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Manual of Meat Processing Plants (Manual de Plantas Procesadoras de Carne).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual was prepared by specialists on meat inspection from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture as an aid in training inspectors for meat processing industries. It focuses on the sanitary aspects of meat work and follows the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture recomm...




Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotany is the branch of human knowledge that studies the relationship between plants and human. In Mexico, angiosperms have been mostly studied. However, there are seedless plants such as the genus Equisetum that has an important cultural value as evidenced in several communities, mainly due to its biochemical properties. In this paper we presented a review of bibliographical information supplemented

Juan Carlos Gallardo-Pérez; María de Lourdes Esparza-Aguilar; Armando Gómez-Campos


Imaginario Social: Una aproximación  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este texto presentamos una revisión, -a modo de ejercicio de reflexión colectiva-, de la extensa producción bibliográfica de Michel Maffesoli, buscando articular desde los supuestos presentes en su obra, la noción de imaginario social. Para comprender el contexto de producción de este sociólogo francés, hemos comenzado por hacer una breve revisión de sus principales trabajos e influencias teóricas. Posteriormente

Ricardo Espinoza; Raúl García; Martín Holzknecht; Carolina Jiménez


Non-random sharing of Plantae genes.  


The power of eukaryote genomics relies strongly on taxon sampling. This point was underlined in a recent analysis of red algal genome evolution in which we tested the Plantae hypothesis that posits the monophyly of red, green (including plants) and glaucophyte algae. The inclusion of novel genome data from two mesophilic red algae enabled us to robustly demonstrate the sisterhood of red and green algae in the tree of life. Perhaps more exciting was the finding that >1,800 putative genes in the unicellular red alga Porphyridium cruentum showed evidence of gene-sharing with diverse lineages of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here we assessed the correlation between the putative functions of these shared genes and their susceptibility to transfer. It turns out that genes involved in complex interactive networks such as biological regulation and transcription/translation are less susceptible to endosymbiotic or horizontal gene transfer, when compared to genes with metabolic and transporter functions. PMID:21980581

Chan, Cheong Xin; Bhattacharya, Debashish



Hyperthermophilic endoglucanase for in planta lignocellulose conversion  

PubMed Central

Background The enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a crucial step in the sustainable and environmentally friendly production of biofuels. However, a major drawback of enzymes from mesophilic sources is their suboptimal activity under established pretreatment conditions, e.g. high temperatures, extreme pH values and high salt concentrations. Enzymes from extremophiles are better adapted to these conditions and could be produced by heterologous expression in microbes, or even directly in the plant biomass. Results Here we show that a cellulase gene (sso1354) isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus can be expressed in plants, and that the recombinant enzyme is biologically active and exhibits the same properties as the wild type form. Since the enzyme is inactive under normal plant growth conditions, this potentially allows its expression in plants without negative effects on growth and development, and subsequent heat-inducible activation. Furthermore we demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme acts in high concentrations of ionic liquids and can therefore degrade ?-cellulose or even complex cell wall preparations under those pretreatment conditions. Conclusion The hyperthermophilic endoglucanase SSO1354 with its unique features is an excellent tool for advanced biomass conversion. Here we demonstrate its expression in planta and the possibility for post harvest activation. Moreover the enzyme is suitable for combined pretreatment and hydrolysis applications.



Patologies d'Ornamentals Associades a una Gestió i Pràctiques Incorrectes de Jardineria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molt sovint, les patologies que pateixen la vegetació ornamental no es deuen a la casuística i a la mala sort. En un elevat percentatge, l'adopció d'una gestió inadequada i la pràctica d'activitats incorrectes, bé des d'un principi, com al llarg del temps, són la causa i l'inici del problema. Llavors, tant la vegetació arbrada, com l'arbustiva, palmeres, gespes i planta

Josep M Riba



In planta passive sampling devices for assessing subsurface chlorinated solvents.  


Contaminant concentrations in trees have been used to delineate groundwater contaminant plumes (i.e., phytoscreening); however, variability in tree composition hinders accurate measurement of contaminant concentrations in planta, particularly for long-term monitoring. This study investigated in planta passive sampling devices (PSDs), termed solid phase samplers (SPSs) to be used as a surrogate tree core. Characteristics studied for five materials included material-air partitioning coefficients (Kma) for chlorinated solvents, sampler equilibration time and field suitability. The materials investigated were polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM) and plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Both PDMS and LLDPE samplers demonstrated high partitioning coefficients and diffusivities and were further tested in greenhouse experiments and field trials. While most of the materials could be used for passive sampling, the PDMS SPSs performed best as an in planta sampler. Such a sampler was able to accurately measure trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentrations while simultaneously incorporating simple operation and minimal impact to the surrounding property and environment. PMID:24268175

Shetty, Mikhil K; Limmer, Matt A; Waltermire, Kendra; Morrison, Glenn C; Burken, Joel G



Una visita en Sud America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oisfrute de una estadfa en el Hotel La Silla, el mejor hotel de Sud America con su tan unica atmosfera extraterrestre! Los espera su calificado personal de experimentados hoteleros, jefes de cocina, etc., ansiosos todos de satisfacer sus deseos hasta el mas mfnimo detalle. Naturalmente nuestro espacioso restaurant de tres estrellas ofrece un completo surtido de exquisitas comidas y deliciosos tragos (conocedores usualmente eligen "Oelicia Orion" 0 "Centauro Especial"). EI servicio cempleto durante 24 horas incluye nuestra ya mundialmente famosa "Cena de medianoche para los miradores de estrellas", por eso - no olvide: No pierda la oportunidad de una estadfa en EL HOTEL LA SILLA - una experiencia maravillosa!




Microsoft Academic Search

Total Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations and the distribution of lead in soils from a farmland near a battery recycling plant in Madrid (Spain) were investigated to establish a possible relationship with a recent episode of horses death that presented lead intoxication symptoms before dying. Total Pb and Cd levels presented a clear decrease with distance to the

Victoria CALA; Yukihiko KUNIMINE


In planta Agrobacterium-mediated transformation by vacuum infiltration.  


In planta Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using vacuum infiltration results in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana without the use of sterile conditions or plant regeneration. Plants are grown in pots, in standard potting mix. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, carrying an appropriate plant transformation vector, is suspended in an infiltration medium that contains, at a minimum, sucrose and the surfactant Silwet L-77. Flower buds are immersed in the suspension of A. tumefaciens. The application of a vacuum drives the bacteria into the intercellular air spaces. A portion of the Agrobacterium Ti plasmid known as the T-DNA region, which has been engineered to carry a selectable marker, becomes integrated into the plant genomic DNA. Plants are allowed to set seed. Seeds are germinated in selective conditions to recover transformants. PMID:16739579

Tague, Brian W; Mantis, Joanna



Physiology of ex planta nitrogenase activity in Rhizobium japonicum  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-nine wild-type strains of Rhizobium japonicum have been studied for their ability to synthesize nitrogenase ex planta in defined liquid media under microaerobic conditions. Twenty-one produced more than trace amounts of acetylene reduction activity, but only a few of these yielded high activity. The oxygen response curves were similar for most of the nitrogenase-positive strains. The strains derepressible for activity had several phenotypic characteristics different from non-derepressible strains. These included slower growth and lower oxygen consumption under microaerobic conditions and lower extracellular polysaccharide production. Extracellular polysaccharide production during growth on gluconate in every nitrogenase-positive strain assayed was lower under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions than the non-depressible strains. These phenotypic characteristics may be representative of a genotype of a subspecies of R. japonicum. These studies were done in part to enlarge the base number of strains available for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of nitrogen fixation. (35 Refs.)

Agarwal, A.K.; Keister, D.L.



La Transpiración - Movimiento del Agua a Través de las Plantas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

La transpiración es la pérdida de agua en forma de vapor por las plantas. El agua es absorbida del suelo por las raíces y transportada en forma líquida por el xilema hacia las hojas. En las hojas, unos pequeños poros permiten que el agua (H2O) escape a la atmósfera en forma de vapor, al tiempo que se permite la entrada de bióxido de carbono (CO2) para la fotosíntesis. De toda el agua absorbida por las plantas, menos del 5% es retenida y utilizada para crecimiento y almacenamiento. En esta lección se explicará porque las plantas pierden tanta agua, la ruta que ésta sigue dentro de la planta, como pudieran las plantas controlar la pérdida excesiva de agua y como las condiciones ambientales influyen en la pérdida de agua por las plantas.


Nitrogen-responsive genes are differentially regulated in planta during Fusarium oxyspsorum f. sp. lycopersici infection.  


SUMMARY Nitrogen is an essential growth component whose availability will limit microbial spread, and as such it serves as a key control point in dictating an organism's adaptation to various environments. Little is known about fungal nutrition in planta. To enhance our understanding of this process we examined the transcriptional adaptation of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, the causal agent for vascular wilt in tomato, during nutritional stress and plant colonization. Using RT-PCR and microarray technology we compared fungal gene expression in planta to axenic nitrogen starvation culture. Several expressed sequence tags, representing at least four genes, were identified that are concomitantly induced during nitrogen starvation and in planta growth. Three of these genes show similarity to a general amino acid permease, a peptide transporter and an uricase, all functioning in organic nitrogen acquisition. We further show that these genes represent a distinguishable subset of the nitrogen-responsive transcripts that respond to amino acids commonly available in the plant. Our results indicate that nitrogen starvation partially mimics in planta growth conditions, and further suggest that minute levels of organic nitrogen sources dictate the final outcome of fungal gene expression in planta. The nature of the identified transcripts suggests modes of nutrient uptake and survival for Fusarium during colonization. PMID:20565671

Divon, Hege H; Rothan-Denoyes, Beatrice; Davydov, Olga; DI Pietro, Antonio; Fluhr, Robert



Phylogenetic Relationship of the Kingdoms Animalia, Plantae, and Fungi, Inferred from 23 Different Protein Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationship among the kingdoms Animalia, Plantae, and Fungi remains uncertain, because of lack of solid fossil evidence. In spite of the extensive molecular phylogenetic analyses since the early report, this problem is a longstanding controversy; the proposed phylogenetic relationships differ for different authors, depending on the molecules and methods that they use. To settle this problem, we have

Naruo Nikoh; Nobuyoshi Hayase; Naoyuki Iwabe; Kei-ichi Kuma; Takashi Miyata


Una técnica para filtrar patrones de fringing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.

Ostrov, P. G.


In vitro and in planta compatibility of insecticides and the endophytic entomopathogen, Lecanicillium lecanii.  


In an attempt to clarify the potential role of endophytic fungi in integrated pest management, the compatibility of an endophytic isolate of Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmermann) Gams & Zare (Hyphomycetes) with nine insecticides used against Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera : Aphididae) was examined both in vitro over 14 days and in planta. In the laboratory, most insecticides partially or completely inhibited the germination of conidia and growth of hyphae in nutrient-rich conditions. Endosulfan completely inhibited the germination of conidia and hyphal growth. In contrast, all insecticides were compatible with L. lecanii in planta, and the fungus was readily recovered from inoculated, colonized leaves. These data support the hypothesis that endophytic L. lecanii will be unaffected by insecticides and could be integrated in the management of pests in cotton. PMID:21424605

Gurulingappa, Pampapathy; Mc Gee, Peter; Sword, Gregory A



Assessment of fluorescein-based fluorescent dyes for tracing Neotyphodium endophytes in planta.  


Fluorescent dyes were assessed for their ability to stain viable hyphae of the fungi Neotyphodium lolii and N. coenophialum, symbiotic endophytes of the Pooideae grasses Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea, respectively. The fluorescein-based fluorophores; fluorescein diacetate (FDA), 5(6)-carboxy-fluorescein diacetate (CFDA), 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) and the chitin-binding stain, Calcofluor while M2R, were assessed for staining of endophyte hyphae in vitro from axenic fungal cultures and in planta, including epidermal leaf sheath peels, nodes, ovaries, embryos and meristems. CMFDA produced the greatest intensity of staining of fungal hyphae and gave excellent contrast in planta compared to the plant cells. Compared to the other dyes, CMFDA was also the least affected by photo bleaching and continued to fluoresce up to 2 h after initial excitation. None of the fluorescent dyes stained fungal hyphae in seed. PMID:22802389

Card, Stuart D; Tapper, Brian A; Lloyd-West, Catherine; Wright, Kathryn M



A quantitative PCR assay for accurate in planta quantification of the necrotrophic pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliable method for measuring disease progression is important when evaluating susceptibility in host—pathogen interactions.\\u000a We describe a sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) assay that enables quantitative measurement of in planta DNA of the necrotrophic pathogen, Phytophthora cinnamomi, that avoids problems caused by variation in DNA extraction efficiency and degradation of host DNA during host tissue necrosis.\\u000a Normalization of

Leila Eshraghi; Nader Aryamanesh; Jonathan P. Anderson; Bryan Shearer; Jen A. McComb; Giles E. St. J. Hardy; Philip A. O’Brien


Development of an in planta method for transformation of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional methods in transforming alfalfa (Medicago sativa) require multiple tissue culture manipulations that are time-consuming and expensive, while applicable only to a few highly\\u000a regenerable genotypes. Here, we describe a simple in planta method that makes it possible to transform a commercial variety without employing selectable marker genes. Basically, young\\u000a seedlings are cut at the apical node, cold-treated, and vigorously

Jingsong Ye; Caius M. Rommens



Rapid in planta evaluation of root expressed transgenes in chimeric soybean plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of stable transgenic plants is one factor that limits rapid evaluation of tissue specific transgene expression.\\u000a To hasten the assessment of transgenes in planta, we evaluated the use of chimeric soybean seedlings expressing transgenic\\u000a products in roots. Tap roots from four-day old seedlings (cultivars ‘Jack’ and KS4704) were excised and hairy roots were induced\\u000a from hypocotyls via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated

Jiarui Li; Timothy C. Todd; Harold N. Trick



Screening for in planta protein-protein interactions combining bimolecular fluorescence complementation with flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

Understanding protein and gene function requires identifying interaction partners using biochemical, molecular or genetic tools. In plants, searching for novel protein-protein interactions is limited to protein purification assays, heterologous in vivo systems such as the yeast-two-hybrid or mutant screens. Ideally one would be able to search for novel protein partners in living plant cells. We demonstrate that it is possible to screen for novel protein-protein interactions from a random library in protoplasted Arabidopsis plant cells and recover some of the interacting partners. Our screen is based on capturing the bi-molecular complementation of mYFP between an YN-bait fusion partner and a completely random prey YC-cDNA library with FACS. The candidate interactions were confirmed using in planta BiFC assays and in planta FRET-FLIM assays. From this work, we show that the well characterized protein Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase 3 (CPK3) interacts with APX3, HMGB5, ORP2A and a ricin B-related lectin domain containing protein At2g39050. This is one of the first randomin planta screens to be successfully employed.



Time-weighted average SPME analysis for in planta determination of cVOCs.  


The potential of phytoscreening for plume delineation at contaminated sites has promoted interest in innovative, sensitive contaminant sampling techniques. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods have been developed, offering quick, undemanding, noninvasive sampling without the use of solvents. In this study, time-weighted average SPME (TWA-SPME) sampling was evaluated for in planta quantification of chlorinated solvents. TWA-SPME was found to have increased sensitivity over headspace and equilibrium SPME sampling. Using a variety of chlorinated solvents and a polydimethylsiloxane/carboxen (PDMS/CAR) SPME fiber, most compounds exhibited near linear or linear uptake over the sampling period. Smaller, less hydrophobic compounds exhibited more nonlinearity than larger, more hydrophobic molecules. Using a specifically designed in planta sampler, field sampling was conducted at a site contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Sampling with TWA-SPME produced instrument responses ranging from 5 to over 200 times higher than headspace tree core sampling. This work demonstrates that TWA-SPME can be used for in planta detection of a broad range of chlorinated solvents and methods can likely be applied to other volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. PMID:22332592

Sheehan, Emily M; Limmer, Matt A; Mayer, Philipp; Karlson, Ulrich Gosewinkel; Burken, Joel G



¿Es la Ocratoxina A una micotoxina mutagénica?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: La ocratoxina A es una micotoxina producida por especies de los géneros Aspergillus y Penicillium que a través de los alimentos puede pasar al ser humano. Su órgano diana es el riñón pero también es hepatotóxica, inmunotóxica y teratogéni- ca. Ha sido clasificada por la Agencia Internacional de Investigación contra el Cáncer (IARC) como posible carcinóge- no humano (clase

Arbillaga L; López de Cerain




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN La histerectomía constituye la segunda cirugía más efectuada en mujeres en edad fértil. Por esto cada día más ginecólogos se interesan en buscar técnicas de menor invasión. Dentro de este concepto y con el objetivo de preservar la indemnidad del suelo pélvico, muchos hemos propuesto la histerectomía supracervical por laparoscopía, como una de las técnicas quirúrgicas que más auge




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB) no crescimento inicial de plantas de confrei ( Symphytum officinale L.), uma espécie medicinal, um experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação. Segmentos de rizomas, obtidos de plantas com 90 dias de idade, foram submetidos a cinco concentrações (0, 0,246, 0,492, 0,738, 0,984 mM) e três tempos de exposição



Expression of the gum operon directing xanthan biosynthesis in Xanthomonas campestris and its regulation in planta.  


The gum gene cluster of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris comprises 12 genes whose products are involved in the biosynthesis of the extracellular polysaccharide xanthan. These genes are expressed primarily as an operon from a promoter upstream of the first gene, gumB. Although the regulation of xanthan synthesis in vitro has been well studied, nothing is known of its regulation in planta. A reporter plasmid was constructed in which the promoter region of the gum operon was fused to gusA. In liquid cultures, the expression of the gumgusA reporter was correlated closely with the production of xanthan, although a low basal level of beta-glucuronidase activity was seen in the absence of added carbon sources when xanthan production was very low. The expression of the gumgusA fusion also was subject to positive regulation by rpfF, which is responsible for the synthesis of the diffusible signal factor (DSF). The expression of the gumgusA fusion in bacteria recovered from inoculated turnip leaves was maximal at the later phases of growth and was subject to regulation by rpfF. These results provide indirect support for the operation of the DSF regulatory system in bacteria in planta. PMID:11386372

Vojnov, A A; Slater, H; Daniels, M J; Dow, J M



Biosynthesis, structural, and functional attributes of tocopherols in planta; past, present, and future perspectives.  


Tocopherols are lipophilic molecules, ubiquitously synthesized in all photosynthetic organisms. Being a group of vitamin E compounds, they play an essential role in human nutrition and health. Despite their structural and functional attributes as important antioxidants in plants, it would be misleading to ignore the potential roles of tocopherols beyond their antioxidant properties in planta. Detailed characterization of mutants and transgenic plants, including Arabidopsis (vte1, vte2, vte4, and so on), maize (sxd1) mutants, and transgenic potato and tobacco lines altered in tocopherol biosynthesis and contents, has led to surprising outcomes regarding the additional functions of these molecules. Thus, the aim of this review is to highlight the past and present research findings on tocopherols' structural, biosynthesis, and functional properties in plants. Special emphasis is given to their suggested functions in planta, such as cell signaling, hormonal interactions, and coordinated response of tocopherols to other antioxidants under abiotic stresses. Moreover, some important questions about possible new functions of tocopherols will be discussed as future prospects to stimulate further research. PMID:23713813

Hussain, Nazim; Irshad, Faiza; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Li, Zhilan; Jiang, Lixi



In planta function of compatible solute transporters of the AtProT family  

PubMed Central

The three proline transporters of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtProTs) transport the compatible solutes proline and glycine betaine and the stress-induced compound ?-aminobutyric acid when expressed in heterologous systems. The aim of the present study was to show transport and physiological relevance of these three AtProTs in planta. Using single, double, and triple knockout mutants and AtProT-overexpressing lines, proline content, growth on proline, transport of radiolabelled betaine, and expression of AtProT genes and enzymes of proline metabolism were analysed. AtProT2 was shown to facilitate uptake of L- and D-proline as well as [14C]glycine betaine in planta, indicating a role in the import of compatible solutes into the root. Toxic concentrations of L- and D-proline resulted in a drastic growth retardation of AtProT-overexpressing plants, demonstrating the need for a precise regulation of proline uptake and/or distribution. Furthermore evidence is provided that AtProT genes are highly expressed in tissues with elevated proline content—that is, pollen and leaf epidermis.

Lehmann, Silke; Gumy, Christophe; Blatter, Eva; Boeffel, Silke; Fricke, Wieland; Rentsch, Doris



Simultaneous specific in planta visualization of root-colonizing fungi using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).  


In planta detection of mutualistic, endophytic, and pathogenic fungi commonly colonizing roots and other plant organs is not a routine task. We aimed to use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for simultaneous specific detection of different fungi colonizing the same tissue. We have adapted ribosomal RNA (rRNA) FISH for visualization of common mycorrhizal (arbuscular- and ectomycorrhiza) and endophytic fungi within roots of different plant species. Beside general probes, we designed and used specific ones hybridizing to the large subunit of rRNA with fluorescent dyes chosen to avoid or reduce the interference with the autofluorescence of plant tissues. We report here an optimized efficient protocol of rRNA FISH and the use of both epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy for simultaneous specific differential detection of those fungi colonizing the same root. The method could be applied for the characterization of other plant-fungal interactions, too. In planta FISH with specific probes labeled with appropriate fluorescent dyes could be used not only in basic research but to detect plant colonizing pathogenic fungi in their latent life-period. PMID:24221902

Vági, Pál; Knapp, Dániel G; Kósa, Annamária; Seress, Diána; Horváth, Aron N; Kovács, Gábor M



In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro?PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1?2 pro?GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.

Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko



The Ustilago maydis b mating type locus controls hyphal proliferation and expression of secreted virulence factors in planta.  


Sexual development in fungi is controlled by mating type loci that prevent self-fertilization. In the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis, the b mating type locus encodes two homeodomain proteins, termed bE and bW. After cell fusion, a heterodimeric bE/bW complex is formed if the proteins are derived from different alleles. The bE/bW complex is required and sufficient to initiate pathogenic development and sexual reproduction; for the stages of pathogenic development succeeding plant penetration, however, its role was unclear. To analyse b function during in planta development, we generated a temperature-sensitive bE(ts) protein by exchange of a single amino acid. bE(ts) strains are stalled in pathogenic development at restrictive temperature in planta, and hyphae develop enlarged, bulbous cells at their tips that contain multiple nuclei, indicating a severe defect in the control and synchronization of cell cycle and cytokinesis. DNA array analysis of bE(ts) mutant strains in planta revealed a b-dependent regulation of genes encoding secreted proteins that were shown to influence fungal virulence. Our data demonstrate that in U. maydis the b heterodimer is not only essential to establish the heterodikaryon after mating of two compatible sporidia and to initiate fungal pathogenicity, but also to sustain in planta proliferation and ensure sexual reproduction. PMID:19943901

Wahl, Ramon; Zahiri, Alexander; Kämper, Jörg



Qualidade de frutos de cinco híbridos de melão rendilhado em função do número de frutos por planta  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO-Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a qualidade de cinco híbridos de melão rendilhado, com dois e três frutos por planta, utilizando fibra da casca de coco e fertirrigação. Para tanto, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação na UNESP-FCAV, Câmpus de Jaboticabal, com delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com quatro repetições.

Renata Castoldi; Hamilton César de Oliveira Charlo; Pablo Forlan Vargas; Leila Trevizan Braz



Efficacy of phosphonic acid, metalaxyl-M and copper hydroxide against Phytophthora ramorum in vitro and in planta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of metalaxyl-M, phosphonic acid in the form of phosphonate, and copper hydroxide to inhibit different stages in the life cycle of Phytophthora ramorum , the causal agent of sudden oak death (SOD), was tested in vitro using 12 isolates from the North American forest lineage. In addition, experiments were conducted in planta to study the ability of phosphonic

M. Garbelotto; T. Y. Harnik; D. J. Schmidt



Biologia floral, microsporogênese e número cromossômico em cinco espécies de plantas utilizadas na medicina popular no Rio Grande do Sul  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Onze populações de cinco espécies de plantas medicinais utilizadas no Rio Grande do Sul, foram observadas quanto ao período de floração, durante três anos e estudadas citogeneticamente. Discaria americana e Matricharia chamomilla, florescem preferencialmente no inverno, Foeniculun vulgare e Symphytum officinale, nas estações mais quentes e Plectranthus barbatus floresce em estações mais amenas. Na meiose da microsporogênese, formaram-se 11




Tècniques dramàtiques per a una educació integral i integradora  

Microsoft Academic Search

La dramatización está siendo un recurso didàctico y pedagógico cada vez más utilizado en nuestras escuelas y en otros ámbitos educativos. Un aprendizaje significativo, donde todos los aspectos del individuo se tengan en cuenta: emociones, sentimientos, actitudes, valores, aptitudes intelectuales, artísticas y sociales, etc. requiere una metodología que propicie un crecimiento personal que proporcione al individuo una educación integral e

Maria Vilanova i Vila-Abadal



In planta selfing and oospore production of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the presence of Acacia pulchella.  


This paper provides the first evidence of A2 type 1 and type 2 isolates of Phytophthora cinnamomi producing selfed oospores in planta in an Australian soil and in a potting mix. Oospores were observed in infected lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) roots incubated for 7d either in the substrate under potted Acacia pulchella plants, or in soils collected from under and near varieties of A. pulchella in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest. The A2 type isolates varied in their ability to produce selfed oospores and none were produced by A1 isolates. The gametangial association was amphigynous and spores were predominantly spherical with diameters from 13-40 microm. The oospores were viable but dormant. Two A2 type isolates produced small numbers of selfed oospores with amphigynous antheridia axenically in Ribeiro's liquid medium within 30 d, and one A2 type 2 isolate produced oospores after mating with an A1 strain. Evidence is presented that the presence of roots of Acacia pulchella, and particularly A. pulchella var. glaberrima and var. goadbyi, enhances the production of oospores. PMID:17350243

Jayasekera, Arunodini U; McComb, Jen A; Shearer, Bryan L; Hardy, Giles E St J



Characterization of VIP1 activity as a transcriptional regulator in vitro and in planta  

PubMed Central

VIP1 (VirE2 interacting protein 1), initially discovered as a host protein involved in Agrobacterium-plant cell DNA transfer, is a transcription factor of the basic leucine-zipper (bZIP) domain family that regulates several defence-related genes in Arabidopsis. We have developed assays to assess VIP1 binding to its DNA target in vitro and transcriptional activation efficiency in planta. Several point mutations in the VIP1 response element VRE affected the VIP1 activity, and a strong correlation between VIP1-VRE binding and transcriptional activation levels was observed. Promoter activation by VIP1 was influenced by bacterial and plant proteins known to interact with VIP1 during Agrobacterium infection, i.e., VirE2, VirF and VIP2. VirF, an F-box protein, strongly decreased VIP1 transcriptional activation ability, but not its binding to VRE in vitro, most likely by triggering proteasomal degradation of VIP1. Finally, activation of a VRE-containing promoter was observed in dividing cells, probably resulting from activation of endogenous VIP1.

Lacroix, Benoit; Citovsky, Vitaly



Native-sized spider silk proteins synthesized in planta via intein-based multimerization.  


The synthesis of native-sized proteins is a pre-requisite for exploiting the potential of spider silk as a bio-based material. The unique properties of spider silk, such as extraordinary tensile strength and elasticity, result from the highly repetitive nature of spider silk protein motifs. The present report describes the combination of spider silk flagelliform protein (FLAG) production in the endoplasmic reticulum of tobacco plant leaf cells with an intein-based posttranslational protein fusion technology. The repeated ligation of FLAG monomers resulted in the formation of large multimers. This method avoids the need for highly repetitive transgenes, which may result in a higher genetic and transcriptional stability. Here we show, for the first time, the production of synthetic, high molecular weight spider silk proteins larger than 250 kDa based on the assembly of protein monomers via intein-mediated trans-splicing in planta. The resulting multimeric structures form microfibers, thereby demonstrating their great potential as a biomaterial. PMID:23001519

Hauptmann, Valeska; Weichert, Nicola; Menzel, Matthias; Knoch, Dominic; Paege, Norman; Scheller, Jürgen; Spohn, Uwe; Conrad, Udo; Gils, Mario



Endophytic Colonization and In Planta Nitrogen Fixation by a Herbaspirillum sp. Isolated from Wild Rice Species  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from the stems of wild and cultivated rice on a modified Rennie medium. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, the diazotrophic isolates were phylogenetically close to four genera: Herbaspirillum, Ideonella, Enterobacter, and Azospirillum. Phenotypic properties and signature sequences of 16S rDNA indicated that three isolates (B65, B501, and B512) belong to the Herbaspirillum genus. To examine whether Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 isolated from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, endophytically colonizes rice plants, the gfp gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced into the bacteria. Observations by fluorescence stereomicroscopy showed that the GFP-tagged bacteria colonized shoots and seeds of aseptically grown seedlings of the original wild rice after inoculation of the seeds. Conversely, for cultivated rice Oryza sativa, no GFP fluorescence was observed for shoots and only weak signals were observed for seeds. Observations by fluorescence and electron microscopy revealed that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 colonized mainly intercellular spaces in the leaves of wild rice. Colony counts of surface-sterilized rice seedlings inoculated with the GFP-tagged bacteria indicated significantly more bacterial populations inside the original wild rice than in cultivated rice varieties. Moreover, after bacterial inoculation, in planta nitrogen fixation in young seedlings of wild rice, O. officinalis, was detected by the acetylene reduction and 15N2 gas incorporation assays. Therefore, we conclude that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 is a diazotrophic endophyte compatible with wild rice, particularly O. officinalis.

Elbeltagy, Adel; Nishioka, Kiyo; Sato, Tadashi; Suzuki, Hisa; Ye, Bin; Hamada, Toru; Isawa, Tsuyoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu



Root internalization, transport and in-planta survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport in sweet basil.  


It is now acknowledged that food-borne pathogens present in the irrigation water or soil can become associated with crop plants in the field, penetrate internal plant tissues via the root, translocate and survive inside plants. Only little information is available concerning interaction between enteric pathogens and plants. The present study evaluated the potential for contamination of the aromatic plant, sweet basil during cultivation, by Salmonella enterica serovar Newport. Root internalization was plant-age-dependent, with the highest susceptibility occurring at the beginning of the rapid growth phase of the root. Higher incidence of internalization was detected in vegetative than reproductive plant organs, pointing at bacterial transport in the transpiration stream. Internalized Salmonella survived only planta survival was limited to less than 30?h. These findings imply that leaf surface contamination, rather than root internalization, may pose higher risk for human infection following consumption of contaminated basil. PMID:23757144

Gorbatsevich, Elena; Sela Saldinger, Shlomo; Pinto, Riky; Bernstein, Nirit



Detection and visualization of an exopolysaccharide produced by Xylella fastidiosa in vitro and in planta.  


Many phytopathogenic bacteria, such as Ralstonia solanacearum, Pantoea stewartii, and Xanthomonas campestris, produce exopolysaccharides (EPSs) that aid in virulence, colonization, and survival. EPS can also contribute to host xylem vessel blockage. The genome of Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, contains an operon that is strikingly similar to the X. campestris gum operon, which is responsible for the production of xanthan gum. Based on this information, it has been hypothesized that X. fastidiosa is capable of producing an EPS similar in structure and composition to xanthan gum but lacking the terminal mannose residue. In this study, we raised polyclonal antibodies against a modified xanthan gum polymer similar to the predicted X. fastidiosa EPS polymer. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify production of EPS from X. fastidiosa cells grown in vitro and immunolocalization microscopy to examine the distribution of X. fastidiosa EPS in biofilms formed in vitro and in planta and assessed the contribution of X. fastidiosa EPS to the vascular occlusions seen in PD-infected grapevines. PMID:17827325

Roper, M Caroline; Greve, L Carl; Labavitch, John M; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C



A functional screen to characterize the secretomes of eukaryotic pathogens and their hosts in planta.  


Complex suites of proteins that are secreted by plants and phytopathogens into the plant apoplast play crucial roles in surveillance, assault, defense, and counter-defense. High-throughput genome-scale strategies are being developed to better understand the nature of these "secretomes" and the identity of pathogen-derived effector proteins that subvert plant defenses and promote pathogenicity. Although combined bioinformatic and experimental approaches recently have provided comprehensive coverage of secreted proteins from bacterial phytopathogens, far less is known about the secretomes and batteries of effectors of eukaryotic phytopathogens; notably fungi and oomycetes. The yeast secretion trap (YST) represents a potentially valuable technique to simultaneously target pathogen and host secretomes in infected plant material. A YST screen, using a new vector system, was applied to study the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, revealing sets of genes encoding secreted proteins from both pathogen and host. Most of those from the oomycete had no identifiable function and were detectable in planta only during pathogenesis, underlining the value of YST as a tool to identify new candidate effectors and pathogenicity factors. In addition, the majority of the P. infestans proteins had homologs in the genomes of the related oomycetes R. sojae and P. ramorum. PMID:17153921

Lee, Sang-Jik; Kelley, Brendan S; Damasceno, Cynthia M B; St John, Bonnie; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Byung-Dong; Rose, Jocelyn K C



Detection and Visualization of an Exopolysaccharide Produced by Xylella fastidiosa In Vitro and In Planta?  

PubMed Central

Many phytopathogenic bacteria, such as Ralstonia solanacearum, Pantoea stewartii, and Xanthomonas campestris, produce exopolysaccharides (EPSs) that aid in virulence, colonization, and survival. EPS can also contribute to host xylem vessel blockage. The genome of Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, contains an operon that is strikingly similar to the X. campestris gum operon, which is responsible for the production of xanthan gum. Based on this information, it has been hypothesized that X. fastidiosa is capable of producing an EPS similar in structure and composition to xanthan gum but lacking the terminal mannose residue. In this study, we raised polyclonal antibodies against a modified xanthan gum polymer similar to the predicted X. fastidiosa EPS polymer. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify production of EPS from X. fastidiosa cells grown in vitro and immunolocalization microscopy to examine the distribution of X. fastidiosa EPS in biofilms formed in vitro and in planta and assessed the contribution of X. fastidiosa EPS to the vascular occlusions seen in PD-infected grapevines.

Roper, M. Caroline; Greve, L. Carl; Labavitch, John M.; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C.



Rapid in planta evaluation of root expressed transgenes in chimeric soybean plants.  


Production of stable transgenic plants is one factor that limits rapid evaluation of tissue specific transgene expression. To hasten the assessment of transgenes in planta, we evaluated the use of chimeric soybean seedlings expressing transgenic products in roots. Tap roots from four-day old seedlings (cultivars 'Jack' and KS4704) were excised and hairy roots were induced from hypocotyls via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Inoculated hypocotyls were screened on a MS-based medium containing either 200 mg/L kanamycin or 20 mg/L hygromycin. Beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity assay indicated that highest GUS expression was observed in hypocotyls exposed to a 4-d pre-inoculation time, a neutral pH (7.0) for the co-cultivation medium. A 170-bp of the Fib-1 gene and 292-bp of the Y25C1A.5 gene fragments, both related to nematode reproduction and fitness, were cloned independently into pANDA35HK vector using a Gateway cloning strategy. The resulting RNAi constructs of the genes fragments were transformed into soybean using the chimeric hairy root system and evaluated for its effect on soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) fecundity. Confirmation of transformation was attained by polymerase chain reaction and Southern-blot analysis, and some potential for suppression of H. glycines reproduction was detected for the two constructs. This method takes on average four weeks to produce chimeric plants ready for transgene analysis. PMID:20012965

Li, Jiarui; Todd, Timothy C; Trick, Harold N



Mexican papita viroid and tomato planta macho viroid belong to a single species in the genus Pospiviroid.  


Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) and Mexican papita viroid (MPVd) are two closely related (>90% sequence identity) members of the genus Pospiviroid. Their current status as members of separate species is based upon the reported ability of TPMVd to replicate in Gomphrena globosa and the inability of this viroid to evoke flower break in N. glutinosa. Characterization of a viroid recently isolated from diseased tomato plants grown in Mexico (identical to GenBank accession GQ131573) casts doubt on this earlier report and indicates that these viroids should be classified as members of a single species. Giving priority to the older name, we propose including both of these viroids in the current species Tomato planta macho viroid. PMID:21442229

Verhoeven, J Th J; Roenhorst, J W; Owens, R A



Phylogeny of nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted proteins supports an early divergence of glaucophytes within Plantae.  


The phylogenetic position of the glaucophyte algae within the eukaryotic supergroup Plantae remains to be unambiguously established. Here, we assembled a multigene data set of conserved nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted proteins of cyanobacterial origin (i.e., through primary endosymbiotic gene transfer) from glaucophyte, red, and green (including land plants) algae to infer the branching order within this supergroup. We find strong support for the early divergence of glaucophytes within the Plantae, corroborating 2 important putatively ancestral characters shared by glaucophyte plastids and the cyanobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to this organelle: the presence of a peptidoglycan deposition between the 2 organelle membranes and carboxysomes. Both these traits were apparently lost in the common ancestor of red and green algae after the divergence of glaucophytes. PMID:17827169

Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Bhattacharya, Debashish




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Foram conduzidos dois experimentos de campo com o feijão -mungo-verde (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), variedade Ouro Verde: um no verão-outono e outro na primavera-verão, em Coimbra -MG, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes herbicidas sobre o control e de plantas daninhas e sobre a cultura. Foi usado o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com



An efficient in planta transformation of Jatropha curcas (L.) and multiplication of transformed plants through in vivo grafting.  


An efficient and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transformation was developed in Jatropha curcas. The various factors affecting J. curcas in planta transformation were optimized, including decapitation, Agrobacterium strain, pin-pricking, vacuum infiltration duration and vacuum pressure. Simple vegetative in vivo cleft grafting method was adopted in the multiplication of transformants without the aid of tissue culture. Among the various parameters evaluated, decapitated plants on pin-pricking and vacuum infiltrated at 250 mmHg for 3 min with the Agrobacterium strain EHA 105 harbouring the binary vector pGA 492 was proved to be efficient in all terms with a transformation efficiency of 62.66%. Transgene integration was evinced by the GUS histochemical analysis, and the GUS positive plants were subjected to grafting. Putatively transformed J. curcas served as "Scion" and the wild type J. curcas plant severed as "Stock". There was no occurrence of graft rejection and the plants were then confirmed by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern hybridization. Genetic stability of the grafted plants was evaluated by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), marker which showed 100% genetic stability between mother and grafted plants. Thus, an efficient in planta transformation and grafting based multiplication of J. curcas was established. PMID:24150424

Jaganath, Balusamy; Subramanyam, Kondeti; Mayavan, Subramanian; Karthik, Sivabalan; Elayaraja, Dhandapani; Udayakumar, Rajangam; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy



Una búsqueda de la identidad regional em Astrometria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La idea sobre una reunión latino-americana que congregara a las personas que desarrollan su trabajo en el área de la astrometría, se gestó a partir de una de las reuniones que el proyecto QUEST realizaba anualmente en Mérida (Venezuela). El proyecto QUEST (Quasars Equatorial Survey Team) celebraba su IV Reunión Anual, en la cual se hacía una revisón de la marcha del proyecto durante el último año. Además, se exponían los logros científicos y técnicos alcanzados hasta el momento y se planificaba el futuro del mismo para el período anual siguiente.

Abad, C.



La reconstrucción del seno después de una mastectomía

Hoja informativa que describe la reconstrucción del seno (mama) después de una mastectomía. Contiene información sobre las opciones quirúrgicas, los cuidados de seguimiento y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de seno después de la reconstrucción.


Nodularin, a cyanobacterial toxin, is synthesized in planta by symbiotic Nostoc sp.  

PubMed Central

The nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Nostoc, is a commonly occurring cyanobacterium often found in symbiotic associations. We investigated the potential of cycad cyanobacterial endosymbionts to synthesize microcystin/nodularin. Endosymbiont DNA was screened for the aminotransferase domain of the toxin biosynthesis gene clusters. Five endosymbionts carrying the gene were screened for bioactivity. Extracts of two isolates inhibited protein phosphatase 2A and were further analyzed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS. Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' both contained nodularin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) HESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of nodularin at 9.55±2.4?ng??g?1 chlorophyll a in Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and 12.5±8.4?ng??g?1 Chl a in Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' extracts. Further scans indicated the presence of the rare isoform [L-Har2] nodularin, which contains ?-homoarginine instead of ?-arginine. Nodularin was also present at 1.34±0.74?ng?ml?1 (approximately 3?pmol per g plant ww) in the methanol root extracts of M. riedlei MZ65, while the presence of [L-Har2] nodularin in the roots of M. serpentina MZ73 was suggested by HPLC HESI-MS/MS analysis. The ndaA-B and ndaF genomic regions were sequenced to confirm the presence of the hybrid polyketide/non-ribosomal gene cluster. A seven amino-acid insertion into the NdaA-C1 domain of N. spumigena NSOR10 protein was observed in all endosymbiont-derived sequences, suggesting the transfer of the nda cluster from N. spumigena to terrestrial Nostoc species. This study demonstrates the synthesis of nodularin and [L-Har2] nodularin in a non-Nodularia species and the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin by a symbiont in planta.

Gehringer, Michelle M; Adler, Lewis; Roberts, Alexandra A; Moffitt, Michelle C; Mihali, Troco K; Mills, Toby J T; Fieker, Claus; Neilan, Brett A



Bioinspired engineering study of Plantae vascules for self-healing composite structures  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the first conceptual study into creating a Plantae-inspired vascular network within a fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminate, which provides an ongoing self-healing functionality without incurring a mass penalty. Through the application of a ‘lost-wax’ technique, orthogonal hollow vascules, inspired by the ‘ray cell’ structures found in ring porous hardwoods, were successfully introduced within a carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite laminate. The influence on fibre architecture and mechanical behaviour of single vascules (located on the laminate centreline) when aligned parallel and transverse to the local host ply was characterized experimentally using a compression-after-impact test methodology. Ultrasonic C-scanning and high-resolution micro-CT X-ray was undertaken to identify the influence of and interaction between the internal vasculature and impact damage. The results clearly show that damage morphology is influenced by vascule orientation and that a 10 J low-velocity impact damage event is sufficient to breach the vasculature; a prerequisite for any subsequent self-healing function. The residual compressive strength after a 10 J impact was found to be dependent upon vascule orientation. In general, residual compressive strength decreased to 70 per cent of undamaged strength when vasculature was aligned parallel to the local host ply and a value of 63 per cent when aligned transverse. This bioinspired engineering study has illustrated the potential that a vasculature concept has to offer in terms of providing a self-healing function with minimum mass penalty, without initiating premature failure within a composite structure.

Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.



Nodularin, a cyanobacterial toxin, is synthesized in planta by symbiotic Nostoc sp.  


The nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Nostoc, is a commonly occurring cyanobacterium often found in symbiotic associations. We investigated the potential of cycad cyanobacterial endosymbionts to synthesize microcystin/nodularin. Endosymbiont DNA was screened for the aminotransferase domain of the toxin biosynthesis gene clusters. Five endosymbionts carrying the gene were screened for bioactivity. Extracts of two isolates inhibited protein phosphatase 2A and were further analyzed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS. Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' both contained nodularin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) HESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of nodularin at 9.55±2.4?ng ?g-1 chlorophyll a in Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and 12.5±8.4?ng??g-1 Chl a in Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' extracts. Further scans indicated the presence of the rare isoform [L-Har(2)] nodularin, which contains L-homoarginine instead of L-arginine. Nodularin was also present at 1.34±0.74?ng?ml(-1) (approximately 3?pmol per g plant ww) in the methanol root extracts of M. riedlei MZ65, while the presence of [L-Har(2)] nodularin in the roots of M. serpentina MZ73 was suggested by HPLC HESI-MS/MS analysis. The ndaA-B and ndaF genomic regions were sequenced to confirm the presence of the hybrid polyketide/non-ribosomal gene cluster. A seven amino-acid insertion into the NdaA-C1 domain of N. spumigena NSOR10 protein was observed in all endosymbiont-derived sequences, suggesting the transfer of the nda cluster from N. spumigena to terrestrial Nostoc species. This study demonstrates the synthesis of nodularin and [L-Har(2)] nodularin in a non-Nodularia species and the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin by a symbiont in planta. PMID:22456448

Gehringer, Michelle M; Adler, Lewis; Roberts, Alexandra A; Moffitt, Michelle C; Mihali, Troco K; Mills, Toby J T; Fieker, Claus; Neilan, Brett A



Floral benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases: From in vitro to in planta function  

PubMed Central

Benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases synthesize methyl esters (e.g., methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate), which are constituents of aromas and scents of many plant species and play important roles in plant communication with the surrounding environment. Within the past five years, eleven such carboxyl methyltransferases were isolated and most of them were comprehensively investigated at the biochemical, molecular and structural level. Two types of enzymes can be distinguished according to their substrate preferences: the SAMT-type enzymes isolated from Clarkia breweri, Stephanotis floribunda, Antirrhinum majus, Hoya carnosa, and Petunia hybrida, which have a higher catalytic efficiency and preference for salicylic acid, while BAMT-type enzymes from A. majus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Nicotiana suaveolens prefer benzoic acid. The elucidation of C. breweri SAMT’s three-dimensional structure allowed a detailed modelling of the active sites of the carboxyl methyltransferases and revealed that the SAM binding pocket is highly conserved among these enzymes while the methyl acceptor binding site exhibits some variability, allowing a classification into SAMT-type and BAMT-type enzymes. The analysis of expression patterns coupled with biochemical characterization showed that these carboxyl methyltransferases are involved either in floral scent biosynthesis or in plant defense responses. While the latter can be induced by biotic or abiotic stress, the genes responsible for floral scent synthesis exhibit developmental and rhythmic expression pattern. The nature of the product and efficiency of its formation in planta depend on the availability of substrates, the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward benzoic acid and/or salicylic acid, and the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation at the enzyme level. The biochemical properties of benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases suggest that the genes involved in plant defenses might represent the ancestor for the presently existing floral genes which during evolution gained different expression profiles and encoded enzymes with the ability to accept structurally similar substrates.

Effmert, Uta; Saschenbrecker, Sandra; Ross, Jeannine; Negre, Florence; Fraser, Chris M.; Noel, Joseph P.; Dudareva, Natalia; Piechulla, Birgit



In planta gene expression analysis of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae, African strain MAI1  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial leaf blight causes significant yield losses in rice crops throughout Asia and Africa. Although both the Asian and African strains of the pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), induce similar symptoms, they are nevertheless genetically different, with the African strains being more closely related to the Asian X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc). Results Changes in gene expression of the African Xoo strain MAI1 in the susceptible rice cultivar Nipponbare were profiled, using an SSH Xoo DNA microarray. Microarray hybridization was performed comparing bacteria recovered from plant tissues at 1, 3, and 6 days after inoculation (dai) with bacteria grown in vitro. A total of 710 bacterial genes were found to be differentially expressed, with 407 up-regulated and 303 down-regulated. Expression profiling indicated that less than 20% of the 710 bacterial transcripts were induced in the first 24 h after inoculation, whereas 63% were differentially expressed at 6 dai. The 710 differentially expressed genes were one-end sequenced. 535 sequences were obtained from which 147 non-redundant sequences were identified. Differentially expressed genes were related to metabolism, secretion and transport, pathogen adherence to plant tissues, plant cell-wall degradation, IS elements, and virulence. In addition, various other genes encoding proteins with unknown function or showing no similarity to other proteins were also induced. The Xoo MAI1 non-redundant set of sequences was compared against several X. oryzae genomes, revealing a specific group of genes that was present only in MAI1. Numerous IS elements were also found to be differentially expressed. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed 86% of the identified profile on a set of 14 genes selected according to the microarray analysis. Conclusions This is the first report to compare the expression of Xoo genes in planta across different time points during infection. This work shows that as-yet-unidentified and potentially new virulence factors are appearing in an emerging African pathogen. It also confirms that African Xoo strains do differ from their Asian counterparts, even at the transcriptional level.



The plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora produces acyl-homoserine lactone signal molecules in vitro and in planta.  


We report for the first time the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) by Erwina amylovora, an important quarantine bacterial pathogen that causes fire blight in plants. E. amylovora produces one N-acyl homoserine lactone [a N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-homoserine lactone or a N-(3-hydroxy-hexanoyl)-homoserine lactone] quorum sensing signal molecule both in vitro and in planta (pear plant). Given the involvement of AHLs in plant pathogenesis, we speculate that AHL-dependent quorum sensing could play an important role in the regulation of E. amylovora virulence. PMID:15598530

Venturi, Vittorio; Venuti, Chiara; Devescovi, Giulia; Lucchese, Carla; Friscina, Arianna; Degrassi, Giuliano; Aguilar, Claudio; Mazzucchi, Umberto



Doble o Más: Doblar o Triplicar Una Receta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Escoja una receta para doblarla (o triplicarla, cuadruplicarla, o partirla). Enseñe la receta a todo el grupo y pregúnteles: Cuánto vamos a necesitar para incrementar la receta para que todos puedan comer? Cómo lo saben? Una vez el grupo ha decidido cómo modificar la receta, asigne un ingrediente para incrementar y medir. A medida que los chicos deciden cómo hacerlo, exploran fracciones, multiplicación, y suma. Pruebe esta actividad con comida, una ârecetaâ para combinar pinturas para conseguir determinados colores, o para hacer masilla para modelar. Disponible en formato web, en formato pdf, y en inglés.




In planta expression of a mature Der p 1 allergen isolated from an Italian strain of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.  


European (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) and American (Dermatophagoides farinae) house dust mite species are considered the most common causes of asthma and allergic symptoms worldwide. Der p 1 protein, one of the main allergens of D. pteronyssinus, is found in high concentration in mites faecal pellets, which can became easily airborne and, when inhaled, can cause perennial rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Here we report the isolation of the Der p 1 gene from an Italian strain of D. pteronyssinus and the PVX-mediated expression of its mature form (I-rDer p 1) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Human sera from characterized allergic patients were used for IgE binding inhibition assays to test the immunological reactivity of I-rDer p 1 produced in N. benthamiana plants. The binding properties of in planta produced I-rDer p 1 versus the IgE of patients sera were comparable to those obtained on Der p 1 preparation immobilized on a microarray. In this paper we provide a proof of concept for the production of an immunologically active form of Der p 1 using a plant viral vector. These results pave the way for the development of diagnostic allergy tests based on in planta produced allergens. PMID:21904913

Marconi, Gianpiero; Albertini, Emidio; Mari, Adriano; Palazzo, Paola; Porceddu, Andrea; Raggi, Lorenzo; Bolis, Luigi; Lancioni, Hovirag; Palomba, Antonella; Lucentini, Livia; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Marcucci, Francesco; Falcinelli, Mario; Panara, Fausto



Quorum-sensing signals produced by plant-growth promoting Burkholderia strains under in vitro and in planta conditions.  


The genus Burkholderia is a heterogeneous group with extraordinary nutritional versatility and which occupies a diversity of niches. In recent decades, members of Burkholderia have been shown to be active participants in plant-microbe interactions, imparting beneficial effects as plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) or as pathogens. The study of quorum sensing and cell-density-dependent gene regulation, which play an important role in host colonization and pathogenesis, is extremely important in such a versatile organism. We report the identification and characterization by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of N-acyl homoserine lactone (HSL) quorum sensing signal molecules by PGP Burkholderia. The Burkholderia spp. strains CBMB40, CBPB-HOD and CBPB-HIM investigated in this study were isolated from rice and possessed one or more PGP characteristics. Culture extracts of these strains contained detectable levels of hexanoyl (C(6)-), heptanoyl (C(7)-) and octanoyl (C(8)-) HSLs. Burkholderia sp. strain CBMB40 produced an additional molecule that migrated along decanoyl (C(10)-) HSL. Inoculation of HSL-producing Burkholderia strains through seed bacterization to canola stimulated root elongation. Signal molecules produced by Burkholderia strains could also be detected in planta, as determined by plate assays and TLC analysis of plant extracts. This study advances the hypothesis that signaling molecules by PGPB in planta might play a substantial role in increasing the pathogen resistance of plants. PMID:17350232

Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Sa, Tongmin



Characterization of in planta-induced rust genes isolated from a haustorium-specific cDNA library.  


Rust fungi are plant parasites that depend on living host tissue for growth. For invasion of leaves, dikaryotic urediospores differentiate germ tubes and infection structures that penetrate through stomata. Biotrophic growth occurs by intercellular mycelia that form haustoria within host cells. A cDNA library was constructed from haustoria isolated from broad bean leaves infected by Uromyces fabae. Differential screening revealed that a high proportion (19%) of the haustorial cDNAs are specifically expressed in planta but are not expressed, or are much weaker, in germlings or infection structures produced in vitro. A total of 31 different in planta-induced genes (PIGs) were identified. Some of the PIGs are highly expressed in haustoria. The PIGs are single or low copy number genes in the rust genome. A variety of developmentally regulated expression patterns of PIG mRNAs were observed. Sequence analysis of PIG cDNAs revealed similarities to genes encoding proteins involved in amino acid transport, thiamine biosynthesis, short-chain dehydrogenases, metallothioneins, cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases, and peptidyl-prolyl isomerases. PMID:9150592

Hahn, M; Mendgen, K



Lichens from the Una National Park (Bosnia and Herzegovina)  

PubMed Central

A list of 57 taxa of lichens (56 species) from the Una National Park in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina is presented. Bacidia subincompta, Buellia griseovirens, Candelariella reflexa, Cetrelia monachorum, Fulgensia subbacteata, Lecanora subcarpinea, L. subrugosa, and Trapeliopsis viridescens are new for Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Bilovitz, Peter O.; Turk, Roman; Mayrhofer, Helmut



Unfolding of in planta activity of anti-rep ribozyme in presence of a RNA silencing suppressor.  


Antisense RNA ribozymes have intrinsic endonucleolytic activity to effect cleavage of the target RNA. However, this activity in vivo is often controlled by the dominance of antisense or other double-stranded RNA mechanism. In this work, we demonstrate the in planta activity of a hammerhead ribozyme designed to target rep-mRNA of a phytopathogen Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India virus (MYMIV) as an antiviral agent. We also found RNA-silencing is induced on introduction of catalytically active as well as inactive ribozymes. Using RNA-silencing suppressors (RSS), we demonstrate that the endonucleolytic activity of ribozymes is a true phenomenon, even while a mutated version may demonstrate a similar down-regulation of the target RNA. This helps to ease the confusion over the action mechanism of ribozymes in vivo. PMID:24735726

Mishra, Sumona Karjee; Chilakamarthi, Ushasri; Deb, J K; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar



Plastid-localized amino acid biosynthetic pathways of Plantae are predominantly composed of non-cyanobacterial enzymes  

PubMed Central

Studies of photosynthetic eukaryotes have revealed that the evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria involved the recruitment of non-cyanobacterial proteins. Our phylogenetic survey of >100 Arabidopsis nuclear-encoded plastid enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis identified only 21 unambiguous cyanobacterial-derived proteins. Some of the several non-cyanobacterial plastid enzymes have a shared phylogenetic origin in the three Plantae lineages. We hypothesize that during the evolution of plastids some enzymes encoded in the host nuclear genome were mistargeted into the plastid. Then, the activity of those foreign enzymes was sustained by both the plastid metabolites and interactions with the native cyanobacterial enzymes. Some of the novel enzymatic activities were favored by selective compartmentation of additional complementary enzymes. The mosaic phylogenetic composition of the plastid amino acid biosynthetic pathways and the reduced number of plastid-encoded proteins of non-cyanobacterial origin suggest that enzyme recruitment underlies the recompartmentation of metabolic routes during the evolution of plastids.

Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Moustafa, Ahmed



Behavior of RNAi suppressor protein 2b of Cucumber mosaic virus in planta in presence and absence of virus.  


The 2b protein encoded by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been shown as a virus counter defense factor that interferes with the RNAi pathway. The 2b gene from CMV-banana, New Delhi isolate (CMV-NDLS) was amplified from CMV infected cucumber plants to generate the sense and antisense binary vector constructs for 2b expression and repression in planta. Constitutive expression of 2b gene in healthy Nicotiana tabacum caused phenotypic aberrations during somatic embryogenesis, which were not observed when expressed in CMV infected N. tabacum. Further, the established virus population in CMV infected N. tabacum was not affected by constitutive expression and repression of 2b gene. Thus, indicating its role in initiation of gene silencing, at the early stage of viral infection. This is the first demonstration of differential behavior of 2b suppressor protein in host development in the absence and presence of virus. PMID:18438704

Praveen, Shelly; Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Singh, Priyanka; Mishra, Anil K



El Tzetz o Bledo (Amaranto): Una Planta Alimenticia de Origen Mesoamericano que Tiene Muchas Proteinas pero que se Esta Olvidando (Tzetz or Wild Amaranth (Amaranthus deulis): An Edible Mesoamerican Plant of High Protein but Forgotten).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The booklet discusses the use and history of the wild amaranth. Methods of cultivation and cooking recipes are given for the three types of wild amaranth. Suggestions for further research are also made.



Methodology for producing 100 tons of fuel peat for a cement plant test burn. Metodologia para producir 100 toneladas de turba combustible para una prueba de quema en uns planta de cemento  

SciTech Connect

As a part of the Agency for International Development-funded cooperative project between Los Alamos and Costa Rica, the burning characteristics of Costa Rican peat were to be tested in an application. The cement plant owned by Industria National de Cemento in Cartago has a capability to handle solid fuel and was chosen for the burn demonstration. The Jungle No. 1 Peat Deposit near El Cairo was chosen as the site of the peat excavation. This peat production methodology study covers project site selection, installation of an access road and clearing of the jungle vegetation, removal of an upper layer of organic peat, excavation of fuel-grade peat, transport of the peat to the drying site, and drying and stockpiling of the finished product. As of this date the peat removal for the demonstration project has been started, and a description of the operation is included as an appendix to this paper. 10 figs.

Allen, A.B.; Malavassi, L.; Ramirez, O.; Thayer, G. (Allen (Andrew), Plymouth, NC (USA); RECOPE, San Jose (Costa Rica); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))



Development of fiber optic spectroscopy for in-vitro and in-planta detection of fluorescent proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this project is to apply photonics technology to bio-safety management of genetically modified (GM) plants. The conventional method for screening GM plants is through selection using antibiotic resistance markers. There is public concern with such approaches and these are associated with food safety issues, escape of antibiotic resistance genes to pathogenic microorganisms and interference with antibiotic therapy. Thus, the strategy taken in this project is to replace antibiotic resistance markers with fluorescent protein markers that allow for rapid and non-invasive optical screening of genetically modified plants. In this paper, fibre optic spectroscopy was developed to detect and quantify recombinant green (EGFP) and red (DsRED) fluorescent proteins in vitro and in planta. In vitro detection was first carried out to optimize the sensitivity of the optical system. The bacterial expression vectors carrying the coding regions of EGFP and DsRED were introduced into Escherichia coli host cells and fluorescent proteins were produced following induction with IPTG. Soluble EGFP and DsRED proteins were isolated from lysed bacterial cells and serially diluted for quantitative analysis by fibre optic spectroscopy using different light sources, namely, blue LED (475 nm), tungsten halogen (350 - 1000 nm) and double frequency Nd:YAG green laser (532 nm). Fluorescence near the expected emission wavelengths could be detected up to 320X dilution for EGFP and DsRED with blue LED and 532 nm green laser, respectively, as the excitation source. Tungsten halogen was found to be unsuitable for excitation of both EGFP and DsRED. EGFP was successfully purified by size separation under non-denaturing electrophoretic conditions and quantified. The minimum concentration of EGFP detectable with blue LED excitation was 5 mg/ml. To determine the capability of spectroscopy detection in planta, transgenic potato hairy roots and whole modified plant lines expressing the fluorescent markers were regenerated. T

Liew, Oi Wah; Chen, Jun-Wei; Asundi, Anand K.



Roquefortine/oxaline biosynthesis pathway metabolites in Penicillium ser. Corymbifera: in planta production and implications for competitive fitness.  


Three strains of each of the seven taxa comprising the Penicillium series Corymbifera were surveyed by direct injection mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography-MS for the production of terrestric acid and roquefortine/oxaline biosynthesis pathway metabolites when cultured upon macerated tissue agars prepared from Allium cepa, Zingiber officinale, and Tulipa gesneriana, and on the defined medium Czapek yeast autolysate agar (CYA). A novel solid-phase extraction methodology was applied for the rapid purification of roquefortine metabolites from a complex matrix. Penicillium hordei and P. venetum produced roquefortine D and C, whereas P. hirsutum produced roquefortine D and C and glandicolines A and B. P. albocoremium, P. allii, and P. radicicola carried the pathway through to meleagrin, producing roquefortine D and C, glandicolines A and B, and meleagrin. P. tulipae produced all previously mentioned metabolites yet carried the pathway through to an end product recognized as epi-neoxaline, prompting the proposal of a roquefortine/epi-neoxaline biogenesis pathway. Terrestric acid production was stimulated by all Corymbifera strains on plant-derived media compared to CYA controls. In planta, production of terrestric acid, roquefortine C, glandicolines A and B, meleagrin, epi-neoxaline, and several other species-related secondary metabolites were confirmed from A. cepa bulbs infected with Corymbifera strains. The deposition of roquefortine/oxaline pathway metabolites as an extracellular nitrogen reserve for uptake and metabolism into growing mycelia and the synergistic role of terrestric acid and other Corymbifera secondary metabolites in enhancing the competitive fitness of Corymbifera species in planta are proposed. PMID:16195849

Overy, D P; Nielsen, K F; Smedsgaard, J



The small subunit of snapdragon geranyl diphosphate synthase modifies the chain length specificity of tobacco geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase in planta.  


Geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the precursor of many monoterpene end products, is synthesized in plastids by a condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) in a reaction catalyzed by homodimeric or heterodimeric GPP synthase (GPPS). In the heterodimeric enzymes, a noncatalytic small subunit (GPPS.SSU) determines the product specificity of the catalytic large subunit, which may be either an active geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) or an inactive GGPPS-like protein. Here, we show that expression of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) GPPS.SSU in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants increased the total GPPS activity and monoterpene emission from leaves and flowers, indicating that the introduced catalytically inactive GPPS.SSU found endogenous large subunit partner(s) and formed an active snapdragon/tobacco GPPS in planta. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and in vitro enzyme analysis of individual and hybrid proteins revealed that two of four GGPPS-like candidates from tobacco EST databases encode bona fide GGPPS that can interact with snapdragon GPPS.SSU and form a functional GPPS enzyme in plastids. The formation of chimeric GPPS in transgenic plants also resulted in leaf chlorosis, increased light sensitivity, and dwarfism due to decreased levels of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and gibberellins. In addition, these transgenic plants had reduced levels of sesquiterpene emission, suggesting that the export of isoprenoid intermediates from the plastids into the cytosol was decreased. These results provide genetic evidence that GPPS.SSU modifies the chain length specificity of phylogenetically distant GGPPS and can modulate IPP flux distribution between GPP and GGPP synthesis in planta. PMID:20028839

Orlova, Irina; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Kish, Christine M; Gutensohn, Michael; Maeda, Hiroshi; Varbanova, Marina; Fridman, Eyal; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Hanada, Atsushi; Kamiya, Yuji; Krichevsky, Alexander; Citovsky, Vitaly; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia




Microsoft Academic Search

En el presente trabajo se presenta la concepción, construcción, y pruebas de factibilidad de un secador solar de cubierta de polietileno introducido en una Unidad Básica Económica del MINAGRI , en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. El secador fue evaluado utilizando instrumentos y técnicas de precisión para medir radiación solar y temperaturas del aire, lo que permitió hacer

Ciro César Bergues Ricardo; Pedro Griñàn Villafañe; Jorge Luis Abdala R; Susana Fonseca Fonseca; Alonso Torres Ten



Cálculo de una losa de pavimento apoyada en toda su extensión sobre una base granular con carga de esquina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se desarrolla el cálculo de un losa firme de hormigón apoyada sobre una base granular de módulo de reacción ?.\\u000aEl método ideado para este cálculo se basa en suponer las ecuaciones dadas por la elasticidad, válidas a cierta\\u000adistancia de los puntos de aplicación de las cargas (hipótesis de Saint-Venant), considerando un estado de\\u000adeformación cilíndrica. Para aplicar dichas

Javier Jenaro Mac-Lennan



Hígado Graso no Alcohólico: una entidad cada vez más frecuente y de pronóstico incierto  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN La enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólica, en inglés non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), es definida como una acumulación excesiva de grasa en los hepatocitos. Presenta una prevalencia mundial de alrededor del 15 al 25%. Los factores de riesgo asociados frecuentemente a NAFLD son obesidad, diabetes tipo 2 y dislipemia. Por un lado se ha propuesto que una

Andrea Mariel Actis


cis-Prenyltransferase atCPT6 produces a family of very short-chain polyisoprenoids in planta.  


cis-Prenyltransferases (CPTs) comprise numerous enzymes synthesizing isoprenoid hydrocarbon skeleton with isoprenoid units in the cis (Z) configuration. The chain-length specificity of a particular plant CPT is in most cases unknown despite thecomposition of the accumulated isoprenoids in the tissue of interest being well established. In this report AtCPT6, one of the nine Arabidopsis thaliana CPTs, is shown to catalyze the synthesis of a family of very short-chain polyisoprenoid alcohols of six, seven, and eight isoprenoid units, those of seven units dominating The product specificity of AtCPT6 was established in vivo following its expression in the heterologous system of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was confirmed by the absence of specific products in AtCPT6 T-DNA insertion mutants and their overaccumulation in AtCPT6-overexpressing plants. These observations are additionally validated in silico using an AtCPT6 model obtained by homology modeling. AtCPT6 only partially complements the function of the yeast homologue of CPT-Rer2 since it restores the growth but not protein glycosylation in rer2delta yeast.This is the first in planta characterization of specific products of a plant CPT producing polyisoprenoids. Their distribution suggests that a joint activity of several CPTs is required to produce the complex mixture of polyisoprenoid alcohols found in Arabidopsis roots. PMID:24291644

Surmacz, Liliana; Plochocka, Danuta; Kania, Magdalena; Danikiewicz, Witold; Swiezewska, Ewa



In planta stage-specific fungal gene profiling elucidates the molecular strategies of Fusarium graminearum growing inside wheat coleoptiles.  


The ascomycete Fusarium graminearum is a destructive fungal pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum). To better understand how this pathogen proliferates within the host plant, we tracked pathogen growth inside wheat coleoptiles and then examined pathogen gene expression inside wheat coleoptiles at 16, 40, and 64 h after inoculation (HAI) using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis. We identified 344 genes that were preferentially expressed during invasive growth in planta. Gene expression profiles for 134 putative plant cell wall-degrading enzyme genes suggest that there was limited cell wall degradation at 16 HAI and extensive degradation at 64 HAI. Expression profiles for genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related enzymes suggest that F. graminearum primarily scavenges extracellular ROS before a later burst of extracellular ROS is produced by F. graminearum enzymes. Expression patterns of genes involved in primary metabolic pathways suggest that F. graminearum relies on the glyoxylate cycle at an early stage of plant infection. A secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene cluster was specifically induced at 64 HAI and was required for virulence. Our results indicate that F. graminearum initiates infection of coleoptiles using covert penetration strategies and switches to overt cellular destruction of tissues at an advanced stage of infection. PMID:23266949

Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Jia, Lei-Jie; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Gang; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua



In planta effector competition assays detect Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis effectors that contribute to virulence and localize to different plant subcellular compartments.  


The genome of the pathogenic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis is predicted to encode at least 134 high-confidence effectors (HaRxL) carrying the RxLR motif implicated in their translocation into plant cells. However, only four avirulence genes (ATR1, ATR13, ATR5, and ATR39) have been isolated. This indicates that identification of HaRxL effectors based on avirulence is low throughput. We aimed at rapidly identifying H. arabidopsidis effectors that contribute to virulence by developing methods to detect and quantify multiple candidates in bacterial mixed infections using either Illumina sequencing or capillary electrophoresis. In these assays, referred to here as in planta effector competition assays, we estimate the contribution to virulence of individual effectors by calculating the abundance of each HaRxL in the bacterial population recovered from leaves 3 days after inoculation relative to abundance in the initial mixed inoculum. We identified HaRxL that enhance Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 growth in some but not all Arabidopsis accessions. Further analysis showed that HaRxLL464, HaRxL75, HaRxL22, HaRxLL441, and HaRxL89 suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and localize to different subcellular compartments in Nicotiana benthamiana, providing evidence for a multilayered suppression of PTI by pathogenic oomycetes and molecular probes for the dissection of PTI. PMID:23734779

Badel, Jorge Luis; Piquerez, Sophie J M; Greenshields, David; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Fabro, Georgina; Ishaque, Naveed; Jones, Jonathan D G



Agrobacterium tumefaciens Deploys a Superfamily of Type VI Secretion DNase Effectors as Weapons for Interbacterial Competition In Planta.  


The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread molecular weapon deployed by many Proteobacteria to target effectors/toxins into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. We report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil bacterium that triggers tumorigenesis in plants, produces a family of type VI DNase effectors (Tde) that are distinct from previously known polymorphic toxins and nucleases. Tde exhibits an antibacterial DNase activity that relies on a conserved HxxD motif and can be counteracted by a cognate immunity protein, Tdi. In vitro, A. tumefaciens T6SS could kill Escherichia coli but triggered a lethal counterattack by Pseudomonas aeruginosa upon injection of the Tde toxins. However, in an in planta coinfection assay, A. tumefaciens used Tde effectors to attack both siblings cells and P. aeruginosa to ultimately gain a competitive advantage. Such acquired T6SS-dependent fitness in vivo and conservation of Tde-Tdi couples in bacteria highlights a widespread antibacterial weapon beneficial for niche colonization. PMID:24981331

Ma, Lay-Sun; Hachani, Abderrahman; Lin, Jer-Sheng; Filloux, Alain; Lai, Erh-Min



Agrobacterium tumefaciens Deploys a Superfamily of Type VI Secretion DNase Effectors as Weapons for Interbacterial Competition In Planta  

PubMed Central

Summary The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread molecular weapon deployed by many Proteobacteria to target effectors/toxins into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. We report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil bacterium that triggers tumorigenesis in plants, produces a family of type VI DNase effectors (Tde) that are distinct from previously known polymorphic toxins and nucleases. Tde exhibits an antibacterial DNase activity that relies on a conserved HxxD motif and can be counteracted by a cognate immunity protein, Tdi. In vitro, A. tumefaciens T6SS could kill Escherichia coli but triggered a lethal counterattack by Pseudomonas aeruginosa upon injection of the Tde toxins. However, in an in planta coinfection assay, A. tumefaciens used Tde effectors to attack both siblings cells and P. aeruginosa to ultimately gain a competitive advantage. Such acquired T6SS-dependent fitness in vivo and conservation of Tde-Tdi couples in bacteria highlights a widespread antibacterial weapon beneficial for niche colonization.

Ma, Lay-Sun; Hachani, Abderrahman; Lin, Jer-Sheng; Filloux, Alain; Lai, Erh-Min



Cloning and characterization of pl1 encoding an in planta-secreted pectate lyase of Fusarium oxysporum.  


A pectate lyase (PL1) from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici was previously characterized, and evidence was obtained for its production in planta. The gene encoding PL1 was isolated from a genomic library of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Pl1 encodes a 240 amino-acid polypeptide with one putative N-glycosylation site and a 15 amino-acid N-terminal signal peptide. PL1 showed 89%, 67%, 55% and 56% identity with the products of the Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi pelA, pelB, pelC and pelD genes, respectively. A single copy of the gene was detected in different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. The pl1 transcript was observed during growth on polygalacturonic acid sodium salt and tomato vascular tissue, but not on pectin or glucose. RT-PCR showed pl1 expression in roots and stems of tomato plants infected by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. PMID:10022947

Huertas-González, M D; Ruiz-Roldán, M C; García Maceira, F I; Roncero, M I; Di Pietro, A



Overexpression of the rice carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene in Golden Rice endosperm suggests apocarotenoids as substrates in planta.  


Carotenoids are converted by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases that catalyze oxidative cleavage reactions leading to apocarotenoids. However, apocarotenoids can also be further truncated by some members of this enzyme family. The plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) subfamily is known to degrade both carotenoids and apocarotenoids in vitro, leading to different volatile compounds. In this study, we investigated the impact of the rice CCD1 (OsCCD1) on the pigmentation of Golden Rice 2 (GR2), a genetically modified rice variety accumulating carotenoids in the endosperm. For this purpose, the corresponding cDNA was introduced into the rice genome under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter in sense and anti-sense orientations. Despite high expression levels of OsCCD1 in sense plants, pigment analysis revealed carotenoid levels and patterns comparable to those of GR2, pleading against carotenoids as substrates in rice endosperm. In support, similar carotenoid contents were determined in anti-sense plants. To check whether OsCCD1 overexpressed in GR2 endosperm is active, in vitro assays were performed with apocarotenoid substrates. HPLC analysis confirmed the cleavage activity of introduced OsCCD1. Our data indicate that apocarotenoids rather than carotenoids are the substrates of OsCCD1 in planta. PMID:20549230

Ilg, Andrea; Yu, Qiuju; Schaub, Patrick; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim



Construction of EGFP-labeling system for visualizing the infection process of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in planta.  


Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker, an economically important disease to world citrus industry. To monitor the infection process of Xac in different citrus plants, the enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP) visualizing system was constructed to visualize the propagation and localization in planta. First, the wild-type Xac was isolated from the diseased leaves of susceptible 'Bingtang' sweet orange, and then the isolated Xac was labeled with EGFP by triparental mating. After PCR identification, the growth kinetics and pathogenicity of the transformants were analyzed in comparison with the wild-type Xac. The EGFP-labeled bacteria were inoculated by spraying on the surface and infiltration in the mesophyll of 'Bingtang' sweet orange leaves. The bacterial cell multiplication and diffusion processes were observed directly under confocal laser scanning microscope at different intervals after inoculation. The results indicated that the EGFP-labeled Xac releasing clear green fluorescence light under fluorescent microscope showed the infection process and had the same pathogenicity as the wild type to citrus. Consequently, the labeled Xac demonstrated the ability as an efficient tool to monitor the pathogen infection. PMID:22674174

Liu, Li-Ping; Deng, Zi-Niu; Qu, Jin-Wang; Yan, Jia-Wen; Catara, Vittoria; Li, Da-Zhi; Long, Gui-You; Li, Na



An anatomic study of the quadratus plantae in relation to tendinous slips of the flexor hallucis longus for gait analysis.  


The aim of this study was to demonstrate the morphology of the quadratus plantae (QP) in relation to the tendinous slips of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and their surrounding structures, thereby providing data to understand function of the QP during gait, and for analyzing the movements of the foot and designing postoperative rehabilitation programs. The QP was investigated in 50 specimens of embalmed adult cadavers. The QP inserted into the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and the tendinous slips of the FHL in 96%, and only to the tendon of the FDL in 4%. The tendinous slip of the FHL targeted the tendon for the second toe in 4 of the 50 specimens (8%). The tendinous slip divided into two separate slips to the tendons for the second and third toes in 32 specimens (64%), and for the second, third, and fourth toes in 14 specimens (28%). Thus, the tendon and tendinous slips of the FHL may distribute the load of the great toe to the second toe to the third or fourth toe in the forefoot, especially during toe-off. In addition, the main attachment of the QP to the tendinous slips of the FHL may provide more efficient control of the long flexor tendons in comparison with that of the QP to the tendon of the FDL. PMID:21812033

Hur, Mi-Sun; Kim, Jae-Hyoun; Woo, Jung-Su; Choi, Byoung-Young; Kim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Kyu-Seok



Functional characterisation of metal(loid) processes in planta through the integration of synchrotron techniques and plant molecular biology  

PubMed Central

Functional characterisation of the genes regulating metal(loid) homeostasis in plants is a major focus of crop biofortification, phytoremediation, and food security research. This paper focuses on the potential for advancing plant metal(loid) research by combining molecular biology and synchrotron-based techniques. Recent advances in x-ray focussing optics and fluorescence detection have greatly improved the potential of synchrotron techniques for plant science research, allowing metal(loids) to be imaged in vivo in hydrated plant tissues at sub-micron resolution. Laterally resolved metal(loid) speciation can also be determined. By using molecular techniques to probe the location of gene expression and protein localisation and combining it with this synchrotron-derived data, functional information can be effectively and efficiently assigned to specific genes. This paper provides a review of the state of the art in this field, and provides examples as to how synchrotron-based methods can be combined with molecular techniques to facilitate functional characterisation of genes in planta.

Donner, Erica; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lombi, Enzo



Identification of Epichlo? Endophytes In Planta by a Microsatellite-Based PCR Fingerprinting Assay with Automated Analysis  

PubMed Central

Epichloë endophytes are a group of filamentous fungi that include both sexual (Epichloë) and asexual (Neotyphodium) species. As a group they are genetically diverse and form both antagonistic and mutualistic associations with temperate grasses. We report here on the development of a microsatellite-based PCR system for fingerprinting this group of fungi with template isolated from either culture or infected plant material. M13mp19 partial genomic libraries were constructed for size-fractionated genomic DNA from two endophyte strains. These libraries were screened with a mixture of DIG-labeled dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeat probes. Positive clones were sequenced, and nine unique microsatellite loci were identified. An additional microsatellite was serendipitously identified in the 3? untranscribed region of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase gene from N. lolii Lp19. Primers were designed for each locus and a panel of endophytes, from different taxonomic groupings, was screened to determine the degree of polymorphism. On the basis of these results a multiplex assay was developed for strain identification with fluorescently labeled primers for five of these loci. Using this system the size of the products amplified can be precisely determined by automated analysis, and an allele profile for each strain can be readily generated. The assay was shown to resolve endophyte groupings to the level of known isozyme phenotype groupings. In a blind test the assay was used successfully to identify a set of endophytes in planta. A reference database of allele sizes has been established for the panel of endophytes examined, and this will be expanded as new strains are analyzed.

Moon, Christina D.; Tapper, Brian A.; Scott, Barry



In planta analysis of a cis-regulatory cytokinin response motif in Arabidopsis and identification of a novel enhancer sequence.  


The phytohormone cytokinin plays a key role in regulating plant growth and development, and is involved in numerous physiological responses to environmental changes. The type-B response regulators, which regulate the transcription of cytokinin response genes, are a part of the cytokinin signaling system. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 11 type-B response regulators (type-B ARRs), and some of them were shown to bind in vitro to the core cytokinin response motif (CRM) 5'-(A/G)GAT(T/C)-3' or, in the case of ARR1, to an extended motif (ECRM), 5'-AAGAT(T/C)TT-3'. Here we obtained in planta proof for the functionality of the latter motif. Promoter deletion analysis of the primary cytokinin response gene ARR6 showed that a combination of two extended motifs within the promoter is required to mediate the full transcriptional activation by ARR1 and other type-B ARRs. CRMs were found to be over-represented in the vicinity of ECRMs in the promoters of cytokinin-regulated genes, suggesting their functional relevance. Moreover, an evolutionarily conserved 27 bp long T-rich region between -220 and -193 bp was identified and shown to be required for the full activation by type-B ARRs and the response to cytokinin. This novel enhancer is not bound by the DNA-binding domain of ARR1, indicating that additional proteins might be involved in mediating the transcriptional cytokinin response. Furthermore, genome-wide expression profiling identified genes, among them ARR16, whose induction by cytokinin depends on both ARR1 and other specific type-B ARRs. This together with the ECRM/CRM sequence clustering indicates cooperative action of different type-B ARRs for the activation of particular target genes. PMID:23620480

Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Brenner, Wolfram G; Pfeifer, Andreas; Heyl, Alexander; Schmülling, Thomas



Effective and specific in planta RNAi in cyst nematodes: expression interference of four parasitism genes reduces parasitic success  

PubMed Central

Cyst nematodes are highly evolved sedentary plant endoparasites that use parasitism proteins injected through the stylet into host tissues to successfully parasitize plants. These secretory proteins likely are essential for parasitism as they are involved in a variety of parasitic events leading to the establishment of specialized feeding cells required by the nematode to obtain nourishment. With the advent of RNA interference (RNAi) technology and the demonstration of host-induced gene silencing in parasites, a new strategy to control pests and pathogens has become available, particularly in root-knot nematodes. Plant host-induced silencing of cyst nematode genes so far has had only limited success but similarly should disrupt the parasitic cycle and render the host plant resistant. Additional in planta RNAi data for cyst nematodes are being provided by targeting four parasitism genes through host-induced RNAi gene silencing in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, which is a host for the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Here it is reported that mRNA abundances of targeted nematode genes were specifically reduced in nematodes feeding on plants expressing corresponding RNAi constructs. Furthermore, this host-induced RNAi of all four nematode parasitism genes led to a reduction in the number of mature nematode females. Although no complete resistance was observed, the reduction of developing females ranged from 23% to 64% in different RNAi lines. These observations demonstrate the relevance of the targeted parasitism genes during the nematode life cycle and, potentially more importantly, suggest that a viable level of resistance in crop plants may be accomplished in the future using this technology against cyst nematodes.

Sindhu, Anoop S.; Maier, Tom R.; Mitchum, Melissa G.; Hussey, Richard S.; Davis, Eric L.; Baum, Thomas J.



El Teatre Principal de Figueres: una història del dinou (1814-1902)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquest article és una aproximació a la idea, el projecte i l’execució de l’equipament\\u000apúblic més rellevant que Figueres duu del segle XIX i part del XX, juntament amb la Rambla. El significat d’aquesta construcció, excessiva per a una ciutat petita, va molt més enllà de l’edifici neoclàssic, ja que suposa una nova manera d’entendre l’urbanisme públic de la mà

Alfons Martínez i Puig



Riqueza de plantas vasculares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular plant diversity (excluding pteridophytes) was analyzed for the countries of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia from information available in TROPICOS. A total of 34,286 species were registered for the three countries, distributed in 256 families and 3,309 genera. Peru is the most diverse of the three countries. Orchidaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae were the three most diverse families of the region.

Peter M. Jørgensen; Carmen Ulloa; Carla Maldonado


Requirement of the galU gene for polysaccharide production by and pathogenicity and growth In Planta of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.  


Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the causal agent of citrus canker, which has a significant impact on citrus production. In this study, we characterized the galU gene of X. citri subsp. citri. Two galU mutants (F6 and D12) were identified in an X. citri subsp. citri EZ-Tn5 Tnp transposon library. Rescue cloning, sequence analysis, and Southern blot analysis indicated that both of these mutants had a single copy of the EZ-Tn5 transposon inserted in galU in the chromosome. Further study showed that galU was required for biosynthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS; xanthan gum) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and biofilm formation. Mutation of galU resulted in a loss of pathogenicity for grapefruit. The loss of pathogenicity of a galU mutant resulted from its inability to grow in planta rather than from the effect on virulence genes. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays indicated that mutation of galU did not impair the expression of key virulence genes, such as pthA of X. citri subsp. citri. Although D12 had a growth rate similar to that of the wild-type strain in nutrient broth, no D12 population became established in the intercellular spaces of citrus leaves. Coinoculation of a galU mutant with the wild-type strain did not promote growth of the galU mutant in planta. Defects in EPS and CPS production, pathogenicity, and growth in planta of the galU mutant were complemented to the wild-type level using plasmid pCGU2.1 containing an intact galU gene. These data indicate that the galU gene contributes to X. citri subsp. citri growth in intercellular spaces and is involved in EPS and CPS synthesis and biofilm formation. PMID:20118360

Guo, Yinping; Sagaram, Uma Shankar; Kim, Jeong-soon; Wang, Nian



Bikinin-like inhibitors targeting GSK3/Shaggy-like kinases: characterisation of novel compounds and elucidation of their catabolism in planta  

PubMed Central

Background Plant GSK-3/Shaggy-like kinases are key players in brassinosteroid (BR) signalling which impact on plant development and participate in response to wounding, pathogens and salt stress. Bikinin was previously identified in a chemical genetics screen as an inhibitor targeting these kinases. To dissect the structural elements crucial for inhibition of GSK-3/Shaggy-like kinases by bikinin and to isolate more potent compounds we synthesised a number of related substances and tested their inhibitory activity in vitro and in vivo using Arabidopsis thaliana. Results A pyridine ring with an amido succinic acid residue in position 2 and a halogen in position 5 were crucial for inhibitory activity. The compound with an iodine substituent in position 5, denoted iodobikinin, was most active in inhibiting BIN2 activity in vitro and efficiently induced brassinosteroid-like responses in vivo. Its methyl ester, methyliodobikinin, showed improved cell permeability, making it highly potent in vivo although it had lower activity in vitro. HPLC analysis revealed that the methyl residue was rapidly cleaved off in planta liberating active iodobikinin. In addition, we provide evidence that iodobikinin and bikinin are inactivated in planta by conjugation with glutamic acid or malic acid and that the latter process is catalysed by the malate transferase SNG1. Conclusion Brassinosteroids participate in regulation of many aspects of plant development and in responses to environmental cues. Thus compounds modulating their action are valuable tools to study such processes and may be an interesting opportunity to modify plant growth and performance in horticulture and agronomy. Here we report the development of bikinin derivatives with increased potency that can activate BR signalling and mimic BR action. Methyliodobikinin was 3.4 times more active in vivo than bikinin. The main reason for the superior activity of methyliodobikinin, the most potent compound, is its enhanced plant tissue permeability. Inactivation of bikinin and its derivatives in planta involves SNG1, which constitutes a novel pathway for modification of xenobiotic compounds.



In planta production of two peptides of the Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) E2 glycoprotein fused to the coat protein of potato virus X  

PubMed Central

Background Classical Swine Fever (CSFV) is one of the most important viral infectious diseases affecting wild boars and domestic pigs. The etiological agent of the disease is the CSF virus, a single stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae. All preventive measures in domestic pigs have been focused in interrupting the chain of infection and in avoiding the spread of CSFV within wild boars as well as interrupting transmission from wild boars to domestic pigs. The use of plant based vaccine against CSFV would be advantageous as plant organs can be distributed without the need of particular treatments such as refrigeration and therefore large areas, populated by wild animals, could be easily covered. Results We report the in planta production of peptides of the classical swine fever (CSF) E2 glycoprotein fused to the coat protein of potato virus X. RT-PCR studies demonstrated that the peptide encoding sequences are correctly retained in the PVX construct after three sequential passage in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Sequence analysis of RT-PCR products confirmed that the epitope coding sequences are replicated with high fidelity during PVX infection. Partially purified virions were able to induce an immune response in rabbits. Conclusion Previous reports have demonstrated that E2 synthetic peptides can efficiently induce an immunoprotective response in immunogenized animals. In this work we have showed that E2 peptides can be expressed in planta by using a modified PVX vector. These results are particularly promising for designing strategies for disease containment in areas inhabited by wild boars.

Marconi, Gianpiero; Albertini, Emidio; Barone, Pierluigi; De Marchis, Francesca; Lico, Chiara; Marusic, Carla; Rutili, Domenico; Veronesi, Fabio; Porceddu, Andrea



Modelo Juan XXIII, Santiago de los Caballeros, República Dominicana: Una asociación entre el gobierno y la sociedad civil  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo describe el Modelo Juan XXIII: modelo establecido en un área urbana, con una historia de fuerte movilización comunitaria, una presencia institucional favorecedora del liderazgo comunitario y la participación, y un gobierno experimentando una estrategia de descentralización de la salud pública. Indaga si este programa ha producido los resultados tangibles para los 70,000 habitantes de las 24 barrios

Uli Locher



¿Son las políticas locales una buena estrategia para dinamizar el mercado de trabajo? Algunos elementos para el caso colombiano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: En períodos de bajo crecimiento económico, tiempos de recesión o crisis económica, implementar una política fiscal contra-cíclica puede ser una herramienta fundamental para crear empleo y dinamizar la economía. En Colombia, específicamente en las principales ciudades del país existe una posibilidad concreta para que los gobiernos locales, a través de incrementos del gasto de inversión, impacten positivamente en la

Diana Galvis G; Mauricio López Gonzalez



Relaciones interorganizacionales y el programa de las comunidades especiales de Puerto Rico: Una experiencia de \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo presenta un análisis de la exitosa experiencia del Programa de Comunidades Especiales de Puerto Rico de lucha contra la pobreza (2000-2004). El programa utilizó una estrategia de ¿gobierno conjunto¿ en que la coordinación inter-agencial y el trabajo inter-organizacional jugaron un papel estratégico. Se describe la estructura y la forma de operar del programa y se presenta una reflexión

José Sulbrandt



Surgimiento de irreversibilidad dinámica en sistemas cuánticos de muchos cuerpos: Una prueba usando resonancia magnética nuclear  

Microsoft Academic Search

La técnica de resonancia magnética nuclear permite crear una polarización local de no-equilibrio y posteriormente detectar su evolución. También es posible invenir el signo del hamihoniano dipolar efectivo y así revertir una dinámica aparentememe difusiva. generando un eco de polarización. Las mediciones en policrislales de (C~Hs)Mn(COh y de (CsHshFe mostraron ecos que se atenúan como función del tiempo tR transcurrido

Horacio M. Paslawski; Gonzalo Usaj; Rodrigo A. Iglesias


The Small Subunit of Snapdragon Geranyl Diphosphate Synthase Modifies the Chain Length Specificity of Tobacco Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase in Planta[W  

PubMed Central

Geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the precursor of many monoterpene end products, is synthesized in plastids by a condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) in a reaction catalyzed by homodimeric or heterodimeric GPP synthase (GPPS). In the heterodimeric enzymes, a noncatalytic small subunit (GPPS.SSU) determines the product specificity of the catalytic large subunit, which may be either an active geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) or an inactive GGPPS-like protein. Here, we show that expression of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) GPPS.SSU in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants increased the total GPPS activity and monoterpene emission from leaves and flowers, indicating that the introduced catalytically inactive GPPS.SSU found endogenous large subunit partner(s) and formed an active snapdragon/tobacco GPPS in planta. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and in vitro enzyme analysis of individual and hybrid proteins revealed that two of four GGPPS-like candidates from tobacco EST databases encode bona fide GGPPS that can interact with snapdragon GPPS.SSU and form a functional GPPS enzyme in plastids. The formation of chimeric GPPS in transgenic plants also resulted in leaf chlorosis, increased light sensitivity, and dwarfism due to decreased levels of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and gibberellins. In addition, these transgenic plants had reduced levels of sesquiterpene emission, suggesting that the export of isoprenoid intermediates from the plastids into the cytosol was decreased. These results provide genetic evidence that GPPS.SSU modifies the chain length specificity of phylogenetically distant GGPPS and can modulate IPP flux distribution between GPP and GGPP synthesis in planta.

Orlova, Irina; Nagegowda, Dinesh A.; Kish, Christine M.; Gutensohn, Michael; Maeda, Hiroshi; Varbanova, Marina; Fridman, Eyal; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Hanada, Atsushi; Kamiya, Yuji; Krichevsky, Alexander; Citovsky, Vitaly; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia



Valoración de impactos socio- ambientales del arbolado urbano: una aplicación a la ciudad de Santiago, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Santiago de Chile es tercero en la lista de ciudades más contaminadas de Latinoamérica, después de Ciudad de México y Sao Paulo, por lo cual la valoración ambiental y social del arbolado urbano en este contexto es de vital importancia. Los proyectos de arbolado urbano ya sea en calles, plazas, parques u otras áreas verdes tienen como propósito, por una

Carmen L. De la Maz; Claudia L. Cerd



Aparición de resistencia a herbicidas, en una población de malezas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

El uso repetido del mismo herbicida, puede provocar poblaciones de malezas que consisten de biotipos susceptibles (S) que son controlados y biotipos resistentes (R), que escapan al control para producir y retornar semilla con la característica de resistencia, al banco de semillas del suelo. Esta lección se enfocará en la dinámica poblacional de una población de malezas mezclada con biotipos S y R. Se comparará y contrastará la tasa a la que aparecen malezas resistentes en una población bajo diversas presiones de selección. ****** Esta lección se enfocará en la dinámica poblacional de una población mezclada (biotipos susceptibles y resistentes a un herbicida), y comparar y contrastar la tasa a la cual aparece resistencia al herbicida, en una población de malezas mezclada, bajo diversas presiones de selección.


La intercoperación: una respuesta a las actuales demandas del cooperativismo agrario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las cooperativas agrarias son entidades que a lo largo de la historia han demostrado una gran capacidad generadora de bienestar y riqueza para el mundo rural, constituyendo en muchas ocasiones el motor fundamental de la vida económica y social en numerosos territorios, a la vez que el principal instrumento empresarial al servicio de sus habitantes. Con todo, los importantes cambios




Una Mirada al Futuro: Doctrina, Estrategia, Nuevas Amenazas y el Rol del Poder Aéreo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemos delineado unas ideas que esperamos puedan servir para contribuir en la elaboración de la concepción Estratégica Aeroespacial y Nacional. La ocurrencia de conflictos de nuevas características que se suman a los tradicionales, hacen aún más compleja, la ya dinámica temática de la Defensa Aeroespacial Nacional. Nuestro trabajo no agota el tema ni la totalidad de las ideas relacionadas, pero

Horacio Matias Orefice


Landscape Terms and Place Names in the Trobriand Islands--The Kaile'una Subset  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief introduction to the topic the paper first gives an overview of Kilivila landscape terms and then presents the inventory of names for villages, wells, island points, reef-channels and gardens on Kaile'una Island, one of the Trobriand Islands in the Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea. The data on the meaning of the place names…

Senft, Gunter



Determinantes del precio de la vivienda en Santiago: Una estimación hedónica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siguiendo la tradición de una extensa literatura de la economía urbana, desarrollada a partir de la base teórica propuesta por Rosen (1974), aquí se utiliza un modelo de precios hedónicos para analizar la determinación del precio de la vivienda (casas) en el mercado de Santiago. La estimación empírica del modelo permite explicar sobre el 70 por ciento de la varianza

Eugenio Figueroa; George Lever


El Mercado de Transporte Aéreo: Lecciones para Chile de una Revisión de la Literatura  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la industria de transporte aéreo en Chile, existe hoy libre ingreso a los mercados, libertad de precios y una mínima intervención del estado. Sin embargo, la evolución de la industria ha generado discusión y preocupación pública en los últimos años respecto a qué tan competitivo es el mercado de transporte doméstico de pasajeros. Preocupaciones y discusiones de política pública

Claudio Agostini



Specializzazione delle strategie ed eterogeneitad i una popolazione di firm in un mercato finanziario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nei sistemi complessi quali sono i mercati finanziari sono note da tempo le leggi che regolano le grandezze macroscopiche come i rendimenti o la volatilita di uno stock. Queste leggi hanno carattere universale e non dipen- dono dal particolare mercato o periodo considerati e sono note in letteratura come fatti stilizzati. Queste grandezze sono pero il risultato di una inter-

Gabriella Vaglica; Fabrizio Lillo


Encendiendo una Llama. Bilingual Gifted and Talented Program: Overview, Identification of Students, and Instructional Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three pamphlets describe facets of "Encendiendo Una Llama," a Hartford (Connecticut) demonstration program for bilingual gifted and talented students. An overview pamphlet summarizes key aspects of the model program: identification procedures, instructional services, teacher training, parent involvement, evidence of effectiveness, implementation…

Hartford Public Schools, CT.


In un batter d'occhio... quando per parlare basta una palpebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lo sguardo rivolto verso l'alto per comunicare un assenso, le palpebre semi chiuse per esprimere un no, la mente lucida ed acuta imprigionata in un corpo che non risponde ai suoi comandi, una tabella di carta con 21 lettere gialle e verdi e Gabriele diventa \\

Anno Accademico



Valoración económica del ruido: una aplicación a través del método de transferencia de beneficios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo tiene como objetivo realizar una aproximación a la valoración económica de los beneficios de la reducción del ruido generado por infraestructuras de telecomunicaciones en cuatro zonas urbanas del área metropolitana de la ciudad de Medellín (Colombia). Así, mediante el método de transferencia de beneficios, en un horizonte a perpetuidad, se obtuvo un valor económico de $79,40 millones para

Francisco Javier Correa Restrepo; Juan David Osorio Múnera; Bernardo Andrés Patiño Valencia



Herramientas Gerenciales para una mejor Administración Ambiental Aplicables a la Región Andina  

Microsoft Academic Search

La aplicación del modelo económico basado en el desarrollo sustentable como respuesta al deterioro ambiental, es una necesidad que en la actualidad no tiene discusión. Sin embargo, entre otras razones (factores económicos, políticos y sociales), no se ha podido llevar a cabo íntegramente porque hasta el momento, no se ha desarrollado un sistema que contemple la identificación de estrategias gerenciales,




Diseño del saneamiento de Urdaibai (País Vasco) bajo una perspectiva de preservación ambiental del litoral  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los sistemas de saneamiento unitarios, del mismo modo que cualquier obra de infraestructura dispuesta a soportar fenómenos naturales, pre- sentan, inevitablemente, una determinada probabilidad de fallo, igual, a la de que los efectos producidos por estos superen a los considerados en su diseño. Por tanto, el comportamiento general de los mismos sólo puede evaluarse en términos probabilísticos. Siendo la lluvia



La incertidumbre estructural en el problema de la sostenibilidad. Una panorámica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al incorporar el aspecto humano (junto con el económico y medio ambiental), a un sistema que pretende ser sostenible, éste se convierte en un sistema complejo, reflexivo y emergente. La propiedad de la reflexividad supone la existencia de una incertidumbre que no puede reducirse de ningún modo, pero que es necesario gestionar si se pretende la sostenibilidad del sistema. Este

Estrella Bernal Cuenca




Microsoft Academic Search

La consideración de la temática ambiental en el espacio urbano, desde una perspectiva global es un fenómeno nuevo, al menos, en América Latina. Desde hace varias décadas, los esfuerzos por mejorar las condiciones ambientales en nuestras ciudades se limitaron a la construcción progresiva de sistema de captación de agua y transporte de aguas servidas, sistemas de recolección de basura, entre

Eduardo López Bastidas; Tania Goicochea Borrell



Competencia entre estímulos condicionales propioceptivos y exteroceptivos en una tarea de discriminación condicional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se realizó un experimento con sujetos humanos de edades comprendidas entre los 7 y los 53 años en el que se utilizó un procedimiento de discriminación condicional con muestras compuestas formadas por estímulos exteroceptivos (figuras geométricas coloreadas) y propioceptivos (diferentes formas de señalar tales figuras). De esta forma, los sujetos fueron entrenados a emitir una conducta diferencial ante cada muestra

María Teresa Rodríguez García; Andrés García García; María Teresa; Gutiérrez Domínguez; Vicente Pérez Fernández; Cristóbal Bohórquez Zayas



Descubrimiento de una nueva asociación OB en la Gran Nube de Magallanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En base a observaciones CCD de la binaria eclipsante Sk-67o105 llevadas a cabo en el CASLEO, se ha descubierto una nueva asociación OB a la cual dicha estrella pertenece. Este hallazgo pone en duda la existencia de las llamadas estrellas O de campo, sugiriendo que éstas podrían ser miembros de asociaciones aún no descubiertas.

Ostrov, P. G.; Morrell, N.; Niemela, V.


Year One Evaluation of "Encendiendo Una Llama" Bilingual Gifted and Talented Program. Report 80-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document reports activities of "Encendiendo Una Llama," a bilingual gifted and talented program serving 60 students in grades K through 6 in a school day resource room component or in an after school program. Twelve program objectives are outlined in terms of proposed activities, proposed evaluation, actual results, and interpretation of…

Barstow, Daniel; Roby, Wallace R.


Colonization process of olive tissues by Verticillium dahliae and its in planta interaction with the biocontrol root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7  

PubMed Central

Summary The colonization process of Olea europaea by the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae, and the in planta interaction with the endophytic, biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 were determined. Differential fluorescent protein tagging was used for the simultaneous visualization of P. fluorescens PICF7 and V. dahliae in olive tissues. Olive plants were bacterized with PICF7 and then transferred to V. dahliae?infested soil. Monitoring olive colonization events by V. dahliae and its interaction with PICF7 was conducted using a non?gnotobiotic system, confocal laser scanner microscopy and tissue vibratoming sections. A yellow fluorescently tagged V. dahliae derivative (VDAT?36I) was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens?mediated transformation. Isolate VDAT?36I quickly colonized olive root surface, successfully invaded root cortex and vascular tissues via macro? and micro?breakages, and progressed to the aerial parts of the plant through xylem vessel cells. Strain PICF7 used root hairs as preferred penetration site, and once established on/in root tissues, hindered pathogen colonization. For the first time using this approach, the entire colonization process of a woody plant by V. dahliae is reported. Early and localized root surface and root endophytic colonization by P. fluorescens PICF7 is needed to impair full progress of verticillium wilt epidemics in olive.

Prieto, Pilar; Navarro-Raya, Carmen; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Mercado-Blanco, Jesus



Activation of an Arabidopsis resistance protein is specified by the in planta association of its leucine-rich repeat domain with the cognate oomycete effector.  


Activation of plant immunity relies on recognition of pathogen effectors by several classes of plant resistance proteins. To discover the underlying molecular mechanisms of effector recognition by the Arabidopsis thaliana RECOGNITION OF PERONOSPORA PARASITICA1 (RPP1) resistance protein, we adopted an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient protein expression system in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which allowed us to perform coimmunoprecipitation experiments and mutational analyses. Herein, we demonstrate that RPP1 associates with its cognate effector ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA RECOGNIZED1 (ATR1) in a recognition-specific manner and that this association is a prerequisite step in the induction of the hypersensitive cell death response of host tissue. The leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of RPP1 mediates the interaction with ATR1, while the Toll/Interleukin1 Receptor (TIR) domain facilitates the induction of the hypersensitive cell death response. Additionally, we demonstrate that mutations in the TIR and nucleotide binding site domains, which exhibit loss of function for the induction of the hypersensitive response, are still able to associate with the effector in planta. Thus, our data suggest molecular epistasis between signaling activity of the TIR domain and the recognition function of the LRR and allow us to propose a model for ATR1 recognition by RPP1. PMID:20601497

Krasileva, Ksenia V; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Staskawicz, Brian J



In planta expression screens of Phytophthora infestans RXLR effectors reveal diverse phenotypes, including activation of the Solanum bulbocastanum disease resistance protein Rpi-blb2.  


The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans is predicted to secrete hundreds of effector proteins. To address the challenge of assigning biological functions to computationally predicted effector genes, we combined allele mining with high-throughput in planta expression. We developed a library of 62 infection-ready P. infestans RXLR effector clones, obtained using primer pairs corresponding to 32 genes and assigned activities to several of these genes. This approach revealed that 16 of the 62 examined effectors cause phenotypes when expressed inside plant cells. Besides the well-studied AVR3a effector, two additional effectors, PexRD8 and PexRD36(45-1), suppressed the hypersensitive cell death triggered by the elicitin INF1, another secreted protein of P. infestans. One effector, PexRD2, promoted cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana and other solanaceous plants. Finally, two families of effectors induced hypersensitive cell death specifically in the presence of the Solanum bulbocastanum late blight resistance genes Rpi-blb1 and Rpi-blb2, thereby exhibiting the activities expected for Avrblb1 and Avrblb2. The AVRblb2 family was then studied in more detail and found to be highly variable and under diversifying selection in P. infestans. Structure-function experiments indicated that a 34-amino acid region in the C-terminal half of AVRblb2 is sufficient for triggering Rpi-blb2 hypersensitivity and that a single positively selected AVRblb2 residue is critical for recognition by Rpi-blb2. PMID:19794118

Oh, Sang-Keun; Young, Carolyn; Lee, Minkyoung; Oliva, Ricardo; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Cano, Liliana M; Win, Joe; Bos, Jorunn I B; Liu, Hsin-Yin; van Damme, Mireille; Morgan, William; Choi, Doil; Van der Vossen, Edwin A G; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Kamoun, Sophien



Temporal and spatial regulation of the symbiotic genes of Rhizobium meliloti in planta revealed by transposon Tn5-gusA.  


Tn5-gusA promoter/probe transposons have been constructed that fuse the Escherichia coli gusA reporter gene transcriptionally or translationally with a target promoter. These have been used to monitor expression of Rhizobium meliloti symbiotic genes within alfalfa nodules. Fusions in all 11 nod genes studied show the same pattern of expression: first on the root surface, then throughout the developing nodule, then mainly in the nodule meristem, falling off progressively through the central region, and then disappearing. In contrast, fusions in all five nif genes studied, all four fix genes, and syrM show a second, different pattern: expression beginning later, first throughout the nodule except for the meristem, strongest just behind the meristem, and falling off progressively through the central region. Novel features revealed by these studies include nod expression in the meristem, regulated in planta expression of control genes nodD1 and nodD3, disappearance of nod expression late in organogenesis, and properties of syrM. PMID:2159937

Sharma, S B; Signer, E R



Mutations in the capsid protein of Brome mosaic virus affecting encapsidation eliminate vesicle induction in planta: implications for virus cell-to-cell spread.  


Positive-strand RNA viruses are known to rearrange the endomembrane network to make it more conducive for replication, maturation, or egress. Our previous transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis showed that ectopic expression of wild-type (wt) capsid protein (CP) of Brome mosaic virus (BMV) has an intrinsic property of modifying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to induce vesicles similar to those present in wt BMV infection. In this study, we evaluated the functional significance of CP-mediated vesicle induction to the BMV infection cycle in planta. Consequently, the cytopathologic changes induced by wt CP or its mutants defective in virion assembly due to mutations engineered in either N- or C-proximal domains were comparatively analyzed by TEM in two susceptible (Nicotiana benthamiana and Chenopodium quinoa) and one nonhost (N. clevelandii) plant species. The results showed that in susceptible hosts, CP-mediated ER-derived vesicle induction is contingent on the expression of encapsidation-competent CP. In contrast, unlike in N. benthamiana and C. quinoa, transient expression of wt CP in nonhost N. clevelandii plants eliminated vesicle induction. Additionally, comparative source-to-sink analysis of virus spread in leaves of N. benthamiana and N. clevelandii coexpressing wt BMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) showed that despite trans-encapsidation, CMV failed to complement the defective cell-to-cell movement of BMV. The significance and relation of CP-mediated vesicle induction to virus cell-to-cell movement are discussed. PMID:23741003

Bamunusinghe, Devinka; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Rao, A L N



Genetic modification of potato against microbial diseases: in vitro and in planta activity of a dermaseptin B1 derivative, MsrA2.  


Dermaseptin B1 is a potent cationic antimicrobial peptide found in skin secretions of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. A synthetic derivative of dermaseptin B1, MsrA2 (N-Met-dermaseptin B1), elicited strong antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria in vitro. To assess its potential for plant protection, MsrA2 was expressed at low levels (1-5 microg/g of fresh tissue) in the transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Desiree. Stringent challenges of these transgenic potato plants with a variety of highly virulent fungal phytopathogens--Alternaria, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Verticillium species--and with the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora demonstrated that the plants had an unusually broad-spectrum and powerful resistance to infection. MsrA2 profoundly protected both plants and tubers from diseases such as late blight, dry rot and pink rot and markedly extended the storage life of tubers. Due to these properties in planta, MsrA2 is proposed as an ideal antimicrobial peptide candidate to significantly increase resistance to phytopathogens and improve quality in a variety of crops worldwide with the potential to obviate fungicides and facilitate storage under difficult conditions. PMID:15947906

Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Kay, William; Misra, Santosh



In Planta Stage-Specific Fungal Gene Profiling Elucidates the Molecular Strategies of Fusarium graminearum Growing inside Wheat Coleoptiles[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The ascomycete Fusarium graminearum is a destructive fungal pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum). To better understand how this pathogen proliferates within the host plant, we tracked pathogen growth inside wheat coleoptiles and then examined pathogen gene expression inside wheat coleoptiles at 16, 40, and 64 h after inoculation (HAI) using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis. We identified 344 genes that were preferentially expressed during invasive growth in planta. Gene expression profiles for 134 putative plant cell wall–degrading enzyme genes suggest that there was limited cell wall degradation at 16 HAI and extensive degradation at 64 HAI. Expression profiles for genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS)–related enzymes suggest that F. graminearum primarily scavenges extracellular ROS before a later burst of extracellular ROS is produced by F. graminearum enzymes. Expression patterns of genes involved in primary metabolic pathways suggest that F. graminearum relies on the glyoxylate cycle at an early stage of plant infection. A secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene cluster was specifically induced at 64 HAI and was required for virulence. Our results indicate that F. graminearum initiates infection of coleoptiles using covert penetration strategies and switches to overt cellular destruction of tissues at an advanced stage of infection.

Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Jia, Lei-Jie; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Gang; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua



In Planta Biocontrol of Pectobacterium atrosepticum by Rhodococcus erythropolis Involves Silencing of Pathogen Communication by the Rhodococcal Gamma-Lactone Catabolic Pathway  

PubMed Central

The virulence of numerous Gram-negative bacteria is under the control of a quorum sensing process based on synthesis and perception of N-acyl homoserine lactones. Rhodococcus erythropolis, a Gram-positive bacterium, has recently been proposed as a biocontrol agent for plant protection against soft-rot bacteria, including Pectobacterium. Here, we show that the ?-lactone catabolic pathway of R. erythropolis disrupts Pectobacterium communication and prevents plant soft-rot. We report the first characterization and demonstration of N-acyl homoserine lactone quenching in planta. In particular, we describe the transcription of the R. erythropolis lactonase gene, encoding the key enzyme of this pathway, and the subsequent lactone breakdown. The role of this catabolic pathway in biocontrol activity was confirmed by deletion of the lactonase gene from R. erythropolis and also its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The ?-lactone catabolic pathway is induced by pathogen communication rather than by pathogen invasion. This is thus a novel and unusual biocontrol pathway, differing from those previously described as protecting plants from phytopathogens. These findings also suggest the existence of an additional pathway contributing to plant protection.

Barbey, Corinne; Crepin, Alexandre; Bergeau, Dorian; Ouchiha, Asma; Mijouin, Lily; Taupin, Laure; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc; Dufour, Alain; Burini, Jean-Francois; Latour, Xavier



A Functional Histidine-Tagged Replication Initiator Protein: Implications for the Study of Single-Stranded DNA Virus Replication In Planta  

PubMed Central

Replication initiation of nanoviruses, plant viruses with a multipartite circular single-stranded DNA genome, is triggered by the master Rep (M-Rep) protein. To enable the study of interactions between M-Rep and viral or host factors involved in replication, we designed oligohistidine-tagged variants of the nanovirus Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV) M-Rep protein that allow affinity purification of enzymatically active M-Rep from plant tissue. The tagged M-Rep protein was able to initiate replication of its cognate and other FBNYV DNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf disks and plants. The replicon encoding the tagged M-Rep protein multiplied and moved systemically in FBNYV-infected Vicia faba plants and was transmitted by the aphid vector of the virus. Using the tagged M-Rep protein, we demonstrated the in planta interaction between wild-type M-Rep and its tagged counterpart. Such a tagged and fully functional replication initiator protein will have bearings on the isolation of protein complexes from plants.

Vega-Arreguin, Julio C.; Timchenko, Tatiana; Gronenborn, Bruno; Ramirez, Bertha Cecilia




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN La crisis generalizada a que nos vemos abocados parece obedecer en g ran parte a las múltiples deficiencias que presenta por un lado el sistema educativo y por otro la teoría económica, esto se refleja en el comportamiento del sistema económico sometido a la aplicación de políticas que pretenden dar solución a problemas de una gran complejidad. Una alternativa




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen. En este trabajo se analiza el efecto ejercido por tres tipos de recubrimientos superficiales sobre las prestaciones frente al desgaste y la fatiga de una aleación de aluminio 7075, en estado T6, solubilización y maduración al pico de máxima resistencia. Los recubrimientos analizados fueron la deposición mediante la técnica de PVD de una capa de bisulfuro de molibdeno dopada

D. González; M. Brizuela; G. Atxaga; A. M. Irisarri; B. Zamorano


Una silenziosa \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A silent disease: our patients' low health literacy levels Health literacy is defined as the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. Health literacy levels may be important mediators of the relationship between socioeconom- ic inequalities and health disparities. Adults with low health literacy levels are more often hospitalized, use

Maria Francesca Siracusano; Stefania Manetti


Observaciones del disco solar y de una protuberancia quiescente en radiación ultravioleta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observaciones del disco solar y de una protuberancia quiescente en el rango de longitudes de onda ultravioleta fueron obtenidas con el instrumento CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrograph) y SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of emitted radiation) a bordo de la sonda SOHO. El propósito es investigar las velocidades macroscópicas de varias especies metálicas que se observan tanto en el disco solar como en el plasma de las protuberancias. Para calcular las velocidades del disco solar aplicamos una técnica mixta para modelar la distribución de estructuras en UV en el Sol quieto. Las velocidades macroscópicas en las protuberancias se calcularon a partir de los corrimientos Doppler en cada línea espectral y luego se tomaron las del disco solar como referencia. Obtuvimos valores absolutos para las velocidades macroscópicas entre 5 y 40 km/seg. También detectamos comportamientos diferentes en las velocidades de las protuberancias en el centro con respecto a los bordes.

Cirigliano, D.; Vial, J.-C.; Rovira, M.


Endogenous silencing of Puccinia triticina pathogenicity genes through in planta-expressed sequences leads to the suppression of rust diseases on wheat.  


Rust fungi are destructive plant pathogens. The draft genomes of several wheat-infecting species have been released and potential pathogenicity genes identified through comparative analyses to fungal pathogens that are amenable to genetic manipulation. Functional gene analysis tools are needed to understand the infection process of these obligate parasites and to confirm whether predicted pathogenicity genes could become targets for disease control. We have modified an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated in planta-induced transient gene silencing (PITGS) assay for use in Triticum spp. (wheat), and used this assay to target predicted wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina (Pt) pathogenicity genes, a MAP kinase (PtMAPK1), a cyclophilin (PtCYC1) and calcineurin B (PtCNB), to analyze their roles in disease. Agroinfiltration effectively delivered hairpin silencing constructs in wheat, leading to the generation of fungal gene-specific siRNA molecules in infiltrated leaves, and resulting in up to 70% reduction in transcription of the endogenous target genes in superinfected Pt. In vivo silencing caused severe disease suppression, compromising fungal growth and sporulation, as viewed by confocal microscopy and measured by reductions in fungal biomass and emergence of uredinia. Interestingly, using the same gene constructs, suppression of infection by Puccinia graminis and Puccinia striiformis was also achieved. Our results show that A. tumefaciens-mediated PITGS can be used as a reverse-genetics tool to discover gene function in rust fungi. This proof-of-concept study indicates that the targeted fungal transcripts might be important in pathogenesis, and could potentially be used as promising targets for developing RNA interference-based resistance against rust fungi. PMID:23110316

Panwar, Vinay; McCallum, Brent; Bakkeren, Guus



In Planta Assessment of the Role of Thioredoxin h Proteins in the Regulation of S-Locus Receptor Kinase Signaling in Transgenic Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The self-incompatibility (SI) response of the Brassicaceae is mediated by allele-specific interaction between the stigma-localized S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and its ligand, the pollen coat-localized S-locus cysteine-rich protein (SCR). Based on work in Brassica spp., the thioredoxin h-like proteins THL1 and THL2, which interact with SRK, have been proposed to function as oxidoreductases that negatively regulate SRK catalytic activity. By preventing the spontaneous activation of SRK in the absence of SCR ligand, these thioredoxins are thought to be essential for the success of cross pollinations in self-incompatible plants. However, the in planta role of thioredoxins in the regulation of SI signaling has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we addressed this issue using Arabidopsis thaliana plants transformed with the SRKb-SCRb gene pair isolated from self-incompatible Arabidopsis lyrata. These plants express an intense SI response, allowing us to exploit the extensive tools and resources available in A. thaliana for analysis of SI signaling. To test the hypothesis that SRK is redox regulated by thioredoxin h, we expressed a mutant form of SRKb lacking a transmembrane-localized cysteine residue thought to be essential for the SRK-thioredoxin h interaction. We also analyzed transfer DNA insertion mutants in the A. thaliana orthologs of THL1 and THL2. In neither case did we observe an effect on the pollination responses of SRKb-expressing stigmas toward incompatible or compatible pollen. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that, contrary to their proposed role, thioredoxin h proteins are not required to prevent the spontaneous activation of SRK in the A. thaliana stigma.

Yamamoto, Masaya; Nasrallah, June B.



Boosting In Planta Production of Antigens Derived from the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Subsequent Evaluation of Their Immunogenicity  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of swine, caused by an arterivirus, the PRRS virus (PRRSV). This virus infects pigs worldwide and causes huge economic losses. Due to genetic drift, current vaccines are losing their power. Adaptable vaccines could provide a solution to this problem. This study aims at producing in planta a set of antigens derived from the PRRSV glycoproteins (GPs) to be included in a subunit vaccine. We selected the GP3, GP4 and GP5 and optimized these for production in an Arabidopsis seed platform by removing transmembrane domains (Tm) and/or adding stabilizing protein domains, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and immunoglobulin (IgG) ‘Fragment crystallizable’ (Fc) chains. Accumulation of the GPs with and without Tm was low, reaching no more than 0.10% of total soluble protein (TSP) in homozygous seed. However, addition of stabilizing domains boosted accumulation up to a maximum of 2.74% of TSP when GFP was used, and albeit less effectively, also the Fc chains of the porcine IgG3 and murine IgG2a increased antigen accumulation, to 0.96% and 1.81% of TSP respectively, while the murine IgG3 Fc chain did not. Antigens with Tm were less susceptible to these manipulations to increase yield. All antigens were produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and accordingly, they carried high-mannose N-glycans. The immunogenicity of several of those antigens was assessed and we show that vaccination with purified antigens did elicit the production of antibodies with virus neutralizing activity in mice but not in pigs.

Piron, Robin; De Koker, Stefaan; De Paepe, Annelies; Goossens, Julie; Grooten, Johan; Nauwynck, Hans; Depicker, Ann



Post-abscission, pre-dispersal seeds of Digitalis purpurea remain in a developmental state that is not terminated by desiccation ex planta  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Seed quality may be compromised if seeds are harvested before natural dispersal (shedding). It has been shown previously that slow or delayed drying can increase potential quality compared with immediate rapid drying. This study set out to investigate whether or not there is a critical moisture content, below which drying terminates maturation events for seeds harvested after mass maturity but before dispersal. Methods Seeds of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) in the post-abscission pre-dispersal phase were held at between 15 and 95 % RH for 4 or 8 d, with or without re-hydration to 95 % RH for a further 4 d, before drying to equilibrium at 15 % RH. In addition, dry seeds were primed for 48 h at ?1 MPa. Subsequent seed longevity was assessed at 60 % RH and 45 °C. Key Results Rate of germination and longevity were improved by holding seeds at a wide range of humidities after harvest. Longevity was further improved by re-hydration at 95 % RH. Priming improved the longevity of the seeds dried immediately after harvest, but not of those first held at 95 % RH for 8 d prior to drying. Conclusions Maturation continued ex planta in these post-abscission, pre-dispersal seeds of D. purpurea dried at 15–80 % RH at a rate correlated positively with RH (cf. ageing of mature seeds). Subsequent re-hydration at 95 % RH enabled a further improvement in quality. Priming seeds initially stored air-dry for 3 months also allowed maturation events to resume. However, once individual seeds within the population had reached maximum longevity, priming had a negative impact on their subsequent survival.

Butler, L. H.; Hay, F. R.; Ellis, R. H.; Smith, R. D.



XerR, a negative regulator of XccR in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, relieves its repressor function in planta  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that XccR, a LuxR-type regulator of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), activates the downstream proline iminopeptidase virulence gene (pip) in response to certain host plant factor(s). In this report, we further show that the expression of the xccR gene was repressed in the culture medium by an NtrC-type response regulator, which we named XerR (XccR expression-related, repressor), and that this repression was relieved when the bacteria were grown in planta. Such a regulatory mechanism is reinforced by the observations that XerR directly bound to the xccR promoter in vitro, and that mutations at the phosphorylation-related residues of XerR resulted in the loss of its repressor function. Furthermore, the expression level of xccR increased even in XerR-overexpressing Xcc cells when they were vacuum infiltrated into cabbage plants. We also preliminarily characterized the host factor(s) involved in the above mentioned interactions between Xcc and the host plant, showing that a plant material(s) with molecular weight(s) less than 1 kDa abolished the binding of XerR to the xccR promoter, while the same material enhanced the binding of XccR to the luxXc box in the pip promoter. Taken together, our results implicate XerR in a new layer of the regulatory mechanism controlling the expression of the virulence-related xccR/pip locus and provide clues to the identification of plant signal molecules that interact with XerR and XccR to enhance the virulence of Xcc.

Wang, Li; Zhang, Lili; Geng, Yunfeng; Xi, Wei; Fang, Rongxiang; Jia, Yantao



Differential subcellular targeting of recombinant human ??-proteinase inhibitor influences yield, biological activity and in planta stability of the protein in transgenic tomato plants.  


The response of protein accumulation site on yield, biological activity and in planta stability of therapeutic recombinant human proteinase inhibitor (??-PI) was analyzed via targeting to different subcellular locations, like endoplasmic reticulum (ER), apoplast, vacuole and cytosol in leaves of transgenic tomato plants. In situ localization of the recombinant ??-PI protein in transgenic plant cells was monitored by immunohistochemical staining. Maximum accumulation of recombinant ??-PI in T? and T? transgenic tomato plants was achieved from 1.5 to 3.2% of total soluble protein (TSP) by retention in ER lumen, followed by vacuole and apoplast, whereas cytosolic targeting resulted into degradation of the protein. The plant-derived recombinant ??-PI showed biological activity for elastase inhibition, as monitored by residual porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) activity assay and band-shift assay. Recombinant ??-PI was purified from transgenic tomato plants with high yield, homogeneity and biological activity. Purified protein appeared as a single band of ?48-50 kDa on SDS-PAGE with pI value ranging between 5.1 and 5.3. Results of mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy of purified recombinant ??-PI revealed the structural integrity of the recombinant protein comparable to native serum ??-PI. Enzymatic deglycosylation and lectin-binding assays with the purified recombinant ??-PI showed compartment-specific N-glycosylation of the protein targeted to ER, apoplast and vacuole. Conformational studies based on urea-induced denaturation and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy revealed relatively lower stability of the recombinant ??-PI protein, compared to its serum counterpart. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of plant derived recombinant and human plasma-purified ??-PI in rat, by intravenous route, revealed significantly faster plasma clearance and lower area under curve (AUC) of recombinant protein. Our data suggested significance of protein sorting sequences and feasibility to use transgenic plants for the production of stable, glycosylated and biologically active recombinant ??-PI for further therapeutic applications. PMID:23017899

Jha, Shweta; Agarwal, Saurabh; Sanyal, Indraneel; Jain, G K; Amla, D V



El doctor Varmus dirigirá una institución "inigualable", afirma el director del NCI, doctor John Niederhuber

En un mensaje dirigido al personal del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) y a quienes se interesan por la oncología, el doctor John Niederhuber, director del NCI, aplaude el nombramiento de Harold Varmus y afirma que esta designación le "dará al NCI un liderazgo fuerte no solo en la institución sino mas allá de ella, así como una voz muy respetada en el Congreso, que abogue por los recursos que son tan necesarios para sostener la misión del Instituto.


Perspectivas de la economía española para 1998-1999: estabilidad en el crecimiento a niveles superiores a la media europea y con una tasa de paro muy elevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los datos de la contabilidad nacional trimestral (CNTR) correspondientes al tercer trimestre de 1997 señalan una fuerte desaceleración del producto interior bruto, que ha pasado de una tasa de crecimiento trimestral del 1,13% en el primer trimestre a una del 0,64 % en el tercero. Estos datos son provisionales y a la vista de la evolución de bastantes indicadores económicos

Antoni Espasa; J. Manuel Martínez


Heterochromatin heterogeneity in Hypostomus prope unae (Steindachner, 1878) (Siluriformes, Loricariidae)from Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cytogenetic analyses using C-banding and chromosomal digestion by several restriction enzymes were carried out in four populations (named A, B, C and D) of Hypostomus prope unae (Loricariidae, Hypostominae) from Contas river basin, northeastern Brazil. These populations share 2n=76 and single NORs on the second metacentric pair but exclusive karyotype forms for each locality. Populations A and B presented conspicuous terminal and interstitial heterochromatic blocks on most of acrocentric chromosomes and equivalent to NORs with differences in both position and bearing pair. Population D showed evident marks at interstitial regions and interspersed with nucleolar region while population C presented interstitial and terminal heterochromatin segments, non-coincident with NORs. The banding pattern after digestion with the endonucleases Alu I, Bam HI, Hae III and Dde I revealed a remarkable heterogeneity within heterochromatin, allowing the identification of distinctive clusters of repeated DNA in the studied populations, besides specific patterns along euchromatic regions. The analysis using restriction enzymes has proved to be highly informative, characterizing population differences and peculiarities in the genome organization of Hypostomus prope unae.

Bitencourt, J.A.; Affonso, P.R.A.M.; Giuliano-Caetano, L.; Dias, A.L.



[Il ruolo del cervelletto nella depressione unipolare e bipolare: una rassegna delle principali evidenze neurobiologiche].  


riassunto. Evidenze derivanti da numerosi studi condotti sia su pazienti affetti da patologie cerebellari sia su soggetti sani suggeriscono che il cervelletto eserciti, oltre a un ruolo ormai ben definito nel controllo e nella regolazione delle funzioni motorie, una significativa attività di modulatore del tono dell'umore, del comportamento e delle funzioni cognitive. In questo lavoro di revisione abbiamo passato in rassegna tutti quegli studi di neuroimaging volti a indagare la presenza di alterazioni cerebellari sia morfologiche sia funzionali in pazienti affetti da disturbo bipolare (DB) e disturbo depressivo maggiore (DDM), ipotizzando l'esistenza di un meccanismo fisiopatologico alla base di questi disturbi, che coinvolga, almeno in parte, il cervelletto. Allo stesso scopo, sono stati esaminati anche quegli studi post mortem che indagavano la presenza di alterazioni cellulari e molecolari a partire da campioni di tessuto cerebellare, per esempio alterazioni delle proteine mitocondriali, della tirosin-chinasi B e del brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), del fattore di trascrizione SP4, della proteina fibrillare acida della glia (GFAP). In totale sono stati esaminati 28 studi, 12 inerenti le alterazioni morfologiche e funzionali del cervelletto nel DB, 13 inerenti le alterazioni morfologiche e funzionali del cervelletto nel DDM e 4 inerenti le alterazioni cerebellari post mortem in entrambi i disturbi. Dal nostro lavoro di revisione, in linea con quanto presente nella letteratura internazionale, emerge l'interessante ipotesi che il cervelletto funzioni come un "pacemaker emotivo" e che quindi una sua lesione potrebbe tradursi nell'incapacità dell'individuo di rimanere in equilibrio sulla sottile linea dell'eutimia, giustificando in questo modo la comparsa di profonde oscillazioni emotive sia sul versante depressivo sia su quello maniacale. PMID:25000888

Minichino, Amedeo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Trabucchi, Guido; Albano, Gabriella; Primavera, Martina; Delle Chiaie, Roberto; Biondi, Massimo



In para totale...una cosa da panico...sulla lingua dei giovani in Italia (In para totale...una cosa da panico...The Language of Young People in Italy).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and analyzes the language of young people in Italy today. Particular focus is on the expressions using "para" (e.g., "in para totale" = to be very bored or worried) and the phrase "una cosa da panico" (something terrible or its opposite something wonderful). (CFM)

Marcato, Carla




Microsoft Academic Search

La presente investigación pretende reflejar una plataforma teórica-metodológica en materia de cadenas agroalimentarias, que plantea la existencia de dos ámbitos de análisis: (a) la cadena agroalimentaria y sus correspondientes eslabones y agentes; y (b) las unidades territoriales en las cuales se localizan los diversos agentes productivos que forman parte de la cadena agroalimentaria. Referente al proceso metodológico, y con la

Francisco Bijarro Hernández; David López Cantú; Juan Carlos Gutiérrez Hernández; José Erik Villado Mejía



Una Metodología para Ajustar y Compensar las Diferencias de Riesgo entre el Sistema Público y Privado de Salud en Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el marco conceptual de seguros de salud y ajuste de riesgo y a la luz de la experiencia internacional en Fondos de Compensación de Riesgos, este documento explora el problema del «descreme» que afecta al sistema de seguros Chileno. Se presenta una metodología para estimar diferencias de riesgo entre el sector público y privado de salud en Chile y

Verónica Vargas; Camilo Cid; Mauricio Matus; Iris Delgado; José Miguel Sánchez; Beatriz Heyermann; José Angulo


El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de EE. UU. y la República del Perú firman una Declaración de Intención

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer y la República del Perú firmaron una declaración de intención para compartir el interés en fomentar la investigación biomédica de oncología, basándose en la colaboración mutua de ambas entidades, así como el objetivo común de educar y capacitar la futura generación de científicos y clínicos en investigación oncológica.


Evaluación de políticas públicas para la reducción de la criminalidad en Medellín: una aproximación con dinámica de sistemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medellín ha sido una de las ciudades más violentas del mundo, pero la criminalidad ha venido reduciéndose en los últimos años. La continuidad del sendero descendiente depende de la efectividad de las políticas públicas. Esta investigación evalúa políticas públicas, tanto preventivas como punitivas, usando un modelo en dinámica de sistemas que considera la carrera criminal y la teoría económica del

Santiago Arango; John Jairo Prado; Isaac Dyner



A quencher-free molecular beacon design based on pyrene excimer fluorescence using pyrene-labeled UNA (unlocked nucleic acid).  


A quencher-free molecular beacon capable of generating pyrene excimer fluorescence has been constructed using strategically positioned pyrene-UNA monomers. Hybridization of a fully complementary RNA target was accompanied by a pyrene excimer emission increase of more than 900%, and detection of RNA in living cells was demonstrated. PMID:23693070

Karlsen, Kasper K; Okholm, Anders; Kjems, Jørgen; Wengel, Jesper



1981-82 Project Evaluation for Encendiendo Una Llama: A Program for Bilingual Gifted and Talented Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The operation of "Encendiendo Una Llama," Hartford, Connecticut's program for bilingual gifted students, was evaluated for the 1981-82 school year. A total of 173 gifted children of limited English proficiency in grades 3 through 6 were served by the program at four locations. The program, staff, objectives, and target population are described.…

Roby, Wallace


La realidad de la adquisición del lenguaje oral y escrito en una muestra de escuelas del sector sur de Santiago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen  El presente trabajo da a conocer los resultados de un estudio realizado con niños asistentes a primer año de enseñanza básica\\u000a en escuelas municipalizadas de Santiago de Chile, pertenecientes al nivel sociocultural deprivado. El grupo estaba compuesto\\u000a por niños de ambos sexos, con una edad promedio de 6 años 8 meses. Los niños fueron medidos al comienzo y al final

Carmen Díaz Oyarce; Elena Alvarez-Salamanca Mujica



Desarrollo sustentable participativo en una cuenca hidrográfica de montaña. Bosque Modelo Jujuy, Provincia de Jujuy, Noroeste Argentino  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se implementa, desde 1999, un programa de gestión de recursos naturales, tomando como unidad de manejo la cuenca del río Perico - Manantiales -150.000 ha, tributaria del río Grande-Lavayén-, que comprende biomas de Yungas, Altoandino y Chaco Serrano . Es una cuenca montañosa co n ríos torrenciales (altitudes 550-5.600 msnm) propensa a erosión hídrica, eólica y criogénica por causas naturales

Virginia Outon; Ralf Schillinger; Pedro Williams; Rolando Braun-Wilke; Guillermina Díaz



Art pop i curtmetratges a una biblioteca penitenciària: tallers de dinamització cultural a la Biblioteca del Centre Penitenciari de Joves de Barcelona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Es descriuen i s'analitzen dues activitats d'extensió cultural dutes a terme a la Biblioteca del Centre Penitenciari de Joves de Barcelona a partir d'una col·laboració externa. S'inclou una descripció del Centre, de la Biblioteca i del perfil d'usuari a qui s'han dirigit les activats. Seguidament, es resumeixen els diferents passos duts a terme per a la confecció de les activitats,

Laia Castell Padilla; Josep M. Pallisé Carreté; Núria Pedrola i Guillén; Cristina Tomàs i Humbert; Lola Burgos Oliván



Electrochemistry and in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy of pure and redox-marked DNA- and UNA-based oligonucleotides on Au(111)-electrode surfaces.  


We have studied adsorption and electrochemical electron transfer of several 13- and 15-base DNA and UNA (unlocked nucleic acids) oligonucleotides (ONs) linked to Au(111)-electrode surfaces via a 5'-C6-SH group using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning tunnelling microscopy in aqueous buffer under electrochemical potential control (in situ STM). 2,2',6',2''-Terpyridine (terpy) onto which the transition metal ions Fe(2+/3+), Os(2+/3+) and Ru(2+/3+) could be coordinated after UNA monolayer formation was attached to UNA via a flexible linker. The metal centres offer CV probes and in situ STM contrast markers, and the flexible UNA/linker a potential binder for intercalation. CV of pure and mercaptohexanol diluted ON monolayers displayed reductive desorption signals but also, presumably capacitive, signals at higher potentials. Distinct voltammetric signals arise on metal binding. Those from Ru-binding are by far the strongest and in accord with multiple site Ru-attachment. In situ STM disclosed molecular scale features in varying coverage on addition of the metal ions. The Ru-derivatives showed a bias voltage dependent broad maximum in the tunnelling current-overpotential correlation which could be correlated with theoretical frames for condensed matter conductivity of redox molecules. Together the data suggest that Ru-units are bound to both terpy and the UNA-DNA backbone. PMID:23073185

Hansen, Allan G; Salvatore, Princia; Karlsen, Kasper K; Nichols, Richard J; Wengel, Jesper; Ulstrup, Jens



La mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) como plaga y vectora de virus en fríjol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) as pest and vector of plant viruses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Resumen. La mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci es una de las plagas más ampliamente distribuidas en regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo donde afecta más de 600 especies de plantas cultiva- das y silvestres. Los daños que causa se deben a diversos efectos del insecto en las plantas atacadas, como el debilitamiento de la planta por la extracción de nutrientes;




Bancos de Genes de Plantas: Seguridad Alimenticia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article shows how genebanks are like an insurance policy for the future of agriculture, for they: conserve the diversity of plant species, offer resources for breeding of hardier crop varieties, provide food solutions in times of disaster, and safeguard food supplies for future generations.

Geoffrey C. Hawtin and Jeremy Cherfas (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute;)



In planta transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformants of Arabidopsis thaliana can be generated without using tissue culture techniques by cutting primary and secondary inflorescence shoots at their bases and inoculating the wound sites with Agrobacterium tumefaciens suspensions. After three successive inoculations, treated plants are grown to maturity, harvested and the progeny screened for transformants on a selective medium. We have investigated the reproducibility and the overall

Vesna Katavic; George W. Haughn; Darwin Reed; Marilyn Martin; Ljerka Kunst



Modelos teóricos que nos ayudan a comprender el gobierno de las sociedades cooperativas, una apuesta por el enfoque de los stakeholders  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad, el entorno competitivo es cada vez más incierto y complejo. Las características de los mercados actuales hacen que sea cada vez más difícil conseguir una ventaja competitiva sostenible en el tiempo para la empresa, por lo que hay que innovar en formas de gestión y de gobierno para ser competitivo. De esta manera, se está produciendo un

Cristina Pedrosa Ortega



L’arteriopatia perifèrica i la seva relació amb la qualitat de vida en una població amb factors de risc cardiovascular  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducció. Els pacients amb claudicació intermitent presenten elevada incidència de malaltia coronària, però freqüentment són asimptomàtics Objectiu. Determinar la prevalença d’Arteriopatia Perifèrica Silent en una població amb Factors de Risc Cardiovascular (FRCV) i la forma de presentació (insuficiència o calcificació arterial). Analitzar repercussió de la malaltia arterial perifèrica sobre la percepció de qualitat de vida relacionada amb la salut (CVRS)

Bobé Armant Francesc; Buil Arasanz Maria Eugenia; Trubat Muñoz Griselda; Allué Buil Ana Isabel; Morro Grau Amàlia; Bladé Creixenti Jordi




Microsoft Academic Search

La necesidad de recursos privados entre las ENL, tanto para su sostenimiento como para la realización de su labor requiere de estrategias organizativas cada vez más eficaces, por lo que el estudio del fundraising y su eficacia suscita un gran interés. En este trabajo, y basándonos en las conclusiones de estudios previos, pretendemos analizar la relación e influencia de una

M. B. Gutiérrez Villar; R. A. Araque Padilla; M. J Montero Simó



Los ?-agonistas adrenérgicos como modificadores metabólicos y su efecto en la producción, calidad e inocuidad de la carne de bovinos y ovinos: una revisión  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen. Los ?-agonistas adrenérgicos (?AA) se han utilizado en la producción animal, incluidos los rumiantes, propiciando una The ?-adrenergic Agonists as Metabolic Modifiers and their Effect on Production, Quality and Innocuousness of Beef Cattle and Sheep Meat: a Review Abstract. The ?-adrenergic agonists (?AA), improve animal production because they manipulate the efficiency of food use, affecting carcass characteristics and the

Ignacio A. Domínguez-Vara; Jaime Mondragón-Ancelmo; Manuel González Ronquillo; Félix Salazar-García; José Luis Bórquez-Gastelum; Andrés Aragón-Martínez



Auditoría al sistema de gestión ambiental de una cementera para determinar los porcentajes de adecuación a la norma venezolana covenin - iso 14001:2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo consiste en la combinación de técnicas de evaluación propias de estudios ambientales con procedimientos de auditoría tradicionales, con el objetivo de auditar el Sistema de Gestión Ambiental (SGA) de una empresa cementera venezolana llamada Cementos Carora C. A. siguiendo los lineamientos de la norma venezolana COVENIN ISO 14001:2005 para determinar los porcentajes de adecuación a la norma.

Alexis Colmenárez; Anoushka Colménarez



Normas Chilenas para el MACI: Una Integración de Criterios Categoriales y Dimensionales1 Chilean Norms for MACI: An Integration of Categorical and Dimensional Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Este estudio desarrolló normas chilenas para el Inventario Clínico para Adolescentes de Millon (MACI) utilizando una muestra de baremación diferenciada por sexo y dicotomizada en dos grupos, no-consultantes (200 hombres y 206 mujeres) y consultantes (212 hombres y 189 mujeres), que respondió el MACI y el MMPI-A. Con los datos MACI se desarrolló un conjunto de análisis estadísticos de

Eugenia V. Vinet



Enfoques de programación matemática fuzzy multiobjetivo para la planificación operativa del transporte en una cadena de suministro del sector del automóvil = Fuzzy Multiobjective Mathematical Programming Approaches for Operational Transport Planning in an Automobile Supply Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se presenta un modelo de programación matemática fuzzy multiobjetivo para la planificación del transporte a nivel operativo en una cadena de suministro. Los objetivos del modelo propuesto son la minimización del número de camiones utilizados y del inventario total, considerando como parámetro borroso las capacidades de los vehículos empleados. Se propone una metodología de resolución para transformar

Manuel Díaz-Madroñero; David Peidro; Josefa Mula; Francisco J. Ferriols



Estudio de los NIH revela que un resultado negativo de la prueba del VPH es un mejor predictor de un riesgo bajo de cáncer de cuello uterino que una prueba de Pap negativa

De acuerdo con un estudio en el que participaron más de un millón de mujeres, los investigadores del NCI han determinado que el resultado negativo de una prueba para la detección del VPH proporciona mayor certeza o seguridad frente a riesgos futuros de cáncer de cuello uterino que una prueba de Pap.


"Una Luna Brilla."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the "World's Largest Concerts" listing various songs to be sung by students. Includes teaching tips in the form of quotes from music teachers on aspects of music education, such as teaching rhythm. Includes information on how to access the songs. (CMK)

Teaching Music, 2002



Psicofarmacología: Una aproximación histórica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title: Psychopharmacology: A historical approach. Abstract: Psychopharmacology can be defined as a scientific discipline that studies drugs able to modify the behaviour and the mental function through its action on the neuroendocrine system. Pharmacology, bio- chemistry, psychiatry and psychology share their interest for this multidis- ciplinary field of knowledge, devoted to the analysis of the substances that alter those functions

Carmen Torres Bares; Dolores Escarabajal Arrieta




PubMed Central

El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami. Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina

Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, y Paul



Selective biocatalytic acylation studies on 5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)-2',3'-secouridine: an efficient synthesis of UNA monomer.  


Lipozyme(®) TL IM (Theremomyces lanuginosus lipase immobilized on silica) in toluene catalyzes the acylation of the 2'-OH over the 3'-OH group in 5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)-2',3'-secouridine (5'-O-DMT-2',3'-secouridine) in a highly selective fashion in moderate to almost quantitative yields. The turn over during benzoyl transfer reactions mediated by vinyl benzoate or benzoic anhydride was faster than in acyl transfer reactions with vinyl acetate or C(1) to C(5) acid anhydrides; except in the case of butanoic anhydride. The 2'-O-benzoyl-5'-O-DMT-2',3'-secouridine obtained by Lipozyme(®) TL IM catalyzed benzoylation of 5'-O-DMT-2',3'-secouridine was successfully converted into its 3'-O-phosphoramidite derivative in satisfactory yield, which is a building block for the preparation of oligonucleotides containing the uracil monomer of UNA (unlocked nucleic acid). PMID:23215547

Singh, Sunil K; Reddy, L Chandrashekhar; Srivastava, Smriti; Olsen, Carl E; Sanghvi, Yogesh S; Langkjær, Niels; Wengel, Jesper; Parmar, Virinder S; Prasad, Ashok K



Review of antiviral and immunomodulating properties of plants of the Peruvian rainforest with a particular emphasis on Una de Gato and Sangre de Grado.  


Viral diseases, including emerging and chronic viruses, are an increasing worldwide health concern. As a consequence, the discovery of new antiviral agents from plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. A number of native Amazonian medicines of plant origin are known to have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, although only a few have been studied for their antiviral properties and immunomodulating effects. Those most studied include: Sangre de Grado (drago) (Croton lechleri) in the Euphorbiaceae family and Una de Gato (Uncaria tomentosa) in the Rubiaceae family. This article reviews the chemical composition, pharmacological properties, state of current research, clinical use, and potential antiviral and immunomodulating activity of these and other plants from the Peruvian Amazon. PMID:11804547

Williams, J E



In planta mutagenesis of Src homology 3 domain-like fold of NdhS, a ferredoxin-binding subunit of the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex in Arabidopsis: a conserved Arg-193 plays a critical role in ferredoxin binding.  


Chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex mediates cyclic electron transport around photosystem I and chlororespiration in angiosperms. The Src homology 3 domain (SH3)-like fold protein NdhS/CRR31 is an NDH subunit that is necessary for high affinity binding of ferredoxin, indicating that chloroplast NDH functions as a ferredoxin:plastoquinone oxidoreductase. However, the mechanism of the interaction between NdhS and ferredoxin is unclear. In this study, we analyzed their interaction in planta by using site-directed mutagenesis of NdhS. In general, binding of ferredoxin to its target proteins depends on electrostatic interaction. In silico analysis predicted the presence of a positively charged pocket in the SH3-like domain of NdhS, where nine charged residues are highly conserved among plants. Systematic alteration of these sites with neutral glutamine revealed that only arginine 193 was required for high NDH activity in vivo. Further replacement of arginine 193 with negatively charged aspartate or glutamate or hydrophobic alanine significantly decreased the efficiency of ferredoxin-dependent plastoquinone reduction by NDH in ruptured chloroplasts. Similar results were obtained in in vivo analyses of NDH activity and electron transport. From these results, we propose that the positive charge of arginine 193 in the SH3-like domain of NdhS is critical for electrostatic interaction with ferredoxin in vivo. PMID:24225949

Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Shikanai, Toshiharu



Efecto de la irradiación luminosa en la aclimatación de Mammillaria carmenae Castañeda (Cactaceae) proveniente de cultivo in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Se reprodujo Mamillaria carmenae por cultivo in vitro a partir de areolas de una planta etiolada in vivo. Se obtuvieron plantas a partir de callos, las cuales se aclimatizaron bajo diferentes tratamientos de irradiación luminosa (50, 150 y 970 µmol m -2 s -1 ) bajo condiciones de invernadero. Durante la acli- matación se registraron la variación en el

Coca Soriano; Ortiz Montiel; Juan Gerardo; Sánchez Correa; Pérez Crisanto Joel



Microsoft Academic Search

After the Cold War, the process of internationalization evolves towards globalization in the post-capitalistic society, where knowledge is considered the most critical resource to create wealth. Understanding globalization as an interconnected process among financial, economic, social, political, and cultural elements provides the opportunity to any country to develop itself by eliminating its geographic boundaries.




A'Una ("Let's Go!")  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide, intended to aid students (grades four and above) in making their bodies a good home for their spirit, provides a variety of athletic activities and traditional Indian recipes for use in the classroom or in cultural programs. Apart from running (the major American Indian means of maintaining physical fitness), instructions are given for…

Brescia, Bill


Nós e as plantas: ontem e hoje1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plants and us: past and present). Green areas in cities and trees growing on streets and squares of urban sites are features that only recently acquired relevance in the western world. It seems that formerly urban inhabitants did not value a close proximity with plants. In the present paper it is suggested that this is a consequence of a



Elucidation and in planta reconstitution of the parthenolide biosynthetic pathway.  


Parthenolide, the main bioactive compound of the medicinal plant feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), is a promising anti-cancer drug. However, the biosynthetic pathway of parthenolide has not been elucidated yet. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of all the genes from feverfew that are required for the biosynthesis of parthenolide, using a combination of 454 sequencing of a feverfew glandular trichome cDNA library, co-expression analysis and metabolomics. When parthenolide biosynthesis was reconstituted by transient co-expression of all pathway genes in Nicotiana benthamiana, up to 1.4?gg(-1) parthenolide was produced, mostly present as cysteine and glutathione conjugates. These relatively polar conjugates were highly active against colon cancer cells, with only slightly lower activity than free parthenolide. In addition to these biosynthetic genes, another gene encoding a costunolide and parthenolide 3?-hydroxylase was identified opening up further options to improve the water solubility of parthenolide and therefore its potential as a drug. PMID:24704560

Liu, Qing; Manzano, David; Tani?, Nikola; Pesic, Milica; Bankovic, Jasna; Pateraki, Irini; Ricard, Lea; Ferrer, Albert; de Vos, Ric; van de Krol, Sander; Bouwmeester, Harro




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY DETERMINATION OF MINERALS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS. The use of vegetables has become widely spread as nourishment, medicinal and cosmetic purposes in recent years. Due to the importance of the analytical study of this class of plants, and considering the growing interest about their inorganic composition that can be represented by the significant number of publications during the last years,

Maria Mozarina; Beserra ALMEIDA; Maria de Fátima; Gomes LOPES; Célia Maria Diógenes NOGUEIRA; Carlos Emanuel de Carvalho; Noélia Maria Tavares de MORAIS


Filling the gap in LNA antisense oligo gapmers: the effects of unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) and 4'-C-hydroxymethyl-DNA modifications on RNase H recruitment and efficacy of an LNA gapmer.  


Stability against nucleases, affinity for the targeted mRNA and the ability to recruit RNase H are prerequisites for antisense oligonucleotide (AON) applications where gene expression knockdown is required. Typically chimeric gapmer AON designs are used with a central continuous stretch of RNase H recruiting nucleotides (e.g. phosphorothioate DNA), flanked by affinity and stability-enhancing modified nucleotides. However, many types of nucleotide modifications in the central DNA gap can disturb RNase H function. Here we present studies into two different types of nucleotide modifications, a flexible acyclic RNA analog named unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) and 4'-C-hydroxymethyl-DNA in the gap of an LNA (locked nucleic acid) flanked gapmer. We compared the efficacy of mRNA degradation by the gap modified LNA antisense gapmers in cell-free assays and cultured cells. This study shows that both UNA and 4'-C-hydroxymethyl-DNA gap insertions are compatible with RNase H activity when used sparingly. However, multiple 4'-C-hydroxymethyl-DNA modifications are better tolerated by RNase H than multiple UNA modifications in the gap. Furthermore, this report shows that LNA gapmer AONs with multiple 4'-C-hydroxymethyl-DNA moieties in the gap can mediate target knockdown in vivo. PMID:19603119

Fluiter, Kees; Mook, Olaf R F; Vreijling, Jeroen; Langkjaer, Niels; Højland, Torben; Wengel, Jesper; Baas, Frank



Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el que presenta mas deficiencias en el desarrollo de las competencias. El investigador recomienda disenar e implantar un curriculo basado en competencias y proveer formacion en didactica y procesos de aprendizaje a los profesores.

Rivera Pacheco, Andres


El galanteo en la adolescencia. Una El galanteo en la adolescencia. Una El galanteo en la adolescencia. Una El galanteo en la adolescencia. Una El galanteo en la adolescencia. Una apr apr apr apr aproximación desde una perspectiva de géner oximación desde una perspectiva de géner oximación desde una perspectiva de géner oximación desde una perspectiva de géner oximación desde una perspectiva de género  

Microsoft Academic Search

Courtship is the phenomenon that starts the complex link between couples. It is mediated by the social representation of a man or woman for each culture and society. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the importance of gender analysis for understanding the perpetuity of sexist patterns ant to determine the gender differences that influence the way in

Keytel García Rodríguez


Cómo sentar las bases de una justicia universal: Creación de redes internacionales y ejercicio de la responsabilidad penal en el caso de violaciones de los derechos humanos en Chile y El Salvador \\/ Grounding global justice: international networks and domestic human rights accountability in Chile and El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Para algunos, la detención en Londres del ex-dictador chileno Augusto Pinochet, en 1998, fue una demostración paradigmática de la posible eficacia de las así llamadas «redes globales de la sociedad civil» para hacer efectiva la responsabilidad penal de ex Jefes de Estado por crímenes contra la humanidad. Sin embargo, el presente artículo cuestiona la eficacia de las acciones que pueden

Cath Collins



Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen bajando y contribuyen a reducción de índices generales de muertes por cáncer; Informe Anual a la Nación tiene una sección especial de los efectos de otras enfermedades en la supervivencia de pacientes

El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos que tienen otras enfermedades en la supervivencia de pacientes con cáncer.


Estrés y dolor crónico: una perspectiva endocrinológica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic stress, understood as a disturbance of the body homeostasis, is partially driven by many hormonal pathways. Prolactine, TSH (Thyrotropin), vasopresin, FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone), LH (Luteinizing Hormone), and GH (Growth Hormone) have been involved in many stress reactions. In acute stress, there are many evidences for the increased both cathecolaminergic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In chronic conditions, these hyperactivations are controversial

Guillem Cuatrecasas Cambra



Una “discussione in rete” con Stanley Wilder  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 4th January 2005 the USA Information Literacy community is shocked by the Stanley Wilder's article “Information Literacy Makes all the Wrong Assumptions” published on The Chronicle of Higher Education. The article strongly criticises against Information Literacy and academic libraries. As a reaction, an intense debate immediately arises within the USA Information Literacy community through the ILI-L discussion list. The

Basile Carla



Ciencia, Sociedad, Soluciones: Una Introduccion al USGS  

USGS Publications Warehouse

El USGS sirve a la nacion de los Estados Unidos proveyendo informacion fidedigna para ? Describir y comprender la Tierra; ? Minimizar la perdida de vidas y propiedades por desastres naturales; ? Manejar los recursos hidrologicos, biologicos, energeticos y minerales; y ? Mejorar y proteger nuestra calidad de vida.

Geological Survey (U.S.)




Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the state of the knowledge in creativity research and to present a new perspective to what has been published before. A secondary aim is to look for a different approach to use this construct in the educational area, mainly at the college level, and how it relates to the human movement sciences.

Yamileth Chacón Araya



La salud del varón: ¿todavía una quimera?  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of this opinion article, which was presented at the Third Parallel ASESA-SPA Symposium in the last ESSM Congress held in Lisbon, set out in sections: introduction and historic background until the present (Is there also a sex difference in health?, What can be done?, and, What should be the social and professional response to this evidence?), we will

Jordi Cortada Robert



Elementos para una teoria sociológica del consumo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elements to a sociological theory of consumption The practice of consumption is in the center of the social reproduction process in developed societies. Nevertheless, tonsumption continues to be peripheral in socio- logical theory. On the other hand, sociological theory needs to work in concrete fields of practices. This paper is proposed as a step to a sociological theory of consumption.

Javier Callejo



Hacia una Maternidad Segura (Making Motherhood Safe).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To assist policymakers and program managers to design and implement programs to reduce maternal mortality, the paper discusses the lessons for reducing maternal mortality derived from experience and research in both developing and industrial countries. Th...

A. Tinker M. A. Koblinsky P. Daley C. Rooney C. Leighton M. Griffiths A. A. Z. Huque B. Kwast



Alimentos funcionales, una nueva alternativa de alimentación  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of foods that in addition to providing basic nutrition may help cure and prevent some diseases is one of the most innovative aspects that the 21st century offers. Foods that reduce cholesterol intake, help weight loss, avoid osteoporosis, regulate blood pressure and even candy that prevents dental cavities can habitually be found in many supermarkets around the world.



COMERCIALIZAÇÃO DE FLORES E PLANTAS ORNAMENTAIS NO SEGMENTO VAREJISTA NO MUNICÍPIO DE LAVRAS\\/MG Flowes and ornamentals plantas commercialization in retailer segment at Lavras\\/MG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamentals plants and flowers Brazilian market has been presenting increase perspectives and consequent increment for the main segments of productive system: production, distribution and commercialization. This optimist prevision has been attracting new undertakes occasioning an increase of competition and the search necessity for new products and services. To understand the ornamental plants and flower new tendency and to analyze the

Marina Ceratti; Patrícia Duarte; Oliveira Paiva; Magno de Sousa; Thaísa Silva Tavares



Microsoft Academic Search

ReSUMeN El peso de nacimiento en relación con la edad gestacional, tiene valor pronóstico y sirve para el manejo clínico del recién nacido. La OMS recomienda patrones de crecimiento fetal en los centros perinatológicos, pues se detecta diferencias según países y condiciones de vida. Objetivos. Obtener una curva de referencia peruana del peso de nacimiento para la edad gestacional (CR-PNEG),

Manuel Ticona-Rendón; Diana Huanco-Apaza


A Bükki-terrénum (É-Magyarország), a Jadari-terrénum (ÉNy-Szerbia) és a Sana-Unai- terrénum (ÉNy-Bosznia) karbon, perm és triász rétegsorainak összehasonlítása Correlation of the Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic sequences of the Bükk, Jadar and Sana-Una Terrains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the Hungarian-Serbian cooperation aiming the correlation of Upper Palaeozoic - Triassic series of the Bükk (N Hungary), Jadar (NW Serbia) and Sana-Una (NW Bosnia) terrains are summarised in Hungarian, previously presented in English in PROTI? et al. (2000) and in FILIPOVI? et al. (2003). Comparison with the classical Upper Palaeozoic sequences of the Carnic Alps (Austria\\/Italy, previously presented




Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper several calculations of the stress intensity factor of a circular crack embedded in a fiber under tension are presented. A 3-D finite element model has been developed where the KI value has been computed through the displacement method. Four different crack sizes have been studied varying the position of each inside the fiber cross section. Results show

C. Rosselló; G. V. Guinea; M. Elices


REACH: una reforma ambiciosa reducida a una versión light por la industria química  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in the market regualtions on chemical products are the legislative development with the highest impact on occupational health since the Framework Directive in 1989. Workers exposure to dangerous chemicals causes more deaths than work accidents, since chemical risks prevention in the working places is cleraly insufficient. One of the cotributing factors is the inadequate regulation on production and

Laurent VOGEL


Armonización legislativa en materia societaria en el Mercosur: una necesidad o una quimera?  

Microsoft Academic Search

La década del noventa puede ser sencillamente indicada como hito en cuanto a un desmesurado proceso globalizador en marcha. La llamada aldea global presenta un desarrollo cada vez más veloz que involucra distintas variables. Como consecuencia inmediata de tal realidad se destaca un notable incremento de los negocios internacionales, en especial en todo lo relativo a los espacios integrados. Aparece

Sara Lidia Feldstein de Cárdenas; Luciana Scotti; Mónica Rodriguez; Flavia Medina; Vera Baez Peña Wirt; Yamila Cárdenas


El proyecto Cajal4EU inicia desde Zaragoza su trabajo en Europa Alrededor de medio centenar de representantes de las empresas participantes en el Proyecto Cajal4EU se han reunido en Zaragoza en una jornada que servirá de arranque de los trabajos de este grupo. El objetivo de este proyecto es la producción de un chip de diagnóstico médico que permita conocer el estado del paciente en tiempo real  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zaragoza.- Más de medio centenar de investigadores procedentes de toda Europa se han reunido este lunes en Zaragoza en unas jornadas que suponen el punto de arranque de los trabajos del proyecto Cajal4EU. Este proyecto nanobiotecnológico, que recibe este nombre en honor al científico aragonés Santiago Ramón y Cajal y en el que trabajan de forma paralela 30 empresas, tiene

Alejandro Royo Zaragozano



In planta multiplication and graft transmission of ‘ Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ revealed by Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is associated with huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus in many countries. Despite the fact that many\\u000a characteristics of the disease are known, the rate of multiplication of the bacterium within an infected tree is still poorly\\u000a understood. To study this feature, we used the quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) assay to follow and\\u000a to

H. D. Coletta-Filho; E. F. Carlos; K. C. S. Alves; M. A. R. Pereira; R. L. Boscariol-Camargo; A. A. de Souza; M. A. Machado



Engineered Tobacco mosaic virus mutants with distinct physical characteristics in planta and enhanced metallization properties.  


Tobacco mosaic virus mutants were engineered to alter either the stability or surface chemistry of the virion: within the coat protein, glutamic acid was exchanged for glutamine in a buried portion to enhance the inter-subunit binding stability (E50Q), or a hexahistidine tract was fused to the surface-exposed carboxy terminus of the coat protein (6xHis). Both mutant viruses were expected to possess specific metal ion affinities. They accumulated to high titers in plants, induced distinct phenotypes, and their physical properties during purification differed from each other and from wild type (wt) virus. Whereas 6xHis and wt virions contained RNA, the majority of E50Q protein assembled essentially without RNA into rods which frequently exceeded 2 ?m in length. Electroless deposition of nickel metallized the outer surface of 6xHis virions, but the central channel of E50Q rods, with significantly more nanowires of increased length in comparison to those formed in wtTMV. PMID:21310199

Kadri, Anan; Maiss, Edgar; Amsharov, Nadja; Bittner, Alexander M; Balci, Sinan; Kern, Klaus; Jeske, Holger; Wege, Christina



Actividad antifungica de extractos de plantas usadas en medicina popular en Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi may cause very serious diseases in humans specially in immunosuppressed patients. In this study, extracts of 10 plants used in popular medicine in Argentine were assayed for in vitro antifungal activity against 4 fungal strains. Out of all the plants tested, Larrea divaricata Cav, Gnaphalium gaudichaudianum D.C, Baccharis trimera Less and Schinus terebenthifolius proved to have antifungal activity.

Roberto Davicino; María Aída Mattar; Yolanda Angelina Casali; Silvia Graciela Correa; Elisa Margarita Pettenati; Blas Micalizzi


The Use of Bioluminescence for Monitoring in planta Growth Dynamics of a Pseudomonas syringae Plant Pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of bioluminescence was evaluated as a tool to study Pseudomonas syringae population dynamics in susceptible and resistant plant environments. Plasmid pGLITE, containing the luxCDABE genes from Photorhabdus luminescens, was introduced into Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola race 7 strain 1449B, a Gram-negative pathogen of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Bacteria recovered from plant tissue over a five-day period were enumerated by

Christopher D. Paynter; Vyvyan C. Salisbury; Dawn L. Arnold; Robert W. Jackson



Staphylococcal abscess caused by trauma with a rosebush aculeus (Plantae, Rosaceae): apropos of a case*  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous abscess is a localized collection of pus in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue usually caused by trauma. The authors report the case of a 30-year-old male patient, gardener, that presents an ulcerated plaque in the third right finger, caused by an aculeus plant wound. The examination of the lesion's exudate ruled out the existence of fungi and showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. The authors emphasize the sporotrichosis as an important differential diagnosis, especially in endemic areas, and the indication of the exudate culture is discussed.

Bernardes Filho, Fred; Alves, Andreia Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo; Sasso, Leticia Soares; Gama, Carolina Mendonca; Cenci, Gardenia Borges




Microsoft Academic Search

As a consequence of new European legal regulations for treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), recycling plants have to be installed in Spain. In this context, this contribution provides the decision maker with a ranking of Spanish municipalities according to their appropriateness for the installation of these plants. In order to rank the alternatives, the discrete multi-criteria decision

D. Queiruga; J. González-Benito


The DNA damage response signaling cascade regulates proliferation of the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis in planta.  


In the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis, the dikaryotic state dominates the period of growth occurring during the infectious phase. Dikaryons are cells in which two nuclei, one from each parent cell, share a single cytoplasm for a period of time without undergoing nuclear fusion. In fungal cells, maintenance of the dikaryotic state requires an intricate cell division process that often involves the formation of a structure known as the clamp connection as well as the sorting of one of the nuclei to this structure to ensure that each daughter dikaryon inherits a balance of each parental genome. Here, we describe an atypical role of the DNA damage checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Atr1 during pathogenic growth of U. maydis. We found that Chk1 and Atr1 collaborate to control cell cycle arrest during the induction of the virulence program in U. maydis and that Chk1 and Atr1 work together to control the dikaryon formation. These findings uncover a link between a widely conserved signaling cascade and the virulence program in a phytopathogen. We propose a model in which adjustment of the cell cycle by the Atr1-Chk1 axis controls fidelity in dikaryon formation. Therefore, Chk1 and Atr1 emerge as critical cell type regulators in addition to their roles in the DNA damage response. PMID:21478441

de Sena-Tomás, Carmen; Fernández-Álvarez, Alfonso; Holloman, William K; Pérez-Martín, José




Microsoft Academic Search

ñ The maize composite ESAM-1 was cultivated in mixed planting with the single cross maize AG-9012 and with the single cross sorghum AG-1017. The objective was to study the reaction of the composite to competition with both crops (maize and sorghum) aiming to contribute with infomation about the use of sorghum as a ìconstant genotypeî in the genetically stratified mass



Kinetics of leaf oxygen uptake represent in planta activities of respiratory electron transport and terminal oxidases.  


We present, for the first time, the oxygen response kinetics of mitochondrial respiration measured in intact leaves (sunflower and aspen). Low O(2) concentrations in N(2) (9-1500 ppm) were preset in a flow-through gas exchange measurement system, and the decrease in O(2) concentration and the increase in CO(2) concentration as result of leaf respiration were measured by a zirconium cell O(2) analyser and infrared-absorption CO(2) analyser, respectively. The low O(2) concentrations little influenced the rate of CO(2) evolution during the 60-s exposure. The initial slope of the O(2) uptake curve on the dissolved O(2) concentration basis was relatively constant in leaves of a single species, 1.5 mm s(-1) in sunflower and 1.8 mm s(-1) in aspen. The apparent K(0.5)(O(2)) values ranged from 0.33 to 0.67 microM in sunflower and from 0.33 to 1.1 microM in aspen, mainly because of the variation of the maximum rate, V(max) (leaf temperature 22 degrees C). The initial slope of the O(2) response of respiration characterizes the catalytic efficiency of terminal oxidases, an important parameter of the respiratory machinery in leaves. The plateau of the response characterizes the activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is subject to regulations in accordance with the necessity for ATP production. The relatively low oxygen conductivity of terminal oxidases means that in leaves, less than 10% of the photosynthetic oxygen can be reassimilated by mitochondria. PMID:18251919

Laisk, Agu; Oja, Vello; Eichelmann, Hillar




Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate non-destructive methods of estimating total leaf area of young 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tan.) plants grown in the field. Information of biometrical variables of 28 young plants (0.07 to 1.44 m2) and digitized image of front area of each plant (plant silhouette) were used. These variables were correlated to the direct measurements



In Planta Proteomics and Proteogenomics of the Biotrophic Barley Fungal Pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei*  

PubMed Central

To further our understanding of powdery mildew biology during infection, we undertook a systematic shotgun proteomics analysis of the obligate biotroph Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei at different stages of development in the host. Moreover we used a proteogenomics approach to feed information into the annotation of the newly sequenced genome. We analyzed and compared the proteomes from three stages of development representing different functions during the plant-dependent vegetative life cycle of this fungus. We identified 441 proteins in ungerminated spores, 775 proteins in epiphytic sporulating hyphae, and 47 proteins from haustoria inside barley leaf epidermal cells and used the data to aid annotation of the B. graminis f. sp. hordei genome. We also compared the differences in the protein complement of these key stages. Although confirming some of the previously reported findings and models derived from the analysis of transcriptome dynamics, our results also suggest that the intracellular haustoria are subject to stress possibly as a result of the plant defense strategy, including the production of reactive oxygen species. In addition, a number of small haustorial proteins with a predicted N-terminal signal peptide for secretion were identified in infected tissues: these represent candidate effector proteins that may play a role in controlling host metabolism and immunity.

Bindschedler, Laurence V.; Burgis, Timothy A.; Mills, Davinia J. S.; Ho, Jenny T. C.; Cramer, Rainer; Spanu, Pietro D.



Evite los Conceptos Erróneos cuando Enseñe sobre las Plantas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is useful for teacher's professional development by alerting educators to many plant misconceptions in teaching literature. In the thought provoking, peer reviewed resource fifty misconceptions are identified. Some misconceptions are easier to identify because they are oversimplifications, overgeneralizations, or misidentifications. Others are more difficult to identify because they are obsolete concepts and terms or flawed research.

David R. Hershey (biology education consultant;)



Arabidopsis thaliana Root Surface Chemistry Regulates in Planta Biofilm Formation of Bacillus subtilis.  


Among the various rhizospheric interactions, plant root-microbe interactions are very important both economically and ecologically. The interaction of plant roots with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been studied in case of symbiotic organisms. However, the knowledge on interaction with other PGPRs such as biocontrol Bacillus sps. is vastly unexplored. Especially the complex root surface chemistry and its effect on modulating the bacterial growth and association with the root system has not been investigated. Recently, by adopting a systematic stepwise experimental approach we unraveled the importance of root plane chemistry on the colonization and biofilm formation by B. subtilis, an important biocontrol-PGPR. This study may further increase our understanding in the field of rhizosphere biology and area of root secretions and their possible role in plant microbe interactions. PMID:19704655

Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Bais, Harsh P



In Planta Visualization of Protein Interactions Using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC).  


INTRODUCTIONBimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis enables direct visualization of protein-protein interactions in living cells. This method has been successfully adapted to a variety of expression systems in different organisms. BiFC is based on the formation of a fluorescent complex by fragments of the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) when brought together by the interaction of two associating proteins fused to these fragments. Interaction of these proteins restores fluorescence and allows the visualization of spatial localization patterns of protein complexes. Absence of interaction prevents reassembly of the fluorescent protein and results only in background fluorescence. The specificity of bimolecular fluorescence complementation must be confirmed by parallel analysis of proteins in which the interaction interface has been mutated. This protocol describes the Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression protocol for BiFC assays in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells. This method exhibits a high transformation rate (up to 90% of the cells) and allows the simultaneous expression of multiple proteins in single cells. Therefore, this expression system enables colocalization analyses of fluorescently labeled proteins with the formation of BiFC complexes for determination of cellular complex localization. In addition, protein interaction assays in N. benthamiana leaves permit the investigation of protein interactions at different time points of expression, allow analysis of proteins that are normally toxic in protoplasts, and enable comparative protein interaction investigation in epidermal cells as well as in mesophyll protoplasts. PMID:21356813

Waadt, Rainer; Kudla, Jörg




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de Achillea millefolium L. (folhas), Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas), Bidens pilosa L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (folhas), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (folhas), Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell.) Morong (frutos), Mentha crispa L. (folhas e ramos), Nicotiana tabacum L. (folhas), Piper nigrum




The signal transduction pathways controlling in planta tuberization in potato: an emerging synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberization is one of the multiple outputs of a single-input phytochrome B sensory system, involving several regulatory genes.\\u000a Phytochrome B- and GA-mediated photoperiodic perception occurs in the leaf, and then the RNA acts as a systemic signal in\\u000a the long-distance signaling pathway to initiate tuberization in the subapical region of an underground stolon. There is good\\u000a evidence that flowering and

Debabrata Sarkar



In planta localisation patterns of MADS domain proteins during floral development in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background MADS domain transcription factors play important roles in various developmental processes in flowering plants. Members of this family play a prominent role in the transition to flowering and the specification of floral organ identity. Several studies reported mRNA expression patterns of the genes encoding these MADS domain proteins, however, these studies do not provide the necessary information on the temporal and spatial localisation of the proteins. We have made GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) translational fusions with the four MADS domain proteins SEPALLATA3, AGAMOUS, FRUITFULL and APETALA1 from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and analysed the protein localisation patterns in living plant tissues by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results We unravelled the protein localisation patterns of the four MADS domain proteins at a cellular and subcellular level in inflorescence and floral meristems, during development of the early flower bud stages, and during further differentiation of the floral organs. The protein localisation patterns revealed a few deviations from known mRNA expression patterns, suggesting a non-cell autonomous action of these factors or alternative control mechanisms. In addition, we observed a change in the subcellular localisation of SEPALLATA3 from a predominantly nuclear localisation to a more cytoplasmic localisation, occurring specifically during petal and stamen development. Furthermore, we show that the down-regulation of the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL in ovular tissues is preceded by the occurrence of both AGAMOUS and SEPALLATA3 proteins, supporting the hypothesis that both proteins together suppress WUSCHEL expression in the ovule. Conclusion This approach provides a highly detailed in situ map of MADS domain protein presence during early and later stages of floral development. The subcellular localisation of the transcription factors in the cytoplasm, as observed at certain stages during development, points to mechanisms other than transcriptional control. Together this information is essential to understand the role of these proteins in the regulatory processes that drive floral development and leads to new hypotheses.

Urbanus, Susan L; de Folter, Stefan; Shchennikova, Anna V; Kaufmann, Kerstin; Immink, Richard GH; Angenent, Gerco C



``Agrolistic'' Transformation of Plant Cells: Integration of T-Strands Generated in planta  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a novel plant transformation technique, termed ``agrolistic,'' that combines the advantages of the Agrobacterium transformation system with the high efficiency of biolistic DNA delivery. Agrolistic transformation allows integration of the gene of interest without undesired vector sequence. The virulence genes virD1 and virD2 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens that are required in bacteria for excision of T-strands from the tumor-inducing

Genevieve Hansen; Mary-Dell Chilton



In planta quantification of endoreduplication using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).  


Endopolyploidy, i.e. amplification of the genome in the absence of mitosis, occurs in many plant species and happens along with organ and cell differentiation. Deciphering the functional roles of endopolyploidy is hampered by the fact that polyploid tissues generally comprise cells with various ploidy levels. In some fleshy fruits (amongst them tomato fruit) the ploidy levels present at the end of development range from 2C to 256C in the same tissue. To investigate the temporal and spatial distribution of endopolyploidy it is necessary to address the DNA content of individual nuclei in situ. Conventional methods such as fluorometry or densitometry can be used for some tissues displaying favorable characteristics, e.g. small cells, small nuclei, organization in a monolayer, but high levels of varying polyploidy are usually associated with large sizes of nuclei and cells, in a complex three dimensional (3-D) organization of the tissues. The conventional methods are inadequate for such tissue, becoming semi-quantitative and imprecise. We report here the development of a new method based on fluorescent in situ bacterial artificial chromosome hybridizations that allows the in situ determination of the DNA ploidy level of individual nuclei. This method relies on the counting of hybridization signals and not on intensity measurements and is expected to provide an alternative method for mapping endopolyploidy patterns in mature, 3-D organized plant tissues as illustrated by the analysis of ploidy level and cell size in pericarp from mature green tomato fruit. PMID:21418357

Bourdon, Matthieu; Coriton, Olivier; Pirrello, Julien; Cheniclet, Catherine; Brown, Spencer C; Poujol, Christel; Chevalier, Christian; Renaudin, Jean-Pierre; Frangne, Nathalie



Origin and evolution of metal P-type ATPases in Plantae (Archaeplastida)  

PubMed Central

Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two and are found in prokaryotes as well as in a variety of Eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, eight metal P-type ATPases have been described, four being specific to copper transport and four displaying a broader metal specificity, including zinc, cadmium, and possibly copper and calcium. So far, few efforts have been devoted to elucidating the origin and evolution of these proteins in Eukaryotes. In this work, we use large-scale phylogenetics to show that metal P-type ATPases form a homogenous group among P-type ATPases and that their specialization into either monovalent (Cu) or divalent (Zn, Cd…) metal transport stems from a gene duplication that took place early in the evolution of Life. Then, we demonstrate that the four subgroups of plant metal ATPases all have a different evolutionary origin and a specific taxonomic distribution, only one tracing back to the cyanobacterial progenitor of the chloroplast. Finally, we examine the subsequent evolution of these proteins in green plants and conclude that the genes thoroughly characterized in model organisms are often the result of lineage-specific gene duplications, which calls for caution when attempting to infer function from sequence similarity alone in non-model organisms.

Hanikenne, Marc; Baurain, Denis



Phylogenetic Relationships of Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia Inferred from Homologous Comparison of Ribosomal Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The complete set of available ribosomal proteins was utilized, at both the peptidic and the nucleotidic level, to establish\\u000a that plants and metazoans form two sister clades relative to fungi. Different phylogenetic inference methods are applied to\\u000a the sequence data, using archeans as the outgroup. The evolutionary length of the internal branch within the eukaryotic crown\\u000a trichotomy is demonstrated

Gabriel Bittar




Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional quality of black sorghum (Sorghum almum) for fodder for animal feeding. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenological development and the nutritional quality of Sorghum almun during different growth stages. The seed was cultivated in the Alfredo Volio Mata Experimental Station of the University of Costa Rica. Eighteen kg of 88% germinal seed per hectare were

Ana Lorena Amador; Carlos Boschini




Microsoft Academic Search

) and four wheat varieties (similar growing cycle). Nitrate concentration in JBT was related to BS and decreased with plant age and increased with the increase in the nitrogen fertilization rate. The effect of variety was of low impact on both, JBT and BS. The determined thresholds of nitrate concentration in the JBT to achieve approximately 90% of maximum yield




Screening for inhibitors of chloroplast galactolipid synthesis acting in membrano and in planta.  


The knowledge of the membrane lipid metabolism in photosynthetic cells is expected to benefit from the availability of inhibitors acting at the level of specific enzymes like MGD1 (E.C. that catalyzes the synthesis of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) in chloroplasts. MGDG is a major lipid of photosynthetic membrane, interacting with photosystems. It is the precursor of digalactosyldiacylglycerol that serves as a phospholipid surrogate when plants are deprived of phosphate, and it is a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids for jasmonic acid syntheses. MGD1 is activated by phosphatidic acid and thus a coupling point between phospholipid and galactolipid metabolisms. Here we describe a method to screen for inhibitors of MGD1 assayed in liposomes. Selected compounds can therefore reach the core of the biological membranes in which the target sits. We then describe a secondary screen to evaluate the efficiency of developed compounds at the whole plant level. Major issues raised by the screening of inhibitors acting on membrane proteins are discussed and can be useful for similar targets. PMID:24306864

Boudière, Laurence; Maréchal, Eric



Acción biocida de plantas de Piper tuberculatum Jacq. sobre Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidóptera, Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biocid action of DCM:MeOH (2:1), EtOH and aqueous extracts of leaves, stems and mature spikes (with fruits and seeds) of field plants and DCM:MeOH (2:1) extract of in vitro plants of Piper tuberculatum on III larval stage of Diatraea saccharalis was evaluated. The method was by inoculating the previously eluted extract with distillate water as topic applications on the

Gladys V. Soberón; Consuelo Rojas; Jorge Saavedra; Massuo J. Kato; Guillermo E. Delgado


Sexual mating preferences in vitro and in planta among Japanese isolates of Phytophthora infestans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sexual preferences of Japanese isolates of Phytophthora infestans were determined by mating on agar, in broth, or in plants. The influence of their sexual preference was confirmed in the host tissues. Three wild-type isolates and a ß-glucuronidase (GUS) transformant were co-cultured to identify the origin of antheridia and oogonia. Japanese A1 isolate had a unique sexual preference compared with

Kiyotaka Gotoh; Seishi Akino; Takako Kiyoshi; Shigeo Naito



RT real-time PCR-based quantification of Uromyces fabae in planta.  


Quantification of obligate biotrophic parasites has been a long-standing problem in plant pathology. Many attempts have been made to determine how much of a pathogen is present in infected plant tissue. Methods of quantification included scoring disease symptoms, microscopic evaluation, determination of specific compounds like Ergosterol, and lately nucleic acid-based technologies. All of these methods have their drawbacks, and even real-time PCR may not be quantitative if for example the organism of interest has specific and differing numbers of nuclei in different infection structures. We applied reverse transcription (RT) real-time PCR to quantify Uromyces fabae within its host plant Vicia faba. We used three different genes, which have been shown to be constitutively expressed. Our analyses show an exponential increase of fungal material between 4 and 9 days post inoculation and thereafter reaching a steady state of around 45% of total RNA. We also used haustorium-specific genes to determine the amount of haustoria present at each time point. These analyses parallel the development of the whole fungus with the exception of the steady-state level, which is only around 5% of the total RNA. This indicates that RT real-time PCR is a suitable method for quantification of obligate biotrophic parasites, and also for the differentiation of developmental stages. PMID:21707731

Voegele, Ralf T; Schmid, Annette



Aspergilosis: puesta al día de una patología a considerar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary aspergillosis is a mycotic infection caused by the aspergillus fumigatus, saprophyte of the normal human sputum. Five patients with non invasive aspergillosis were studied, of whom 4 were adults (3 women, 1 man) and one, pediatric, with invasive aspergillosis. All of them were studied by conventional X-ray, spiral CT, multislice CT and video capsule endoscopy. The presentation is predominant

Héctor G. Oxilia; Rodrigo G. Oxilia; Fernando Falco; J. R. Villavicencio Rosario



Una nueva visión de la degradación del almidón  

Microsoft Academic Search

All plant cells synthesize and degrade starch in determined stage of their development. There are, however, important differences related to its use. In leaves, starch is produced and accumulated at day while it is degraded at night to provide carbon maintaining cellular processes. This means that the pathway regulation is integrated to the whole plant metabolism. Starch degradation is a

Lilia Bernal; Eleazar Martínez-Barajas


¿Cómo crear una unidad de arritmias en el siglo xxi?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrhythmia and cardiac electrophysiology services are an innovative and fast-growing branch of clinical cardiology. Initiating an arrhythmia unit involves proper selection of personnel, as well as technical, structural, and organizational requirements. Proper selection of personnel includes specialized and well-trained physicians, nurses, and medical technicians in the electrophysiology laboratories and on the hospital wards. Standard electrophysiology laboratories must support the full

Karl-Heinz Kuck; Erik Wissner; Andreas Metzner


no de una superficie c ´ onica en silicio cristalino  

Microsoft Academic Search

onicos; micromaquinado en microelectronica; espejos ´ opticos. A fabrication design of a conic surface (k = ¡6:5), in monocrystalline silicon substrate and based on anisotropic etching with KOH, is presented. The conical surface is approximated by means of spherical windows; comparisons between diameter and separation of the spherical windows, as well as the parameters that govern the selection are discussed.

A. G. Rojas; W. Calleja; R. Perez; F. Gracia



Elementi Per UNA Piattaforma Di Categorizzazione Semantico-Ontologica  

Microsoft Academic Search

I. Introdttzione Da alcuni anni it termine 'ontologia' sembra aver ottenuto piena cittadinanza anche in diversi ambiti legati a ricerche di intelligenza artificiale, ed in particolare in teoria delle basi di dati e di analisi del linguaggio naturale. Si tratta di un movimento in fase di rapida evoluzione che sembra riuscire a richiamare un crescente interesse. In altra sede ([Poli

Roberto Poli




Microsoft Academic Search

Glial evolution still remains unknown, although this process should had required adaptations to the internal medium of the nervous system and to functional needs in the neuroaxis of each species. The hypothesis of the functional and adaptive importance of glia, based on the astrocytary functional multiplicity is supported here as the main objective. The number of glial cells increases in



La Ciencia de los Antiguos Mexicanos: Una Bibliografia Selecta  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-five citations pertaining to the scientific and mathematic development of ancient Mexicans, particularly the Mayas, are given in this select bibliography. The introduction and descriptions of resource libraries in 8 States are in Spanish. (NQ)

Ortiz-Franco, Luis; Magana, Maria



Confieso que Divulgo. Reflexiones y Experiencias de una Astrofísica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Este artículo presenta algunas reflexiones en torno a la popularización de la Ciencia, desarrolladas a lo largo de mi trayectoria profesional, un camino inacabado desde la intuición al oficio. Tras revisar las señas de identidad de la divulgación científica, se exponen ideas, experiencias y recursos, cribados por la práctica y su posterior análisis crítico. Se destacan las actividades relacionadas con la Astronomía, que se cuentan entre las más espectaculares y gratificantes. Confessions of a popularizer: This paper presents some author’s thoughts about scientific outreach, developed along her professional path, an unfinished way from intuition to trade. First, identity signs of outreach are revised; then, ideas, experiences and resources, sifted by practice and further critical analysis, are reviewed. Activities related to Astronomy, being one of the most spectacular and rewarding, are remarked 1

Rodríguez Hidalgo, I.


Una mirada hacia el pasado -- El Telescopio Espacial James Webb  

NASA Video Gallery

La NASA planea usar el nuevo Telescopio Espacial James Webb para mirar el pasado. Al observar la luz de las estrellas que se formaron al principio del universo, la NASA está a punto de arrojar nuev...



Microsoft Academic Search

El presente ensayo analiza las principales teorias evolutivas desde Darwin hasta la fecha, entre ellas la teoría de Lamark y la Teoría de la Quimiosintética, todas ellas con un sesgo fuertemente biologico, donde los cambios más decisivos en la homnización que se observan son: la adquisición de la postura erecta, que liberó sus extremidades anteriores y el desarrollo del cerebro,

Fredy Hardy Wompner Gallardo



Una realizzazione attesa: il catalogo generale delle meridiane in Italia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sundial Section of the UAI has compiled the first catalog of 12643 sundials in 3109 municipalities of Italy. Sundials are instruments that measure the passage of time through the movements of the Sun and the shadows it casts. The volume comprises four chapters with introductoring sections regarding how to approach a reading of volume and an appendix containing additional documentary material.

Frosina, Angelo



Il cilindro di Este: testimonianza di una tradizione perduta.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Museum of Este, near Padua in Italy, lies the missing ring of an ancient gnomonic tradition. A small portable roman sundial is on display behind the glasses of a casket, without knowing its real importance. It's in fact the tangible witness of a much more ancient tradition than what believed in the past.

Arnaldi, M.



Índices y ordenamientos de pobreza: Una aplicación para México  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses Atkinson's and Foster and Shorrocks's approach to generate poverty orderings for different population groups in Mexico. The poverty is measured using a range of poverty lines valued from zero to an arbitrary maximum. Poverty is estimated using three poverty measures: the head-count ratio, the normalized poverty gap, and the Foster et al. P3 index. For the comparison

Nora Lustig



Colapso gravitatorio radiante de una estrella extraña en relatividad general  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seminumeric method by Herrera, Jimenez and Ruggeri, which allows to find dynamic solutions of the equations of Einstein with spherical symmetry starting from well-known statics solutions, are used to treat the collapse of a strange star in the "free streaming radiation limit". Fixed a profile of pulsating luminosity and for a previously studied state equation, it can be demostrated that the frequency of the profile coincides with the frequency of oscillation of the star`s surface. It is proven also that the collapse of a strange star is slower a hundred times that the corresponding to a star of normal matter.

Neira, L. P.


Interacciones socialesy productivas: una aproximación a la teoría deredes  

Microsoft Academic Search

La presente revisión teórica analiza la evolución de los esquemas de interacción entre los individuos y las organizaciones, a partir de los cambios en los contextos económicos y las complejidades del mercado —que se entienden como la especialización de la demanda, el creciente cambio del desarrollo tecnológico, el aumento de las exigencias normativas en los mercados internacionales y las redes

Julián Piñeres Ramírez



Esercitazioni Matematiche: Una Rivista Ad uso Degli Studenti Universitari.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of the journal "Esercitazioni Matematiche" (1921-43) edited by the "Circolo Matematico di Catania" for university students is described. A selection of proposed problems with some of their solutions is reported. (Author)

Micale, Biagio



Cálculo de la respuesta de una cavidad optoacústica semiesférica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palabras clave: optoacústica, cavidades resonantes, factor de calidad. The amplitudes of the pressure wave, relative to the delivered power to the medium, are calculated for two resonant cavities: one of them spherical and the other hemispherical. Both cavities have no windows; the power source is a led placed at the center of each cavity. These results are compared with the


C/1999 S4 (LINEAR): la morte di una cometa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comet C/1999 S4 was expected to be a moderately bright object during summer 2000. It was observed by visual, photographic and CCD techniques. The derived light curve shows that the comet reached a brightness maximum (mag. 6 around July 26) corresponding to the total dissolution of its nucleus. From the analysis of the light curve a double maximum was detected, the dissolution event appearing to start around July 20. Several morphological changes were also observed during the apparition in relation to partial fragmentation events. The comet aspect completely changed during the final disruption. Relevant changes in the plasma tail were observed and they are probably related both to the activity of the nucleus and to the solar wind. A perspective anti-tail was detected in early July.

Foglia, Sergio; Ligustri, Rolando; Milani, Giannantonio



Una nueva estimación astrosismológica de la masa del axión  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

G117-B15A and R548 are the two pulsating white dwarf stars more studied within the class of ZZ Ceti variables (atmospheres rich in H). In this work, we present new asteroseismological models for G117-B15A and R548, and employ the rates of period changes with time for the dominant modes of these stars in order to place new constraints on the axion mass. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Romero, A. D.


Estudio de la dinámica de una fulguración de clase M.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we analize the compact flare of May 9, 2012, at 12:21 UT using data in different wavelenghts, including images obtained with the H-Alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina (HASTA). We identify the brightenings, their location with respect to the photospheric magnetic field, and the presence of a surge after the flare impulsive phase. We interprete the observations and the presence of cold loops after the flare in terms of the location of the energy release site. We estimate the height and length of the loops through which the surge material flows. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Luoni, M. L.; Francile, C.; Mandrini, C. H.


Creación de una cafetería con servicio especializado de \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

At first hour at the morning or to join your friends after a meal, there is no doubt that drinking a coffee is quite a pleasure. Now the market offers several opportunities that allow the people to meet in someplace and drink a delicious coffee. The difference in this coffee shop is that this service is only by drive-thru, so

Estefania Dejo


Dispersion de Ondas Sonoras Por Una Gota de Liquido  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not Available Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints

Marcos Moshinsky



Como Iniciar una Cooperativa (How to Start a Cooperative).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a step-by step detailed guide to forming a cooperative, beginning with promotion, and going on to cover the following topics: The first meeting of potential members; work of the planning committee; second meeting of potential members; work of the ...

I. W. Rust



Como Organizar una Cooperativa (How to Organize a Cooperative).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four pamphlets explain co-ops in general, co-ops as businesses, how co-ops succeed and how to form a co-op. Co-ops in the American Private Enterprise System compares co-ops with other businesses. The Business Co-op explains how a co-op can function as a p...



Una Arquitectura Abierta para Intermediaci ´ on en Servicios Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an open architecture to integrate available web services into a common framework. The aim of this propo- sal is to make available to a user community in a designated environment (e.g. a mall or a railway station) a portfolio of services already available through the web. A service abs- traction layer provides a common model to access services,

Manuel J. Fern; Judith S. Rodr ´ õguez; Luis E. Anido


Edukalibre: una herramienta para la creacion colaborativa de material didactico  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Software Libre, con sus caracter¶‡sticas y su particular modelo de desarrollo, ha permitido la creacion de un conjunto de metodolog¶‡as de trabajo en grupo que han resultado satisfactorias en gran cantidad diferentesambitos. En este sentido, el proyecto Edukalibre importa y adapta estas metodolog¶‡as para ser aplicadas en la creacion y man- tenimiento de documentacion en elambito de la educacion.

Diego Chaparro; Teofllo Romera


Remote sensing of gene expression in Planta: transgenic plants as monitors of exogenous stress perception in extraterrestrial environments.  


Transgenic arabidopsis plants containing the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene were developed as biological sensors for monitoring physiological responses to unique environments. Plants were monitored in vivo during exposure to hypoxia, high salt, cold, and abcissic acid in experiments designed to characterize the utility and responses of the Adh/GFP biosensors. Plants in the presence of environmental stimuli that induced the Adh promoter responded by expressing GFP, which in turn generated a detectable fluorescent signal. The GFP signal degraded when the inducing stimulus was removed. Digital imaging of the Adh/GFP plants exposed to each of the exogenous stresses demonstrated that the stress-induced gene expression could be followed in real time. The experimental results established the feasibility of using a digital monitoring system for collecting gene expression data in real time from Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) biosensor plants during space exploration experiments. PMID:11987307

Manak, Michael S; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Sehnke, Paul C; Ferl, Robert J



In vivo trans-specific gene silencing in fungal cells by in planta expression of a double-stranded RNA  

PubMed Central

Background Self-complementary RNA transcripts form a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that triggers a sequence-specific mRNA degradation, in a process known as RNA interference (RNAi), leading to gene silencing. In vascular plants, RNAi molecules trafficking occur between cells and systemically throughout the plant. RNAi signals can spread systemically throughout a plant, even across graft junctions from transgenic to non-transgenic stocks. There is also a great interest in applying RNAi to pathogenic fungi. Specific inhibition of gene expression by RNAi has been shown to be suitable for a multitude of phytopathogenic filamentous fungi. However, double-stranded (ds)RNA/small interfering (si)RNA silencing effect has not been observed in vivo. Results This study demonstrates for the first time the in vivo interference phenomenon in the pathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides, in which expression of an individual fungal transgene was specifically abolished by inoculating mycelial cells in transgenic tobacco plants engineered to express siRNAs from a dsRNA corresponding to the particular transgene. Conclusion The results provide a powerful tool for further studies on molecular plant-microbe and symbiotic interactions. From a biotechnological perspective, silencing of fungal genes by generating siRNAs in the host provides a novel strategy for the development of broad fungi-resistance strategies in plants and other organisms.



In Planta - Complementation of Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp. sepedonicus Strains Deficient in Cellulase Production or HR Induction Restores Virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, a Gram positive bacterium that causes bacterial ring rot of potato, was studied in eggplant, an alternate host, using strains that differed in phenotype. Two factors affecting virulence, the ability to induce a hypersensitive response (HR) and cellulase production, were studied. A plasmid-free isolate of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus that causes HR on tobacco but is

Riitta Nissinen; Shaaban Kassuwi; Riikka Peltola; Mary C. Metzler



Production and characterization of in planta transiently produced polygalacturanase from Aspergillus niger and its fusions with hydrophobin or ELP tags  

PubMed Central

Background Pectinases play an important role in plant cell wall deconstruction and have potential in diverse industries such as food, wine, animal feed, textile, paper, fuel, and others. The demand for such enzymes is increasing exponentially, as are the efforts to improve their production and to implement their use in several industrial processes. The goal of this study was to examine the potential of producing polygalacturonase I from Aspergillus niger in plants and to investigate the effects of subcellular compartmentalization and protein fusions on its accumulation and activity. Results Polygalacturonase I from Aspergillus niger (AnPGI) was transiently produced in Nicotiana benthamiana by targeting it to five different cellular compartments: apoplast, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), vacuole, chloroplast and cytosol. Accumulation levels of 2.5%, 3.0%, and 1.9% of total soluble protein (TSP) were observed in the apoplast, ER, and vacuole, respectively, and specific activity was significantly higher in vacuole-targeted AnPGI compared to the same enzyme targeted to the ER or apoplast. No accumulation was found for AnPGI when targeted to the chloroplast or cytosol. Analysis of AnPGI fused with elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) revealed a significant increase in the protein accumulation level, especially when targeted to the vacuole where the protein doubles its accumulation to 3.6% of TSP, while the hydrophobin (HFBI) fusion impaired AnPGI accumulation and both tags impaired activity, albeit to different extents. The recombinant protein showed activity against polygalacturonic acid with optimum conditions at pH 5.0 and temperature from 30 to 50°C, depending on its fusion. In vivo analysis of reducing sugar content revealed a higher release of reducing sugars in plant tissue expressing recombinant AnPGI compared to wild type N. benthamiana leaves. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that subcellular compartmentalization of enzymes has an impact on both the target protein accumulation and its activity, especially in the case of proteins that undergo post-translational modifications, and should be taken into consideration when protein production strategies are designed. Using plants to produce heterologous enzymes for the degradation of a key component of the plant cell wall could reduce the cost of biomass pretreatment for the production of cellulosic biofuels.



Microcistina en plantas de tratamiento de agua para consumo humano en un ambiente tropical: el Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcystin in plants that treat water for human consumption in a tropical environment: the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica. We measured microcystin levels in water of the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica by competitive inhibition ELISA and we quantified total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli (by a Most Probable Number method) and aerobic count. We wanted to identify any cyanotoxin

Adrián Avendaño Lopez; Carolina Arguedas Villa



Microsoft Academic Search

There are very few information about fertilization of coconut grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with 'Dwarf Green' coconut was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on some soil chemical properties and plant nutrition, from September, 2000 to February, 2004. The trial was located on an Oxisol in the west part



In planta production of the highly potent resveratrol analogue pterostilbene via stilbene synthase and O-methyltransferase co-expression.  


Resveratrol and related stilbenes are thought to play important roles in defence responses in several plant species and have also generated considerable interest as nutraceuticals owing to their diverse health-promoting properties. Pterostilbene, a 3,5-dimethylether derivative of resveratrol, possesses properties similar to its parent compound and, additionally, exhibits significantly higher fungicidal activity in vitro and superior pharmacokinetic properties in vivo. Recombinant enzyme studies carried out using a previously characterized O-methyltransferase sequence from Sorghum bicolor (SbOMT3) demonstrated its ability to catalyse the A ring-specific 3,5-bis-O-methylation of resveratrol, yielding pterostilbene. A binary vector was constructed for the constitutive co-expression of SbOMT3 with a stilbene synthase sequence from peanut (AhSTS3) and used for the generation of stably transformed tobacco and Arabidopsis plants, resulting in the accumulation of pterostilbene in both species. A reduced floral pigmentation phenotype observed in multiple tobacco transformants was further investigated by reversed-phase HPLC analysis, revealing substantial decreases in both dihydroquercetin-derived flavonoids and phenylpropanoid-conjugated polyamines in pterostilbene-producing SbOMT3/AhSTS3 events. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this strategy for the generation of pterostilbene-producing crops and also underscore the need for the development of additional approaches for minimizing concomitant reductions in key phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites. PMID:21902799

Rimando, Agnes M; Pan, Zhiqiang; Polashock, James J; Dayan, Franck E; Mizuno, Cassia S; Snook, Maurice E; Liu, Chang-Jun; Baerson, Scott R



Inhibitory effect of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB on plant pathogens Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in planta  

PubMed Central

Entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. produce secondary metabolites with potential antimicrobial activity for use in agricultural productions. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of X. nematophila TB culture on plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora capsici. The cell-free filtrate of TB culture showed strong inhibitory effects (>90%) on mycelial growth of both pathogens. The methanol-extracted bioactive compounds (methanol extract) of TB culture also had strong inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and spore germinations of both pathogens. The methanol extract (1000??g/mL) and cell-free filtrate both showed strong therapeutic and protective effects (>70%) on grey mold both in detached tomato fruits and plants, and leaf scorch in pepper plants. This study demonstrates X. nematophila TB produces antimicrobial metabolites of strong activity on plant pathogens, with great potential for controlling tomato grey mold and pepper leaf scorch and being used in integrated disease control to reduce chemical application.

Fang, Xiangling; Zhang, Manrang; Tang, Qian; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Xing



Plantas asociadas a la pesca y a sus recursos por los Indígenas Chorote del Chaco Semiarido (Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Plants associated to fishing and to their resources by Chorote indians from Chaco Semiarido (Argentine). Chorote indians belong to the Mataco-mataguayo linguistic family, they live in Argentina's Semiarid Chaco along the riverbanks of the Pilcomayo river in Salta province. Traditionally, they obtained their own living from hunting, gathering and fishing; being the latter of high cultural and economic value



In planta induced changes in the native plasmid profile of Pseudomonas syringae pathover phaseolicola strain 1302A.  


Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) strain 1302A, a causative agent of halo blight in the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris, contains four native plasmids designated pAV505 (150 kb), pAV506 (50 kb), pAV507 (47 kb) and pAV508 (42 kb). Pph 1302A also contains a 106 kb genomic island PPHGI-1 which shares features with integrative and conjugative elements (ICElands) and carries the effector gene avrPphB (hopAR1) which triggers a defensive response in bean cultivars carrying the matching R3 resistance gene. It has been shown that when Pph 1302A is sequentially inoculated (passaged) through resistant bean cultivar Tendergreen (TG) in which the hypersensitive response (HR) is generated, the three largest plasmids are lost and an extra ?100 kb plasmid is gained, which tests confirmed to be the 106 kb circular form of PPHGI-1. The aim of the current study was to determine if upon further passaging though bean plants, the plasmid profile of Pph 1302A would alter again and if the missing plasmids had been integrated into the chromosome. Pph 1302A-P6, the strain with the altered plasmid profile was passaged twice through TG and of the four re-isolated strains examined all displayed the plasmid profile associated with wildtype Pph 1302A, that is, all four native plasmids had reappeared and the PPHGI-1 plasmid was absent. This demonstrated that the plasmid composition of Pph 1302A-P6 could indeed change on further exposure to the plant environment and also that the seemingly missing native plasmids were still present within the genome, lending evidence to the theory that they had integrated into the chromosome. Furthermore two of these re-isolated strains had lost PPHGI-1 entirely, meaning they no longer triggered a HR on TG and instead generated a disease response. This study clearly demonstrates the plasticity of the bacterial genome and the extent it can be influenced by the plant environment and conditions generated during the HR. PMID:23895800

Neale, Helen C; Slater, Ross T; Mayne, Lisa-Marie; Manoharan, Bharani; Arnold, Dawn L



Más Conceptos Erróneos a Evitar en la Enseñanza sobre las Plantas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is useful for teacher's professional development by alerting educators to many plant misconceptions in teaching literature. In the thought provoking, peer reviewed resource fifty misconceptions are identified. Some misconceptions are easier to identify because they are oversimplifications, overgeneralizations, or misidentifications. Others are more difficult to identify because they are obsolete concepts and terms or flawed research.

David Hershey (biology education consultant;)



A visual identification key utilizing both gestalt and analytic approaches to identification of Carices present in North America (Plantae, Cyperaceae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Images are a critical part of the identification process because they enable direct, immediate and relatively unmediated comparisons between a specimen being identified and one or more reference specimens. The Carices Interactive Visual Identification Key (CIVIK) is a novel tool for identification of North American Carex species, the largest vascular plant genus in North America, and two less numerous closely-related genera, Cymophyllus and Kobresia. CIVIK incorporates 1288 high-resolution tiled image sets that allow users to zoom in to view minute structures that are crucial at times for identification in these genera. Morphological data are derived from the earlier Carex Interactive Identification Key (CIIK) which in turn used data from the Flora of North America treatments. In this new iteration, images can be viewed in a grid or histogram format, allowing multiple representations of data. In both formats the images are fully zoomable.



Antibiosis and Antagonism of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa and Drechslera poae by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 In Vitro and In Planta.  


ABSTRACT Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf-5, which produces several antifun-gal metabolites, including the antibiotics pyoluteorin, pyrrolnitrin, and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, was tested for its ability to inhibit Sclerotinia homoeocarpa (causal agent of dollar spot) and Drechslerapoae (causal agent of 'melting-out') in vitro and in turfgrass; Tn5 mutants with altered antibiotic production also were tested. Inhibition in vitro differed with the medium used, but both fungi generally were inhibited by Pf-5. In most cases, a mutant deficient in pyoluteorin but not pyrrolnitrin or 2,4-di-acetylphloroglucinol was as inhibitory as Pf-5, whereas a pyrrolnitrin-deficient mutant was less inhibitory than Pf-5 in most fungus/medium combinations. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of culture extracts showed that bacterial genotype and nutrition have an interactive effect on antibiotic production, such that conditions causing an increase in one antibiotic may increase or decrease another. The purported deficiencies for the pyrrolnitrin- and pyoluteorin-deficient mutants were confirmed. In S. homoeocarpa-infested grass clippings incubated in a moist chamber, Pf-5 reduced mycelial growth, whereas the pyrrolnitrin-deficient mutant did not and the pyoluteorin-deficient mutant was intermediate. In greenhouse experiments, Pf-5 reduced dollar spot disease incidence in bentgrass and bluegrass when sprayed over inoculated turf. In grass clippings infested with D. poae and incubated in a moist chamber under favorable conditions for spore production, Pf-5 did not reduce significantly the number of spores produced compared with the non-treated control. However, Pf-5 reduced melting-out disease incidence and severity in bluegrass inoculated with spores of D. poae under greenhouse conditions. PMID:18945079

Rodriguez, F; Pfender, W F



Production of recombinant single chain antibodies (scFv) in vegetatively reproductive Kalanchoe pinnata by in planta transformation.  


We developed an asexual reproductive plant, Kalanchoe pinnata, as a new bioreactor for plant-based molecular farming using a newly developed transformation method. Leaf crenate margins were pin-pricked to infect the plant with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 and vacuum infiltration was also applied to introduce the target gene into the plants. Subsequently, the young mother leaf produced new clones at the leaf crenate margins without the need for time- and labor-consuming tissue culture procedures. The average transformation rates were approximately 77 and 84% for pin-prickling and vacuum-infiltration methods, respectively. To functionally characterize an introduced target protein, a nucleic acid hydrolyzing recombinant 3D8 scFv was selected and the plant based 3D8 scFv proteins were purified and analyzed. Based on abzyme analysis, the purified protein expressed with this system had catalytic activity and exhibited all of properties of the protein produced in an E. coli system. This result suggested that vegetatively reproductive K. pinnata can be a novel and potent bioreactor for bio-pharmaceutical proteins. PMID:19688214

Jung, Yuchul; Rhee, Yong; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Shim, Hyekyung; Choi, Jung-Jin; Kwon, Suk-Tae; Yang, Joo-Sung; Kim, Donggiun; Kwon, Myung-Hee; Kim, Yong-Sung; Lee, Sukchan



Modeling, identification, and validation of models for predictive ammonia control in a wastewater treatment plant--a case study.  


The aim of this work is to develop the ammonia models that could be used for model predictive control (MPC) of nitrification process in a wastewater treatment plant. First, a reduced nonlinear model is presented, which is based on expression for nitrification reaction rate in activated sludge model No. 1 and modified for attached biomass processes, while second, a linear black-box model is shown. The data used for model identification were collected during several weeks of experiments on a real plant so that good identification data were obtained. The designed models were validated based on open loop simulations and predictions. Validation results show that the reduced nonlinear model performs better compared to the linear model, however, both models show relatively large errors compared to the real plant data. Hence, a closed loop simulation study was performed to see the differences between the performance of model predictive controller using previously estimated linear and nonlinear models and a standard proportional integral (PI) controller. From the simulation study results it was seen that in spite of relatively large model errors the MPC algorithms give better results in terms of ammonia removal compared to the PI controller, while MPC with the nonlinear model shows additional improvements over the MPC with the linear model. PMID:16649563

Stare, Aljaz; Hvala, Nadja; Vrecko, Darko



Plantas con Flores: Claves para la Evolución de la Tierra y Para el Bienestar Humano  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused interview discusses how angiosperms, or flowering plants, are important because they hold clues to the evolutionary history of our planet, provide sources of food, medicine, and shelter to humans, and serve as food and habitat for many other organisms.

Pamela Soltis (University of Florida, Gainesville;)



A robust and sensitive synthetic sensor to monitor the transcriptional output of the cytokinin signaling network in planta.  


Cytokinins are classic plant hormones that orchestrate plant growth, development, and physiology. They affect gene expression in target cells by activating a multistep phosphorelay network. Type-B response regulators, acting as transcriptional activators, mediate the final step in the signaling cascade. Previously, we have introduced a synthetic reporter, Two Component signaling Sensor (TCS)::green fluorescent protein (GFP), which reflects the transcriptional activity of type-B response regulators. TCS::GFP was instrumental in uncovering roles of cytokinin and deepening our understanding of existing functions. However, TCS-mediated expression of reporters is weak in some developmental contexts where cytokinin signaling has a documented role, such as in the shoot apical meristem or in the vasculature of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We also observed that GFP expression becomes rapidly silenced in TCS::GFP transgenic plants. Here, we present an improved version of the reporter, TCS new (TCSn), which, compared with TCS, is more sensitive to phosphorelay signaling in Arabidopsis and maize (Zea mays) cellular assays while retaining its specificity. Transgenic Arabidopsis TCSn::GFP plants exhibit strong and dynamic GFP expression patterns consistent with known cytokinin functions. In addition, GFP expression has been stable over generations, allowing for crosses with different genetic backgrounds. Thus, TCSn represents a significant improvement to report the transcriptional output profile of phosphorelay signaling networks in Arabidopsis, maize, and likely other plants that display common response regulator DNA-binding specificities. PMID:23355633

Zürcher, Evelyne; Tavor-Deslex, Deborah; Lituiev, Dmytro; Enkerli, Katalin; Tarr, Paul T; Müller, Bruno



Overexpression of the rice carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene in Golden Rice endosperm suggests apocarotenoids as substrates in planta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids are converted by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases that catalyze oxidative cleavage reactions leading to apocarotenoids.\\u000a However, apocarotenoids can also be further truncated by some members of this enzyme family. The plant carotenoid cleavage\\u000a dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) subfamily is known to degrade both carotenoids and apocarotenoids in vitro, leading to different volatile\\u000a compounds. In this study, we investigated the impact of

Andrea Ilg; Qiuju Yu; Patrick Schaub; Peter Beyer; Salim Al-Babili



In planta imaging of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid in Cannabis sativa L. with hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature has developed many pathways to produce medicinal products of extraordinary potency and specificity with significantly higher efficiencies than current synthetic methods can achieve. Identification of these mechanisms and their precise locations within plants could substantially increase the yield of a number of natural pharmaceutics. We report label-free imaging of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCa) in Cannabis sativa L. using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. In line with previous observations we find high concentrations of THCa in pistillate flowering bodies and relatively low amounts within flowering bracts. Surprisingly, we find differences in the local morphologies of the THCa-containing bodies: organelles within bracts are large, diffuse, and spheroidal, whereas in pistillate flowers they are generally compact, dense, and have heterogeneous structures. We have also identified two distinct vibrational signatures associated with THCa, both in pure crystalline form and within Cannabis plants; at present the exact natures of these spectra remain an open question.

Garbacik, Erik T.; Korai, Roza P.; Frater, Eric H.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Otto, Cees; Offerhaus, Herman L.



In planta imaging of ??-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid in Cannabis sativa L. with hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.  


Nature has developed many pathways to produce medicinal products of extraordinary potency and specificity with significantly higher efficiencies than current synthetic methods can achieve. Identification of these mechanisms and their precise locations within plants could substantially increase the yield of a number of natural pharmaceutics. We report label-free imaging of ??-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCa) in Cannabis sativa L. using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. In line with previous observations we find high concentrations of THCa in pistillate flowering bodies and relatively low amounts within flowering bracts. Surprisingly, we find differences in the local morphologies of the THCa-containing bodies: organelles within bracts are large, diffuse, and spheroidal, whereas in pistillate flowers they are generally compact, dense, and have heterogeneous structures. We have also identified two distinct vibrational signatures associated with THCa, both in pure crystalline form and within Cannabis plants; at present the exact natures of these spectra remain an open question. PMID:23588807

Garbacik, Erik T; Korai, Roza P; Frater, Eric H; Korterik, Jeroen P; Otto, Cees; Offerhaus, Herman L



A Gateway Cloning Vector Set for High-Throughput Functional Analysis of Genes in Planta[w  

PubMed Central

The current challenge, now that two plant genomes have been sequenced, is to assign a function to the increasing number of predicted genes. In Arabidopsis, approximately 55% of genes can be assigned a putative function, however, less than 8% of these have been assigned a function by direct experimental evidence. To identify these functions, many genes will have to undergo comprehensive analyses, which will include the production of chimeric transgenes for constitutive or inducible ectopic expression, for antisense or dominant negative expression, for subcellular localization studies, for promoter analysis, and for gene complementation studies. The production of such transgenes is often hampered by laborious conventional cloning technology that relies on restriction digestion and ligation. With the aim of providing tools for high throughput gene analysis, we have produced a Gateway-compatible Agrobacterium sp. binary vector system that facilitates fast and reliable DNA cloning. This collection of vectors is freely available, for noncommercial purposes, and can be used for the ectopic expression of genes either constitutively or inducibly. The vectors can be used for the expression of protein fusions to the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein and to the ?-glucuronidase protein so that the subcellular localization of a protein can be identified. They can also be used to generate promoter-reporter constructs and to facilitate efficient cloning of genomic DNA fragments for complementation experiments. All vectors were derived from pCambia T-DNA cloning vectors, with the exception of a chemically inducible vector, for Agrobacterium sp.-mediated transformation of a wide range of plant species.

Curtis, Mark D.; Grossniklaus, Ueli



Identification and in planta detection of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato using PCR amplification of hrpZ Pst  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid detection method based on PCR amplification of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato chromosomal sequences was developed. Primer design was based on the P. syringae DC3000 hrpZPst gene, which maps on a pathogenicity-associated operon of the hrp\\/hrc pathogenicity island.A 532 bp product corresponding to an internal fragment of hrpZPst was amplified from 50 isolates of P. syringae pv. tomato belonging

Massimo Zaccardelli; Annalisa Spasiano; Carlo Bazzi; Massimo Merighi



In planta production of the highly potent resveratrol analogue pterostilbene via stilbene synthase and O-methyltransferase co-expression  

SciTech Connect

Resveratrol and related stilbenes are thought to play important roles in defence responses in several plant species and have also generated considerable interest as nutraceuticals owing to their diverse health-promoting properties. Pterostilbene, a 3,5-dimethylether derivative of resveratrol, possesses properties similar to its parent compound and, additionally, exhibits significantly higher fungicidal activity in vitro and superior pharmacokinetic properties in vivo. Recombinant enzyme studies carried out using a previously characterized O-methyltransferase sequence from Sorghum bicolor (SbOMT3) demonstrated its ability to catalyse the A ring-specific 3,5-bis-O-methylation of resveratrol, yielding pterostilbene. A binary vector was constructed for the constitutive co-expression of SbOMT3 with a stilbene synthase sequence from peanut (AhSTS3) and used for the generation of stably transformed tobacco and Arabidopsis plants, resulting in the accumulation of pterostilbene in both species. A reduced floral pigmentation phenotype observed in multiple tobacco transformants was further investigated by reversed-phase HPLC analysis, revealing substantial decreases in both dihydroquercetin-derived flavonoids and phenylpropanoid-conjugated polyamines in pterostilbene-producing SbOMT3/AhSTS3 events. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this strategy for the generation of pterostilbene-producing crops and also underscore the need for the development of additional approaches for minimizing concomitant reductions in key phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites.

Rimando A. M.; Liu C.; Pan, Z.; Polashock, J. J.; Dayan, F. E., Mizuno, C. S.; Snook, M. E.; Baerson, S. R.



A quantitative synthesis of the medicinal ethnobotany of the Malink? of Mali and the Ash?ninka of Peru, with a new theoretical framework  

PubMed Central

Background Although ethnomedically and taxonomically guided searches for new medicinal plants can improve the percentage of plants found containing active compounds when compared to random sampling, ethnobotany has fulfilled little of its promise in the last few decades to deliver a bounty of new, laboratory-proven medicinal plants and compounds. It is quite difficult to test, isolate, and elucidate the structure and mechanism of compounds from the plethora of new medicinal plant uses described each year with limited laboratory time and resources and the high cost of clinical trials of new drug candidates. Methods A new quantitative theoretical framework of mathematical formulas called "relational efficacy" is proposed that should narrow down this search for new plant-derived medicines based on the hypothesis that closely related plants used to treat closely related diseases in distantly related cultures have a higher probability of being effective because they are more likely to be independent discoveries of similar plant compounds and disease mechanisms. A prerequisite to this hypothesis, the idea that empirical testing in traditional medicine will lead to choosing similar medicinal plants and therefore the medicinal flora of two distant cultures will prove to be more similar than their general flora, is tested using resampling statistics on cross-cultural field data of the plants used by the Malinké of Mali and the Asháninka of Peru to treat the diseases malaria, African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis, diabetes, eczema, asthma, and uterine fibroids. Results In this case, the similarity of the medicinal floras is found to be significantly greater than the similarity of the general floras, but only when the diseases in question are grouped into the categories of parasitic and autoimmune diseases. Conclusion If the central theoretical framework of this hypothesis is shown to be true, it will allow the synthesis of medicinal plant information from around the world to pinpoint the species with the highest potential efficacy to take into the laboratory and analyze further, ultimately saving much field and laboratory time and resources. Spanish abstract Las búsquedas que utilizan la etnomedicina y la taxonomía para descubrir nuevas plantas medicinales, pueden aumentar la probabilidad de éxito de encontrar compuestos químicos activos en plantas, en comparación con las búsquedas aleatorias. A pesar de lo anterior, en las últimas décadas, la etnobotánica no ha cumplido con las expectativas de proveer numerosas plantas medicinales y químicos nuevos una vez examinados en el laboratorio. Cada año se describen una plétora de plantas medicinales y sus usos, sin embargo las limitaciones de tiempo y recursos en los laboratorios, unidos al alto coste de los ensayos clínicos de las drogas potenciales, hacen muy difícil probar, aislar, y elucidar la estructura y el mecanismo de los compuestos de estas plantas. Se propone un nuevo marco teórico cuantitativo cuyo fin es focalizar la búsqueda de nueva plantas medicinales. Este marco teórico está basado en la hipótesis que las plantas cercanamente relacionadas, usadas para tratar enfermedades cercanamente relacionadas en culturas distantemente relacionadas, tienen una eficacia potencial más alta, debido a que es más probable que estos hallazgos sean descubrimientos independientes de compuestos químicos similares. Parte de esta hipótesis, que las escogencias racionales se hacen para elegir plantas medicinales similares y que la flora medicinal de dos culturas distantes es más similar que su flora general, se probó usando métodos estadísticos de remuestreo con datos de campo de la comunidad Malinké de Malí y de la Asháninka de Perú, y las enfermedades de paludismo, enfermedad africana del sueño, enfermedad de Chagas, leishmania, diabetes, eczema, asma, y fibromas uterinos. Se encontró, en este caso, que

Bletter, Nathaniel



Se identifica una relación entre la falta de exámenes de detección y una gran parte de los casos de cáncer de seno en la etapa avanzada

Los autores de un estudio publicado el 20 de octubre de 2004 en la revista Journal of the National Cancer Institute1? declaran que las dos prioridades principales del sistema de salud deben ser aumentar el porcentaje de exámenes de mamografía e invertir en investigaciones que mejoren la tecnología para detectar el cáncer de seno.


Aspetti economici della digestione anaerobica nell'agroindustria: Applicazione di una nuova tecnologia in una distilleria. (Agro-industrial anaerobic digestion cost benefits: Technology utilization in distillery).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anaerobic digestion, followed by aerobic post treatment, is widely used as a treatment technology of distillery wastes. An economic comparison between two different treatment processes; a traditional concentration unit and the termophilic hybrid anaerobic...

F. De Poli E. Mela S. Pasqualini



Una sociedad legalista: Abogados, procuradores de causas y la creacion de una cultura legal colonial en Lima y Potosi, 1540--1670  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the formation, reproduction, and the role in litigation of two branches of the legal profession, lawyers and procurators. They were the experts in charge of civil, criminal, and ecclesiastical litigation during the Old Regime. While the lawyers provided erudite legal advice, procurators oriented and drove the procedure as legal representatives of their clients. The European legal

Renzo Honores




Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in the world and Mexico is not exception, since a great number of people suffer of hypertension and the use of synthetic drug for the control of this disease can cause in the organism diverse secondary reactions, such as: cough, taste perturbation, rash in the skin, among others. An alternative for the

J. G. Torruco-Uco; M. A. Domínguez-Magaña; G. Dávila-Ortíz; A. Martínez-Ayala; L. A. Chel-Guerrero; D. A. Betancur-Ancona



The Combine Project: An Experience in a Dual-Language Classroom = El proyecto de la cosechadora: una experiencia en una clase bilingue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, also available in Spanish, describes what happened when a bilingual kindergarten class in West Liberty, Iowa, investigated a combine. The dual-language Kindergarten program supports content area instruction in both Spanish and English. The first part of the article tells the story of the Combine Project, this class's first project…

Wilson, Rebecca


Technological Advancement Development of a Fusarium graminearum AVymetrix GeneChip for proWling fungal gene expression in vitro and in planta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently the genome sequences of several Wlamentous fungi have become available, providing the opportunity for large-scale func- tional analysis including genome-wide expression analysis. We report the design and validation of the Wrst AVymetrix GeneChip micro- array based on the entire genome of a Wlamentous fungus, the ascomycetous plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum. To maximize the likelihood of representing all putative genes

Ulrich Güldener; Kye-Yong Seong; Jayanand Boddu; Seungho Cho; Frances Trail; Jin-Rong Xu; Gerhard Adam; Hans-Werner Mewes


Selective interaction of triazole derivatives with DWF4, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase of the brassinosteroid biosynthetic pathway, correlates with brassinosteroid deficiency in planta.  


Brassinazole, a synthetic chemical developed in our laboratory, is a triazole-type brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor that induces dwarfism in various plant species. The target sites of brassinazole were investigated by chemical analyses of endogenous brassinosteroids (BRs) in brassinazole-treated Catharanthus roseus cells. The levels of castasterone and brassinolide in brassinazole-treated plant cells were less than 6% of the levels in untreated cells. In contrast, campestanol and 6-oxocampestanol levels were increased, and levels of BR intermediates with hydroxy groups on the side chains were reduced, suggesting that brassinazole treatment reduced BR levels by inhibiting the hydroxylation of the C-22 position. DWF4, which is an Arabidopsis thaliana cytochrome P450 isolated as a putative steroid 22-hydroxylase, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the binding affinity of brassinazole and its derivatives to the recombinant DWF4 were analyzed. Among several triazole derivatives, brassinazole had both the highest binding affinity to DWF4 and the highest growth inhibitory activity. The binding affinity and the activity for inhibiting hypocotyl growth were well correlated among the derivatives. In brassinazole-treated A. thaliana, the CPD gene involved in BR biosynthesis was induced within 3 h, most likely because of feedback activation caused by the reduced levels of active BRs. These results indicate that brassinazole inhibits the hydroxylation of the C-22 position of the side chain in BRs by direct binding to DWF4 and that DWF4 catalyzes this hydroxylation reaction. PMID:11319239

Asami, T; Mizutani, M; Fujioka, S; Goda, H; Min, Y K; Shimada, Y; Nakano, T; Takatsuto, S; Matsuyama, T; Nagata, N; Sakata, K; Yoshida, S



Time-Resolved Fluorescence Imaging Reveals Differential Interactions of N-Glycan Processing Enzymes across the Golgi Stack in Planta1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

N-Glycan processing is one of the most important cellular protein modifications in plants and as such is essential for plant development and defense mechanisms. The accuracy of Golgi-located processing steps is governed by the strict intra-Golgi localization of sequentially acting glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. Their differential distribution goes hand in hand with the compartmentalization of the Golgi stack into cis-, medial-, and trans-cisternae, which separate early from late processing steps. The mechanisms that direct differential enzyme concentration are still unknown, but the formation of multienzyme complexes is considered a feasible Golgi protein localization strategy. In this study, we used two-photon excitation-Förster resonance energy transfer-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy to determine the interaction of N-glycan processing enzymes with differential intra-Golgi locations. Following the coexpression of fluorescent protein-tagged amino-terminal Golgi-targeting sequences (cytoplasmic-transmembrane-stem [CTS] region) of enzyme pairs in leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana spp.), we observed that all tested cis- and medial-Golgi enzymes, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Golgi ?-mannosidase I, Nicotiana tabacum ?1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I, Arabidopsis Golgi ?-mannosidase II (GMII), and Arabidopsis ?1,2-xylosyltransferase, form homodimers and heterodimers, whereas among the late-acting enzymes Arabidopsis ?1,3-galactosyltransferase1 (GALT1), Arabidopsis ?1,4-fucosyltransferase, and Rattus norvegicus ?2,6-sialyltransferase (a nonplant Golgi marker), only GALT1 and medial-Golgi GMII were found to form a heterodimer. Furthermore, the efficiency of energy transfer indicating the formation of interactions decreased considerably in a cis-to-trans fashion. The comparative fluorescence lifetime imaging of several full-length cis- and medial-Golgi enzymes and their respective catalytic domain-deleted CTS clones further suggested that the formation of protein-protein interactions can occur through their amino-terminal CTS region.

Schoberer, Jennifer; Liebminger, Eva; Botchway, Stanley W.; Strasser, Richard; Hawes, Chris



Comparison of the development in planta of a pyrrolnitrin-resistant mutant of Botrytis cinerea and its sensitive wild-type parent isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botrytis cinerea is able to build-up resistance to pyrrolnitrin, an antibiotic produced by diverse biocontrol agents, possibly compromising\\u000a the durability of this method of disease control. The development of two near-isogenic lines of B. cinerea differing in their level of resistance to pyrrolnitrin was compared in tomato plants and on PDA medium. In tomato plants,\\u000a significant differences in the percentage

Sakhr Ajouz; Marc Bardin; Philippe C. Nicot; Mohamed El Maâtaoui



Transient Co-Expression of Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Suppressors for Increased in Planta Expression of a Recombinant Anthrax Receptor Fusion Protein  

PubMed Central

Potential epidemics of infectious diseases and the constant threat of bioterrorism demand rapid, scalable, and cost-efficient manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming of tobacco plants provides an alternative for the recombinant production of therapeutics. We have developed a transient production platform that uses Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to express a novel anthrax receptor decoy protein (immunoadhesin), CMG2-Fc. This chimeric fusion protein, designed to protect against the deadly anthrax toxins, is composed of the von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of human capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2), an effective anthrax toxin receptor, and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). We evaluated, in N. benthamiana intact plants and detached leaves, the expression of CMG2-Fc under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, and the co-expression of CMG2-Fc with nine different viral suppressors of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): p1, p10, p19, p21, p24, p25, p38, 2b, and HCPro. Overall, transient CMG2-Fc expression was higher on intact plants than detached leaves. Maximum expression was observed with p1 co-expression at 3.5 days post-infiltration (DPI), with a level of 0.56 g CMG2-Fc per kg of leaf fresh weight and 1.5% of the total soluble protein, a ten-fold increase in expression when compared to absence of suppression. Co-expression with the p25 PTGS suppressor also significantly increased the CMG2-Fc expression level after just 3.5 DPI.

Arzola, Lucas; Chen, Junxing; Rattanaporn, Kittipong; Maclean, James M.; McDonald, Karen A.



Artemisinin production in Artemisia annua: studies in planta and results of a novel delivery method for treating malaria and other neglected diseases  

PubMed Central

Artemisia annua L. produces the sesquiterpene lactone, artemisinin, a potent antimalarial drug that is also effective in treating other parasitic diseases, some viral infections and various neoplasms. Artemisinin is also an allelopathic herbicide that can inhibit the growth of other plants. Unfortunately, the compound is in short supply and thus, studies on its production in the plant are of interest as are low cost methods for drug delivery. Here we review our recent studies on artemisinin production in A. annua during development of the plant as it moves from the vegetative to reproductive stage (flower budding and full flower formation), in response to sugars, and in concert with the production of the ROS, hydrogen peroxide. We also provide new data from animal experiments that measured the potential of using the dried plant directly as a therapeutic. Together these results provide a synopsis of a more global view of regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua than previously available. We further suggest an alternative low cost method of drug delivery to treat malaria and other neglected tropical diseases.

Arsenault, Patrick R.; Covello, Patrick S.; McMickle, Anthony; Teoh, Keat H.; Reed, Darwin W.



Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical studies of some medicinal plants from Ghana Actividad antimicrobiana y estudios fitoquímicos de algunas plantas medicinales de Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanol and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf and stem bark of Nauclea latifolia, Bridelia atroviridis and Zanthoxylum gilletii showed antimicrobial activity against the test organisms. The methanol extracts of the plants exhibited higher activity than the pet ether extract against the test organisms. The activity of the extracts may support some of the folkloric uses of these plants




Regulon studies and in planta role of the BraI/R quorum-sensing system in the plant-beneficial Burkholderia cluster.  


The genus Burkholderia is composed of functionally diverse species, and it can be divided into several clusters. One of these, designated the plant-beneficial-environmental (PBE) Burkholderia cluster, is formed by nonpathogenic species, which in most cases have been found to be associated with plants. It was previously established that members of the PBE group share an N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing (QS) system, designated BraI/R, that produces and responds to 3-oxo-C14-HSL (OC14-HSL). Moreover, some of them also possess a second AHL QS system, designated XenI2/R2, producing and responding to 3-hydroxy-C8-HSL (OHC8-HSL). In the present study, we performed liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis to determine which AHL molecules are produced by each QS system of this group of bacteria. The results showed that XenI2/R2 is mainly responsible for the production of OHC8-HSL and that the BraI/R system is involved in the production of several different AHLs. This analysis also revealed that Burkholderia phymatum STM815 produces greater amounts of AHLs than the other species tested. Further studies showed that the BraR protein of B. phymatum is more promiscuous than other BraR proteins, responding equally well to several different AHL molecules, even at low concentrations. Transcriptome studies with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 and B. phymatum STM815 revealed that the BraI/R regulon is species specific, with exopolysaccharide production being the only common phenotype regulated by this system in the PBE cluster. In addition, BraI/R was shown not to be important for plant nodulation by B. phymatum strains or for endophytic colonization and growth promotion of maize by B. phytofirmans PsJN. PMID:23686262

Coutinho, Bruna G; Mitter, Birgit; Talbi, Chouhra; Sessitsch, Angela; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Halliday, Nigel; James, Euan K; Cámara, Miguel; Venturi, Vittorio



Interaction of VPg-Pro of Turnip mosaic virus with the translation initiation factor 4E and the poly(A)-binding protein in planta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viral protein linked to the genome (VPg) of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) interacts in vitro with the translation eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E. In the present study, we investigated the consequence of TuMV infection on eIF4E expression. Two isomers are present in plants, namely eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E. Expression of the latter was detected in both TuMV-infected and mock-inoculated Brassica

Simon Leonard; Catherine Viel; Chantal Beauchemin; Nicole Daigneault; Marc G. Fortin; Jean-Francois Laliberte



In planta PCR-based detection of early infection of plant-parasitic nematodes in the roots: a step towards the understanding of infection and plant defence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyphagous obligate parasites Meloidogyne spp. devastate a wide range of crop plants including bananas and plantains. Their infestations impact agriculture worldwide. Therefore,\\u000a an effective combating regime against this nematode species and an in-depth understanding of plant-nematode interaction are\\u000a essential. Early detection of infection by visual inspection is not possible. This hampers early control strategy efforts\\u000a and makes in-depth research

Syarifah Aisyafaznim Sayed Abdul Rahman; Zulqarnain Mohamed; Rofina Yasmin Othman; Rony Swennen; Bart Panis; Dirk De Waele; Serge Remy; Sebastien Christian Carpentier



Artemisinin production in Artemisia annua : studies in planta and results of a novel delivery method for treating malaria and other neglected diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artemisia annua L. produces the sesquiterpene lactone, artemisinin, a potent antimalarial drug that is also effective in treating other parasitic\\u000a diseases, some viral infections and various neoplasms. Artemisinin is also an allelopathic herbicide that can inhibit the\\u000a growth of other plants. Unfortunately, the compound is in short supply and thus, studies on its production in the plant are\\u000a of interest

Pamela J. WeathersPatrick; Patrick R. Arsenault; Patrick S. Covello; Anthony McMickle; Keat H. Teoh; Darwin W. Reed




Microsoft Academic Search

Residual effect of acidulated or burnt Riecito phosphoric rock on maize grown in soils with variable levels of calcium With the purpose of evaluating the residual effect of phosphoric rock from Riecito (Venezuela) treated with vinaza or high temperatures, three successive crops of corn, used as indicative plant, were grown in an acid soil (pH 3.7) whitewashed up to pH

Shirley M. Fernández; Carlos A. Meza



Efficient foreign gene expression in planta using a plantago asiatica mosaic virus-based vector achieved by the strong RNA-silencing suppressor activity of TGBp1.  


Plant virus expression vectors provide a powerful tool for basic research as well as for practical applications. Here, we report the construction of an expression vector based on plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV), a member of the genus Potexvirus. Modification of a vector to enhance the expression of a foreign gene, combined with the use of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A peptide, allowed efficient expression of the foreign gene in two model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. Comparison with the widely used potato virus X (PVX) vector demonstrated that the PlAMV vector retains an inserted foreign gene for a longer period than PVX. Moreover, our results showed that the GFP expression construct PlAMV-GFP exhibits stronger RNA silencing suppression activity than PVX-GFP, which is likely to contribute to the stability of the PlAMV vector. PMID:24154949

Minato, Nami; Komatsu, Ken; Okano, Yukari; Maejima, Kensaku; Ozeki, Johji; Senshu, Hiroko; Takahashi, Shuichiro; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou



Validation of RT-qPCR reference genes for in planta expression studies in Hemileia vastatrix, the causal agent of coffee leaf rust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemileia vastatrix is a biotrophic fungus, causing coffee leaf rust in all coffee growing countries, leading to serious social and economic problems. Gene expression studies may have a key role unravelling the transcriptomics of this pathogen during interaction with the plant host. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is currently the golden standard for gene expression analysis, although

Ana Vieira; Pedro Talhinhas; Andreia Loureiro; Sébastien Duplessis; Diana Fernandez; Maria do Céu Silva; Octávio S. Paulo; Helena Gil Azinheira



Perdas do nitrogŒnio da urØia no sistema solo-planta em dois ciclos de cana-de-aÁœcar (1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen losses of applied urea in the soil-plant system during two sugar cane cycles Abstract†ñ†The objective of this work was to quantify the losses of N from the soil-plant system, in the cane†plant and sugar cane ratoon-cycle. Two experiments were carried out in 220†L-pots filled with sandy soil. In the experiment with cane plant two factors were studied: two types

Paulo Cesar Ocheuze Trivelin; Mauro Wagner de Oliveira; Cesar Vitti



Irradiacion de meristemos 'in vitro' para inducir mutaciones en plantas de ornato (Petunia hybrida). (Induced mutations in ornamental plants by 'in vitro' irradiation of Petunia hybrida meristems).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent decades it has been observed that for the induction of mutation in ornamental plants we can obtain better results when the plants are irradiated in vegetative state and even better 'in vitro' that when its are irradiated 'in vivo'. In this work ...

J. Gonzalez-Jimenez



A Robust and Sensitive Synthetic Sensor to Monitor the Transcriptional Output of the Cytokinin Signaling Network in Planta1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Cytokinins are classic plant hormones that orchestrate plant growth, development, and physiology. They affect gene expression in target cells by activating a multistep phosphorelay network. Type-B response regulators, acting as transcriptional activators, mediate the final step in the signaling cascade. Previously, we have introduced a synthetic reporter, Two Component signaling Sensor (TCS)::green fluorescent protein (GFP), which reflects the transcriptional activity of type-B response regulators. TCS::GFP was instrumental in uncovering roles of cytokinin and deepening our understanding of existing functions. However, TCS-mediated expression of reporters is weak in some developmental contexts where cytokinin signaling has a documented role, such as in the shoot apical meristem or in the vasculature of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We also observed that GFP expression becomes rapidly silenced in TCS::GFP transgenic plants. Here, we present an improved version of the reporter, TCS new (TCSn), which, compared with TCS, is more sensitive to phosphorelay signaling in Arabidopsis and maize (Zea mays) cellular assays while retaining its specificity. Transgenic Arabidopsis TCSn::GFP plants exhibit strong and dynamic GFP expression patterns consistent with known cytokinin functions. In addition, GFP expression has been stable over generations, allowing for crosses with different genetic backgrounds. Thus, TCSn represents a significant improvement to report the transcriptional output profile of phosphorelay signaling networks in Arabidopsis, maize, and likely other plants that display common response regulator DNA-binding specificities.

Zurcher, Evelyne; Tavor-Deslex, Deborah; Lituiev, Dmytro; Enkerli, Katalin; Tarr, Paul T.; Muller, Bruno



In Planta Recognition of a Double-Stranded RNA Synthesis Protein Complex by a Potexviral RNA Silencing Suppressor[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

RNA silencing plays an important antiviral role in plants and invertebrates. To counteract antiviral RNA silencing, most plant viruses have evolved viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs). TRIPLE GENE BLOCK PROTEIN1 (TGBp1) of potexviruses is a well-characterized VSR, but the detailed mechanism by which it suppresses RNA silencing remains unclear. We demonstrate that transgenic expression of TGBp1 of plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV) induced developmental abnormalities in Arabidopsis thaliana similar to those observed in mutants of SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3 (SGS3) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6) required for the trans-acting small interfering RNA synthesis pathway. PlAMV-TGBp1 inhibits SGS3/RDR6-dependent double-stranded RNA synthesis in the trans-acting small interfering RNA pathway. TGBp1 interacts with SGS3 and RDR6 and coaggregates with SGS3/RDR6 bodies, which are normally dispersed in the cytoplasm. In addition, TGBp1 forms homooligomers, whose formation coincides with TGBp1 aggregation with SGS3/RDR6 bodies. These results reveal the detailed molecular function of TGBp1 as a VSR and shed new light on the SGS3/RDR6-dependent double-stranded RNA synthesis pathway as another general target of VSRs.

Okano, Yukari; Senshu, Hiroko; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Neriya, Yutaro; Netsu, Osamu; Minato, Nami; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Maejima, Kensaku; Oshima, Kenro; Komatsu, Ken; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou



In planta protein interactions of three alphacryptoviruses and three betacryptoviruses from White Clover, Red Clover and Dill by bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis.  


Plant-infecting viruses of the genera Alpha- and Betacryptovirus within the family Partitiviridae cause no visible effects on their hosts and are only transmitted by cell division and through gametes. The bipartite dsRNA genome is encoding a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a coat protein (CP). Aside from sequence and structural analysis, the investigation of protein interactions is another step towards virus characterization. Therefore, ORFs of two type members White Clover Cryptic Virus 1 and 2 (WCCV-1 and WCCV-2), as well as the related viruses from Red Clover and Dill were introduced into a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. We showed CP-CP dimerization for all tested viruses with localization for alphacryptoviruses at the nuclear membrane and for betacryptoviruses close to cell walls within the cytoplasm. For CPs of WCCV-1 and WCCV-2, deletion mutants were created to determine internal interaction sites. Moreover, RdRp self-interaction was found for all viruses, whereas CP-RdRp interactions were only detectable for the alphacryptoviruses. An intra-genus test of CPs was successful in various virus combinations, whereas an inter-genus interaction of WCCV-1CP and WCCV-2CP was absent. This is the first report of in vivo protein interactions of members in the family Partitiviridae, indicating distinct features of the alpha- and betacryptoviruses. PMID:24113719

Lesker, Till; Maiss, Edgar



The 20S proteasome ?5 subunit of Arabidopsis thaliana carries an RNase activity and interacts in planta with the lettuce mosaic potyvirus HcPro protein.  


In plants, the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in protein degradation and is involved in many steps of defence mechanisms, regardless of the types of pathogen targeted. In addition to its proteolytic activities, the UPS ribonuclease (RNase) activity, previously detected in 20S proteasome preparations from cauliflower and sunflower (Helianthus annuus), has been shown to specifically target plant viral RNAs in vitro. In this study, we show that recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana proteasomal ?(5) subunit expressed in Escherichia coli harbours an RNase activity that degrades Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tobamovirus)- and Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV, Potyvirus)-derived RNAs in vitro. The analysis of mutated forms of the ?(5) subunit demonstrated that mutation of a glutamic acid at position 110 affects RNase activity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated, using a bimolecular fluorescence complement assay, that the multifunctional helper component proteinase (HcPro) of LMV, already known to interfere with the 20S proteasome RNase activity in vitro, can interact in vivo with the recombinant ?(5) subunit. Further experiments demonstrated that, in LMV-infected lettuce cells, ?(5) is partially relocalized to HcPro-containing infection-specific inclusions. Susceptibility analyses of Arabidopsis mutants, knocked out for each At-PAE gene encoding ?(5) , showed that one (KO-pae1) of the two mutants exhibited a significantly increased susceptibility to LMV infection. Taken together, these results extend to A. thaliana ?(5) the range of HcPro-interacting proteasomal subunits, and suggest that HcPro may modulate its associated RNase activity which may contribute to an antiviral response. PMID:21199564

Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Sassaki, Flavio Tetsuo; Walter, Jocelyne; Michon, Thierry; Ménard, Guillaume; Pagny, Gaëlle; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Maia, Ivan De Godoy; Badaoui, Saloua; Le Gall, Olivier; Candresse, Thierry; German-Retana, Sylvie



Transient co-expression of post-transcriptional gene silencing suppressors and beta-glucuronidase in harvested lettuce leaf tissue does not improve recombinant protein accumulation in planta.  


Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer was used to co-express three virus-derived post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) suppressors, P19 from tomato bushy stunt virus and two species of helper component proteinase (HcPro) from tobacco etch virus (TEV) and turnip mosaic virus, with beta-glucuronidase (GUS) in harvested lettuce leaf tissue to investigate whether GUS accumulation increases in the presence of PTGS suppressors. Co-expression incubations were 3-5 days at 4 and 22 degrees C. GUS activity and leaf viability were measured after incubation. Co-expression of PTGS suppressors did not elevate GUS expression levels. Under certain incubation conditions, co-expression of TEV HcPro significantly lowered transient GUS expression and was detrimental to leaf viability, suggesting that expression of PTGS silencers may have a negative effect on transient expression levels that outweighs any effects of PTGS suppression in harvested leaf tissues. PMID:17206371

Simmons, Christopher W; VanderGheynst, Jean S



A semi-quantitative RT-PCR method to readily compare expression levels within Botrytis cinerea multigenic families in vitro and in planta  

Microsoft Academic Search

A straightforward and easy-to-apply semi-quantitative RT-PCR method was developed to study multigenic expression in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. This procedure is based on the one-step reverse transcription-amplification of a specific transcript within total RNA and product amount determination by densitometric analysis of ethidium bromide fluorescence upon gel electrophoresis. The semi-quantitative analysis is achieved, at a fixed PCR cycle-number, within

Mathias Choquer; Martine Boccara; Anne Vidal-Cros



The Uromyces fabae UfAAT3 gene encodes a general amino acid permease that prefers uptake of in planta scarce amino acids.  


SUMMARY The obligately biotrophic rust fungi are dependent on nutrient supply from their host plants. A cDNA library of infection structures of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae was used to identify a gene (UfAAT3) that encodes a protein with a high degree of sequence similarity to fungal amino acid permeases. The expression profile revealed by RT-PCR shows an up-regulation very early during rust development, with the highest level in haustoria and infected leaves. Heterologous expression of UfAAT3p in Xenopus oocytes revealed an amino acid permease energized by co-transport with protons and exhibiting a broad substrate specificity. Compared to the previously described U. fabae amino acid transporter (AAT1), which represented the highest transport activities for lysine and histidine, electrophysiological measurements with cRNA of UfAAT3-injected oocytes showed substrate preferences for leucine and the sulphur containing amino acids methionine and cysteine. The unique contribution of the amino acid permeases and their substrate affinities might be connected with the availability of amino acids in the leaf tissue. Thus, in order to compare the substrate profiles of AAT1p and UfAAT3p with the natural environment of U. fabae we analysed the amino acid concentration in the apoplastic space, in addition to that in extracts of Vicia faba leaves. The predominant free amino acids were asparagine, alanine, glutamine and glutamate. However, most amino acids were present at low concentrations (between 0.02 and 0.16 mm), including the preferred substrates of the U. fabae amino acid permeases AAT1p and UfAAT3p. PMID:20565608

Struck, Christine; Mueller, Elena; Martin, Holger; Lohaus, Gertrud



Zinc sérico en menores de 15 años de una comunidad rural del estado Lara  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract. The aim of this research was to determine the levels of serum zinc in a rural population under 15 years old, in Lara State, Venezuela, in order to know the deficiencies of this oligoelement and start the nutritional inter- vention by the involved organizations. The sample was made up of 310 subjects (M: 163; F: 147)

Yelitza Berné Peña; Jham Frank Papale; Mario Torres; Norelys Mendoza; Graciela Dellan Rodríguez; Diolisbeth Rodríguez; Zuly Briceño; José Miguel Moreno


Tengo una Bomba: The Paralinguistic and Linguistic Conventions of the Oral Practice Chismeando.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a linguistic and paralinguistic explication of the oral practice of chismeando (gossiping) as engaged in by a group of women from the Dominican Republic. A culture-specific study of the structuring resources by which the participants construct, maintain, and/or modify their in-group identities in everyday oral practice is…

Hall, Joan Kelly



Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

Cortes-Hwang, Adriana



Exposición ocupacional a solventes orgánicos en una fábrica de calzado en Valencia, Venezuela, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Potential health effects of organic solvents exposure were assessed. Thirty six workers of shoe manufacturer located in Valencia, Venezuela, were studied. They had a medical exam, and an occupational history. Biological indicators of exposure (toluene in blood; methylethy- ketone, methylisobuthylketone, acetone and hippuric acid in urine) and effect (creatinine in urine, hematologic analyses, bilirubin, transaminases and alkaline phoshatase-AP) were

Maritza Rodríguez; Guido Squillante; Maritza Rojas; TRABAJOS ORIGINALES


La ecología de Egeria densa Planchon (Liliopsida: Alismatales): ¿Una especie ingeniera de humedales?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egeria densa Planchon is considered an invasive species in continental aquatic systems in Chile. Its original geographical distribution was limited to the subtropical regions of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Its fast growth and dense canopy-forming habit are associated with the clear water state of shallow water continental ecosystems. As a dominant species in many of the systems in which it



El espejo deformado: Una propuesta de análisis del reciclaje en la ficción audiovisual norteamericana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an approach to the different ways in which a narrative material can be reused in the cultural industries through the case study of the United States. Starting from the present situation of the investigations on literary

José Manuel de Pablos Coello



Los tratamientos psicológicos en la fobia social infantil y adolescente: una revisión cualitativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se presentan los resultados de un estudio cualitativo de revisión de la eficacia de los tratamientos psicológicos utilizados en la fobia social en niños y adolescentes. Se localizaron 26 investigaciones: 5 artículos son diseños de caso único, 6 presentan los datos de un solo grupo tratado y aportan medidas pretest-postest y 16 informes son grupos de comparación entre tratamientos psicológicos

Ana Isabel Rosa Alcázar; Pablo J. Olivares-Olivares; Marina Iniesta




Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: In adolescence are configured the ideals of life alter that will form the identity of the adult. According to OMS the prevalence it reaches 8% in young. The province of Corrientes has the highest indexes of suicides in Argentine. OBJETIVE: determinate the prevalence of anxiety and de- pression on teenagers in habitants of the rural population, and the coexistences

Alejandro Festorazzi Acosta; Alejandro Luis Rodríguez; Javier Andrés Lotero



Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that the gene GRIN-1 plays a fundamental role in many cerebral functions and it has been associated with numerous diseases. For this reason it has awakened a great scientific interest in understanding how the polymorphisms of this gene are distributed among normal and diseased populations. Up to now the polymorphisms that lead to an amino acid

V. Villegas; I. Zarante; L. Lareo




Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a didactic unit: The study of chemical bond in the last years of secondary school Summary. The planning and development of didactic units is an unbeatable element for preparing a set of lessons based on a constructivist approach, within the framework of a pedagogical content knowledge that impacts on science learning. We are presenting the details of the


A Guide to Delegate Preparation: UNA-USA Model UN Survival Kit. 1988-89 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written by students for students, the purpose of the book, one of four components of the Model UN Survival kit, is to help prepare secondary and college student delegates for participation in Model United Nations (UN) Conferences. Model UN programs help students discover the difficulties of world political processes and understand other nations…

Muldoon, James P., Jr., Ed.; Diehl, John, Ed.


La infección por virus del papiloma humano, una amenaza real para las adolescentes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a study on cervical pathology in adolescents in the Clodomira Acosta Ferrales Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital between January 2006 and May 2007, in which 340 sexually active adolescents were evaluated.Of these, 192 had colposcopic criteria compatible with subclinical lesions produced by HPV infection and underwent colposcopically-guided punch biopsy. A histological diagnosis of HPV was made in 117 adolescents,

Margarita Solares; Omayda Safora Enríquez; Aldo Rodríguez Izquierdo



Hacia la hipertelevisión. Los primeros síntomas de una nueva configuración del dispositivo televisivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article proposes a first map of the transformations that are shaping television since the diffusion of the new interactive media. If we think that the new textualities coexist with the traditional ones inside the same media ecology, it could be pertinent to analyze the contaminations between them. The television of the XXIst century is speaking to audiences formed in

Carlos Scolari


Areas Nacionales de Estudio Ambiental: Una Guia. (National Environmental Study Area: A Guide).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, the Spanish version of SE 014 817, is a guide for teachers and resource managers who are interested in establishing National Environmental Study Areas (NESA) or interested in receiving NESA recognition for their on-going environmental study area programs. It outlines the characteristics and procedures of the program; the nature,…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.


Una Guia Para Padres Para El Cuidado de Ninos (A Parent's Guide to Child Care).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was designed to help parents in Oregon in finding and financing child care for their children. The first section of the booklet provides information on the Oregon Department of Human Resources' Adult and Family Services (AFS) Division's Aid for Dependent Children (ADC) and Employment Related Day Care (ERDC) programs. This section…

Oregon State Dept. of Human Resources, Salem.


Utilidad del diagnóstico molecular en una familia con síndrome de Marfan y un fenotipo vascular atípico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marfan syndrome is mainly caused by mutations in the FBN1 gene. Diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria, but the phenotypic presentation varies widely among affected individuals. Aortic dissection or rupture is the cause of death in over 90% of untreated patients. Early identification of individuals at risk is important given the availability of medical and surgical treatment that can

Ana Lebreiro; Elisabete Martins; Jorge Almeida; Sofia Pimenta; José Miguel Bernardes; José Carlos Machado; Cassiano Abreu-Lima



¿Competencia o colusión en el mercado de gasolina? Una aproximación a través del parámetro de conducta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo analiza la competencia en el mercado minorista de gasolinas. Para ello nos centramos en el mercado de las Islas Canarias porque ofrece dos ventajas inéditas respecto de otros mercados: la facilidad en la definición del mercado relevante (insular) y la existencia de mercados en monopolio y en oligopolio simultáneamente. Este último hecho permite estimar un modelo de variaciones

Jordi Perdiguero; Juan Luis Jiménez



Una nota sobre el modelo de telaraña y los mercados a futuro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalmente se acepta que los mercados que funcionan con expectativas del tipo “telaraña” son ineficientes y que agentes con expectativas correctas podrían explotar esta ineficiencia ya sea a través de convertirse en productores del bien en cuestión o vendiendo las predicciones propias que serían más acertadas que la del tipo “telaraña”. Esta nota presenta un tercer método para explotar las

Maurice W. Schiff



Forma e funzioni delle reti di imprese: evidenze da una ricerca nel settore vitivinicolo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Il tema delle reti di imprese, già da tempo studiato, si presenta ora in tutta la sua rilevanza. La rete, infatti, costituisce uno strumento per incrementare la competitività delle imprese e per decretare il successo delle strategie da queste adottate. Il recente intervento che ha introdotto il contratto di rete testimonia anche il vivo interesse del legislatore. L’attuazione dello strumento

Federica Casarosa; Marco Gobbato




Microsoft Academic Search

L'articolo riporta i risultati di uno studio qualitativo volto a: 1) individuare temi ricorrenti e tattiche utilizzate dall'industria del tabacco per attirare i giovani afroamericani nel mercato delle sigarette e 2) far emergere le conoscenze, gli atteggiamenti, le intenzioni e le credenze dei ragazzi afroamericani in relazione al fumo e all'industria del tabacco, per aiutare a sviluppare campagne di contro-

Francesca Di Stefano


Community Resources Guide for Central Florida = Una Guia de Recursos en la Comunidad de Florida Central.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to orient Hispanic refugees to the services that are available in Central Florida, this bilingual guide consists of a section of general information on living and working in the United States and a section devoted to various public and private agencies. Provided first are addresses and phone numbers of various government agencies:…

Medina, Linda, Comp.


Dins el bosc de la cultura visual. Apunts per a una actualització pedagògica  

Microsoft Academic Search

L’era de la comunicació acara la comunitat educativa davant de nous reptes, especialment en l’àmbit de la cultura visual. La cultura visual es manifesta avui arreu i no hi ha àmbit ni familiar ni social ni educatiu que no en participi. Més enllà de la visualització i experimentació d’alguns procediments artístics canònics, l’ensenyament de les arts visuals i plàstiques observa

Teresa Duran i Armengol




Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the cognitive distinction between tourist and native spaces, the article establishes the anthropological construction of tourism space. Since the early times of tourism in El Puerto as a seaside resort, the beach was both a healthy and a ludic space. The article analyses the causal relation among class society, leisure and health and the histocial conection between tourism

Antonio Miguel; Nogués Pedregal



Tumor de células de Leydig de ovario: una causa infrecuente de virilización en la mujer posmenopáusica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leydig cell tumor of the ovary is a very rare neoplasm that usually occurs in postmenopausal women. We report the case of a 72-year-old woman with symptoms of virilization. Hormonal evaluation showed marked elevation of serum testosterone (12038pg\\/ml) and no evidence of increased production of other sexual hormones. Ultrasound examination revealed a 10-mm tumor within the left ovary. Subsequently, total

L. Yébenes; J. Ignacio Sánchez; J. de Santiago; M. Santiago; F. Gilsanz; A. Suárez; D. Hardisson



El papel del gobierno en el desarrollo económico: una reflexión a partir de la experiencia  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El trabajo expone el aprendizaje obtenido como producto de años de trabajo guberna- mental buscando opciones para impulsar el desarrollo económico competitivo de Jalisco. Se resumen los objetivos prioritarios que guiarían la política económica, así como las estrategias definidas para alcanzarlos; se examinan algunas de las herramientas aplica- das para motivar la cooperación orientada a lograr eficiencia colectiva en

Laura Guevara Domínguez


El gobierno de la educación en Inglaterra y Perú: una mirada comparada desde la economía política  

Microsoft Academic Search

Durante los últimos treinta años, el gobierno de la educación, como el de otros sectores, ha experimentado cambios importantes que han redefinido las escalas en las que se gobiernan los servicios educativos, así como quiénes son los actores responsables de dichos servicios. Este trabajo explora tales cambios en dos casos particulares, Inglaterra y el Perú, dos contextos cuya poca similitud

María Balarín



Sistemas Eolicos Pequenos Para Generacion De Electricidad; Una Guia Para Consumidores En Los EE.UU.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Spanish version of the popular Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or...



EL TLC CA-EE.UU.: ¿Una Oportunidad de Crecimiento para los Paises Centroamericanos¿  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta presentación fue comisionado por la Red de Integración y Comercio del Diálogo Regional de Política para la V Reunión Hemisférica celebrada los días 14 y 15 de agosto de 2003. Antecedentes Motivos y Razones de la Negociación Objetivos Generales de la Negociación Características y Estructura de la Negociación Contenido del TLC Agenda Integral de Cooperación Avances de la negociación

Gabriela Llobet




Microsoft Academic Search

El trabajo que aquí se presenta ha tenido como objetivo analizar, a través de métodos etnográficos, los comportamientos de niños y niñas de cinco años en el denominado juego sociodramático para comprobar si se percibían diferencias en relación al género. El planteamiento teórico del que hemos partido ha sido el enfoque socio-cultural (Vygotski, Elkonin, Bruner) que entiende este juego como

Emma Lobato


Habitos Alimentarios e Higiene Dental en una Poblacion Preescolar de Madrid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutriment habits and oral hygiene in a preschool population in Madrid were studied by stratification in public or private schools. Significant differences were found only with regard to consumption of fish. Vegetable and fruit consumption was low in both groups, but not statistically significant. (SH)

Lafarga, R. Tarazona; And Others



Estudio de una "supercáscara" de hidrógeno neutro galáctica centrada en (l; b) = (305°; +4°)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a research program aiming at detecting neutral hydrogen (HI) shells in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way, in this paper we ex- amined the genesis, physical characteristics and dynamics of a HI structure centered at (l, b) = (305 , +4 ) whose baricentral radial velocity is -25 km s-1 (LSR). The HI survey carried out at the IAR was used in this study. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Corti, M. A.; Arnal, E. M.


Musings on "Densidades, Potenciales y Funciones Asociadas a una Galaxia Reducida" by Poveda et al. (1960)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a critical review on the paper "Densities, Potentials and related functions for a spherical reduced galaxy" by A. Poveda, R. Iturriaga, and I. Orozco published in 1960 in the Boletín de los Observatorios de Tonantzintla y Tacubaya (BOTT), 2, 20, 3.

López-Cruz, O.; Aguilar, L. A.; Añorve, C.




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY There are different factors within work environment that could create both wellbeing and distress in workers. The climate per- ception employees have, as well as their evaluation of some, could have positive and negative consequences at personal and organizational levels. Work stress is another element that has meaningful repercussions on the health of people and on the quality of

Silvia Carreño García; Ma. Elena Medina-Mora; Nora Martínez Vélez; Francisco Juárez García; Lucía Vázquez Pérez



Ondas Largas que Llegan a una Plataforma Continental (Large Waves Which Reach the Continental Shelf).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proof is given in this work that long waves of 12.5 minutes of period, arriving at the coast of Malaga might well correspond to a kind of edge waves formed at the coast. Two cases are considered: idealized platform and a more general continental platform,...

F. F. Castillejo



Su una nuova associazione dei Pegano-Salsoletea osservata presso Porto Empedocle (Agrigento)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On a new association of the Pegano-Salsoletea observed near Porto Empedlocle (Agrigento). – The authors describe a new halo-nitrophilous association of Pegano-Salsoletea, proposed as Salsolo-Limonietum opulenti. This association occurs on the coast near Porto Empedocle (western Sicily) where it grows on marly and clayey soils. The vegetation is characterized by two endemic species (Limonium opulentum and Herniaria fontanesii ssp. empedocleana)

Salvatore Brullo; Maria Grillo; Concetta Scalia



Una Experiencia Pedagogica en el Jardin Infantil "La Cabana" (A Teaching Experience in "La Cabana" Kindergarten).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history of La Cabana kindergarten, which provides preschool education and meals for 100 children and sewing classes for mothers in a working class neighborhood in Bogota, Colombia. Describes the implementation of a new curriculum which develops child creativity through free choice of activities around a common project. (AC)

de la Vega, B.



Caracteristicas reproductoras de una poblaci6n introducida de Podarcis pityusensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive traits of an introduced population of Podarcis pityusensis.- The reproductive cycle of the Ibiza Wall Lizard (Podarcis pityusensis) was analyzed for the first time in an introduced population living in an urban area of Barcelona (NE Spain). Sexual maturity reached at the second year oflife since subadults could be seen in spring. Reproductive period lasted from April to August,



Modelación y simulación computacional de un proceso productivo de una pequeña empresa usando dinámica de sistemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to motivate the academic sector as well as the small and medium sized firms to develop, in the field of dynamic system simulation, cooperative works which will lead to a clearer and more reliable enterprise management, and also contribute to the training of professionals who are best suited to satisfy the needs existing in today's society. To

Carlos Mario; Parra Mesa; Jorge Iván; Pérez Rave; Diego Torres Franco



GERBERTVS una nuova rivista per l'astronomia e la scienza nell'alto medioevo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GERBERTVS appears as an international e-journal on medieval science, namely astronomy. It has been created to gather all the studia promoted on Gerbert of Aurillac, the most prominent figure of the tenth century: astronomer, organ builder and music theoretician, mathematician, philosopher, and finally pope with the name of Silvester II (999-1003). Here is presented the first volume (2010) published in the institutional web site with the ISSN 2038-355X.

Sigismondi, C.


Historia de una reconversión silenciosa. El capital francés en España, c. 1800-1936  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo trata de reconstruir la trayectoria de la inversión francesa en España desde principios del siglo XIX hasta los albores de la Guerra Civil. Para ello, se describen la implantación y apogeo del modelo de inversión francés durante buena parte del siglo XIX; así como su agotamiento y posterior reestructuración a partir del cambio de siglo y, en especial,

Rafael Castro Balaguer




Microsoft Academic Search

Franchising system continues its unstoppable advance worldwide, as in the most commercially developed countries as in those that have some more antiquated commercial structures. For that reason, nowadays, this is an important research topic in the business area. Franchising chains expand themselves through own and franchised units, in this context, this work intends to determine what kinds of units are

Díez de Castro; E. C. Navarro García



Asimetría de la información, inestabilidad financiera y la crisis bancaria venezolana: Una visión crítica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen La función de las instituciones financieras es la de servir como intermediarios entre las unidades excendentarias (ahorristas) y las deficitarias de fondos (empresa- rioslinversionistas). Para ello, es necesario que operen con un nivel mínimo de eficiencia, ¡.e., maximicen beneficios al mismo tiempo que minimizan riesgos. Sin embargo, en situaciones caracterizadas por un marco macroeconómico adverso, ineficiencia institucional y escasez

Daniel Anido


Historia de una quimera. La industria algodonera en Castilla la Vieja, 1846-1913  

Microsoft Academic Search

En 1860 Valladolid albergaba el mayor distrito algodonero del centro de España. Transcurridas cuatro décadas, todas sus fábricas había sido ya clausuradas. El presente trabajo analiza las razones de este fracaso. Dado que los productos castellanos no podían competir con los catalanes debido al coste de la energía, los industriales de Valladolid y Santander tuvieron que refugiarse en el mercado

Javier Moreno Lázaro



Efectos de los armónicos en los motores de inducción: una revisión  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of induction machines varies when they are feed with sources having harmonics tension. This paper shows a view about the conditions operation and the effects of the harmonics tension, in the trifasical induction motors. Basically, will be checked: model, useful life, temperature, additional loses thermical old, power factor, efficiency, vibrations and noises, pulses torques and derated.

John Grajales; José Ramírez; Diego Cadavid



Una Visita al Viejo San Juan (A Visit to Old San Juan).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in Spanish, this black and white illustrated booklet provides a tour of Old San Juan, Puerto Rico's oldest and most historic city. Brief historical information is provided on the Perro de San Jeronimo, a statue of a barking dog found in front of the Castillo; Plaza de Colon, a small plaza dedicated to Christopher Columbus; the Catedral de…

Cabello, Victor; And Others


Una exploracion completa de los costes de servicio de residuos solidos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economics literature on urban solid waste collection is scarce, although this type of services has undergone organizational as well as regulatory reforms. This research studies the cost structure of solid waste collection in order to explain why the costs caused by this service vary among municipalities. To do so, first we derive a cost function. We then specify and

Germa Manel Bel Queralt



Barras de acero galvanizado: Una opción contra la corrosión inducida por la carbonatación  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete carbonation is the second cause of corrosion in reinforced concrete structures, and in inland tropical environments, it would be the main corrosion mechanism. Once concrete is carbonated, plain rebars are known to corrode actively. The objective of this investigation was to study the performance of galvanized reinforcing steel as an alternative reinforcing material under those circumstances. Three different water\\/cement

Eric I. Moreno; Daniel Serrano Ixtepan; Enrique Cob Sarabia



El Plumbisme en ocells aquàtics als Països Catalans: diagnosi d?una situació censurable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moltes de les zones humides dels Països Catalans han tingut durant anys un aprofitament cinegètic intensiu. En la caça s'ha utilitzat tradicionalment cartutxeria feta de perdigons de plom, un metall pesant que ara sabem que és força tòxic. En els sediments dels aiguamolls s'hi han anat acumulant milions d'aquests petits objectes contaminants i tòxics, i s'ha arribant a assolir concentracions

Santi Mañosa; Rafael Mateo; Raimon Guitart Bas



Prevención de Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria mediante una intervención enfermera a través de Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating Disorders are an important health problem of our society because of their rising incidence in the last years, as well as their high cost in terms of Public Health. Nowadays the best option to face this problem is through prevention. The objective of the present work is to evaluate if a Web nursing intervention based on Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy can

Esther Quirós Abajo


Conductas alimentarias de riesgo en una muestra de 2.142 adolescentes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectivesThe aim of this study was to estimate the percentage of adolescents with risk eating behaviours for developing an eating disorder (ED), analyzing the differences in gender, age and body mass index (BMI).

Lidia Pamies-Aubalat; Yolanda Quiles Marcos; Miguel Bernabé Castaño



Evaluación de Insatisfacción Corporal en adolescentes: Efecto de la forma de administración de una escala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title: Assessment of Body Dissatisfaction in adolescents: effect of the way of administration a scale. Abstract: The aim of this paper is to discover if the way of administration a subscale of evaluation Body Dissatisfac- tion (BD), coming from a wider questionnaire, affects to the tendency of answer. In the investigation participated 147 students of sec- ondary school, age between

José Ignacio Baile; Rosa María Raich; Emilio Garrido; Ayuntamiento de Pamplona



Guia Practica para una Evaluacion Alternativa (Practical Guide to Alternative Assessment).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidance is offered in Spanish on the creation and use of alternative assessment, and a process model is presented that links assessment with curriculum and instruction, based on contemporary theories of learning and cognition. The introductory chapter provides background on the purposes of assessment and the need for new alternatives, with an…

Herman, Joan L.; Aschbacher, Pamela R.; Winters, Lynn


Ricerca di impatti lunari. Caratteristiche dei flash registrati da una telecamera e nuove metodologie di osservazione  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two techniques are described to validate the video tape record of a lunar flash obtained by a single observer monitoring the dark side of the waxing Moon during a meteor shower. Displacing the video camera from the perfect focus, a disk or an annulus of light is recorded with a refractor or a reflector, respectively, only if it is the image of a real lunar flash. Inserting a spectroscope between the telescope objective and the video camera the spectrum of the flash light is recorded which may give useful informations about the chemistry and the physics of the event. Spurious flashes, normally due to cosmic rays or to camera noise, do not change their aspect in out of focus images nor in the dispersed ray beam.

Lena, Raffaello; Favero, Giancarlo



The Struggle for Mexico's First Gay-Straight Alliance: Como una Novela Real  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, a group of high school students at a private American school in Mexico City started the first gay-straight alliance in Mexico. A small group of conservative parents and a Mormon principal organized in opposition. This paper details the students' struggle to keep their club and offers lessons learned about student activism, school change,…

Macgillivray, Ian K.



Formulación de una Pasta Gelificada a Partir del Descarte de Arándanos (Vaccinium corymbosum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was developed to formulate a low calorie gelling paste that allows giving aggregate value to discarding blueberries. Eight formulations were done after the characterization of the fruit that shows a high proportion of calcium\\/pectin, of great importance in the gelation capacity. The results show three formulations without significant differences in their shelf life of around forty days, From

Rosemarie Stückrath; Guillermo R. Petzold




Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the abnormalities in pap smears found in external ambulatory service to pregnant women in Hospital San Jose , Hospital level II Susana Lopez de Valencia and universitary center health Alfonso Lopez de la Universidad del Cauca in

Luis A. Ospina; María Piedad Acosta; Diego Illera


Valoración nutricional de una composta elaborada con subproductos avícolas para alimentar pollos de engorda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to show the feasibility of producing a poultry -byproduct composter, and to evaluate its potential use in broiler diets. A pathogen -free product containing 32.1% protein, approximately 1,913 kcal of true metabolizable energy (TME), good amino acid, macro- and micromineral contents was obtained by adding water to a mixture of poultry manure, straw and

Ricardo Muñoz Saba; Luis Alberto Heredia; Carlos López Coello; Ernesto Avila; Gonzá le



Microsoft Academic Search

En este artículo se presentan consideraciones que facilitan la implantación de los sistemas de gestión en organizaciones que tienen implantado, o pretenden implantar, el sistema de dirección y gestión empresarial conforme a lo establecido en el decreto No.281 del Comité Ejecutivo del Consejo de Ministros de la República de Cuba y como parte de este los sistemas de control interno

Mayra R. Moreno Pino; María del Carmen Proenza Rivas; Martín Alberto Ayala López; Rossio Coya Cáceres; Iosvani Segura Leyva



Magnificación de espermatozoides: una nueva visión del factor masculino en reproducción asistida  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, several studies have analyzed spermatozoa using high magnification microscopy. All these studies have found a clear link between the presence of vacuoles in the head of spermatozoa and pregnancy and abortion rates, as well as an increase in the percentage of DNA fragmentation. Indeed, sperm morphology and the presence or absence of nuclear vacuoles seems to reflect

Olga Cairó Doncos; Laura Prats Ruiz; Sergio Rovira Fontanals; María Rodríguez Agüera; Arturo Brassesco Macazzaga; Felipe del Río Bueno; Ana Monqaut; Gemma López Granollers; Mario Brassesco Macazzaga




Microsoft Academic Search

Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las características del proceso instruccional en la tercera etapa del nivel de Educación Básica que contribuyen al desarrollo del pensamiento crítico del estudiante para satisfacer el imperativo legal vigente desde julio de 1980, particularmente para el área curricular Estudios Sociales. Durante cuatro años escolares en dos instituciones educativas que ofrecen el precitado nivel se

Haydée Páez



Microsoft Academic Search

Human emotional interchange implicates expression\\/recognition of emotions. The human face is a conspicuous place to express\\/read emotion. Certain emotions associate with emotional tearing, differentiable from basal and reflex tearing. Murube, Murube and Murube (1999) classified emotional tearing in requesting- and offering -help. The validity of that typology was evaluated using faces of people of both sexes crying because of their



Realismo Sistémico Estructural. Hacia una teoría totalizadora de las Relaciones Internacionales  

Microsoft Academic Search

If one wants to design a foreign policy, first have to understand the functioning of the world system in which is inserts the country. One cannot take decisions in the frame of a system of whose operation one has an \\

Luis Dallanegra Pedraza



Hipertensión arterial, medicación antihipertensiva y disfunción eréctil: una perspectiva basada en la evidencia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundErectile dysfunction (ED) is frequent in hypertensive men. Antihypertensive drugs, especially diuretics and ?-blockers, have often been reported to be ED inducers, which can lead to non-compliance with medication.

M. Mas




Microsoft Academic Search

Regional variables associated with high blood pressure in Argentina. We conducted a study in a random sample of 1523 inhabitants (15-75 years old) of Rauch city to determine risk factors prevalence to development hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. We measured blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference, cholesterol and glucose levels, sodium excretion, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. We found a high




El embarazo en la adolescencia como problema público: una visión crítica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work is a review of the most commonly used arguments to define pregnancy during adolescence as a pub- lic problem: its supposed increase, contribution to acceler- ated population growth, adverse effects on maternal and child health and contribution to the persistence of poverty. Some elements are proposed for an alternative explanation with the intention of defining with more




Una perspectiva de los biomateriales vista desde un diseño específico: la prótesis total de cadera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total hip implant, characteristic design of a functional articulation, has suffered extensive modifications since the first arthroplasty implanted by John Charnley, at 1950, using a cement bone paste of methilmetaacrilate (PMMA). Today, the state-of-the-art of such a design includes a series of biomaterials in different presentations, in order to obtain the maximum fiability. These biomaterials typically employs metallic alloys

Alejandro Echavarría


Distribución geográfica del género Gyriosomus Guérin-Méneville, 1834 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): una aproximación biogeográfica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parsimony analysis of areas of endemism for the monophyletic genus Gyriosomus, an eremic and endemic element of the northern coast of Chile, was performed. We tested that: (i) distributional patterns of Gyriosomus species are determined by environmental heterogeneity, and that (ii) discontinuities in the distribution of Gyriosomus species will reflect areas of endemism. We identified areas of endemism for




Use of a Telecamera as a Contrast Monitor USO di Una Telecamera Come Monitor di Contrasto.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automatic system is described for aiding photographic surveys of the solar photospheric granulation which significantly influence the conditions for viewing. The emitted signals from a telecamera, and characteristics of a suitable optical system are an...

V. Croce G. A. Debiase F. Fabbri M. F. Toniolo



Validacion de Una Version Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory para su Uso en Argentina.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was tested with a sample of 40 child physical abusers and 40 nonabusers in Argentina. More than 97% of subjects were correctly classified as abusing or nonabusing individuals. The article is in Spanish. (CR)

Bringiotti, Maria Ines; Barbich, Alejandra; De Paul, Joaquin



Proteccion de aceros al carbono en plantas G.S. (Girldler sulphide): Pte. 7. Efectos de la exposicion al medio ambiente de las capas protectoras de sulfuros y posterior tratamiento en condiciones de planta. (Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girldler sulphide) plants: Pt. 7. Environment exposure effects on iron sulphide scales and subsequent treatment in plant conditions).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to protect carbon steel towers and piping of a GS experimental heavy water plant against corrosion produced by the action of aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulphide, a method, elsewhere published, was developed. Carbon steel exposed to saturated a...

O. Lires C. Delfino E. Rojo



Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States  

SciTech Connect

An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [Spanish] Una prueba de campo fue conducida para evaluar la especificidad del escarabajo suramericano defoliador Gratiana boliviana Spaeth para control biologico de Solanum viarum Dunal en los Estados Unidos. La prueba con berenjena se realizo en el campo experimental de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y una parcela control con S. viarum fue establecida a 40 km. Cien escarabajos adultos fueron liberados en cada parcela al inicio del experimento durante la fase vegetativa, y cuarenta escarabajos adicionales fueron liberados en la parcela de berenjena durante la floracion. Todas las plantas en cada parcela fueron inspeccionadas dos veces a la semana y el numero de adultos, larvas, y posturas fueron registrados. Resultados indicaron un casi completo rechazo de la berenjena por G. boliviana. Ningun dano visible de defoliacion en la berenjena fue detectado. Las pruebas concluyeron cuando las plantas de berenjena alcazaron su madurez o fueron severamente danadas por mosca blanca y acaros. Resultados corroboran previas pruebas de especificidad en laboratorio/cuarentena que indican que la berenjena no es un hospedero de G. boliviana y que la posibilidad de llegar a ser una plaga de este cultivo es muy remota. Gratiana boliviana fue aprobado para ser liberado en el campo en mayo del 2003. Ningun dano ha sido observado hasta la fecha a plantas no blanco. (author)

Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F. [USDA-ARS South American Biological Control Laboratory, Hurlingham (Argentina); Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P. [University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nematology, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)



Invertebrate fauna associated with Torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poaceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control  

SciTech Connect

Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [Spanish] La conota, Panicum repens L., es una especie foranea de pasto que produce rizomas que ha convertido en ser una maleza invasora de ambientes terrestres, pantanosos y acuaticos en regiones tropicales y subtropicales en todo el mundo. Hasta hace un tiempo reciente, las estrategias para controlar conota en los EEUU eran enfocadas casi exclusivamente en los metodos mecanicos y quimicos, solos o en combinacion, con resultados variables. Un muestreo de los artropodos y nematodos asociados corrientemente con esta planta en el Lago de Okeechobee, Florida, fue realizado como parte de un estudio de factibilidad para determinar si conota es una candidata apropiada para un programa de control biologico clasico. En general, especimenes de aproximadamente unos 4,000 artropodos y unos 400 nematodos fueron recolectados. Muestras recolectadas pasando una red sobre vegetacion mezclada, cortando la vegetacion y tomando centros del suelo fueron dominados por representantes de artropodos de los ordenes de Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, y Acari. Nematodos en el genero Pratylenchus, que causan lesiones sobre tejido, fueron asociados regularmente con las raices de conota. Ninguno de los organismos recolectados eran especialistas sobre conota. Aunque el control biologico clasico de la conota es factible basado sobre la magnitud de la infestacion, las perdidas economicas, la resistencia hacia los metodos de control convencionales y el informe en la India de un posible enemigo natural especifico a esta planta, la posicion botanica de este pasto maleza requiere una evaluacion de riesgo economico formal antes de continuar con un programa de control biologico clasico. (author)

Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr. [University of Florida, Entomology and Nematology Department, Gainesville, FL 32611-0620 (United States)



Elastomeri proprieta' termodinamiche ed effetto termoelastico di una struttura complessa : teoria e prove termovisive sperimentali per una analisi di fattibilita'. (Thermodynamical properties and thermoelastic coupling of complex macroscopic structure).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gross qualitative/quantitative analysis about thermodynamical properties and thermoelastic coupling (or elastocaloric effect) of complex macroscopic structure (running shoes) is performed by infrared camera. The experimental results showed the achievabili...

M. Fabbri A. Sacripanti



Informe Anual a la Nación indica una reducción en los índices de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer; una sección especial revela amplias variaciones en las tendencias del cáncer de pulmón en los estados

Un nuevo informe de las principales organizaciones oncológicas del país muestra que, por primera vez desde la primera publicación del informe en 1998, tanto el índice de incidencia como el de mortalidad para todos los cánceres combinados están disminuyendo en hombres y mujeres.


La Migracion Como Una Transicion Critica para la Persona en Su Ambiente. Una Interpretacion Organismico Evolutiva. (Migration as a Critical Person-in-Environment Transition: An Organismic-Developmental Interpretation.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to explore some of the changes and stresses connected with migration and return migration, a study was conducted among migrants returning from the United States mainland to Puerto Rico. The sample consisted of 75 adolescents participating in a Bilingual Education program in Puerto Rico. Data were collected using Psychological Distance…

Pacheco, Angel M.; And Others



Microsoft Academic Search

This essay studies the use of films as a didactic resource for the analysis of discrimination at school. After an approach to the issue of discrimination, it explores the possibilities of films to in relation with specific didactic criteria. Finally, it tells about a specific experience aimed at the first years in Primary Education.




Microsoft Academic Search

La plantación azucarera comienza su expansión en Cuba a mediados de la década del ’60 del siglo XVIII. El aumento de la demanda y, por consiguiente, de los precios del azúcar en el mercado internacional favoreció el auge de esa rama de la economía nacional.

Javier Figueroa Ledón



Los Asentamientos Campesinos: Una Experiencia Panamena en Reforma Agraria (Rural Settlements: An Experiment on Agrarian Reformation in Panama).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The situation of the Panama rural population is analyzed through historical periods. The marked differences between the two zones of the country; the more sophisiticated area crossed by the Canal and the hinterland of the interior are contrasted. Comparis...

S. Heckadon



Una nueva aproximación a la optimización terapéutica del diclofenaco A novel approach towards therapeutic optimization of diclofenac  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT In an effort for obtaining compounds with lower gastric toxicity than diclofenac, five different N,N- In an effort for obtaining compounds with lower gastric toxicity than diclofenac, five different N,N- In an effort for obtaining compounds with lower gastric toxicity than diclofenac, five different N,N- In an effort for obtaining compounds with lower gastric toxicity than



Compartiendo la Ciencia con los Ninos: Una Guia para los Padres (Sharing Science with Children: A Guide for Parents).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide offers Spanish-speaking parents ways in which they can help their children learn about science at home and in the community. Science is a way of looking at the world. It uses everyday techniques such as observation and classification to give us information about things and how they work. Advice to parents that want to support their…

North Carolina Museum of Life and Science, Durham.


Ideación Suicida, Depresión, Actitudes Disfuncionales, Eventos de Vida Estresantes y Autoestima en una Muestra de Adolescentes Puertorriqueños\\/as  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide in children and adolescents constitutes a serious mental health problem whose frequency has increased during the last 5 years. Some of the variables associated to suicide risk are depressive symptomatology, low self- esteem, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative life events. The present study examined the relationship between suicide ideation, depression, self-esteem, dysfunctional attitudes and negative life events in a clinical

Jeannette Rosselló; Mayra N. Berríos Hernández



134 casos consecutivos de revascularización carotídea mediante angioplastia y stent en un centro de referencia: ¿una técnica de riesgo?  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionCarotid revascularisation (CR) using angioplasty and stent (ASC) is an effective procedure in the prevention of ischaemic stroke, but with a controversial morbidity and mortality in the different studies conducted in this field.

G. Parrilla; J. Zamarro; M. Espinosa de Rueda; A. Lüttich; M. Garrote; A. Morales; B. Escribano; C. Lucas; F. Martínez García; R. Hernández-Clares; J. López; I. Villegas; T. Tortosa; A. Moreno



Tensión diplomática entre Colombia y Ecuador durante 2006-2009: una mirada desde la teoría de juegos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Este documento centra su análisis en la tensión diplomática que sostuvieron Colombia y Ecuador durante el periodo 2006-2009, a partir de las fumigaciones aéreas que Colombia realizó en la zona de frontera con el territorio ecuatoriano, así como el ataque realizado por el ejército colombiano al campamento de las Fuerzas armadas revolucionarias de colombia (Farc), en donde fue abatido

Santiago Arroyo Ma; Juan D. Bolañosb



Una vision holistica de la educacion superior en contextos posmodernos (The Integrative Conception of Postmodern Higher Education).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that current "postmodern" conditions demand a rethinking of higher education, especially in countries like Mexico. This would involve the rapprochement of science, technology, and the humanities, based on the belief that the chasm separating them, apart from being artificial, is no longer socially viable. Through a critical…

Zoreda, Margaret Lee; Zoreda-Lozano, Juan Jose


Educacion Ambiental en las Escuelas: Creando una Programa que Funcione! (Environmental Education in the Schools: Creating a Program That Works!).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a manual that enables teachers to formulate an effective program of environmental education across multiple grade levels and cultural settings. A section provides tips for using the book, followed by nine chapters dealing with different aspects of developing and implementing an environmental education program. Chapter 1 presents a…

Braus, Judy A.; Wood, David


Tratamiento quirúrgico de una hiperplasia fibrosa localizada en la desembocadura del conducto de Estenon. Descripción de la técnica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fibrous hyperplasia is an exofitic injury circumscribed and formed by dense fibrous conective weave, covered by epithelio squamous stratified. lt is located with more frequency in the buccal mucosa, gingiva, tongue and soft palate, generally zones where greater rubbing takes place, since his etiopathogenia seems to be related to chro­ nic irritatives or traumatic repeated factors. The treatment is

Camacho Alonso F; Saura Inglés A; López Jornet P; Bermejo Fenoll A



PubMed Central

Resumen A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH.

Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Ruben; Balan, Ivan; Pando, Maria Angeles; Avila, Maria Mercedes



Una nota sobre la sostenibilidad fiscal y el nexo entre los ingresos y gastos del Gobierno Colombiano  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se analiza empíricamente la sostenibilidad fiscal en Colombia a través de las técnicas de cointegración. En particular, usando los ingresos tributarios y los gastos primarios del gobierno nacional central para el período 1990Q1 a 2008Q4 (datos reales y ajustados por el ciclo económico), en el documento se examina si las cuentas fiscales del gobierno han sido sostenibles

Ignacio Lozano; Enrique Cabrera



La restricción intertemporal del presupuesto. Una evaluación empírica para el Gobierno Nacional Central de Colombia, 1950-2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este documento se analiza la sostenibilidad fiscal del Gobierno Nacional Central en Colombia utilizando el enfoque de la Restricción Intertemporal de Presupuesto. Los resultados empíricos revelan que la estrategia fiscal actual es sostenible. No obstante, se vislumbran problemas de insolvencia en el largo plazo, lo que implica generar un mayor superávit primario en comparación con el actualmente programado. Lo

Álvaro Hernando Chaves



GOBIERNO CORPORATIVO EN LA EMPRESA FAMILIAR. Una Arquitectura de Organización orientada a la supervivencia de la Empresa Familiar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Para superar la crisis de delegación y avanzar hacia nuevas etapas de desarrollo que faciliten la separación de la propiedad y el control, las Empresas Familiares necesitan realizar la consolidación de las instituciones de gobierno corporativo y familiar. En este trabajo progresamos sobre aspectos particulares de la arquitectura de la organización que facilitan la afirmación de dichas instituciones. Para ello

Ernesto A. Barugel



Acuerdos entre el gobierno central y los departamentos: una propuesta para aumentar la eficiencia del gasto público  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer un instrumento para el seguimiento de la eficiencia del gasto público. El instrumento muestra que el gobierno central se puede apoyar en las administraciones departamentales con el fin de medir los productos del gasto. La idea central de la propuesta es que los objetivos de productividad acordados entre el nivel nacional y el

Isaac de León-Beltrán; Diego Jaramillo



Gestión de la calidad en una unidad de cuidados intensivos: implementación de la norma ISO 9001:2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quality Management Systems make it possible to prioritize actions to maintain the safety and efficacy of health technologies. The Intensive Care Unit of our hospital has implemented a quality management plan, which has obtained accreditation as “Service Certificate that manages its activities according to UNE-EN ISO 9001:2008” standard. With the application of quality management system, it has been possible

R. Lorenzo Torrent; M. Sánchez Palacios; L. Santana Cabrera; J. L. Cobian Martinez; C. García del Rosario



Realizzazione di una cella per misure di spettroscopia molecolare a temperatura variabile. (Optical cell for variable temperature molecular spectroscopic measurement).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports on the design and construction of a 20 cm long optical cell whose temperature can be changed continuously between 50 and 350 degrees K. The cell is cooled by a single stage cryogenerator and thermo-regulated with an electrical feedback ...

G. Baldacchini A. Bellatreccia P. Cardoni I. Cenciarelli F. D'Amato



Detección inmunoenzimática de la toxina de la bacteria Clostridium tetani: una alternativa a las pruebas biológicas con ratones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoenzimatic detection of the Clostridium tetani bacterial toxin: an alternative to mice bioassays. Cell-free extracts from 20 strains of Clostridium tetani isolated from soil samples, were tested for tetanus toxin production using an enzyme immunoassay. All the extracts were classified as positive for the toxin presence, and eight of them showed absorbance values corresponding to tetanus toxin concentrations between 3.2

Fernando Chaves; Guillermo León; Francisco Hernández-Chavarría


Promoviendo una Alimentaci?n Saludable (PAS) Design and Methods: Engaging Latino Families in Eating Disorder Treatment  

PubMed Central

The use of culturally sensitive intervention could improve mental health care for the eating disorders treatment in the Latino population. The aim of this report is to describe the rationale, design, and methods of the ongoing study entitled “Engaging Latino families in eating disorders treatment.” The primary aim of the study is to compare (a) the combined effect of individual cognitive behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) that has been previously adapted for the Latino population plus Family Enhanced (FE) modules, with (b) the standard adapted individual CBT-BN in a proof-of-principle study with 40 Latina adults with eating disorders and one relative or significant other per patient. We hypothesize that 1) the feasibility, acceptability, and adherence of participants in CBT-BN+ FE will be superior to individual CBT-BN only; 2) relatives in CBT-BN+ FE will report greater treatment satisfaction, greater reduction in family conflict, and greater decreases in caregiver burden than relatives in the individual CBT-BN only condition; and 3) patients who participate in CBT-BN+ FE will show trends towards greater decreases in ED symptoms compared with patients in CBT-BN only; although power will be limited to detect this difference. However, we predict that they will show greater retention in treatment, greater treatment satisfaction, and greater decreases in family conflict than patients in CBT-BN only. The completion of this investigation will yield important information regarding the acceptability and feasibility of a culturally sensitive evidence-based treatment model for Latinos with eating disorders. (Word Count=240)

Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Hamer, Robert M.; Baucom, Donald H.



Books in Spanish for Children and Young Adults: An Annotated Guide (Libros Infantiles y Juveniles en Espanol: Una Guia Anotada).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to aid teachers, librarians, and others in the selection of Spanish-language books for children in grades K-12, the annotated guide includes books by Hispanic authors which highlight the lifestyle, folklore, heroes, history, fiction, poetry, theatre, and classical literature of Hispanic cultures. Most books included in the guide have been…

Schon, Isabel


Intensive Behavioral Intervention for School-Aged Children with Autism: Una Breccia nel Muro (UBM)--A Comprehensive Behavioral Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although, reviews and outcome research supports empirical evidence for Early Intensive Behavior Intervention in pre-scholars, intensive behavioral service provision for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less subject to research studies. In order to provide effective behavioral interventions for school-aged children it…

Fava, Leonardo; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Strauss, Kristin



Una aplicación de la escala de fobia a los alimentos nuevos. El caso de los alimentos étnicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: El artículo investiga las actitudes de los consumidores hacia los alimentos nuevos mediante la escala FNS (Food Neo-phobia Scale). A partir de ella se obtiene el perfil de los individuos más y menos proclives a la introducción de nuevos alimentos en sus dietas, denominados respectivamente, «neo-fíli- cos» y «neo-fóbicos». Entre estos alimentos nuevos, los étnicos o propios de un

Dena M. Camarena; Ana I. Sanjuán


¿Ha mejorado la dotación de vitamina D 3 en España? Actuales niveles en una muestra de la población  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAccording to current classifications, the metabolite of greatest clinical interest to evaluate vitamin D3 dosage is 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 with a reference interval of approximately 10–70ng\\/ml, although many authors consider values of approximately 40ng\\/ml or 100nmol\\/l to be desirable. According to these definitions, three out of four people in Spain would have vitamin D3 deficiency.

Milagros Bernal Pérez; Giovanna Cortés Flores; Armando Giner Soria; Isabel Orden Gonzalo; Marcial Horno Pérez; Isabel Benedicto Lorenzo



Geologic Studies on the Rio Una Region (Iguape - Sao Paulo County), Brazil, for the Construction of Nuclear Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of the project was the geological and seismological characterization of 230 Km sup 2 along the coastal region between the Barro Branco and Jureia massifs in order to pinpoint one or more local areas showing adequate geological, morpholo...

S. Hassano M. Mueller J. H. Stein



Alcune proprietà di una classe di procedimenti iterativi approssimati connessi con trasformazioni più generali delle contrazioni, in uno spazio metrico  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Summary  In this paper, we study a class of iterative processes of the type yn+1\\u000a =Tnyn, which approximate the iterative processes xn+1\\u000a =Txn, where T and Tn are more general operators than contractions in a metric space.

A. Pasquali



Hacia una adaptaci?n cultural para el tratamiento de trastornos alimentarios en latinos en Estados Unidos  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders affect all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. However, evidence based treatments for eating disorders have been developed and tested exclusively on Caucasian populations. With the purpose to develop a culturally sensitive framework for the eating disorders treatment in Latinos/as, the objectives of this work were: 1) identify and describe some of the relevant cultural elements for eating disorders in the Latino population and, 2) to draft a culturally sensitive intervention model for eating disorders in Latino population in the United States. Providing culturally sensitive treatments for Latinos with psychiatric disorders is essential to reverse public health disparities.

Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.



Una metodologÌa para sectorizar pacientes en el consumo de medicamentos aplicando datamart y datamining en un hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work, provides a method for the analysis of data in the way with which the medicines in a Peruvian hospital are consumed, in order to identify some nonobservable realities or characteristics which would produce shortage of supplies or insatisfaction of patient, serving as a tool for the decision making on the medicine supplying in the hospital. Here techniques

Ivan Tapia Rivas; Ruiz River; Edgar Ruiz Lizama




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In the present review the technical aspects about a genetically modified plants and their construction (with the different used tech- niques) from transformation to regeneration of the plant, are dis- cussed. It is also discussed, from a critical and technical point of view, some of the myths frequently associated with the risks and be- nefits about the use of

Francisco José Fernández Perrino




Microsoft Academic Search

The teaching of Graphic Expression in the technical programs of universities has improved last years. The arrival of new technologies have helped in this evolution, and as a result, it is crucial to understand the teaching and learning of this subject. In this communication, we present a novel web-based application that is usefull to help both teaching and learning of

Melchor García Domínguez; Gerardo Martín Lorenzo; José Pablo Suárez Rivero; José Pérez Bermúdez; Francisco Suárez Benítez



Microsoft Academic Search

To know the biological characteristics of a strain of Trypanosome cruzi, coming from the district of Tiabaya, Arequipa, Peru, and to determine the survival of inoculated mice relating the infecting dose ante and sex. Were used 14 BALB\\/C-53 mice (males and females) of 30 days of age as biological model. The groups I and II were inoculated via intraperitoneum with

Nicolás Suárez; Rufino Cabrera; Luis Cartagena; Rolando Ayaqui



Imaginarios sobre inmigración peruana en la prensa escrita chilena: una mirada a la instalación de la agenda de la diferencia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Build and install the media agenda in the public opinion is well know routine exercise in the written press. This article works its relationship with immigration and how it represents and is marking its footprint in the chilean press. Peruvian immigration and a look at the press coverage are chosen to reflect a relationship that comes to stress the concept


Gli indici di colore come indicatori del meccanismo che governa la luminosità di una cometa: luce solare riflessa o fluorescenza  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour indexes derived by aperture photometry on cometary comae in VRI Johnson/Cousins bands give a way to understand the mechanism dominating the brightness of a comet: reflected sunlight or fluorescence. Considering that V band is dominated by C2 gas emission and that R and I on the contrary have few gas contamination, the colour index determined as a function of the coma diameter is a key parameter. In an hypothetical purely dusty coma we expect a constant colour index close to the solar one and nearly constant with aperture. If gas is present we can have a differentiation within the coma and a non constant colour index, in this case the colour index is "bluer" in the external halo. The effect was clearly observed in C/2001 A2 and C/2000 WM1.

Milani, Giannantonio; Sostero, Giovanni



Extenso estudio realizado en muchos centros demuestra que hay una precisión comparable de la colonoscopia virtual con la colonoscopia convencional

Según los resultados del Estudio Nacional de Colografía de Tomografía Computarizada de la American College of Radiology Imaging Network, ACRIN, la colografía de tomografía computarizada, también conocida como colonoscopia virtual, es comparable a la colonoscopia convencional en su capacidad para detectar con precisión cáncer y pólipos precancerosos y podría servir como examen selectivo inicial de detección de cáncer colorrectal. La colonoscopia convencional usa un tubo largo, flexible, con cámara, para ver el revestimiento del colon.


Cuando su Nino esta Desaparecido: Una guia de Supervivencia Familiar (When Your Child is Missing: A Family Survival Guide).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year, nearly 1.3 million children are reported missing. Although the unforeseen absence of a child is always upsetting, fortunately most missing children are returned home in a short period of time. This fact, however, provides little consolation for...



La dinámica de las publicaciones y las patentes como una aproximación al desarrollo científico y tecnológico de los países  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to propose a characterization, different from the traditional ones, of developed and developing countries, in terms of science and technology. First, we identify the generating processes of the publication and patent series of the countries. Then we relate the development stages of the countries (Banze (2000)) with the dynamics of the series. The results

Clemente Forero; Andrés Zambrano



Una verifica empirica del modello Domanda-Controllo-Sostegno Sociale: effetti sul burnout e sulla somatizzazione tra il personale infermieristico  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE DEMAND- CONTROL-SOCIAL SUPPORT MODEL: EFFECTS ON BURNOUT AND ON SOMATIC COMPLAINTS AMONG NURSING STAFF. The present study investigated the relationship between job characteristics and well-being dimensions (burnout and somatic complaints) in a group of 271 nurses. The study, based on Karasek and Theorell's theoretic model of demand-control-social support, aimed to test the following hypotheses: a)

R. Pisanti




Microsoft Academic Search

Con la finalidad de abordar y analizar los elementos que sustentan la necesidad de integrar la dimensión ambiental al proceso de desarrollo de las competencias laborales, se valora la relación de la especie humana con el medio ambiente a escala mundial, su estado y propósito en Cuba, abordándose la necesidad de desarrollar el Capital Humano dentro de la cultura ambiental

Ana Victoria Nápoles Villa; Clara Marrero Fornaris



Transformaciones en el Discurso sobre la Epidemia al VIH como una Epidemia Sexuada - Paradojas y Enigmas en la Respuesta Global  

Microsoft Academic Search

Así como el discurso sobre sexualidad experimentó la influencia central de los procesos técnicos y políticos generados por la epidemia, igualmente el discurso global sobre la epidemia de SIDA a lo largo de tres décadas ha sido marcado por estos momentos cambiantes en el discurso sobre la sexualidad y su diversidad. Desde un momento inicial en que el SIDA fue

Carlos F. Cáceres


Iridio: Una opción para medir el potencial redox Iridium: An option for measurement of the redox potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some relevant results are presented of research leading to an alternative redox electrode to platinum. Several different electrodes were subjected to experiments under controlled conditions, mainly in artificial seawater. Among those tested were platinum, graphite, glassy carbon, gold and iridium. Our results, when combined with those estimated by using a model based on the MINEQL+ program, suggest that the O2\\/H2O2

Lorena M. Ríos-Mendoza; J. Vinicio Macías-Zamora; Alberto R. Zirino-Weiss; Naval Command



Solar Energy Preliminary Study: A Self-Supplied Measurement Station Studio Preliminare Sull Energia Solare: Una Stazione di Misura Autoalimentata.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prospects and perspectives of photovoltaic cells as solar generators are reviewed. An electronic device was designed and constructed in order to measure and record time performance of two silicon photovoltaic cell panels and to compare the performance of ...

G. Balestrino A. Egidi G. V. Pallottino



Validacion de Una Version Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory para su Uso en Argentina.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was tested with a sample of 40 child physical abusers and 40 nonabusers in Argentina. More than 97% of subjects were correctly classified as abusing or nonabusing individuals. The article is in Spanish. (CR)

Bringiotti, Maria Ines; Barbich, Alejandra; De Paul, Joaquin



Niveles de humedad, tomada con sonda T.D.R., en una parcela experimental de Cartaya (Huelva)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geostatistical techniques were applied to the study of the soil moisture distribution measured with TDR probes. The sampling took place in a experimentatal field planted with Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni under two different water regimes, (humid one and dry). Results show that, in the first crop stage, which is that of establishment of the crop in the field, the levels of

D. L. Orihuela; J. Palazón; D. Gallardo; A. González; E. Romero; R. Garrido


Accettabilita' sociale di una tecnologia: Il caso Rete 2. (Case of study Rete 2: Social acceptability of technology).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a society, characterized by sudden innovative processes, studying social controversies of technological order assumes a specific meaning. Within these limits, the present case study - named Rete 2 - is representative in order to compile a first analysi...

S. Ciampi T. D. Valentini



Analysis of Two in Planta Expressed LysM Effector Homologs from the Fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals Novel Functional Properties and Varying Contributions to Virulence on Wheat1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Secreted effector proteins enable plant pathogenic fungi to manipulate host defenses for successful infection. Mycosphaerella graminicola causes Septoria tritici blotch disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves. Leaf infection involves a long (approximately 7 d) period of symptomless intercellular colonization prior to the appearance of necrotic disease lesions. Therefore, M. graminicola is considered as a hemibiotrophic (or necrotrophic) pathogen. Here, we describe the molecular and functional characterization of M. graminicola homologs of Ecp6 (for extracellular protein 6), the Lysin (LysM) domain-containing effector from the biotrophic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaf mold fungus Cladosporium fulvum, which interferes with chitin-triggered immunity in plants. Three LysM effector homologs are present in the M. graminicola genome, referred to as Mg3LysM, Mg1LysM, and MgxLysM. Mg3LysM and Mg1LysM genes were strongly transcriptionally up-regulated specifically during symptomless leaf infection. Both proteins bind chitin; however, only Mg3LysM blocked the elicitation of chitin-induced plant defenses. In contrast to C. fulvum Ecp6, both Mg1LysM and Mg3LysM also protected fungal hyphae against plant-derived hydrolytic enzymes, and both genes show significantly more nucleotide polymorphism giving rise to nonsynonymous amino acid changes. While Mg1LysM deletion mutant strains of M. graminicola were fully pathogenic toward wheat leaves, Mg3LysM mutant strains were severely impaired in leaf colonization, did not trigger lesion formation, and were unable to undergo asexual sporulation. This virulence defect correlated with more rapid and pronounced expression of wheat defense genes during the symptomless phase of leaf colonization. These data highlight different functions for MgLysM effector homologs during plant infection, including novel activities that distinguish these proteins from C. fulvum Ecp6.

Marshall, Rosalind; Kombrink, Anja; Motteram, Juliet; Loza-Reyes, Elisa; Lucas, John; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.; Rudd, Jason J.




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Foliar sprays of Ca (300, 400, and 500 mg L -1 ), B (0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 mg L -1 ), Mo (0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mg L -1 ), Ca + B (400 + 0.5 mg L -1 ), Ca + Mo (400 + 0.4 mg L -1 ), B + Mo (0.5 + 0.4 mg L -1

Juan Ayala Arreola; Ana M; Castillo González; Luis A. Valdez Aguilar; Teresa Colinas León; Joel Pineda Pineda; Edilberto Avitia García


454-pyrosequencing of Coffea arabica leaves infected by the rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix reveals in planta-expressed pathogen-secreted proteins and plant functions in a late compatible plant-rust interaction.  


Coffee (Coffea arabica L.), one of the key export and cash crops in tropical and subtropical countries, suffers severe losses from the rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. The transcriptome of H. vastatrix was analysed during a compatible interaction with coffee to obtain an exhaustive repertoire of the genes expressed during infection and to identify potential effector genes. Large-scale sequencing (454-GS-FLEX Titanium) of mixed coffee and rust cDNAs obtained from 21-day rust-infected leaves generated 352 146 sequences which assembled into 22 774 contigs. In the absence of any reference genomic sequences for Coffea or Hemileia, specific trinucleotide frequencies within expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and blast homology against a set of dicots and basidiomycete genomes were used to distinguish pathogen from plant sequences. About 30% (6763) of the contigs were assigned to H. vastatrix and 61% (13 951) to C. arabica. The majority (60%) of the rust sequences did not show homology to any genomic database, indicating that they were potential novel fungal genes. In silico analyses of the 6763 H. vastatrix contigs predicted 382 secreted proteins and identified homologues of the flax rust haustorially expressed secreted proteins (HESPs) and bean rust transferred protein 1 (RTP1). These rust candidate effectors showed conserved amino-acid domains and conserved patterns of cysteine positions suggestive of conserved functions during infection of host plants. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction profiling of selected rust genes revealed dynamic expression patterns during the time course of infection of coffee leaves. This study provides the first valuable genomic resource for the agriculturally important plant pathogen H. vastatrix and the first comprehensive C. arabica EST dataset. PMID:21726390

Fernandez, Diana; Tisserant, Emilie; Talhinhas, Pedro; Azinheira, Helena; Vieira, Ana; Petitot, Anne-Sophie; Loureiro, Andreia; Poulain, Julie; Da Silva, Corinne; Silva, Maria Do Céu; Duplessis, Sébastien



Avaliacao da eficacia de chas caseiros de plantas medicinais utilizados no tratamento da diarreia infantil. (Evaluation of home-made teas efficiency from medicinal plants used on childish diarrhea treatment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this work is to verify whether the home-made teas form Brazilian plants, used for control of childish diarrhea have been efficient reaching the composition recommended by World Health Organizations (WHO). This work has been carried out us...

M. M. Pinto M. J. S. F. Silva C. Vilhena Schayer Sabino A. M. Amaral



Extratos de plantas no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) em laboratório Plant extracts in control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) in laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant extracts were studied to evaluate its efficiency in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) in laboratory. Engorged female ticks were collected from the cattle, kept in Petri dishes. Organic alcoholic extracts 2% (weight\\/volume) were used: seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) (soursop); flowers of Syzygium malaccensis (L.) (Myrtaceae) (iamb), leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae) (holy

Ellen Carine; Neves Valente; Leilianne Alves de Souza; Nivia da Silva Dias



Visualization of the Interaction between the Precursors of VPg, the Viral Protein Linked to the Genome of Turnip Mosaic Virus, and the Translation Eukaryotic Initiation Factor iso 4E In Planta?  

PubMed Central

The RNA genome of Turnip mosaic virus is covalently linked at its 5? end to a viral protein known as VPg. This protein binds to the translation eukaryotic initiation factor iso 4E [eIF(iso)4E]. This interaction has been shown to be important for virus infection, although its exact biological function(s) has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the subcellular site of the VPg-eIF(iso)4E interaction using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). As a first step, eIF(iso)4E, 6K-VPg-Pro, and VPg-Pro were expressed as full-length green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana, and their subcellular localizations were visualized by confocal microscopy. eIF(iso)4E was predominantly associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and VPg-Pro was observed in the nucleus and possibly the nucleolus, while 6K-VPg-Pro-GFP induced the formation of cytoplasmic vesicles budding from the ER. In BiFC experiments, reconstituted green fluorescence was observed throughout the nucleus, with a preferential accumulation in subnuclear structures when the GFP split fragments were fused to VPg-Pro and eIF(iso)4E. On the other hand, the interaction of 6K-VPg-Pro with eIF(iso)4E was observed in cytoplasmic vesicles embedded in the ER. These data suggest that the association of VPg with the translation factor might be needed for two different functions, depending of the VPg precursor involved in the interaction. VPg-Pro interaction with eIF(iso)4E may be involved in perturbing normal cellular functions, while 6K-VPg-Pro interaction with the translation factor may be needed for viral RNA translation and/or replication.

Beauchemin, Chantal; Boutet, Nathalie; Laliberte, Jean-Francois



COMUNIDADES DE PLANTAS ACUÁTICAS EN LAGUNAS DE LOS PÁRAMOS DEL NORTE Y SUR DEL ECUADOR Aquatic plant communities in lakes of the Páramos of north and south of Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on aquatic plant distribution and its relationship with environmental factors was carried out in 16 high Andean lakes (3100-3900 m a s l). Nine lakes were located near to the northern border of Ecuador and seven located 600 km further south in the Podocarpus National Park. The purpose of the study was to identify differences in the floristic



Interplay of light and temperature during the in planta modulation of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from the leaves of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.: diurnal and seasonal effects manifested at molecular levels  

PubMed Central

The interactive effects of light and temperature on C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) were examined both in vivo and in situ using the leaves of Amaranthus hypochondriacus collected at different times during a day and in each month during the year. The maximum activity of PEPC, least inhibition by malate, and highest activation by glucose-6-phosphate were at 15.00?h during a typical day, in all the months. This peak was preceded by maximum ambient light but coincided with high temperature in the field. The highest magnitude in such responses was in the summer (e.g. May) and least in the winter (e.g. December). Light appeared to dominate in modulating the PEPC catalytic activity, whereas temperature had a strong influence on the regulatory properties, suggesting interesting molecular interactions. The molecular mechanisms involved in such interactive effects were determined by examining the PEPC protein/phosphorylation/mRNA levels. A marked diurnal rhythm could be seen in the PEPC protein levels and phosphorylation status during May (summer month). In contrast, only the phosphorylation status increased during the day in December (winter month). The mRNA peaks were not as strong as those of phosphorylation. Thus, the phosphorylation status and the protein levels of PEPC were crucial in modulating the daily and seasonal patterns in C4 leaves in situ. This is the first detailed study on the diurnal as well as seasonal patterns in PEPC activity, its regulatory properties, protein levels, phosphorylation status, and mRNA levels, in relation to light and temperature intensities in the field.

Avasthi, Uday K.; Izui, Katsura; Raghavendra, Agepati S.



Detección del Virus Mosaico Amarillo de la Calabaza Zucchini (ZYMV) y su Coinfección con otros Virus en Cucurbitáceas Cultivadas y Plantas Silvestres en el Valle del Fuerte, Sinaloa, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral diseases are the main limiting factor for cucurbit production in El Fuerte Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico. The objective of this study was to detect Zucchini yellows mosaic virus (ZYWV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV-W), and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) using ELISA and RT-PCR procedures. ZYMV and the mixture ZYMV + PRSV-W predominated during the month of

Rubén Félix-Gastélum; Marco Antonio Magallanes-Tapia; Jesús Méndez-Lozano; Hervé Huet; José Ángel Trigueros-Salmerón; Rosa María Longoria-Espinoza



Tools for evaluating Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in the field: Effects of host aphid and host plant on mummy location and color plus improved methods for obtaining adults  

SciTech Connect

Lipolexis oregmae Gahan was introduced into Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), on citrus. Prior to evaluating distribution, host range, and potential nontarget effects of L. oregmae in Florida, we evaluated the role of other potential host aphids and host plants on mummy production and location. Under laboratory conditions, this parasitoid produced the most progeny on the target pest, the brown citrus aphid on citrus. This parasitoid, unlike the majority of aphidiids, did not produce mummies on any of the host plants tested when reared in black citrus aphid T. aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) on grapefruit, spirea aphid Aphis spiraecola Patch on grapefruit and pittosporum, cowpea aphid A. craccivora Koch on grapefruit and cowpeas, or melon aphid A. gossypii Glover on grapefruit and cucumber. Thus, sampling for L. oregmae mummies of these host aphids and host plants must involve holding foliage in the laboratory until mummies are produced. This parasitoid requires high relative humidity to produce adults because no adults emerged when mummies were held in gelatin capsules, but high rates of emergence were observed when mummies were held on 1.5% agar plates. In addition, we compared the color of 6 aphid hosts and the color of mummies produced by L. oregmae when reared in them to determine if color of mummies could be used to identify L. oregmae . Mummy color varied between aphid hosts and tested host plants, and is not a useful tool for identifying L. oregmae for nontarget effects. (author) [Spanish] Lipolexis oregmae Gahan fue introducida en Florida por medio de un programa de control biologico clasico dirigido contra el afido pardo de los citricos, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), sobre Citrus. Prioritario a la evaluacion de la distribucion, el rango de los hospederos y los efectos potenciales de L. oregmae sobre los organismos que no son el enfoque de control en la Florida, nosotros evaluamos el papel de otras especies de afidos y plantas hospederas potenciales sobre la produccion y ubicacion de las momias. Bajo condiciones de laboratorio, este parasitoide produjo el mayor numero de progenies sobre la especie de plaga enfocada, el afido pardo de los citricos sobre Citrus . Este parasitoide, no como la mayoria de los afidiidos (Hymenoptera), no produjo momias sobre cualquiera de las plantas hospederas probadas cuando fue criado sobre el afido negro de los citricos, ( T. aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe)) en toronja, el afido spirea (Aphis spiraecola Patch) en toronja y pittosporum, el afido del caupi (A. craccivora Koch) en toronja y caupi o el afido del melon (A. gossypii Glover) en toronja y pepino. Asi, el muestreo para momias de L. oregmae de estas especies de afidos hospederos y plantas hospederas tiene que incluir el mantenimiento de follaje en el laboratorio hasta que se produzcan las momias. Este parasitoide requiere una alta humedad relativa para producir los adultos por que ningun adulto emergio cuando las momias fueron mantenidas en capsulas de gelatina, pero una tasa alta de emergencia de adultos fue observada cuando se mantuvo las momias en platos con agar al 1.5%. Ademas de esto, nosotros comparamos el color de 6 especies de afidos hospederos, asi como el color de las momias producidos por L. oregmae cuando fue criado sobre ellos para determinar si se puede usar el color de las momias para la identificacion de L. oregmae . El color de las momias varia entre las especies de afidos hospederos y las plantas hospederas probadas, por lo que no es una herramienta util para la identificacion de L. oregmae o para la evaluacion de su efecto sobre los organismos que no son el enfoque del control. (author)

Singh, R.; Hoy, M.A. [Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)



Determinazione degli idrocarburi policiclici aromatici nelle ceneri di una centrale a carbone. (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal power plant fly ash).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) present in ash samples of the thermoelectric power plant of Vado Ligure, the samples were: bottom ash, fly ash collected from the electrostatic precipitators (EP), and fly ash collected isokin...

A. M. Caricchia A. Delle Site C. Di Palo




Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe an epidemic nosocomial outbreak of keratoconjunctivitis affecting at least 43 people in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Madrid, between May and October 2002, perform epide- miologic research and determine preventive measu- res to prevent new outbreaks. Methods: Description of the outbreak, clinical case definition, microbiologic and epidemiologic research through the use of questionnaires. Analysis of the



Perspectivas sobre las escuelas charter: Una resena para padres de familia (Perspectives on Charter Schools: A Review for Parents). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, charter schools have gained popularity with parents, students, and others as alternatives to public schools, but what are charter schools and what effects are they having? This Spanish-language Digest defines charter schools and clarifies some of the administrative and legal details surrounding such schools. The Digest also lays out some…

Donahoo, Saran



Microsoft Academic Search

La crisis económica y financiera internacional ha tenido diversos efectos sobre América Latina. Podemos suponer dos grandes escenarios: uno sombrío, poco alentador y carente de un futuro optimista y por otro, la traza de ciertas posibilidades o alternativas de vida, éstas últimas, a mi juicio, sólo partirán de las y los interesados, o sea, aquellas personas afectadas directa o indirectamente

Ángel Christian Luna Alfaro



Potencial de reciclaje de los residuos de una institución de educación superior: el caso de la Universidad Autónoma de Baja California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste characterization is the first step that must be taken within the planning of an integrated waste management program. This paper reports the results of a characterization study of the waste from Campus Mexicali I of the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC), Mexico. The objective of this research was to quantify the reduction and recycling potential of the

Armijo de Vega



Preferencias sociales en la asignación de recursos a desplazados y ex combatientes - Una aproximación al caso colombiano desde la Economía Experimenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the social preferences of individuals in the allocation and distribution of resources among displaced populations and former combatants of outlaw groups in Colombia. Several tests are undertaken with the theoretical apparatus of Experimental Economics. The behavior of different individuals is examined on the basis of the new behavioral hypotheses of economic theory. The research shows the existence

Stybaliz Castellanos Giovanini



Summer Reading Adventure! Tips for Parents of Young Readers = La lectura...Una aventura para el verano: Ideas para padres de ninos que apenas comienzan a leer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the summer, many children lose ground in the reading skills they are building at school. Weave reading into the family's summer, and children will go back to school refreshed, excited, and ready to pick up where he or she left off. Advice for parents and caregivers includes: seek out books and reading materials that tie into children's summer…

Moss, Jeanette


Cuando se Tiene una Biopsia del Seno: Guia para las Mujeres y Sus Familias (Having a Breast Biopsy: A Guide for Women and Their Families).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide can help you talk with your doctor or nurse about breast biopsies. If you have a breast lump or a suspicious area on your mammogram, a breast biopsy tells if it is cancer. This guide talks about the different kinds of biopsies. It will tell you...



Validación de un algoritmo para el cálculo del riesgo absoluto de fracturas no vertebrales por fragilidad en una cohorte de mujeres posmenopáusicas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and ObjectivesAbsolute risk estimate for fractures in the individual subject provides meaningful information for interventions. Recently, we have described an algorithm to calculate the absolute risk for non-vertebral fractures in women from Spain, aged 65 years or older, that includes clinical parameters and quantitative bone ultrasound values of the calcaneus (URL: We assessed the performance of the algorithm

Joan Vila; Fernando Marín; Jesús González-Macías; Dionisio Martín; Sandra Tojeiro; Adolfo Díez-Pérez




Microsoft Academic Search

The model described in this article, pretends to measure, analyzer, evaluate and propose an improvement in industrial processes. Therefore this work is part of an empiric work of research which has taken place in the textile sector. The model shows in an empiric way the relationship between the internal functions of the production area in the company and its own




Logo and Von Neumann Ideas [and] Towards a Humanistic Use of Computers in Education = Hacia una insercion humanista de las computadoras en la educacion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first article, "LOGO and von Neumann Ideas," deals with the creation of new procedures based on procedures defined and stored in memory as LOGO lists of lists. This representation, which enables LOGO procedures to construct, modify, and run other LOGO procedures, is compared with basic computer concepts first formulated by John von Neumann.…

Reggini, Horacio C.


Desarrollo de una Interfaz de Control para un Observatorio Astronómico Robotizado con fines educativos en la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas; Físicas y Naturales de la UNSJ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the development and the construction of an Interface to Control a robotized Astronomical Observatory (ICOA), which allows to control the operation of an observatory based on a Meade LX200 telescope. The interface operates together with a computer to control and supervise all the local variables of the observatory, and can take the control of it in risky situations. It serves as a link among the control computer and all the necessary devices for the astronomical observation such as the telescope, the dome, the weather station, the CCD camera, the calibration devices and the security devices. The computer receives orders from an operator who can be or not at the site of observation. The goal of this robotized observatory is the operation in a secure, autonomous and unattended way, with the purpose of to be used remotely by the students of the "Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales" of the UNSJ. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Pogrebinsky, L.; Francile, C.


Estudio sociolinguistico de una variante sintactica el fenomeno "dequeismo" en el espanol canario (Sociolinguistic Study of a Syntactic Variant: The "Dequeismo" Phenomenon in Canary Islands Spanish).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dequeismo phenomenon is occurring more frequently in spoken Spanish in both Spain and in Latin America. Introduction of the preposition "de" before "que" in nominal complements exploits one recourse in Spanish, namely the deictic capacity of prepositional "de" as a marker or introducer of the speaker's expressions, opinions, or thoughts. This…

Serrano, Maria Jose



Gli effetti delle agevolazioni finanziarie sulle decisioni di investimento e sulle performance delle imprese: una valutazione empirica della legge 488\\/92  

Microsoft Academic Search

La tematica delle agevolazioni finanziarie a favore delle imprese costituisce, da sempre, oggetto di notevole attenzione ed interesse da parte di studiosi, economisti e policy maker. La domanda di ricerca deriva da esigenze di policy - allo scopo di migliorare l’efficienza e l’efficacia delle norme di incentivazione - oltre che dalla richiesta di analisi empiriche per dare risposta a quesiti

Emilio Cardosi



Factores predictores de inicio y cesaci?n de tabaquismo en una cohorte de mujeres chilenas con 5,5 a?os de seguimiento  

PubMed Central

Background Chilean women have one of the highest smoking prevalence in the world. Aim To estimate the main factors associated with smoking initiation and quitting among a cohort of adult women living in a low socioeconomic status area of Santiago, Chile. Material and methods A random population-based sample of 1,100 women, 18 years and older, were selected from a community located in the South East area of Santiago. Sociodemographic, as well as smoking, beliefs, behaviors, stages of change and nicotine addiction level were recorded during a personal interview. After an average follow-up period of 5.5 years, women were re-evaluated. Results Seventy-three percent of women completed the study. At baseline, 39% of women were smokers. At the end of the study, there was an absolute smoking rate reduction of 7.1% (p<0.001). The main variables associated with smoking initiation were younger age (Odds ratio (OR): 1.08, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.05–1.12), higher education level (OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.07–1.35), and having fewer children (OR: 1.3 95% CI: 1.01–1.66). Factors related with quitting were younger age of onset (OR: 1.06 95% CI: 1.02–1.1), higher level of nicotine dependence (OR: 4.22, 95% CI: 1.74–10.27), and higher perception of smoking addiction (OR: 4.34, 95% CI: 2–9.09). Stage of change was associated with smoking cessation but its effect was diluted after adjusting for the level of nicotine addiction. Conclusions Sociodemographic and family factors were the main variables related with initiation, whereas age of onset, belief of addiction, and nicotine dependence were the main factors related with cessation. Women with a high motivation for quitting should be evaluated for nicotine addiction level to define the best strategy for intervention (Rev Méd Chile 2009; 137: 1001–9).

Puschel, Klaus; Thompson, Beti; Olcay, Fabiola; Frreccio, Catterina



Brachiterapia nel carcinoma prostatico (CaP): l'utilizzo del QuickLink®nella tecnica real-time. Presentazione di una nuova tecnica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brachytherapy in prostate cancer: the use of QuickLink® system within the real-time technique. A new technique is presented ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION. Brachytherapy with real-time technique allows the ultrasound transper- ineal implant of needles and the release of I125 seeds in the prostate, with intraoperative dosimetry carried out by a special software. After performing this seed-releasing technique on 160 patients, we present



Una nueva especie de Euglena (Euglenozoa: Euglenales) aislada de ambientes extremófilos en las Pailas de Barro del Volcán Rincón de la Vieja, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of euglena isolated from a hot and acid mud pool located in Las Pailas de Barro, Volcán Rincón de la Vieja, Costa Rica is described. This species inhabits hot and acid environments. Euglena pailasen- sis sp. nov. main features are: the absence of flagella, the presence filaments like \\

Ana Sittenfeld; Maribelle Vargas; Ethel Sánchez; Marielos Mora; Aurelio Serrano


Aplicaciones de la radiofrecuencia en el tratamiento del dolor crónico benigno. Una revisión de las publicaciones de los últimos 6 años  

Microsoft Academic Search

R a d i o f requency started to be used in the clinical practice at the beginning of the fifties. However, in the past years and after the development of new equipment and material, side effects have been reduced and hence its use has be- c ome more common. Material and methods: We conducted a bibliographic search using as

M. A. López-Rodríguez; M. A. Camba


La Importancia de la Comunidad Hispana en el Conjunto Cultural de Nueva Orleans: Una Futuro Profesional Examina su Cultura y Lenguaje  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta investigación examina la importancia de la comunidad hispánica en Nueva Orleans con énfasis en su lengua y cultura. La investigación es probar cómo es importa tener hispánicos en Nueva Orleans y cómo es beneficio poder comunicar con ellos en español. La investigación incluye la influencia de hispánicos en Nueva Orleans en el pasado, el presente y el futuro, información

Amber Kelly



Una alternativa de reparto para la provisión de los servicios municipales mínimos y comunes: la participación incondicional municipal en los ingresos del gobierno superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

El trabajo presenta un modelo alternativo de reparto entre los municipios de un fondo público (financiado por la Generalitat Valenciana cumpliendo con el artículo 142 de la Constitución Española), de tal manera que las necesidades de todos ellos queden cubiertas por igual en términos relativos. Se defiende que el sistema de reparto, comparado con los propuestos por otros autores o

José Salvador Miñana Simó



Un gobierno alternativo en una región olvidada de Colombia: entrevista al taita Floro Alberto Tunubalái Paja, gobernador del departamento del Cauca  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Departamento del Cauca está situado al Sur de Colombia. En los últimos años ha ocupado el penúltimo lugar en su aporte económico al país. Lós índices de pobreza son grandes, la oferta de trabajo es baja y la desatención y disminución del Estado se acentúa, haciendo cada vez más dificil la solución de las desigualdades sociales que vive la

Diego Jaramillo Salgado



El trabajo político e ideológico en la universidad cubana de hoy. El socialismo en las nuevas condiciones del siglo XXI: una opción viable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Un objetivo de primer orden en todos los años de Revolución ha sido lograr en los graduados universitarios la formación integral de un profesional revolucionario. Los cambios operados en la situación internacional después del derrumbe del campo socialista y la desaparición de la URSS así como el incremento de la agresividad económica e ideológica del gobierno de Estados Unidos y

Anay Pulgarón Ramos



Diseño de una red para proveer servicios de voz y d atos en la ciudad de Guayaquil usando el acceso inalámbrico del estándar WiMAX  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the gradual globalization of the processes, th e technology deployment in recent years, the explosive growth of Internet and the increasing com petition among operators, the XXI century telecommunications has entered a period of technolo gical and market revolution, where the main concern that chart the destiny of the sector will be the convergence based on the IP protocol.

Carlos Eduardo; Escobar Muentes; Gustavo Galindo; Juan Carlos Avilés


Valoración De La Multifuncionalidad Agraria: Una Aplicación A Través Del Método De Los Experimentos De Elección\\/Agricultural Multifunctionality Valuation: A Case Study Using The Choice Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

La multifuncionalidad agraria es el reconocimiento del ejercicio conjunto por parte de este sector de funciones económicas, ambientales y sociales. Sin embargo, no todas estas aportaciones al conjunto de sociedad son valoradas en los mercados, sino que buena parte de ellas son bienes públicos. Por este motivo, para que este concepto de multifuncionalidad pueda utilizarse operativamente en el diseño de




La crianza practica de los hijos: una guia paso a paso para formar hijos responsables y hogares felices (Common Sense Parenting: A Practical Approach from Boys Town).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook is designed to help parents develop a "common sense" approach to child rearing and become more effective parents. Each of the 15 chapters suggests a parenting skill and gives examples for using the skill in a variety of situations. Each chapter also includes exercises designed to help parents put these skills into practice with their…

Burke, Ray; Herron, Ron


El análisis de un estudio clínico indica que una combinación de fármacos puede ser de gran eficacia contra el cáncer de ovario recidivante

El uso de un tratamiento farmacológico combinado para el cáncer de ovario recidivante mostró mejorías significativas, según se informó el día de hoy en el congreso anual de la Sociedad Americana de Oncología Clínica (ASCO). La combinación farmacológica se evaluó en un estudio de fase I y posteriormente en un estudio clínico aleatorizado de fase II patrocinado por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI).


Prevalencia de demencia en una población urbana de Lima-Perú: estudio puerta a puerta Dementia prevalence in a Lima, Peru urban community: door-to-door study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the prevalence and types of dementia in a Lima's urban community. Design: Bietapic conglomerate sampling. Setting: Private health institutions. Patients: Older than 65 years subjects. Interventions: In the Cercado de Lima district, 1 532 older than 65 years subjects randomly selected had brief neuropsychological evaluations including the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), drawing the Clock Test (PDR),

Nilton Custodio; Alberto García; Rosa Montesinos; Juan Escobar; Liliana Bendezú


Estudio de los Esquemas Conceptuales y de los Perfiles de Unos Alumnos de Segundo de Bup en Relacion con el Concepto de Pendiente de Una Recta.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study to determine students' concept of slope carried out in three classes of the second form before introducing the notion of derivative. Discusses the meaning of conceptual framework and reviews literature on slope. Analyzes student responses to a questionnaire for mathematical content and expression and interprets the results. (MDH)

Gimenez, Carmen Azcarate



Análisis de crecimiento estacional de una pradera asociada alfalfa-pasto ovillo Seasonal growth analysis of alfalfa-orchard grass swards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to determine a seasonal growth curve in order to define the optimum harvesting time of an alfalfa - orchard grass sward during the different seasons of the year. To this end, a seasonal growth analysis was carried out. Twenty four (24) plots (3 x 3 m) were allocated in a completely randomized design

Alfonso Hernández-Garay; Jorge Pérez Pérez; José G. Herrera


Steppin' On Up: A Post-Secondary Guide for Migrant Students = Tomando Accion: Una Guia para los Estudiantes Migrantes Sobre Que Hacer Despues de la Escuela Secundaria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bilingual guide (English and Spanish) provides information for migrant students on postsecondary education. The guide includes information on: (1) career planning, involving self-exploration, occupational exploration, and strategies for reaching career objectives; (2) planning for postsecondary education during high school, including a…

Western Stream Migrant Education Program Coordination Center, Portland, OR.


Optimización de una formulación de queques (cakes) con características funcionales a partir de almidones resistentes, Sphagnum magellanicum y harina desgrasada de avellana (Gevuina avellana Mol)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Optimization of a cake formulation with functional characteristics using resistant starch, Sphagnum magellanicum moss and deffated hazel nut flour (Gevuina avellana, Mol). Resistant starch (RS) Hi Maize 260, Sphagnum magellanicum Moss (SM) both natural resources rich in total dietary fiber, and defatted hazel nut flour (DHN) as protein resource were used in the development of a pastry product (queque)

Mario Villarroel; Carla Reyes; Julia Hazbun; Julia Karmelic


Desarrollo de una formulación optimizada de galletas para celiacos utilizando harina desgrasada de avellana chilena (Gevuina avellana, Mol) y harina de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Development of a cookie formulation for celiac people using defatted Chilean hazel nut (Gevuina avellana. Mol) flour and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) flour. The present investigation deals with the optimization of a cookie formulation based on deffated chilean hazel nut flour (DCHF) and quinoa flour (QF) characterized for being gluten free resources, aimed to increment the nutritional options of

Mario Villarroel; Carolina Huiriqueo; Julia Hazbun; Diego Carrillo


La Red Regional Replad: Una Estrategia Innovadora para la Capacitacion de Administradores Educacionales (The Regional Network Replad: An Innovative Strategy for the Training and Preparation of Educational Administrators).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an overview, analysis, and historical assessment of the Major Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Conferences, regional meetings, and outcomes from the inception of the project in 1979 are described. This project stresses the establishment of a regional network for exchange of information, experiences,…

Jimenez Espinoza, Jorge


IDEA: !"Vamos a Conocer Espana!: Una Guia Cultural Basada en Imagenes" (Let's Become Acquainted with Spain!: A Basic Cultural Guide in Pictures).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a collection of pictures presenting a visual array of the geographic features, customs, art, dress, and traditions of the Spanish culture on the European continent that are intended for classroom use. (Author/CK)

Inestrillas, Mar



Consequences of antenna design in telemetry studies of small passerines [Consecuencias en el disen??o de una antena en un estudio de radiotelemetria para paserinos  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Entanglement and mortality of Palila (Loxioides bailleui), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, occurred when birds were radio-tagged with transmitters equipped with a long, limp, solder-tipped antenna. Birds were found suspended in trees by their transmitter antenna on eight occasions. Although these birds eventually freed themselves or were freed by us, at least one bird died afterwards. For radio telemetry studies of small passerine species we recommend avoiding transmitters equipped with an antenna that is bulbous at the tip, >16 cm in length, limp, and shiny.

Dougill, S. J.; Johnson, L.; Banko, P. C.; Goltz, D. M.; Wiley, M. R.; Semones, J. D.



Una revisión crítica de la evidencia experimental del fenómeno de percepción extrasensorial: aciertos y errores de un paradigma de monotonización perceptiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we review the experimental evidence for extrasensory perception (ESP). We focus on studies carried out at academic centers and universities which used a particular experimental design for sensory isolation and perceptual monotonisation, the Ganzfeld. First, we describe the methodology used in these studies. Secondly, we review the results achieved, and examine the arguments put forward by the

José Miguel; PÉREZ NAVARRO; Anthony R. LAWRENCE; Reino Unido


Proposta metodologica e principi generali per l'insegnamento di una L2 (Methodological Proposal and General Principles for Teaching a Second Language).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the contents of four books on language teaching written by Harold Palmer between 1917 and 1924. Palmer's writings bridged some of the gap between theory and practice in language teaching. (CFM)

Chiuchiu, Angelo



Terrestrial and airborne laser scanner techniques applied to rock slope instability analysis: the case of Einser-Cima Una (Sexten Dolomites, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A representative characterization of a rock instability phenomenon is a fundamental task in the understanding of its evolution and the forecasting of possible further slope failure. The first step towards a complete study of the unstable slope consists in its detailed geometrical, geomechanical and kinematical characterization in order to generate a high resolution 3D digital model of the investigated area, recognize the main discontinuity sets of the rock mass, evaluate displacements and deformations occurred between subsequent surveys. This kind of study can be carried out by means of remote sensing techniques like terrestrial (TLS) and airborne laser scanner (ALS), which allow detailed investigations of a rock cliff in remote and safe mode. In particular, TLS allows the acquisition of the sub-vertical cliffs, whereas ALS provides information over wide areas with higher performances in sub-planar surfaces. These remote sensing techniques has been applied to analyze the northern rock wall of Einser-Cima (Fischleintal-Val Fiscalina, Sexten Dolomites, Bozen, Italy), whose higher portion was involved by a large (45000 m3) rock collapse occurred on October 12th, 2007. Two TLS measurements sessions were carried out, in November 2007 and in October 2008 respectively, considering two suitable viewpoints placed at about 200 m distance from the main failure surface, providing a sampling step of 10 cm. The analysis of TLS data allowed a detailed reconstruction of the surface geometry as well as a description of orientation, persistence, spacing and aperture of the rock mass discontinuity sets and the characterization of orientation and roughness of the failure planes. Moreover, comparisons between the two TLS-based point clouds allowed the analysis of displacements and deformations, as well an accurate evaluation of the open joint apertures. ALS data of the whole region acquired by the Geological Service of Bozen Province in 2004-2005 was also available. These data, having a mean sampling step of about 40-50 cm, represents the conditions before the cited 2007 landslide. In this way, direct comparison between the ALS and TLS data provided a volume estimate of the fallen rock mass. Integration of ALS and TLS data allowed also the characterization of the main structural and geomechanical features, both at the slope scale and on wider area. Finally, the obtained values about joint apertures were validated by direct measures provided by extensometers installed in higher critical joints.

Squarzoni, C.; Teza, G.; Galgaro, A.; Carraro, C.; Bucceri, N.



Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer 1975-2002 con una sección especial sobre las tendencias de tratamiento: preguntas y respuestas

Las organizaciones oncológicas principales de la nación informan que el riesgo de los estadounidenses de morir de cáncer sigue disminuyendo y que las tasas de casos nuevos de cáncer permanecen estables. El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2002, señala que las tasas de mortalidad de cáncer que se observaron para todos los cánceres combinados disminuyeron 1,1 por ciento por año de 1993 a 2002.


A Special Family Series. Mario and Clara Hernandez. Clara Finds a Friend = Lina Familia Especial. Mario y Clara Hernandez. Clara Eucuentra una Amiga.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two comic books are part of the "Very Special Family" series, created by and for Hispanic parents of children with special needs. The materials are designed to help parents deal with the emotional difficulties of raising a child with disabilities. The booklets are printed in both English and Spanish. In Part 1, "Mario and Clara Hernandez," a…

Cazares, Maria


Terrestrial and airborne laser scanner techniques applied to rock slope instability analysis: the case of Einser-Cima Una (Sexten Dolomites, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A representative characterization of a rock instability phenomenon is a fundamental task in the understanding of its evolution and the forecasting of possible further slope failure. The first step towards a complete study of the unstable slope consists in its detailed geometrical, geomechanical and kinematical characterization in order to generate a high resolution 3D digital model of the investigated area,

C. Squarzoni; G. Teza; A. Galgaro; C. Carraro; N. Bucceri



Elaborare in sardo, elaborare in italiano. Una ricerca nella scuola media (Uses of Sardinian and Italian: Research in the Junior High School).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a historic overview and analysis of the Sardinian language (actually a system of dialects), and defines diglossia and bilingualism. A discussion focuses on research conducted in two junior high schools to determine the differences in linguistic behavior in two contrasting situations (village and city) in regard to Sardinian and Italian.…

Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Migaleddu, Maria Vittoria




Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se analizan los factores más relevantes de la cultura organizacional que aparecen en las redes virtuales de fabricación global (RVFG). Estas organizaciones están formadas por empresas muy dinámicas que fabrican todo tipo de productos o servicios, las cuales establecen entre sí relaciones de tipo horizontal y vertical, pudiendo incluso ser competidores, donde no es necesario mantener internamente

J. R Vilana Arto; C. Rodríguez Monroy



La Problematica Tecnologica Latinoamericana y Sus Implicaciones en el Desarrollo de una Ingenieria Nacional (Latin America Technological Problem and Its Implications in the Development of National Engineering).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report introduces four perspectives to follow up: (1) Strategical elements that hasten the technological development within the Latin American countries; (2) Technological Policy within Latin America; (3) Characterization of the development of the Lat...

G. Tirado E. Paredes M. Genova L. Alvaray J. Giordani



Arrecifes de Coral: Una Coleccion de Actividades en Espanol para Estudiantes de Escuela Intermedia (Coral Reefs: A Spanish Compilation of Activities for Middle School Students).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity book for middle school students on coral reefs is divided into 10 sections. Section 1 is the introduction. Section 2 describes what coral reefs are while section 3 describes how coral reefs reproduce and grow. Section 4 describes where coral reefs are found, and section 5 describes life on a coral reef. Section 6 describes the…

Walker, Sharon H.; Newton, R. Amanda; Ortiz, Alida


""Una Persona Derechita" (Staying Right in the Mind)": Perceptions of Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Older Adults in South Texas "Colonias"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Design and Methods: In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by "promotoras" (community health workers) from clusters of "colonias" in…

Sharkey, Joseph R.; Sharf, Barbara F.; St. John, Julie A.



Enfermedad Celíaca en el adulto. Prevalencia en una población de riesgo. Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de pacientes del Hospital Alemán de Buenos Aires.(*)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Due to the fact that there is not enough data about the epidemiology of the celiac disease in Argentina and South America, specially amongst the adult population, the objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of the celiac disease in the adult patient considering the oligosymptomatic population and the population of risk of the disease. Materials and

Sebastián Gimenez; Luis A. Boerr; Pablo Luna; Dra Adriana


Aspectos biológicos de una nueva población del Capuchino de Cabeza Negra (Lonchura malacca, Estrildidae) en el alto valle del Magdalena, Tolima  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the establishment of a population of Lonchura malacca in the upper Magdalena valley in the municipalities of Ibague, Piedras and San Luis (Tolima). In this study we documented size of groups, distribution, habitat, behaviour, diet, reproductive activity and morphometric data. L. malacca frequents grasslands, agricultural fields, including rice paddies (Oryza sativa) and riverside forests in Tropical Dry Forest

Diego Carantón-Ayala; Carolina Díaz-Jaramillo; Ronald Mauricio Parra; Jeyson Sanabria-Mejía; Miguel Moreno-Palacios


Cuando su Hijo ha Desaparecido: Una Guia de Supervivencia para la Familia. Tercera Edicion (When Your Child Is Missing: A Family Survival Guide. Third Edition).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When your child is missing, your whole world seems to fall apart. You are bombarded by questions from friends, neighbors, the police, and the media and forced to make decisions that you never thought you would have to make. You feel desperate, confused, i...




Microsoft Academic Search

En la era de la innovación, la dotación de la infraestructura tecnológica necesaria y otras inversiones en I+D no son suficientes para configurar un ecosistema en el que la innovación sea todo un referente. El verdadero reto reside probablemente en promover y alcanzar un cambio cultural que potencie e interiorice capacidades, valores y relaciones facilitadoras de comportamientos proclives a la

Arturo Rodríguez Castellanos; Jon Hoyos Iruarrizaga; Julen Izaguirre Olaizola; M. Azucena Vicente Molina



Influencia de los cambios hormonales del ciclo menstrual en la percepción del dolor en las disfunciones temporomandibulares. Una revisión sistemática de la literatura médica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of evidence suggests that temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJD) are much more prevalent in women than in men. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine whether hormone levels during the menstrual cycle influence TMJD when painful symptoms are present. A data extraction search strategy was performed in the Medline, Embase, Scielo and CINAHL databases from 1970

R. La Touche; J. Fernández-Carnero; J. Pesquera Velasco; J. Mesa




Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of NPK fertilization on yield of a commercial cocoa plantation at the Southeast of Táchira State, Venezuela The low cocoa yields in Venezuela are associated with lack of fertilization. Two experiments were performed in a commercial plantation in the Southeast of Táchira State to determine the plant response to several doses of fertilization. The treatments were established based on

Dercy Parra; Erbert Gamboa; José Rincón



Etica Comercial: Manual sobre la Administracion de una Empresa Comercial Responsable. (Business Ethics: A Manual for Managing a Responsible Business Enterprise in Emerging Market Economics.)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Published under the auspices of the Commerce Department's Good Governance Program, this book is a comprehensive manual on how to design and implement a business ethics program that is in accordance with modern standards of responsible business conduct. It...



Alianza para el Aprendizaje: Una guia de actividades educativas para familias (Alliance for Learning: A Guide of Educational Activities for Families).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish-language publication condenses the information in the Alliance for Learning series. The publication is intended principally for families with preschool or primary grade children, although the material can be used with older children. The sections of the publication address various themes and present activities that parents can do with…

Carr, Phil



Microsoft Academic Search

Recibido para revisar 26 de Enero de 2006, aceptado 26 de Septiembre de 2006, versión final 15 de Octubre de 2006 RESUMEN: En la Lingüística Computacional los corpus han sido uno de los recursos más utilizados para estudiar los diferentes fenómenos lingüísticos. La recopilación de corpus en los cuales se presenta interacción entre el humano y el computador presenta como




Impacto de un programa de lectura extensiva en la adquisicion de una segunda lengua (Impact of an Extensive Reading Program on Second Language Acquisition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the application of Krashen's Input Hypothesis, studying the relationship between exposure to the target language and language acquisition within the context of the English-as-a-foreign-language secondary classroom in Spain. The project studied the effect of additional reading instruction with emphasis on reading for…

Coll, Ana; And Others


Contribucion de la Fonetica y la Fonologia a la Ensenanza de una Segunda Lengua (Phonetic and Phonological Contributions to Teaching a Second Language)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical changes in the teaching methods of modern languages are discussed, with emphasis on the modern principle that language, before anything, is a means of oral communication. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

Cardenas, M. Cristina



Una variante del metodo que utiliza la simulacion de un proceso de difusion para la caracterizacion de formas de figuras planas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a variation of a previously presented method (1) for characterizing the shapes of plane figures. In addition to retaining the advantages of the original method, this variant includes one more: it is no longer necessary to halt a (simulated) diffusion process during the transient stage; that is, before arriving at an equilibrium. On the contrary, the longer the

Osvaldo Skliar; V ´ õctor Medina


Hacia Una Pedagogia de Solucion de Problemas en La Educacion Ambiental. Serie Educacion Ambiental 15 (Pedagogy of Solutions and Problems in Environmental Education. Environmental Education Series 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses the teaching of problem solving in environmental education. From an interdisciplinary viewpoint, this study describes some strategies for teaching that can favor the practice of educational activities oriented toward solving the concrete problems of the surrounding environment. The volume is divided into seven chapters. The…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.


Work and Family in the United States: A Policy Initiative. A Report of the Family Policy Panel of the Economic Policy Council of UNA-USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of its world employment project, the Economic Policy Council of the United Nations Association of the United States formed the family policy panel to further examine the extent of ongoing changes affecting the family, the workplace, and the economy. In its work, the family policy panel concentrated on five issues considered central to the…

United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.


Previniendo el Uso de Drogas entre Ninos y Adolescentes: Una Guia Basada en Investigaciones (Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This question and answer guide provides an overview of the research on the origins and pathways of drug abuse, the basic principles derived from effective drug abuse prevention research, and the application of research results to the prevention of drug use among young people. The basic principles derived from drug abuse prevention research are…

Sloboda, Zili; David, Susan L.


Convenzione sui cambiamenti climatici: ipotesi per una assegnazione di quote di emissioni di anidride carbonica. (Climate change convention: reallocation of carbon dioxide emissions).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1992, during the United Nation's Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, the Framework Convention on Climate Change was signed. The ultimate objective of this Convention is the control and the reduction of greenhouse gas rele...

P. Turchetti M. Venanzi



The residual and direct effects of reduced-risk and conventional miticides on twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)  

SciTech Connect

The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria z ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatory mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [Spanish] Los efectos residuales en poblaciones de la 'arana roja', Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranichidae) y de los acaros predadores Neoseiulus californicus McGregor y Phytoseilus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) causados por varios acaricidas convencionales y de riesgo-reducido fueron evaluados en fresas (Fragaria x ananassa Duchense). Los experimentos fueron realizados en laboratorio e invernadero. Los experimentos en el invernadero evaluaron tambien el efecto directo de los acaricidas en la 'arana roja'. La eficacia para controlar la 'arana roja' de los acaricidas convencionales y de riesgo-reducido fue evaluada en discos de las hojas y en plantas de fresa, y los efectos residuales de los acaricidas en los acaros predadores fueron evaluados en plantas completas. Para la 'arana roja' se evaluaron cinco tratamientos: el acaricida convencional fenbutatin-oxido (Vendex[reg]), 3 acaricidas de riesgo-reducido binfenazate (Acaramite 50WP[reg]), extracto de ajo activado (Repel[reg]), aceite de semillas de ajonjoli y ricino (Wipeout[reg]) y un control tratado con agua. Para los acaros predadores solamente los efectos de Acaramite[reg] y Vendex[reg] fueron evaluados. Acaramite[reg] fue el tratamiento mas efectivo para la 'arana roja' en el laboratorio y el invernadero. Vendex[reg] y Wipeout[reg] fueron tambien efectivos en el laboratorio, pero no causaron una reduccion significativa de 'aranas rojas' en el invernadero. Repel[reg] fue el tratamiento evaluado menos eficaz. Ni Acaramite[reg] ni Vendex[reg] redujeron significativamente las poblaciones de acaros predadores. Sin embargo, aparentemente hay mas acaros predadores en Vendex[reg] que en Acaramite[reg]. Tambien se encontraron significativamente mas acaros predadores en plantas inoculadas que en plantas no inoculadas. (author)

Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M. [Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Browdy, A.A. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)




Microsoft Academic Search

summARY This paper presents a case of intussusception in a 90 years old woman which is noteworthy because intussusceptions in adults, without a lead point are uncommon, intussuception with a lead point is even more uncommon. Most of the time radiologists define the diagnosis, although images are characteristic; it is important to exactly locate the lesion in the anatomy of

Hernando Lozano López; Juan Carlos Correa Puerta


Estudio teorico para determinar el coeficiente de transferencia de calor por medio de una correlacion empirica en conveccion forzada a una sola fase, para canales anulares. (Theoretical study to determine the heat transfer by forced convection coefficient in an empirical correlation in single phase, for annular channels.).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the heat transfer studies by forced convection, we have few data about behavior of the fluids in an annular channel heated by a concentric pipe, such date is necessary to know the heat transfer coefficient that establish the interchange of energy and t...

E. Herrera



o sup 14C como tracador do fluxo do carbono assimilado pelas plantas (milho, cana-de-acucar, feijao) e sua liberacao ao solo. ((14)C as tracer in the carbon flow assimilated by the plants (maize, sugar cane, bean) and it liberation to the soil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flow of carbon in three different crops, maize, beans and sugar cane was studied by use of (sup 14)V. The plants were exposed to an atmosphere with a constant concentration of the tracer for 12 hours in a biosynthesis chamber. The detection of the iso...

B. J. F. Paula Eduardo



EFECTIVIDAD DE EXTRACTOS BOTÁNICOS DE DIEZ PLANTAS SOBRE LA MORTALIDAD Y REPELENCIA DE LARVAS DE Rhynchophorus palmarum L., INSECTO PLAGA DEL PIJUAYO Bactris gasipaes KUNTH EN LA AMAZONÍA DEL PERÚ Effectiveness of botanical extracts from ten plants on mortality and larval repellency of Rhynchophorus palmarum L., an insect pest of the Peach palm Bactris gasipaes Kunth in Amazonian Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Pest resistance to chemical insecticides has grown in recent years, which is the motive for the search for alternative methods, such as plants with larvicidal activity. The objective of this research was to evaluate mortality and larval repellency of Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Curculionidae), a pest of the Peach palm Bactris gasipaes Kunth



Microsoft Academic Search

One factor that limits commercial expansion of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in the Central High Valleys of México is its susceptibility to stem and head blight, a disease caused by Fusarium verticillioides (F. moniliforme). Because of the lack of information on quality of seed harvested from plants infected with this fungus, in 2003 an experiment was set up in

Manuel Livera-Muñoz



DURACIÓN DEL EFECTO REVIGORIZANTE DE PODAS SEVERAS DE PLANTAS ADULTAS DE AVELLANO EUROPEO (Corylus avellana L.) cv. Negretta SOBRE EL CULTIVO IN VITRO Duration of the reinvigorating effect of severe pruning of mature European hazelnut plants (Corylus avellana L.) cv. Negretta with in vitro cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T The duration of the reinvigorating effect of severe pruning on mature European hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) cv. Negretta was analyzed. The in vitro stimulation and proliferation rate of the resulting explants from cutting stimulation obtained from adult plants not pruned (T1), epicormic