sustaining, and supporting a teacher corps so that schools can operate at high levels. Inattention to rural teachers' concerns in education reform arenas exacerbates…

Williams, Doris Terry



Trust in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses elements of trust in rural areas in terms of trust influencing business processes, economic sustainability and business innovation in a regional and rural network context. Contrasting globalisation and localisation, the paper starts with a brief overview of cluster and network formation in general and highlights federal and state governments' renewed interest in industry collaboration through clusters. The

Patrice Braun; Julian Lowe


Rural Potable Water Chlorination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper addresses two questions: (1) What is the most desirable form of sanitizing chemical for use in rural water supplies; and (2) What is the best overall means of getting this sanitizing agent into rural water supplies. Several chemicals and hypochl...

W. E. Hanford A. Long



Rural Development Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book seeks to provide a basis for reexamining rural development policy by presenting comprehensive and current information on the effectiveness of various rural policy approaches. An introduction that defines development terminology and discusses changing policy needs is followed by 13 chapters that represent the best recent research…

Sears, David W., Ed.; Reid, J. Norman, Ed.


Preparing Rural Elementary Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past 14 years, the elementary rural teacher training program at Brigham Young University (BYU), Utah, has successfully provided an 8-week student teaching experience which has assisted more than 250 prospective teachers in comparing their lifestyle and interests with those of rural America. Student participants are required to live with…

Campbell, Milo K.


Information for Rural Development: Challenge for Nigerian Rural Public Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the role that innovative rural public library services can play in the development process of Nigeria to improve rural users' literacy and education and enhance their ability to use practical information relevant to their daily lives. Discusses information needs in rural Nigeria and the role of the rural librarian. (Author/LRW)

Okiy, Rose Bini



Reconnecting Rural America. Report on Rural Intercity Passenger Transportation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the results of three regional symposia held during 1987-88 to gather grassroots information about rural passenger transportation needs across the country. The first section describes the structural transformation of rural America in the 1980s: (1) the rural economy; (2) rural population trends; (3) impact of information…

Stommes, Eileen S.


Why Rural Matters 2007: The Realities of Rural Education Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Why Rural Matters" is the fourth in a series of biennial reports analyzing the importance of rural education in each of the 50 states and calling attention to the urgency with which policymakers in each state should address rural education issues. The researchers framed this report around five gauges measuring: (1) the importance of rural

Johnson, Jerry; Strange, Marty



Information for rural development: challenge for Nigerian rural public libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria is a developing country where the majority of the population live in rural areas. The majority of these rural dwellers are either non-literate or semi-literate. The need to involve them in the national development process cannot be overemphasized. This can be achieved through the identification of the information needs of rural dwellers and the provision of innovative rural public

Rose Bini Okiy



Ethics of rural health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

One quarter of the US population live in areas designated as rural. Delivery of rural health care can be difficult with unique challenges including limited access to specialists such as oncologists. The Rural Cancer Outreach Program is an alliance between an academic medical center and five rural hospitals. Due to the presence of this program, the appropriate use of narcotics

Laurie J. Lyckholm; Mary Helen Hackney; Thomas J. Smith




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Reversing Rural America's Economic Decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental structural changes in technology, markets, and organizations are redrawing our nation's economic map and leaving many rural areas behind. Yet our de-facto federal rural policy—providing massive subsidies to a shrinking number of farmers— does little to help develop competitive rural economies or boost opportunity for rural residents. There is a growing recognition, not just in developing nations but in

Robert D. Atkinson


Rural Schools for Tomorrow. Yearbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 1945 National Education Association yearbook focuses attention on the post-World War II problems of rural schools and encourages national, state, and local leaders to lay plans for strengthening rural education programs. The articles examine social and economic problems faced by rural Americans, the implications of these problems for rural

Butterworth, Julian E., Ed.


Social Studies in Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventy six teachers and 737 social studies students from rural high schools in six states were surveyed to determine whether rural secondary social studies programs discuss topics and themes that provide an insight into rural America. Findings suggest that rural life-styles are inadequately portrayed in social studies curricula. (AM)

Morris, John E.; Garcia, Jesus




Microsoft Academic Search

Definitions of the concepts of rural, community, and development suggest problems for a policy of rural community development. An effective policy must address two barriers to development of community among residents of rural areas: 1) deficits in access to resources for meeting common needs and 2) severe inequalities in access to resources that are available. Rurality encourages community development when

Kenneth P. Wilkinson


Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.



Rural Libraries, Volume XIV, 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2 issues in this volume contain 10 articles on rural libraries and information access in rural America. Topics include telecommunications and distance education in Nebraska, the future of small rural public libraries, federal programs to improve rural access to information, outreach issues for public libraries, and the role of information in…

Pratt, Mary Lou, Ed.



The Rural Outreach Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rural Outreach Project was designed to increase the diversity of NASA's workforce by: 1) Conducting educational research designed to investigate the most effective strategies for expanding innovative, NASA-sponsored pre-college programs into rural areas; 2) Field-testing identified rural intervention strategies; 3) Implementing expanded NASA educational programs to include 300 rural students who are disabled, female and/or minority; and 4) Disseminating project strategies. The Project was a partnership that included NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, Norfolk State University, Cooperative Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) and Paul D. Camp Community College. There were four goals and activities identified for this project; 1) Ascertain effective strategies for expanding successful NASA-sponsored urban-based, pre-college programs into rural settings; 2) Field test identified rural intervention strategies; 3) Publish or disseminate two reports, concerning project research and activities at a national conference; 4) Provide educational outreach to 300, previously underserved, rural students who are disabled, female and /or minority.

Coleman, Clarence D.



Project '80, Rural Michigan Now and in 1980; Rural Family Living and Rural Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine what adjustments the rural family will be making in the next 15 years, this study, a part of Project '80, examines past trends and future projections for the Michigan rural family. The first section on rural family living gives rural family characteristics which include information on transportation, communications, clothing, food,…

Ferrar, Barbara; And Others


Housing Rural Communities: Connecting Rural Dwellings to Rural Development in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the interaction between rural development policy and planning policies for rural housing within the context of Ireland. Drawing on an interpretive approach to policy analysis, the paper examines competing narratives of ‘the rural’ within the policy arena that underpin a fragmented approach to rural sustainable development. The evidence points to a disconnection between these spheres of public

Mark Scott; Michael Murray



Rural Assistance Center  


... Training Tracks Testing New Approaches Learn about rural demonstration projects that test new approaches and models of ... Extended Stay Clinics Frontier Community Health Integration Program Demonstration Demonstrating Need & Impact Tools for grantwriting and demonstrating ...


African rural settlement patterns.  


Rural settlements, characterized by illiteracy, traditionalism, isolationism, and an agricultural economy, dominate Tropical Africa. This paper presents an historical review of settlement evolution from before colonial rule to the present, to provide a better understanding of rural life for government policy formulation purposes. Before colonial rule, the early 19th century slave trade drove many villagers into scattered, remote settlements which were further established by increased food production, and decreased migration. After Africa's partition (1885), various governments concentrated dispersed settlements for security and administrative control. Rural settlements were transformed through colonial force, desires by the villagers for more land and wealth, and new settlement establishment by Europeans. In present day Africa, improved communication, a more diversified economy, and less traditional conservatism still influence rural settlement patterns. Resource development and agricultural and medical reasons currently act to change settlements, but villagers are now compensated for such moves and may even improve their earning power from them. The author describes settlement patterns in Sierra Leone, which typify much of Tropical Africa. Hill settlements, which offered security against intertribal wars, predominated in the 19th Century, but the Hut Tax War (1989) brought tranquility and an improved economy. Today, much of rural Sierra Leone has lost its population to diamond and iron mining areas. Modernization has changed food, housing, settlement size, and arrangement and farming techniques. The author emphasizes the strong environmental influences on settlement evolution and development, and urges a greater understanding of rural settlements to aid in future planning for Tropical Africa's people. PMID:12143658

Kaloko, F R



Defining rural hospital markets.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to examine the geographic scope of rural hospital markets. DATA SOURCES. The study uses 1988 Medicare patient discharge records (MedPAR) and hospital financial information (HCRIS) for all rural hospitals participating in the Medicare Program. STUDY DESIGN. Hospital-specific market areas are compared to county-based market areas using a series of geographic and socioeconomic-demographic dimensions as well as indicators of market competitiveness. The potential impact of alternative market configurations on health services research is explored by estimating a model of rural hospital closure. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. Hospital-specific market areas were defined using the zip code of patient origin. Zip code-level data were subsequently aggregated to the market level. FINDINGS. Using the county as the hospital market area results not only in the inclusion of areas from which the hospital does not draw patients but also in the exclusion of areas from which it does draw patients. The empirical estimation of a model of rural hospital closure shows that the definition of a hospital market area does not jeopardize the ability to identify major risk factors for closure. CONCLUSIONS. Market area definition may be key to identifying and monitoring populations at risk from rural hospital decisions to downsize or close their facilities. Further research into the market areas of rural hospitals that have closed would help to develop alternative, and perhaps more relevant, definitions of the population at risk.

Goody, B



Rural power quality  

SciTech Connect

Very little published literature is available on the quality of power being delivered to rural industries. This paper will present the results of a detailed power quantity monitoring survey of 17 out of the 23 small rural industries surveyed (i.e., poultry broiler, poultry layer, beef feedlot, and pig (farrow to finish) rural industrial sites) and sponsored by the Canadian Electrical Association; the survey will provide a knowledge base on rural power quality and the possible origins of power supply anomalies. This paper will summarize the major power quality problems experienced at the various industrial sites and present some of the significant results of an across Canada questionnaire survey on On-farm Electrical Power Disturbances. The results of these surveys will provide a basis for mitigating actions by the utilities and their rural industrial customers by enhancing their ability to identify the possible origins of power supply disturbances affecting the performance of electronic and electrical equipment at the various farm industrial sites.

Koval, D.O. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Chang, J.C. (Alberta Agriculture Engineering Services Branch, Edmonton (CA)); Leonard, J. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)



Rural Youth as a Factor of Rural Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to determine West German rural youths' involvement in and availability to the mechanism of social change, surveys of youth aged 17-28 in towns of less than 5,000 people were made in 1955, 1968, and 1980. Between 1955 and 1980 the social structure of rural youth changed dramatically, especially in employment. In 1955, 55% of rural youth…

Planck, Ulrich


The Rural Arena: The Diversity of Protest in Rural England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 15-20 years, the rural areas of England have been used by a wide diversity of groups as the stage for their protest activities. Some have argued that this is due the rise of a rural social movement; this paper contends that rural areas have become both available and advantageous as the locale of protest through a range of interlocking…

Reed, Matt



Imaginario Social: Una aproximación  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este texto presentamos una revisión, -a modo de ejercicio de reflexión colectiva-, de la extensa producción bibliográfica de Michel Maffesoli, buscando articular desde los supuestos presentes en su obra, la noción de imaginario social. Para comprender el contexto de producción de este sociólogo francés, hemos comenzado por hacer una breve revisión de sus principales trabajos e influencias teóricas. Posteriormente

Ricardo Espinoza; Raúl García; Martín Holzknecht; Carolina Jiménez


Cancer treatment in rural areas.  


The inability to deliver cancer prevention and treatment to the rural population poses a significant barrier in the national effort to reduce cancer mortality. Since 25 percent of the U.S. population lives in rural areas and few rural areas are readily accessible to cancer centers or Community Clinical Oncology Programs (CCOPs), the prospects for accomplishing the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Goals for the Year 2000 are limited unless substantive changes occur in rural cancer care delivery. This article reviews the problem of cancer risk and care in rural areas and describes one effort to deliver state-of-the-art cancer treatment to rural patients in Virginia. It describes the needs and barriers to access in rural Virginia, the structural elements of the Rural Cancer Outreach Program, and the health policy issues that result when subspecialty care is exported to disadvantaged areas. PMID:10122367

Desch, C E; Smith, T J; Breindel, C L; Simonson, C J; Kane, N



Preparing Teachers for Rural Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of some of the problems faced by teachers in rural and small schools and advances the need for inservice and preservice programs to teach special competencies necessary for teachers in rural communities. (SB)

Guenther, John; Weible, Tom



Rural Special Education: A Dilemma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article lists and discusses five problems in rural special education: a) low population density, b) financial constraints resulting from lower tax bases, c) rural flight, d) inability to recruit and retain quality personnel, and e) lack of future. (HMD)

Heller, Harold W.



Rural Community Assistance Corporation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1978, the Rural Community Assistance Corporation (RCAC) is dedicated âÂÂto assisting rural communities in achieving their goals and visions by providing training, technical assistance and access to resources.â Their work is primarily focused on work in the 13 Western states and for communities with populations under 50,000. The homepage is quite inviting, and allows users to peruse a list of upcoming events and support activities sponsored by the RCAC or other like-minded organizations. Persons seeking assistance or working on behalf of such communities will appreciate information from the homepage on such programs as housing, financing, and rural infrastructure development initiatives. The publications area of the site is quite strong, especially considering that visitors can study over ten newsletters here, including Alaska Anew, which details specifically with the search for finding solutions to the solid waste problem in Alaska.


Rural Education: A Changing Landscape.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection features 11 papers from a national symposium on rural education. The papers are consistent in noting that while there are common elements among all schools regardless of location, rural schools operate within a unique context. Several papers address the diversity of rural locales and the challenges educators face in such locales.…

Daly, Carson, Ed.; Stern, Joyce D., Ed.


Gifted Voices from Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on gifted and talented education in six rural schools. An introduction summarizes a 1999 national assessment of rural gifted education and points out that the standards movement may hinder development of both effective rural schools and gifted programming. Of the six schools profiled, two were founded especially for gifted and…

Colangelo, Nicholas; Assouline, Susan G.; New, Jennifer K.


New Directions in Rural Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of major economic forces shaping the future of rural America provides insights about the likely importance and effectiveness of various broad program alternatives as components of a rural development policy. The rural economic base was transformed during the 1960s and 1970s from a primary dependence on natural resource activities,…

Deavers, Kenneth L.


Recreation and the Rural Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the literature on recreation for the rural elderly is organized into seven sections. The first section is a brief overview of the values and socio-economic characteristics of the rural elderly. In the next section, studies on the leisure interests and the recreation participation patterns of the rural elderly are presented. The…

Leitner, Michael J.; And Others


Public Services in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines issues in the delivery of public services in rural areas. The importance of access to urban areas in identifying differences in rural delivery problems is emphasized. It is no longer accurate to equate "rural" with agriculture and farming, drawing a distinction between those who have easy access to an urban area and those who…

Rainey, Kenneth D.


Purposeful Play in Rural Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how children in rural Venezuela are trained in agricultural skills by the extended family. The highly organized training encourages play and exploration as important elements in familiarzing children with implements and methods of food production. It is suggested that rural school planners draw ideas from the rural family's educative…

Chesterfield, Ray



Issues in Rural Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with some of the unique aspects of rural practice in child welfare, such as the interface between juvenile justice agencies and child welfare programs, poverty, and the changing roles (especially economic) of rural women. Demonstrates urban-type programs are often not appropriate in dealing with rural problems. (Author)

Jankovic, Joanne



Improving Opportunities in Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems in rural communities stem from the steady downtrend of employment in agriculture, forestry, and mining, while gains in non-farm industries have not been sufficient to offset this decline and provide jobs for a growing rural labor force. There is an increasing deficit of talent in rural areas due to urban migration. The overall strategy to…

Taylor, Henry L.


Recent rural health research.  


Recent rural health research may be examined in two ways: needs and solutions. A definition of needs requires an evaluation of the social factors that affect the expectations and the behavior of both the provider and the consumer. Three types of solutions should be considered: the appropriate utilization of manpower, including the efforts to influence physician location and specialty distribution, new health practitioners, and team approaches; the new technology for transportation and communication; and the organization of new delivery systems. Two areas of rural health research that need more attention are program evaluation and financial planning. PMID:10318

Wright, D D



Rural Conditions and Trends, Spring 1995, Vol. 6, No. 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The issue contains the following articles: Overview--Rural Financial Institutions Are in Good Shape but must Stay Alert; Rural Financial Institutions--Banks Dominate Rural Financial Institutions; Rural Banks--Rural Banks are Healthy; Rural Savings and Loa...

C. Rossi D. L. Milkove J. McGlone



Rural Pharmacy Closures: Implications for Rural Communities. Rural Policy Brief No. 2012-5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Retail pharmacies provide essential services to residents of rural areas and serve many communities as the sole provider of pharmacist services. Losing the only retail pharmacy within a rural community (census designated city), and within a 10 mile radius...

F. Ullrich K. Mueller K. Todd



Rural Growth Slows Down.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After decade of growth, rural income, population, and overall economic activity have stalled and again lag behind urban trends. Causes include banking and transportation deregulation, international competition, agricultural finance problems. Only nonmetropolitan counties dependent on retirement, government, and trade show continuing income growth…

Henry, Mark; And Others



Rural Internet Connectivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A positive relationship has been found between access to telecommunications capabilities and improved economic development. However, the deployment of systems that deliver toll-free Internet access favors urban regions. This research examines Internet service providers' (ISP) operations in rural portions of Texas, Iowa, Louisiana, and West…

Strover, Sharon


Rural Use of Biogas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A manual on the production and use of biogas in the rural areas of China is presented. The importance of biogas production for improving the agricultural level is stressed and its properties are explained. The basic principles in the construction and main...



Bibliography on Rural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An annotated list of 183 books, journal articles, ERIC documents and bibliographies, and 8 organizations attempts to meet the needs or rural administrators, teachers, and college faculty in the area served by Black Hills State College, Spearfish, South Dakota. Publication dates for items listed range from 1944 to 1982, with the majority occurring…

Bowers, James W.


The rural entrepreneurial venture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-metropolitan areas have been attracting the attention of entrepreneurs due to the low cost of doing business and advances in telecommunications. In metropolitan settings, the entrepreneur typically employs a network of professionals and has access to expertise that can easily be consulted to help remedy problems facing the organization. In a rural location, entrepreneurs must develop a means to augment

Richard L. Van Horn; Michael G. Harvey



A Rural Community Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes one researcher's experiences as she interviewed rural families during a comprehensive survey of Johnson County, Tennessee. Discusses health care problems and needs, family support systems for the sick and elderly, fears about cancer risks, and the real picture of underemployment versus the official unemployment rate. (SV)

Beck, Rubye Wilkerson



Reluctant Rural Regionalists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, scholars have begun to explore questions of regionalism and regionalization in rural contexts. Regionalism is often understood and presented as a pragmatic solution to intractable problems of fragmentation, inefficiency, accountability, spillover and neglect in the face of economic restructuring and other external threats. These…

Hall, Peter V.; Stern, Pamela



Rural Family Day Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural family day care settings are reviewed and the need for back up resources is emphasized. Suggestions are made for action by responsible agencies, trainers and others concerned with the delivery of effective child care services, particularly when appropriate group care is not available. (MS)

Adams, Diane; Macht, Mary



Special Issue: Rural Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others



Energy requirements for rural development  

SciTech Connect

This study on the role of energy in the development of rural areas was originally conducted in the spring and summer of 1985. It was intended to serve as a background paper for the preparation of a program plan for the Office of Energy of the United States Agency for International Development. As such it begins with a brief overview of how rural development fits into national development, then offers a comprehensive framework for thinking about rural development in particular and the energy implications of the various components of rural development. Agriculture naturally comes to mind when rural areas are mentioned, but industry is an important component of rural activity as well. Consequently, both agricultural and nonagricultural energy use is discussed. Modernization of rural areas will change household, as well as production, energy use. However, household energy use is a veritable subject in its own right, with a large literature. Consequently, that topic is discussed in less detail than the production energy topics.

Jones, D.W.



Training For Rural Practice: The Way Ahead.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program initiated in 1992 to provide appropriate training for rural physicians and to address the shortage of physicians in rural Australia. Rural medical practice differs dramatically from urban practice in that there is limited access to specialist services in rural areas, thus requiring rural practitioners to be…

Doolan, Thomas; Nichols, Anna


Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…

Weenink, Don



The New Vocationalism in Rural Locales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper critiques current "school-to-work" practices in rural schools. A look at the rural context reveals that rural workers are more likely to be unemployed and are paid less than workers elsewhere, resulting in high rural poverty. In addition, many kinds of rural decline (in services, transportation, job availability) are tied to larger…

Theobald, Paul


Rural Energy Conference Project  

SciTech Connect

Alaska remains, even at the beginning of the 21st century, a place with many widely scattered, small, remote communities, well beyond the end of both the road system and the power grid. These communities have the highest energy costs of any place in the United States, despite the best efforts of the utilities that service them. This is due to the widespread dependence on diesel electric generators, which require small capital investments, but recent increases in crude oil prices have resulted in dramatic increases in the cost of power. In the enabling legislation for the Arctic Energy Office in 2001, specific inclusion was made for the study of ways of reducing the cost of electrical power in these remote communities. As part of this mandate, the University of Alaska has, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, the Denali Commission and the Alaska Energy Authority, organized a series of rural energy conferences, held approximately every 18 months. The goal of these meeting was to bring together rural utility operators, rural community leaders, government agency representatives, equipment suppliers, and researchers from universities and national laboratories to discuss the current state of the art in rural power generation, to discuss current projects, including successes as well as near successes. Many of the conference presenters were from industry and not accustomed to writing technical papers, so the typical method of organizing a conference by requesting abstracts and publishing proceedings was not considered viable. Instead, the organizing committee solicited presentations from appropriate individuals, and requested that (if they were comfortable with computers) prepare Power point presentations that were collected and posted on the web. This has become a repository of many presentations, and may be the best single source of information about current projects in the state of Alaska.

Dennis Witmer; Shannon Watson



Anaesthesia in rural Tanzania.  


A survey of the anaesthetic services in rural Tanzania was carried out in an area of 67500 km2 and population of 4 million in order to assess the quality of anaesthesia and the major obstacles to good practice. Lack of draw-over vaporizers, Ayre's T-pieces, and a supply of oxygen were found to be the major obstacles to safe practice in this area of Africa. PMID:11321255

Kimaro, E; Towey, R M



Electrifying rural India  

SciTech Connect

NREL personnel team with the Indian and US governments and an Indian NGO to bring photovoltaic electricity to rural residents of the Sundarbans in India. India is the world's second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion people. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many residents have little or no access to electricity and the benefits associated with it. Many rural areas, for example, are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The region lies partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative in Sundarbans. The initiative was designed to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics (PV) to provide limited supplies of electricity for applications such as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications and economic development activities.

Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.



Rural Health in Pharmacy Curricula  

PubMed Central

The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act proposes strategies to address the workforce shortages of primary care practitioners in rural America. This review addresses the question, “What specialized education and training are colleges and schools of pharmacy providing for graduates who wish to enter pharmacy practice in rural health?” All colleges and schools accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education or those in precandidate status as of December 2011 were included in an Internet-based review of Web sites. A wide scope of curricular offerings were found, ranging from no description of courses or experiences in a rural setting to formally developed programs in rural pharmacy. Although the number of pharmacy colleges and schools providing either elective or required courses in rural health is encouraging, more education and training with this focus are needed to help overcome the unmet need for quality pharmacy care for rural populations.

Thrasher, Kim; O'Connor, Shanna K.



Information Systems for Rural Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The decision-making processes involved in rural planning require historical, contemporaneous, and predictive information on\\u000a the state of the natural environment. Rural planners have in the past made extensive use of both aerial photography and topographic\\u000a maps to provide such perspectives. Since 1972, rural planners have also had access to images taken from space. The photo interpretation\\u000a and conventional map-reading skills

Arwyn Jones; Alan Belward; Marc Van Liedekerke


Neonatal Resuscitation Success in Rural Hospitals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research is to describe rural maternity units (preparedness), healthcare providers practicing in rural maternity units (readiness) and the neonates born with rural maternity units (outcomes). Psychometric characteristics of the instrum...

A. M. Jukkala S. J. Henly



Rural Health Disparities Frequently Asked Questions  


... background information, facts and insights into rural health disparities Health Disparities: A Rural-Urban Chartbook (Full-Report) Presents ... of initiatives are being implemented to solve rural health disparities? Initiatives that seek to improve availability of and ...


Rural Development: What's Coming--What's Needed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The speech, delivered 1 June 1978 at the Western Roundup Regional Conference on Rural Home Services (University of Montana, Missoula), indicates that rural America has suffered from neglect, disorganization, and the lack of a federal rural development policy. (B R)

Hyde, Henry



La intercoperación: una respuesta a las actuales demandas del cooperativismo agrario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las cooperativas agrarias son entidades que a lo largo de la historia han demostrado una gran capacidad generadora de bienestar y riqueza para el mundo rural, constituyendo en muchas ocasiones el motor fundamental de la vida económica y social en numerosos territorios, a la vez que el principal instrumento empresarial al servicio de sus habitantes. Con todo, los importantes cambios




Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents’ delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural\\u000a delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing\\u000a 3,797 participants aged 13–18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only slightly less likely to engage\\u000a in delinquent behavior. Furthermore, while rural adolescents are

Don Weenink



Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the “Final Separation”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT When,is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociologyworked,itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the possibility of a phoenixlike revival, although in new form. Three cases—the success

William H. Friedland



Rural Communities and Rural Social Issues: Priorities for Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report recommends priorities for research into rural communities and rural social issues in Australia, based on an extensive literature review, surveys of policymaking agencies and researchers, and discussion at a national workshop in May 1999. Chapters 1-2 outline the study's background, purpose, and methodology; discuss issues in the…

Black, Alan; Duff, John; Saggers, Sherry; Baines, Patricia


Reconnecting rural America: Report on rural intercity passenger transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1987 a new effort to reconnect rural America began. It recognizes the local and intercity services offered by transportation providers throughout the nation in addressing the transportation needs of rural residents, and it emphasizes the importance of linking available services into a national system. Leadership in the effort has been provided by the United Bus Owners of America, UMTA,




Rural Development Perspectives, Vol. 4, Issue 2, February, 1988,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Payoff for diversifying rural economics rural service jobs tied to manufacturing encouraging rural entrepreneurs state strategies for rural development costs of clean water in rural America new image for mobile homes.

M. S. Killian T. F. Hady S. N. Smith E. J. Malecki C. B. Meeks



Reconnecting rural America: Report on rural intercity passenger transportation  

SciTech Connect

In 1987 a new effort to reconnect rural America began. It recognizes the local and intercity services offered by transportation providers throughout the nation in addressing the transportation needs of rural residents, and it emphasizes the importance of linking available services into a national system. Leadership in the effort has been provided by the United Bus Owners of America, UMTA, and the USDA Office of Transportation. This report presents the issues and concerns of those involved in rural intercity passenger transportation. It summarizes the 9 components key to the development of a national strategy for reconnecting rural America: public-private cooperation, mobilization of support, community participation, defined government roles, linking of services, market research and development, diversification of funding sources, resource management, and identification and elimination of barriers. The report demonstrates how service is currently being provided and reiterates the need for coordination and cooperation among all those involved in rural passenger transportation.

Stommes, E.S.



Introduction to Rural America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise was designed for a sociology course and focuses on rural youth in the United States. Students will complete an exercise of simplified recreation of study data and then take on the role as researchers and use their own class data for hypothesis formulation and testing. The data is compiled by the instructor and cross-tabulations are run for each variable. Student then devise original hypotheses and analyze the data using their choice of variables from the data set. This activity utilizes a recreation of study survey of students in the class to create a unique dataset for students to analyze.

Redlin, Meredith


Going Digital in Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the extent to which rural America is digital--has access to the Internet and to newer technologies such as wireless broadband--and discusses rural supply and demand for "going digital." Supply aspects include issues of both infrastructure and public policy. Demand aspects include entrepreneurs (business users) and others with…

Malecki, Edward J.


Livelihoods perspectives and rural development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livelihoods perspectives have been central to rural development thinking and practice in the past decade. But where do such perspectives come from, what are their conceptual roots, and what influences have shaped the way they have emerged? This paper offers an historical review of key moments in debates about rural livelihoods, identifying the tensions, ambiguities and challenges of such approaches.

Ian Scoones



Rural Justice and Legal Assistance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor rural residents are often denied equal protection, due process, and other constitutional rights given to every American. The application of justice in rural America is lacking in its: (1) law enforcement quality, (2) judicial process functions, and (3) participation by the poor and ethnic minorities residing within its jurisdiction. Several…

Rural Housing Alliance, Washington, DC.


Portrait of Rural Virtual Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past two decades, distance education has become a reality of rural schooling in Newfoundland and Labrador. In this article, I provide historical background into the challenges facing rural schools in the province and how distance education was introduced to address that challenge. I also describe how that system of distance education…

Barbour, Michael K.



Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural

Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center





ERIC Educational Resources Information Center





ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Finding Fairness for Rural Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-poverty schools in rural areas and small towns are under attack from state policy makers who want to consolidate these schools in order to save money. In addition to calls for consolidation, rural schools also are threatened by unfair and inadequate funding formulas.

Strange, Marty



A rural electrification expansion model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Colombia, power companies with capacity greater than 100 MW pay royalties over gross sales for rural electrification programs. These contributions are collected by regional development corporations (RDC) with a jurisdiction over the area where the generation projects are located. To that end, the RDC need to define a plan for rural electrification in the regions. A mixed integer linear

Ricardo A. Smith; Oscar J. Mesa



Persuading Teachers to Go Rural  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a national teacher shortage projected to start peaking this year as baby boomers retire and budget shortfalls restrict state and local funding for teachers, rural school districts are working to keep the teachers they have while seeking new ones at little if any additional cost. The retirements alone will compound problems rural districts…

Dessoff, Alan



Adult Education in Rural Pennsylvania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to describe the status of and factors that influence adult learning and to provide information to help policymakers foster adult learning programs in rural Pennsylvania face a unique set of challenges and obstacles. These include serving a diverse group of rural adults who need a variety of services, a changing job…

Yan, Wenfan



Helping Rural Schools Achieve Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Senator Collins of Maine plans to fight for proper federal funding of the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) that allows rural schools to combine federal funding sources. Collins, and Senator Dianne Feinstein, will soon introduce legislation that will eliminate inequities in the current Social Security law that penalize teachers and other…

Collins, Susan



The Church and Rural Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Involvement of the church in rural community life was investigated by examining the "Fifty-Year Index to Rural Sociology." Findings revealed that 43 separate articles were published from 1944 to 1977 under categories of community life (7 articles); ministers: elite control (4); attitudes (5); beliefs, practices (6); churches (6); church…

Cleland, Charles L.


Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.



Information Sources on Rural Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides resources for rural recycling operations with the principle aim of assisting rural government officials, planners, residents, and educators to encourage recycling as an integral part of an individual's or community's solid waste management plan. Sources range from bibliographies, directories, and government documents to case studies. (49…

Notess, Greg; Kuske, Jodee



A Directory of Rural Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this directory are to provide a ready reference for individuals and organizations with rural interests; to provide a sense of perspective on the various professions, ethnic groups, and special concerns represented by national organizations with rural interests; and to facilitate cooperation among organizations with similar…

National Rural Center, Washington, DC.


Mechanical ventilation in rural ICUs  

PubMed Central

Background: In recent years, rural hospitals have expanded their scope of specialized services, which has led to the development and staffing of rural intensive care units (ICUs). There is little information about the breadth, quality or outcomes of these services. This is particularly true for specialized ICU services such as mechanical ventilation, where little, if any, information exists specifically for rural hospitals. The long-term objectives of this project were to evaluate the quality of medical care provided to mechanically ventilated patients in rural ICUs and to improve patient care through an educational intervention. This paper reports baseline data on patient and hospital characteristics for both rural and rural referral hospitals. Results: Twenty Iowa hospitals were evaluated. Data collected on 224 patients demonstrated a mean age of 70 years and a mean ICU admission Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score of 22, with an associated 36% mortality. Mean length of ICU stay was 10 days, with 7.7 ventilated days. Significant differences were found in both institutional and patient variables between rural referral hospitals and rural hospitals with more limited resources. A subgroup of patients with diagnoses associated with complex ventilation had higher mortality rates than patients without these conditions. Patients who developed nosocomial events had longer mean ventilator and ICU days than patients without nosocomial events. This study also found ICU practices that frequently fell outside the guidelines recommended by a task force describing minimum standards of care for critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: Despite distinct differences in the available resources between rural referral and rural hospitals, overall mortality rates of ventilated patients are similar. Considering the higher mortality rates observed in patients with complicated medical conditions requiring complex ventilation management, the data may suggest that this subgroup could benefit from treatment at a tertiary center with greater resources and technology.

Fieselmann, John F; Bock, M Jeanne; Hendryx, Michael S; Wakefield, Douglas; Helms, Charles M; Bentler, Suzanne E



Mechanical ventilation in rural ICUs.  


BACKGROUND: In recent years, rural hospitals have expanded their scope of specialized services, which has led to the development and staffing of rural intensive care units (ICUs). There is little information about the breadth, quality or outcomes of these services. This is particularly true for specialized ICU services such as mechanical ventilation, where little, if any, information exists specifically for rural hospitals. The long-term objectives of this project were to evaluate the quality of medical care provided to mechanically ventilated patients in rural ICUs and to improve patient care through an educational intervention. This paper reports baseline data on patient and hospital characteristics for both rural and rural referral hospitals. RESULTS: Twenty Iowa hospitals were evaluated. Data collected on 224 patients demonstrated a mean age of 70 years and a mean ICU admission Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score of 22, with an associated 36% mortality. Mean length of ICU stay was 10 days, with 7.7 ventilated days. Significant differences were found in both institutional and patient variables between rural referral hospitals and rural hospitals with more limited resources. A subgroup of patients with diagnoses associated with complex ventilation had higher mortality rates than patients without these conditions. Patients who developed nosocomial events had longer mean ventilator and ICU days than patients without nosocomial events. This study also found ICU practices that frequently fell outside the guidelines recommended by a task force describing minimum standards of care for critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Despite distinct differences in the available resources between rural referral and rural hospitals, overall mortality rates of ventilated patients are similar. Considering the higher mortality rates observed in patients with complicated medical conditions requiring complex ventilation management, the data may suggest that this subgroup could benefit from treatment at a tertiary center with greater resources and technology. PMID:11056720

Fieselmann; Bock; Hendryx; Wakefield; Helms; Bentler



Rural African women and development.  


70-90% of Africans still live in rural areas, and 25-30% of rural households are headed by women. Standards of living in rural areas are lower than in urban areas. Rural African women's involvement in development is in its initial stages, and social development for women is likely to be slow. Increasing women's opportunities for education is a means of promoting social justice and fairness. Schools should offer courses of practical value for those not planning on higher education and special programs and career counseling for gifted girls. Women's organizations, African leaders, and other influential parties should aggressively create awareness about the oppressive aspects of traditional attitudes, beliefs, and views about women. Laws on ownership of property, inheritance, access to credit, and employment must be equitable and enforced. Consciousness-raising among rural women is an effective means of encouraging rural women to seek and assume new roles and for questioning unreasonable expectations and norms. Women's professional associations serve important functions and fulfill the need for role models. The quality of rural women's life is effectively improved through formulation of policies relevant to women's needs and problems and improve rural conditions. Women should have fair representation at local and national levels of government. Women's role in agriculture is likely to be enhanced through improved transportation systems, electricity supply, and introduction of intermediate technology. This assessment of rural African women's contributions to economic growth emphasizes women's involvement in farming and the informal sector and their lack of equal remuneration or low wages. Illiteracy places women in a disadvantaged position when competing for employment in the formal sector. Lack of access to credit and limits on credit are other obstacles in the informal sector. The reduced participation of rural women in the formal and informal sector is due to lack of economic power, limited educational opportunities, and policies that place industry in urban areas. Social development that reduces illiteracy and poverty should be encouraged. PMID:12346826

Kabadaki, K



National rural health mission.  


The health related indices in our country are far from satisfactory and the country still bears an enormous share of the global disease burden. The lack of accessibility, scarce availability and the poor quality of health services and personnel in the remote rural and underdeveloped urban areas have been the major obstacles to the delivery of quality health care services in a vast and culturally diverse country with inter- and intra-regional variations and inequalities. The already over-stretched public health care system has been grappling with the deficiencies in linkage with the collateral health determinants, gross shortage and non utilization of infrastructure, financial and human resources. Revitalizing the existing primary health care infrastructure under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) will bring about the long overdue architectural corrections in the health care sector and be able to provide accessible, affordable, accountable, effective and reliable health care especially to the under-privileged sections of the society. NRHM is based on the principles of decentralisation of the health system, empowerment of the community and the panchayati raj institutions. Effective integration of health concerns with other health determinants like sanitation, hygiene and nutrition through district health plan is being made. PMID:21830029

Dhingra, Bhavna; Dutta, Ashok Kumar



Let's Go Rural: Influencing Decision Makers. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several targets, tools and strategies can help the novice director of programs for preschool handicapped children in rural isolated areas work with advocates and volunteers who may offer valuable help, but who need information and direction. The fragility of intercommunity relationships in rural areas often requires the sensitive use of talents…

Phillipp, Louise, Comp.


Rural development and rural to urban migration in China 1978–1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic reforms since the late 1970s have brought about significant changes in rural China. A large number of surplus rural labourers have been released from the agricultural sector and there has been a massive transition of rural residents from agricultural to non-agricultural employment. These changes will be analyzed by examining the changes in the employment structure of rural residents. Rural

Jianfa Shen



Rural Roots: News, Information, and Commentary from the Rural School and Community Trust, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the six issues of "Rural Roots" published bimonthly in 2002. A newsletter of the Rural School and Community Trust, "Rural Roots" provides news, information, and commentary from the Rural Trust and highlights the wide variety of place-based education work happening in rural schools and communities across the country. Feature…

Yaunches, Alison, Ed.; Loveland, Elaina, Ed.



Lay Discourses of the Rural: Developments and Implications for Rural Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the (largely British) literature on lay discourses of the rural--people's everyday interpretations of rural places and ideas of the rural. Suggests that lay discourses of the rural are complex and incoherent to an extent that makes it difficult to incorporate them into established academic rural studies. Partly supports the concept of the…

Jones, Owain



Rural housing land consolidation in the hilly area of Chongqing: A rural household perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of rural economy, consolidation of rural housing land has been focused on by officials and scholars. However, little attention has been paid to the impacts of rural household's willingness to use rural housing. This paper took Banan District in Chongqing as a case study and explored the impacts of the rural households’ willingness to moving to the

Xinyue Yang; Chaofu Wei; Yong Liu; Yan Ouyang; Longran Chang


"How to Be a Rural Man": Young Men's Performances and Negotiations of Rural Masculinities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with young rural men and how they "do" identity politics living in a rural area of Norway. Focusing on how masculinity and rurality are constructed and interrelated in young men's narratives of living in a remote community, it is identified that young rural men reproduce, negotiate and transform local discourses of rural

Bye, Linda Marie



Rural Backwaters or Front-Runners? Rural Telehealth in the Vanguard of Psychology Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 20% of the United States population lives in rural areas, and rural clients often face serious access barriers to receiving psychology services. The acuity of rural need and growing ubiquity of the Internet among rural communities create opportunities for psychologists to provide assessment and treatment services to support rural clients at a distance using telehealth. This article reviews recent

Laura H. Schopp; George Demiris; Robert L. Glueckauf



Rural Knowledge and Information Systems for Non-Agricultural Rural Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As developing countries gradually rely less upon agriculture for rural income, rural economies require new solutions to access knowledge and information systems for rural development. Non-agricultural rural knowledge and information systems can play a significant role in developing and disseminating successful strategies to escape rural poverty.…

Rivera, William M.



Prevalence of Hunger Declines in Rural Households.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of hunger in rural households declined slightly from 1995 to 1998, and food insecurity rates stayed constant. Food insecurity was almost three times as prevalent among rural Blacks as among rural Whites. For rural Hispanics, the rate was about twice that of Whites. Food insecurity was higher in single-parent families than in any…

Nord, Mark; Winicki, F. Joshua



Rural Areas Weaning Themselves from Farming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Farm policy alone is no longer a sufficient development policy for today's rural America. Rural economies have changed over the last 30-40 years from reliance on farming to greater reliance on manufacturing and service industries. Rural economic development policies need to reflect today's changed rural economy. (Author)

Carlin, Thomas A.



Outcomes of Rural Training Tracks: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural training tracks (RTT) encourage family medicine residents to enter into rural practice. Studies reveal that 76 percent of RTT graduates are practicing in rural America and that graduates feel prepared for rural practice. However, RTTs produced only 107 graduates during 1989-99. Without significant investment, this model can not supply enough…

Rosenthal, Thomas C.



The Impact of Agribusiness on Rural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dramatic growth of multinational agribusiness corporations has led to all types of rural decline--social, demographic, institutional, and environmental. Historically, rural inhabitants and rural land have been abused and neglected in the name of progress. Rural development efforts often attract small assembly or light manufacturing plants that…

Theobald, Paul


Southern Rural Access Program: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Southern Rural Access Program, a grant program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in eight southern states, funds projects that nurture rural and disadvantaged students in health-care fields; build state, regional, or community capacity to recruit and retain rural health professionals; support rural health networks; and provide loans to…

Beachler, Michael; Holloman, Curtis; Herman, James



Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.



Rural poverty in Ecuador : a qualitative assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complement to recent in-depth quantitative analyses of rural poverty in Ecuador, this is a report on the results of the Rural Qualitative Assessment in living conditions in rural communities in all three Ecuador's diverse regions. Using a variety of qualitative techniques, the research aimed to assess what poverty means to marginalized rural families, what kind of survival strategies families

Jesko Hentschel; William F. Waters; Anna Kathryn Vandever Webb



Mental Health Issues in Rural Nursing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five papers cover recent developments in rural mental health nursing. "Rural Mental Health Care: A Survey of the Research" (Karen Babich) chronicles recent interest in understanding the rural population's character and the nature of mental health services needed by and provided to rural America. Lauren Aaronson ("Using Health Beliefs in a Nursing…

Babich, Karen S., Comp.


Gender, Class and Rurality: Australian Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interrelationship between gender and class in rural spaces has received little attention. While rural scholars have focused on the implications for class from processes of gentrification and agricultural and rural restructuring, these analyses have remained largely ungendered. Similarly, feminist rural studies have rarely explored subjectivity…

Bryant, Lia; Pini, Barbara



The Rural Physician as Preceptor  

PubMed Central

Rural family practice offers a wealth of potential clinical teaching material for family practice residents. In order to exploit this potential, the Department of Family Practice at the University of British Columbia has developed a community-based program in which second-year residents in family practice spend the year in rural communities under the supervision of a family physician preceptor. This paper describes some of the problems and satisfactions facing the rural physician who is interested in becoming a preceptor and offers practical guidelines on how a resident can be incorporated into the practice. Imagesp2020-a

Fine, Jonathan P.H.



Bassett healthcare rural surgery experience.  


The surgical training at Bassett is naturally broader than in many university settings, with a survey showing that nearly 70% of graduates who practice general surgery remain in a rurally designated area. Rural surgery experience falls into 3 categories: undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate. The general surgery training program has no competing fellowships or subspecialty residencies; residents get significant experience with endoscopy; ear, nose, and throat; plastic and hand surgery; and obstetrics and gynecology. The rural setting lifestyle is valued by the students, residents, and fellows alike. It provides an ideal setting for recognizing the specific nuances of small-town American life, with a high-quality education and surgical experience. PMID:19944814

Borgstrom, David C; Heneghan, Steven J




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




The changing rural environment and the relationship between health services and rural development.  

PubMed Central

Author summarizes today's changing rural America and the challenges that health services researchers and policymakers face in relating the rural environment to the problems and possibilities of rural health services delivery.

Cordes, S M



Rural Mass Transportation Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study report is an examination of transit related problems of the six Appalachian counties within the Bluegrass Area Development District (Clark, Estill, Garrard, Lincoln, Madison, and Powell). It outlines steps for the implementation of a rural mass ...

N. A. Brown



Communication and Integrated Rural Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In discussing communication planning and integrated rural development, Philip H. Coombs, Manzoor Ahmed, and Pratima Kale of the International Council for Educational Development stress that communication planning must deal with problems in behavioral and ...



7 CFR 2.17 - Under Secretary for Rural Development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and the communities in which they live including rural industrialization; rural population and manpower; local government finance...Section 310B (7 U.S.C. 1932), relating to rural industrialization assistance, rural business enterprises grants and...



La estimación de un intervalo temporal (durée) en un grupo de niños de ambiente rural y urbano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se han comparado los resultados obtenidos de la valoración temporal (durée) de dos intervalos transcurridos sin actividad uno y con una actividad determinada el otro (proyección de diapositivas). Los sujetos han sido dos grupos de 25 niños que cursan 4P nivel de E. G. B pertenecientes a dos medios diferentes: rural y urbano. Los resultados no difieren significativamente ni entre

Santiago Estaún i Ferrer; Imma Paltor; Xavier Urmeneta



Biogas as a source of rural energy  

SciTech Connect

The hilly state of Himachal Pradesh, with nearly 2.15 million cattle and 0.7 million buffalo, has the potential to install 0.64 million biogas plants of 1 m{sup 3} size. These plants could generate nearly 4.90 x 105 m{sup 3} of biogas, equivalent to 3.07 x 10{sup 5} L kerosene per day to meet domestic energy needs of nearly one-fourth of its rural population. During 1982--1998, only 12.8% of this potential was achieved. The percent of possible potential achieved in plant installations in 12 districts of this state, namely, Bilaspur, Chamba, Hamirpur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Kullu, Lahul-Spiti, Mandi, Shimla, Sirmour, Solan, and Una, are 35.35, 1.70, 20.96, 8.67, 1.54, 6.96, 0.00, 18.49, 3.84, 8.521, 18.29, and 13.23%, respectively. There is a need to strengthen biogas promotion, particularly in the districts of Kangra, Mandi, Solan, and Una, which range from mid-hill to low-hill terrain and which have large potential due to high concentration of bovine population. Increased costs and comparatively low rate of subsidies has resulted in a decreasing rate of plant installation annually, from 3,500 during 1987--1992 to fewer than 1,200 during 1995--1998. The percentage of functioning plants was 82% in 1987--1988 but has decreased to 63%. To ensure proper installation and functionality of plants, the authors discuss the needed improvements in the biogas promotion program.

Kalia, A.K.



Industrialization and the Processes of Stratification in Rural Societies: A Comparison of Rural India and Rural United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Status attainment processes of the experienced civilian labor force of rural India and rural United States were analyzed by using the Blau-Duncan model, for the first time employing that model to compare rural sectors of an agrarian society with those in an industrial society. United States data were obtained from the 1962 Occupational Changes in…

Sharda, Bam Dev; Elder, Joseph W.


How Rural America Sees Its Future. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To gain a perspective on rural America's future, seven roundtables consisting of seven rural stakeholder groups were convened. Four groups of challenges facing rural areas emerged. The rural business environment was considered the source of greatest challenge. Agriculture concerns included low profits and access to world markets. The effects of…

Barkema, Alan D.; Drabenstott, Mark


Growing Up in Rural Illinois. Illinois Rural Youth Survey Summary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most Americans view small towns and rural areas as ideal places to grow up and raise a family, yet 1990 census data reveal that most rural areas are losing population, particularly the young. Teenagers who live in rural communities are likely to have important insights into this contradiction. Approximately 5,600 students attending 114 rural high…

Armstrong, Nancy


Application of the Rural Development Index to Analysis of Rural Regions in Poland and Slovakia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this research was to construct a multi-dimensional (composite) index measuring the overall level of rural development and quality of life in individual rural regions of a given EU country. In the Rural Development Index (RDI) the rural development domains are represented by hundreds of partial socio-economic, environmental,…

Michalek, Jerzy; Zarnekow, Nana



Rural America's Stake in the Digital Economy. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This first article in a series on telecommunications in rural America provides an overview of several key telecommunication issues facing rural regions. High speed data services known as broadband have the potential to make rural areas less isolated and improve the rural quality of life, but physical barriers, sparse population density, and few…

Staihr, Brian


Recruitment and Retention of Rural Physicians: Outcomes from the Rural Physician Associate Program of Minnesota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Founded in 1971 with state funding to increase the number of primary care physicians in rural Minnesota, the Rural Physician Associate Program (RPAP) has graduated 1,175 students. Third-year medical students are assigned to primary care physicians in rural communities for 9 months where they experience the realities of rural practice with…

Halaas, Gwen Wagstrom; Zink, Therese; Finstad, Deborah; Bolin, Keli; Center, Bruce



Rural Community and Rural Resilience: What Is Important to Farmers in Keeping Their Country Towns Alive?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have highlighted the phenomenon of rural decline in parts of the developed world, summarised as a loss in agricultural employment leading to a decline in the number and size of rural settlements. This study of small towns in part of Australia's inland rural "heartland" employs the concepts of interactional rural community of place and…

McManus, Phil; Walmsley, Jim; Argent, Neil; Baum, Scott; Bourke, Lisa; Martin, John; Pritchard, Bill; Sorensen, Tony



Rural Policy Matters: A Newsletter of Rural School & Community Action, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the 12 issues of the newsletter "Rural Policy Matters" published in 2000. Issues examine recent educational research on small and rural schools; report on state standards and court litigation related to rural schools, the efforts of communities to save their local schools, and the condition of rural facilities; outline…

Rural Policy Matters, 2000



An Inquiry into Rural Dwellers' Opinions about Living Conditions in Urban and Rural Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing data derived from a questionnaire survey of the rural population of Novosibirsk province in the USSR, the following hypothesis was tested: the attitude of rural inhabitants toward urban and rural conditions is characterized by a considerable preponderance of positive evaluations of dominant rural conditions and transient urban conditions…

Azarkh, Emilia Davidovna; Korel, Liudmila Vasilyevna


Profile of Rural Idaho: A Look at Economic and Social Trends Affecting Rural Idaho.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines population trends and economic and social indicators in rural Idaho. The first few sections discuss the definition of "rural," rural challenges and strengths, and outside economic and political forces impacting Idaho's rural areas. Subsequent sections present data on population trends, migration patterns, race and ethnicity,…

Idaho State Dept. of Commerce, Boise.


Rural Schools and Communities: How Globalization Influences Rural School and Community Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how a rural school district and the communities in which the district belonged collaborated on a community development initiative. This dissertation examined the opportunities and constraints rural communities are facing and the role that a rural school system could play in increasing social and economic sustainability of rural

Butler, Thomas



Rural-Urban Migration and Its Consequences on Rural Children: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural-urban adult migration, mainly adult male migration makes heavy demand on all family members, but especially on children who are left behind in rural area to shoulder the responsibility of agriculture production and food security. Labor shortage due to rural-urban adult migration may mean that children in rural area often have to face tighter time schedules and patterns of time

Syed Imran Ali Meerza



Investing in People: The Human Capital Needs of Rural America. Rural Studies Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides an overview of existing human resource conditions in rural America; examines key economic, social, and technological forces shaping the future viability of rural areas; describes human capital issues for rural women and minority groups; and outlines strategies to strengthen rural human capital resources. Chapters are: (1) "Human…

Beaulieu, Lionel J., Ed.; Mulkey, David, Ed.


Rural Runaways: Rurality and Its Implications for Services to Children and Young People Who Run Away  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article debates options for service provision to young rural runaways in the UK. Using data drawn from two national surveys and follow-on qualitative studies, the authors trace urban myths of rurality and their effects on runaway provision. The authors review models of rural refuge, systemic advocacy and mobile services for rural runaways.…

Franks, Myfanwy; Goswami, Haridhan



The Rural Context of Illicit Substance Offers: A Study of Appalachian Rural Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural adolescents are at risk for early initiation and problematic substance use, but to date few studies have examined the rural context of substance use. To better understand substance offers in the rural context, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 118, 12- to 19-year-old adolescents (M = 13.68, SD = 1.37) from Appalachian, rural

Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.



Rural Social Welfare: Preparing Students To Work Effectively in Rural Communities. An Australian Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complexity of rural practice in rural and remote communities means that higher order skills are required by rural social workers. In 1991, the University of Ballarat in Victoria (Australia) began teaching a course to prepare students for work in rural social welfare. The course was developed partly to meet industry needs, as local agencies…

Green, Rosemary



EPA Science Inventory

The Rural Clean Water Program (RCWP) was initiated as an experimental effort to address agricultural nonpoint source pollution problems in rural watersheds across the country. his document contains the technical papers presented at the National RCWP Symposium. hese papers documen...


Rurality and Patterns of Social Disruption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that structural cleavages provoke social disruptions where opportunities are conducive. Thus, combinations of rurality with particular structural cleavages predict specific disruption patterns. Data from northeastern United States indicate that rurality, combined with other population characteristics (provocation, ascriptive inequality,…

Wilkinson, Kenneth P.



Health Disparities: A Rural- Urban Chartbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rural minorities experience disparitites in health and health care delivery. Previous studies have illustrated many of the health disparities experience by rural residents, such as poorer health status, higher obesity prevalence, more with activity limita...

B. Olatosi J. C. Probst K. J. Bennett



Statistical Report Rural Telecommunications Borrowers, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents financial and statistical information on the operation of the Rural Utilities Service, and the Rural Telephone Bank and their borrowers during calendar year 1995, and as of December 31, 1995. Borrowers' operating and financial data ar...



An Interprofessional Rural Health Education Program  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To develop, implement, and assess an interprofessional rural health professions program for pharmacy and medical students. Design. A recruitment and admissions process was developed that targeted students likely to practice in rural areas. Pharmacy students participated alongside medical students in completing the Rural Health Professions program curriculum, which included monthly lecture sessions and assignments, and a capstone clinical requirement in the final year. Assessment. Fourteen pharmacy students and 33 medical students were accepted into the program during the first 2 years of the Rural Health Professions program. Approximately 90% of the rural health professions students were originally from rural areas. Conclusions. The rural health professions program is an interprofessional approach to preparing healthcare providers to practice in rural communities.

MacDowell, Martin; Schriever, Allison E.; Glasser, Michael; Schoen, Marieke D.



Jobs and Economic Security for Rural America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vitality of rural America is critical to ensuring the strength of our economy, the affordability of our food, the independence of our energy supply, and the vibrancy of small communities. President Obama values rural Americas important contributions t...



Study of rural tourism in turpan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural tourism has long been considered the means of accelerating economic and social development, and has become a development\\u000a tool for many rural areas. In response to agricultural structure adjustment, rural tourism in China took into shape as a new\\u000a economic growth point to meet the market demand at the late 1980s. Now, a structural frame of rural tourism has

Parhad Keyim; De-gang Yang; Xiao-lei Zhang



Addressing Preventive Interventions in Rural Community Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that rural cummunity psychology focus on preventive interventions instead of traditional service delivery. Discusses special nature of intervention in rural communities, types of preventive interventions, understanding/utilizing community social ecology, and training issues. Advocates greater preparation for rural psychology and greater…

Heyman, Steven R.



Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa



Exploring Rural Contexts with Digital Storytelling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes rural middle school students' exploration of their identity and their rural contexts through the vehicle of digital storytelling. Participants included 40 7th and 40 9th grade students at two rural schools in the Southeast United States. Students worked in shared writing groups to create digital stories expressing their…

Wake, Donna G.



Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig



The Triple Bias: Rural, Minority and Female.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural Chicanas share values and problems with other rural women (conservative orientation toward sex roles and life styles, conflict between traditional demands of rural culture and pressure to enter the labor force), but with additional socio-linguistic barriers (limited English-speaking ability, few marketable job skills). Many Chicanas do not…

Amodeo, Luiza B.; And Others


Rural Poverty: A Teaching Guide and Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During an extensive search for college curricula focused on rural poverty, the Rural Sociological Society's Task Force on Persistent Rural Poverty identified only a dozen such courses being taught in the United States today. This guidebook provides professors and instructors with a conveniently organized set of sample syllabi and instructional…

Summers, Gene F., Comp.; And Others


A Demographic Profile of Pennsylvania's Rural Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pennsylvania has the largest rural population in the nation, and more than 50 percent of this population is female. Overall, Pennsylvania's rural women are doing well in education, family life stability, and health, relative to comparison groups of rural men and urban women and men. Educational attainment is greater among urban women and men, but…

Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.


"Place" Value: The Rural Perspective. Occasional Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Place-based, or "contextualized," mathematics instruction gives learners the opportunity to see how mathematics is relevant to their lives. Such opportunities are crucial to the success of students in rural settings and may be crucial to the survival of rural communities. For the last half century, schools have educated rural children to believe…

Long, Vena; Bush, William S.; Theobald, Paul


Inside Rural Pennsylvania: A Statistical Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphs, data tables, maps, and written descriptions give a statistical overview of rural Pennsylvania. A section on rural demographics covers population changes, racial and ethnic makeup, age cohorts, and families and income. Pennsylvania's rural population, the nation's largest, has increased more than its urban population since 1950, with the…

Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.


Leader behavior in rural directors of nurses.  


In several ways the scope of rural nursing practice differs from that of urban nursing. This study showed that rural rural directors of nursing are adjusting their leadership style to accommodate these differences. However, in the process of making these adjustments, the directors may be limiting their leader effectiveness. PMID:8410336

Adams, C E



Rural Programs for Gifted and Talented Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to develop guidelines in gifted education appropriate for the approximately 212 Washington rural school districts with fewer than 2000 students, the booklet has 3 purposes: to describe Washington's rural community, to provide basic information about gifted education, and to encourage the planning and development of rural programs in…

Long, Margo


The Other Poor: Rural Poverty and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that rural poverty remains relatively invisible because, although shameful, it is profitable, and the rural poor pose little threat to their suburban neighbors. This is illustrated via interrogation concerning a rural poultry plant fire. The paper examines implications of this case for foundations scholars and educational…

Books, Sue



An Agenda for Studying Rural School Busing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and other persons interested in promoting research about rural school busing met in Columbus, Ohio, in December 1998. Drawing on that meeting and the rural school literature, this report describes why school transportation is an important issue nationwide, explains the lack of research on rural school busing, proposes a research…

Howley, Craig B.; Smith, Charles R.


Rural Housing Rehabilitation Demonstration. Princeville, N. C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural America is currently facing an overwhelming problem, the need for decent housing. Even though small towns and rural areas of Southern America have been undergoing drastic change over the past 2 decades, over one-half of all inadequate rural housing is located in the South. Substandard housing is, for the most part, inhabited by families with…

Alford, Terry; And Others



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Inequality: A Portrait of Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documentary evidence that Federal spending on human resources development disproportionately favors metropolitan counties over non-metropolitan areas is presented. The first chapter, "What Is Rural America?" focuses on 3 aspects of the rural problem: (1) the problem of definition, (2) the rural population distribution, and (3) the extreme poverty…

Tamblyn, Lewis R.


Toward a Transdisciplinary Rural Education Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the representation of rural education research orientations--defined in terms of methodological approach, academic focus and place-consciousness--within the literature and across academic disciplines. A content analysis of 155 abstracts from articles published in the Journal of Research in Rural Education and Rural Sociology…

Stapel, Christopher J.; DeYoung, Alan J.



Changing Rural Social Systems: Adaptation and Survival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book includes studies of globalization-related social changes in rural areas of the United States and other countries and implications of these studies for sociological theory. Although no chapter focuses exclusively on education, education-related themes include rural school dropouts and intergenerational poverty, the migration of rural

Johnson, Nan E., Ed.; Wang, Ching-li, Ed.


Understanding Smoking Cessation in Rural Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Rural communities are adversely impacted by increased rates of tobacco use. Rural residents may be exposed to unique communal norms and other factors that influence smoking cessation. Purpose: This study explored facilitating factors and barriers to cessation and the role of rural health care systems in the smoking-cessation process.…

Hutcheson, Tresza D.; Greiner, K. Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Jeffries, Shawn K.; Mussulman, Laura M.; Casey, Genevieve N.



Rural Folklife Days: Resources for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural Folklife Days is an annual celebration of customs and crafts that have been practiced every fall by generations of people in rural areas of north Florida. This packet is designed to help teachers prepare elementary students for Rural Folklife Days and to introduce them to traditional crafts and arts that are still practiced in parts of north…

Kay, Jon, Ed.; Beasley, Holly, Ed.; Hollingsworth, Teresa, Ed.; Smith, KC, Ed.


Approaches to Rural Development: The Guelph Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected concepts and theoretical orientations were identified and applied to the Guelph Rural Development Outreach Project, formed in 1976 to give leadership in the evolvement of a more comprehensive and integrated approach to rural development in Ontario. Huron County (a traditional rural agricultural area), Halton Region (an area characterized…

Findlay, E. Weldon


Cost considerations for rural telephone service  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates the relationship between density and fixed costs for rural telephone companies, together with several other cost factors, to determine the costs of providing telephone service to different areas. It is found that not all rural companies are high-cost companies; rural cooperatives, for instance, have the lowest operating costs and lowest total expenses per access line. Yet low-interest

Thomas Orwell Armstrong; Joseph P. Fuhr



Rural People in the American Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An initial report of the Economic Development Division analyzes rural America from a number of viewpoints: size and characteristics of the rural population, well-being of the rural population, ways of life and making a living, troubled areas, current economic changes, and future prospects. The publication deals briefly with the history of the…

Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.


R&D Speaks: Rural & Small Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of a rural and small schools conference held in December, 1980 in Austin, Texas are to link the region's educators who are concerned with rural and small schools at both state and local levels with current research and resources and to identify needs of rural and small schools in the region (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico,…

Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.


Career Patterns of Rural Female Educational Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the impact of the rural context upon the careers of women educational administrators in Saskatchewan. Surveys and interviews with 24 female rural administrators indicated that the behavior and career patterns of rural female administrators were influenced by the organizational context of the school and its community. A new…

Wallin, Dawn; Sackney, Larry



A Review of the Definition of Rural.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of 178 sources (articles, books, and other sources from 1971 through 1980, and frequently-cited earlier sources) on rural sociology and rural mental health indicated 4 major categories of definitions of rural: not explicitly stated, verbal (qualitative), homemade quantitative, and external quantitative. Sources were summarized as to…

Bosak, Jeanine; Perlman, Baron



Education: Designed for the Rural Poor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a discussion of the educational opportunities for the economically disadvantaged rural populations of Third World Nations. Emphasized is the need for broadening the educational base for the small farm in order to involve members of rural communities in rural progress. (Author/SA)

Higgs, John; Moore, David



Defining "Rural" for Veterans' Health Care Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) devised an algorithm to classify veterans as Urban, Rural, or Highly Rural residents. To understand the policy implications of the VHA scheme, we compared its categories to 3 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and 4 Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) geographical categories. Method: Using…

West, Alan N.; Lee, Richard E.; Shambaugh-Miller, Michael D.; Bair, Byron D.; Mueller, Keith J.; Lilly, Ryan S.; Kaboli, Peter J.; Hawthorne, Kara



Rural Math Talent, Now and Then  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article interprets inequality evident at the intersection of three realms: (a) mathematical talent (as a cultural phenomenon); (b) rural place and rural life; and (c) future economic, political, and ecological developments. The discussion explains this outlook on inequality, contextualizes interest in rural mathematics education, presents the…

Howley, Craig B.; Showalter, Daniel; Klein, Robert; Sturgill, Derek J.; Smith, Michael A.



Rural People and Rural Economic Development. IIEP Seminar Paper: 21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assuming development is a process that involves the generation, diffusion, and realization of new opportunities, this paper discusses the following: (1) The Development Process: Facts and Issues (re: visible unemployment; rural to urban migration; the dualism of labor markets in the less developed countries; population growth; and the…

Bowman, M. J.


Social capital, rural nursing and rural nursing theory.  


The notion of social capital focuses attention on social connectedness within communities and the ways that this connectedness may affect health and well-being. There are many competing definitions of social capital but most suggest that it involves trust, social networks and reciprocity within communities, not necessarily geographically defined. The usefulness of social capital and related theories that help in understanding the function of nurses in rural communities are explored in this paper. Nurses and health service planners are becoming increasingly aware of the potential contribution of community nurses in rural and/or remote areas, as evidenced in the development of nurse practitioners. Through their interrelational role and status in rural communities, nurses are often 'immersed' or 'embedded' in the social networks that make up the fabric of rural life and may therefore be important contributors to social capital. For a concept such as social capital to be useful in nursing research, it must have distinct attributes, delineated boundaries, and well-described preconditions and outcomes in multiple contexts. PMID:16494669

Lauder, William; Reel, Sally; Farmer, Jane; Griggs, Harvey



Rural Schooling and the Rural Myth in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the nature of the Australian myth and how this has related to and affected schooling and the provision of equality of opportunity for rural children. This myth includes the "noble bushmen" and the view that "the salt of the earth" was the small, independent farmer. (Author/RK)

Bessant, Bob



Rural High School Principals: Leadership in Rural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational leadership has been the focus of many studies; however, leadership does not occur in a vacuum. Understanding the context in which it occurs will in turn help to explain the phenomenon itself. Rural communities in the United States have many differences when compared to urban and suburban areas. Twenty-eight percent of schools in the…

Shuman, Aaron L.



Rural Students Becoming Rural Teachers: How Long Do They Stay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the employment status of elementary, early childhood, and special education graduates from Chadron State College (Nebraska) for the academic years of 1996/97-2000/01 at 2 and 5 years after graduation. Surveys of 282 education graduates, most of whom were teaching in small towns and rural communities of their midwestern states of…

Yeager, Noranne; Marshall, Peggy; Madsen, Kim


Forgotten Places: Uneven Development in Rural America. Rural America Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines predominantly rural regions of the United States that lag behind the rest of the country in income, employment, access to services, and measures of education and health. Case studies of nine regions examine historical background; current economic and social conditions (including demography, educational attainment, and…

Lyson, Thomas A., Ed.; Falk, William W., Ed.


Does teaching an entire nursing degree rurally have more workforce impact than rural placements?  


Education plays a key role in recruitment of health workforce to rural and remote locations. In Australia, Schools of Nursing have set up a variety of educational programmes to encourage rural workforce choices. These programmes include rural campuses and short-term rural placement programmes out of urban campuses. This study compares the relative workforce impacts of rural campus versus short-term rural placements out of urban campus. The single outcome measure - rural or urban location after graduation - showed that the rural school graduated a significantly higher proportion of rural-working graduates (chi(2) 4.46, p = 0.04). However there was no difference in the rural workforce choices of students from rural backgrounds, irrespective of their university location (chi(2) = 1.45, p = 0.23). We conclude that both rural universities and affirmative action for selecting rural students into nursing programmes are effective workforce strategies, but that rural campuses have the added benefit of encouraging under-represented rural students to access university education. PMID:20636179

Playford, Denese; Wheatland, Belynda; Larson, Ann



Una visita en Sud America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oisfrute de una estadfa en el Hotel La Silla, el mejor hotel de Sud America con su tan unica atmosfera extraterrestre! Los espera su calificado personal de experimentados hoteleros, jefes de cocina, etc., ansiosos todos de satisfacer sus deseos hasta el mas mfnimo detalle. Naturalmente nuestro espacioso restaurant de tres estrellas ofrece un completo surtido de exquisitas comidas y deliciosos tragos (conocedores usualmente eligen "Oelicia Orion" 0 "Centauro Especial"). EI servicio cempleto durante 24 horas incluye nuestra ya mundialmente famosa "Cena de medianoche para los miradores de estrellas", por eso - no olvide: No pierda la oportunidad de una estadfa en EL HOTEL LA SILLA - una experiencia maravillosa!



Beyond Agriculture: New Policies for Rural America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online book contains the collected papers from the first conference hosted by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City's Center for the Study of Rural America. The conference explored new economic policies that would help rural America enter the digital economy. The papers, which must be downloaded separately, fall into three main categories: Rural America at a Crossroad; Seizing New Opportunities in Rural America; and New Directions for Rural Policy. The book also contains a keynote address by Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan, the comments of several noted economists, and the transcripts of the closing discussion.


Farmers and Rural Health Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a survey conducted in December 1985 and January 1986 of Illinois farmers are presented. The survey was undertaken because: (1) the quality and financial viability of rural hospitals have been called into question; and (2) rapid changes in health care delivery, in general, may affect the ability of farmers to meet their health care needs. Farmers were assessed

Joseph W. Pankau; William Sander



Rural Organization and Poverty Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The deprivations of poverty seriously restrict the ability of millions of rural Americans to develop their potential and obtain "quality of life". If development of potential is to be maximized and if deprivations are to be reduced, structural changes are needed. The 4 change approaches that encompass much purposive social change at the locality…

Stockdale, Jerry D.


Dental Health in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concentration of dental health services in urban areas creates a problem for the rural population of America. The problem is analyzed in this document by looking at the population distribution today and the ratio of dental services per population, the location of dental education resources, and the concern of society for the quality of living.…

Howell, Charles S.



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Using TDSi in Rural Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jodi Fletcher is a teacher on special assignment in curriculum instruction and assessment for Falcon School District 49 in Colorado. Serving about 12,500 students across 16 schools, the district encompasses the northeastern portion of Colorado Springs and the rural area of Falcon. About 30 percent of students in the district are from military…

Koenig, Darlene



Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

Cash, Terry




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




The Funding of Rural Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the roles and responsibilities of federal and state governments in providing funding for rural public libraries. Highlights include historical background, the Library Services Act and the Library Services and Construction Act, various types of state aid, and a model state plan in Pennsylvania. (LRW)

Merrifield, Mark



Resilience Among Rural Lesbian Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural lesbian youth are encumbered with a number of obstacles in their development of a positive self-identify and self-worth. Youth may experience implied physical threats, abuse, and mental health concerns as they attempt to define themselves within a context that emphasizes the role of women as heterosexual caretakers of the community. A number of factors can serve to diminish or

Tracy J. Cohn; Sarah L. Hastings



Rural Areas and the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the rise of the so-called information age, a number of research institutes have felt compelled to research the digital divide that seems to exist between the mainstream and certain marginalized groups, such as those with lower incomes or those in rural areas. Released in February 2004, this intriguing 38-page report authored by Peter Bell of the Pew Internet & American Life Project, examines the use of the internet by rural residents across the United States. Based primarily on survey data collected between March and August 2003, the report contains some interesting findings, most notably the fact that while almost 52% of rural adults go online on a regular basis, they still have internet participation rates lower than their urban and suburban counterparts. Other interesting findings include information in the report that suggests rural users' online connections to various groups and virtual communities are more likely to stretch beyond immediate physically proximate communities. The report is rounded out by the inclusion of a methodology section and several demographic tables.


Redistribution of Rural Labor Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of assuring the planned distribution of rural labor resources is very urgent. The lack of uniformity in the territorial distribution of labor resources is the consequence of the natural historical and socioeconomic circumstances of the development of our nation. One of the forms of the territorial-branch redistribution of labor resources in the village is the organization of the

A. Maikov



Kansas Rural Practice Research Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kansas Practice Research Network (KSPRN) is a rural practice-based network. It is a collaboration between the KU School of Medicine-Wichita (KUSM-W), the Great Plains Health Alliance, the Kansas Academy of Family Physicians, the Kansas chapter of the ...

K. J. Kallail




Microsoft Academic Search

The number of children in nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) areas increased by 3 percent between 1990 and 2000, compared with a 16-percent increase in metropolitan (metro) areas. A number of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s due to outmigration of young families, and the small increase in the number of nonmetro children may reflect that. Although rural child poverty rates declined

Carolyn C. Rogers



Rural development--national improvement.  


Rural development should be viewed as the core of any viable strategy for national development in developing countries where an average 2/3 of the population live in rural areas. Rural development is multisectoral, including economic, sociopolitical, environmental, and cultural aspects of rural life. Initially, the focus is on the provision of basic minimum needs in food, shelter, clothing, health, and education, through optimum use and employment of all available resources, including human labor. The development goal is the total development of the human potential. The hierarchy of goals of development may be shown in the form of an inverted pyramid. At the base are basic minimum needs for subsistence whose fulfillment leads to a higher set of sociopolitical needs and ultimately to the goal of total developmentand the release of creative energies of every individual. If development, as outlined, were to benefit the majority of the people then they would have to participate in decision making which affects their lives. This would require that the people mobilize themselves in the people'ssector. The majority can equitably benefit from development only if they are mobilized effectively. Such mobilization requires raising the consciousness of the people concerning their rights and obligations. All development with the twin objectives of growth with equity could be reduced to restructuring the socioeconomic, and hence political relationships. Desinging and implementing an intergrated approach to rural development is the 1st and fundamental issue of rural development management. The commonly accepted goals and objectives of a target group oriented antipoverty development strategy include: higher productivity and growth in gross national product (GNP); equitable distribution of the benefits of development; provision of basic minimum needs for all; gainful employment; participation in development; self reliance or self sustaining growth and development; maintenance of environmental balance. The most challenging task for development managers in developing countries is to mobilize the vast reservoir of surplus human labor and to channel it to productive use. Forest development and management of forest resources is important for rural development for 2 major objectives: to provide firewood, fodder, and other products; and in many areas and particularly in mountainous countries, forest depletion, largely from uncontrolled agricultural expansion, is leading to a loss of environmental protection of the forest, resulting in floods, droughts, erosion, desertification, silation, and loss of agricultural production. PMID:12266174

Malhotra, R C



Rural Poverty Report 2001: The Challenge of Ending Rural Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Fund for Agricultural Development's 2001 report on rural poverty argues that to reduce poverty, international efforts must focus on "legally secure entitlements to assets (especially land and water); technology (above all for increasing the output and yield of food staples); access to markets; opportunities to participate in decentralized resource management; and access to microfinance." The extensive document is posted in .pdf format with the above address linking to its table of contents.



The Perceived Importance of University Presence in Rural Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated rural residents' perceived importance of university presence in rural, regional and remote Australia. The present data indicate that the presence of university in rural areas is perceived as highly important by both rural and urban citizens. Results indicate that rural residents perceive that there is a need for…

Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, R. John; van Breda, Marja



Rural Young People and Society: A Crisis of Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on rural youth in Russia shows that keeping qualified and ambitious young people in the rural economy will require creating conditions for young people to exercise initiative in the rural economy and diminishing the gap in quality of life between rural and urban environments. Only in this way can the pessimism of rural youth be overcome.

Gur'ianova, M. P.



Using Adolescent Literature To Develop Student Pride in Rural Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning activities that promote student pride in rural living include examining the misconceptions and prejudices associated with rural living, exploring the variables of a rural lifestyle, student research of their town's history, and reading books that positively portray rural living. Includes a bibliography of 69 adolescent books with rural

Spiegel, Lisa A.



Increasing Caring and Reducing Violence in Rural Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper briefly reviews the literature on violence in rural schools and communities, as well as the causes of rural crime and violence. General demographic and economic characteristics of rural communities are listed, followed by facts on rural school enrollments, achievement, and funding. Recent changes in rural communities that might…

Schroth, Gwen; Fishbaugh, Mary Susan


Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability: Lessons From China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural electrification is now and will remain an essential element for rural development in China and other developing countries. With more than half of the world’s population living in rural communities, lessons for rural renewable energy applications and assessment from China can be very helpful in defining a global sustainable development strategy. This paper describes energy needs in rural China,

Aiming Zhou; John Byrne



Rural mobile health unit: outcomes.  


The Mobile Health Unit was implemented to increase access to nursing services, to improve and/or maintain functional status and health status, and to increase health promotion behaviors of rural elderly residents experiencing difficulty obtaining health care due to illness, transportation problems, or financial factors. For 222 project participants 1,773 encounters were completed, with a mean number of visits per individual of 7.9. Participants in the project demonstrated increased breast and cervical cancer screenings, increased immunization rates for influenza, pneumonia and tetanus, and decreased utilization of the emergency room. This project represents an alternative model of health care delivery in a rural area with limited resources and health care providers. PMID:9503947

Alexy, B B; Elnitsky, C



Integrated rural development programs: a skeptical perspective.  


In examining integrated rural development programs the question that arises is why is it possible to identify several relatively successful small-scale or pilot rural development projects yet so difficult to find examples of successful rural development programs. 3 bodies of literature offer some insight into the morphology of rural development projects, programs, and processes: the urban-industrial impact hypothesis; the theory of induced technical change; and the new models of institutional change that deal with institution building and the economics of bureaucratic behavior. The urban-industrial impact hypothesis helps in the clarification of the relationships between the development of rural areas and the development of the total society of which rural areas are a part. It is useful in understanding the spatial dimensions of rural development where rural development efforts are likely to be most successful. Formulation of the hypothesis generated a series of empirical studies designed to test its validity. The effect of these studies has been the development of a rural development model in which the rural community is linked to the urban-industrial economy through a series of market relationships. Both the urban economy's rate of growth and the efficiency of the intersector product and factor markets place significant constraints on the possibilities of rural area development. It is not possible to isolate development processes in the contemporary rural community in a developing society from development processes in the larger society. The induced technical change theory provides a guide as to what must be done to gain access to efficient sources of economic growth, the new resources and incomes that are necessary to sustain rural development. Design of a successful rural development strategy involves a combination of technical and institutional change. The ability of rural areas to respond to the opportunities for economic growth generated by local urban-industrial development, or by the expansion of national and international markets, depends on the capacity for adaptive responses on the part of cultural, political, and economic institutions as well as on technical innovations which can generate substantial new income flows in response to the new economic opportunities. Improvements in the welfare of the rural population in poor regions will call for institutional innovations which effectively link urban and rural areas through a series of nonmarket and market relationships. A major implication of the models is that given the "markets" in which they operate, bureaucracies will be successful in capturing a relatively large share of the economic gains generated by their activities. PMID:12311877

Ruttan, V W



Health Services and Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural people lose more days of school and work due to illness than do urban people; have higher infant mortality rates, and have more work-related injuries, all of which are aggravated by lack of access to or even the absence of medical services. Lack of doctors is the most glaring problem (in 1973 there were 138 U.S. counties which had no…

Rural Housing Alliance, Washington, DC.


One Department Serving Rural America: HHS Rural Task Force, Report to the Secretary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the current health and social services challenges facing rural America, outlines HHS components whose programs currently serve rural and frontier communities, discusses the barriers that Task Force members identified, shares the comm...



Does a Rural Educational Experience Influence Students' Likelihood of Rural Practice? Impact of Student Background and Gender.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University of Calgary pre-medical students were surveyed before and after completing a mandatory 4-week rural clerkship in family medicine. The rural educational experience increased student intentions to do a rural medical locum. Students from rural backgrounds were more likely than urban peers to intend to do a rural locum and practice in a…

Woloschuk, Wayne; Tarrant, Michael



Future Directions in Rural Development Policy. Findings and Recommendations of the National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy, established by Congress to provide broad, long-range policy perspectives, examined rural development policy issues and made many field visits to observe rural conditions and rural development projects. The Commission recognized the diversity of rural communities and identified…

Reid, J. Norman; Rowley, Thomas D.


New Directions for U.S. Rural Policy. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 250 rural leaders attended the conference "Beyond Agriculture: New Policies for Rural America," held in Kansas City (Missouri) in April 2000. The conference began with an assessment of where the rural economy and rural policy are headed in the new century. Speakers suggested that the rural economy is likely to remain a mix of weakness and…

Drabenstott, Mark


Rural Development Group Politics: A Hidden Cost?  

Microsoft Academic Search

summaryRural Development Group Politics: A Hidden Cost?<\\/title>I challenge the popular notion of European rural development group dynamics and argue for a better understanding of the role of micro-politics as a means of enhancing the performance of these groups. The views are research based and have relevance to the broader rural development and regeneration sector. Micro-politics involves knowledge, power, trust, perceptions,

Ruth McAreavey



Acute Traumatic Injuries in Rural Populations  

PubMed Central

In the United States, injuries are the leading cause of death among individuals aged 1 to 45 years and the fourth leading cause of death overall. Rural populations exhibit disproportionately high injury mortality rates. Deaths resulting from motor vehicle crashes, traumatic occupational injuries, drowning, residential fires, and suicide all increase with increasing rurality. We describe differences in rates and patterns of injury among rural and urban populations and discuss factors that contribute to these differences.

Peek-Asa, Corinne; Zwerling, Craig; Stallones, Lorann



Insights from a large rural population laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Data are limited on health status behaviors and use of health services for rural residents. Yet rural areas now have higher rates of chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease, than urban areas.METHODS: A population laboratory (Health Census) was established in rural Central NY (Otsego County) to study these variables in this population. HC `89 was a door-to-door enumeration

C Lewis; A Gadomski; A Nafziger; R Reed; P Jenkins; B Dennison; A Green



Teachers' Perceptions of Rural STEM Teaching: Implications for Rural Teacher Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural school districts often struggle with attracting and retaining high-quality teachers, especially in science subject areas. However, little is known about STEM in-service teachers' lived experiences of rural teaching as they relate to retention. In this phenomenographical study, six rural in-service science teachers were interviewed regarding…

Goodpaster, Kasey P. S.; Adedokun, Omolola A.; Weaver, Gabriela C.



Rural Policy and the New Regional Economics: Implications for Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses gross economic and demographic trends in rural and urban America during the past 30 years, the kinds of competitive advantages enjoyed by urban and rural regions, and insights offered by the new regional economics concerning exploitation of those advantages. The importance of agriculture has declined in rural areas, while that…

Quigley, John M.


One Department Serving Rural America: HHS Rural Task Force Report to the Secretary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) created a rural task force to develop strategies to improve HHS services in rural communities. Fifteen HHS agencies have programs serving rural communities; child- and education-related programs provide child welfare services, Head Start, health promotion and prevention services, training…

Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.


Differences in Child Care Quality in Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines rural differences in one important indicator of quality for licensed child care settings--the number of children per adult. It also investigates the relationships between cost of child care, child care subsidy receipt, and child care quality for both rural and non-rural areas. We used representative child care survey data…

Maher, Erin J.; Frestedt, Becki; Grace, Cathy



Social and Economic Trends in Rural America. The White House Rural Development Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizing developmental problems caused by the rapid population and employment growth in rural America during the 1970's, this document describes social, economic, and governmental trends in rural America and suggests some federal policy choices that might be made in support of rural development. Problem areas and policy suggestions are…

Deavers, Kenneth L.; Brown, David L.


Is Isolation a Problem? Issues Faced by Rural Libraries and Rural Library Staff in South Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research was to investigate current issues faced by public library staff in rural South Australia and to examine some of the reasons why people choose to work in rural libraries. The study took a mixed methods approach, combining interviews and questionnaires to gain a fuller understanding of the issues and experiences of rural

Haines, Rebecca; Calvert, Philip J.



Assessment of a dental rural teaching program  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a rural clinical placement on students’ self-perceived clinical skills and work location choice post-graduation. Methods: A one month rural placement program was introduced in 2008–2009 for 4th year dental undergraduates. Student’s views on the rural exercise were collected by pre and post self-completion questionnaires, which were distributed to rural placement students and to the students who did not participate in the placement. Information was collected on self-reported skill levels in various clinical techniques using Likert scales and future rural work intentions. Clinical supervisors and University Faculty Members opinions on the students clinical work were also collected via interviews. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 27 years and the majority were female (57%). All the placement students (volunteers) completed pre and post placement questionnaires and (67%) of the non-placement students completed the pre questionnaire and (65%) a post questionnaire. When the two groups were compared in terms of their Likert scores, there was a significantly (P<.02) larger increase in skill level in the rural group. Clinical supervisors confirmed volunteers increased in confidence and ability in clinical skills post placement. The majority (96%) of students who completed a placement reported that they were more likely to work in a rural environment after graduation. Conclusions: The rural placement improved the self-perceived clinical skills of the volunteers and enhanced positive attitudes towards working in a rural location.

Johnson, George; Blinkhorn, Anthony



Alternative delivery systems in rural areas.  

PubMed Central

Alternative delivery systems, such as HMOs, PPOs, and primary care case-management programs, have a long history in rural America despite significant impediments to their development. However, little is known about the effect of these systems on rural communities and their medical care delivery systems. Existing studies, which focus on rural HMOs, are qualitative in nature and generally are directed at identifying factors that facilitate or retard HMO development. Despite their limitations, the studies do raise a variety of issues deserving of quantitative analysis. Research is now needed that (1) investigates the effect of rural alternative delivery systems on the cost and quality of care received by rural residents, (2) assesses the effectiveness of different mechanisms used by these systems to contain costs, (3) estimates the effect of alternative delivery systems on rural providers, (4) determines the extent to which the presence or absence of alternative delivery systems influences physician decisions to locate in rural areas, (5) identifies factors that are important in consumer decisions to enroll or not enroll in a rural alternative delivery system, and (6) analyzes the diffusion patterns of these systems in rural areas.

Christianson, J B



Children's health in the rural environment.  


The rural environment is not as wholesome as some might think. In fact, smoking, drinking, illicit drug use, and obesity are more prevalent in rural than in urban youngsters. Childhood mortality is higher in rural areas, with drowning, motor vehicle accidents, firearm injuries, and farm machinery accidents as the leading causes. Air and water quality are monitored less and actually may be worse in the country than in urban areas. This article describes children's health problems associated with the rural environment and provides a list of resources for addressing these problems. PMID:17306687

Cherry, Debra C; Huggins, Barbara; Gilmore, Karen



Global rural electrification - A different race initiative  

SciTech Connect

The paper considers global rural electrification based on electric power from power stations, built in geosynchronous orbit out of lunar materials. These materials are distributed to individual villages and rural electric cooperatives via microwaves for a cost of about 6-45 cents per kilowatt-hour. Power would be available in modular increments of 25-100 kilowatts with an average capital cost as low as $5000 per kilowatt. The global rural electrification program is aimed at providing electric power from space at competitive costs, relative to current costs, to rural and agricultural areas and diverting resources from weapons development to infrastructure development. 16 refs.

Leonard, R.S. (Ad Astra, Ltd., Santa Fe, NM (United States))



75 FR 21265 - Small, Rural School Achievement Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Small, Rural School Achievement Program AGENCY: Office of...358A. SUMMARY: Under the Small, Rural School Achievement (SRSA) Program, the address the unique needs of rural school districts. In this notice, we...



78 FR 30848 - Inviting Applications for Rural Cooperative Development Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applications for Rural Cooperative Development Grants AGENCY: Rural Business--Cooperative Service...SUMMARY: USDA announces the availability of grants through the Rural Cooperative Development Grant (RCDG) Program for Fiscal Year (FY)...



76 FR 34839 - Establishment of the White House Rural Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13575--Establishment of the White House Rural Council Presidential Documents...June 9, 2011 Establishment of the White House Rural Council By the authority...Establishment. There is established a White House Rural Council (Council)....



76 FR 578 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Fiscal Year 2010; Rural Innovation Fund Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Fiscal Year 2010; Rural Innovation Fund Program; Correction...for HUD's FY 2010 Rural Innovation Fund Program, ``Rural Fund...Office of Departmental Grants Management and Oversight at (202) 708...for HUD's FY 2010 Rural Innovation Fund Program, ``Rural...



Securing Funding in Rural Programs for Young Handicapped Children. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of securing funds to support programs for the young handicapped child is a major one for rural service providers. The process of securing funds from within the rural community itself should include nine steps: (1) defining the needy; (2) determining responsibility; (3) identifying resources; (4) considering the message; (5) choosing…

Garland, Corinne Welt, Comp.


Rural migration in southern Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.



Minnesota's rural health workforce shortages.  


With the Affordable Care Act's promise of health insurance coverage for 34 million more Americans comes the question of whether the medical establishment has the capacity to provide care to all who need it. Concern over whether the United States has enough primary care physicians, especially in rural areas, isn't new. Since the end of World War II, the country has been contending with shortages. This article provides an historical perspective on the shortage and efforts to alleviate it in the United States and Minnesota. PMID:24597196

Gunn, Jennifer



Telepsychiatry for Treating Rural American Indian Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of all of the medical specialties, child and adolescent psychiatry has the most severe shortage of practitioners. This shortage is even more pronounced in economically disadvantaged and rural areas. The American Indian population is younger, more economically disadvantaged, and more rural than the general U.S. population (United States Census…

Savin, Daniel; Garry, Mark T.; Zuccaro, Paula; Novins, Douglas



Rural Health Occupations Model Project. Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lee College (Baytown, Texas) Rural Health Occupations Model Project was designed to provide health occupations education tailored to disadvantaged, disabled, and/or limited-English-proficient high school students and adults and thereby alleviate the shortage of nurses and health care technicians in two rural Texas counties. A tech prep program…

Lee Coll., Baytown, TX.


Agents of Culture in Rural Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Art in Arizona Towns Project, through which rural community colleges sponsor three- to six-day visits/residencies by performing artists who perform, lecture, and conduct classes and workshops for schools and community groups. Discusses the project's benefits for the rural communities and the artists, and logistical and financial…

Albright, Penny



Meeting the Needs of Rural Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the gender order that operates in rural areas of Australia, ensuring that women are accorded secondary status, that their contributions are discounted, and that their concerns are trivialized. Women are disadvantaged by patriarchal gender relations that dominate rural society and that are reinforced by ideologies of family and…

Alston, Margaret


Rural Poverty Resource Directory. 2nd Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory contains names and contact information for over 50 social scientists who are available for consultation on policy issues related to poverty in rural America. Part I is organized by topics that are relevant to rural poverty policies and legislation. Under each topic heading are the names; university affiliations; addresses; and…

Summers, Gene F., Comp.; And Others


Rural School Children Picturing Family Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rurality is an active agent and central to the lived experiences of children growing up on a farm and attending a farm school. It is a key to their everyday experiences, and influences family life, schooling and their future. Previous studies elsewhere in the world have explored the notion of childhood in rural contexts, but there is a dearth of…

de Lange, Naydene; Olivier, Tilla; Geldenhuys, Johanna; Mitchell, Claudia



Rural poverty and agricultural performance in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines time series evidence on rural poverty over the past two decades. The time series shows that the incidence of poverty fluctuates in response to variations in real agricultural output per head, but there is no significant time trend. There is a statistically significant inverse relationship between rural poverty and agricultural performance for India as a whole, suggesting

Montek S. Ahluwalia



Breastfeeding practices in urban and rural Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe and compare breastfeeding practices in rural and urban areas of Vietnam and to study associations with possibly influencing person and household factors. This type of study has not been conducted in Vietnam before. METHODS: Totally 2,690 children, born from 1st March 2008 to 30th June 2010 in one rural and one

H. N. Thu; B. Eriksson; T. T. Khanh; M. Petzold; G. Bondjers; C. N. Kim; L. N. Thanh; H. Ascher



Reconceptualising Child Care in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examining child care services in rural and remote areas conducted focus group interviews and distributed questionnaires to parents living in 15 towns in the Mallee region of Western Victoria (Australia). Barriers to accessing child care in rural areas included limited availability of formal services, costs, stereotypes associated with life…

Morda, Romana; Kapsalakis, Anthoula; Clyde, Margaret


Poor, Rural Neighborhoods and Early School Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study sought to identify the existence of neighborhood effects on school achievement that are independent of social class and family background among students from poor, rural neighborhoods. Ethnographic material yielded a concept of rural West Virginia neighborhoods in which residents expect their encounters to be friendly, informal, almost…

Bickel, Robert; Smith, Cynthia; Eagle, Teresa Hardman


Survey of Rural Information Infrastructure Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication and information technologies can reduce the barriers of distance and space that disadvantage rural areas. This report defines a set of distinct voice, computer, and video telecommunication services; describes several rural information applications that make use of these services; and surveys various wireline and wireless systems and…

Allen, Kenneth C.; And Others


Transformational Teacher Leadership in Rural Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the author explores the rural school context and its teacher leaders as a third transformational leadership prototype adding to Leithwood and Jantzi's (1999) two transformational leadership prototypes of females and new teachers in the elementary school. The author helps illuminate new understanding of rural schools and their highly…

Anderson, Kirk David



Rural Public Libraries in Multitype Library Cooperatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a historical overview of library cooperative efforts, the roles identified for the cooperative library organizations and their members, and associated services. Examines the contributions that rural libraries make toward cooperation among all types of libraries and identifies challenges for rural libraries participating in networks in the…

Ison, Jan



Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on alternative and…

Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen



Rural Idaho Family Physicians' Scope of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Scope of practice is an important factor in both training and recruiting rural family physicians. Purpose: To assess rural Idaho family physicians' scope of practice and to examine variations in scope of practice across variables such as gender, age and employment status. Methods: A survey instrument was developed based on a literature…

Baker, Ed; Schmitz, David; Epperly, Ted; Nukui, Ayaka; Miller, Carissa Moffat




EPA Science Inventory

The National Survey of Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) was conducted as an effort to obtain up-to-date on the characteristics and operations of RHCs nationally and the federal Office of Rural Health Policy commissioned this survey of RHCs. The RHC Program is one of the oldest health ...


Preceptor Handbook: Rural Clinical Nurse Placement Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook provides Rural Clinical Nurse Placement Program (RCNP) preceptors with a program overview and practical suggestions to apply during student placement. An introductory section describes how the program addresses the maldistribution of nurses by raising awareness about the rural experience, adding a needed perspective to the urban bias…

Stuart-Siddall, Sandra; Haberlin, Jean


Rural Family Medicine Training in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the status of postgraduate family medicine training in rural settings in Canada and identifies problems and how they are addressed. Specifically, a survey of 18 university programs examined the portion of family medicine block training that is done in a rural practice setting within the 2-year postgraduate family medicine…

Rourke, James T. B.; Rourke, Leslie L.


Selected Health Practices Among Ohio's Rural Residents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a stratified random sample of 12 of Ohio's 88 counties, this 1967 study had as its objectives (1) to measure the level of participation in selected health practices by Ohio's rural residents, (2) to compare the level of participation in selected health practices of farm and rural nonfarm residents, and (3) to examine levels of participation…

Phillips, G. Howard; Pugh, Albert


1975 Rural Manpower Report [North Dakota].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the North Dakota Employment Security Bureau's objectives is to provide equality of services in all programs administered by the Bureau to rural area residents throughout the State. This includes services to agriculture, business, government, and workers in meeting their employment and manpower needs. The Supervisor of Rural Manpower…

North Dakota State Employment Security Bureau, Bismarck. Employment Service Div.


1974 Rural Manpower Report. [North Dakota].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The North Dakota Employment Security Bureau provides equality of services in all programs administered by the Bureau to rural area residents throughout the State. It also provides services to agriculture, business, government, and workers in meeting their employment and manpower needs. The Supervisor of Rural Manpower Services provides supervision…

North Dakota State Employment Security Bureau, Bismarck. Employment Service Div.


The Humanities Flourish in Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the last year, the Rural Libraries and the Humanities Project has assisted 30 rural libraries in Colorado, Kansas, and Oklahoma in developing locally initiated humanities programs. Program packets focusing on heritage, literature, and women were prepared to aid in program development. Development of unique local programs was also encouraged.…

McKenna, Paul G.



OUT Success Stories: Rural Electrification in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The United States and Brazil are collaborating to bring electricity to some 5 million households in rural Brazil. Over the next decade, there is a potential to install approximately 500 megawatts (MW) of solar home systems and 1000 MW of community systems, bringing light to households, schools, and health clinics throughout rural Brazil.

Strawn, N.



The High School in a Rural Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributions of rural high schools to their local economic climate are both underestimated and undervalued. Functions that high schools can and should perform in rural economic development today include providing occupational training to meet immediate labor market needs, raising community educational attainment levels to meet long-term…

Rosenfeld, Stuart



Educating Practitioners for Integrative Rural Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguably, living and working in rural communities can pose significant challenges for human service practitioners--challenges that are different from those encountered by their urban counterparts. Human services employers, like many other employers in rural areas, have difficulty in recruiting and retaining staff. There is now considerable…

Chenoweth, Lesley



Rural-Urban Partnering in Continuing Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interactive television was used to deliver instruction on advanced cardiac life support to rural health care providers. The partnership between rural and urban hospitals enabled the provision of high-quality, cost-effective continuing education to geographically isolated populations. (SK)

Malay, Michael E.; Moore, Jayne F.



Rural Poverty & Education: A Foundational Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991, after 25 workers died in a fire in a rural North Carolina poultry-processing plant, reporters exposed the exploitation that workers had endured and the company's callous disregard for workers' safety. This paper draws on the story of the fire and its victims to challenge some popular assumptions about poverty in general; rural poverty in…

Books, Sue


Rural and Urban Differences in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates rural and urban differences in the need for and use of child care services. The research reported here consists of a secondary analysis of data collected in needs assessment questionnaires administered in four areas: rural Dane County, Wisconsin; urban Stoughton, Wisconsin; urban Madison, Wisconsin; and a five-county area…

Olsen, Glenn William


The Strengthening of Rural Workers' Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A paper from an International Labour Office seminar states that the economic and social development of rural workers must be through their labor organizations. In principle, such organizations for rural workers are the same as those for urban industrial workers. Services provided by unions are discussed. (MF)

Hodsdon, D.



Continuing Education for Rural Hospital Nurses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a rural outreach program to provide continuing education in nursing practice to all levels of nursing personnel in rural hospitals. Covers difficulties in planning and implementing the programs and the steps taken to explain the program philosophy and gain the trust of hospital adminstration and staff. (MF)

Burns, Nancy; Pickard, Myrna R.



Rural Programs: Vocational Education Resource Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist community college administrators and faculty in enhancing vocational education programs and services, this resource package on rural college programs contains information about successful program strategies and ideas currently in use in vocational education programs at rural schools within the California Community Colleges…

Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.


Rural School Leadership for Collaborative Community Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we address the role of rural schools in community development. We first discuss the largely historical linkages between rural schools and the communities they serve, and what this means for both school and community well-being. We then consider the newly revised standards for preparing school administrators, developed by the…

Harmon, Hobarat L.; Schafft, Kai



Risk Communication in Rural Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk communication is a methodology recommended for rural special education professionals who communicate with parents and teachers. Using rural special education examples, the steps of risk-based decision making are described: hazard identification, hazard assessment, risk assessment, risk management, risk analysis, and risk communication.…

Bull, Kay Sather; Kimball, Sarah



Catholic High Schools and Rural Academic Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the effects of rural Catholic high schools on achievement in mathematics, high school graduation rates, and the likelihood that high school graduates go on to college are examined. Estimates that are corrected for selection bias indicate that rural Catholic high schools have a positive effect on mathematics test scores and no effect on graduation rates or on

William Sander



An Attitudinal Survey of Pennsylvania's Rural Residents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Telephone surveys of 844 residents in 42 rural Pennsylvania counties established baseline data on rural opinions about 14 public policy issues. Concerning government spending, respondents felt that too little was spent on job creation, aging issues, child care, education, health services, and farming and agriculture; funding was about right for…

Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.


Community outreach: rural mobile health unit.  


With the increased emphasis on cost containment, hospital administrators are investigating community outreach projects to remain economically viable. The authors describe the planning and implementation of a mobile health unit for rural elderly residents. This project represents an alternative model of healthcare delivery in a rural area with limited resources and healthcare providers. PMID:8968323

Alexy, B B; Elnitsky, C A



Applications of Technology in Rural School Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural schools often have difficulty in developing and implementing a 21st century, K-12 technology plan. This report describes one rural school district's (Wayne, Nebraska) successful efforts at technology integration. It discusses the efforts of installing 25 networked computers in the local high school, linking buildings with fiber-optic cables,…

Jensen, Dennis


Rural Poverty: Incidence, Causes and Cures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, this research was conducted to investigate topics concerning the following four aspects of rural poverty: (1) documentation of the dimensions of rural poverty; (2) description of past public programs to raise incomes of the disadvantaged; (3) an outline of some of the strengths and…

Tweeten, Luther G.


Rural Education in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural education is described in this paper in terms of its progress and problems. Among the problems, it is noted that money available on a competitive basis is generally out of reach of the rural school because of the lack of time and talent needed to obtain the funds. Teachers are often undertrained, holding "Life Certificates" earned with less…

McClurkin, W. D.



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Preventing Teenage Pregnancies in Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-thirds of all schools in the United States are rural and three-fourths are small. Statistically, most teenage parents are from such school systems. Yet the problem of teenage pregnancy is most frequently overlooked by rural and small school communities. In fact, some cultural factors and resource deficiencies of these communities actually…

Helge, Doris


Building Human Resources for Rural Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The institutions and practices of agricultural extension in Australia are changing to meet the changing needs of rural people and communities. Issues and challenges facing rural people include the declining relative economic importance of agriculture; the declining agricultural workforce; and the shift in agriculture from a purely production…

Woods, E. J.; And Others


NFIRE Survey of Rural Education Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tabulated results of a 1976 National Federation for the Improvement of Rural Education (NFIRE) survey soliciting 140 opinions (a 43% return on 322 survey forms) re: rural education priorities are presented in this paper. These results include the total number of persons responding to each item and the resultant ranking of all items in the survey.…

Jongeward, Ray


The National Rural Library Reference Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of rural and suburban libraries produced over 660 usable responses on special problems of rural libraries. Nearly half of libraries had budgets of under $30,000; about half did not have M.L.S. degree-holding staff members; majority participated in cooperative system; many reported inadequate reference resources; and isolation was major…

Head, John W.



[Rural Manpower Development Program, Achievement Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Manpower Development Program (RMDP) is an agency of the New Jersey Office of Economic Opportunity established for the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of a comprehensive manpower service for unemployed or underemployed disadvantaged people from the rural areas of New Jersey. Included in this achievement report is historical and…

New Jersey Office of Economic Opportunity, Trenton.


Rural Technical Assistance Center Workshop Summaries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference guide contains summaries of workshops developed by the Rural Technical Assistance Centers (R-TACs) at the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory to provide assistance to Chapter 1 personnel. The booklet describes currently available standard workshops from which rural educators may select. Most workshops can range from an…

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.


Rural Schools Grow Leaders to Suit Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faced with state and federal mandates to reverse the course of failing rural schools--in some cases, by replacing teachers and principals--districts and researchers say just finding bodies for empty spots is no longer enough. Increasingly, money and attention are turning toward programs that hand-pick promising rural teaching candidates and school…

Schulken, Mary



Access to Land in Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

May 1999Access to land is deeply important in rural India, where the incidence of poverty is highly correlated with lack of access to land. The author provides a framework for assessing alternative approaches to improving access to land by India's rural poor. He considers India's record implementing land reform and identifies an approach that includes incremental reforms in public land

Robin Mearns



Innovations in rural and agriculture finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most rural households lack access to reliable and affordable finance for agriculture and other livelihood activities. Many small farmers live in remote areas where retail banking is limited and production risks are high. The recent financial crisis has made the provision of credit even tighter and the need to explore innovative approaches to rural and agricultural finance even more urgent.

Renate Kloeppinger-Todd; Manohar Sharma



Rural Itinerant Manpower Services, 1978-1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Itinerant Manpower Services Project, a joint venture of Portable Practical Education Preparation, Inc. (PPED) and Arizona's Department of Economic Security (DES), is a modified mobile service delivery model. It seeks unsubsidized employment for and provides social services to Southern Arizona's migrant/seasonal farmworkers and rural poor…

Green, Charles


Implementing Patient Safety Initiatives in Rural Hospitals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implementation of patient safety initiatives can be costly in time and energy. Because of small volumes and limited resources, rural hospitals often are not included in nationally driven patient safety initiatives. This article describes the Tennessee Rural Hospital Patient Safety Demonstration project, whose goal was to strengthen capacity for…

Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira; Tupper, Judith; Coburn, Andrew; Wakefield, Mary



Uninsured Hospitalizations: Rural and Urban Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Few studies have examined hospitalization patterns among the uninsured, especially from the perspective of rural and urban differences. Purpose: To examine whether the patterns of uninsured hospitalizations differ in rural and urban hospitals and to identify the most prevalent and costly diagnoses among uninsured hospitalizations.…

Zhang, Wanqing; Mueller, Keith J.; Chen, Li-Wu



Rural Poverty in Ecuador -- A Qualitative Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

February 1996This report aims to assess what poverty means to marginalized rural families, what kind of survival strategies families use in times of hardship, and what these families believe is needed to alleviate their poverty. The rural families express very practical solutions to overcoming poverty, largely linked to increasing the productivity of human resources and land through training and small-scale

Jesko Hentschel; William F. Waters; Anna Kathryn Vandever Webb



Development of Class Awareness Among Rural Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Class awareness among rural children was investigated in three dimensions: cognitive, behavioral, and evaluative. Data were obtained from 378 white students in grades K-8 in 9 rural elementary schools in the Upper Cumberland region of middle Tennessee. Children's social class background (SES) was determined by their father's occupational strata…

Mookherjee, Harsha N.


Quality management of rural and urban planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural and urban planning encompasses applied, natural, social sciences and the initial study by people from all involved disciplines. The inter-discipline human resource and geographic information system management integration can help resolve conflict while working toward a common project goal in community, quality management, rural and urban development. Quality management can be made easier through the adaptation of GIS information

Dung-Hai Liang; Peirchyi Lii; Dong-Shong Liang



Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighteen papers about education, training, and extension in rural areas of the developing world are presented in this 1975 journal published jointly by three United Nations agencies closely concerned with education and rural development: Food and Agriculture Organization; Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; International Labor…

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).


Black Rural Land Decline in the South  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that it is widely accepted that millions of blacks who migrated from the South contributed significantly to the decline of black rural land ownership. However, the less than altruistic behavior patterns of land officials has also contributed to the loss of rural land by blacks. (Author/AM)

McGee, Leo; Boone, Robert



Comprehensive Community Initiatives: A Rural Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article challenges the notion that the comprehensive community initiative (CCI) is a singularly urban intervention strategy by comparing a rural comprehensive initiative with the literature on urban CCIs. Characteristics of CCIs in urban settings are discussed and compared with Warren Family Institute (WFI), a demonstration project in rural

Messinger, Lori



Child Adoption in Contemporary Rural China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on qualitative information from in-depth interviews and quantitative data from a survey of 425 adoptive families conducted in summer 2001 in rural China, this study attempts to explain the social and demographic patterns of adoption and investigate the roles of the State and families in adoption processes in contemporary rural China. Within…

Zhang, Weiguo



Midwestern Rural Adolescents' Oral Sex Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined the prevalence of oral sexual activity in rural Midwestern adolescents. We also examined the correlates of a series of risk behaviors with oral sexual activity. Methods: A questionnaire based on the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System was distributed to 2121 rural middle and high school students in grades 6-12…

Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Ward, Britney L.; Welch, Philip J.



Developing a Rural Teacher Education Curriculum Package  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper documents the development of a new website ( specifically designed to better equip teacher educators to prepare graduates to teach in rural and regional communities. The two year study (2009-2011) that informed the website's creation included three data sources: A literature review of research into rural teacher…

White, Simone; Kline, Jodie



The Self-Esteem of Rural Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The self-esteem of children in small towns was assessed. Comparing these children's self-rated competencies to extant norms suggests that rural children's self-perceptions are not distinctly different from suburban and urban children. Rural children's feelings of self-worth and self-assessments of scholastic competence are comparable to or higher…

Yang, Raymond K.; Fetsch, Robert J.



Staying in Touch: The Rural Principals' Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 230 Louisiana principals and assistant principals were surveyed about social networking behaviors and topics discussed with other administrators. There were no differences by location, except that rural administrators discussed student discipline less often than other administrators. Among rural administrators, there were no…

Garber, Darrel H.



Impact of Education over Rural Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study to find out the impact of education on rural adults and their families through surveys of farmers in two villages in India, with and without educational facilities. Results clearly indicated improved agricultural practices and positive educational attitudes for the educated villagers, with implications for improved rural

Singh, Himmat; Yadava, J. P.



Improving the Rural School Reading Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students who live in rural areas will almost certainly leave those areas for occupations in larger city areas when they reach adulthood. Therefore, the child needs to receive the best education possible to prepare for an unknown future. This paper discusses some of the characteristics of rural schools, especially the plethora of children living in…

Ediger, Marlow


[Attitude of rural populations to health].  


In the course of standard epidemiological survey conducted in rural medical district attitude to health and willingness of population to participate in the preventive activities is studied. Rural population manifests great interest in popular medical knowledge and health, quite rightly considering it to be the most precious property in life and the overwhelming majority of population express willingness to spend efforts and time to preserve it and give up such bad habits as overeating, use of alcohol, smoking etc. However, the verbal behaviour of rural population does not correspond to their actual mode of life and the latter is not always adequate. The organization of health education is of major importance for the formation of proper behaviour. Health education activities in rural areas have some peculiarities. The role of feldshers in organizing health education is increasing. The establishment of sports and health promoting units in rural areas is also of importance. PMID:2595450

Plotnikova, N D; Bogdanov, V S; Kurlov, I O



The meaning of 'rural' in rural health: a review and case study from Brazil.  


Health disparities between rural and urban populations are an important global health concern, although ascertaining what constitutes a rural context is a complicated undertaking. This article summarises theoretical contributions that help to explain how uncritical use of rural classifications may interfere with epidemiological data and health policies. Bonfim, a community located in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, illustrates the discussion. Bonfim is classified as urban by the Brazilian census, although the community contains farmland, parkland and rural social groups such as family farmers and ecotourism employees. The (mis)classification of Bonfim as urban further complicates the meaning of rural, and thus also what is meant by rural health. Researchers have developed some new rurality indexes to overcome the rural-urban dichotomy and to help understand local scale health determinants. But the obstacles for large-scale studies and government decision-making are still many. 'Rural' is an epidemiological variable that unites in a single indicator diverse life aspects relevant for health purposes. Therefore, to facilitate allocation of health resources based on objective criteria, governments and policy makers must acknowledge the difficulty of defining what rural is and work to improve the definitions they use. PMID:21390962

Lourenço, Ana Eliza Port



Quality of Diabetes Mellitus Care by Rural Primary Care Physicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To explore the relationship between degree of rurality and glucose (hemoglobin A1c), blood pressure (BP), and lipid (LDL) control among patients with diabetes. Methods: Descriptive study; 1,649 patients in 205 rural practices in the United States. Patients' residence ZIP codes defined degree of rurality (Rural-Urban Commuting Areas…

Tonks, Stephen A.; Makwana, Sohil; Salanitro, Amanda H.; Safford, Monika M.; Houston, Thomas K.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Curry, William; Estrada, Carlos A.



The Impact of Selected Federal Health Programs on Rural Texas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report is to address the impact of several federally funded health programs serving rural Texans. The first section presents an overview of the statistical indices which demonstrate the current health status of rural Texans (health care problems of rural Texans exceed those of urban Texans, yet rural Texans have fewer resources…

McManus, Elaine; And Others


Rural-Specific Concerns and Strategies in the Budget Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nationally, rural students represent about a quarter of all students attending public school; nearly a third of all schools are located in rural areas. Those rural schools and students have a number of unique characteristics and needs. For example, the smaller size of many rural schools and districts can sometimes lead to per-pupil expenditures…

Johnson, Jerry; Malhoit, Greg; Shope, Shane



Skills and Requirements of Rural Human Service Organisations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature identified social, cultural, and work-related issues that may affect the retention and selection of qualified human services staff in rural areas. A survey of 60 rural professionals and follow-up interviews examined attitudes toward living in rural areas, skills required by rural human services organizations, and gaps in…

Sacco, Marise


Postgraduate Medical Education for Rural Family Practice in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To produce more rural physicians, the College of Family Physicians of Canada recommends providing earlier and more extensive rural medicine experience for all undergraduate medical students, developing rural postgraduate training programs, providing third-year optional special and advanced rural family-medicine skills training, and making advanced…

Rourke, James T. B.



Rx for the Rural Health-Care Shortage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of Appalachian initiatives aim to recruit rural doctors. West Virginia's three medical schools require all students to spend time working in rural clinics, where they develop an understanding of and connections to rural communities. In two rural Tennessee counties, East Tennessee State University maintains teaching medical practices…

Casto, James E.



Poverty in Rural Areas of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The poverty problems in rural America are categorized and analyzed in terms of the extent and persistence of rural poverty, causes and costs of poverty, poverty characteristics of rural areas, and implications for anti-poverty programs. The report defines poverty and briefly traces the history of rural poverty over the past 20 years. Maps, charts,…

Bird, Alan R.


Girl Scouts: A Strong Ally for Rural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With much to offer rural girls as well as much to learn from them, Girl Scouting is trying to reach more girls and adults in rural areas. The challenges include economic setbacks for farming, unemployment, isolated populations, and changing rural culture. Along with the challenges are the many resources of rural areas and the congruence between…

Ricard, Virginia B.


Urban-Rural Disparities in Injury Mortality in China, 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Urban-rural disparity is an important issue for injury control in China. Details of the urban-rural disparities in fatal injuries have not been analyzed. Purpose: To target key injury causes that most contribute to the urban-rural disparity, we decomposed total urban-rural differences in 2006 injury mortality by gender, age, and cause.…

Hu, Guoqing; Baker, Susan P.; Baker, Timothy D.



Toward a More Holistic Evaluation Approach for Rural Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discussion on and development of a holistic evaluation approach for rural development will be indispensable to improving and enriching the lives of rural people. This approach can be developed by considering the conceptualization of community policy structure in rural areas, the localization of policy structure in the rural community, and the…

Miyoshi, Koichi



The construction of rural financial ecology environment evaluation index system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The valuation of rural financial ecological environment's quality is the foundation of achieving rural sustainable development in both social and economical aspects. The paper discusses the basic principles of evaluation criteria of the construction of rural financial ecological environment. And this paper also carries on a research of China's rural financial ecological environment evaluation index system from the legal environment,

An Qiangshen



ACOG Committee Opinion No. 586: Health disparities in rural women.  


Rural women experience poorer health outcomes and have less access to health care than urban women. Many rural areas have limited numbers of health care providers, especially women's health providers. Rural America is heterogeneous where problems vary depending on the region and state. Health care professionals should be aware of this issue and advocate for reducing health disparities in rural women. PMID:24451676



Chaos Problem Cumulative Effects Research on Rural Financial Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the analysis of the complexity of rural financial system and its chaotic characteristic of the evolution, with the help of the relevant theories about chaotic economics, this thesis analyzes the cumulative effects of rural financial innovation by modeling. Furthermore, it involves the cumulative effects of rural financial innovation, the efforts and the internal innovative impetus of rural financial

Haoquan Wang; Guoxing Zhang



Improving Rural Cancer Patients' Outcomes: A Group-Randomized Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant barriers exist in the delivery of state-of-the-art cancer care to rural populations. Rural providers' knowledge and practices, their rural health care delivery systems, and linkages to cancer specialists are not optimal; therefore, rural cancer patient outcomes are less than achievable. Purpose: To test the effects of a strategy…

Elliott, Thomas E.; Elliott, Barbara A.; Regal, Ronald R.; Renier, Colleen M.; Haller, Irina V.; Crouse, Byron J.; Witrak, Martha T.; Jensen, Patricia B.



Mental Health Emergencies Training for Rural and Remote Nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Association for Australian Rural Nurses (AARN) works to promote quality health care through excellence in rural nursing practice. AARN has gained Rural Health Support Education and Training (RHSET) funding for a pilot project to provide Rural Nurses and Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) with training and resources to develop the effectiveness of their response to mental health emergencies. The training

Rod Menere


Rural Health Care Delivery: Hard Times, Hard Changes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural America is undergoing rapid and confusing change which impacts on the role of rural health educators and practitioners. Although rural life has been romanticized, rural areas have emergencies and accidents remote from professional assistance, occupational diseases, high infant and maternal mortality rates, and the same high incidence of…

McLaughlin, Judith


State Council Resolutions on Further Strengthening Rural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several resolutions on strengthening work in rural education have been made in order to accelerate development of rural education in China, deepen reform of rural education, guarantee a well-off society, and harmonize rural and urban development. This article presents a detailed plan of actions for each resolution. The resolutions are enumerated…

Chinese Education and Society, 2005



America's Forgotten Children: Child Poverty in Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report draws on research, statistics, and the voices of rural young people to document the extent and causes of rural child poverty, and related problems and reasons for hope in specific focus areas. About 2.5 million rural children are chronically poor. Rural poverty is concentrated in central Appalachia, the deep South, the U.S.-Mexican…

Nadel, Wendy; Sagawa, Shirley


The Plight of Rural Women in Upstate New York. Rural New York Conference Proceedings (April 2, 1976).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1976 Rural New York Conference focused on unresolved social problems in rural America, with particular attention to needs of rural women in New York. Growing out of a course on rural poverty and social change at Syracuse University, the conference was initiated and planned primarily by students. Proceedings include "Commentaries" by: (1) the…

Cochrane, Hortence S., Comp.


Rural Youth in Asia. Report of the CCA Rural Youth Study Group (Sibu, Malaysia, March 14-19, 1976).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historical causes of rural poverty and general recommendations for work among rural youth in India, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand are presented in this summary of national reports given before the Rural Youth Study Group in 1976. In addition to study papers on each country, the volume contains an introduction on rural youth and…



Platform for Rural America. Revised at the National Conference on Rural America (3rd, December 5-7, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommendations which emerged from the Second and Third National Conferences on Rural America are presented in this revised platform of principles and policy recommendations for rural America. Major goal of the document is to find practical solutions to problems facing rural people so that strategies of rural revitalization and action can be…

Rural America, Inc., Washington, DC.


Definition of "Rural" Determines the Placement Outcomes of a Rural Medical Education Program: Analysis of Jichi Medical University Graduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To show the impact of changing the definition of what is "rural" on the outcomes of a rural medical education program. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 643 graduates under obligatory rural service and 1,699 graduates after serving their obligation, all from Jichi Medical University (JMU), a binding rural education program in Japan,…

Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Kajii, Eiji



50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart... Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300âAlaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.012...



Graphing Calculators and Learning Styles in Rural and Non-Rural High Schools. Working Paper No. 23  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine rural and non-rural students in order to understand similarities and differences between their learning styles and the ease with which they learned Algebra with a graphic calculator. Two samples of students, one from a rural high school and one from a non-rural one, answered a survey asking about their…

Alfonso, Zully; Long, Vena



Rural Development: Sixth Annual Report of the President to the Congress on Government Services to Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the sixth annual report on the availability of government and government assisted rural services, this report: (1) outlines executive branch efforts to improve services to rural America during fiscal year 1974; (2) measures services to rural America by comparing the distribution of 1974 outlays in 4 broad program categories important to rural

Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Economic Development Div.


Rural electric cooperatives IRP survey  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the integrated resource planning (IRP) practices of US rural electric cooperatives and the IRP policies which influence these practices. It was prepared by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and its subcontractor Garrick and Associates to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in satisfying the reporting requirements of Title 1, Subtitle B, Section 111(e)(3) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), which states: (e) Report--Not later than 2 years after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary (of the US Department of Energy) shall transmit a report to the President and to the Congress containing--(the findings from several surveys and evaluations, including:); (3) a survey of practices and policies under which electric cooperatives prepare IRPs, submit such plans to REA, and the extent to which such integrated resource planning is reflected in rates charged to customers.

Garrick, C. [Garrick and Associates, Morrison, CO (United States)



[Transformations of the rural Colombian family].  


This work analyzes sociodemographic changes affecting rural Colombian families in the past 15-20 years. The most recent sources of data on Colombia's rural population are the 1985 census, the 1988 Rural Household Survey, and the 1990 Survey of Contraceptive Prevalence, Demography, and Health. Among the most significant changes observed since the preceding census, in 1973, were declines in illiteracy and increases in educational status, increased economic participation of women, declines in fertility and infant mortality, and declining participation in agriculture and diversification in other rural activities. The absolute size of Colombia's rural population has not changed since 1973 but its relative weight has declined from 39% to 32% in 1985. Due to the fertility decline the proportion of the population under 15 has declined from 48% in 1973 too 39% in 1990. The rural total fertility rate was estimated at 3.8 children per woman in 1987-90 and the crude birth rate at 27/1000. The total fertility rate is much higher in some regions and among some groups of women. The most important determinant of rural fertility decline has been family planning. Between 1969-90, the proportion of rural women using contraception has increased from 10 to 60%. 47% of women in union do not desire more children, with poorly educated mothers of 3 or more children least likely to want more children. A 1990 estimate of infant mortality based on the contraceptive prevalence survey was 36/1000 in rural and 28/1000 in urban areas. Although the overall infant mortality rate has declined by 37% in 25 years, significant regional and socioeconomic differentials persist. Acute diarrheal disease is still the single most important cause of death in children under 5, followed by acute respiratory infections. The main cause of death for adults aged 15-44 is homicide. Among fertile-aged women the most important causes of illness and death are nutritional deficiencies and poor attention in deliveries and abortions. In 1990, 68% of rural women received prenatal care from a physician. Half were attended at delivery by a physician, 15% by a nurse, and 22% by a traditional midwife. 60% of deliveries occurred in health services. 42% of fertile-aged rural women are married and 21% are in consensual unions. The median age at birth of the 1st child increased from 20.7 years in 1986 to 21.2 in 1990. The average household size of rural families in 1990 was 5.0 members. 59% of rural households contained nuclear families, 29% extended, 7% compound, and 5% single individuals. 17% of rural households are headed by women. An estimated 70% of rural households in 1985 did not have their basic needs for housing and economic security met. 43% were estimated to be extremely impoverished. 15% of the rural population over age 5 was illiterate in 1990. 60% of children aged 6-10 were enrolled in school. The activity rate of rural women increased from 17.9% in 1978 to 28.6% in 1988. PMID:12284193

Ordonez Gomez, M



Frailty among rural elderly adults  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors related to frailty, by Fried criteria, in the elderly population in a rural area in the Andes Mountains, and to analyze the relationship of these with comorbidity and disability. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving 1878 participants 60 years of age and older. The frailty syndrome was diagnosed based on the Fried criteria (weakness, low speed, low physical activity, exhaustion, and weight loss). Variables were grouped as theoretical domains and, along with other potential confounders, were placed into five categories: (a) demographic and socioeconomic status, (b) health status, (c) self-reported functional status, (d) physical performance-based measures, and (e) psychosocial factors. Chi-square, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test the prognostic value of frailty for the outcomes of interest. Results The prevalence of frailty was 12.2%. Factors associated with frailty were age, gender, health status variables that included self-perceived health and number of chronic conditions, functional covariate variables that included disability in activities in daily living (ADL), disabilities in instrumental ADL, chair stand time, and psychosocial variables that included depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment. Higher comorbidity and disability was found in frail elderly people. Only a subset of frail elderly people (10%) reported no disease or disability. Conclusions A relevant number of elderly persons living in rural areas in the Andes Mountains are frail. The prevalence of frailty is similar to that reported in other populations in the Latin American region. Our results support the use of modified Cardiovascular Health Study criteria to measure frailty in communities other than urban settings. Frailty in this study was strongly associated with comorbidities, and frailty and comorbidity predicted disability.



A comparison of mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors between rural and non-rural transgender persons.  


The aim of this study was to compare the mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors of rural and non-rural transgender persons. Online banner advertisements were used to recruit 1,229 self-identified rural and non-rural transgender adults (18+ years) residing in the United States. Primary findings include significant differences in mental health between rural and non-rural transmen; relatively low levels of binge drinking across groups, although high levels of marijuana use; and high levels of unprotected sex among transwomen. The results confirm that mental and physical health services for transgender persons residing in rural areas are urgently needed. PMID:24380580

Horvath, Keith J; Iantaffi, Alex; Swinburne-Romine, Rebecca; Bockting, Walter



Rural-to-Urban Labor Migration, Household Livelihoods, and the Rural Environment in Chongqing Municipality, Southwest China.  


Rural migration and its relationship to the rural environment have attracted increasing research interest in recent decades. Rural migration constitutes a key component of human population movement, while rural areas contain most of the world's natural resources such as land and forests. This study empirically evaluates a conceptual framework incorporating rural household livelihoods as an integrative mediating factor between rural migration and the rural environment in the context of rural-to-urban labor migration in Chongqing Municipality, Southwest China. The analysis draws on data collected through household surveys and key informant interviews from four villages. Results confirm the hypothesis that labor-migrant and non-labor-migrant households differ significantly in livelihood activities including agricultural production, agricultural technology use, income and consumption, and resource use and management. Implications for the subsequent environmental outcomes of rural labor out-migration and corresponding natural resource management and policy in rural origin areas are discussed. PMID:22207776

Qin, Hua



"Rural health is subjective, everyone sees it differently": understandings of rural health among Australian stakeholders.  


In Australia, a diversity of perspectives of rural health have produced a deficit discourse as well as multidisciplinary perspectives that acknowledge diversity and blend in social, cultural and public health concepts. Interviews with 48 stakeholders challenged categories of rural and remote, and discussed these concepts in different ways, but invariably marginalised Aboriginal voices. Respondents overwhelmingly used a deficit discourse to plead for more resources but also blended diverse knowledge and at times reflected a relational understanding of rurality. However, mainstream perspectives dominated Aboriginal voices and racial exclusion remains a serious challenge for rural/remote health in Australia. PMID:24056363

Bourke, Lisa; Taylor, Judy; Humphreys, John S; Wakerman, John



Telemental Health in Today's Rural Health System .  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Telemental health has long been promoted in rural areas to address chronic access barriers to mental health care. Policymakers and advocates tend to view telehealth technology as particularly promising given the chronic shortage of mental health clinician...

A. Y. Hansen D. Hartley D. Lambert J. Gale Z. Croll



Multipurpose Centers in a Rural County.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes services, programs, and funding for the various senior centers in Frankin County, New York, which has a predominately rural, low-income population. Services include bus transportation, nutrition programs, health and financial assistance, and social events. (MF)

Norris, Jean



Rural Labour Markets in Australia. A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent developments in rural labour markets in Australia. It examines trends in employment and unemployment in labour markets in capital city and non-capital city areas, and employment trends in the agriculture industry in Australia.

J. Borland



Monitoring Agricultural Conditions in Rural Afghanistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At this moment, many nations of the world are engaged in providing humanitarian assistance to the rural people of Afghanistan. This assistance is of special importance because of the recent intensification of the Soviet program to depopulate those areas o...

W. D. Drake



Funding and Viability of Rural Development Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using the Jamaican Development Bank as an example, this paper examines the impact of existing funding sources on the viability of rural development banks (RDB) in low-income countries and suggests new sources for RDB funding.

C. Bourne D. H. Graham



Correlates of Suicidal Ideation among Rural Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined potential predictors of suicidal ideation among nonclinical, rural adolescents (n=76). Results suggest a significant predictive relationship between magnitude of suicidal ideation and measures of family social climate. No significant sex differences were found. (Author/ABL)

Meneese, William B.; Yutrzenka, Barbara A.



Management Information System for Rural Transit Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phase I of the study evaluates nine representative computerized management information systems in rural and small urban areas to compare and contrast their respective capabilities, ease of use, and cost. No comprehensive automated MIS was available at a c...

J. Collura P. W. Shuldiner R. Bonsignore P. McOwen C. Shuldiner



Rural Development and Women in Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The World Employment Conference in June 1976 noted that in many developing countries women are particularly disadvantaged in respect of employment, poverty, education, training and status. Within the International Labor Office, the Program on Rural Women ...



Rural Alaska Science and Mathematics Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Less than 1 percent of all math, science, and engineering baccalaureate and graduate degrees at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF), are awarded to Alaska Native students. Academic preparation, lack of exposure to science careers in rural Alaska, an...

B. R. Brunk



A Profile of Two Rural Principals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys typical challenges, problems, and rewards facing principals in small rural schools by profiling two principals who administer five schools in northern Vermont. The schools have a combined population of 400 students in grades from kindergarten through eighth grade. (PGD)

Mitchell, Gertrue E.



Rural At-Grade Intersection Illumination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is the final report of the Rural At-Grade Intersection Illumination Project which had as objectives the development of warrants for fixed roadway illumination and the determination of recommended levels for lighting design. The project examin...

R. H. Wortman M. E. Lipinski



Assessment of rural energy resources; Methodological guidelines  

SciTech Connect

This article presents the methodological guidelines used to assess rural energy resources with an example of its application in three villages each from different physiographic zones of Nepal. Existing energy demand patterns of villages are compared with estimated resource availability, and rural energy planning issues are discussed. Economics and financial supply price of primary energy resources are compared, which provides insight into defective energy planning and policy formulation and implication in the context of rural areas of Nepal. Though aware of the formidable consequences, the rural populace continues to exhaust the forest as they are unable to find financially cheaper alternatives. Appropriate policy measures need to be devised by the government to promote the use of economically cost-effective renewable energy resources so as to change the present energy usage pattern to diminish the environmental impact caused by over exploitation of forest resources beyond their regenerative capacity.

Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D. (Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Inst. of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 11016 (IN))



Radiology services survey of rural frontier hospitals.  


Little has been written about rural frontier hospitals and the radiology services they provide. The authors surveyed rural hospitals in seven Western states, with emphasis on technologist accreditation, numbers and educational level of personnel, patient occupancy, test volume and referrals. They found accreditation, patient referral and employee credentialing to be a function of hospital bed size, while radiology department employment remained constant at 3 percent of the facility's total employment. PMID:1961931

Goldsworthy, R E; Pawar, V B



Bull horn injuries in rural India.  


Bull horn injuries though not so commonly seen in cities, are commonly observed in rural areas. The bull horn injuries are different in many ways from other casualties e.g., blunt injuries, stab injuries, road traffic accidents, etc. A total of 50 cases of bull horn injuries were managed at a Rural Medical College during a 5-year period. An emphasis is given on the nature and mechanism of these types of injuries and the measures to prevent such mishaps. PMID:9212558

Wasadikar, P P; Paunikar, R G; Deshmukh, S B



Rural health care support mechanism. Final rule.  


In this document, the Federal Communications Commission reforms its universal service support program for health care, transitioning its existing Internet Access and Rural Health Care Pilot programs into a new, efficient Healthcare Connect Fund. This Fund will expand health care provider access to broadband, especially in rural areas, and encourage the creation of state and regional broadband health care networks. Access to broadband for medical providers saves lives while lowering health care costs and improving patient experiences. PMID:23476995



Aging in rural Canada: a retrospective and review.  


Research on rural aging has developed considerably since publication of the book Aging in Rural Canada (Butterworths, 1991). The purpose of this article is twofold: to provide a retrospective on issues in rural aging from this book, and to review Canadian literature on rural aging since its publication. The review highlights new directions in conceptual definitions of rural, and in issues of social engagement, independence, family and social networks, and rural services and health. Two main research lenses are evident. The marginalization lens focuses on rural seniors with health problems, but has not included those marginalized by poverty or gender. The aging-well lens focuses on contributions and engagement, but has omitted research on social relationships and quality of family interaction. The report includes a call for interrogation about interaction between people and place, and for understanding issues of rural diversity and processes of rural aging. PMID:21767464

Keating, Norah; Swindle, Jennifer; Fletcher, Stephanie



Rural Life and Education: A Study of the Rural-School Problem As a Phase of the Rural-Life Problem. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Published in 1922, this book examines changes in rural life during the 19th century, and resulting problems and effects on rural schooling in the early 20th century. The book suggests that by the early 20th century, rural schools had lost their former importance to the community and were far behind compared to the progress of urban schools. The…

Cubberley, Ellwood Patterson


Re-conceptualising rural resources as countryside capital: The case of rural tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commentators tend to agree that the rural resource is becoming increasingly subject to pressures arising from an ever wider range of economic, social, political and environmental influences. This paper focuses on the case of rural tourism in illustrating the advantages of adopting a sustainable development approach to identifying suitable policies and strategic action plans to assist in addressing these increasingly

Brian Garrod; Roz Wornell; Ray Youell



You and the Rural Connection: Answers to Your Questions on Rural Career Guidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samples of the approximately 1,900 requests for information received by the Rural Connection (RC) between September, 1977, and November, 1978, have been selected to give the reader a general idea of the kind of career information requested by guidance counselors in small, rural schools. The requests are organized into two main categories, each…

Drier, Harry; And Others


Top-Down, Routinized Reform in Low-Income, Rural Schools: NSF's Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and evaluates the Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative, a six-state consortium for academic improvement supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), that focuses on low-income rural schools. The 1-day, one-school site visits that constitute program reviews in this initiative are unlikely to enhance achievement in either science…

Bickel, Robert; Tomasek, Terry; Eagle, Teresa Hardman



The Changing American Countryside: Rural People and Places. Series: Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interdisciplinary collection of 26 readings in rural studies aims to address the paucity of information and absence of informed people to advise public debate about rural issues. Sections of the book examine the pastoral tradition in literature; the changing nature of the countryside; money, jobs, and space; distress and poverty; regional and…

Castle, Emery N., Ed.


Rural Sociology in the South: 1972. Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section, Association of Southern Agricultural Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers presented in this collection are said to represent the major thrusts of research and other scholarly activities of rural sociologists in the South in 1972. Arranged in the order of their presentation at the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Agricultural Workers meetings, these papers discuss such topics as youth, social change in…

Voland, Maurice E., Ed.


Wireless Broadband Communications Systems in Rural Wisconsin. Rural Research Report. Volume 19, Issue 1, Spring 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a communications system engineering planning process that demonstrates an ability to design and deploy cost-effective broadband networks in low density rural areas. The emphasis in on innovative solutions and systems optimization because of the marginal nature of rural telecommunications infrastructure investments. Otherwise,…

Schlager, Kenneth J.



The emergence of new uses for rural spaces and interrelations of rural and urban labour markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

38th Congress of the European Regional Science Association 28 August ? 1 September 1998 in Vienna Europe quo vadis? ? Regional question at the Turn of the Century Topic: E: Poverty, Labour Markets and Migrations The emergence of new uses for rural spaces and interrelations of rural and urban labour markets (Abstract) by Thomas Dax, Bundesanstalt fur Bergbauernfragen The former

Thomas Dax



Agroindustria Rural y Mercados de Trabajo. ¿Alternativa a la Pobreza Rural?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate on the rural labour market has boarded with amplitude the conditions of the supply and demand of work force, of the segmentation and the exclusion of the ethnic groups and the women in the field. However, few are the studies on the relationship among poverty, capabilities and the construction of alternatives to rural poverty. In this article we

Gerardo Torres Salcido


Toward the 21st Century: A Rural Education Anthology. Rural School Development Outreach Project. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anthology focuses on rural education improvement that will prepare students for the 21st century. Articles address issues related to school funding, educational technology, curriculum offerings, state and federal policies, the role of rural teachers and administrators in school reform, cultural diversity, and changing socioeconomic factors in…

Karim, Gordon P., Ed.; Weate, Nathan James, Ed.


Where Has All the "Rural" Gone? Rural Education Research and Current Federal Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural education research has been misunderstood, underfunded, and discouraged, and the resulting collection of work has suffered for it, according to many observers. Various studies--notably, analyses by the U.S. Department of Education itself--identify significant deficiencies in the national body of research on rural schools. Now the federal…

Sherwood, Topper


Are Rural Gang Members Similar to their Urban Peers?: Implications for Rural Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated factors associated with gang involvement among rural and urban adolescents. The data were derived from a large self-report survey ( N = 2,183) of 7th through 12th grade Nevada students. Surprisingly, there was no significant dif- ference in gang membership or pressure to join gangs between the rural and urban samples. There were differences, however, on other




Why Rural Matters 2003: The Continuing Need for Every State To Take Action on Rural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance and urgency of rural education to each state was assessed using seven and nine indicators, respectively. The Mid-South Delta, central Appalachia, coastal Southeast, the north Plains, and northern New England emerged as priority rural education regions. The most important urgency indicators were teacher salaries, computer use, school…

Beeson, Elizabeth; Strange, Marty



Toward a Contemporary Rural Development Model: The Partnership for Rural Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offering a contribution to additional clarity in the debate about the viability of "rural development" as an explanatory concept and program of action, the paper presents details of a causal model which underlies the approach to rural development taken by a W. K. Kellogg Foundation supported program in eastern Washington called "The Partnership…

Lassey, William R.; And Others


Serving the Rural Adult: Inventory of Model Programs in Rural Adult Postsecondary Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This inventory of model programs in rural postsecondary education is part of a larger project to provide current research and resource information to rural educators and policy makers. The inventory is illustrative--not comprehensive or exhaustive--and results from mailing 805 survey instruments which elicited 251 responses and 183 candidates for…

Hone, Karen A.


A Rural Road: Exploring Economic Opportunity, Social Networks, Services and Supports That Affect Rural Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the unique conditions affecting quality of life for low-income rural children and their families in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Qualitative data were gathered from 11 focus groups conducted in a variety of rural communities, including tribal reservations, across the three states, and from interviews with professional…

Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.


Orthopedic Surgery in Rural American Hospitals: A Survey of Rural Hospital Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural American residents prefer to receive their medical care locally. Lack of specific medical services in the local community necessitates travel to a larger center which is less favorable. This study was done to identify how rural hospitals choose to provide orthopedic surgical services to their communities. Methods: All hospitals in 5 states…

Weichel, Derek



How Does Degree of Rurality Impact the Provision of Surgical Services at Rural Hospitals?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Rural residents frequently have decreased access to surgical services. Consequences of this situation include increased travel time and financial costs for patients. There are also economic implications for hospitals as they may lose revenue when patients leave the area in order to obtain surgical services. Rural communities vary in size…

Doty, Brit; Zuckerman, Randall; Finlayson, Samuel; Jenkins, Paul; Rieb, Nathaniel; Heneghan, Steven



Sex Education in Rural Schools in the United States: Impact of Rural Educators' Community Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The overall purpose of this exploratory research was to better understand rural educators' feelings about school-based sex education in order to foster better communication and collaboration between prevention researchers and rural teachers and administrators. In order to accomplish this purpose, the research question asked "How does…

Blinn-Pike, Lynn



The Rural Education and Agriculture Program (REAP): Belize's New Approach to Rural Primary Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Education and Agriculture Program (REAP) was initiated in response to perceived deficiencies in the rural primary schools of Belize. Since its inception in 1976, REAP has moved through two of its anticipated three phases (Pilot Phase, July 1976-June 1979; District-Level Phase, July 1979-June 1982). REAP integrates academic subjects with…

Massey, Romeo M.


Understanding Contexts of Family Violence in Rural, Farming Communities: Implications for Rural Women's Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on family violence in rural communities in Australia and Canada has shown that women's experience of family violence is shaped by social and cultural factors. Concern for economic security and inheritance for children, closeness and belonging, and values of family unity and traditional gender roles are factors in rural communities that…

Wendt, Sarah; Hornosty, Jennie



The perceived value of the rural tourism stay and its effect on rural tourist behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural tourism (RT) constitutes a valuable tool for the sustainable development of rural areas. This paper explores issues of tourist motivation in RT and develops a specially tailored perceived value (PV) scale for the RT sector. Special attention is given to links between tourists’ motivations, perceived values, and the service and actions by RT providers leading to the sustainability of

Ana Isabel Polo Peña; Dolores María Frías Jamilena; Miguel Ángel Rodríguez Molina



Starting again in rural west China: stories of rural women across generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural China is being remade in the wake of a massive exodus of young people to work in the cities and coastal areas. The core rural population is now middle-aged, and is caring for both parents and grandchildren. In this process, women and men are creating new patterns of kinship and social ties across distance and generations. This article draws

Ellen R. Judd




EPA Science Inventory

RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTH STUDY Allison L. Naleway*, Nancy L. Sprince?, Erik R. Svendsen?, Ann M. Stromquist?, James A. Merchant? *Marshfield Medical Research and Education Foundation, Marshfield, WI; ?University of Iowa Co...


Economic Growth, Rural Educational Investment and the Level and Distribution of Rural Incomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines two related questions. First, it estimates the effect of growth in the demand for skilled and unskilled labor on rural household incomes and the rural wage structure. Second, it examines the effect of growth in household incomes and in labor market returns to education on household educational investment. The…

Badiani, Reena Chandu



Population Trends in Rural Downstate Illinois. Rural Research Report. Volume 22, Issue 4, Fall 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural areas are undergoing a significant transition with both opportunities and challenges that will require effective management and investment strategies by all levels of government. Since 2007, the recession has magnified long-term shifts in employment and economic activity, especially in rural areas. The employment structure continues to…

Walzer, Norman; Harger, Brian L.



Distribution of Rural Employment Growth by Race: A Case Study. Rural Development Research Report Number 54.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whites benefit more than blacks from rural economic growth according to the findings of a 1982 survey of over 75,000 households in 10 rural counties in southern Georgia, selected to represent fast growing nonmetro areas with mixed manufacturing and commercial agriculture-based economies with substantial minority populations. From 1976 to 1981, a…

Oliveira, Victor J.


Rural Government--Poor Counties, 1962-87. Rural Development Research Report Number 88.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1960s, many rural local governments were believed to provide inadequate government services, which hindered rural development. Rapid growth in government spending has reduced the incidence of government poverty from 78 percent of nonmetropolitan counties in 1962 to only 7 percent in 1987. Those counties still government-poor in 1987…

Reeder, Richard J.; Jansen, Anicca C.


Priorities for Rural Improvement: Report of a Partnership for Rural Improvement Sponsored Needs Assessment Study Group.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After preliminary problem identification, mailed questionnaires were sent in April 1981 to citizens (2,000 households) and 735 public officials in eastern Washington to identify and assign priority to five or more rural issues common to the Partnership for Rural Improvement (PRI) geographic region for purposes of forming regional task forces.…

Loomis, Ralph; And Others


Rural Education Research: An Higher Education Perspective within a Rural State Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses rural education in Vermont and the forces that influence the state's rural educational research agenda. The paper presents the recent history and current conditions at the University of Vermont (UVM), current demographic observations concerning Vermont's population, and special features about the state's educational…

Carlson, Robert V.


Effective Schooling in Rural Africa Report 4: Frequently Asked Questions about Effective Schooling in Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenges of making rural schools more effective vary with different types of rural conditions. But typically these challenges might include any of the following: teacher shortages, lack of facilities, isolation, HIV/AIDS and related social stigma, war crises and displaced populations, multigrade and shift teaching, administration of small…

World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.


Women's health promotion in the rural church: a Canadian perspective.  


The rural church may be an effective health resource for rural Canadian women who have compromised access to health resources. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevance of the Christian church and faith community nurses in promoting the health of rural Canadian women in the evolving rural context. The findings from an extensive literature search reveal that religion and spirituality often influence the health beliefs, behaviors, and decisions of rural Canadian women. The church and faith community nurses may therefore be a significant health resource for rural Canadian women, although this phenomenon has been significantly understudied. PMID:21935724

Plunkett, Robyn; Leipert, Beverly D



Labour migration and rural transformation in Nigeria.  


The trends in rural-urban migration in Nigeria responded to changes in political and socioeconomic developments which occurred during the 1980s. Since the 1980s, rural-urban migration trends were rapidly reversed, and migrants returned to rural areas. In 1981, government revenues from oil declined. The oil production and price declines between 1980 and 1986 resulted in a foreign exchange crisis. Import restrictions were imposed, and stabilization measures resulted in scarcities of raw materials and spare parts and declines in industrial capacity. About 50% of import substitution factories went bankrupt. Between 1981 and 1983, about one million workers were estimated to have been laid off, of which 55,000 were federal and state employees. Other estimates indicated one million laid off just in the industrial sector. The government reinforced this urban-rural movement by emphasizing increased food production. In 1992, government wages were increased in order to offset high inflation. In 1986 and 1992, State and Local Government Areas were established as political entities tied to grassroots development; local offices were situated in greater proximity to local populations. In 1986, the objective was to provide infrastructure, promote production, and organize rural areas for development. Several community banks devoted to rural areas were established. Development programs for rural women were initiated. Federal revenue allocations to rural areas increased from 10% to 15%. Inducements were given to attract private formal and informal commerce and industry. The result was less than expected. Obstacles to rural development included the absence of an effective and integrated approach, inadequate funding, and corruption. Provision of good roads and schools did meet objectives and may have induced out-migration. Delays in provision of entitlements exacerbated the ability of return migrants to establish new economic activity. The new political divisions did not conform to demographic or labor market areas. The sudden redistribution of population was difficult for local governments to accommodate. Social adjustment was difficult, and primary education costs were sacrificed at the expense of expanded higher education. PMID:12179891

Onyeonoru, I P



Relationship between urban and rural sulfate levels  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol data collected using manual dichotomous samplers in the Niagara Frontier region are utilized. It was found that a major portion of the observed sulfate occurred in the FINE (< 3.5 fraction at both urban and rural sites, and constituted about 25% of the observed FINE particulate mass. Linear regression analysis showed a strong relationship between the urban and rural sulfate levels in the FINE mode while no such relationship was evident between the two masses of the FINE fraction. An examination of the synoptic situation revealed that high concentrations of sulfate at both urban and rural sites occurred under persistent south-westerly flow, and low concentrations at both locations occurred under persistent northerly flow conditions. Extreme value analysis of sulfate concentrations indicated that the probability associated with the highest measured concentration is about the same for both urban and rural locations. Since the rural site is generally upwind of the Niagara Frontier urban area and is far removed from any known sources, these results suggest that a major portion of the sulfate burden in western New York could be of nonlocal origin.

Rao, S.T.; Sistla, G.



Renewable Energy for Sustainable Rural Village Power  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services worldwide. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel generator or partial electrification. For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program that involves hybrid systems, to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy technologies.1 The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. Hybrid systems are multi-disciplinary, multi-technology, multi-application programs composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel generator, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. Thirteen countries are actively engaged in hybrid systems for rural and remote applications and another dozen countries have requested assistance in exploring wind/PV hybrid systems within their territories. At present rural/remote site application of renewable technologies is the fastest growing aspect of renewable energy worldwide.

Touryan, J. O. V.; Touryan, K. J.



SWOT Analysis and Strategic Research on China's Rural Modern Industrial Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper expounds the necessity of China's rural modern industrial development, and points out that developing rural modern industry is the necessary choice of increasing farmers' income and bridging urban-rural gap; developing rural modern industry is the propeller of promoting rural economic prosperity and holistic economic growth of the nation; developing rural modern industry is the foundation of perfecting Various

Yan Liu



The Developing and Strengthening of Rural Workers' Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provisions for rural workers' education programs and for their developing rural organizations are outlined from symposia of the International Labour Office (ILO). Photographs from several IL O meetings are included. (MF)

Hodsdon, D.



Rural Enterprises, Incorporated report of significant activities and accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ongoing activities of Rural Enterprises, Inc. are presented. The function of Rural Enterprises is to bring innovation from its rudimentary conceptual stages to useful and productive ends by means of cooperation with government, business, and educational institutions.



Attacking Rural Poverty: How Nonformal Education Can Help.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Background of the study; An overview of rural education; Extension programs in agriculture; Training programs in agriculture; Training for nonfarm occupations; The self-help approach to rural development; The integrated approach to agri...

P. H. Coombs M. Ahmed



Rural Education in Nagaland: Reflections on an Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses education for rural development in India: to prepare rural children and adults to find gainful employment in developing the resources of their village, to produce, earn and procure enough for a good life for all in each village. (Author)

Coelho, S.



Education Financing of Rural Households in China  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper was to examine children’s education financing alternatives among households in rural China. Data on education financing was from a household survey conducted in three poverty villages in Guizhou, China. The difference in financing education by households was verified through non-parametric testing. Findings show that private savings is dominant in financing education of children in school. Formal loans are almost absent even in the highest wealth group examined. The findings implied that the extension of financial services to children’s education could motivate parents to send their children for more education, increase disposable income of rural households by reducing precautionary savings, and provide better-educated labors in rural China.

Moll, Henk



Rural Economy and Land Use Programme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The rural landscape of England has been greatly transformed over the past few decades, and this particular research initiative based at the University of Newcastle was created in order "to investigate the social, economic, environmental and technological challenges faced by rural areas." Visitors to the site should note the main divisions, which include "Research", "Events", and "Publications/Press". For researchers and scientists, the "Publications/Press" area will be a special treat, as it features briefing papers, annual reports, and their policy series. The topics covered here are quite diverse and recent paper titles include "Eating Biodiversity: An Investigation of the Links Between Quality Food Production and Biodiversity Protection" and "The Role of Regulation in Developing Biological Alternatives to Pesticides". Policy practitioners and others working in the areas of land use planning and rural economic development will want to return to the site and check up on future developments, and it may even help those looking at comparative studies in these areas.


Improving collected rainwater quality in rural communities.  


The country of Mexico is facing serious problems with water quality and supply for human use and consumption in rural communities, mainly due to topographic and isolation. In Mexico the average annual precipitation is 1,500 cubic kilometers of water, if 3% of that amount were used, 13 million Mexicans could be supplied with drinking water that they currently do not have access. Considering the limited infrastructure and management in rural communities, which do not receive services from the centralized systems of large cities, a modified pilot multi-stage filtration (MMSF) system was designed, developed, and evaluated for treating collected rainwater in three rural communities, Ajuchitlan and Villa Nicolas Zapata (Morelos State) and Xacxamayo (Puebla State). The efficiencies obtained in the treatment system were: colour and turbidity >93%. It is worth mentioning that the water obtained for human use and consumption complies with the Mexican Standard NOM-127-SSA1-1994. PMID:21977666

Garrido, S; Aviles, M; Ramirez, A; Gonzalez, A; Montellano, L; Gonzalez, B; de la Paz, J; Ramirez, R M



Availability and accessibility of rural health care.  


The 1980s saw a retrenchment of the ideology that government intervention could solve the problems of inadequate access to health services in rural areas. Increased emphasis was placed on an ideology that promoted deregulation and competitive market solutions. During the 1980s, the gap in the availability of physicians in metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan areas widened. Also during that time period, the gap between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan populations' utilization of physician services widened. In addition, many indicators of the health status of nonmetropolitan residents versus metropolitan residents worsened during the 1980s. As we enter the 1990s, concern about equitable access to needed health care services and for the vulnerability and fragility of rural health systems has resurfaced. A number of national policies and a research agenda to improve accessibility and availability of health services in rural areas are being considered. PMID:10107686

Hicks, L L



Rural Development Perspectives, Vol. 1, Issue 2, February 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Articles in this issue--: U.S. population trends break with past; Newcomers from cities support rural growth and development; Rethinking small businesses as the best way to create rural jobs; Retirees as a growth industry; Rural residents get equal pay wi...



Rural Community Colleges and Economic Development: Leaders' Perspectives on Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural communities often lag behind urban and suburban areas in economic development. Community colleges often contribute to economic development projects in rural areas, but they often seek collaboration with other community partners. This research study was conducted to better understand rural community college presidents' perceptions of the…

Pennington, Kevin; Williams, Mitchell R.



Remarks on Successful Economic Development Programs in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural economic development depends on implementation of strategies that capture the competitive edge of the total rural environment. It will not succeed by weak duplication of traditional urban development strategies. The historic dependence on the natural resource base that is the common denominator for rural areas must be regarded not as a…

Thomas, Margaret G.


Leadership for Rural Schools: Lessons for All Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural schools present unique challenges for school administrators, challenges that require knowledge of various skills in a range of disciplines. This book touches nearly every aspect of rural school leadership. It aims to help educational leaders in small or rural schools better understand their role, and to help all educators learn elements of…

Chalker, Donald M., Ed.


On Living Well in Our Place: Earlier Rural Reform Movements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Country Life Movement in the United States (1900-1920) emerged in response to the migration of rural people to the cities and the rising obsession with scientific knowledge. Modernizing rural areas and their institutions was seen as necessary to sustain rural communities at the economic and social levels of urban centers. Liberty Hyde Bailey,…

Canniff, Julie G.


Rural Health Care Ethics: Is There a Literature?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the available publications addressing ethical issues in rural health care we sought to identify the ethics literature that specifically focuses on rural America. We wanted to determine the extent to which the rural ethics literature was distributed between general commentaries, descriptive summaries of research, and original research publications. We identified 55 publications that specifically and substantively addressed

William Nelson; Gili Lushkov; Andrew Pomerantz



Gifted Education in Rural Schools: A National Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report's introductory section notes that both rural and gifted education have received relatively little funding and national attention, and few studies have considered the two issues in tandem. As a first step in the process of strengthening the education of gifted rural students, this report assesses the current state of gifted rural

Colangelo, Nicholas; Assouline, Susan G.; New, Jennifer K.


Developing the rural dimension of business-support policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of rural business-support policy depends on the proper identification of those factors that have a differential impact on the success of rural as opposed to urban businesses. A number of studies have pointed to differences between urban and rural businesses in the business constraints and opportunities they face, and how they respond to them. This issue is investigated

Duncan Anderson; Peter Tyler; Trevor McCallion



Techniques for Fostering Change: The Rural Two-Year College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rural community college has a unique opportunity to bring about social change in rural areas. This paper summarizes the needs and resources of the rural community and discusses the change techniques useful to the college administrator. The most valuable resource is the college staff who offer technical expertise and leadership not available…

Davis, James


Training Needs of Rural Special Educators in Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special education personnel who plan to teach in rural areas are in need of specialized preservice training programs which address unique issues of the rural environment. This paper describes a project at Southeastern Louisiana University designed to identify training needs of special education teachers throughout the state of Louisiana. Although the literature in rural special education indicates a consensus in



Depression Screening Patterns for Women in Rural Health Clinics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Rates and types of screening for depression in rural primary care practices are unknown. Purpose: To identify rates of depression screening among rural women in a sample of rural health clinics (RHCs). Methods: A chart review of 759 women's charts in 19 randomly selected RHCs across the nation. Data were collected from charts of female…

Tudiver, Fred; Edwards, Joellen Beckett; Pfortmiller, Deborah T.



Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural

Zhang, Jie



Strategies for Improving Math and Science Achievement in Rural Appalachia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper overviews strategies employed by the Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative (ARSI) to implement systemic reform in math, science, and technology education in rural Appalachia. ARSI is one of four Rural Systemic Initiative projects funded by the National Science Foundation to target regions characterized by low population density and high…

Harmon, Hobart; Blanton, Roy


Selected Trends and Issues in Rural Education and Small Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural America and its schools (which encompass nearly two-thirds of the 15,600 school districts in the United States) face an incredible array of challenges. Changes in demographic, economic, and social conditions are creating a new rural America which is beset by many problems. Rural poverty does not appear to be diminishing and researchers…

Rios, Betty Rose D.


A Viable Alternative: Rural Volunteer Emergency Medical Coordinators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pilot project to assess the usefulness of rural volunteer Emergency Medical Coordinators (EMC's) was initiated in 36 rural Georgian towns of less than 2,000 population. An EMC program was established in those 36 rural towns that had no physician or ambulance service, to provide a rapid response to accidental injuries in order to maintain life…

Kishbaugh, Darlene; And Others


The Library and Wired Communities in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the future of libraries in rural areas, the role of the community, and possible effects of changing technology in telecommunications. Topics include a historical background, including the Rural Electrification Administration; networking technology; an example of a Rural Area Network in Colorado; and new roles for libraries and…

Cisler, Steve



Profiles of Rural Education in the Mid-Atlantic Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides demographic, statistical, and other indicator data related to rural education in the Mid-Atlantic region of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The data are intended to aid state rural assistance councils in developing plans to improve rural schools. One obstacle to consistent policy implementation is the…

Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.


Implementing Rural Education Assistance Plans. An Interim Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1988, Research for Better Schools (RBS) proposed the development of state-specific rural assistance councils (RAC) in Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania to assist in strengthening rural school-community partnerships and in planning rural school improvement. This report summarizes the activities of each of the four RACs during…

Beyer, Francine S.


Improving reproductive health in rural China through participatory planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's new health reform initiative aims to provide quality accessible health care to all, including remote rural populations, by 2020. Public health insurance coverage for the rural poor has increased, but rural women have fared worse because of lower status and lack of voice in shaping the services they need. Use of prenatal care, safe delivery and reproductive tract infections

Joan Kaufman; Yunguo Liu; Jing Fang



The Impact of Employment on Rural High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 229 students in grades 10-12 at a rural consolidated high school in Tennessee sought to determine employment patterns among rural students and the impact of that employment on students' academic and personal lives. Findings indicate that employment of rural youth was an accepted part of the teen culture; student employment increased at…

Price, John K.; Phelps, Margaret S.


Does Core Area Theory Apply to STIs in Rural Environments?  

PubMed Central

Background Our objective was to determine the extent to which geographical core areas for gonorrhea and syphilis are located in rural areas, as compared to urban areas. Methods Incident gonorrhea (January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010) and syphilis (January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2010) rates were estimated and mapped by census tract and quarter. Rurality was measured using percent rural and rural-urban commuting area (RUCA; rural, small town, micropolitan, or urban). SaTScan was used to identify spatiotemporal clusters of significantly elevated rates of infection. Clusters lasting five years or longer were considered core areas; clusters of shorter duration were considered outbreaks. Clusters were overlaid on maps of rurality and qualitatively assessed for correlation. Results Twenty gonorrhea core areas were identified; 65% in urban centers, 25% in micropolitan areas, and the remaining 10% were geographically large capturing combinations of urban, micropolitan, small town and rural environments. Ten syphilis core areas were identified with 80% in urban centers and 20% capturing two or more RUCAs. All ten of the syphilis core areas (100%) overlapped with gonorrhea core areas. Conclusions Gonorrhea and syphilis rates were high for rural parts of North Carolina; however, no core areas were identified exclusively for small towns or rural areas. The main pathway of rural STI transmission may be through the interconnectedness of urban, micropolitan, small town and rural areas. Directly addressing STIs in urban and micropolitan communities may also indirectly help address STI rates in rural and small town communities.

Gesink, Dionne C; Sullivan, Ashleigh B; Norwood, Todd; Serre, Marc L; Miller, William C



Children Who Are Short-Changed: Rural Blacks and Chicanos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relevant problems facing rural Blacks and Chicanos are discussed in this paper. It is argued that the "American Dream" creates unrealistically high aspirations and expectations for rural youth and the disadvantaged minorities. If rural youth do not choose to migrate to the urban centers, their only alternative is to take whatever employment is…

Kuvlesky, William P.


Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David



Grocery Store Politics: Leading the Rural Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural America is characterized by decreasing populations, increasing poverty, limited economic growth, and limited access to cultural events. The context of the rural environment makes leading colleges in these locations different than in larger, more urban regions. The research reported here investigated the experience of rural community college…

Eddy, Pamela



Federal Aid to Rural Schools: Current Patterns and Unmet Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two investigations were conducted to determine whether rural school districts receive a fair share of federal education funds: a quantitative analysis of the distribution of federal funds between rural and nonrural school districts and a qualitative exploration of the special needs and disadvantages of rural school systems. The quantitative study…

Bass, Gail; Berman, Paul


Resolving Mobility Constraints Impeding Rural Seniors' Access to Regionalized Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural and small town places in developed economies are aging. While attention has been paid to the local transportation needs of rural seniors, fewer researchers have explored their regional transportation needs. This is important given policies that have reduced and regionalized many services and supports. This article explores mobility constraints impeding rural seniors' access to regionalized services using the example

Laura Ryser; Greg Halseth



[Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Families in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter theme issue focuses on providing services to infants with special needs in rural areas. In "Old Threads, New Patterns: Reaching Out to Rural Families," Deborah Harris-Usner discusses bringing infant mental health care and parent-infant psychotherapy to rural New Mexico. In "The People of Kids Place: Creating and Maintaining…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.



42 CFR 485.603 - Rural health network.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Rural health network. 485.603 Section 485.603 Public Health...Access Hospitals (CAHs) § 485.603 Rural health network. A rural health network is an organization that meets the...



42 CFR 485.603 - Rural health network.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rural health network. 485.603 Section 485.603 Public Health...Access Hospitals (CAHs) § 485.603 Rural health network. A rural health network is an organization that meets the...



Creative Thinking Abilities of Rural and Urban Elementary School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1967 study was designed to determine if there were significant differences in the creative thinking abilities of students attending certain urban and rural elementary schools in North Texas. The target population was selected from 7 rural and 2 urban school districts. The subjects, 100 urban and 100 rural, were matched in terms of 6 selection…

Irons, Jerry Lee


Rural Minority Student Engagement with a Healthcare Pipeline Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural communities are underserved by the medical profession. This shortage is particularly acute for minority rural communities lacking reliable access to minority healthcare professionals. This article reports the results of a study designed to understand the attitudes and responses of rural minority students who participated in a program…

Holley, Karri A.



Mental health services for rural elderly: Innovative service strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews issues in planning and delivering mental health services to rural dwelling elderly. First, comparative data on the prevalence of mental illness among rural elderly, and the availability and accessibility of mental health services in rural areas are presented to provide a basis for subsequent discussion. Next, several strategies for improving the development and delivery of geriatric mental

Zona Chalifoux; Jane B. Neese; Kathleen C. Buckwalter; Eugene Litwak; Ivo L. Abraham



Rural Health Care in Texas: The Facts--1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there exists in the minds of urban Texans the myth that rural life is especially healthy, in fact the mental and physical health of rural Texans is markedly worse than that of urban Texans. If health is defined in terms of environmental, physical, mental, and social factors, it is inaccurate to say that rural residents are receiving…

Knudson, Yvonne, Comp.; And Others


Country Queers: Queer Youth and the Politics of Rural America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring the lives of rural lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and their identity work, Mary Gray's "Out in the Country: Youth, Media, and Queer Visibility in Rural America" offers one of the first ethnographic studies of queer rural life in the United States and their use of new media. Throughout, Gray provides various case…

Greteman, Adam J.



Arterial Pressures in Rural and Urban Populations in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of arterial pressure carried out in rural and urban communities in Western Nigeria showed a steady rise in systolic values with age, this trend being less marked with diastolic pressures. Blood pressure levels were similar in women from rural and urban areas, but seemed much higher in urban than in rural men. The incidence of proteinuria was lowest in

O. O. Akinkugbe; O. A. Ojo



Supported Employment in a Rural Environment: Riverview Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of supported employment programs for disabled individuals in rural areas. Describes a successful program in rural southeastern Ohio that employs 89 developmentally disabled persons in a countywide recycling program. Suggests methods for developing supported employment programs in rural areas. (LP)

Tice, Carolyn; Shealy, Marilyn



Nonfarm Income, Inequality, and Poverty in Rural Egypt and Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonfarm income has a greater impact on poverty and inequality in Egypt than in Jordan. In rural Egypt the poor receive almost 60 percent of their income from nonfarm sources, while in rural Jordan they receive less than 20 percent. The reason for this difference is land: in rural Egypt, agricultural land is very productive, but access is quite limited,

Richard H. Adams



SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Beijing Rural Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the strength of the status quo of Beijing rural infrastructure, I probe into the SWOT analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of rural infrastructure in Beijing municipal. Among them, the strengths of rural infrastructure in Beijing municipal are analyzed from two aspects, namely, the strong financial support and great importance attached to by the government; the weaknesses

Yong-liang Duan



Mutually Dependent Relationships between Rural Community Colleges and Their Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The population of rural America has faced changes as the manufacturing industries that once assured jobs for those living in rural areas have moved or closed. Small towns have become smaller as younger residents move away for employment or educational opportunities. As these changes take place rural citizens face increased challenges in the wake…

Betz, Leslie M.



Youth Unemployment in Rural Areas. Work and Opportunity Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated factors leading to employment and unemployment for young people living in urban and rural areas in Scotland. Surveys and interviews were conducted with 817 youths, 40 rural employers, and 25 professionals from across Scotland. Findings include: (1) long-term youth unemployment was less common in rural than in urban areas,…

Cartmel, Fred; Furlong, Andy


The Rural Community College as an Administrative Labor Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

External culture acts as a powerful force on rural community colleges and the presidents that lead them. This article examines whether rural community colleges comprise an administrative labor market, based on the careers of 69 chief academic officers employed in rural community colleges. Findings indicate the characteristics of both an…

Allen, Nathan T.; Cejda, Brent D.



Entrepreneurial In-Migration and Neoendogenous Rural Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social, cultural, and economic transitions in rural areas across the globe lead us to critique the traditional "top-down" or "bottom-up" distinction as being outdated for contemporary rural policy. In Europe and the United States in particular, high rates of counterurbanization heighten the need for new ways of thinking about rural

Bosworth, Gary; Atterton, Jane



Rural Special Education Quarterly, Volume 6, Numbers 1-4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four issues of the "Rural Special Education Quarterly" for 1985 contain 17 major articles with the following titles and authors: "The Challenges in Providing Appropriate Educational Services to Rural Visually Impaired Children and Their Families" (K. Huebner); "Rural Orientation and Mobility: A Preview" (J. Tucker); "Organizations Serving the…

Rural Special Education Quarterly, 1986



Research on Rural Veterans: An Analysis of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: The Veterans Health Administration (VA) provides comprehensive health care services to veterans across the United States. Recently, the VA established an Office of Rural Health to address the health care needs of rural veterans. Purpose: To review the literature on rural veterans' health care needs in order to identify areas for future…

Weeks, William B.; Wallace, Amy E.; West, Alan N.; Heady, Hilda R.; Hawthorne, Kara



Improving Science Education in Rural Elementary Schools: A New Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural elementary school teachers interested in improving science instruction are frequently hampered by inadequate training in science, lack of information on local natural history resources, and time and curriculum constraints. On the other hand, rural schools are usually located near meadows, forests, or undeveloped land, and rural students…

Dacus, Judy M.; Hutto, Nora


Rural Women and Osteoporosis: Awareness and Educational Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Little is known about rural women's knowledge about osteoporosis. Purpose: To explore what women from high-prevalence rural communities know about osteoporosis and to assess their learning preferences. Methods: We surveyed 437 women in rural Washington and Oregon. Findings: The response rate was 93% (N = 406). The mean age of respondents…

Matthews, Hollie L.; Laya, Mary; DeWitt, Dawn E.



Multitasking in the Rural World: Technological Change and Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rural world offers a heterogeneous picture caused by a rich past and varied responses to a diversity of socio-economic, demographic and political challenges. The present paper aims to trace new opportunities for rurality in the context of a metamorphosis of current production and consumption systems. Addressing issues like diversification, local competition or networking, rural firms are adapting to new

Teresa De Noronha Vaz; Peter Nijkamp



Rural Special Education in "The Nine Nations of North America": A Policy Proposal for the American Council on Rural Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional conception of rural as homogeneously agricultural has become archaic. This paper reviews definitions of rural diversity related to rural special education and proposes a broad definition based upon culture of community and region. In the late 1970s, the National Rural Project identified "problems" in rural special education…

Fishbaugh, Mary Susan E.; And Others


An Analysis on the Relation between the Visit Frequency of the Rural Park and its Evaluation: For Measuring Rural Amenity by CVM Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In past decades there used to be plenty of nature and amenity spaces where people could recreate in rural areas. In proportion to economic growth in Japan nature and amenity spaces have become less common even in rural areas. To improve and recover the amenity of rural areas many rural parks with water front space have been built in rural

Yoji Kunimitsu


[Statistical indications of ruralization in Finnish towns].  


"There has been a clear tendency to decreasing population density and increasing rate of primary output in urban municipalities in Finland in the 20th century. It is a commonly known fact that this tendency is caused by some rural municipalities changing their status to urban municipalities and by some rural municipalities incorporating urban municipalities.... In this article urban regions have been created, which are quite [the] same as urban municipality districts in Finland today. In these regions population density has increased in contrast to urban municipalities each year of compiling these statistics." (EXCERPT) PMID:12179342

Iltanen, J



Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Martinez, P. [Northern New Mexico Community Coll., Espanola, NM (United States)



Rural-Urban Migration in Sierra Leone: Determinants and Policy Implications. African Rural Economy Paper No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study objectives were to: increase the understanding of rural to urban migration processes in Africa and Sierra Leone; develop and test a theoretical schema and survey methodology for migration research; and evaluate the effects of policy on migration. The migration survey was conducted in rural areas, urban areas, and again in the rural areas…

Byerlee, Derek; And Others


Rural Poverty in the United States. A Report by the President's National Advisory Commission on Rural Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers prepared for the National Advisory Commission on Rural Poverty are presented in this report. These papers provide the Commission background information for recommendations submitted to the President of the United States. Major topics covered include the structural changes taking place in rural areas and the inter-relationships between rural

Wilber, George L., Ed.; Bishop, C. E., Ed.


Workforce Issues--Rural Illinois Hospital Chief Executive Officers' Perceptions of Provider Shortages and Issues in Rural Recruitment and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It is important to assess rural health professions workforce needs and identify variables in recruitment and retention of rural health professionals. Purpose: This study examined the perspectives of rural hospital chief executive officers (CEOs) regarding workforce needs and their views of factors in the recruitment and retention…

Glasser, Michael; Peters, Karen; MacDowell, Martin



Rural Children: Increasing Poverty Rates Pose Educational Challenges. Briefing Report to the Chairwoman, Congressional Rural Caucus, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large numbers of children in America's rural areas are poor and face growing risks to their success in school. Increases in poverty and other demographic changes will challenge rural schools' ability to help their children meet high educational standards. Changes in poverty among rural children also will affect the amount of Chapter 1 funding that…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.


Othering the Rural: About the Construction of Rural Masculinities and the Unspoken Urban Hegemonic Ideal in Swedish Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies within the field of rural geography have lately to a noticeable extent enriched the theme of the creation of masculinities and femininities focussing on social constructions of the rural, as well as social constructions of gender. In this study I aim to discuss some expressed discourses of the rural in order to illuminate the power…

Stenbacka, Susanne



Rural Development: Fifth Annual Report of the President to the Congress on Government Services to Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 5th annual report of the President to Congress on the availability of government and government-assisted services to rural areas, this report outlines executive branch efforts to improve services to rural America during fiscal year (FY) 1973. Services to rural America are measured by comparing the distribution of FY 1973 outlays in 5 broad…

Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Economic Development Div.


A Section 147 Rural Public Transportation Demonstration Manual. Number 5. Marketing Rural Public Transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes how to market transit services in rural and small urban areas. It covers how to set goals and objectives for a marketing program, developing and costing such a program, market research techniques, advertising and promotion approaches,...

T. S. Panebianco



Infant mortality in rural areas of Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project, Ballabgarh.  


The authors attempt to identify factors affecting the infant mortality rate in India using data on registered births and deaths among a rural population of about 35,000 in Dayalpur in 1975. PMID:721277

Reddaiah, V P; Nath, L M



Telecommunications technology and rural education in the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rural sector of the US is examined from the point of view of whether telecommunications technology can augment the development of rural education. Migratory farm workers and American Indians were the target groups which were examined as examples of groups with special needs in rural areas. The general rural population and the target groups were examined to identify problems and to ascertain specific educational needs. Educational projects utilizing telecommunications technology in target group settings were discussed. Large scale regional ATS-6 satellite-based experimental educational telecommunications projects were described. Costs and organizational factors were also examined for large scale rural telecommunications projects.

Perrine, J. R.



Electricity for rural America: the fight for REA  

SciTech Connect

The electrification of agriculture was undertaken as a public responsibility when the Rural Electrification Administration (REA) was formed in 1935. A number of issues, many with regional bias, were debated before and after in spite of the program's success. REA was viewed as a way to inprove rural prosperity, health, life style, and sanitation while arresting the migration to the cities and ultimate loss of the rural way of life. Opposition to rural cooperatives came from the private power companies; the opposition was ideological, however, since both sides sought rural electrification. The story of REA is traced in the context of these differences. 267 references. (DCK)

Brown, D.C.



Rural clinical experiences for emergency medicine residents: a curriculum template.  


Rural emergency departments (EDs) in the United States are less likely to be staffed with emergency medicine (EM) residency-trained and American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM)-certified physicians than urban EDs. Rural EM clinical experiences during residency training have been suggested as a strategy to encourage future rural practice, but past Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Residency Review Committee for Emergency Medicine program requirements and a lack of familiarity with rural rotations in the EM graduate medical education (GME) community have limited their availability. To provide a template for the development and implementation of a rural EM clinical experience, Kern's six-step approach was followed. PMID:23167861

Wadman, Michael C; Clark, Ted R; Kupas, Douglas F; Macht, Marlow; McLaughlin, Steve; Mize, Terry; Casaletto, Jennifer; Muelleman, Robert L



Understanding rural life - assessing the social dimensions when encouraging land-use changes in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meshed with the bio-physical and economic dimensions of rural land-use is a social dimension. Understanding the social and economic dimension of rural communities is critical if agencies are to develop effective policies and programs to improve natural resource outcomes. In this paper, we draw on research of the Boorowa community, located in the south-west slopes of New South Wales, to

Digby Race; Robert J. Farquharson; Jim Birckhead; Don Vernon; Andrew D. Bathgate



Rural Delivery Model for Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Black Hills Special Services Cooperative provides innovative and model practices for serving individuals with disabilities in a rural area of South Dakota. This article reviews the program's history and background, curriculum development, evaluation, and transitional and supported employment utilizing an entrepreneurial model of partnerships…

Baumeister, Mary; Morris, Randall K.



Using Strategic Planning To Improve Rural Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the elements of strategic planning and applies them to educational reform and improvement. The paper also describes how a planning model, Strategic Planning for Educational Reform and Improvement (SPERI), was used by Rural Assistance Councils (RACs) in Pennsylvania and Delaware, with technical assistance from Research for…

D'Amico, Joseph J.


Rural Income Maintenance Experiment: Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a summary of the results of a social experiment designed to measure the effects of an income-conditioned cash transfer program on the work effort and other behavior of low-income rural families. The report examines the income, employm...

F. Setzer L. Bawden W. Harrar S. Kerachsky



Rural residents' use of cardiac rehabilitation programs.  


The goal of this study was to identify the factors that influence the use of cardiac rehabilitation services by rural residents. The Andersen-Newman framework, which consists of three determinants of health services utilization (predisposing, enabling, and need factors), was used to direct this research. The three data collection points were at time of discharge from the hospital, two weeks post discharge, and one week following the date that the cardiac rehabilitation program would have been completed. Packets for the three data collection points were unique and contained instruments to assess various factors influencing the use of health services. The sample (N = 254) were adults living in rural areas who had experienced a cardiac event and received treatment at one of four hospitals in two western states and who provided useable data on all three questionnaires. Findings indicated that 72 (28%) of the participants attended some portion of a rehabilitation program, and only 43 (17%) completed the full 36-week program. Four predisposing factors, one enabling factor, and two need factors were significant in explaining the number of cardiac rehabilitation sessions attended. Further research is needed to validate these factors and to identify others which may influence the use of cardiac rehabilitation by rural residents. Likewise, it is essential to examine alternate ways to meet the rehabilitative needs of rural cardiac clients. PMID:9682622

Johnson, J E; Weinert, C; Richardson, J K



Towards green rural energy in Yunnan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yunnan is one of the less developed provinces in China, but has abundant energy resources, and is an ideal destination for tourists around the world due to its perfect climate and unique sightseeing resorts. However, energy consumption in rural households relies mainly on straw (12.15%), firewood (41%), and coal (38.5%). This pattern of energy consumption has been imposing pressure on

Zhimin Li; Runsheng Tang; Chaofeng Xia; Huilong Luo; Hao Zhong



Farm productivity and rural poverty in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Armed with new data, we return to an old question from the pages of this journal: to what extent do India's rural poor share in agricultural growth? Combining data from 24 household sample surveys spanning 35 years with other sources, we estimate a model of the joint determination of consumption?poverty measures, agricultural wages, and food prices. We find that higher

Gaurav Datt; Martin Ravallion



Bookmobiles Meet Small/Rural Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two small associations joined forces October 13-16 in Columbus, OH, to create a more dynamic annual conference. The Association of Rural and Small Libraries (ARSL) met with the Association of Bookmobile and Outreach Services (ABOS) so members could learn from one another and grapple with similar issues. Representing 36 states and New Zealand, 205…

Miller, Rebecca



Coping Strategies: A Rural-Urban Comparison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses of 218 urban husbands and wives and 202 rural husbands and wives were used to test the hypotheses that these two populations would use different coping strategies to deal with the stressors they faced in their different environments and that women would use different strategies than men. Neither hypothesis was supported. (Author/BL)

Marotz-Baden, Ramona; Colvin, Peggy Lester



Migration of Rural Young Adults in Nebraska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tried to determine the internal and external migration patterns as established by high school graduates of 1960, in rural Nebraska, and the association of educational, psychological, geographic, and economic factors with their migration and educational plans. Data for the study of the 4700 graduates were provided by almost 300…

Orr, John David


Kids into Health Careers: A Rural Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To describe a project that introduces middle school and high school students living in Pennsylvania's rural geographic regions to nursing careers through outreach extended to students regardless of gender, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. Method: The authors employed many strategies to inform students about careers in nursing. The…

Lauver, Lori S.; Swan, Beth Ann; West, Margaret Mary; Zukowsky, Ksenia; Powell, Mary; Frisby, Tony; Neyhard, Sue; Marsella, Alexis



Including Rural Districts in Inclusive Staff Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching students who receive special education services in integrated settings requires intensive staff development and on-going training. Region 16 Education Service Center in the Texas panhandle serves 65 rural school districts covering 25,000 square miles and 80,000 students. In 1996, with direction and funding from the state legislature,…

Pfluger, Loretta; Hendricks, Jenny


School Partnerships in Education: A Rural Consortium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Partnerships between higher education and public schools in rural areas can lead to improved education in both sectors. When launching a partnership, all concerned must convince a wide sector of the community that such programs are cost effective and will lead to more successful educational programming. By providing such a rationale early, the…

Ryan, Charles W.; And Others


Hispanic Population Growth and Rural Income Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…

Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.



Identifying Rural Tourism Markets: A Practical Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product attributes of rural tourism are inherently green, and have the potential to appeal to the increasingly overstretched consumers who are in search for a personalized response to their need for physical, emotional, and social appreciation in a simpler environment. The same consumers also become more independent, involved, and discriminatory in the destination selection process. Despite their rich green assets,

Liping A. Cai; Jingrong Liu; Zhuowei Huang




EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency has undertaken an independent review of eight rural diffusion models, two of which were developed by the EPA; the remaining six were submitted to the EPA for approval by outside agencies and consulting firms. In the first phase of the review pr...


Personal Learning of Older, Rural Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a summary of the findings of a research project that included ten older rural adults from a county in south Georgia. The research focused on self-directed learning. The researcher conducted two interviews with each participant over a two day period. The findings focused around four research questions: what is the nature of…

Roberson, Donald N., Jr.



Perceptions of Child Care in Rural America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the results ofan investigation into the beliefs, attitudes, and satisfaction of rural mothers, child care providers, kindergarten teachers and employers. Data werecollectedfrom J34 mothers, 55 child care providers, 46 kindergarten teachers, and 62 employers. Mothers reported that they were\\

Kathy R. Thornburg; Michelle C. Mathews; Linda Espinosa



Renewable Energy for Sustainable Rural Village Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services worldwide. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel generator or partial elec...

J. O.V. Touryan K. J. Touryan



Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both livelihoods and diversity have become popular topics in development studies. The livelihood concept offers a more complete picture of the complexities of making a living in rural areas of low income countries than terms formerly considered adequate, such as subsistence, incomes, or employment. Diversity recognizes that people manage by doing many different things rather than just one or a

Frank Ellis



Political Participation in a Rural Wisconsin County.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although individuals aim their attempts to exert legitimate political influence at particular levels of government, the hierarchical organization of "political influence attempts" is an aspect of political participation which has not yet received systematic study. In order to examine the perceived political influence of rural people in a…

Olson, Mary; Bills, David


Human Capital and Poverty in Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current welfare reform efforts are based on the assumption that limiting government support will promote personal responsibility, driving welfare recipients to obtain additional education and training in order to meet employment targets. But is education and training--human capital--the answer to poverty and welfare dependency, especially in rural

Lichter, Daniel


Rural industries and water pollution in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution from small rural industries is a serious problem throughout China. Over half of all river sections monitored for water quality are rated as being unsafe for human contact, and this pollution is estimated to cost several per cent of GDP. While China has some of the toughest environmental protection laws in the world, the implementation of these laws

Mark Wang; Michael Webber; Brian Finlayson; Jon Barnett



Revisiting Primary School Dropout in Rural Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…

No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko



The Career Development of Rural Queensland Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the occupational aspirations and career development influences of children attending Years 6 and 7 at a sample of rural and remote primary schools in the central western region of Queensland. Data was collected by means of the "Revised Career Awareness Survey" (McMahon & Patton, 2001). Australian and New Zealand Standard…

McMahon, Mary; Rixon, Kylie



Rural Studies: Leadership Development Research Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural school and human service administrators' professional development needs can be categorized as technical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal in nature. Vermont surveys have indicated that the technical skills most needed are in the areas of public relations, career education, teacher effectiveness training, community involvement, administrative…

Carlson, Robert V.


Collaborative Job Training in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine collaborative efforts by employers to provide job training in rural areas and assess how this collaboration affects the willingness of employers to train workers. Data are drawn from a telephone survey conducted in 2001 of a stratified random sample of 1,590 nonmetropolitan firms in the U.S. The literature on job training suggests that…

Green, Gary Paul; Galetto, Valeria; Haines, Anna



Contemporary Issues Education: Rural Perspectives and Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the inclusion movement integrates students with disabilities into community situations, these students become more vulnerable to various forms of exploitation and manipulation. This paper compares rural and urban teachers' provision of contemporary issues education to special education students and describes the development of Web-based…

Lamorey, Suzanne; Perry, Nancy


Rural Mental Health Research Conference 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 27th Annual Conference, '21st Century Rural Mental Health: Challenges and Opportunities,' was held on June 24-26, 2001 in Wilmington, North Carolina. The Conference goals were to: increase the research-based knowledge of professionals working with rur...

S. A. Pacelli