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Microsoft Academic Search

¿Está desplazando el comercio electrónico al comercio minorista tradicional? La respuesta tiene relación con el país, región o localidad donde se lleve a cabo; la capacidad de acceso a la red; así como con prácticas culturales asociadas a la seguridad en el uso del dinero electrónico y la confianza en los procedimientos de entrega de la mercancía adquirida.

Carmen Bocanegra Gastelum; Miguel Angel Vázquez Ruiz




Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the Scale for Treatment Adherence in Type II Diabetes - version III (EATDM-III©), were compared in two Costa Rican samples, one from an urban zone and another from a rural zone. The N = 163 (n urban = 104, n rural = 59), both genders. The comparison results show statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) for the




La Implementacion de la Tecnologia en el Salon de Clases: Una guia para los que toman decisiones en las escuelas rurales (Putting Technology into the Classroom: A Guide for Rural Decision Makers).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended for superintendents and central office staff in small, rural school districts who are considering ways of using technology in the classroom. It provides information about why technology is worth the trouble and what it can accomplish, lays out the basic issues and tasks involved in integrating technology into classroom…

Boethel, Martha; Dimock, K. Victoria; Hatch, Lin; Adams, Sharon, Ed.; Heath, Marilyn, Ed.


Rural America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made a rural development publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Rural Development Perspectives, issued three times annually, "track... economic and social trends in rural America," and present "nontechnical articles on the results of new rural research,." Selected archives of the publication is available, and articles can be downloaded individually.


Rural Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be scientific, rural sociology must have a distinctive conceptual basis; therefore, defining "rural" has long been a major concern of rural sociologists. Recently faced with similar problems, political economists have revitalized the field of urban sociology by looking beyond the city to the social production of spatial forms under capitalism.…

Gilbert, Jess


Rural banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before the late 1970s, rural dwellers in Ghana had almost no access to institutional credit for farm and nonfarm activities, and in many rural communities, secure, safe, and convenient savings and payment facilities hardly existed. In response to this situation, the Government of Ghana took several measures to increase access to credit in rural areas, including facilitating the establishment of

Ajai Nair; Azeb Fissha



Rural Studies Program Sustainable Rural Communities Initiative  

E-print Network

Department of Agriculture Annual Report 2006 ­ 2007 (August 1, 2007) The Sustainable Rural CommunitiesRural Studies Program Sustainable Rural Communities Initiative Image provided courtesy of Oregon ................................................................................................................................................................4 HISTORY OF THE SUSTAINABLE RURAL COMMUNITIES INITIATIVE

Tullos, Desiree


Rural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a resource for rural adult basic education (ABE) program planners, this guidebook describes model linkage strategies between ABE and job placement as well as ABE and job training services that are targeted to rural Americans. The following topics are addressed in the guide: key linkage strategies (community advisory councils,…

Novak, Kathy


Rural Agrobusiness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

Treillon, Roland; And Others



Rural Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are 10 papers resulting from a workshop, involving representatives from 33 state developmental disabilities councils, designed to examine common problems and issues confronting developmentally disabled citizens in rural areas. Entries include the following titles and authors: "Who, What, and Where--Studying Prevalence of Developmental…

Miller, Jon, Ed.; And Others


Integrated rural energy planning  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on integrated community energy systems in developing countries. Topics considered include an integrated rural energy system in Sri Lanka, rural energy systems in Indonesia, integrated rural food-energy systems and technology diffusion in India, bringing energy to the rural sector in the Philippines, the development of a new energy village in China, the Niaga Wolof experimental rural energy center, designing a model rural energy system for Nigeria, the Basaisa village integrated field project, a rural energy project in Tanzania, rural energy development in Columbia, and guidelines for the planning, development and operation of integrated rural energy projects.

El Mahgary, Y.; Biswas, A.K.



Rural intentions  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the reasons for family medicine graduates’ career choices. DESIGN Qualitative study using focus groups and one-on-one interviews. SETTING University of Calgary in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen male and female second-year family medicine residents, representing a range of ages and areas of origin, enrolled in the 2004 urban and rural south streams of the family medicine residency program at the University of Calgary. METHOD During the final month of training, 2 focus groups were conducted to determine graduating students’ career choices and the reasons for them. After focus-group data were analyzed, a questionnaire was constructed and subsequently administered to participants during face-to-face or telephone interviews. MAIN FINDINGS Most residents initially planned to do urban locums in order to gain experience. In the long term, they planned to open practices in urban areas for lifestyle and family reasons. Many residents from the rural stream had no long-term plans to establish rural practices. Most residents said they felt prepared for practice, but many indicated that an optional third year of paid training, with an emphasis on emergency medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics, would be desirable. Reasons cited for not practising in rural areas were related to workload, lifestyle issues, family obligations, and perceived lack of medical support in the community. Only 4 female graduates and 1 male graduate intended to practise obstetrics. The main reason residents gave for this was inadequate training in obstetrics during residency. Finances were cited as a secondary reason for many choices, and might in fact be more important than at first apparent. CONCLUSION Despite its intention to recruit family medicine graduates to rural areas and to obstetrics, the University of Calgary residency training program was not successful in recruiting physicians to these areas. The program likely needs to re-examine the effectiveness of current approaches. If other programs are having similar difficulties recruiting graduates to obstetrics and rural practice, perhaps changes in policies should be considered. PMID:18625827

Lu, Diane J.; Hakes, Jacquie; Bai, Meera; Tolhurst, Helen; Dickinson, James A.



Rural as Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay explains two ways in which "the rural" serves as context. The common way interprets the rural lifeworld as an impediment to certain projects and goals, thus framing "the rural" as a subjugated and diminished reality. The other way is called "the rural circumstance" in order to situate the rural lifeworld as a center of attention, not as…

Howley, Craig B.; Howley, Aimee A.


Rural Health Association  

E-print Network

Montana Rural Health Association Phone: 406-994-6004 Fax: 406-994-5653 E-mail: MRHA 170520 Bozeman, Montana 59717-0520 Montana Rural Health Association Membershipdesignation.Membershipisrenewedonan annualbasis.PleasemakecheckspayabletoMontanaRuralHealth

Maxwell, Bruce D.


Rural Logistics System Based on Rural Informatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current status of rural informatization construction in China is analyzed, that is the relatively weak rural informatization, asymmetric market information, low level of information sharing, dispersedly allocated resources and no cross point among each other. The importance of information in rural logistic system is introduced: firstly, decision making of logistics system plan is based on information. Secondly, improvement of the

Cui-hong Hu



Rural Theory: The Grounding of Rural Sociology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining "rural" has preoccupied rural sociologists. Two constituents of rural are suggested: "capitalist space" in the form of uneven regional development and the "mode of primary production" (including the occupational category), which is distinguished by its direct interaction with the natural environment. (Author/BRR)

Gilbert, Jess



Rural-Urban Connections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication combines three papers on rural and urban youth issues. "Key Issues Facing Rural Youth" (Daniel F. Perkins) notes that rural adolescents share the same concerns and exhibit the same problem behaviors as their urban counterparts. But in addition, geographic isolation presents problems unique to rural areas. A framework is proposed…

Perkins, Daniel F.; LaGreca, Anthony J.; Mullis, Ronald L.


Rural experiences.  


Primary health care nurses (PHCNs) in South Africa must complete a 1 year training program. After this training, they provide health care in clinics or a hospital outpatient department. Working conditions in the clinics, particularly rural clinics, are less than optimal. There are either not enough buildings and/or existing structures are deteriorating. Further the clinics often lack drugs and supplies. Moreover poorly trained staff work long hours because there are not enough well trained staff. In addition, the PHCNs and their places of employment are often in remote areas where communication and referral systems are poor. This results in gradual deterioration of the PHCNs' skills. To be perceived as clinically competent, PHCNs need to provide quality curative care which, once perceived as competent, will allow them to provide primary health care. Clinic managers must support pHCNs by allowing them time to take part in continued learning activities such as an apprenticeship system or inservice training aided by local physicians. Clients or colleagues tend to see PHCNs either as miniphysicians or as a threat to physicians. Yet, since they operate clinics as well as provide comprehensive care, their skills are not as narrow as those of miniphysicians. Further few physicians wish to provide care in clinics or rural areas. Besides regulations do not allow the territory of physicians to be invaded. On the other hand, some physicians even consult PHCNs which sometimes distances them from other nurses. Thus it is important for PHCNs not to develop an attitude that they are better than nurses. At the same time, health workers need to recognize the skills of PHCNs and promote them. In fact, their value is indeed being recognized as evidenced by the increase in PHCN training schools. Eventually, as their numbers grow, PHCNs will be able to control their future. PMID:2615828

Mazibuko, R; Mckenzie, A; Schneider, H



Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.


Rural Assistance Center  


... and more with RAC’s email updates. Sign Up Community Health Gateway Find proven strategies for strong rural programs ... Health and Substance Abuse Toolkit in the Rural Community Health Gateway . Funding Opportunities Discover the latest funding and ...


What Is Rural?  


... aspx “…assembles statistics on four broad categories of socioeconomic factors: People: Demographic data from the American Community Survey, ... gov/surveys/ruraled/Definitions.asp Define Rural for Health Programs 1. U.S. Department of Health and Human ...


Rural Conditions and Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made a rural development publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Rural Conditions and Trends is issued three times annually, "track... economic and social trends in rural America," and present "nontechnical articles on the results of new rural research," respectively. Selected archives of each publications are available, and articles can be downloaded individually.


Rural Population and Migration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rural Development Briefing Room is new to the USDA Economic Research Service (ERS) site (described in the July 2, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics). Easy access to non-metropolitan information is available including Rural-Urban Continuum Codes, Urban Influence Codes, Typology Codes, links to Rural Development Perspectives and Rural Conditions and Trends, and metro-nonmetro labor market indicators. A collection of country courthouse photos by Calvin Beale completes the site.


ANIMATION RURALE: Education for Rural Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information gathered via literature review, interview, and personal observation was used to examine the effectiveness of animation rurale programs in Senegal and Niger, French West Africa. Identifiable animation rurale assumptions tested as applicable to Senegal and Niger were: nationwide development programs at the grass roots level can be…

Moulton, Jeanne Marie


Rural Education Issues: Rural Administrators Speak Out  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the issues that most affect Minnesota's rural public school administrators as they attempt to fulfill the mandates required from state legislation and communities. A second purpose was to identify exemplary practices valued by individual Minnesota rural schools and districts. Electronic surveys were sent…

Williams, Julia; Nierengarten, Gerry



China's rural logistics distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only including agricultural products logistics, agricultural means of production logistics, rural daily consumer goods logistics, as well as rural reverse logistics, it really be considered ldquorural logisticsrdquo. This paper analyzes the distribution of agricultural products, and distribution of daily consumer goods, agricultural means of production distribution, rural reverse logistics; states that chain management should be one of its meaning in

Guojun Ji; Weiwang Huang



Measuring Integrated Rural Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the concept of integrated rural tourism, as developed in the SPRITE (Supporting and Promoting Integrated Tourism in Europe's Lagging Rural Regions) project, is to be used as an operational tool to assess the all-round value of tourism in rural areas, there needs to be a means of measuring the value of tourism, and changes in it. Statistical, ‘objective’ methods

Gordon Clark; Mary Chabrel



Conceptualizing Integrated Rural Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural spaces are no longer associated purely with agricultural commodity production but are seen as locations for the stimulation of new socio-economic activity, often incorporating tourism, leisure, speciality food production and consumption and e-commerce. Within the context of debates about integrated and territorial approaches to rural development in Europe's ‘lagging regions’, this paper introduces the notion of ‘integrated rural tourism’

Gunjan Saxena; Gordon Clark; Tove Oliver; Brian Ilbery



Rural Education and Montana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Synthesizing previous research, statements, and special reports calling attention to the unique problems associated with rural education, this paper presents definitions, statistics, and recommendations applicable to rural education and to Montana. Among the topics presented are: a contemporary definition of rurality (nonmetropolitan is posited as…

Tamblyn, Lewis R.


Rural Conditions and Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This U.S. Department of Agriculture periodical gives current statistical information on rural America. This issue contains articles about the impact on rural areas of economic trends, employment, and industry changes. A general overview indicates that moderate improvements in rural employment since 1986 have been tempered by slow income growth.…

Mazie, Sara Mills, Ed.; And Others



Pockets of Rural Prosperity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pennsylvania's rural areas are often characterized as having lower incomes and lower housing values than urban areas. This characterization is not universally accurate, however, since there are some impressive pockets of wealth within rural Pennsylvania. To highlight the diversity of wealth among Pennsylvania's rural municipalities, the Center for…

Center for Rural Pennsylvania, 2004



Rural deprivation: reflecting reality.  

PubMed Central

In the United Kingdom (UK) there is currently an upsurge of interest in rural affairs. This brings the potential to address some of the gaps in rural health care research. The appropriate description and measurement of rural deprivation is one area consistently identified by UK rural practitioners and policymakers as urgently requiring evidence. Appropriate identification and measurement of deprivation within a rural context is important so that primary care resources can be targeted at those with greatest need. It is believed that current measures of deprivation are inappropriate for rural settings, but relationships between life circumstances and health are only beginning to be addressed by empirical research. In this paper we propose an approach to researching rural deprivation. It is important to be clear about definitions of rurality and deprivation and about the purpose of measurement. The requirement to test a range of indicators for their association with health status and health care need in rural areas and to gather more locally relevant data within primary care settings is highlighted. The relevance, for primary care, of exploring rural deprivation is suggested, along with ideas about a way forward in generating knowledge that can help to characterise and measure rural deprivation in a more sensitive manner. PMID:11407056

Farmer, J C; Baird, A G; Iversen, L



Rural Districts REAP New Money.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) grants give rural districts a new source of federal funds. REAP has two separate programs that address the specific needs of rural districts. The first is the Small and Rural Schools Achievement Program; the second is the Rural and Low Income Schools Program. Explains the differences in the programs and…

Kusler, Mary Conk



Rural Stress: Myths and Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison between the common myths of "rural existence" and the documented realities of rural living explodes the myth that rural living is generally stress free, shows that life stress in rural settings can have deleterious effects on the function of individual and family, and provides a basis for exploring some implications of rural stress…

Hansen, Thomas D.; McIntire, Walter G.


USDA Rural Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA Rural Development agency is committed "to helping improve the economy and quality of life in all of rural America". Its various financial programs and loans support the development and realization of such public facilities as water and sewer systems and also aid in various economic development initiatives aimed at improving conditions in rural settings across the country. On the site visitors can view the latest news from the agency along with reading about various grant and loan programs, such as water and waste disposal improvement programs. Thematically, the site is divided into areas such as community development, cooperatives, and utilities. Rural officials and policy specialists will find much to look over in the publications section, such as rural development factsheets, and equally importantly, the archives of the Rural Cooperatives Magazine, which is published six times a year.


Microgrids for Rural Electrification  

E-print Network

researches solutions for renewable energy on island grids and on best practices for remote microgrids in lessMicrogrids for Rural Electrification: A critical review of best practices based on seven case studies Carnegie Mellon University University of California, Berkeley #12;B Microgrids for Rural


Rural Development Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book seeks to provide a basis for reexamining rural development policy by presenting comprehensive and current information on the effectiveness of various rural policy approaches. An introduction that defines development terminology and discusses changing policy needs is followed by 13 chapters that represent the best recent research…

Sears, David W., Ed.; Reid, J. Norman, Ed.


Measuring Rural Hospital Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…

Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid



Rural Radiology: Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

About half of the populations of many countries live in rural areas and in these countries about half of the rural hospitals do not have X-ray services. Among the reasons for such a deficiency are the high cost and sophistication of radiological equipment, requiring fully trained technicians, and the high standard required for a radiologist's training, none of which a

G. Gomez-Crespo



Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.



Rural banking in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people in the vast rural areas of Africa lack access to financial services, and most commercial banks are not interested in moving into these areas due to their low income levels, lack of scale economies, and poor infrastructure. Also, few banks actually understand the most common economic activity in rural areas: agriculture. Consequently, the absence of financial institutions in

Gerard van Empel



Developing Rural Business Incubators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa



Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural Development  

E-print Network

Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural Development Curriculum Vitae Johanna Bergman Lodin Curriculum Vitae Name: Johanna BERGMAN LODIN Born: 26 August 2013.11 ­ present Postdoctoral Fellow. Division of Rural Development, Dept. of Urban and Rural



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Reconnecting Rural America. Report on Rural Intercity Passenger Transportation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the results of three regional symposia held during 1987-88 to gather grassroots information about rural passenger transportation needs across the country. The first section describes the structural transformation of rural America in the 1980s: (1) the rural economy; (2) rural population trends; (3) impact of information…

Stommes, Eileen S.


Information for rural development: challenge for Nigerian rural public libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria is a developing country where the majority of the population live in rural areas. The majority of these rural dwellers are either non-literate or semi-literate. The need to involve them in the national development process cannot be overemphasized. This can be achieved through the identification of the information needs of rural dwellers and the provision of innovative rural public

Rose Bini Okiy




Microsoft Academic Search

Para lograr introducir en nuestras comunidades rurales cualquiera información técnica o participativa debemos de pensar en forma de desarrollo futuro buscando alternativas que propicien una buena capacitación en este caso para la introducción de nuevas técnicas, cultivos, utilización de los recursos racionales e introducción de otros de mejor resultados y hasta hacer de los diferentes productores de comunidades una escuela

Jorge Alfredo González Pérez



A Perspective on Rural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing Effective Adult Education Programs: Needs and Objectives" and "Design,…

Miller, W. Wade; And Others



The Rural School Leadership Dilemma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that rural schools and communities, indeed, even rural people, are somehow substandard or second-class has deep historical roots. The goal of this essay is to reveal that history so as to render stereotypical conceptions all things rural less powerful and more easily dismissed by rural school professionals. Consequently the focus is on…

Surface, Jeanne L.; Theobald, Paul



Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.



Rural School Communities in Colorado.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visits to nine of the smallest rural elementary schools in Colorado were conducted to gain insights into types of communities served by the schools. No one definition of "rural" covered all nine communities, so they were classified into six types: predominantly agricultural, rural industrial, stable recreational, ranching/railraod, rural commuter,…

Cousins, Jack


Rural environmental attitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two frequent beliefs about rural environmental attitudes are examined conceptually and empirically: (1) the common conception that rural environmental concerns are expressed predominantly by wealthy community newcomers; and (2) the related position that long-time rural residents are hostile to the environmental cause. We argue conceptually, through the use of a 2×2 community matrix, that environmental attitudes are equally likely to be expressed by what we term “upper middle income newcomers,” “lower middle income newcomers,” “upper middle income locals,” and “lower middle income locals.” Empirically, we find that although wealthy newcomers express the strongest environmental attitudes in the community, their concerns represent only a small percentage of rural environmental attitudes consisting of respondents who make less than 40,000 a year in household income are over 40 years of age, possess less than a college education, and work in a nonprofessional occupation. This new category expresses environmental concerns at least equal to the rest of the community on three of four measures of environmental attitudes. The findings provide insight into the widespread and cross-sectional nature of rural environmental concern. The implication is that environmental groups will find significant sources of political support in rural communities, provided they craft their environmental message in a language consistent with rural attitudes and values. Things are gettin' bad fast. Easterners and environmentalists comin' down here from the big cities are tryin' to turn our way of life completely upside down. A western US rancher quoted in Krakauer (1991)

McBeth, Mark K.; Foster, Richard H.



Better Together: Rural Schools and Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the nature of educational reform and recommends strategies to better reflect the needs of rural schools and their communities. The furor over education reform is largely produced by those who stand to gain from it, including politicians who promote their own agendas and consultants, professors, and experts who make a good…

Haas, Toni


A Comparison of Metropolitan and Rural Medical Schools in China: Which Schools Provide Rural Physicians?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examining the role of metropolitan and rural medical schools in the provision of rural physicians surveyed 12 metropolitan and 10 rural medical schools in China. All rural medical schools produced rural physicians; one rural school reported 88 graduates entered rural practice. Two metropolitan medical schools produced 73 rural physicians,…

Wang, Lexin



National Rural Health Association  


... and cost-saving sessions including effective rural-centric solutions, ACA policy, federal programs and grants, telehealth trends, ... News | Partnership Program Trouble with this page? Website Design and Management by Highpoint Web Design, LLC


"Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

Leist, Jay



61 FR 65581 - Rural Health Outreach and Rural Network Development Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration Rural Health Outreach and Rural Network Development Program AGENCY: Health Resources...grants under the Rural Health Outreach, Network Development, and Telemedicine Grant with the Rural Outreach and Rural Network Development aspects of the program....



African rural settlement patterns.  


Rural settlements, characterized by illiteracy, traditionalism, isolationism, and an agricultural economy, dominate Tropical Africa. This paper presents an historical review of settlement evolution from before colonial rule to the present, to provide a better understanding of rural life for government policy formulation purposes. Before colonial rule, the early 19th century slave trade drove many villagers into scattered, remote settlements which were further established by increased food production, and decreased migration. After Africa's partition (1885), various governments concentrated dispersed settlements for security and administrative control. Rural settlements were transformed through colonial force, desires by the villagers for more land and wealth, and new settlement establishment by Europeans. In present day Africa, improved communication, a more diversified economy, and less traditional conservatism still influence rural settlement patterns. Resource development and agricultural and medical reasons currently act to change settlements, but villagers are now compensated for such moves and may even improve their earning power from them. The author describes settlement patterns in Sierra Leone, which typify much of Tropical Africa. Hill settlements, which offered security against intertribal wars, predominated in the 19th Century, but the Hut Tax War (1989) brought tranquility and an improved economy. Today, much of rural Sierra Leone has lost its population to diamond and iron mining areas. Modernization has changed food, housing, settlement size, and arrangement and farming techniques. The author emphasizes the strong environmental influences on settlement evolution and development, and urges a greater understanding of rural settlements to aid in future planning for Tropical Africa's people. PMID:12143658

Kaloko, F R



Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

Friedland, William H.



Education Issues in Rural Schools of America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To have an impact on rural schools and communities, education researchers and reformers must stop approaching rural issues from an urban perspective, adopt a perspective that values rurality, and address issues specific to the rural context. Rural schools have contributed to the depletion of rural communities by focusing on individual mobility and…

Harmon, Hobart L.


Rural Science Education Program  

SciTech Connect

The Rural Science Education Project is an outreach program of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science with the goal of helping rural elementary schools improve science teaching and learning by using local natural environmental resources. This program is based on the assumption that rural schools, so often described as disadvantaged in terms of curricular resources, actually provide a science teaching advantage because of their locale. The natural environment of mountains, forests, ponds, desert, or fields offers a context for the study of scientific concepts and skills that appeals to many youngsters. To tap these resources, teachers need access to knowledge about the rural school locality`s natural history. Through a process of active participation in school-based workshops and field site studies, teachers observe and learn about the native flora, fauna, geology, and paleontology of their community. In addition, they are exposed to instructional strategies, activities, and provided with materials which foster experimential learning. This school-museum partnership, now in its fifth year, has aided more than 800 rural teachers` on-going professional development. These educators have, in turn, enhanced science education throughout New Mexico for more than 25,000 students.

Intress, C. [New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque, NM (United States)



Education in a Rural Environment. Education and Rural Development -- 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assuming that education and rural development must be correlated, this booklet defines the general thrust for rural education programs in developing countries. The 1st of 4 sections briefly describes the various aspects of rural development (emphasis on integration of agriculture, industry, transport, trade, credit, health, education, culture,…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.


Rural Matters: The Rural Challenge News, 1997-2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the 10 quarterly issues of "Rural Matters: The Rural Challenge News," published from Fall 1997 to Winter 2000 (the final issue). This newsletter focused on projects funded by the Annenberg Rural Challenge, as well as research summaries and opinion pieces on the benefits of small schools, place-based education, and community…

Rural Matters: The Rural Challenge News, 2000



Rural Youth as a Factor of Rural Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to determine West German rural youths' involvement in and availability to the mechanism of social change, surveys of youth aged 17-28 in towns of less than 5,000 people were made in 1955, 1968, and 1980. Between 1955 and 1980 the social structure of rural youth changed dramatically, especially in employment. In 1955, 55% of rural youth…

Planck, Ulrich


Bringing Rural Sociology Back In: Critical Theory and Rural Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, rural sociology has been the subject of sociological inquiries. Many of these have been highly critical, raising questions about the ontological nature of the discipline. This paper extends the tradition, providing a brief historical analysis of rural sociology's roots as both theoretical and applied and critiquing current rural

Falk, William W.; Gilbert, Jess


The Rural Arena: The Diversity of Protest in Rural England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 15-20 years, the rural areas of England have been used by a wide diversity of groups as the stage for their protest activities. Some have argued that this is due the rise of a rural social movement; this paper contends that rural areas have become both available and advantageous as the locale of protest through a range of interlocking…

Reed, Matt



Rural Australia Providing Climate Solutions  

E-print Network

Rural Australia Providing Climate Solutions Preliminary report to the Agricultural Alliance, Rural Australia Providing Climate Solutions. Preliminary report to the Australian Agricultural Alliance of Australia South Australian Farmers Federation Visy Western Australian Farmers Federation (Inc) Westpac

Queensland, University of


Bringing Rural Sociology Back In.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Raises questions about current rural sociology from a critical theory perspective. Provides a brief historical analysis of its theoretical and applied roots. Suggests interweaving of research, practice, and advocacy as way to bring rural sociologists back into policy making. (LFL)

Falk, William W.; Gilbert, Jess



The Two-Ness of Rural Life and the Ends of Rural Scholarship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I analyze the current return of academic rural doubt in the US in terms of an old intellectual quandary: what is the rural? I argue that scholars have two dominant epistemologies of the rural, what I term first rural and second rural, and correspondingly different political visions. By first rural I mean the material moment of the rural, to which…

Bell, Michael M.



Purposeful Play in Rural Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how children in rural Venezuela are trained in agricultural skills by the extended family. The highly organized training encourages play and exploration as important elements in familiarzing children with implements and methods of food production. It is suggested that rural school planners draw ideas from the rural family's educative…

Chesterfield, Ray



Teacher Preparation for Rural Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Small, sometimes multi-cultural, rural schools need specialized preservice teacher education programs to prepare teachers. After outlining the classroom, school, and sociocultural characteristics affecting a teacher's success and survival in a rural community, this paper discusses the apparent lack of rural content in teacher preparation programs…

Miller, Bruce A.


Rural Outreach: Connecting Distant Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural outreach in community mental health centers involves staff commuting from a central agency to surrounding rural towns to provide clinical and/or community service. The problem for outreach staff is how to best provide services to a rural network that is distant and different from the urban network. In general the greater the distance, the…

Kenkel, Mary Beth


Juvenile Justice in Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others


Counseling the Rural Disadvantaged Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses the aspiration problems that rural students confront each day. By exploring their background and family life styles, it is hoped that some sort of understanding of their aspiration problems could aid the school counselors. The paper is divided into 4 main discussions: (1) characteristics of rural life, (2) problems of rural

Matthias, Ruth


Gifted Voices from Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on gifted and talented education in six rural schools. An introduction summarizes a 1999 national assessment of rural gifted education and points out that the standards movement may hinder development of both effective rural schools and gifted programming. Of the six schools profiled, two were founded especially for gifted and…

Colangelo, Nicholas; Assouline, Susan G.; New, Jennifer K.


Office of Rural Health Policy  


... 31 HRSA-15-038 Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Grant Program Apply at by April 06 HRSA-15-123 Rural Health Care Coordination Network Partnership Program Apply at by April 06 HRSA-15-125 Rural ...


Public Services in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines issues in the delivery of public services in rural areas. The importance of access to urban areas in identifying differences in rural delivery problems is emphasized. It is no longer accurate to equate "rural" with agriculture and farming, drawing a distinction between those who have easy access to an urban area and those who…

Rainey, Kenneth D.


Una Arquitectura para una Herramienta de Patrones de Diseo  

E-print Network

Una Arquitectura para una Herramienta de Patrones de Diseño José Sáez Martínez1 , Jesús García herramientas es necesario disponer de una arquitectura flexible que permita manipularlos eficientemente. Este trabajo presenta una arquitectura, basada a su vez en patrones, diseñada con este fin y describe una

Molina, Jesús García


Socially disorganized rural communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article talks about the social disorganization of rural communities in the U.S. It is stated that family farming has been on the decline for decades, with the numbers of farmers dropping by 16 million since 1950 and farms decreasing by over 4 million during the past century. It is inferred that a part of a community's history and way

Kenneth D. Tunnell



Special Issue: Rural Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others



Rural Growth Slows Down.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After decade of growth, rural income, population, and overall economic activity have stalled and again lag behind urban trends. Causes include banking and transportation deregulation, international competition, agricultural finance problems. Only nonmetropolitan counties dependent on retirement, government, and trade show continuing income growth…

Henry, Mark; And Others



Reluctant Rural Regionalists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, scholars have begun to explore questions of regionalism and regionalization in rural contexts. Regionalism is often understood and presented as a pragmatic solution to intractable problems of fragmentation, inefficiency, accountability, spillover and neglect in the face of economic restructuring and other external threats. These…

Hall, Peter V.; Stern, Pamela



Problems Facing Rural Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

Stewart, C. E.; And Others


Rural Internet Connectivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A positive relationship has been found between access to telecommunications capabilities and improved economic development. However, the deployment of systems that deliver toll-free Internet access favors urban regions. This research examines Internet service providers' (ISP) operations in rural portions of Texas, Iowa, Louisiana, and West…

Strover, Sharon


Rural Incubator Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This profile summarizes the responses of 20 managers of rural business incubators, reporting on their operations, entry and exit policies, facility promotion, service arrangements and economic development outcomes. Incubators assist small businesses in the early stages of growth by providing them with rental space, shared services, management and…

Weinberg, Mark L.



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Enhancing Traditional and Innovative Rural Support Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite all the optimistic discussions of a rural renaissance and a significant population turnaround favoring growth in rural communities, rural areas are still experiencing a lack of essential services in virtually every area important to quality of life for rural residents. Included among the areas in which a need for improved rural support…

Agria, Mary A.


Rural health clinics infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses programs which were directed at the installation of photovoltaic power systems in rural health clinics. The objectives included: vaccine refrigeration; ice pack freezing; lighting; communications; medical appliances; sterilization; water purification; and income generation. The paper discusses two case histories, one in the Dominican Republic and one in Colombia. The author summarizes the results of the programs, both successes and failures, and offers an array of conclusions with regard to the implementation of future programs of this general nature.

Olson, K.



Rural Energy Conference Project  

SciTech Connect

Alaska remains, even at the beginning of the 21st century, a place with many widely scattered, small, remote communities, well beyond the end of both the road system and the power grid. These communities have the highest energy costs of any place in the United States, despite the best efforts of the utilities that service them. This is due to the widespread dependence on diesel electric generators, which require small capital investments, but recent increases in crude oil prices have resulted in dramatic increases in the cost of power. In the enabling legislation for the Arctic Energy Office in 2001, specific inclusion was made for the study of ways of reducing the cost of electrical power in these remote communities. As part of this mandate, the University of Alaska has, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, the Denali Commission and the Alaska Energy Authority, organized a series of rural energy conferences, held approximately every 18 months. The goal of these meeting was to bring together rural utility operators, rural community leaders, government agency representatives, equipment suppliers, and researchers from universities and national laboratories to discuss the current state of the art in rural power generation, to discuss current projects, including successes as well as near successes. Many of the conference presenters were from industry and not accustomed to writing technical papers, so the typical method of organizing a conference by requesting abstracts and publishing proceedings was not considered viable. Instead, the organizing committee solicited presentations from appropriate individuals, and requested that (if they were comfortable with computers) prepare Power point presentations that were collected and posted on the web. This has become a repository of many presentations, and may be the best single source of information about current projects in the state of Alaska.

Dennis Witmer; Shannon Watson



The conducting and reporting of rural health research: rurality and rural population issues.  


Rurality and rural population issues require consideration when conducting and reporting on rural health research. A first article focused on the planning stage of the research. The objective of this article is to explore conducting and reporting issues that require attention when undertaking rural health research. The privacy of participants, the collection of data, the cultural traditions of Indigenous communities, the dissemination of results, and giving something back to the community, are all aspects of conducting and reporting rural health research that require attention. Procedures such as identifying the characteristics of the population, attention to safety issues when collecting data, the use of local liaison persons and acknowledging the ownership of intellectual property, increase the quality of the research outcomes. They are issues that are relevant to both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Procedures are available to address issues of particular concern in developing appropriate methods for rural health research. While we have concentrated on Australian issues, and possible solutions, rural localities in many other countries may face similar issues. In any rural setting, paying attention to issues that may affect the conducting and reporting of rural health research will hopefully result in studies that support the continued improvement of health in rural communities. PMID:16241855

Robinson, A; Burley, M; McGrail, M R; Drysdale, M; Jones, R; Rickard, C M



Rural Health in Pharmacy Curricula  

PubMed Central

The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act proposes strategies to address the workforce shortages of primary care practitioners in rural America. This review addresses the question, “What specialized education and training are colleges and schools of pharmacy providing for graduates who wish to enter pharmacy practice in rural health?” All colleges and schools accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education or those in precandidate status as of December 2011 were included in an Internet-based review of Web sites. A wide scope of curricular offerings were found, ranging from no description of courses or experiences in a rural setting to formally developed programs in rural pharmacy. Although the number of pharmacy colleges and schools providing either elective or required courses in rural health is encouraging, more education and training with this focus are needed to help overcome the unmet need for quality pharmacy care for rural populations. PMID:23193344

Thrasher, Kim; O’Connor, Shanna K.



Rural pediatric surgery.  


Published outcome studies support regionalization of pediatric surgery, in which all children suspected of having surgical disease are transferred to a specialty center. Transfer to specialty centers, however, is an expensive approach to quality, both in direct costs of hospitalization and the expense incurred by families. A related question is the role of well-trained rural surgeons in an adequately resourced facility in the surgical care of infants and children. Local community facilities provide measurably equivalent results for straightforward emergencies in older children such as appendicitis. With education, training, and support such as telemedicine consultation, rural surgeons and hospitals may be able to care for many more children such as single-system trauma and other cases for which they have training such as pyloric stenosis. They can recognize surgical disease at earlier stages and initiate appropriate treatment before transfer so that patients are in better shape for surgery when they arrive for definitive care. Rural and community facilities would be linked in a pediatric surgery system that covers the spectrum of pediatric surgical conditions for a geographical region. PMID:25760196

Nakayama, Don K; Fallat, Mary E; Tracy, Thomas F



Electrifying rural India  

SciTech Connect

NREL personnel team with the Indian and US governments and an Indian NGO to bring photovoltaic electricity to rural residents of the Sundarbans in India. India is the world's second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion people. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many residents have little or no access to electricity and the benefits associated with it. Many rural areas, for example, are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The region lies partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative in Sundarbans. The initiative was designed to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics (PV) to provide limited supplies of electricity for applications such as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications and economic development activities.

Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.



Southern Rural Development Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson declared war on rural poverty during their time in the White House, there has been an overriding concern with alleviating the persistently high levels of poverty in the American South. A number of organizations have developed to provide assistance to the region, and the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC), located at Mississippi State University is one such entity. The center's mission statement reflects this sentiment, as it notes its primary directive is "to strengthen the capacity of the region's 29-land grant institutions to address critical contemporary development issues impacting the well-being of people and communities in the rural South." Visitors interested in these issues will find plenty to examine here, as they may elect to view a calendar of germane events (such as regional science conferences and the like), look over a list of their primary focus areas, learn about available funding opportunities, and download any number of policy publications and newsletters which date back to 1993.


Revitalizing Rural Communities: Lessons from the Rural Community College Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MDC, Inc. is a private nonprofit whose mission is to expand opportunities, reduce poverty, and build inclusive communities in the South. The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) is a national project that supports community colleges in distressed rural areas in moving their people and communities toward prosperity. MDC and the Ford Foundation…

MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.


Connecting Rural School Reform and Rural Child Advocacy. Keynote Address.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In North Carolina, legislation giving health insurance to children of modest-income working families was won because a broad coalition of over 100 organizations got the attention of lawmakers. Because all children benefitted, rural children benefited, but a few groups pushing for health insurance for just rural children would not have gotten their…

Sher, Jonathan P.


Rural Communities and Rural Social Issues: Priorities for Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report recommends priorities for research into rural communities and rural social issues in Australia, based on an extensive literature review, surveys of policymaking agencies and researchers, and discussion at a national workshop in May 1999. Chapters 1-2 outline the study's background, purpose, and methodology; discuss issues in the…

Black, Alan; Duff, John; Saggers, Sherry; Baines, Patricia


Helping Rural Schools Achieve Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Senator Collins of Maine plans to fight for proper federal funding of the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) that allows rural schools to combine federal funding sources. Collins, and Senator Dianne Feinstein, will soon introduce legislation that will eliminate inequities in the current Social Security law that penalize teachers and other…

Collins, Susan




Microsoft Academic Search

To more fully understand power structures in rural settings, this article investigates the power structure of an economically depressed rural county in southwestern Pennsylvania. The power structure must be viewed in the context of the economic hard times that the county has confronted. In this regard, there has been a decline in the number of local economic notables over the




Rural Access. AACC Project Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) provides funds and technical assistance to targeted community colleges in an effort to improve educational access and foster economic development in distressed rural areas of the United States. This project brief describes RCCI's attempts to increase access by implementing an approach more holistic…

Eller, Ronald; Martinez, Ruben; Pace, Cynthia; Pavel, Michael; Garza, Hector; Barnett, Lynn


Home Schooling in Rural Nebraska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1996-97 survey of 40 home schooling families in rural Nebraska examined family characteristics, parents' social and political attitudes, the rationale for home schooling, curriculum and supplementary materials, children's opportunities for social experiences, rural characteristics, parents' educational attitudes, and support from extended…

Morgan, Robert L.; Cruzeiro, Patricia; Holz, Jan



Renewable Energy for Rural Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although education in rural communities is an important priority, in many cases, electricity is not available to support rural educational activities. Renewable energy systems present a reasonable solution to support activities such as lighting, computers, telecommunications, and distance learning. There are certain factors and criteria that need…

Jimenez, Antonio C.; Lawand, Tom



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Issues of Rural Light Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light pollution is generally considered mostly an urban problem. Common sources of light pollution are poorly designed lighting of streets, parking lots, businesses and advertizing signs and for security. These sources, and the amount of light pollution generated, increase with population density. Nevertheless, light pollution can also be significant in rural areas. Rural light pollution differs from that in urban

W. H. Osborn; R. L. Hammer; A. Hammer



Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural

Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.


Finding Fairness for Rural Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-poverty schools in rural areas and small towns are under attack from state policy makers who want to consolidate these schools in order to save money. In addition to calls for consolidation, rural schools also are threatened by unfair and inadequate funding formulas.

Strange, Marty



Rural School Busing. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest summarizes information suggesting that long bus rides are part of the hidden costs of school and district consolidation. Rural school districts spend more than twice per pupil what urban districts spend on transportation. A review of studies shows that rural school children were more likely than suburban school children to have bus…

Howley, Aimee; Howley, Craig


Rural health care: redefining access.  


The population and demographics of rural America are shifting once again. As our nation's unprecedented health care reform unfolds, it is becoming clear that rural communities have unique strengths, and capitalizing on these strengths can position them well for this health care transformation. Equally important are the distinct challenges that--with careful planning, attention, and resources--can be transformed into opportunities to thrive in the new health care environment. The North Carolina Institute of Medicine's Task Force on Rural Health recently published a report that highlights the strengths and challenges of rural communities [1]. In order to fully leverage these opportunities, we must continue to acknowledge the fundamental importance of access to basic health care, while also broadening our discussion to collectively tackle the additional components necessary to create healthy, thriving rural communities. As we reexamine the needs of rural communities, we should broaden our discussions to include an expansion of the types of access that are necessary for strengthening rural health. Collaboration, successful recruitment and retention, availability of specialty services, quality care, and cost effectiveness are some of the issues that must come into discussions about access to services. With this in mind, this issue of the NCMJ explores opportunities to strengthen the health of North Carolina's rural communities. PMID:25621473

Collins, Chris



Rural Sociology at the Crossroads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A complex array of socio-historical, demographic, and organizational factors have combined in recent years to threaten both the current status of and future prospects for the discipline of rural sociology, and for the Rural Sociological Society (RSS). This paper examines the somewhat problematic recent trajectories of the RSS as a professional…

Krannich, Richard S.



Persuading Teachers to Go Rural  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a national teacher shortage projected to start peaking this year as baby boomers retire and budget shortfalls restrict state and local funding for teachers, rural school districts are working to keep the teachers they have while seeking new ones at little if any additional cost. The retirements alone will compound problems rural districts…

Dessoff, Alan



Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.



Portrait of Rural Virtual Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past two decades, distance education has become a reality of rural schooling in Newfoundland and Labrador. In this article, I provide historical background into the challenges facing rural schools in the province and how distance education was introduced to address that challenge. I also describe how that system of distance education…

Barbour, Michael K.



Preparing Rural Community College Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A limited number of universities offer graduate programs that focus specifically on preparing rural community college leaders. At the same time, community colleges are facing projections of unprecedented turnover in both administrative and instructional leadership. The rural community college is a unique educational institution which faces…

Williams, Mitchell R.; Pennington, Kevin L.; Couch, Gene; Dougherty, Michael A.



Enhancing Rural Leadership and Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on economic development efforts among 70 American Indian tribes, mostly in rural areas, yields information that may be applicable to rural areas generally. Local control matters--when decisions move into the hands of those whose future is at stake, the decision makers bear the consequences of their decisions, resulting in better decision…

Cornell, Stephen


Going Digital in Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the extent to which rural America is digital--has access to the Internet and to newer technologies such as wireless broadband--and discusses rural supply and demand for "going digital." Supply aspects include issues of both infrastructure and public policy. Demand aspects include entrepreneurs (business users) and others with…

Malecki, Edward J.


Personnel Management for Rural Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the problem of adjustment to the rural environment among the branch managers in commercial banks working in rural areas in consequence of the lead bank scheme. The analysis is based on data collected during an exploratory study of the lead bank scheme in a district in Gujarat State. The data suggest that urban-oriented managers

Sheth N R; Shah B G


Deploying a Rural Wireless Telemedicine  

E-print Network

Deploying a Rural Wireless Telemedicine System: Experiences in Sustainability S ince the end emerged including the World Bank and many regional and national development programs. A primary concern in rural india uses long-distance Wi-fi networking to enable high-quality videoconferencing between eye

Sanders, Seth



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Chile rural electrification cooperation  

SciTech Connect

The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)



Introduction to Rural America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise was designed for a sociology course and focuses on rural youth in the United States. Students will complete an exercise of simplified recreation of study data and then take on the role as researchers and use their own class data for hypothesis formulation and testing. The data is compiled by the instructor and cross-tabulations are run for each variable. Student then devise original hypotheses and analyze the data using their choice of variables from the data set. This activity utilizes a recreation of study survey of students in the class to create a unique dataset for students to analyze.

Meredith Redlin


Una cierta rareza  

E-print Network

letal, hace un juego de estratos en corte vertical: de la salsa y el barrio hasta la pudrición de una dudosa aristocracia, y en sus oscuras fantasías podemos reconocer también al Salvador, y a Chile y Uruguay, y a zonas de México, y seguramente que...

Carballido, Emilio



USDA: Rural and Community Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States government has been involved in rural development support for over seventy years, and the United States Department of Agriculture's Rural and Community Development program has spearheaded many of these initiatives directly. Users of the site should first look at their homepage, which provides recent announcements and website features, such as information about rural development policy and related pieces of legislation. The homepage also includes information on backyard conservation, utility services, and drought assistance. Near the bottom of the homepage, visitors will find links to recent reports, such as "Promoting Tourism in Rural America". Additionally, the homepage also provides access to the Journal of Extension and Rural Cooperatives Magazine. Finally, the site also includes a database of farmers' markets across the United States.


Let's Go Rural: Influencing Decision Makers. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several targets, tools and strategies can help the novice director of programs for preschool handicapped children in rural isolated areas work with advocates and volunteers who may offer valuable help, but who need information and direction. The fragility of intercommunity relationships in rural areas often requires the sensitive use of talents…

Phillipp, Louise, Comp.


Putting together ruralities: towards a symbolic analysis of rurality in the British mass media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years rural geography has become increasingly sensitised to the significance of rurality as a cultural construct. This paper examines the production and reception of mediated representations of rurality: that is, it focuses on senses of the rural conveyed by mass media such as television. The paper discusses claims that images of rurality can be understood as socio-spatialisations. It

Martin Phillips; Rob Fish; Jennifer Agg



Rural Roots: News, Information, and Commentary from the Rural School and Community Trust, 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the first eight issues of "Rural Roots"--two published in 2000 and six published bimonthly in 2001. A newsletter of the Rural School and Community Trust, "Rural Roots" provides news, information, and commentary from the Rural Trust and highlights the wide variety of place-based education work happening in rural schools and…

Westra, Kathryn E., Ed.; Yaunches, H. Alison, Ed.



Rural Knowledge and Information Systems for Non-Agricultural Rural Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As developing countries gradually rely less upon agriculture for rural income, rural economies require new solutions to access knowledge and information systems for rural development. Non-agricultural rural knowledge and information systems can play a significant role in developing and disseminating successful strategies to escape rural poverty.…

Rivera, William M.



Rural Roots: News, Information, and Commentary from the Rural School and Community Trust, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the six issues of "Rural Roots" published bimonthly in 2002. A newsletter of the Rural School and Community Trust, "Rural Roots" provides news, information, and commentary from the Rural Trust and highlights the wide variety of place-based education work happening in rural schools and communities across the country. Feature…

Yaunches, Alison, Ed.; Loveland, Elaina, Ed.



Rural housing land consolidation in the hilly area of Chongqing: A rural household perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of rural economy, consolidation of rural housing land has been focused on by officials and scholars. However, little attention has been paid to the impacts of rural household's willingness to use rural housing. This paper took Banan District in Chongqing as a case study and explored the impacts of the rural households’ willingness to moving to the

Xinyue Yang; Chaofu Wei; Yong Liu; Yan Ouyang; Longran Chang


"How to Be a Rural Man": Young Men's Performances and Negotiations of Rural Masculinities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with young rural men and how they "do" identity politics living in a rural area of Norway. Focusing on how masculinity and rurality are constructed and interrelated in young men's narratives of living in a remote community, it is identified that young rural men reproduce, negotiate and transform local discourses of rural

Bye, Linda Marie



Sustainable futures for rural education: Changing preservice teachers' attitudes for teaching in rural schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are teaching shortages in Australian rural sc hools. Many preservice teachers have had no rural teaching experiences and may be reluctant to apply for rural teaching positions. What may motivate non-rur al preservice teachers to seek employment in rural schools? This study investigate s 17 preservice teachers' first experiences of teaching and living in rural areas. These second and

Peter Hudson; Sue Hudson


Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.



Mental Health Issues in Rural Nursing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five papers cover recent developments in rural mental health nursing. "Rural Mental Health Care: A Survey of the Research" (Karen Babich) chronicles recent interest in understanding the rural population's character and the nature of mental health services needed by and provided to rural America. Lauren Aaronson ("Using Health Beliefs in a Nursing…

Babich, Karen S., Comp.


Need for Improvement of Rural School Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Government Accounting Agency estimates that one third of the nation's schools are in need of extensive repairs or replacement of one or more buildings. The condition of America's rural schools are at a crisis stage and need to be improved to continue to educate rural youth. This paper profiles the state of rural schools' infrastructure, rural

Hodges, V. Pauline


Rural Elementary School Teachers' Technology Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on survey responses from more than 500 third-grade teachers, this study addressed three research questions relating to technology integration and its impact in rural elementary schools. The first analyses compared rural with non-rural teachers, revealing that the rural teachers had more positive attitudes toward technology integration. Then…

Howley, Aimee; Wood, Lawrence; Hough, Brian



Outcomes of Rural Training Tracks: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural training tracks (RTT) encourage family medicine residents to enter into rural practice. Studies reveal that 76 percent of RTT graduates are practicing in rural America and that graduates feel prepared for rural practice. However, RTTs produced only 107 graduates during 1989-99. Without significant investment, this model can not supply enough…

Rosenthal, Thomas C.



Center for the Study of Rural America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City founded the Center for the Study of Rural America in order to study "the economic and policy issues that are unique to rural America." The site contains a vast collection of articles and studies about the rural areas of the US, as well as Center news, conference information, and basic economic information about rural America.


The Impact of Agribusiness on Rural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dramatic growth of multinational agribusiness corporations has led to all types of rural decline--social, demographic, institutional, and environmental. Historically, rural inhabitants and rural land have been abused and neglected in the name of progress. Rural development efforts often attract small assembly or light manufacturing plants that…

Theobald, Paul


Prevalence of Hunger Declines in Rural Households.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of hunger in rural households declined slightly from 1995 to 1998, and food insecurity rates stayed constant. Food insecurity was almost three times as prevalent among rural Blacks as among rural Whites. For rural Hispanics, the rate was about twice that of Whites. Food insecurity was higher in single-parent families than in any…

Nord, Mark; Winicki, F. Joshua



Creating Vibrant Communities & Economies in Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the economic expansion of the 1990s was felt even in small towns and rural areas, events in recent months point out that the economic health of rural America remains fragile. Rural manufacturing has suffered sizable employment declines in recent months and only modest expansion has occurred in the service sector--the lifeblood of rural

Beaulieu, Lionel J.


Expectant Times: Rural Education in Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural schools, 68.8% of Russia's elementary-secondary schools, have been seriously affected by economic crises. Rural teachers require understanding of the rural context, knowledge of the local setting, and the ability to raise students' awareness of the rural environment. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

Sinagatullin, Ilghiz M.



Elements of a Sustainable Rural Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If a new and effective rural policy is to be crafted, policymakers must realize that rural America has changed a great deal in recent years. To be sustainable, rural policy must be flexible enough to accommodate continuing changes in global structure; be sufficiently targeted to address the unique concerns found in diverse rural situations;…

Pulver, Glen C.


Health Careers Education for Rural Primary Schoolchildren  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International and national studies have reported that health professionals who grew up in a rural area are more likely to return to work in a rural area than their urban raised counterparts. The chronic severe shortage of health professionals in rural and remote Australia has meant inequitable health care for rural and remote communities and a…

Gorton, Susan M.



66 FR 37989 - Rural Health Outreach and Rural Health Network Development Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Rural Health Outreach and Rural Health Network Development Program AGENCY: Health Resources...grants under the Rural Health Outreach and Network Development Program. Two kinds of projects...Outreach Grants for the development of networks to expand service delivery systems...



The changing rural environment and the relationship between health services and rural development.  

PubMed Central

Author summarizes today's changing rural America and the challenges that health services researchers and policymakers face in relating the rural environment to the problems and possibilities of rural health services delivery. PMID:2917874

Cordes, S M




E-print Network

agregación de municipios/entidades de menos de 30.000 h. y una densidad inferior a 100 h/km2 2. ZONA RURAL a revitalizar · Escasa densidad, de base agraria, baja renta, aislamiento ... ­ B) Zonas rurales intermedias · Densidad baja/media, algo diversificadas, niveles de renta medios/bajos, alejados de centros urbanos ­ C

Rey Benayas, José María


Rural Schools' Mental Health Needs  

E-print Network

Rural schools often can not provide the same access to mental health service as schools in larger population areas can.. Understanding the implications of these sometimes limited services is important in overcoming barriers to adequate services...

Lee, Steven W.; Lohmeier, Jill H.; Niileksela, Christopher Robert; Oeth, Jessica



7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22...the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities...Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural...




Microsoft Academic Search

Las cajas rurales, en su condición de entidades de crédito, al igual que los bancos y las cajas de ahorros, están experimentando las consecuencias derivadas de la actual crisis financiera internacional. Sin embargo, lejos de suponer un lastre para estas entidades, la actual situación ha de ser aprovechada como una oportunidad, lo que significa redefinir su modelo de negocio apostando



Characterising Rural Businesses--Tales from the Paperman  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study of a self-termed "rural business" is used to deconstruct the concept of a rural business and shed light on specific features of "operating in a rural area" and "serving a rural population". Alongside "selling a rural product", the paper claims that these make up three parameters for categorising rural businesses. Highlighting these…

Bosworth, Gary



Changing Preservice Teachers’ Attitudes for Teaching in Rural Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia continues to face teaching shortages in rural schools. Indeed, preservice teachers may be reluctant to apply for rural teaching positions, particularly as most have had no rural teaching experiences. What may motivate non-rural preservice teachers to seek employment in rural schools? This study investigates 17 preservice teachers’ first experiences of teaching and living in rural areas. These second and

Peter Hudson; Sue Hudson



Population dynamics of rural Ethiopia.  


2 rounds of the national sample surveys, conducted by the central statistical office of Ethiopia during 1964-1967 and 1969-1971, provide the only comprehensive demographic data for the country and are the basis for this discussion of rural Ethiopia's population dynamics. The population of Ethiopia is predominantly rural. Agglomerations of 2000 and over inhabitants constitute about 14% of the population, and this indicates that Ethiopia has a low level of urbanization. In rural Ethiopia, international migration was negligent in the 1970's and the age structure can be assumed to be the results of past trends of fertility and mortality conditions. The reported crude birthrate (38.2), crude death rate (12.3) and infant mortality rate (90) of rural Ethiopia fall short of the averages for African countries. Prospects of population growth of rural Ethiopia would be immense. At the rate of natural increase of between 2.4 and 3.0% per annum, the population would double in 24-29 years. Regarding population issues, the programs of the National Democratic Revolution of Ethiopia faces the following main challenging problems: 1) carrying out national population censuses in order to obtain basic information for socialist planning; 2) minimizing or curtailing the existing high urban growth rates; 3) reducing rapidly growing population; and 5) mobilizing Ethiopian women to participate in the social, economic and political life of the country in order to create favorable conditions for future fertility reduction. PMID:12309869

Bariabagar, H



Industrialization and the Processes of Stratification in Rural Societies: A Comparison of Rural India and Rural United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Status attainment processes of the experienced civilian labor force of rural India and rural United States were analyzed by using the Blau-Duncan model, for the first time employing that model to compare rural sectors of an agrarian society with those in an industrial society. United States data were obtained from the 1962 Occupational Changes in…

Sharda, Bam Dev; Elder, Joseph W.


rurAL humAn services College of Rural and Community Development  

E-print Network

rurAL humAn services College of Rural and Community Development Statewide Programs 907 Endorsement: 16 Credits The rural human services programs are designed to develop strong and healthy rural preparing for careers as natu- ral helpers/healers in village-based public, private and volunteer human

Hartman, Chris


Rural Schools and Communities: How Globalization Influences Rural School and Community Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how a rural school district and the communities in which the district belonged collaborated on a community development initiative. This dissertation examined the opportunities and constraints rural communities are facing and the role that a rural school system could play in increasing social and economic sustainability of rural

Butler, Thomas



Rural Libraries: A Forum for Rural Library Service. Volume X, 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two issues of the journal "Rural Libraries" for 1990 contain a total of seven articles. "Cooperation and Rural Libraries," by Jackie Schmitt, reports on a nationwide survey of 119 rural libraries' participation in intrastate library cooperatives. "Rural Public Library Service to Native Americans," by Susan Hollaran, outlines strategies for the…

Sheller, Rebekah, Ed.



Education for Rural Development: Embedding Rural Dimensions in Initial Teacher Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In South Africa, rural education and development are issues of social justice, especially in places that were previously established as homelands. This article presents some of the tensions that are inherent in the conceptions of rurality, rural education and the possibility of sustainable rural education and development. We propose the notion of…

Masinire, Alfred; Maringe, Felix; Nkambule, Thabisile



Application of the Rural Development Index to Analysis of Rural Regions in Poland and Slovakia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this research was to construct a multi-dimensional (composite) index measuring the overall level of rural development and quality of life in individual rural regions of a given EU country. In the Rural Development Index (RDI) the rural development domains are represented by hundreds of partial socio-economic, environmental,…

Michalek, Jerzy; Zarnekow, Nana



Investing in People: The Human Capital Needs of Rural America. Rural Studies Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides an overview of existing human resource conditions in rural America; examines key economic, social, and technological forces shaping the future viability of rural areas; describes human capital issues for rural women and minority groups; and outlines strategies to strengthen rural human capital resources. Chapters are: (1) "Human…

Beaulieu, Lionel J., Ed.; Mulkey, David, Ed.


An Analysis of North Carolina's Rural Health Problems as Perceived by County Rural Development Panels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A State Task Force on Rural Health was formed (January 1973) by the State Rural Development Committee to identify and analyze major rural health problems in North Carolina and to recommend alleviation strategies. The Task Force submitted open-ended questionnaires to members of the County Rural Development Panels to secure their perceptions of…

Hamilton, Vance E., Comp.


rurAL nutritiOn services College of Rural and Community Development  

E-print Network

rurAL nutritiOn services College of Rural and Community Development Interior-Aleutians Campus 907 and other organizations serving rural Alaska. Students learn nutrition sci- ence, behavioral health credits The Rural Nutrition Services Program teaches job-related skills and knowledge needed for entry

Hartman, Chris


Arguing for Rural Health in Medicare: A Progressive Rhetoric for Rural America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural health policy is the laws, regulations, rules, and interpretations that benefit or affect health and health care for rural populations. This paper examines how rural health policy is viewed in the broader field of public policy, discusses the role of advocacy in developing rural health policy, and suggests ways to make that advocacy more…

Ricketts, Thomas C.



Regenerating Rural Social Space? Teacher Education for Rural-Regional Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complex interconnection among issues affecting rural-regional sustainability requires an equally complex program of research to ensure the attraction and retention of high-quality teachers for rural children. The educational effects of the construction of the rural within a deficit discourse are highlighted. A concept of rural social space is…

Reid, Jo-Anne; Green, Bill; Cooper, Maxine; Hastings, Wendy; Lock, Graeme; White, Simone



How Rural America Sees Its Future. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To gain a perspective on rural America's future, seven roundtables consisting of seven rural stakeholder groups were convened. Four groups of challenges facing rural areas emerged. The rural business environment was considered the source of greatest challenge. Agriculture concerns included low profits and access to world markets. The effects of…

Barkema, Alan D.; Drabenstott, Mark


Rural America's Stake in the Digital Economy. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This first article in a series on telecommunications in rural America provides an overview of several key telecommunication issues facing rural regions. High speed data services known as broadband have the potential to make rural areas less isolated and improve the rural quality of life, but physical barriers, sparse population density, and few…

Staihr, Brian


Rural Policy Matters: A Newsletter of Rural School & Community Action, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the 12 issues of "Rural Policy Matters" published in 2002. Issues examine recent educational research on small and rural schools; report on court litigation related to rural school finance and educational adequacy, resources for community action in support of rural schools, and outcomes of school consolidation; outline…

Beeson, Elizabeth, Ed.



Facilitator's Role in Collaborative Rural Development: The North Carolina Rural Employment Laboratory. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Facilitator's Role in Collaborative Rural Development Project began in 1979 as a study of 12 rural development efforts which comprised the North Carolina Rural Employment Laboratory and was expanded in 1980-81 to include rural development in 6 other states (California, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, and Vermont). A wide range of…

MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.


Profiles in Rural Economic Development: A Guidebook of Selected Successful Rural Area Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents 64 profiles of successful economic development initiatives in the small towns and rural areas of 37 states. Intended for use by rural and small town leaders and rural economic development specialists, the guide provides ideas, encouragement, and an "insider perspective" on alternative rural development strategies. Each…

Thomas, Margaret G.


Designing sanitation projects in rural Ghana  

E-print Network

Providing sanitation to rural areas in Ghana remains a huge challenge. Government funding is scarce while many international donor projects are ineffective. This thesis explores the difficulties with rural sanitation ...

Lau, Jonathan (Jonathan Ho Yin)



Rurality and Patterns of Social Disruption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that structural cleavages provoke social disruptions where opportunities are conducive. Thus, combinations of rurality with particular structural cleavages predict specific disruption patterns. Data from northeastern United States indicate that rurality, combined with other population characteristics (provocation, ascriptive inequality,…

Wilkinson, Kenneth P.



Nursings students’ attitudes towards rural nursing practice   

E-print Network

Background: Nursing shortage is a worldwide phenomenon; in rural areas, this shortage is exacerbated by geographical imbalances. Reducing the inequality of health outcomes between rural and urban areas requires improvement ...

Tao, Yuexian




EPA Science Inventory

The Rural Clean Water Program (RCWP) was initiated as an experimental effort to address agricultural nonpoint source pollution problems in rural watersheds across the country. his document contains the technical papers presented at the National RCWP Symposium. hese papers documen...


Biogas as a source of rural energy  

SciTech Connect

The hilly state of Himachal Pradesh, with nearly 2.15 million cattle and 0.7 million buffalo, has the potential to install 0.64 million biogas plants of 1 m{sup 3} size. These plants could generate nearly 4.90 x 105 m{sup 3} of biogas, equivalent to 3.07 x 10{sup 5} L kerosene per day to meet domestic energy needs of nearly one-fourth of its rural population. During 1982--1998, only 12.8% of this potential was achieved. The percent of possible potential achieved in plant installations in 12 districts of this state, namely, Bilaspur, Chamba, Hamirpur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Kullu, Lahul-Spiti, Mandi, Shimla, Sirmour, Solan, and Una, are 35.35, 1.70, 20.96, 8.67, 1.54, 6.96, 0.00, 18.49, 3.84, 8.521, 18.29, and 13.23%, respectively. There is a need to strengthen biogas promotion, particularly in the districts of Kangra, Mandi, Solan, and Una, which range from mid-hill to low-hill terrain and which have large potential due to high concentration of bovine population. Increased costs and comparatively low rate of subsidies has resulted in a decreasing rate of plant installation annually, from 3,500 during 1987--1992 to fewer than 1,200 during 1995--1998. The percentage of functioning plants was 82% in 1987--1988 but has decreased to 63%. To ensure proper installation and functionality of plants, the authors discuss the needed improvements in the biogas promotion program.

Kalia, A.K.



Echocardiogram Utilization Among Rural and Urban Veterans  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare echocardiography use among urban and rural veterans and whether differences could be accounted for by distance. Methods We used Veterans Administration (VA) administrative data from 1999 to 2007 to identify regular users of the VA Healthcare System (VA users) who did and did not receive echocardiography. Each veteran was categorized as residing in urban, rural or highly rural areas using RUCA codes. Poisson regression was used to compare echocardiography utilization rates among veterans residing in each area after adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, clustering of patients within VA networks and distance to the nearest VA medical center offering echocardiography. Findings Our study included 22.7 million veterans of whom 1.3 million (5.7%) received at least one echocardiogram. Of echocardiography recipients, 69.2% lived in urban, 22.0% in rural and 8.8% in highly rural areas. In analyses adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities, and clustering, utilization of echocardiography was modestly lower for highly rural and rural veterans compared with urban veterans (42.0 vs 40.1 vs 43.1 echocardiograms per 1,000 VA users per year for highly rural, rural and urban, respectively; P < .001). After further adjusting for distance, echocardiography utilization was somewhat higher for veterans in highly rural and rural areas than it was for urban areas (44.9 vs 41.8 vs 40.8 for highly rural, rural and urban, respectively; P < .001). Conclusions Echocardiography utilization among rural and highly rural veterans was marginally lower than for urban veterans, but these differences can be accounted for by the greater distance of more rural veterans from facilities offering echocardiograms. PMID:22236338

Okrah, Kingston; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kaboli, Peter; Cram, Peter



Resilience among rural lesbian youth.  


Rural lesbian youth are encumbered with a number of obstacles in their development of a positive self-identify and self-worth. Youth may experience implied physical threats, abuse, and mental health concerns as they attempt to define themselves within a context that emphasizes the role of women as heterosexual caretakers of the community. A number of factors can serve to diminish or enhance the young rural lesbian's ability to cope with barriers and obstacles that she may face, including having a supportive family network, a larger network of friends, supportive mentors and teachers, and access to gay-straight alliances. The intent of this article is to examine the challenges that rural lesbian youth face in developing a positive self-identity including tools to enhance resilience. PMID:20077267

Cohn, Tracy J; Hastings, Sarah L



Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa



Rural Collaboratives: A Review of the Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative models of rural school improvement consortia were identified through a review of research literature in order to determine what existing models were applicable to rural school consortia in the northwest United States. Organization structure of rural school collaboratives and characteristics associated with successful functioning were…

Crohn, Leslie; Nelson, Steven R.


Shortchanging Rural Teachers. Teaching Quality: RESEARCH MATTERS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief examines problems staffing rural schools and discusses the importance of teacher education in producing effective reading teachers. Over 31 percent of public schools are in rural areas, comprising over 49 percent of public school systems. Rural districts have difficulty recruiting teachers because they generally have lower salaries,…

Southeast Center for Teaching Quality, Chapel Hill, NC.


Telecommunications Access for Rural Americans with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines reasons why community action is needed to assure both physical and economic access to telecommunications for rural people with disabilities. Discusses the rural-urban geography of disability in America, rural problems in rehabilitation service delivery, recent federal legislation on telecommunications and disabilities, and key…

Seekins, Tom; Enders, Alexandra



Rural Students and Graphics Calculators in Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the performance of rural and urban Western Australian students on the college-entrance mathematics examination following introduction of graphics calculators. Although urban students scored higher than rural students in the 3 years studied, the gap remained relatively consistent, indicating that rural students were not further…

Haimes, David; Webster, Beverley



Rural Public Transportation: An Instructional Module.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A concept-based introduction to rural public transportation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, sociology, and technology. Rural public transportation involves systems in rural and small urban areas with populations under 50,000…

Hayden, Linda


Addressing the Neglected Needs of Rural Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the educational needs of rural students and suggests ways that college programs can be adapted to the learning characteristics of rural students. Rural students are likely to be global learners, have a strong preference for cooperation, view learning as a social experience, have an aversion to individual recognition, experience…

Bloodsworth, Gaston; Fitzgerald, Doris


Rural Science Education: A Model for Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To meet the need for improved science instruction in rural schools, a project to identify, honor, and provide training for outstanding rural science teachers in grades 6-9 was designed cooperatively by the National Science Foundation, Kansas State University, Kansas Cosmosphere and Discovery Center, and rural school districts. In order to create a…

Enochs, Larry G.


Rural Community Influences on Effective School Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how rural communities influence school-level processes facilitating effective instruction. Rural community influences on structural aspects of schools (resources, instructional time, curricular emphasis, grouping practices, extra support, and parent involvement) vary, depending on the community's values. Rural communities can both…

Capper, Colleen A.



Violence against women in a rural context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper outlines the results of a study conducted in rural NSW in 1995. It examines violence against women in a rural context and outlines rural constraints and structures which make the position of women who are victims of violence particularly tenuous. A lack of refuge accommodation and the difficulties of policing Apprehended Violence Orders (AVOs) in isolated areas are

Margaret Alston




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig




Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to analyze the importance of provision rural financial services, as well as the opportunity as a business presents this finance market segment. The problem of financial services in rural areas is presented, while reviewing existing supply and demand and raises the incursion into the business of credit and rural savings for the unemployed, professionals with experience in

Diego Esteban Platas Rosado; Guadalupe Arcos Medina; Arturo Perez Vazquez



Principals as Assessment Leaders in Rural Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a study of rural school principals' assessment leadership roles and the impact of rural context on their work. The study involved three focus groups of principals serving small rural schools of varied size and grade configuration in three systems. Principals viewed assessment as a matter of teacher accountability and as a…

Renihan, Patrick; Noonan, Brian



Rural Science Education: Valuing Local Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether playing outdoors or working on the farm, rural children acquire science and engineering skills throughout their daily lives. Although 11.4 million children in the United States grow up in rural areas, compared to 14.6 million in urban areas, relatively little attention is given to rural science education. This article demonstrates that…

Avery, Leanne M.



Grey evaluation model of rural informatization level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comprehensive evaluation of rural informatization is a grey problem. This paper presents a grey relational analysis method to evaluate the rural informatization level.A grey relational evaluation model of rural informatization is set up, then studies it by AHP and grey relational analysis to obtain the weights of the indicators and counts grey evaluation coefficients. This analysis method is flexible

Du Jing; Daoliang Li; Hongwen Li; Liyong Liu



Career Patterns of Rural Female Educational Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the impact of the rural context upon the careers of women educational administrators in Saskatchewan. Surveys and interviews with 24 female rural administrators indicated that the behavior and career patterns of rural female administrators were influenced by the organizational context of the school and its community. A new…

Wallin, Dawn; Sackney, Larry



School Dropouts in Rural Colorado School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dropouts from rural school districts have not received the same scrutiny as given to those from urban ones. The reasons behind this lack of knowledge about the experience of rural school districts with dropouts are unclear. The purpose of the present study was to begin to close this knowledge gap. A first major study of rural dropouts in the…

Tombari, Martin; Andrews, Alex; Gallinati, Tina



Putting "Rural" into Psychiatry Residency Training Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Evidence indicates disparities in the number of psychiatrists practicing in rural America compared to urban areas suggesting the need for a greater emphasis on rural psychiatry in residency training programs. The authors offer suggestions for integrating a rural focus in psychiatry residency training to foster greater competency and…

Nelson, William A.; Pomerantz, Andrew; Schwartz, Jonathan



Toward a Transdisciplinary Rural Education Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the representation of rural education research orientations--defined in terms of methodological approach, academic focus and place-consciousness--within the literature and across academic disciplines. A content analysis of 155 abstracts from articles published in the Journal of Research in Rural Education and Rural Sociology…

Stapel, Christopher J.; DeYoung, Alan J.



Southern Rural Education Association Journal, 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal contains the following articles pertaining to education in rural areas: (1) "The State of the Association" (William Peter) reviews the mission and progress of the Southern Rural Education Association; (2) "Arts Enrichment Programs in Middle Tennessee Rural Schools" (Howard Brahmstedt and Patricia Brahmstedt) describes how these…

Hulick, Chuck, Ed.



Defining "Rural" for Veterans' Health Care Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) devised an algorithm to classify veterans as Urban, Rural, or Highly Rural residents. To understand the policy implications of the VHA scheme, we compared its categories to 3 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and 4 Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) geographical categories. Method: Using…

West, Alan N.; Lee, Richard E.; Shambaugh-Miller, Michael D.; Bair, Byron D.; Mueller, Keith J.; Lilly, Ryan S.; Kaboli, Peter J.; Hawthorne, Kara



RuRal alaska summer college  

E-print Network

RuRal alaska HonoRs InstItute Six-week summer college preparatory program for rural and Alaska Native college bound high school juniors and seniors May 26­July 10, 2015 University of Alaska Fairbanks RAHI is funded by the College of Rural and Community Development, University of Alaska Fairbanks

Hartman, Chris


Meeting Facility Needs in Rural Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural schools, in partnership with a solid base of supportive community citizens, can positively influence community vitality through expanded curricular and extracurricular offerings. This paper explores the ways in which rural communities can enhance education in their own towns. It discusses the characteristics of successful rural schools,…

Phelps, Margaret S.; Peach, Larry E.; Reddick, Thomas L.



Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employed a variety of sources of data and a number of methods to describe rural lending markets. Over the sample period, 1992 through 1998, there was a pronounced trend towards affiliation of banks, both urban and rural, with holding companies, although over this period there was little change in the concentration of banking offices in rural areas. Using

Nicholas A. Walraven



An ICT Framework for Enabling Rural Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This White Paper sets out the need for financial inclusion of the rural community for India's development and the important role that the ICT can play in this endeavor. We suggest an integrated framework for the use of the ICT for delivery of rural services in a cost-effective, financially viable and sustainable manner. We identify the major issues in rural

S. S. Satchidananda; Santosh Khanolkar


New Rural Society Concept and Program Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help achieve a more dispersed population distribution, it is the strategy of the New Rural Society (NRS) project to address the interdependent rural, urban, and energy problems by solving the rural development problem issue first. People live in large urban areas chiefly because the jobs and essential services are there. Advances in…

Fairfield Univ., CT.


Virtue Ethics and Rural Professional Healthcare Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because rural populations are at risk not only for clinically disparate care but also ethically disparate care, there is a need to enhance scholarship, research, and teaching about rural health care ethics. In this paper an argument for the applicability of a virtue ethics framework for professionals in rural healthcare is outlined. The argument…

Crowden, Andrew



Understanding Smoking Cessation in Rural Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Rural communities are adversely impacted by increased rates of tobacco use. Rural residents may be exposed to unique communal norms and other factors that influence smoking cessation. Purpose: This study explored facilitating factors and barriers to cessation and the role of rural health care systems in the smoking-cessation process.…

Hutcheson, Tresza D.; Greiner, K. Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Jeffries, Shawn K.; Mussulman, Laura M.; Casey, Genevieve N.



Production, Consumption and Imagination in Rural Thailand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transformation of Thailand's rural areas from agricultural production to arenas of consumption of a constructed "rural idyll" is illustrated in cases of a hotel with a "working rice farm," and an elite school. The school (and companion resident "village") created an idealized rural past for rich consumers who wanted a modern education for their…

Rigg, Jonathan; Ritchie, Mark



Rural Options for Gifted Education. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural gifted programs should be developed by the consumers in rural communities and should focus on the needs and strengths of the community. The unique aspects of rural schools should be used to develop defensible community-based programs. General gifted education procedures, such as developing peer groups and psychologically secure environments,…

Bull, Kay Sather


Education and Employment in Rural Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of my work experience in rural Alaska suggests the value of combining academic and field experience in community psychology with employment in graduate school. Twelve years of employment in rural Alaska leading to my present position with a rural Alaska Native Health organization is briefly reviewed. It is concluded that graduate students should examine, carefully and openly, their

Carol Yakish



A Demographic Profile of Pennsylvania's Rural Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pennsylvania has the largest rural population in the nation, and more than 50 percent of this population is female. Overall, Pennsylvania's rural women are doing well in education, family life stability, and health, relative to comparison groups of rural men and urban women and men. Educational attainment is greater among urban women and men, but…

Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.


Rural health care in Mexico?  


A very large percentage of Mexico's population living in rural areas lacks resources for health care. Any new effort to provide such care must emphasize the health of the infant population because of the high percentage of infants in the country. Plans made at the national level have not been correlated with the conditions that exist in rural areas. For example, the majority of university programs are oriented toward urban medical practice, and the construction of more schools of medicine to solve the problem of doctors in rural areas is based on a mistaken premise. This problem has not been solved even in developed countries such as the United States where, as in Mexico, graduates in medicine migrate to the cities where optimal conditions are met for practicing the type of medicine for which they have been trained. Furthermore, it is both expensive and illogical to maintain urban doctors in rural areas where they cannot practice their profession for lack of resources; to do so is to deny the purpose of their education (27). Conventional schools of medicine, for reasons of investment and of structure, should teach only very selected groups of students who, on finishing their training, are fully capacitated to practice specialized medicine. A different system is required if we are to provide adequate health care in the rural communities. A system such as that described herein, adapted to the real need of rural communities, would avoid the necessity to create dysfunctional bureaucracies and would not destroy those institutions which have proved useful in the past. This study should be considered as one of the many pilot programs that should be initiated in order to determine the type of program that would best solve the problem of health care in rural Mexico. Other programs already being considered at the National Autonomous University of Mexico include the A36 plan of the Faculty of Medicine, now in operation; the work of C. Biro carried out in Netzahualcoyotl City (both focused on providing medical care to the urban poor); and the Open University program. Unless an efficient program designed to meet the needs of rural communities is quickly put into operation, Mexico will, in the near future, be facing the same problems now confronting Southeast Asia. PMID:4415665

Cañedo, L



Rural Economic Development: What Makes Rural Communities Grow?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report identifies local factors that foster rural economic growth. A review of the literature revealed potential indicators of county economic growth, and those indicators were then tested against data for nonmetro counties during the 1980s using multiple regression analysis. The principal variables examined included demographic and labor…

Aldrich, Lorna; Kusmin, Lorin


Better Rural Schools Building Better Rural Communities. Keynote Address.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The PACERS Small Schools Cooperative is an association of 29 small public schools in 25 communities in rural Alabama whose goal is to keep schools open by making visible their viability. To that end, the schools of the cooperative develop appropriate curricular and extracurricular opportunities for schools and students that involve the people in…

Shelton, Jack


Rural People and Rural Economic Development. IIEP Seminar Paper: 21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assuming development is a process that involves the generation, diffusion, and realization of new opportunities, this paper discusses the following: (1) The Development Process: Facts and Issues (re: visible unemployment; rural to urban migration; the dualism of labor markets in the less developed countries; population growth; and the…

Bowman, M. J.


Challenging the Comfortable Stereotypes: Rural Education and Rural Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the question of standardization and educational equity among rural school systems and offers three "fundamental challenges" for educators. The first challenge is to take seriously the power of education and to resist the temptation to reduce expectations placed on education and educators. The power of education is illustrated…

Sher, Jonathan P.


Rural Students Becoming Rural Teachers: How Long Do They Stay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the employment status of elementary, early childhood, and special education graduates from Chadron State College (Nebraska) for the academic years of 1996/97-2000/01 at 2 and 5 years after graduation. Surveys of 282 education graduates, most of whom were teaching in small towns and rural communities of their midwestern states of…

Yeager, Noranne; Marshall, Peggy; Madsen, Kim


Does teaching an entire nursing degree rurally have more workforce impact than rural placements?  


Education plays a key role in recruitment of health workforce to rural and remote locations. In Australia, Schools of Nursing have set up a variety of educational programmes to encourage rural workforce choices. These programmes include rural campuses and short-term rural placement programmes out of urban campuses. This study compares the relative workforce impacts of rural campus versus short-term rural placements out of urban campus. The single outcome measure - rural or urban location after graduation - showed that the rural school graduated a significantly higher proportion of rural-working graduates (chi(2) 4.46, p = 0.04). However there was no difference in the rural workforce choices of students from rural backgrounds, irrespective of their university location (chi(2) = 1.45, p = 0.23). We conclude that both rural universities and affirmative action for selecting rural students into nursing programmes are effective workforce strategies, but that rural campuses have the added benefit of encouraging under-represented rural students to access university education. PMID:20636179

Playford, Denese; Wheatland, Belynda; Larson, Ann



Beyond Agriculture: New Policies for Rural America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online book contains the collected papers from the first conference hosted by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City's Center for the Study of Rural America. The conference explored new economic policies that would help rural America enter the digital economy. The papers, which must be downloaded separately, fall into three main categories: Rural America at a Crossroad; Seizing New Opportunities in Rural America; and New Directions for Rural Policy. The book also contains a keynote address by Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan, the comments of several noted economists, and the transcripts of the closing discussion.


Rural Schools and Modern Visions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991 West Virginia's governor announced a 10-year statewide plan that would close 245 schools, primarily in poor, small, and rural communities, and replace them with larger, more "efficient," more urban facilities. The controversy surrounding West Virginia school closings stems from the clash of two sets of beliefs and values. The people in…

Purdy, Deirdre



Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.  


Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities. PMID:25205545

Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J



Fire Protection for Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fire protection in rural Alaskan communities depends on individual home fire prevention and protection rather than on the services offered by a centralized fire department. Even when help is summoned to extinguish a blaze, aid does not come in the form of a cadre of highly trained firefighters; it comes instead from whomever happens to be in the…

Hagevig, William A.


Montana Rural Education Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The material in this K-8 curriculum guide is designed to provide classroom professionals in rural Montana schools with some guidance as to when to introduce and develop concepts in each subject area. It is intended to be a guide, not a rule book or complete course of study. For each subject area and for each grade level, topics are coded as I…

Kroon, Ralph, Comp.


Newfoundland and Labrador Rural Dialogue  

E-print Network

of Newfoundland and Labrador. It represents a brief synopsis of a range of issues identified as important of trends or characteristics, or that are within provincial management jurisdiction. It is important most rural areas are growing, their growth is not keeping pace with that of Census Metropolitan Areas

deYoung, Brad


Veterinary Manpower for Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the main activity of veterinarians is the care and treatment of animals, they are professionally trained personnel who have a history of involvement in community action. Their full potential has not been tapped to help alleviate the inadequacies of rural health services. Cited in this paper are specifics relating the number of trained…

Tucker, E. W.


Rural Organization and Poverty Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The deprivations of poverty seriously restrict the ability of millions of rural Americans to develop their potential and obtain "quality of life". If development of potential is to be maximized and if deprivations are to be reduced, structural changes are needed. The 4 change approaches that encompass much purposive social change at the locality…

Stockdale, Jerry D.


Australian Rural Education Award, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles and contact information for 14 candidate programs for the 1999 Australian Rural Education Award. Programs feature tree planting, transportation to boarding school, community development, business awareness, early childhood services, GIS technology, community-based curriculum development, reading resources, environmental service learning,…

Education in Rural Australia, 1999



Rural Areas Perceive Policy Tilt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan talks about using merit pay to attract the best teachers to the classroom, he probably doesn't have in mind a place like Richmond County, North Carolina. In this rural community where the unemployment rate is nearly 14 percent and there's no movie theater for miles around, school administrators say…

McNeil, Michele



Cultural Diversity in Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As rural communities become more culturally diverse, the institutions and organizations that serve them must assist this cultural transition by providing a framework for change. Such a framework includes a vision of healthy diverse communities that are conscious of changing demographics and willing to reevaluate community self-image. Three…

Castania, Kathy



Rural Areas and the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the rise of the so-called information age, a number of research institutes have felt compelled to research the digital divide that seems to exist between the mainstream and certain marginalized groups, such as those with lower incomes or those in rural areas. Released in February 2004, this intriguing 38-page report authored by Peter Bell of the Pew Internet & American Life Project, examines the use of the internet by rural residents across the United States. Based primarily on survey data collected between March and August 2003, the report contains some interesting findings, most notably the fact that while almost 52% of rural adults go online on a regular basis, they still have internet participation rates lower than their urban and suburban counterparts. Other interesting findings include information in the report that suggests rural users' online connections to various groups and virtual communities are more likely to stretch beyond immediate physically proximate communities. The report is rounded out by the inclusion of a methodology section and several demographic tables.


Rural Inservice Using Alternate Scheduling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three small rural school districts in Montana and Wyoming used alternate school day scheduling to make time for staff and curriculum development inservice programs. The schedule of one short and four long days delivered the instructional time of 175 6-hour days each year. Benefits of alternate scheduling included time for regular inservice…

Kimmet, James L.


School Participation in Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the determinants of school participation in rural north India, based on a recent household survey that includes detailed information on school characteristics. School participation, especially among girls, responds to a wide range of variables, including parental education and motivation, social background, dependency ratios, work opportunities, village development, teacher postings, mid-day meals and infrastructural quality.

Jean Dreze; Geeta Gandhi Kingdon



Maternal mortality in rural Zambia.  


The only prospective population-based study of maternal mortality in rural Zambia recorded a ratio of 889 per 100,000 births, about 8 times higher than that found in an urban hospital-based study. To obtain an accurate assessment of maternal mortality in Zambia's rural Kalabo district, both the sisterhood survey method and a review of hospital data were utilized. The maternal mortality ratio derived from the sisterhood survey (August-September 1994) of 1978 respondents was 1238 per 100,000 live births. Data from Kalabo Hospital on 2474 deliveries during 1990-94 revealed a ratio of 548 per 100,000 live births; however, when the latter ratio was corrected for an additional 15 maternal deaths that were not recorded as such, it rose to 1179 per 100,000 live births. The major causes of the 20 (71%) direct maternal deaths were obstructed labor and sepsis. Substandard hospital care factors (primarily inappropriate choice and/or lack of antibiotics, poor monitoring of vital signs, and poor provision of blood products by the laboratory) contributed to 71% of maternal deaths. Delay in seeking care played a role in 29% of all maternal deaths, and poor accessibility to the hospital was implicated in at least 25% of cases. These findings indicate that maternal mortality in rural Zambia is among the highest in the world. The sisterhood method survey appears to be an efficient indirect means of assessing maternal mortality in rural areas of developing countries. PMID:9292638

Vork, F C; Kyanamina, S; van Roosmalen, J



Rural Education: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 120-item annotated bibliography was compiled to facilitate the development of a recently approved course entitled "Topics in Rural Education" at the University of Maine at Machias. Although the dates range from 1964 to 1982, most of the materials were prepared in the 1970s and 1980s. The interrelatedness of the issues makes categorization…

Massey, Sara


Rural Families and Early Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a 5-year research project involving 50 primarily rural families with infants identified neonatally in birth crisis, or shortly thereafter, as having developmental disabilities. Parents were interviewed to gather information on their perceptions of and experiences with the early intervention (EI) process.…

Haring, Kathryn A.; Lovett, David L.


Impact of Declining Rural Infrastructure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the impact of declining rural community infrastructure on social, environmental, and economic well-being in Western Australia's central wheatbelt. Questionnaires were completed by 398 residents of the central wheatbelt, on-farm interviews were conducted with 68 respondents, and 4 focus groups were held in area towns.…

McKenzie, Fiona Haslem


Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

Cash, Terry



Occupational Values of Rural Eskimo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares occupational values of 232 rural Eskimo secondary students with those of 117 urban white adolescents from Fairbanks. Shows Eskimo adolescents resemble white counterparts in their work values but significant cultural differences appear in extent to which each group seeks intrinsic satisfactions from wage work. (NEC)

McDiarmid, G. Williamson; Kleinfeld, Judith S.



Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang


Rural Poverty Report 2001: The Challenge of Ending Rural Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Fund for Agricultural Development's 2001 report on rural poverty argues that to reduce poverty, international efforts must focus on "legally secure entitlements to assets (especially land and water); technology (above all for increasing the output and yield of food staples); access to markets; opportunities to participate in decentralized resource management; and access to microfinance." The extensive document is posted in .pdf format with the above address linking to its table of contents.



Rural generalism and the Queensland Health pathway--implications for rural clinical supervisors, placements and rural medical education providers.  


The lifeline for country medicine' was the description by the Rural Doctors Association of Australia of the Queensland Health Rural Generalist Pathway (RGP). The program promises to redress rural medical workforce issues in Queensland. It may fulfil these promises, but only with the support of rural clinical supervisors and medical educators adapting to new expectations of competencies, of training structure and endpoints of training. These adaptations will be a key element of the RGP success, particularly as other states adopt the approach. This article outlines the lessons learnt and adaptations made by clinical supervisors and medical educators in the Queensland Rural Medical Education group, to deliver the Rural Pathway of the Australian General Practice Training program since the first registrars identifying as RGP appeared in this program in 2006. PMID:23731088

Kitchener, Scott




Microsoft Academic Search

We describe rural tourism based on sustainability. We select parameters for developing a model of sustainable rural tourism. Thus the following indicators of sustainability in rural tourism are: tourist planning, number of visitors (tourists) in a given destination, natural and cultural attractions, involvement of local population, number of jobs opened by rural tourism, contribution of rural tourism to local economy,

Y. Yarkova; B. Stoykova



The Perceived Importance of University Presence in Rural Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated rural residents' perceived importance of university presence in rural, regional and remote Australia. The present data indicate that the presence of university in rural areas is perceived as highly important by both rural and urban citizens. Results indicate that rural residents perceive that there is a need for…

Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, R. John; van Breda, Marja



Rural Young People and Society: A Crisis of Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on rural youth in Russia shows that keeping qualified and ambitious young people in the rural economy will require creating conditions for young people to exercise initiative in the rural economy and diminishing the gap in quality of life between rural and urban environments. Only in this way can the pessimism of rural youth be overcome.

Gur'ianova, M. P.



Rural Health Care Providers in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the rural physician shortage and related policy and research needs. Discusses geographic distribution of physicians, quality of rural care, rural recruitment and retention, rural residency training, factors in medical education affecting entry into rural practice, physician productivity and income, reimbursement, federal and state programs…

Hart, L. Gary; Salsberg, Edward; Phillips, Debra M.; Lishner, Denise M.



Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability: Lessons From China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural electrification is now and will remain an essential element for rural development in China and other developing countries. With more than half of the world’s population living in rural communities, lessons for rural renewable energy applications and assessment from China can be very helpful in defining a global sustainable development strategy. This paper describes energy needs in rural China,

Aiming Zhou; John Byrne



Agrarian Literature: Overlooked Source for Rural Teacher Preparation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that preparation for rural teaching should include a seminar focusing on the literature about rural schooling and rural community dynamics. Suggests a curriculum of agrarian literature to help the future rural teacher deal with xenophobia, differing aspirations, and common illusions about rural life. (DHP)

Theobald, Paul



Rural Girls’ Perceptions of Success and the Effect of Living in a Rural Context  

E-print Network

of high school in a rural Texas community. The participants defined success based on achievement, but recognized that the specific process of how success is achieved varies. Rural youth in this study identified common components of success: happiness...

Campbell, Katherine S



The greening of rural policy  

SciTech Connect

A broad, interdisciplinary collection of essays written by prominent researchers. This book surveys essential environmental issues in rural areas of the developed world using case-study material from the UK, USA and Sweden. Looks at the ecological implications of agriculture, land-use, energy, social change and politics, touching on such vital problems as industrial farming, counter-urbanization, the global commons and conflict resolutions in land-use. Emphasizes how planning regimes must be modified to take account of environmental imperatives.

Harper, S. (Royal Holloway Coll., London (United Kingdom))



Future Directions in Rural Development Policy. Findings and Recommendations of the National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy, established by Congress to provide broad, long-range policy perspectives, examined rural development policy issues and made many field visits to observe rural conditions and rural development projects. The Commission recognized the diversity of rural communities and identified…

Reid, J. Norman; Rowley, Thomas D.


New Directions for U.S. Rural Policy. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 250 rural leaders attended the conference "Beyond Agriculture: New Policies for Rural America," held in Kansas City (Missouri) in April 2000. The conference began with an assessment of where the rural economy and rural policy are headed in the new century. Speakers suggested that the rural economy is likely to remain a mix of weakness and…

Drabenstott, Mark


Rural Libraries. A Forum for Rural Library Service. Volume XI, No. 1 and No. 2, 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These volumes report on investigation, activities, and viewpoints related to rural library service. Topics covered are the role of rural libraries, the needs and characteristics of its users, the characteristics of its trustees, difference in operation and information service between rural and urban libraries, and the role of technology in helping…

Sheller, Rebekah, Ed.



Reexamining Rural Decline: How Changing Rural Classifications and Short Time Frames Affect Perceived Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beale codes are an important tool for examining rural urban differences in socioeconomic trends. However, as population changes, counties' designations also change over time. This feature of Beale codes is commonly overlooked by researchers, yet it has important implications for understanding rural growth. Since the fastest growing counties grow out of their rural status, use of the most recent codes

Georgeanne M. Artz; Peter F. Orazem



Delaware's Rural Assistance Council Promotes the Rural Agenda in the First State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Delaware Research for Better Schools Rural Assistance Council's (RAC) mission is to develop a rural assistance agenda for the state. The Council stated four objectives: (1) identifying the most pressing needs of Delaware's rural schools and school districts; (2) developing plans, in cooperation with appropriate state organizations, for…

VanSciver, James H.


Ten Decades of Rural Development: Lessons from India. MSU Rural Development Paper No. 1, 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred years of rural development in India is surveyed, tracing the impact of colonial administration up to and including the decades of independence--an administration built on elitism, centralism, and paternalism. Four major rural problems of famine, abuses of land tenure, peasant indebtedness, and rural disaffection and how political…

Khan, Akhter Hameed


One Department Serving Rural America: HHS Rural Task Force Report to the Secretary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) created a rural task force to develop strategies to improve HHS services in rural communities. Fifteen HHS agencies have programs serving rural communities; child- and education-related programs provide child welfare services, Head Start, health promotion and prevention services, training…

Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.


Social and Economic Trends in Rural America. The White House Rural Development Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizing developmental problems caused by the rapid population and employment growth in rural America during the 1970's, this document describes social, economic, and governmental trends in rural America and suggests some federal policy choices that might be made in support of rural development. Problem areas and policy suggestions are…

Deavers, Kenneth L.; Brown, David L.


Rural Africana; Current Research in the Social Sciences. Rural Education, Fall 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The bulletin is one in the series "Rural Africana" published 3 times yearly by the African Studies Center, Michigan State University. "Rural Africana" is devoted to current research in the social sciences, exploring the problems of social and economic development in rural Africa south of the Sahara. The present issue is a compilation of papers…

Sheffield, James R., Ed.; And Others


The Broadband Quandary for Rural America. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High speed data services known as broadband have the potential to make rural areas less isolated and improve the rural quality of life, but physical barriers, sparse population density, and few markets present significant obstacles to their deployment in rural areas. Broadband applications such as e-commerce, distance education, and telemedicine…

Staihr, Brian


Rural KIDS COUNT Pocket Guide. Measures of Child Well-Being in the Nation's Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Pocket Guide" is derived from the "2004 KIDS COUNT Special Report: City & Rural KIDSCOUNT Data Book." It is designed to give state-level policymakers a better understanding of conditions faced by families in their rural communities and how they compare to those in the rural parts of other states, as well as the country as a whole. This…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2004



Children in Contemporary Society. IYC Series: Part IV. Rural Children and Rural Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contemporary rural population, comprising one-quarter of the nation's total, is diverse. Hence, no single label can be applied to its inhabitants, its families, or its children. This collection of articles, highlighted with drawings by five year old rural residents, describes adaptations to modern American life made by three types of rural

Frank, Mary, Ed.



76 FR 34839 - Establishment of the White House Rural Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...promote economic prosperity and quality of life in our rural communities. Sec...promote economic prosperity and quality of life in rural America, and shall coordinate...economic opportunities to improve the quality of life in rural America; (b)...



7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural Development State Offices. 2003.10 Section 2003... Functional Organization of the Rural Development Mission Area § 2003.10 Rural Development State Offices. (a) Headed by...



76 FR 13769 - Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...development, but does not guarantee that rural communities will get them. Rural businesses have been adopting more e-commerce and Internet practices, improving efficiency and expanding market reach. Some rural retailers use the Internet...



78 FR 8353 - Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...development, but does not guarantee that rural communities will get them. Rural businesses have been adopting more e-commerce and Internet practices, improving efficiency and expanding market reach. Some rural retailers use the Internet...



78 FR 17418 - Rural Health Information Technology Network Development Grant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration Rural Health Information Technology Network Development Grant AGENCY: Health Resources...the Rural Health Information Technology Network Development Grant (RHITND) to Grace...the Rural Health Information Technology Network Development (RHITND) Grant to the...



7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural Development State Offices. 2003.10 Section 2003... Functional Organization of the Rural Development Mission Area § 2003.10 Rural Development State Offices. (a) Headed by...



7 CFR 2.47 - Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (3) The Administrator, Rural Utilities Service is designated...the chief executive officer of the Rural Telephone Bank. (4) Administer the following sections of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7...



7 CFR 2.47 - Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (3) The Administrator, Rural Utilities Service is designated...the chief executive officer of the Rural Telephone Bank. (4) Administer the following sections of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7...



7 CFR 2.47 - Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (3) The Administrator, Rural Utilities Service is designated...the chief executive officer of the Rural Telephone Bank. (4) Administer the following sections of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7...



7 CFR 2.47 - Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (3) The Administrator, Rural Utilities Service is designated...the chief executive officer of the Rural Telephone Bank. (4) Administer the following sections of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7...



77 FR 33704 - Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...621). Also, the proposed project must benefit a rural area; provided through the project must either reside in a rural...located in a rural area (if a business). Project funds cannot be used for...



Rural mental health: neither romanticism nor despair.  


This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation. PMID:11249401

Wainer, J; Chesters, J



Alternative delivery systems in rural areas.  

PubMed Central

Alternative delivery systems, such as HMOs, PPOs, and primary care case-management programs, have a long history in rural America despite significant impediments to their development. However, little is known about the effect of these systems on rural communities and their medical care delivery systems. Existing studies, which focus on rural HMOs, are qualitative in nature and generally are directed at identifying factors that facilitate or retard HMO development. Despite their limitations, the studies do raise a variety of issues deserving of quantitative analysis. Research is now needed that (1) investigates the effect of rural alternative delivery systems on the cost and quality of care received by rural residents, (2) assesses the effectiveness of different mechanisms used by these systems to contain costs, (3) estimates the effect of alternative delivery systems on rural providers, (4) determines the extent to which the presence or absence of alternative delivery systems influences physician decisions to locate in rural areas, (5) identifies factors that are important in consumer decisions to enroll or not enroll in a rural alternative delivery system, and (6) analyzes the diffusion patterns of these systems in rural areas. PMID:2645250

Christianson, J B



Building Energy Efficiency in Rural China  

SciTech Connect

Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China’s total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to meet basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China’s success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation.

Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison



Solar Energy for Rural Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.


Transformational Teacher Leadership in Rural Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the author explores the rural school context and its teacher leaders as a third transformational leadership prototype adding to Leithwood and Jantzi's (1999) two transformational leadership prototypes of females and new teachers in the elementary school. The author helps illuminate new understanding of rural schools and their highly…

Anderson, Kirk David



Rural Education in the Northeast United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data produced by a 1987 national survey of approximately 2,400 rural school board presidents, district superintendents, principals, and teachers, this report focuses on special concerns and strengths revealed by 351 respondents from rural, small schools in 7 Northeastern states (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York,…

Angelis, Janet; King, Nancy


Building Business Awareness in Rural New York.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Half of New York State's 50 school-to-work (STW) programs are in rural areas. Following background on the development of New York's STW initiative, this paper describes four programs that are overcoming rural barriers to building an STW system. The GLOW Partnership addressed a primary concern of business partners: over-saturation of the limited…

Stevens, Jean; Drake, Robert; Huber, Candace; Powers, Betty; Reuland, Kris


RCCI: Planting the Seeds of Rural Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI), a Ford Foundation-funded project involving 24 community and tribal colleges. Describes RCCI's progress towards its goal of transforming rural economies and the prospects of their people. Concludes that through participation in RCCI, colleges can help revitalize communities. (NB)

Dellinger, Laura M.



Applications of Technology in Rural School Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural schools often have difficulty in developing and implementing a 21st century, K-12 technology plan. This report describes one rural school district's (Wayne, Nebraska) successful efforts at technology integration. It discusses the efforts of installing 25 networked computers in the local high school, linking buildings with fiber-optic cables,…

Jensen, Dennis


Typology of Leisure of Rural People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing data from a 1972 sociological survey of rural inhabitants working in the public economy of the province of Novosibirsk, this study examined leisure as an element of the residents' life style. Rural residents with common leisure behaviors were identified through the classification of the behavior's function and quality. Leisure functions…

Tapilina, Vera Sergeevna


Telepsychiatry for Treating Rural American Indian Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of all of the medical specialties, child and adolescent psychiatry has the most severe shortage of practitioners. This shortage is even more pronounced in economically disadvantaged and rural areas. The American Indian population is younger, more economically disadvantaged, and more rural than the general U.S. population (United States Census…

Savin, Daniel; Garry, Mark T.; Zuccaro, Paula; Novins, Douglas



Comprehensive Community Initiatives: A Rural Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article challenges the notion that the comprehensive community initiative (CCI) is a singularly urban intervention strategy by comparing a rural comprehensive initiative with the literature on urban CCIs. Characteristics of CCIs in urban settings are discussed and compared with Warren Family Institute (WFI), a demonstration project in rural

Messinger, Lori



An Attitudinal Survey of Pennsylvania's Rural Residents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Telephone surveys of 844 residents in 42 rural Pennsylvania counties established baseline data on rural opinions about 14 public policy issues. Concerning government spending, respondents felt that too little was spent on job creation, aging issues, child care, education, health services, and farming and agriculture; funding was about right for…

Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.


Obesity and Physical Inactivity in Rural America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context and Purpose: Obesity and physical inactivity are common in the United States, but few studies examine this issue within rural populations. The present study uses nationally representative data to study obesity and physical inactivity in rural populations. Methods: Data came from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey Sample Adult and…

Patterson, Paul Daniel; Moore, Charity G.; Probst, Janice C.; Shinogle, Judith Ann



The Status of the Rural Status Offender.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes studies of two rural programs for diverting status offenders from court system to alternative community programs. Examines communities and programs, suggests rural offender characteristics are similar to urban ones. Recommends development of community-based alternatives to child welfare and juvenile justice systems. (TES)

Gross, Carol J.




Microsoft Academic Search

Today sustainable rural development is of paramount importance in Indonesian development. Yet, different social actors have different perspectives on it. Non-government organizations (NGOs) in Indonesia have established themselves in pivotal positions in the social, economic and political landscape across the country, and a large amount of their work has been connected with development in the rural sector. But, there has

Yanuar Nugroho



Information technology in rural emergency management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural communities face a multitude of hazardous conditions—from blizzards, floods, droughts, and insect infestations caused by nature to hazardous material spills, transportation accidents, and dam failures that result from human activities. Information technology offers to rural emergency managers potentially important tools with which to better plan, alert, and respond to disasters.Three case studies are presented about uses of different technologies.

James W. Morentz



Policy Priorities for Rural Physician Supply.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Further work is needed in identifying strategies to improve rural health services that are most appropriate and cost effective in regions with differing circumstances and needs. Substantial reform of payment systems favoring rural and primary care is essential to the effectiveness of educational reform. (Author/MSE)

Kindig, David A.



Continuing Education for Rural Hospital Nurses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a rural outreach program to provide continuing education in nursing practice to all levels of nursing personnel in rural hospitals. Covers difficulties in planning and implementing the programs and the steps taken to explain the program philosophy and gain the trust of hospital adminstration and staff. (MF)

Burns, Nancy; Pickard, Myrna R.



Keeping Rural Schools up to Full Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural schools are long accustomed to meeting challenges in innovative ways. For them, the challenge is not so much a lack of technology as it is adequate internet access, which affects both teachers and students. In this article, the author discusses how to keep rural schools up to full speed. The author suggests that the best approach when…

Beesley, Andrea



Rural Child Sexual Abuse Prevention and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature on rural child sexual abuse and treatment. Surveys providers in rural Washington treatment programs. Responses describe agency characteristics, services, delivery problems, and suggested solutions. Reports providers' perceptions of service quality and interagency cooperation. Cites as problems heavy caseloads, lack of staff, and…

Ray, JoAnn; Murty, Susan A.



Removing Barriers: Service Learning in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural communities can successfully integrate service learning into academic subject areas. In service learning, students develop a deeper understanding of academic subjects while engaging in meaningful service to their school or greater community. Barriers to implementing service learning in rural areas include lack of time, transportation,…

Parsons, Cynthia


Uninsured Hospitalizations: Rural and Urban Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Few studies have examined hospitalization patterns among the uninsured, especially from the perspective of rural and urban differences. Purpose: To examine whether the patterns of uninsured hospitalizations differ in rural and urban hospitals and to identify the most prevalent and costly diagnoses among uninsured hospitalizations.…

Zhang, Wanqing; Mueller, Keith J.; Chen, Li-Wu



Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…

Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter



Implementing Patient Safety Initiatives in Rural Hospitals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implementation of patient safety initiatives can be costly in time and energy. Because of small volumes and limited resources, rural hospitals often are not included in nationally driven patient safety initiatives. This article describes the Tennessee Rural Hospital Patient Safety Demonstration project, whose goal was to strengthen capacity for…

Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira; Tupper, Judith; Coburn, Andrew; Wakefield, Mary



Trade Books with a Rural Community Theme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists books with rural or small community themes available for children, grades K-eight, to serve as motivational reading texts or resources in units on farming or rural life in social studies or science. Categorizes selections as informational, poetry, traditional, contemporary realistic fiction, fantasy, historical fiction, or concept books.…

Danielson, Kathy Everts



Rural Education Directory: Organizations and Resources, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory contains brief descriptions and contact information for organizations, agencies, and publications related to rural education. Mindful of the wide variety of issues impacting rural schools and related information needs, the directory includes national associations, research and training centers, health organizations, publishers,…

Burczyk, Charlotte, Comp.; Dawson, Cindy, Comp.; Hammer, Patricia Cahape, Comp.; Mays, Janet, Comp.; Moellendick, Joseph, Comp.


Rural Alaska Secondary Education Study: Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes a study conducted during 1993-94 evaluating rural secondary education in Alaska. The six components of the study included: (1) a survey of boarding school graduates concerning how well their educational experience prepared them for college, trade school, and employment; (2) a telephone survey of 800 rural households…

McDowell Group, Juneau, AK.


Biotech Tradeoffs in the Rural Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Synthesizes findings with personal estimates of likely impacts of biotechnology on nonmetropolitan economy, farming, public research institutions. Indicates biotechnology's benefit to rural America may come in expanded demand for raw materials although drawbacks may include declining farm numbers and displacement of rural workers in…

Buttel, Frederick H.



Rural Medical Education: Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

(Purpose) This report summarizes a synthesis of the literature related to the evidence, initiatives and approaches to rural/northern medical education, particularly its role in strengthening the medical workforce in rural areas. (Methodology) A literature review was conducted involving the literature databases MEDLINE (January 1990-March 2003),…

Curran, Vernon R.; Bornstein, Stephen; Jong, Michael; Fleet, Lisa



Rural Middle School Students' Perceptions of Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is an examination of bullying perceptions by rural middle school students. Three rural middle schools participated in the study which involved 138 students completing The School Bullying Survey to determine their experiences with bullying by types and the overall school climate as it relates to bullying behavior. Results from…

Taylor, Jonte' C.



Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on alternative and…

Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen



Rural Programs: Vocational Education Resource Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist community college administrators and faculty in enhancing vocational education programs and services, this resource package on rural college programs contains information about successful program strategies and ideas currently in use in vocational education programs at rural schools within the California Community Colleges…

Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.


Energy Use and Concerns of Rural Nebraskans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy prices have steadily increased during the past year. Rural residents are now faced with higher costs to drive and heat and cool their homes. Given these conditions, how much of a problem have rising energy costs been for rural Nebraskans? What are their opinions on future energy sources? What changes have they made or do they plan to make

Rebecca J. Vogt; Randolph L. Cantrell; Miguel A. Carranza; Bruce Johnson; David J. Peters



Using Cooperatives to Transport Rural Passengers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of two rural New York counties--Cortland and Otsego--was undertaken to identify innovative ways to provide public passenger transportation services in rural areas by using transportation cooperatives. Information about current transportation services was obtained from staff members of the human service agencies and county government…

Stommes, Eileen S.; Byrne, Robert J.



EPA Science Inventory

The National Survey of Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) was conducted as an effort to obtain up-to-date on the characteristics and operations of RHCs nationally and the federal Office of Rural Health Policy commissioned this survey of RHCs. The RHC Program is one of the oldest health ...


Clinical Decision Making of Rural Novice Nurses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop substantive theory regarding decision making by the novice nurse in a rural hospital setting. Interviews were guided by the following research questions: What cues were used by novice rural registered nurses in order to make clinical decisions? What were the sources of feedback which influenced subsequent…

Seright, Teresa J.



Reconceptualising Child Care in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examining child care services in rural and remote areas conducted focus group interviews and distributed questionnaires to parents living in 15 towns in the Mallee region of Western Victoria (Australia). Barriers to accessing child care in rural areas included limited availability of formal services, costs, stereotypes associated with life…

Morda, Romana; Kapsalakis, Anthoula; Clyde, Margaret


OUT Success Stories: Rural Electrification in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The United States and Brazil are collaborating to bring electricity to some 5 million households in rural Brazil. Over the next decade, there is a potential to install approximately 500 megawatts (MW) of solar home systems and 1000 MW of community systems, bringing light to households, schools, and health clinics throughout rural Brazil.

Strawn, N.



Impact of Education over Rural Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study to find out the impact of education on rural adults and their families through surveys of farmers in two villages in India, with and without educational facilities. Results clearly indicated improved agricultural practices and positive educational attitudes for the educated villagers, with implications for improved rural

Singh, Himmat; Yadava, J. P.



Womens pay in English rural districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines hourly wage payments for women who live in the rural districts of England, both in terms of variability within such districts and in terms of comparisons with non-rural districts. Drawing on the Labour Force Surveys Local Annual Database, the paper argues that, once education, industry and occupation are taken into account, there is little to distinguish wage

Keith Hoggart; Shen Cheng



Selected Health Practices Among Ohio's Rural Residents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a stratified random sample of 12 of Ohio's 88 counties, this 1967 study had as its objectives (1) to measure the level of participation in selected health practices by Ohio's rural residents, (2) to compare the level of participation in selected health practices of farm and rural nonfarm residents, and (3) to examine levels of participation…

Phillips, G. Howard; Pugh, Albert


Technology Needs of Rural School Psychologists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 71 rural Illinois school psychologists examined the frequency of their professional contacts, their level of computer knowledge, and their access to technology. Results indicate that although rural school psychologists serve an average of 1,620 students, practice in an average of 5.5 schools, and work for 2.2 school districts,…

Wise, Paula Sachs; Cruise, Tracy K.; Kelly, Ruth M.



Rural School Children Picturing Family Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rurality is an active agent and central to the lived experiences of children growing up on a farm and attending a farm school. It is a key to their everyday experiences, and influences family life, schooling and their future. Previous studies elsewhere in the world have explored the notion of childhood in rural contexts, but there is a dearth of…

de Lange, Naydene; Olivier, Tilla; Geldenhuys, Johanna; Mitchell, Claudia



Rural Women's Vocational Training for National Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although women are a crucial element in national rural development, their role continues to be neglected in plans and programs for change--especially in Third World countries. In addition to the burden faced by rural people generally in developing countries, women carry a double burden because of their low social status, high illiteracy rate, lack…

Chu, Lily


Rural Policy in a New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past rural policies are reviewed, noting the effects of globalization and information technology. Rural business profits can be maximized by direct cost or value-added competition, but cost competition limits the development of productive capacity and leads to unequal income distribution. In contrast, value-added competition could create steep…

Marshall, Ray


Summer Programming in Rural Communities: Unique Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past several decades, child poverty rates have been higher in rural than in urban areas, and now 2.5 million children live in deep poverty in rural America. Studies indicate that poor children are most affected by the typical "summer slide." Summer programming has the ability to address the issues of academic loss, nutritional loss, and…

Phillips, Ruthellen; Harper, Stacey; Gamble, Susan



The Ideological Foundations of Midwest Rural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A relationship exists between agrarian thought and the practice of formal schooling in the rural Midwest. Three traditions have shaped agrarian thinking about democracy and its application to social institutions, especially education. Fundamentalism, localism, and pastoralism have combined to form the ideological base for rural resistance to…

Theobald, Paul


New Mexico State Library Rural Services Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the information needs of rural services clientele was undertaken in New Mexico to define the services that the state library should provide. A survey about information needs was prepared and mailed to post office box holders, randomly selected, in rural areas of the state. In all, 1,200 surveys were distributed. Responses were received…

New Mexico State Library, Santa Fe.


A Conversation on Rural Health Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wayne Myers, director of the Office of Rural Health Policy, discusses Appalachian rural health and access to health care. The health manpower shortage in Central Appalachia still exists but is less severe than 10 years ago. The needs of underserved areas could be address by training local people in the community and through telemedicine and…

Myers, Wayne; Russell, Jack; Baldwin, Fred D.



Job Displacement and the Rural Worker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High rates of unemployment in rural areas poses questions as what education can do with the problem. This report examines the effects of rural American economies as they grow away from agriculture and toward dependence on manufacturing and service industries. Using data from the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics' Displaced Worker Survey, the…

Podgursky, Michael


Black Rural Land Decline in the South  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that it is widely accepted that millions of blacks who migrated from the South contributed significantly to the decline of black rural land ownership. However, the less than altruistic behavior patterns of land officials has also contributed to the loss of rural land by blacks. (Author/AM)

McGee, Leo; Boone, Robert



Rural Youth Education Project: First Wave  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, the Center for Rural Pennsylvania contracted with Pennsylvania State University to begin a longitudinal study of rural Pennsylvania school students to understand their future aspirations, the factors influencing these aspirations, whether their plans change as they age, and if they attain their goals and plans. The main research questions…

Center for Rural Pennsylvania, 2006



Rural Youth Education Project: Second Wave  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, the Center for Rural Pennsylvania contracted with Pennsylvania State University to begin a longitudinal study of rural Pennsylvania school students to understand their educational and career aspirations and the factors influencing their aspirations, whether their plans change as they age and if they attain their goals. In its entirety,…

McLaughlin, Diane K.; Demi, Mary Ann; Curry, Alisha; Snyder, Anastasia R.



Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighteen papers about education, training, and extension in rural areas of the developing world are presented in this 1975 journal published jointly by three United Nations agencies closely concerned with education and rural development: Food and Agriculture Organization; Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; International Labor…

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).


Rural Poverty & Education: A Foundational Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991, after 25 workers died in a fire in a rural North Carolina poultry-processing plant, reporters exposed the exploitation that workers had endured and the company's callous disregard for workers' safety. This paper draws on the story of the fire and its victims to challenge some popular assumptions about poverty in general; rural poverty in…

Books, Sue


Rural Conditions and Trends, 1990-1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The five volumes of Rural Conditions and Trends for 1990-1994 contain information and statistical data on economic and social conditions and trends of interest to rural educators and researchers. Articles cover the following areas: macroeconomic trends; employment; unemployment; industry; earnings; income; poverty; population; national economic…

Rural Conditions and Trends, 1994



Rural retailing: a sector in decline?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to review dynamic forms of rural retailing, by location, that have innovated through a mixture of actions leading to growth, adaptation, diversification and differentiation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Reviews relevant academic literature and draws upon contemporary policy-related material that details recent innovation within the sector. A rural retail typology by location is presented: retailing within market towns,

Andrew Paddison; Eric Calderwood



Creative Writing in the Rural School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural school students need ample opportunities to engage in creative writing, particularly the writing of poetry. A student teacher and a cooperating teacher in a rural fifth-grade classroom (with 12 students) guided the students in the writing of limericks by starting out with couplets, then triplets, and then limericks. The teacher had clearly…

Ediger, Marlow


Rural poverty and agricultural performance in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines time series evidence on rural poverty over the past two decades. The time series shows that the incidence of poverty fluctuates in response to variations in real agricultural output per head, but there is no significant time trend. There is a statistically significant inverse relationship between rural poverty and agricultural performance for India as a whole, suggesting

Montek S. Ahluwalia



Connections for Life in Rural Northern California.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the North Coast Rural Challenge Network (NCRCN), a collaborative of four rural school districts in Northern California that works with businesses and communities to create project-based learning experiences for students. Discusses the use of technology including videoconferencing, Internet connections, Web sites, and e-mail, and gives…

Rivero, Victor



Rural Idaho Family Physicians' Scope of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Scope of practice is an important factor in both training and recruiting rural family physicians. Purpose: To assess rural Idaho family physicians' scope of practice and to examine variations in scope of practice across variables such as gender, age and employment status. Methods: A survey instrument was developed based on a literature…

Baker, Ed; Schmitz, David; Epperly, Ted; Nukui, Ayaka; Miller, Carissa Moffat



Expenditures on Children by Rural Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1960 to 2000, total expenses to rear a rural child to age 18 increased in real terms. Food expenses decreased, but child care and educational expenses increased more. Details are presented on child-rearing expenditures by low-, middle-, and higher-income rural and urban families on housing, food, transportation, clothing, health care, child…

Lino, Mark



Rural Schools: Off the Beaten Path  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the second of a two-part series on how schools in different types of communities meet the challenge of implementing technology. The emergence of technology as a critical component of education has presented rural districts with an invaluable tool for overcoming the problems created by sparse and remote populations. But rural

Gordon, Dan



Quality management of rural and urban planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural and urban planning encompasses applied, natural, social sciences and the initial study by people from all involved disciplines. The inter-discipline human resource and geographic information system management integration can help resolve conflict while working toward a common project goal in community, quality management, rural and urban development. Quality management can be made easier through the adaptation of GIS information

Dung-Hai Liang; Peirchyi Lii; Dong-Shong Liang



Digital inclusion in Chilean in rural schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes conditions for improving digital inclusion in Chilean rural schools, using a multidimensional definition of digital divide. Using qualitative and quantitative data, we focus on teacher's skills, access to communication, Internet connection and expectations regarding the Internet in rural schools. We obtained data from interviews and surveys applied to teachers, students, principals and technology coordinators. Results show that

Jaime Sánchez; Blanco Encalada



Strengthening the rural medical workforce: understanding gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 4 5 This change makes it urgent that we develop a systematic understanding of how women are engaging in rural practice in Australia alongside their male colleagues. The study reported in this paper contributes substantially to that understanding by documenting approaches to sustainable rural practice taken by women, and how these differ from those taken by men. Locating women's

Jo Wainer; Roger Strasser; Lexia Bryant


Alaska's Rural Early Intervention Preservice Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To address the shortage of qualified early interventionists for young rural children with disabilities, the University of Alaska Fairbanks developed a Master's program that used distance education at remote practicum sites during fall and spring and on-campus instruction during the summer. The program has fostered university-rural community…

Ryan, Susan



Rural migration in southern Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.



Rural trauma challenges in Alaska.  


Rural trauma during winter months in Alaska requires a coordinated highly skilled approach for rescue, recovery, resuscitation, and transport to distant tertiary care centers. Clinicians in this state face travel delays, extreme weather conditions, and unique transport scenarios. Early assessment and resuscitation may focus more on minimizing delays than on the traditional ABCs of emergency medicine. Clinical evaluation and treatment is also impacted by subzero temperatures, hypothermia, and prolonged exposure. Mechanical and equipment malfunctions can complicate decisions and further add to the challenges faced by medical teams who respond and deliver care in the vast wilderness of this state. PMID:23089663

Artuso, Christie E



Improving rural access to emergency physicians.  


The recent Institute of Medicine report entitled The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System acknowledges workforce issues in rural America but does not adequately address the current shortage of emergency medicine residency-trained and board-certified emergency physicians in rural America. Areas worthy of further attention to ameliorate this threat include 1) government and hospital support of emergency medicine resident educational debt load, 2) modification of residency review committee for emergency medicine guidelines to permit modified training programs that are rural focused, and 3) support of pilot projects designed to modify the delivery of rural emergency care under remote supervision by academic medical center-based practitioners. The authors discuss these potential solutions to help guide policy makers seeking to enhance rural emergency care delivery through a stronger emergency medicine workforce. PMID:17470904

Handel, Daniel A; Hedges, Jerris R




Microsoft Academic Search

Con el paso del tiempo podemos ir comprobando cómo Internet va adquiriendo mayor relevancia y presencia en nuestra sociedad. Lo que hace apenas diez años era todavía una embrionaria red universal de comunicación de acceso aún muy restringido, es hoy el mayor desarrollo telemático jamás creado -con un índice de empleo y consumo, en continuo crecimiento, de cientos de millones



Teacher Education in Rural Schooling--A Status Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports results of a survey of the teacher training offerings of 56 universities in states with large rural populations. Notes that although many graduates found employment in rural schools, training programs did not always incorporate the needs of rural educators. Describes needs, implications, and suggestions for educating rural teachers. (SB)

Nelson, Murry R.




E-print Network

MINISTERIO DE MEDIO AMBIENTE Y MEDIO RURAL Y MARINO 5ECRETAl'JA GEN~RAL DE MEDIO RURAL DIRECCIÓN Medio Natural y Política Forestal (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino Política Forestal (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino) en el marco del Inven- tario

Moreno Saiz, Juan Carlos


Urban-Rural Disparities in Injury Mortality in China, 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Urban-rural disparity is an important issue for injury control in China. Details of the urban-rural disparities in fatal injuries have not been analyzed. Purpose: To target key injury causes that most contribute to the urban-rural disparity, we decomposed total urban-rural differences in 2006 injury mortality by gender, age, and cause.…

Hu, Guoqing; Baker, Susan P.; Baker, Timothy D.



The U.S. Department of Education's Rural Education Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 1982 creation of United States Department of Education's Intra-Agency Committee on Rural Education. Summarizes 10 rural policy initiatives proposed in "Rural Education and Rural Family Education Policy for the 80s." Lists major accomplishments/strategies including conferences, annual reports, and information network. Outlines Fiscal Year…

Marshall, Robert



The Problems and Path Thinking of China's Rural Logistics Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces seasonal characteristic, scattered characteristic and diversified characteristic of rural logistics in China, developing rural logistics is significant to increasing farmers' income, promoting life quality, reducing cost of agricultural products, increasing job opportunities and quickening the process of urbanization. This paper also analyzes the Status quo and existing problems of China's rural logistics as follows. China's rural logistics,

Rui Jiao; Xiaoqiong Yu



The ROOTS Program: Rural Opportunities Offer Tomorrow's Success. Program Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Opportunities Offer Tomorrow's Success (ROOTS) program is a series of policy initiatives which address problem areas in rural education, economic development, health care, and access to programs in Pennsylvania. Policy initiatives to create a better educated rural workforce include: (1) expanding career and financial counseling in rural

Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.


Toward a More Holistic Evaluation Approach for Rural Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discussion on and development of a holistic evaluation approach for rural development will be indispensable to improving and enriching the lives of rural people. This approach can be developed by considering the conceptualization of community policy structure in rural areas, the localization of policy structure in the rural community, and the…

Miyoshi, Koichi



Quality of Diabetes Mellitus Care by Rural Primary Care Physicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To explore the relationship between degree of rurality and glucose (hemoglobin A1c), blood pressure (BP), and lipid (LDL) control among patients with diabetes. Methods: Descriptive study; 1,649 patients in 205 rural practices in the United States. Patients' residence ZIP codes defined degree of rurality (Rural-Urban Commuting Areas…

Tonks, Stephen A.; Makwana, Sohil; Salanitro, Amanda H.; Safford, Monika M.; Houston, Thomas K.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Curry, William; Estrada, Carlos A.



Digital Development in Rural Areas: Potentials and Pitfalls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on rural-urban differences in access to telecommunications technology suggest that the U.S. "digital divide" is diminishing. However, major shortcomings in telecommunications infrastructure persist in rural America, and more serious barriers to rural development are related to human capital shortages. These may be resolved in some rural areas…

Malecki, Edward J.



Sources of Inequities in Rural America: Implications for Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper identifies the basic factors affecting rural development and the social consequences of rural policies and structural changes in agriculture; it also suggests research areas relating some of these factors to what is happening in America's rural communities. Data sources such as congressional hearings, rural sociologists' critiques,…

Fujimoto, Isao; Zone, Martin



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Rural-Specific Concerns and Strategies in the Budget Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nationally, rural students represent about a quarter of all students attending public school; nearly a third of all schools are located in rural areas. Those rural schools and students have a number of unique characteristics and needs. For example, the smaller size of many rural schools and districts can sometimes lead to per-pupil expenditures…

Johnson, Jerry; Malhoit, Greg; Shope, Shane



Character of rural highway accident and safety policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural highway traffic accident data collected by survey of 9 counties in 3 different provinces in China are studied. The studies show there are six special characters of rural highway traffic accidents. In rural highway the vehicle type is more complex and the large proportion of vehicle is unlicensed. Most accidents happened in 2 and 3 class road in rural

Chuanjiao Sun; Jiangang Gao



The experience of general nurses in rural Australian emergency departments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia is a geographically unique country with large areas classed as rural. Nurses providing emergency care in rural hospitals face a number of challenges, with rural communities expecting multi-skilled nurses, prepared for a wide range of unannounced situations. Using a mixed method approach, involving questionnaires and focus groups, the study was undertaken in two rural health services in Victoria, Australia.

Tracy Kidd; Amanda Kenny; Terri Meehan-Andrews


Improving Rural Cancer Patients' Outcomes: A Group-Randomized Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant barriers exist in the delivery of state-of-the-art cancer care to rural populations. Rural providers' knowledge and practices, their rural health care delivery systems, and linkages to cancer specialists are not optimal; therefore, rural cancer patient outcomes are less than achievable. Purpose: To test the effects of a strategy…

Elliott, Thomas E.; Elliott, Barbara A.; Regal, Ronald R.; Renier, Colleen M.; Haller, Irina V.; Crouse, Byron J.; Witrak, Martha T.; Jensen, Patricia B.



Rural Adult Learners: An Emerging Clientele for Continuing Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1975 a reverse in rural to urban migration has created an increasing population of rural adults who require the availability of continuing education programs; 28.8 % of the population now resides in rural areas. Although characteristics of urban and rural populations differ significantly, both have similar continuing education needs. In…

Barker, Bruce


The Carter Administration: Small Community and Rural Development Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Carter Administration is adopting a Small Community and Rural Development Policy because: (1) rural America's human and natural resources are a mainstay of the nation's economy and way of life; (2) many rural areas are in the midst of significant economic and demographic change; (3) rural people and communities have greater unmet basic human…

Carter, Jimmy


Gender and Rural Employment: A View from Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper focuses on women employment in rural areas and its impacts in food security. The presentation includes data on rural women employment and its different labour strategies: temporary work, non agriculture rural employment and permanent rural employment. Poverty alleviation and its impact on families as well as implications in the economic…

Ballara, Marcela



Rural Difference: A Challenge for Beginning Teachers. Monograph Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Australia, many teachers begin their careers in rural schools, a posting for which they are often ill-prepared. This book addresses the concerns of beginning teachers or other teachers about to take up rural appointments. The first chapter examines the context of rural schools, differentiates between "rural education" (education tailored to the…

Higgins, Andrew H.


Rural Sociological Research in the South: An Historical Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper identifies and describes development of rural sociological research in the southern United States. It traces the emergence of rural sociology as a discipline from recognition of problems of rural life in the early 1900's, points out that the northern United States predominated in early research, and discusses why early rural

Bertrand, Alvin L.


Global Climate Change: Opinions and Perceptions of Rural Nebraskans  

E-print Network

Global Climate Change: Opinions and Perceptions of Rural Nebraskans 2008 Nebraska Rural Poll that they understand the issue of global climate change either fairly or very well. #12;Most rural Nebraskans believe climate change is already happening. #12;Most rural Nebraskans believe that our actions contribute

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of


State Council Resolutions on Further Strengthening Rural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several resolutions on strengthening work in rural education have been made in order to accelerate development of rural education in China, deepen reform of rural education, guarantee a well-off society, and harmonize rural and urban development. This article presents a detailed plan of actions for each resolution. The resolutions are enumerated…

Chinese Education and Society, 2005



Rural tourism and visitors' expenditures for local food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skuras D., Dimara E. and Petrou A (2006) Rural tourism and visitors' expenditures for local food products, Regional Studies40, 769–779. European rural development policy has supported the production of local and regionally denominated food as a means to differentiate agricultural production, and rural tourism as a means to diversify rural employment. The aim of the present work is to address

Dimitris Skuras; Efthalia Dimara; Anastasia Petrou



Influence of Industrialization in the Campinas Rural Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Campinas region of Brazil was studied to determine if the introduction of industrial plants in rural areas influenced the life of the rural population. The purpose of this study was to obtain an insight into the manner by which the industrialization influence is functioning in the Campinas rural area. The region and its rural population were…

Ferrari, Alfonso Trujillo


The Relationship of Rurality and Education Accountability Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines accountability outcomes of Tennessee school districts, comparing rural versus urban districts and litigant versus nonlitigant districts from a 1993 fiscal equity lawsuit. School districts were assigned a measure of rurality using the Cleland Rurality Index, and comparisons were made among the 29 low-rurality districts, 66…

Peevely, Gary; Ray, John R.


Rural practice as a desired career option for health professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural communities are faced with many social, economic and cultural challenges all of which impact on the viability of the community. Globalisation has indirectly resulted in the decline of the rural sector, a net loss in circulating money in many rural communities and changed community demographics. Young people move from rural communities out of necessity to more populous centres which

Karen Francis; Debra Bell; Margaret Mcleod; Fran White; Gabrielle O'Kane


Graphing Calculators and Learning Styles in Rural and Non-Rural High Schools. Working Paper No. 23  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine rural and non-rural students in order to understand similarities and differences between their learning styles and the ease with which they learned Algebra with a graphic calculator. Two samples of students, one from a rural high school and one from a non-rural one, answered a survey asking about their…

Alfonso, Zully; Long, Vena




Microsoft Academic Search

Taking into account the fact that more than half the residents of the European Union live in rural areas that cover 90% of the whole territory, the development of rural life is of vital importance. In rural areas, land is mainly used for farming and forestry, which therefore play an important role in the life of rural communities, being a

Eve Tomson


Orientation of IMGs: a rural evaluation.  


Successful orientation and continued support for international medical graduates (IMGs) and their families might improve the retention of doctors in the rural medical workforce to the benefit of rural communities. Divisions of general practice are in an ideal position to coordinate orientation and continued support for new rural IMGs, as they are familiar with the local medical scene and with existing supports for families of doctors living in the area. The Eyre Peninsula Division of General Practice in South Australia evaluated the orientation received by new IMGs who had come to work in this division between 1998 and 2003, to find ways of improving orientation for future IMGs. PMID:15931408

Carlier, Neville; Carlier, Meredith; Bisset, Glenys



Ethical challenges of practicing in rural areas.  


Mental health professionals practicing in rural areas face ethical dilemmas different from those experienced by their urban counterparts and may find that the existing ethics literature and American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) ethics code not particularly helpful. We highlight parts of five standards from the APA ethics code to illustrate the dilemmas rural practitioners frequently confront and offer suggestions for how to handle them. We discuss competence, human relations, and confidentiality as specific areas and then examine assessment and therapy as broader situations in which dilemmas may occur. We use case examples to highlight complications that may arise in rural areas. PMID:20222121

Werth, James L; Hastings, Sarah L; Riding-Malon, Ruth



Rural electric cooperatives IRP survey  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the integrated resource planning (IRP) practices of US rural electric cooperatives and the IRP policies which influence these practices. It was prepared by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and its subcontractor Garrick and Associates to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in satisfying the reporting requirements of Title 1, Subtitle B, Section 111(e)(3) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), which states: (e) Report--Not later than 2 years after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary (of the US Department of Energy) shall transmit a report to the President and to the Congress containing--(the findings from several surveys and evaluations, including:); (3) a survey of practices and policies under which electric cooperatives prepare IRPs, submit such plans to REA, and the extent to which such integrated resource planning is reflected in rates charged to customers.

Garrick, C. [Garrick and Associates, Morrison, CO (United States)



Differences in cardiovascular risk factors in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo assess differences in cardiovascular risk profiles among rural-to-urban migrants and non-migrant groups.MethodsCross-sectional study in Ayacucho and Lima, Peru. Participants were: rural (n=201); rural-to-urban migrants (n=589); and urban (n=199). Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed according to migrant status (migrants vs non-migrants), age at first migration, length of residency in an urban area and lifetime exposure to an urban area.ResultsFor most

J Jaime Miranda; Robert H Gilman; Liam Smeeth



Sex education in rural schools in the United States: impact of rural educators' community identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The overall purpose of this exploratory research was to better understand rural educators' feelings about school?based sex education in order to foster better communication and collaboration between prevention researchers and rural teachers and administrators. In order to accomplish this purpose, the research question asked ‘How does perceived community identity influence rural educators' decisions regarding school?based sex education?’Methods: Qualitative interviews



A Comparison of Mental Health, Substance Use, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Between Rural and Non-Rural Transgender Persons  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to compare the mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors of rural and non-rural transgender persons. Online banner advertisements were used to recruit 1,229 self-identified rural and non-rural transgender adults (18+ years) residing in the United States. Primary findings include significant differences in mental health between rural and non-rural transmen; relatively low levels of binge drinking across groups, although high levels of marijuana use; and high levels of unprotected sex among transwomen. The results confirm that mental and physical health services for transgender persons residing in rural areas are urgently needed. PMID:24380580




Una nota a las Historias de Dragún  

E-print Network

irrupción, en el argumento central, de una acción paralela: una representación dentro del teatro de otra pieza de teatro. Se ha dicho que este mecanismo de "la obra dentro de la obra," sugiere desde la literatura una contaminación de la realidad por la...

Ortega, Julio



Lives of rural women after myocardial infarction.  


This study examines the influences of rurality on the lives of women post-myocardial infarction (MI). Using a critical ethnographic approach, the researchers analyze in-depth interviews with 12 women from southwestern Ontario, Canada, for the ways in which their experiences were related to social, political, and cultural forces associated with rurality. Data analysis revealed 4 themes: reticence, characterized by a tendency to minimize worry and accept one's life post-MI; referral games, or the challenges associated with accessing tertiary care; resourcefulness in managing one's recovery; and relationships, with rural health professionals and institutions being highly valued. The findings have relevance for nurses in both rural and urban settings who care for women post-MI and form a basis for supporting and building culturally specific post-MI care. PMID:15887765

Caldwell, Patricia; Arthur, Heather M; Rideout, Elizabeth



Speed Trends on Indiana Rural Interstate Highways  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report includes calendar years 1983 through 1989, and is the second speed survey made exclusively of rural interstate data. All data were retrieved from locations that have been exempted from the 55 MPH Speed Compliance Certification Program.\\u000aThe results of this study show that all vehicles on all Indiana rural interstate highways, had an average speed of 65.6 mph

David L. Cochran



Can broadband access rescue the rural economy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Government is promoting broadband for all, and specifically, is advocating business up-take of broadband that affords high-speed internet activity, to foster global competitiveness. Urban areas have economies of scale and the effect on price of concentration of demand. Rural areas do not, and potential broadband provision is thus problematic. The paper aims to study technology roll-out in rural

Laura Galloway



Wireless rural communication systems for developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes briefly a low cost TDM\\/TDMA point to multipoint (PMP) system, which has been designed jointly by C-DOT and the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. The TDM\\/TDMA PMP rural radio system has been designed to provide telecommunication facilities in rural areas where subscriber density and traffic are low. The system can be configured to provide two types of applications, one

B. D. Pradhan



Induced abortion: What's happening in rural Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study was done in rural Bangladesh among the women seeking abortion-related care at six health facilities in two rural sub-districts of Bangladesh in 1996–1997. It looked at contraceptive use, why women had abortions, who made the abortion decision, who provided the abortions, the complications of abortion that developed, where and how soon the women sought treatment. A majority

Shameem Ahmed; Ariful Islam; Parveen A. Khanum



Are rural health professionals also social entrepreneurs?  


Social entrepreneurs formally or informally generate community associations and networking that produces social outcomes. Social entrepreneurship is a relatively new and poorly understood concept. Policy promotes generating community activity, particularly in rural areas, for health and social benefits and 'community resilience'. Rural health professionals might be well placed to generate community activity due to their status and networks. This exploratory study, conducted in rural Tasmania and the Highlands and Islands of Scotland considered whether rural health professionals act as social entrepreneurs. We investigated activities generated and processes of production. Thirty-eight interviews were conducted with general practitioners, community nurses, primary healthcare managers and allied health professionals living and working rurally. Interviewees were self-selecting responders to an invitation for rural health professionals who were 'formally or informally generating community associations or networking that produced social outcomes'. We found that rural health professionals initiated many community activities with social outcomes, most related to health. Their identification of opportunities related to knowledge of health needs and examples of initiatives seen elsewhere. Health professionals described ready access to useful people and financial resources. In building activities, health professionals could simultaneously utilise skills and knowledge from professional, community member and personal dimensions. Outcomes included social and health benefits, personal 'buzz' and community capacity. Health professionals' actions could be described as social entrepreneurship: identifying opportunities, utilising resources and making 'deals'. They also align with community development. Health professionals use contextual knowledge to envisage and grow activities, indicating that, as social entrepreneurs, they do not explicitly choose a social mission, rather they act within their known world-view. Policymakers could consider ways to engage rural health professionals as social entrepreneurs, in helping to produce resilient communities. PMID:19783086

Farmer, Jane; Kilpatrick, Sue



Rural Scholars or Bright Rednecks? Aspirations for a Sense of Place among Rural Youth in Appalachia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the attitudes of academically gifted rural students with those of their classmates with regard to their communities and their aspirations for a sense of place. Although West Virginia, a largely rural state in Appalachia, is considered by outsiders as a place of deprivation, despair, and backwardness, an aspiration for a sense…

Howley, Craig; And Others


Rural Studies in Teacher Education From Innovation to Stablization. Summary of the Symposium on Rural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to an evaluation symposium, the David Thompson University Centre (University of Victoria) pilot program in rural education, which includes a 14-week early field experience designed to help education students understand the relationship between rural communities and their schools, is "substantial and outstanding." Faculty, students, field…

Oswald, Donna M.; And Others


Toward the 21st Century: A Rural Education Anthology. Rural School Development Outreach Project. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anthology focuses on rural education improvement that will prepare students for the 21st century. Articles address issues related to school funding, educational technology, curriculum offerings, state and federal policies, the role of rural teachers and administrators in school reform, cultural diversity, and changing socioeconomic factors in…

Karim, Gordon P., Ed.; Weate, Nathan James, Ed.


Rural Sociology in the South: 1972. Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section, Association of Southern Agricultural Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers presented in this collection are said to represent the major thrusts of research and other scholarly activities of rural sociologists in the South in 1972. Arranged in the order of their presentation at the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Agricultural Workers meetings, these papers discuss such topics as youth, social change in…

Voland, Maurice E., Ed.


Why Rural Matters 2003: The Continuing Need for Every State To Take Action on Rural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance and urgency of rural education to each state was assessed using seven and nine indicators, respectively. The Mid-South Delta, central Appalachia, coastal Southeast, the north Plains, and northern New England emerged as priority rural education regions. The most important urgency indicators were teacher salaries, computer use, school…

Beeson, Elizabeth; Strange, Marty



Economic Growth, Rural Educational Investment and the Level and Distribution of Rural Incomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines two related questions. First, it estimates the effect of growth in the demand for skilled and unskilled labor on rural household incomes and the rural wage structure. Second, it examines the effect of growth in household incomes and in labor market returns to education on household educational investment. The…

Badiani, Reena Chandu



Relational Rurals: Some Thoughts on Relating Things and Theory in Rural Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers how shifts within the social sciences towards conceptualising spatiality in relational terms have unfolded in rural studies in particular ways over the past decade or so. A period in which networks, connections, flows and mobility have all established themselves as compelling conceptual frames for research, the rural has…

Heley, Jesse; Jones, Laura



Early Development of Low-Income Rural Appalachian Children. Rural Health Monograph Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Appalachian Infant Temperament Project followed a group of 80 low-income rural Appalachian children from birth to kindergarten, focusing on two areas of child development: social/emotional functioning and cognitive skills. Subjects were recruited at a Lincoln County, West Virginia, clinic; all were white; and 73 percent had family…

Fish, Margaret; Jacquet, Ellen; Frye, Hadassah


A Preceptorship Model for Nurses in Rural Health Care Facilities. Rural Education Research Series No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a preceptorship model that provides student nurses with clinical practice in rural health facilities. The development and implementation of a preceptorship model reflects a partnership between nursing education and nursing service--between the urban nursing school and the rural hospital. A five-stage preceptorship model is…

Pottinger, M. Enid


The role of urban?to?rural remittances in rural development  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the effects of rural?to?urban migration is the return of money and resources by the migrants to their respective home areas. Recently, it has been argued by several authors that such remittances represent a significant means for removing supply constraints to improved productivity in agriculture. In this paper the authors examine critically the available evidence on the rural impact

Henry Rempel; Richard A. Lobdell



Re-Conceptualising Rural Resources as Countryside Capital: The Case of Rural Tourism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commentators tend to agree that the rural resource is becoming increasingly subject to pressures arising from an ever wider range of economic, social, political and environmental influences. This paper focuses on the case of rural tourism in illustrating the advantages of adopting a sustainable development approach to identifying suitable policies…

Garrod, Brian; Wornell, Roz; Youell, Ray



Health Communications in Rural America: Lessons Learned from an Arthritis Campaign in Rural Arkansas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Lack of awareness about diseases and associated risk factors could partially account for some rural health disparities. Health communications campaigns can be an effective means of increasing awareness in these areas. Purpose: To review findings and lessons learned from a rural health communications campaign. Methods: The health…

Balamurugan, Appathurai; Rivera, Mark; Sutphin, Kim; Campbell, Debbie



Rural Medical Service Funding: Issues and Alternatives. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By almost any definition, rural America has been medically underserved. This bibliography includes materials available from the National Agricultural Library's (NAL) Rural Information Center. The listed materials include approximately 36 books and monographs, 106 articles, and the names and addresses of 17 related associations. Certain local…

Kane, John D. H., III, Comp.; Leuci, Mary Simon, Comp.


Are Rural Gang Members Similar to Their Urban Peers? Implications for Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated factors associated with gang involvement among rural and urban adolescents using data from a sample of 1,183 Nevada students in grades 7 through 12. There was no significant difference in gang membership or pressure to join gangs between the rural and urban samples, but there were differences on other gang and violence indicators.…

Evans, William P.; Fitzgerald, Carla; Weigel, Dan; Chvilicek, Sarah



Revitalizing Rural Washington: Report and Recommendations of the Governor's Task Force on Rural Affairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing that urban and rural problems are interconnected, the Governor's Advisory Council on Urban Affairs (State of Washington), made a recommendation that led to formation (in 1970) of the Task Force on Rural Affairs. The report of that task force identifies the continuing technological revolution in agriculture as an important cause of (1)…

Governor's Task Force on Rural Affairs, Olympia, WA.


Orthopedic Surgery in Rural American Hospitals: A Survey of Rural Hospital Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural American residents prefer to receive their medical care locally. Lack of specific medical services in the local community necessitates travel to a larger center which is less favorable. This study was done to identify how rural hospitals choose to provide orthopedic surgical services to their communities. Methods: All hospitals in 5 states…

Weichel, Derek




EPA Science Inventory

RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTH STUDY Allison L. Naleway*, Nancy L. Sprince?, Erik R. Svendsen?, Ann M. Stromquist?, James A. Merchant? *Marshfield Medical Research and Education Foundation, Marshfield, WI; ?University of Iowa Co...


Understanding Contexts of Family Violence in Rural, Farming Communities: Implications for Rural Women's Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on family violence in rural communities in Australia and Canada has shown that women's experience of family violence is shaped by social and cultural factors. Concern for economic security and inheritance for children, closeness and belonging, and values of family unity and traditional gender roles are factors in rural communities that…

Wendt, Sarah; Hornosty, Jennie



Rural Health Services Funding: A Resource Guide. Revised Edition. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 41.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the collapse of health care services in many rural areas in recent years, rural health care providers are developing new strategies to meet the needs of their communities and are working creatively to maximize resources. Much of that effort has been enhanced with financial and technical assistance from federal, state, and private…

Towner, Sarah R., Comp.


How Does Degree of Rurality Impact the Provision of Surgical Services at Rural Hospitals?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Rural residents frequently have decreased access to surgical services. Consequences of this situation include increased travel time and financial costs for patients. There are also economic implications for hospitals as they may lose revenue when patients leave the area in order to obtain surgical services. Rural communities vary in size…

Doty, Brit; Zuckerman, Randall; Finlayson, Samuel; Jenkins, Paul; Rieb, Nathaniel; Heneghan, Steven




Microsoft Academic Search

The continued transfer of agricultural labor into the industrial sector is crucial to China's transformation into an industrial economy. We argue in this paper that rural industry offers an alternative to urban industry for receiving agricultural labor from areas without off-farm employment opportunities. Characteristics of rural industry differ from their urban counterparts. These characteristics may serve to shape the growth

Bryan Lohmar; Scott Rozelle; Changbao Zhao




Microsoft Academic Search

The continued transfer of agricultural labor into the industrial sector is crucial to China's transformation into an industrial economy. We argue in this paper that rural industry offers an alternative to urban industry for employing agricultural labor from areas without off-farm employment opportunities. Characteristics of rural industry differ from their urban counterparts. These characteristics may serve to shape the growth

Bryan LOHMAR; Scott ROZELLE; Changbao ZHAO



Rural Women's Transitions to Motherhood: Understanding Social Support in a Rural Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social support protects women from various negative consequences, yet we have little understanding of how rural women acquire and utilize social support. Using interviews of 24 women in a North Dakota community, this research sought to understand how rural women were supported as new mothers. One, familial women and partners were vital supports to…

Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Weaver, Addie; Schommer, Kathryn



The Changing American Countryside: Rural People and Places. Series: Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interdisciplinary collection of 26 readings in rural studies aims to address the paucity of information and absence of informed people to advise public debate about rural issues. Sections of the book examine the pastoral tradition in literature; the changing nature of the countryside; money, jobs, and space; distress and poverty; regional and…

Castle, Emery N., Ed.


Science and Technology of Rural Transport System. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1…

Nagaraj, D. N.; Satheesh, H. L.


A Rural Road: Exploring Economic Opportunity, Social Networks, Services and Supports That Affect Rural Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the unique conditions affecting quality of life for low-income rural children and their families in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Qualitative data were gathered from 11 focus groups conducted in a variety of rural communities, including tribal reservations, across the three states, and from interviews with professional…

Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.


Population Trends in Rural Downstate Illinois. Rural Research Report. Volume 22, Issue 4, Fall 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural areas are undergoing a significant transition with both opportunities and challenges that will require effective management and investment strategies by all levels of government. Since 2007, the recession has magnified long-term shifts in employment and economic activity, especially in rural areas. The employment structure continues to…

Walzer, Norman; Harger, Brian L.



Rural Africana. Current Research in the Social Sciences -- No. 17, Rural Health in Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is one in a series devoted to current research in the social sciences, exploring the problems of social and economic development in rural Africa south of the Sahara. Each issue focuses on a specific problem. This document covers rural health in Africa. The 13 papers are divided into 4 sections: (1) cultural, economic, and political…

Messing, Simon D., Ed.; And Others


Deregulation and the Structure of Rural Financial Markets. Rural Development Research Report Number 75.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in rural financial markets as affected by bank deregulation have a potential impact on rural educational finance, specifically, financial aid programs for students and schools. Banking legislation and regulation changes have aimed to strengthen the industry and to provide consumers with more services and more choices among providers.…

Milkove, Daniel L.; Sullivan, Patrick J.


Toward Rural Prosperity: A State Policy Framework in Support of Rural Community Colleges. Policy Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In six policy areas, states can better equip rural community colleges to serve their communities. In the area of economic and community development, states can use rural community colleges to promote community development efforts and service learning and to provide small business assistance and entrepreneurship education. States can improve access…

Chesson, J. Parker, Jr.; Rubin, Sarah


Preventive Health Education Needs Among Rural Farm and Rural Nonfarm Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on heart disease and cancer, the study compared the preventive health education needs of farm and nonfarm rural adults. During July and August 1975, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 57 men and 161 women living in Armstrong and Butler Counties, Pennsylvania. The sample included 119 commercial farm households and 99 rural nonfarm…

Leadley, Samuel M.; And Others


Rural Scholars or Bright Rednecks? Aspirations for a Sense of Place Among Rural Youth in Appalachia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we promote sense ofplace as a legitimate aspiration of rural youth, including very able rural youth. The aspiration concerns the quest for rootedness and community as opposed to mobility and individual status. We con­ ducted exploratory analyses ofdata gatheredfrom 158 participants in the 1994 West VirginiaGovernor's Honors Acad­ emy (GHA) andfroma contrasting group of644 students in seven

Craig B. Howley; Hobart L. Harmon; Gregory D. Leopold



76 FR 30904 - Rural Utilities Service Telecommunications Loan and Loan Guarantee Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUMMARY: Rural Development's Rural Utilities Service (RUS) and its predecessor, the Rural Electrification Administration, (REA) have played a leading role in helping rural America gain access to advanced telecommunications systems, equipment and...



76 FR 3605 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications (NOSA) for Inviting Rural Business Enterprise Grant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of...Rural Transportation Systems AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA...Universal Numbering System (DUNS) number...Rural Business--Cooperative Service. [FR...



78 FR 40092 - Inviting Rural Business Enterprise Grant Program Applications for Grants To Provide Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Rural Business-Cooperative Service Inviting...Rural Transportation Systems AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA...registered in the System for Award Management...Rural Business-Cooperative Service. [FR...



77 FR 4986 - Inviting Rural Business Enterprise Grant Program Applications for Grants To Provide Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Rural Business-Cooperative Service Inviting...Rural Transportation Systems AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA...Universal Number System (DUNS) number...Rural Business-Cooperative Service. [FR...



The Rural Context of Illicit Substance Offers: A Study of Appalachian Rural Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Rural adolescents are at risk for early initiation and problematic substance use, but to date few studies have examined the rural context of substance use. To better understand substance offers in the rural context, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 118, 12-19 year old adolescents (M = 13.68, SD = 1.37) from Appalachian, rural school districts in Pennsylvania and Ohio. Interviews elicited stories about substance offer-response episodes including where offers occurred, who offered substances, and how youth gained access to illicit substances. Findings describe the settings in which substance offers and use occur for these rural adolescents and advance prevention efforts for tailoring health messages to this target population. PMID:25620838

Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.



Downstaging cancer in rural Africa.  


Cancer is usually diagnosed late in rural Africa leading to incurability and abbreviated survival. Many curable cancers present on the body surface, often recognizable early by laymen as suspicious, justifying professional referral. Cancer diagnoses in two randomly chosen Tanzanian villages were compared after conventional dispensary self-referral vs. proactive visits in the home. Village navigators organized trips for professional consultation. In the control village 21% were self-referred, 20% of them were sent on as suspicious, 78% had cancer (8% in men) 0.9% of the village population. In the intervention village 99% were screened, 14% were referred for professional opinion, 93% had cancer (32% in men) 1.6% (p?

Ngoma, Twalib; Mandeli, John; Holland, James F



7 CFR 1951.136 - Procedures for Department of Treasury offset and cross-servicing for the Rural Housing Service...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Program only) and the Rural Business-Cooperative Service. 1951.136 Section 1951...RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...Program only) and the Rural Business-Cooperative Service. (a) The National...



Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n…

Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.




E-print Network

SECTION 595 ­ WRDA 1999, AS AMENDED IDAHO, MONTANA, RURAL NEVADA, NEW MEXICO, RURAL UTAH I.J. of the agreement to increase the program limits for Idaho, rural Nevada, and rural Utah-Federal interests in Idaho, Montana, rural Nevada, New Mexico, rural Utah, and Wyoming pursuant to Section 595

US Army Corps of Engineers


Job satisfaction among rural physician assistants.  


Because increasing numbers of physicians are being trained in specialized medicine, health professional shortage areas remain common in the United States, and the role of physician assistants (PAs) in health services provision is becoming increasingly important, especially in rural and underserved areas. By most accounts, there is a shortage of PAs in the United States, particularly in rural areas. A nationwide survey was conducted in 1994 to determine what attracted PAs to rural settings and what they found satisfying about their work and community. This study involved a random sample of 1,263 PAs who practiced in rural (nonmetropolitan) areas of the United States. A 15-item scale was developed to measure job satisfaction. A statistical model was tested for its ability to predict levels of job satisfaction using multiple regression analysis. Independent variables included demographics, practice, and community factors. Findings indicated that rural PAs were generally satisfied with their work. The most significant predictors of satisfaction included practice factors (e.g., importance of autonomy and a good relationship with the supervising physician), extent of practice responsibilities (e.g., regular and on-call hours and the percentage of PAs' patient load that was not discussed with the supervising physician), and community factors (e.g., community satisfaction). PMID:9714998

Muus, K J; Geller, J M; Williams, J D; Ludtke, R L; Knowlton, D D; Hart, L G



Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas  

PubMed Central

The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J.; Hitz, Martin



Impact of the Bank's rural development lending.  


Following the global food crisis of the early 1970s, the World Bank has placed a priority on funding agriculture and rural development projects. These projects have been funded with a view to raising the productivity of low-income groups. Projects aimed at increasing the incomes of rural poor must clearly identify the target group and be designed so that they will benefit directly. Some of these Bank-funded projects have been in the following areas: 1) irrigation; 2) fertilizer; 3) general rural development, e.g., road construction and rural electrification; 4) agricultural extension; 5) credit extension in rural areas; and 6) comprehensive projects. So far, the Bank programs seem to have exerted an influence on government development policies. Experience shows, however, that expansion of the income-employment sector is limited in scope. It is evident also that poverty-oriented programs must be longer-term than more conventional programs. Real success in this field will be measured in terms of community development and self-sufficiency. PMID:12261286

Yudelman, M



Characteristics of rural bank acquisitions: a logit analysis  

E-print Network

and Urban. . . . . . 44 Table 5. Distribution of Rural Acquisitions by Proximity of BHC to Bank. . . . , . . . . . . . . Table 6. Comparison of Financial Measures Between Acquired and Non-Acquired 50 Rural Banks. 52 Table 7. Top Ten Bank Holding...

Applewhite, Jennifer Lynn



Rural hospitals: a literature synthesis and health services research agenda.  

PubMed Central

The economic decline of rural America and an inability to respond to pressures created by the evolving American health care system are making it increasingly hard for rural hospitals to survive. PMID:2645251

Moscovice, I S



Matrix to Identify Candidate Rural Transit Livability Measures Performance Measure  

E-print Network

Matrix to Identify Candidate Rural Transit Livability Measures Performance Measure Restated? Ease of Calculation? Transit Can Influence Measure Directly? Helps Identify Deficiencies In Level Of Transit Service? Measure With Existing Planning Tools? Includes Needs Of Aging And Disabled Rural


76 FR 73631 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy-oriented committee that provides policy advice, information...environmental issues and policies that are of importance...agriculture and rural communities. The purpose...



76 FR 59396 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...that are of importance to agriculture and rural communities...of unique relevance to agriculture such as effective approaches to addressing water quality issues associated...that affect and engage agriculture and rural...



76 FR 33280 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...that are of importance to agriculture and rural communities...of unique relevance to agriculture such as effective approaches to addressing water quality issues associated...that affect and engage agriculture and rural...



76 FR 11243 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...that are of importance to agriculture and rural communities...of unique relevance to agriculture such as effective approaches to addressing water quality issues associated...that affect and engage agriculture and rural...



Rural Enterprises, Incorporated report of significant activities and accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ongoing activities of Rural Enterprises, Inc. are presented. The function of Rural Enterprises is to bring innovation from its rudimentary conceptual stages to useful and productive ends by means of cooperation with government, business, and educational institutions.



Young, Rural Americans At Greater Risk of Suicide  


... JavaScript. Young, Rural Americans at Greater Risk of Suicide: Study Isolation, dearth of mental health services and ... Related MedlinePlus Pages Gun Safety Rural Health Concerns Suicide MONDAY, March 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Young people ...


Return to Old Times: Rural Romanticism in American Education History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the rural-urban dichotomy that regularly surfaces in educational history and argues that a full understanding of the role of cities is needed to overcome a rural romanticism that ill-serves public education policy. (CMG)

Warren, Donald



42 CFR 5a.3 - Definition of Underserved Rural Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01...of Underserved Rural Community. 5a.3 Section 5a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...of Underserved Rural Community. Underserved...



42 CFR 5a.3 - Definition of Underserved Rural Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01...of Underserved Rural Community. 5a.3 Section 5a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...of Underserved Rural Community. Underserved...



42 CFR 5a.3 - Definition of Underserved Rural Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01...of Underserved Rural Community. 5a.3 Section 5a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...of Underserved Rural Community. Underserved...



42 CFR 5a.3 - Definition of Underserved Rural Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01...of Underserved Rural Community. 5a.3 Section 5a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...of Underserved Rural Community. Underserved...



42 CFR 5a.3 - Definition of Underserved Rural Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01...of Underserved Rural Community. 5a.3 Section 5a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...of Underserved Rural Community. Underserved...



76 FR 37307 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...02-60; FCC 11-101] Rural Health Care Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal...discounted services under the rural health care program. Grandfathered providers...but play a key role in delivering health care services to surrounding...



77 FR 42185 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...02-60; FCC 12-74] Rural Health Care Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal...responsible basis for specific Rural Health Care Pilot Program participants that...connectivity and the resulting health care benefits that patients...



77 FR 62243 - Rural Health Network Development Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Services Administration Rural Health Network Development Program AGENCY: Health Resources...replacement award under the Rural Health Network Development Program to the Siloam information technology and perform network development activities to ensure the...



Rural Education in Nagaland: Reflections on an Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses education for rural development in India: to prepare rural children and adults to find gainful employment in developing the resources of their village, to produce, earn and procure enough for a good life for all in each village. (Author)

Coelho, S.



Empowering Women in Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

Ugbomeh, George M. M.



76 FR 38604 - Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...4284, subpart G, the Rural Business- Cooperative Service (RBS...application for single-state projects from the Rural Business Opportunity Grant (RBOG) program...awarded. For multi-state projects, grant funds of up to...



Typhoid fever in rural Haiti.  


A review was made of the clinical characteristics and evolution of all patients over 14 years old with typhoid fever who were treated at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Haiti from January 1989 through July 1991. Two hundred and seventeen patients were studied. Their most common symptoms were fever (100%), diarrhea (64.1%), and abdominal pain (51.2%). Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were rarely noted. Sixty-eight patients (31.3%) were lost to follow-up, 129 (59.4%) were cured, and 20 (9.2%) died. There was a tendency for patients who were ill longer before seeking medical assistance to experience higher mortality. The data also indicate that patients with central nervous system involvement had a less favorable prognosis than other patients. Overall, the high incidence of hospital-reported cases (74 cases per 100,000 inhabitants) shown by these and other data makes it clear that typhoid fever is a highly prevalent infection in rural Haiti. At present, it appears that the only hope for effectively controlling the disease is by educating the population at risk, not only to prevent the disease but also to seek early medical assistance after becoming infected. Typhoid fever patients with a long history of illness before consultation may have a less favorable prognosis than other patients and should be kept under close observation. In addition, any suspected typhoid fever patient with signs of central nervous system involvement should be treated promptly with high-dose steroids, besides receiving an adequate antibiotic regimen. PMID:8312961

Ollé-Goig, J E; Ruiz, L



National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety  


... Visitors | Researchers & Collaborators | Agricultural, Rural Health & Safety | Biomedical Informatics | Clinical Epidemiology & Population Health | Clinical Research | Human Genetics | Integrated ...


An earth station design for rural telecommunications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design for an earth station intended specifically for rural telephony applications is described with a discussion of overall system and satellite parameters. It is noted that higher satellite transfer gain and reduced receiver noise figure allow the use of more economical combinations of antenna size and HPA power in the rural terminal. Small-aperture earth terminals employing 3-meter antennas, 0.2 Watt transmitters, and 100-K low-noise amplifiers, designed using the integrated common equipment SCPC approach, provide substantial cost and power consumption savings over conventional designs. Specific objectives for a prototype development program are established. The integration of a satellite DAMA control system with a telephone exchange specifically designed for a small number of subscribers in a rural environment provides additional cost reduction.

Tustison, G. F.


Appropriate satellite systems for rural telecommunications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to provide a minimum, basic telecommunications service to as large a segment of the unserved rural population as possible, the system objective should be to place one or a few telephone instruments in as many localities as possible, instead of placing a larger number of subscriber instruments in fewer localities. A high value of satellite figure of merit (G/T) combined with high transponder gain would facilitate the utilization of low transmit power from the earth station; it is claimed that this would be the key to the success of an operational rural telecommunications service via satellite. It is noted that demand assigned SCPC transmission techniques are ideally suited for this service. It is concluded that, for satellite communications to provide minimum basic rural telephone service within a reasonable time span, it will be necessary to employ properly designed high-transfer-gain satellites with large production runs of small low-cost earth stations.

Nickelson, R. L.


Rural Economy and Land Use Programme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The rural landscape of England has been greatly transformed over the past few decades, and this particular research initiative based at the University of Newcastle was created in order "to investigate the social, economic, environmental and technological challenges faced by rural areas." Visitors to the site should note the main divisions, which include "Research", "Events", and "Publications/Press". For researchers and scientists, the "Publications/Press" area will be a special treat, as it features briefing papers, annual reports, and their policy series. The topics covered here are quite diverse and recent paper titles include "Eating Biodiversity: An Investigation of the Links Between Quality Food Production and Biodiversity Protection" and "The Role of Regulation in Developing Biological Alternatives to Pesticides". Policy practitioners and others working in the areas of land use planning and rural economic development will want to return to the site and check up on future developments, and it may even help those looking at comparative studies in these areas.


Education Financing of Rural Households in China.  


The purpose of this paper was to examine children's education financing alternatives among households in rural China. Data on education financing was from a household survey conducted in three poverty villages in Guizhou, China. The difference in financing education by households was verified through non-parametric testing. Findings show that private savings is dominant in financing education of children in school. Formal loans are almost absent even in the highest wealth group examined. The findings implied that the extension of financial services to children's education could motivate parents to send their children for more education, increase disposable income of rural households by reducing precautionary savings, and provide better-educated labors in rural China. PMID:20835379

Wang, Hua-Shu; Moll, Henk



Training and burn care in rural India  

PubMed Central

Burn care is a huge challenge in India, having the highest female mortality globally due to flame burns. Burns can happen anywhere, but are more common in the rural region, affecting the poor. Most common cause is flame burns, the culprit being kerosene and flammable flowing garments worn by the women. The infrastructure of healthcare network is good but there is a severe resource crunch. In order to bring a positive change, there will have to be more trained personnel willing to work in the rural areas. Strategies for prevention and training of burn team are discussed along with suggestions on making the career package attractive and satisfying. This will positively translate into improved outcomes in the burns managed in the rural region and quick transfer to appropriate facility for those requiring specialised attention. PMID:21321647

Chamania, Shobha



Rural and urban populations of China.  


In China, the percentage of urban population rose from 13.26 in 1953 to 20.6 in 1982, indicating progress in industrialization. Because China's definitions of rural and urban have changed over the years, as well as the criteria for instituting cities and towns, the development of China's rural and urban population has been inaccurately portrayed. Furthermore, different places interpret these criteria differently. Thus, problems in statistics of rural and urban populations include different criteria in 1) the number of towns, 2) the number of town inhabitants, and 3) classifying towns. The following guidelines should be used to classify cities and towns as well as urban and rural populations. The features of a city should include being a 1) center of industry, commerce, culture, education, science, transportation, and commodity interflow; 2) place where the nonagricultural population lives in compact communities; and 3) place where the nonagricultural population does not exceed 20%. The city area should not be too large; it should include 1) areas necessary for the present city construction, 2) the living quarters of workers and staff members close to the urban district, 3) the production bases of indispensable nonstaple food near an urban district, and 4) areas economically associated with it. The author defines city size types as: 1) megalopolises have over 1 million inhabitants, 2) large cities have 1/2-1 million, 3) medium-sized cities have 300-500,000, 4) small cities have below 200-300,000. In China, towns and small cities differ only in their size and leadership. To unify the statistical criterion of rural and urban populations, 1) the city and under the jurisdiction of a certain city or town should be calculated 1st to indicate how many inhabitants a certain city or town has, and 2) the city is divided into the neighborhood population (which is urban) and the township population (which is rural). PMID:12342176

Bai, J



Energy Balance of Rural Ecosystems In India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is predominantly an agricultural and rural country. Across the country, the villages vary in geographical location, area, human and livestock population, availability of resources, agricultural practices, livelihood patterns etc. This study presents an estimation of net energy balance resulting from primary production vis-a-vis energy consumption through various components in a "Rural Ecosystem". Seven sites located in different agroclimatic regions of India were studied. An end use energy accounting "Rural Energy Balance Model" is developed for input-output analysis of various energy flows of production, consumption, import and export through various components of crop, trees outside forest plantations, livestock, rural households, industry or trade within the village system boundary. An integrated approach using field, ancillary, GIS and high resolution IRS-P6 Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data is adopted for generation of various model inputs. The primary and secondary field data collection of various energy uses at household and village level were carried out using structured schedules and questionnaires. High resolution multi-temporal Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data (2013-14) was used for generating landuse/landcover maps and estimation of above-ground Trees Outside Forests phytomass. The model inputs were converted to energy equivalents using country-specific energy conversion factors. A comprehensive geotagged database of sampled households and available resources at each study site was also developed in ArcGIS framework. Across the study sites, the estimated net energy balance ranged from -18.8 Terra Joules (TJ) in a high energy consuming Hodka village, Gujarat to 224.7 TJ in an agriculture, aquaculture and plantation intensive Kollaparru village, Andhra Pradesh. The results indicate that the net energy balance of a Rural Ecosystem is largely driven by primary production through crops and natural vegetation. This study provides a significant insight to policy relevant recommendations for Energy Sustainable Rural India.

Chhabra, A.; Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Garg, A.; Nag, T.; Bhaskara Rao, N.; Sharma, A.; Parihar, J. S.



The lure of the bush: do rural placements influence student nurses to seek employment in rural settings?  


The aim of this study was to investigate whether rural clinical placements for student nurses at a rural university in New South Wales influence their decision to join the rural and remote Registered Nurse workforce. The study utilised a convenience sample of final year Bachelor of Nursing students at a rural university campus, and consisted of two stages of data collection. Stage One employed a pre- and post-clinical placement survey design that elicited both demographic and qualitative data. Stage Two consisted of individual interviews with a sample of final year nursing students while they were on a rural clinical placement. The findings highlight the factors that influence final year students' decisions to seek employment in rural healthcare facilities. These findings will be of interest to nurse academics concerned with ensuring that undergraduate nursing curricula relate to rural nursing practice in Australia and to those involved in recruitment of new graduate RN's to rural nursing practice. PMID:18567479

Lea, Jackie; Cruickshank, Mary; Paliadelis, Penny; Parmenter, Glenda; Sanderson, Helena; Thornberry, Patricia



43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...requirements on rural water supply projects that were...



43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...requirements on rural water supply projects that were...



43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...requirements on rural water supply projects that were...



43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...requirements on rural water supply projects that were...



43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...requirements on rural water supply projects that were...



Rural Education: A Proud Heritage & a Bright Future. Proceedings of the Annual Rural and Small Schools Conference (8th, Manhattan, Kansas, October 27-28, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 5 major papers and 32 abstracts covers a range of issues surrounding rural education. In the first paper, Glen Shaw, a rural Minnesota schools administrator, contends economic and technological changes have threatened rural jobs and the rural way of life. Anecdotes and statistics are employed to define rural problems and to urge…

Horn, Jerry, Ed.; Parmley, Fran, Ed.


Rural-Urban Differences in Environmental Concern: A Closer Look.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents survey results from rural areas having significant levels of employment both in agriculture and in extraction industries (coal mining). Although a review of the literature suggests that rural residents may express lower levels of environmental concern than urban residents, one study proposed that rural residents in farm-related…

Freudenburg, William R.; McGinn, Barbara


Rural Health Care in Texas: The Facts--1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there exists in the minds of urban Texans the myth that rural life is especially healthy, in fact the mental and physical health of rural Texans is markedly worse than that of urban Texans. If health is defined in terms of environmental, physical, mental, and social factors, it is inaccurate to say that rural residents are receiving…

Knudson, Yvonne, Comp.; And Others


Parent and Community Involvement in Rural Schools. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parent involvement programs for rural communities work best when they respond to particular features of the communities they serve. Research provides conflicting findings about whether rural parents are more or less involved in their children's education than are urban or suburban parents. Even if parent involvement is more prevalent in rural

Maynard, Stan; Howley, Aimee


Preparing Student Teachers for Professional Appointments in Rural Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on research and discussions with rural educators in Australia and New Zealand, a new rural teacher preparation program at the University of Victoria (British Columbia) is intended to sensitize students to the professional life of teachers in small rural communities and to acquaint them with the demands of teaching multi-graded classes. The…

Haughey, Margaret; Murphy, Peter


Rural Press for Village Post-Literacy Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles concerning the development of the rural press in Africa as a means of communicating and promoting literacy are included in this collection of reprints. "The Rural Press, Effective Rural Communication Medium" by Robert H. Sam-Kpakra describes this medium of communication by and for people living in areas with little or no access to…

Sam-Kpakra, Robert H.; And Others


Rural School Psychology: Re-Opening the Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The practice of school psychology in rural areas is a topic that has been fairly absent from the literature since the 1980s. A needs assessment of school psychologists practicing in rural counties in a midwestern state was conducted to explore current issues for rural school psychologists. The response rate for usable surveys was 72% (N = 106).…

Clopton, Kerri L.; Knesting, Kimberly



The Rural Superintendency: Reconsidering the Administrative Farm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role and preparation of rural superintendents by reconsidering the informal administrative farm system that presently exists. The first part of the paper reports the findings of a comparative case study that examined effective schools in rural settings. The second part of the paper reports rural-suburban salary, recruitment and retention disparities. The paper concludes with recommendations for



Sociodemographic Changes: Promise and Problems for Rural Education. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing information from federal statistical sources, this digest summarizes recent changes in rural demographic and economic conditions relevant to rural school systems. Since the early 1990s, the U.S. economy has been strong, and rural areas have been growing at the same rate or faster than the nation's economic pace. Benefiting from the steady…

Huang, Gary G.


Rural Community Colleges and Economic Development: Leaders' Perspectives on Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural communities often lag behind urban and suburban areas in economic development. Community colleges often contribute to economic development projects in rural areas, but they often seek collaboration with other community partners. This research study was conducted to better understand rural community college presidents' perceptions of the…

Pennington, Kevin; Williams, Mitchell R.



Asthma Education for Rural School Nurses: Resources, Barriers, and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a school-based asthma education program for rural elementary school nurses. The program was designed to teach school nurses in 7 rural counties in Maryland how to implement and to reinforce asthma management behaviors in children with asthma and their caregivers. Rural nurses who participated in this program increased their…

Winkelstein, Marilyn L.; Quartey, Ruth; Pham, Luu; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Lewis, Cassia; Hill, Kimberly; Butz, Arlene



Rural Practice: Getting In, Keeping Up, Getting Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document's major portion addresses aspects of rural social work practice from importance of the worker's first actions to knowing when and how to leave successfully. Beginning with "What is your Rural IQ?" and some definitions of rurality, all subsequent sections conclude with "Some Exercises and Mental Challenges" and a reading list. Emphasis…

Tarleau, Alison, T.; Horner, Bill


Rural Development in Manitoba: A Case Study Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 1970's Rural Development Counselors and Community Affairs Specialists of the Manitoba Department of Agriculture were part of an effort to reverse trends of economic depression and rapid outward migration from rural to urban centers by assisting rural Manitobans individually, in groups, and as communities. Low- to moderate-income farmers and…

Manitoba Dept. of Agriculture, Winnipeg.


Attracting and Retaining Teachers in Rural Areas. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest examines the rural teacher shortage from a policy perspective and suggests strategies to address the problem. The rural teacher recruitment and retention problem varies across states. An adequate number of teachers are trained each year nationwide, but the problem is with distribution. Recent research on rural teacher recruitment and…

Collins, Timothy


Criminality among Rural Stimulant Users in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the increase in media attention on "meth cooking" in rural areas of the United States, little is known about rural stimulant use--particularly, the criminality associated with stimulant use. Data were collected from community stimulant users in rural Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky (N = 709). Findings from three logistic regression models…

Oser, Carrie; Leukefeld, Carl; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Garrity, Thomas; Stoops, William; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert; Sexton, Rocky; Wright, Patricia; Booth, Brenda



Social Work in Rural Communities. A Book of Readings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to serve as a resource tool for educators and social work practitioners, this collection of articles on social work in rural communities presents: (1) "An Overview of Social Work Education for Rural Areas"; (2) "Social Work Education for Rural Program Development" (the "generalist" and the principles, dynamics, and educational content and…

Ginsberg, Leon H., Ed.


Rural Stop-Controlled Intersection Decision Support Systems  

E-print Network

Evaluation Simulator evaluation Conclusions #12;Rural Stop-Controlled Intersections #12;The Problem Rural proceeding (Preston & Storm, 2003) 57% stopped in 2296 rural thru-STOP accidents 87% of right angle crashes using an infrastructure- based solution #12;IDS Primary Information Requirements J1. Evaluate whether

Minnesota, University of


Depression Screening Patterns for Women in Rural Health Clinics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Rates and types of screening for depression in rural primary care practices are unknown. Purpose: To identify rates of depression screening among rural women in a sample of rural health clinics (RHCs). Methods: A chart review of 759 women's charts in 19 randomly selected RHCs across the nation. Data were collected from charts of female…

Tudiver, Fred; Edwards, Joellen Beckett; Pfortmiller, Deborah T.



Does Core Area Theory Apply to STIs in Rural Environments?  

PubMed Central

Background Our objective was to determine the extent to which geographical core areas for gonorrhea and syphilis are located in rural areas, as compared to urban areas. Methods Incident gonorrhea (January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010) and syphilis (January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2010) rates were estimated and mapped by census tract and quarter. Rurality was measured using percent rural and rural-urban commuting area (RUCA; rural, small town, micropolitan, or urban). SaTScan was used to identify spatiotemporal clusters of significantly elevated rates of infection. Clusters lasting five years or longer were considered core areas; clusters of shorter duration were considered outbreaks. Clusters were overlaid on maps of rurality and qualitatively assessed for correlation. Results Twenty gonorrhea core areas were identified; 65% in urban centers, 25% in micropolitan areas, and the remaining 10% were geographically large capturing combinations of urban, micropolitan, small town and rural environments. Ten syphilis core areas were identified with 80% in urban centers and 20% capturing two or more RUCAs. All ten of the syphilis core areas (100%) overlapped with gonorrhea core areas. Conclusions Gonorrhea and syphilis rates were high for rural parts of North Carolina; however, no core areas were identified exclusively for small towns or rural areas. The main pathway of rural STI transmission may be through the interconnectedness of urban, micropolitan, small town and rural areas. Directly addressing STIs in urban and micropolitan communities may also indirectly help address STI rates in rural and small town communities. PMID:23254115

Gesink, Dionne C; Sullivan, Ashleigh B; Norwood, Todd; Serre, Marc L; Miller, William C



Educational Computing in Rural Versus Urban Settings 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey designed to assess access to, attitudes towards and knowledge about computers was administered to secondary level students and elementary and secondary level educators in rural and urban public schools. In general, differences in computer knowledge between rural and urban respondents were found. The rural respondents did have more positive attitudes toward computers than the urban respondents and they




Facilitating Planned Educational Change in Rural Schools: The Administrator's Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retrospective assessments by 20 rural administrators who had participated in a five-year Rural Experimental Schools Project (1972-1977) sponsored by the National Institute of Education were investigated to ascertain which factors they felt inhibited or facilitated the process of change in a rural school setting. Information was gathered during a…

Coward, Raymond T.


Health Literacy Skills in Rural and Urban Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine whether health literacy is lower in rural populations. Method: We analyzed health, prose, document, and quantitative literacy from the National Assessment of Adult Literacy study. Metropolitan Statistical Area designated participants as rural or urban. Results: Rural populations had lower literacy levels for all literacy…

Zahnd, Whitney E.; Scaife, Steven L.; Francis, Mark L.



Entrepreneurial In-Migration and Neoendogenous Rural Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social, cultural, and economic transitions in rural areas across the globe lead us to critique the traditional "top-down" or "bottom-up" distinction as being outdated for contemporary rural policy. In Europe and the United States in particular, high rates of counterurbanization heighten the need for new ways of thinking about rural

Bosworth, Gary; Atterton, Jane



Rural Minority Student Engagement with a Healthcare Pipeline Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural communities are underserved by the medical profession. This shortage is particularly acute for minority rural communities lacking reliable access to minority healthcare professionals. This article reports the results of a study designed to understand the attitudes and responses of rural minority students who participated in a program…

Holley, Karri A.



Rural Women and Osteoporosis: Awareness and Educational Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Little is known about rural women's knowledge about osteoporosis. Purpose: To explore what women from high-prevalence rural communities know about osteoporosis and to assess their learning preferences. Methods: We surveyed 437 women in rural Washington and Oregon. Findings: The response rate was 93% (N = 406). The mean age of respondents…

Matthews, Hollie L.; Laya, Mary; DeWitt, Dawn E.



77 FR 65547 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC...FRRCC provides policy advice, information...environmental issues and policies that are of importance...agriculture and rural communities. The purpose of...on environmental policies and programs that...agriculture and rural communities. FOR FURTHER...



Integrated rural development - The concept and its operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our paper explores, on a theoretical level, the reason for frequent failures of rural development policies and identifies some potential improvements in rural policy making in Europe. Our approach to des\\/integration concerns actors, resources, institutions, knowledge, the fundamental logic of development, and the interplay between two distinct levels of rural development: the level of policies, or central intervention; and the

Gusztav Nemes



Techniques for Fostering Change: The Rural Two-Year College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rural community college has a unique opportunity to bring about social change in rural areas. This paper summarizes the needs and resources of the rural community and discusses the change techniques useful to the college administrator. The most valuable resource is the college staff who offer technical expertise and leadership not available…

Davis, James


Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural

Zhang, Jie



Constructing Ruralities: The Case of the Hobbitstee, Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural intentional communities withdraw from mainstream urban space, rejecting its materialism and consumption. In creating their own places in the countryside, they produce new spaces of rurality. Constructions of rurality by intentional communities can be perceived as "out of place" by local populations. This article draws on a wider study on the…

Meijering, Louise; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus



Household Perspectives on School Attendance in Rural Tibet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores household perspectives on school access at the village level in rural Tibet. Data from two rural areas are compared. This paper argues that despite abolition of all school fees, the use of Tibetan as a medium of instruction, the provision of boarding schools, and other incentives, dropout rates in rural areas remain high. This…

Postiglione, Gerard; Jiao, Ben; Gyatso, Sonam



Health care reform and rural mental health: Severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service needs of rural severely mentally ill and strengths of rural communities are addressed. Health care reform policy development at present appears to neglect the seriously mentally ill in general and rural services specifically. Examples of strategies to meet the needs for health care, psychiatric treatment, psychosocial rehabilitation and appropriate housing are described. The advantages and drawbacks of such efforts

Catherine F. Kane; Jacqueline M. Ennis



Progress Report on Rural Development for Fiscal Year 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural development progress relative to State-U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) committees is presented via exemplary citation in this 1970 report. Summaries are given for: (1) Status of State-USDA Organization for Rural Development, (2) Functional Relationships of USDA Committees on Rural Development, (3) Activities and Projects Underway, (4)…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.


Rural teens at high risk for pregnancy, analysis finds  

E-print Network

Rural teens at high risk for pregnancy, analysis finds Michelle Healy, USA TODAY4:39a.m. EST Pregnancy shows that the teen birth rate in rural counties is nearly one-third higher than the rest. That suggests a greater need for efforts directed at helping rural teens avoid too-early pregnancy

Fernandez, Eduardo


Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David



Strategies for Funders: Community Colleges and Rural Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper urges foundations and state and federal agencies to consider funding rural community colleges, in light of the successful experiences of the Rural Community College Initiative. Much of rural America is in trouble because educational attainment and job opportunities are low; innovation is stifled by poor schools, isolation, and…

MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.


Rural Public School Dropouts: Data from High School and Beyond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on data concerning the characteristics, attitudes, and school experiences of rural dropouts. The discussion, which draws largely upon the High School and Beyond database, considers two primary concerns. The first deals with differences between rural dropouts and their rural counterparts who stayed in school. Areas of inquiry…

McCaul, Edward


Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo



Power in the Production of Spaces Transformed by Rural Tourism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article critiques Halfacree's conceptualisation of rural space for masking the workings of power within "black boxes" such as "structural coherence" and "trial by space". One consequence is that rural change's social activities and also their social and personal consequences are cloaked, thereby rendering the localised fault lines of rurality

Frisvoll, Svein