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En el proceso de extracción de cloruro de sodio a partir de agua de mar queda una salmuera residual rica en sales de sodio y magnesio que al ser tratadas químicamente y al ser evaporada permite recuperar aproximadamente el 75% del cloruro de sodio que queda en dicho residual, lo que puede reducir la contaminación ambiental del litoral y generar
Text Version... This product has no known side effects. What people are saying? "I have been using Fruta Planta for a little over 90 days and I absolutely love it! ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/resourcesforyou
In quest'articolo l'autore presenta brevemente una nuova teoria nel campo della Semantica, la Se- mantica Operazionale (S.O.). La S.O. si occupa dei significati di tutti quegli elementi linguistici che sono indispensabili per ogni espressione linguistica, cioè, principalmente, tutte le parole \\
The power of eukaryote genomics relies strongly on taxon sampling. This point was underlined in a recent analysis of red algal genome evolution in which we tested the Plantae hypothesis that posits the monophyly of red, green (including plants) and glaucophyte algae. The inclusion of novel genome data from two mesophilic red algae enabled us to robustly demonstrate the sisterhood of red and green algae in the tree of life. Perhaps more exciting was the finding that >1,800 putative genes in the unicellular red alga Porphyridium cruentum showed evidence of gene-sharing with diverse lineages of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here we assessed the correlation between the putative functions of these shared genes and their susceptibility to transfer. It turns out that genes involved in complex interactive networks such as biological regulation and transcription/translation are less susceptible to endosymbiotic or horizontal gene transfer, when compared to genes with metabolic and transporter functions.
The aim of this work was to assess the following plants as functional foods that can be found in Mexico: white sapote (Casimiroa edulis), jicama (Pachyrhizus spp.), amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus), sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), oregano (Lippia graveolens), pitahaya (Hylocereus sp.), agave (Agave americana), pelitre (Heliopsis longipes), and purslane (Portulaca oleracea L). The main characteristics, components and active substances, forms of
Total Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations and the distribution of lead in soils from a farmland near a battery recycling plant in Madrid (Spain) were investigated to establish a possible relationship with a recent episode of horses death that presented lead intoxication symptoms before dying. Total Pb and Cd levels presented a clear decrease with distance to the
RESUMO: As doenças de pele são muito comuns acometendo cerca de 1\\/3 da população mundial e as plantas medicinais, em especial as suas associações, são comumente usadas nas comunidades para o tratamento de micoses, erisipela e outras dermatoses. Todavia, um dos problemas enfrentados pelos profissionais da área de saúde atualmente é justamente a questão do uso concomitante de plantas medicinais
E. O. Lima; R. A. G. Oliveira; M. S. Toledo; João Pessoa
Thirty-nine wild-type strains of Rhizobium japonicum have been studied for their ability to synthesize nitrogenase ex planta in defined liquid media under microaerobic conditions. Twenty-one produced more than trace amounts of acetylene reduction activity, but only a few of these yielded high activity. The oxygen response curves were similar for most of the nitrogenase-positive strains. The strains derepressible for activity had several phenotypic characteristics different from non-derepressible strains. These included slower growth and lower oxygen consumption under microaerobic conditions and lower extracellular polysaccharide production. Extracellular polysaccharide production during growth on gluconate in every nitrogenase-positive strain assayed was lower under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions than the non-derepressible strains. These phenotypic characteristics may be representative of a genotype of a subspecies of R. japonicum. These studies were done in part to enlarge the base number of strains available for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of nitrogen fixation. PMID:16346295
In this Phase I study we explored the revolutionary concept of using genomics and nanotechnology together for the development of plants with traits suitable for human life support in non -Earth environments. This includes the potential for the use of remote monitoring and control devices in planta and ex planta as part of an overall architecture of human and autonomous
Little is known about the evolution of the intron–exon organization in the more primitive groups of land plants, and the intron distribution among Plantae (glauco-, rhodo-, chloro- and streptophytes) has not been investigated so far. The present study is focused on some key species such as the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, representing the most ancient lineage of land plants, and the
Full-length infectious cDNA clones of Canadain (PLRV-flc)and German (PLRV-flg) Potato leafroll virus isolates were constructed and their biological activities examined in planta. For both constructs, agroinfection by PLRV cDNA resulted in virus mulitplication in the primary leaf followed by systemi...
L’article presenta una aproximació al Guernica, de Pablo Picasso, mitjançant l’anàlisi de les seves possibilitats per a l’estudi de la pintura i de la relació entre la creació i el coneixement de la Història de l’Art. Al mateix temps, es presenta un model de treball que s’inicia amb una mirada als problemes derivats de l’observació per tal d’assolir la interpretació
Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.
Background The photosynthetic organelle (plastid) originated via primary endosymbiosis in which a phagotrophic protist captured and harnessed a cyanobacterium. The plastid was inherited by the common ancestor of the red, green (including land plants), and glaucophyte algae (together, the Plantae). Despite the critical importance of primary plastid endosymbiosis, its ancient derivation has left behind very few “footprints” of early key events in organelle genesis. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain insights into this process, we conducted an in-depth phylogenomic analysis of genomic data (nuclear proteins) from 17 Plantae species to identify genes of a surprising provenance in these taxa, Chlamydiae bacteria. Previous studies show that Chlamydiae contributed many genes (at least 21 in one study) to Plantae that primarily have plastid functions and were postulated to have played a fundamental role in organelle evolution. Using our comprehensive approach, we identify at least 55 Chlamydiae-derived genes in algae and plants, of which 67% (37/55) are putatively plastid targeted and at least 3 have mitochondrial functions. The remainder of the proteins does not contain a bioinformatically predicted organelle import signal although one has an N-terminal extension in comparison to the Chlamydiae homolog. Our data suggest that environmental Chlamydiae were significant contributors to early Plantae genomes that extend beyond plastid metabolism. The chlamydial gene distribution and protein tree topologies provide evidence for both endosymbiotic gene transfer and a horizontal gene transfer ratchet driven by recurrent endoparasitism as explanations for gene origin. Conclusions/Significance Our findings paint a more complex picture of gene origin than can easily be explained by endosymbiotic gene transfer from an organelle-like point source. These data significantly extend the genomic impact of Chlamydiae on Plantae and show that about one-half (30/55) of the transferred genes are most closely related to sequences emanating from the genome of the only environmental isolate that is currently available. This strain, Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila UWE25 is an endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba and likely represents the type of endoparasite that contributed the genes to Plantae.
In an attempt to clarify the potential role of endophytic fungi in integrated pest management, the compatibility of an endophytic isolate of Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmermann) Gams & Zare (Hyphomycetes) with nine insecticides used against Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera : Aphididae) was examined both in vitro over 14 days and in planta. In the laboratory, most insecticides partially or completely inhibited the germination of conidia and growth of hyphae in nutrient-rich conditions. Endosulfan completely inhibited the germination of conidia and hyphal growth. In contrast, all insecticides were compatible with L. lecanii in planta, and the fungus was readily recovered from inoculated, colonized leaves. These data support the hypothesis that endophytic L. lecanii will be unaffected by insecticides and could be integrated in the management of pests in cotton. PMID:21424605
Gurulingappa, Pampapathy; Mc Gee, Peter; Sword, Gregory A
Fluorescent dyes were assessed for their ability to stain viable hyphae of the fungi Neotyphodium lolii and N. coenophialum, symbiotic endophytes of the Pooideae grasses Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea, respectively. The fluorescein-based fluorophores; fluorescein diacetate (FDA), 5(6)-carboxy-fluorescein diacetate (CFDA), 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) and the chitin-binding stain, Calcofluor while M2R, were assessed for staining of endophyte hyphae in vitro from axenic fungal cultures and in planta, including epidermal leaf sheath peels, nodes, ovaries, embryos and meristems. CMFDA produced the greatest intensity of staining of fungal hyphae and gave excellent contrast in planta compared to the plant cells. Compared to the other dyes, CMFDA was also the least affected by photo bleaching and continued to fluoresce up to 2 h after initial excitation. None of the fluorescent dyes stained fungal hyphae in seed. PMID:22802389
Card, Stuart D; Tapper, Brian A; Lloyd-West, Catherine; Wright, Kathryn M
Slow-adapting impulses were recorded from the single nerve fiber innervating the Pacinian corpuscle of the cat planta, which was stimulated by constant pressure. Slow-adapting Pacinian corpuscles responded to both low-frequency (0.1-0.01 Hz) and high-frequency (400-800 Hz) vibrations. Simultaneously performed electron microscopy showed that there were no definite ultrastructural differences between slow- and fast-adapting Pacinian corpuscles. PMID:3995265
The photosynthetic specialization of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is typically found in plants growing in environments\\u000a where water and\\/or CO2 is limiting and, by analogy, where irradiance and daytime temperatures may be high. Such abiotic actors are known to lead\\u000a to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in planta which can elicit potentially damaging oxidative stress and\\/or\\u000a act as
RESUMO - Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB) no crescimento inicial de plantas de confrei ( Symphytum officinale L.), uma espécie medicinal, um experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação. Segmentos de rizomas, obtidos de plantas com 90 dias de idade, foram submetidos a cinco concentrações (0, 0,246, 0,492, 0,738, 0,984 mM) e três tempos de exposição
Resumen: La ocratoxina A es una micotoxina producida por especies de los géneros Aspergillus y Penicillium que a través de los alimentos puede pasar al ser humano. Su órgano diana es el riñón pero también es hepatotóxica, inmunotóxica y teratogéni- ca. Ha sido clasificada por la Agencia Internacional de Investigación contra el Cáncer (IARC) como posible carcinóge- no humano (clase
El autor entrega aquí una breve mirada a los fundamentos esenciales de la poesía concreta y a la obra del fundador principal de ésta, Eugen Gomringer, destacando desde él la concepción lingüística que asume esta nueva tendencia literaria de los años cincuenta. Respecto de esta concepción poética, que parece rebajar a la poesía de su riqueza expresiva tradicional, el autor
Existen numerosos estudios acerca de la relación entre la contaminación del aire y las enfermedades respiratorias, pero generalmente han sido realizados en grandes ciudades de países desarrollados donde dicho problema es asociado a las emisiones de fuentes móviles y fijas. Esta investigación se centra en una pequeña ciudad de Colombia: Palmira (Valle del Cauca) con no más de 300.000 habitantes,
This application was designed for farmers, agriculture researchers, and gardeners. The application includes a calculator, a data logger, and a GPS mapping function. It was designed for vegetable farming but can be used for open field applications. The calculator solves for the amount of pesticide,...
This chapter details a reproducible method for the transformation of spring wheat using Agrobacterium tumefaciens via the direct inoculation of bacteria into immature seeds in planta as described in patent WO 00/63398(1. Transformation efficiencies from 1 to 30% have been obtained and average efficiencies of at least 5% are routinely achieved. Regenerated plants are phenotypically normal with 30-50% of transformation events carrying introduced genes at single insertion sites, a higher rate than is typically reported for transgenic plants produced using biolistic transformation methods.
Risacher, Thierry; Craze, Melanie; Bowden, Sarah; Paul, Wyatt; Barsby, Tina
Esta lecciÃÂ³n se focaliza en el impacto de las caracterÃÂsticas de la planta y el herbicida, importantes para determinar el desempeño del herbicida. Se usarÃÂ¡n imÃÂ¡genes visuales para ilustrar varios principios, incluyendo el sitio de absorciÃÂ³n del herbicida en la planta, transporte, el sitio de acciÃÂ³n sensible, y efectos del ambiente sobre el desempeño del herbicida. Esta informaciÃÂ³n provee la base para maximizar la utilidad del uso de los herbicidas.
Plant roots release a range of enzymes capable of degrading chemical compounds in their immediate vicinity. We present a system of phytoremediation ex planta based on the overexpression of one such enzyme, a secretory laccase. Laccases catalyze the oxidation of a broad range of phenolic compounds, including polychlorinated phenols such as 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), that are among the most hazardous and recalcitrant pollutants in the environment. We isolated a secretory laccase cDNA of LAC1, which is specifically expressed in the roots of Gossypium arboreum (cotton). Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing LAC1 exhibited enhanced resistance to several phenolic allelochemicals and TCP. The secretory laccase activity in these plants was responsible for the conversion of sinapic acid into a mono-lactone type dimer and for the transformation of TCP. PMID:15195102
We developed a high-throughput methodology, termed fluorescent tagging of full-length proteins (FTFLP), to analyze expression patterns and subcellular localization of Arabidopsis gene products in planta. Determination of these parameters is a logical first step in functional characterization of the approximately one-third of all known Arabidopsis genes that encode novel proteins of unknown function. Our FTFLP-based approach offers two significant advantages: first, it produces internally-tagged full-length proteins that are likely to exhibit native intracellular localization, and second, it yields information about the tissue specificity of gene expression by the use of native promoters. To demonstrate how FTFLP may be used for characterization of the Arabidopsis proteome, we tagged a series of known proteins with diverse subcellular targeting patterns as well as several proteins with unknown function and unassigned subcellular localization. PMID:15141064
Site turnover rate (k(cat)) of Rubisco was measured in intact leaves of different plants. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and birch (Betula pendula Roth.) leaves were taken from field-growing plants. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wild type (wt), Rubisco-deficient (-RBC), FNR-deficient (-FNR), and Cyt b(6)f deficient (-CBF) transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) were grown in a growth chamber. Rubisco protein was measured with quantitative SDS-PAGE and FNR protein content with quantitative immunoblotting. The Cyt b(6)f level was measured in planta by maximum electron transport rate and the photosystem I (PSI) content was assessed by titration with far-red light. The CO(2) response of Rubisco was measured in planta with a fast-response gas exchange system at maximum ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate concentration. Reaction site k(cat) was calculated from V(m) and Rubisco content. Biological variation of k(cat) was significant, ranging from 1.5 to 4 s(-1) in wt, but was >6 s(-1) at 23 degrees C in -RBC leaves. The lowest k(cat) of 0.5 s(-1) was measured in -FNR and -CBF plants containing sufficient Rubisco but having slow electron transport rates. Plotting k(cat) against PSI per Rubisco site resulted in a hyperbolic relationship where wt plants are on the initial slope. A model is suggested in which Rubisco Activase is converted into an active ATP-form on thylakoid membranes with the help of a factor related to electron transport. The activation of Rubisco is accompanied by the conversion of the ATP-form into an inactive ADP-form. The ATP and ADP forms of Activase shuttle between thylakoid membranes and stromally-located Rubisco. In normal wt plants the electron transport-related activation of Activase is rate-limiting, maintaining 50-70% Rubisco sites in the inactive state. PMID:19661266
Eichelmann, H; Talts, E; Oja, V; Padu, E; Laisk, A
During the colonization of tomato leaves, the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum excretes low-molecular-weight proteins in the intercellular spaces of the host tissue. These proteins are encoded by the ecp genes which are highly expressed in C. fulvum while growing in planta but are not, or are only weakly, expressed in C. fulvum grown in vitro. To investigate the function of
Roland Marmeisse; Guido F. J. M. Van den Ackerveken; Theo Goosen; Henk W. J. Van den Broek
The photosynthetic organelle (plastid) in red, green, and glaucophyte algae (Plantae) likely had a single origin from a cyanobacterial endosymbiosis (8, 17). This ancient (ca. 1 to 1.5 billion years ago) (10, 24) event was followed by the transfer of genetic material from the endosymbiont to the nuclear genome of the host, the evolution of a protein import apparatus for
Andreas P. M. Weber; Marc Linka; Debashish Bhattacharya
The ipiB and ipiO genes of the potato late blight fungus Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary were isolated from a genomic library in a screen for genes induced in planta. Expression of these genes was studied during pathogenesis on various host tissues and different host plants, some of which show specific resistance against P. infestans infection. During pathogenesis on leaves
Corné M. J. Pieterse; Anne-Marie C. E. Derksen; Jindra Folders; Francine Govers
The ability of metalaxyl-M, phosphonic acid in the form of phosphonate, and copper hydroxide to inhibit different stages in the life cycle of Phytophthora ramorum , the causal agent of sudden oak death (SOD), was tested in vitro using 12 isolates from the North American forest lineage. In addition, experiments were conducted in planta to study the ability of phosphonic
The fungus Neotyphodium lolii grows in the intercellular spaces of perennial ryegrass as a mutualistic endosymbiont. One of the benefits it conveys to the plant is the production of alkaloids toxic to herbivores. We wanted to determine in planta expression patterns of the N. lolii 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG CoA reductase) gene, believed to be involved in the synthesis of two of these alkaloid toxins, lolitrem B and ergovaline. We transformed the N. lolii strain Lp19 with plasmids, in which DNA fragments upstream of the open reading frame of the N. lolii HMG CoA reductase gene controlled expression of the GUS (gusA; Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase) reporter gene. In exponentially growing cultures, the GUS gene was not expressed if the length of upstream sequence was less than 400 bp, and >1100 bp were required for maximum expression. When reintroduced into ryegrass plants, transformants often showed highly increased hyphal branching compared to the wild-type parent strain, although in culture their growth kinetics and morphology were indistinguishable from that of the wild-type. Deterioration of hyphae and the hypha-plant interface occurred and in one transformant reduced tillering (formation of new plants, referred to in agronomy as tillers) and death of infected plants. We found no evidence that these abnormalities were caused by interference of the construct with the function of the native gene, as judged by analysis of the site of integration of the promoter-GUS cassette, expression of the native gene and lolitrem B and ergovaline levels in infected plants. However, there was some correlation between GUS expression and the degree of hyphal branching, suggesting that high levels of beta-glucuronidase may disturb the symbiotic interaction. Levels of another alkaloid, peramine, were also not significantly affected by transformation. In previous studies increased in planta branching of the endophyte has been shown to be associated with a severe reduction of alkaloid production. Our results show that a plant-endophyte association in which increased branching occurs is still able to produce alkaloids. PMID:16769511
Zhang, Ningxin; Scott, Vicki; Al-Samarrai, Taha H; Tan, Yong Y; Spiering, Martin J; McMillan, Lisa K; Lane, Geoffrey A; Scott, D Barry; Christensen, Michael J; Schmid, Jan
Many phytopathogenic bacteria, such as Ralstonia solanacearum, Pantoea stewartii, and Xanthomonas campestris, produce exopolysaccharides (EPSs) that aid in virulence, colonization, and survival. EPS can also contribute to host xylem vessel blockage. The genome of Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, contains an operon that is strikingly similar to the X. campestris gum operon, which is responsible for the production of xanthan gum. Based on this information, it has been hypothesized that X. fastidiosa is capable of producing an EPS similar in structure and composition to xanthan gum but lacking the terminal mannose residue. In this study, we raised polyclonal antibodies against a modified xanthan gum polymer similar to the predicted X. fastidiosa EPS polymer. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify production of EPS from X. fastidiosa cells grown in vitro and immunolocalization microscopy to examine the distribution of X. fastidiosa EPS in biofilms formed in vitro and in planta and assessed the contribution of X. fastidiosa EPS to the vascular occlusions seen in PD-infected grapevines. PMID:17827325
Roper, M Caroline; Greve, L Carl; Labavitch, John M; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C
Using perennial ryegrass infected with an Acremonium transformant carrying the Escherichia coli beta-D-glucuronidase gene (gusA) (GUS system) under control of a constitutive promoter, we have developed methods for the quantitative extraction of endophyte-associated GUS activity from plant material. Fluorometric assays of these extracts allow quantitative assessment of the distribution of endophyte-associated GUS activity within single plants (tillers) with high resolution. Fluorescence microscopy with the dye Imagene Green can in addition visualize individual GUS-expressing hyphae. Since the transformant expresses the GUS gene constitutively, GUS activity can be used as an indicator of in planta endophyte metabolic activity. Using this approach we found that (i) the concentration of endophyte metabolic activity in plant tissue decreases with increasing plant size, (ii) approximately 70% of endophyte metabolic activity present in a plant is located in the leaf sheaths, (iii) basal-apical gradients and lateral (younger to older tissue) gradients of endophyte metabolic activity exist and (iv) basal-apical gradients are established early in leaf development. Our data suggest that the concentration of endophyte in each part of the plant is regulated so that a predetermined threshold of total endophyte activity per plant is not exceeded and a consistent distribution pattern is maintained. PMID:10627142
Herd, S; Christensen, M J; Saunders, K; Scott, D B; Schmid, J
Plant viruses show great potential for production of pharmaceuticals in plants. Such viruses can harbor a small antigenic peptide(s) as a part of their coat proteins (CP) and elicit an antigen-specific immune response. Here, we report the high yield and consistency in production of recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) particles for specific presentation of the small loop 15 amino acid epitope from domain-4 of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA-D4s). The epitope was inserted immediately after the first 25 N-terminal amino acids of AlMV CP to retain genome activation and binding of CP to viral RNAs. Recombinant AlMV particles were efficiently produced in tobacco, easily purified for immunological analysis, and exhibited extended stability and systemic proliferation in planta. Intraperitional injections of mice with recombinant plant virus particles harboring the PA-D4s epitope elicited a distinct immune response. Western blotting and ELISA analysis showed that sera from immunized mice recognized both native PA antigen and the AlMV CP.
Brodzik, R. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Bandurska, K. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Deka, D. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Golovkin, M. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Koprowski, H. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
VIP1 (VirE2 interacting protein 1), initially discovered as a host protein involved in Agrobacterium-plant cell DNA transfer, is a transcription factor of the basic leucine-zipper (bZIP) domain family that regulates several defence-related genes in Arabidopsis. We have developed assays to assess VIP1 binding to its DNA target in vitro and transcriptional activation efficiency in planta. Several point mutations in the VIP1 response element VRE affected the VIP1 activity, and a strong correlation between VIP1-VRE binding and transcriptional activation levels was observed. Promoter activation by VIP1 was influenced by bacterial and plant proteins known to interact with VIP1 during Agrobacterium infection, i.e., VirE2, VirF and VIP2. VirF, an F-box protein, strongly decreased VIP1 transcriptional activation ability, but not its binding to VRE in vitro, most likely by triggering proteasomal degradation of VIP1. Finally, activation of a VRE-containing promoter was observed in dividing cells, probably resulting from activation of endogenous VIP1. PMID:23942522
Production of stable transgenic plants is one factor that limits rapid evaluation of tissue specific transgene expression. To hasten the assessment of transgenes in planta, we evaluated the use of chimeric soybean seedlings expressing transgenic products in roots. Tap roots from four-day old seedlings (cultivars 'Jack' and KS4704) were excised and hairy roots were induced from hypocotyls via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Inoculated hypocotyls were screened on a MS-based medium containing either 200 mg/L kanamycin or 20 mg/L hygromycin. Beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity assay indicated that highest GUS expression was observed in hypocotyls exposed to a 4-d pre-inoculation time, a neutral pH (7.0) for the co-cultivation medium. A 170-bp of the Fib-1 gene and 292-bp of the Y25C1A.5 gene fragments, both related to nematode reproduction and fitness, were cloned independently into pANDA35HK vector using a Gateway cloning strategy. The resulting RNAi constructs of the genes fragments were transformed into soybean using the chimeric hairy root system and evaluated for its effect on soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) fecundity. Confirmation of transformation was attained by polymerase chain reaction and Southern-blot analysis, and some potential for suppression of H. glycines reproduction was detected for the two constructs. This method takes on average four weeks to produce chimeric plants ready for transgene analysis. PMID:20012965
The phylogenetic position of the glaucophyte algae within the eukaryotic supergroup Plantae remains to be unambiguously established. Here, we assembled a multigene data set of conserved nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted proteins of cyanobacterial origin (i.e., through primary endosymbiotic gene transfer) from glaucophyte, red, and green (including land plants) algae to infer the branching order within this supergroup. We find strong support for the early divergence of glaucophytes within the Plantae, corroborating 2 important putatively ancestral characters shared by glaucophyte plastids and the cyanobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to this organelle: the presence of a peptidoglycan deposition between the 2 organelle membranes and carboxysomes. Both these traits were apparently lost in the common ancestor of red and green algae after the divergence of glaucophytes. PMID:17827169
Tatineni, S., Sagaram, U. S., Gowda, S., Robertson, C. J., Dawson, W. O., Iwanami, T., and Wang, N. 2008. In planta distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' as revealed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. Phytopathology 98:592-599. Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide, and is caused by a phloem-limited fastidious prokaryotic ?- proteobacterium
Satyanarayana Tatineni; Uma Shankar Sagaram; Siddarame Gowda; Cecile J. Robertson; William O. Dawson; Toru Iwanami; Nian Wang
The phylogenetic position of the glaucophyte algae within the eukaryotic supergroup Plantae remains to be unambiguously established. Here, we assembled a multigene data set of conserved nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted proteins of cyanobacterial origin (i.e., through primary endosymbiotic gene transfer) from glaucophyte, red, and green (including land plants) algae to infer the branching order within this supergroup. We find strong support for
Single-cell Raman microspectroscopy has the potential to report on the whole-cell chemical composition of bacteria, reflecting\\u000a metabolic status as well as growth history. This potential has been demonstrated through the discriminant functional analysis\\u000a of Raman spectral profiles (RSP) obtained from the soil and plant-associated bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25, grown in vitro using defined media, and in planta using 3-month-old sugar
Wei E. Huang; Mark J. Bailey; Ian P. Thompson; Andrew S. Whiteley; Andrew J. Spiers
RESUMO - Foram conduzidos dois experimentos de campo com o feijão -mungo-verde (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), variedade Ouro Verde: um no verão-outono e outro na primavera-verão, em Coimbra -MG, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes herbicidas sobre o control e de plantas daninhas e sobre a cultura. Foi usado o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com
JOSÉ ROBERTO ANTONIOL FONTES; GERALDO ANTÔNIO DE ANDRADE ARAÚJO; ANTÔNIO ALBERTO DA SILVA; ANTÔNIO AMÉRICO CARDOSO
The 2b protein encoded by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been shown as a virus counter defense factor that interferes with the RNAi pathway. The 2b gene from CMV-banana,\\u000a New Delhi isolate (CMV-NDLS) was amplified from CMV infected cucumber plants to generate the sense and antisense binary vector\\u000a constructs for 2b expression and repression in planta. Constitutive expression of 2b
Shelly Praveen; Satendra K. Mangrauthia; Priyanka Singh; Anil K. Mishra
An efficient and reproducible in planta transformation method was developed for brinjal using seed as an explant. The brinjal seeds were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 harbouring pCAMBIA 1301-bar plasmid, and the transformants were selected against BASTA®. Several parameters influencing the in planta seed transformation such as pre-culture duration, acetosyringone concentration, surfactants, duration of sonication, vacuum pressure and vacuum duration have been evaluated. The putatively transformed (T 0) brinjal plants were screened by GUS histochemical analysis. Among the different combinations and concentrations tested, when the 18-h pre-cultured brinjal seeds were sonicated for 20 min and vacuum infiltered for 3 min at 500 mm of Hg in Agrobacterium suspension containing 100 ?M acetosyringone, 0.2 % Silwett L-77 favoured the Agrobacterium infection and showed maximum transformation efficiency. Among the five brinjal varieties evaluated, Arka Samhitha showed maximum transformation efficiency at 45.66 %. The transgene was successfully transmitted to progeny plants (T 1) which was evidenced by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridisation. The in planta protocol developed in the present study would be beneficial to transfer the economically and nutritionally important genes into different varieties of brinjal, and the transgenic brinjal plants can be produced in less time (approximately 27 days). PMID:23852797
Custom-designed nucleases are a promising technology for genome editing through the catalysis of double-strand DNA breaks within target loci and subsequent repair by the host cell, which can result in targeted mutagenesis or gene replacement. Implementing this new technology requires a rapid means to determine the cleavage efficiency of these custom-designed proteins in planta. Here we present such an assay that is based on cleavage-dependent luciferase gene correction as part of a transient dual-luciferase(®) reporter (Promega) expression system. This assay consists of co-infiltrating Nicotiana benthamiana leaves with two Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains: one contains the target sequence embedded within a luciferase reporter gene and the second strain contains the custom-designed nuclease gene(s). We compared repair following site-specific nuclease digestion through non-homologous DNA end-joining, as opposed to single strand DNA annealing, as a means to restore an out-of-frame luciferase gene cleavage-reporter construct. We show, using luminometer measurements and bioluminescence imaging, that the assay for non-homologous end-joining is sensitive, quantitative, reproducible and rapid in estimating custom-designed nucleases' cleavage efficiency. We detected cleavage by two out of three transcription activator-like effector nucleases that we custom-designed for targets in the Arabidopsis CRUCIFERIN3 gene, and we compared with the well-established 'QQR' zinc-finger nuclease. The assay we report requires only standard equipment and basic plant molecular biology techniques, and it can be carried out within a few days. Different types of custom-designed nucleases can be preliminarily tested in our assay system before their downstream application in plant genome editing. PMID:23625357
Johnson, Ross A; Gurevich, Vyacheslav; Levy, Avraham A
The nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Nostoc, is a commonly occurring cyanobacterium often found in symbiotic associations. We investigated the potential of cycad cyanobacterial endosymbionts to synthesize microcystin/nodularin. Endosymbiont DNA was screened for the aminotransferase domain of the toxin biosynthesis gene clusters. Five endosymbionts carrying the gene were screened for bioactivity. Extracts of two isolates inhibited protein phosphatase 2A and were further analyzed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS. Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' both contained nodularin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) HESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of nodularin at 9.55±2.4?ng??g?1 chlorophyll a in Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and 12.5±8.4?ng??g?1 Chl a in Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' extracts. Further scans indicated the presence of the rare isoform [L-Har2] nodularin, which contains ?-homoarginine instead of ?-arginine. Nodularin was also present at 1.34±0.74?ng?ml?1 (approximately 3?pmol per g plant ww) in the methanol root extracts of M. riedlei MZ65, while the presence of [L-Har2] nodularin in the roots of M. serpentina MZ73 was suggested by HPLC HESI-MS/MS analysis. The ndaA-B and ndaF genomic regions were sequenced to confirm the presence of the hybrid polyketide/non-ribosomal gene cluster. A seven amino-acid insertion into the NdaA-C1 domain of N. spumigena NSOR10 protein was observed in all endosymbiont-derived sequences, suggesting the transfer of the nda cluster from N. spumigena to terrestrial Nostoc species. This study demonstrates the synthesis of nodularin and [L-Har2] nodularin in a non-Nodularia species and the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin by a symbiont in planta.
Gehringer, Michelle M; Adler, Lewis; Roberts, Alexandra A; Moffitt, Michelle C; Mihali, Troco K; Mills, Toby J T; Fieker, Claus; Neilan, Brett A
This paper presents the first conceptual study into creating a Plantae-inspired vascular network within a fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminate, which provides an ongoing self-healing functionality without incurring a mass penalty. Through the application of a ‘lost-wax’ technique, orthogonal hollow vascules, inspired by the ‘ray cell’ structures found in ring porous hardwoods, were successfully introduced within a carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite laminate. The influence on fibre architecture and mechanical behaviour of single vascules (located on the laminate centreline) when aligned parallel and transverse to the local host ply was characterized experimentally using a compression-after-impact test methodology. Ultrasonic C-scanning and high-resolution micro-CT X-ray was undertaken to identify the influence of and interaction between the internal vasculature and impact damage. The results clearly show that damage morphology is influenced by vascule orientation and that a 10 J low-velocity impact damage event is sufficient to breach the vasculature; a prerequisite for any subsequent self-healing function. The residual compressive strength after a 10 J impact was found to be dependent upon vascule orientation. In general, residual compressive strength decreased to 70 per cent of undamaged strength when vasculature was aligned parallel to the local host ply and a value of 63 per cent when aligned transverse. This bioinspired engineering study has illustrated the potential that a vasculature concept has to offer in terms of providing a self-healing function with minimum mass penalty, without initiating premature failure within a composite structure.
A recent hypothesis on the origin of eukaryotic phototrophs proposes that red algae, green plants (land plants plus green algae), and glaucophytes constitute the primary photosynthetic eukaryotes, whose plastids may have originated directly from a cyanobacterium-like prokaryote via primary endosymbiosis, whereas the plastids of other lineages of eukaryotic phototrophs appear to be the result of secondary endosymbiotic events involving a phototrophic eukaryote and a host cell. However, the phylogenetic relationships among the three lineages of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes remained unresolved because previous nuclear multigene phylogenies used incomplete red algal gene sequences derived mainly from Porphyra (Rhodophyceae, one of the two lineages of the Rhodophyta), and lacked sequences from the Cyanidiophyceae (the other red algal lineage). Recently, the complete nuclear genome sequences from the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D of the Cyanidiophyceae were determined. Using this genomic information, nuclear multigene phylogenetic analyses of various lineages of mitochondrion-containing eukaryotes were conducted. Since bacterial and amitochondrial eukaryotic genes present serious problems to eukaryotic phylogenies, basal eukaryotes were deduced based on the paralogous comparison of the concatenated alpha- and beta-tubulin. The comparison demonstrated that cellular slime molds (Amoebozoa) represent the most basal position within the mitochondrion-containing organisms. With the cellular slime molds as the outgroup, phylogenetic analyses based on a 1,525-amino acid sequence of four concatenated nuclear genes [actin, elongation factor-1alpha( EF-1alpha), alpha-tubulin, and beta-tubulin] resolved the presence of two large, robust monophyletic groups and the basal eukaryotic lineages (Amoebozoa). One of the two groups corresponded to the Opisthokonta (Metazoa and Fungi), whereas the other included various lineages containing primary and secondary plastids (red algae, green plants, glaucophytes, euglenoids, heterokonts, and apicomplexans), Ciliophora, Kinetoplastida, dinoflagellates, and Heterolobosea, for which the red algae represented the most basal lineage. Therefore, the plastid primary endosymbiosis likely occurred once in the common ancestor of the latter group, and the primary plastids were subsequently lost in the ancestor(s) of organisms within the group that now lacks primary plastids. A new concept of Plantae was proposed for phototrophic and nonphototrophic organisms belonging to this group on the basis of their common history of plastid primary endosymbiosis. This new scenario of plastid evolution is discussed here, and is compared with recent genome information and findings on the secondary endosymbiosis of the Euglena plastid. PMID:16032387
ABSTRACT Plant xylem fluid is considered a nutrient-poor environment, but the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to 108 to 109 CFU/g tomato stem. To better understand how R. solanacearum succeeds in this habitat, we analyzed the transcriptomes of two phylogenetically distinct R. solanacearum strains that both wilt tomato, strains UW551 (phylotype II) and GMI1000 (phylotype I). We profiled bacterial gene expression at ~6 × 108 CFU/ml in culture or in plant xylem during early tomato bacterial wilt pathogenesis. Despite phylogenetic differences, these two strains expressed their 3,477 common orthologous genes in generally similar patterns, with about 12% of their transcriptomes significantly altered in planta versus in rich medium. Several primary metabolic pathways were highly expressed during pathogenesis. These pathways included sucrose uptake and catabolism, and components of these pathways were encoded by genes in the scrABY cluster. A UW551 scrA mutant was significantly reduced in virulence on resistant and susceptible tomato as well as on potato and the epidemiologically important weed host Solanum dulcamara. Functional scrA contributed to pathogen competitive fitness during colonization of tomato xylem, which contained ~300 µM sucrose. scrA expression was induced by sucrose, but to a much greater degree by growth in planta. Unexpectedly, 45% of the genes directly regulated by HrpB, the transcriptional activator of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), were upregulated in planta at high cell densities. This result modifies a regulatory model based on bacterial behavior in culture, where this key virulence factor is repressed at high cell densities. The active transcription of these genes in wilting plants suggests that T3SS has a biological role throughout the disease cycle.
Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Babujee, Lavanya; Meng, Fanhong; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn
The plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) is distantly related to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX). Both are members of the diiron carboxylate quinol oxidase (DOX) class of proteins. PTOX and AOX contain 20 highly conserved amino acids, six of which are Fe-binding ligands. We have previously used in vitro and in planta activity assays to examine the functional importance of the Fe-binding sites. In this report, we conduct alanine-scanning mutagenesis on the 14 other conserved sites using our in vitro and in planta assay procedures. We found that the 14 sites fall into three classes: (i) Ala-139, Pro-142, Glu-171, Asn-174, Leu-179, Pro-216, Ala-230, Asp-287, and Arg-293 are dispensable for activity; (ii) Tyr-234 and Asp-295 are essential for activity; and (iii) Leu-135, His-151, and Tyr-212 are important but not essential for activity. Our data are consistent with the proposed role of some of these residues in active site conformation, substrate binding, and/or catalysis. Titration experiments showed that down-regulation of PTOX to approximately 3% of wild-type levels did not compromise plant growth, at least under ambient growth conditions. This suggests that PTOX is normally in excess, especially early in thylakoid membrane biogenesis. PMID:19542226
The genus Burkholderia is a heterogeneous group with extraordinary nutritional versatility and which occupies a diversity of niches. In recent decades, members of Burkholderia have been shown to be active participants in plant-microbe interactions, imparting beneficial effects as plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) or as pathogens. The study of quorum sensing and cell-density-dependent gene regulation, which play an important role in host colonization and pathogenesis, is extremely important in such a versatile organism. We report the identification and characterization by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of N-acyl homoserine lactone (HSL) quorum sensing signal molecules by PGP Burkholderia. The Burkholderia spp. strains CBMB40, CBPB-HOD and CBPB-HIM investigated in this study were isolated from rice and possessed one or more PGP characteristics. Culture extracts of these strains contained detectable levels of hexanoyl (C(6)-), heptanoyl (C(7)-) and octanoyl (C(8)-) HSLs. Burkholderia sp. strain CBMB40 produced an additional molecule that migrated along decanoyl (C(10)-) HSL. Inoculation of HSL-producing Burkholderia strains through seed bacterization to canola stimulated root elongation. Signal molecules produced by Burkholderia strains could also be detected in planta, as determined by plate assays and TLC analysis of plant extracts. This study advances the hypothesis that signaling molecules by PGPB in planta might play a substantial role in increasing the pathogen resistance of plants. PMID:17350232
Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Sa, Tongmin
La banca y las finanzas son inherentemente procíclicas, una condición exacerbada por la combinación de Basilea II y la contabilidad a valor de mercado (mark-to-market accounting), por lo que se requiere crear políticas macroprudenciales anticíclicas. Esta fragilidad se vio intensificada por la reducción en la liquidez bancaria (mayor dependencia en fondos de segundo piso) y el cambio organizacional de sociedades
Es que para Barthes, el viaje debe ser comprendido como una forma ordenadora del trabajo y de la lógica burguesa. En efecto, la creación de la guía Azul tiene sus orígenes en ese deseo profundo que sentía la burguesía al comprar el esfuerzo y conservar a la vez la imagen de ese esfuerzo. En este sentido, la humanidad da lugar
1. Nel descrivere gli anni immediatamente successivi alla celebre «rivoluzione marginalista» Joseph Schumpeter ricorre alla propria categoria storica di « situazione classica »; « classica nel nostro senso » - egli precisa - « le cui opere maggiori con il lungo tratto di terreno comune che esse rivelano e con il senso di tranquillità che ispirano, devono aver suscitato una
En la segunda mitad del siglo XIX se intensifican ciertos tópicos sobre la imagen pintoresca de España difundida en Europa años atrás, culminando en una moda que ha sido calificada como «la españolada». A esta imagen contribuyeron también pintores españoles establecidos en Francia, el éxito de la pintura costumbrista hispana en los salones aristocráticos franceses y la oficialización de esta
RESUMEN El presente trabajo se centra en la venta relacional como un nuevo enfoque de ventas que emerge fundamentalmente por los grandes y profundos cambios que atañen al mundo de los negocios. En la venta personal se está prestando una mayor atención a los métodos basados en las relaciones en contraste con los paradigmas tradicionales. En este artículo se pretende
Este artículo plantea que una adecuada implementación del diálogo social requiere de actores competentes para negociar y construir consensos. Un marco legal adecuado y la buena disposición de los actores son condiciones necesarias pero no suficientes para un diálogo social efectivo. Es indispensable el desarrollo de habilidades y competencias, como la negociación, que lo hagan posible. Con base en diversas
En este artículo se analiza la posición de Franco durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, que evoluciona, al hilo del desarrollo de la contienda, de la neutralidad a la no beligerancia para volver finalmente a la neutralidad, en relación con la entrada de refugiados extranjeros en España. El avance de las tropas nazis provocó una huida masiva de europeos que encontraron
RESUMO: As plantas têm sido bastante utilizadas para a cura de doenças e por isso, a cada dia, mais fitoterápicos têm sido colocados à disposição no mercado. Apesar do aumento no consumo de diferentes produtos a base de plantas medicinais, fatores como a precariedade na fiscalização da produção e da venda têm comprometido a qualidade dos mesmos. O presente trabalho
V. T. Nascimento; E. U. Lacerda; J. G. Melo; E. L. C. Amorim
Studies of photosynthetic eukaryotes have revealed that the evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria involved the recruitment of non-cyanobacterial proteins. Our phylogenetic survey of >100 Arabidopsis nuclear-encoded plastid enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis identified only 21 unambiguous cyanobacterial-derived proteins. Some of the several non-cyanobacterial plastid enzymes have a shared phylogenetic origin in the three Plantae lineages. We hypothesize that during the evolution of plastids some enzymes encoded in the host nuclear genome were mistargeted into the plastid. Then, the activity of those foreign enzymes was sustained by both the plastid metabolites and interactions with the native cyanobacterial enzymes. Some of the novel enzymatic activities were favored by selective compartmentation of additional complementary enzymes. The mosaic phylogenetic composition of the plastid amino acid biosynthetic pathways and the reduced number of plastid-encoded proteins of non-cyanobacterial origin suggest that enzyme recruitment underlies the recompartmentation of metabolic routes during the evolution of plastids.
In order to evaluate the efficiency of whey protein concentration in a mobile filtration plant composed of an ultra-filtration module and a nano-filtration module, analyses of ultra (P1) and nano (P2) filtration permeates for total solids, protein, ash and lactose of the original whey, and protein concentrate were conducted. Ash content was determined by the AOAC method. Total solids was
As a part of the Agency for International Development-funded cooperative project between Los Alamos and Costa Rica, the burning characteristics of Costa Rican peat were to be tested in an application. The cement plant owned by Industria National de Cemento in Cartago has a capability to handle solid fuel and was chosen for the burn demonstration. The Jungle No. 1 Peat Deposit near El Cairo was chosen as the site of the peat excavation. This peat production methodology study covers project site selection, installation of an access road and clearing of the jungle vegetation, removal of an upper layer of organic peat, excavation of fuel-grade peat, transport of the peat to the drying site, and drying and stockpiling of the finished product. As of this date the peat removal for the demonstration project has been started, and a description of the operation is included as an appendix to this paper. 10 figs.
Allen, A.B.; Malavassi, L.; Ramirez, O.; Thayer, G. (Allen (Andrew), Plymouth, NC (USA); RECOPE, San Jose (Costa Rica); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))
The objective of this study was to determine the presence of Salmonella, pathogenic E. coli and to detect potentials sources of contamination in a small meat processing plant of hamburg- ers with an average of production the 120 kg\\/day of product. Samples were taken from 52 ingredients (n = 52): raw meat in frozen blocks (BLOCAR), ground reprocessed meat (REPRO-
Claudia A. Narváez; Katynna C. Parra; Nelson Huerta-Leiden; Argenis Rodas-González; Lilia Arenas de Moreno
Sodium cyanide is traditionally used in chemical me tallurgy to obtain preciousus metals (gold and silver). Cyanide produces damages because of it s toxicity and breath cell inhibition. Here we try a biotechnological process to degrade cyanide with P. fluorescens obtained by cyanide heap leaching process in gold metallurgy in Segovia, Colombia. In Colombia cyanide heap leaching process in gold
OSCAR JAIME RESTREPO; CARLOS ARTURO MONTOYA; NURY ALEXANDRA MUÑOZ
RESUMEN La enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólica, en inglés non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), es definida como una acumulación excesiva de grasa en los hepatocitos. Presenta una prevalencia mundial de alrededor del 15 al 25%. Los factores de riesgo asociados frecuentemente a NAFLD son obesidad, diabetes tipo 2 y dislipemia. Por un lado se ha propuesto que una
La cooperación inter-empresas está experimentando una fuerte expansión a nivel internacional. El presente trabajo pretende profundizar en este fenómeno, considerando las relaciones de cooperación en I+D e innovación entre empresas argentinas y españolas. A partir de la revisión de la bibliografía, se implementó una encuesta a una muestra de 540 empresas susceptibles de haber participado en proyectos de cooperación, obteniendo
Mónica Edwards Schachter; Guillermo Anlló; Elena Castro-Martínez; Ignacio Fernández-de-Lucio
Carotenoids are converted by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases that catalyze oxidative cleavage reactions leading to apocarotenoids. However, apocarotenoids can also be further truncated by some members of this enzyme family. The plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) subfamily is known to degrade both carotenoids and apocarotenoids in vitro, leading to different volatile compounds. In this study, we investigated the impact of the rice CCD1 (OsCCD1) on the pigmentation of Golden Rice 2 (GR2), a genetically modified rice variety accumulating carotenoids in the endosperm. For this purpose, the corresponding cDNA was introduced into the rice genome under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter in sense and anti-sense orientations. Despite high expression levels of OsCCD1 in sense plants, pigment analysis revealed carotenoid levels and patterns comparable to those of GR2, pleading against carotenoids as substrates in rice endosperm. In support, similar carotenoid contents were determined in anti-sense plants. To check whether OsCCD1 overexpressed in GR2 endosperm is active, in vitro assays were performed with apocarotenoid substrates. HPLC analysis confirmed the cleavage activity of introduced OsCCD1. Our data indicate that apocarotenoids rather than carotenoids are the substrates of OsCCD1 in planta. PMID:20549230
The amenability and reproducibility of a tissue culture-independent Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation strategy was analyzed in field bean and the stability of the transgenes was examined. The protocol\\u000a involves in planta inoculation of embryo axes of germinating seeds and allowing them to grow into seedlings ex vitro. Transformants were raised using a chimeric Bt gene, cry1AcF, and putative transformants were analyzed
E. Keshamma; Rohini Sreevathsa; A. Manoj Kumar; Kalpana N. Reddy; M. Manjulatha; N. B. Shanmugam; A. R. V. Kumar; M. Udayakumar
A total of 243 transgenic T1-plant lines were produced by in planta transformation of Arabidopsis by a mixture of three distinct Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains carrying different plasmid constructs. PCR analysis indicated that about 30% of the transgenic plants were transformed with two different T-DNAs and additional 9.5% of the plants carried all genes from three different T-DNAs. Southern analysis revealed
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation has been one of the methods used to generate transgenic plants in bell pepper. An alternate transformation method that avoids\\/minimizes tissue culture would be beneficial for the improvement of bell pepper due to its recalcitrant nature. In this report, transgenic bell pepper plants have been developed by a tissue-culture-independent A. tumefaciens-mediated in planta transformation procedure. In the
A. Manoj Kumar; Kalpana N. Reddy; Rohini Sreevathsa; Girija Ganeshan; M. Udayakumar
Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated in planta transformation protocol was developed for castor, Ricinus communis. Two-day-old seedlings were infected with Agrobacterium strain EHA105\\/pBinBt8 harboring cry1AcF and established in the greenhouse. Screening the T1 generation seedlings on 300 mg L?1 kanamycin identified the putative transformants. Molecular and expression analysis confirmed the transgenic nature and identified\\u000a high-expressing plants. Western blot analysis confirmed the co-integration
The fungus Neotyphodium lolii is an endophytic symbiont. It grows in the intercellular spaces of the perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne, producing secondary metabolites which enhance the fitness of the association over that of uninfected L. perenne. We report that the average number of hyphal strands in a given section of a leaf remains constant during the life of a leaf, indicating synchrony of leaf and hyphal extension, including cessation of hyphal extension when leaf extension ceases. We used a constitutively expressed reporter gene as an indicator of the mycelium's metabolic activity during and after hyphal extension. Reporter gene activity decreased when the mycelium stopped extending in liquid culture but not in planta. This indicates that in planta endophyte hyphae remain metabolically highly active when extension has ceased and throughout the life of the leaf they are colonizing. The behavior of the fungus in planta indicates the existence of signaling pathways which (i) synchronize the extension of leaf and hypha by regulating hyphal extension, (ii) suppress hyphal branching, and (iii) stop apical extension of fungal hyphae, without reducing the mycelium's metabolic activity. These signals may be crucial for the symbiosis, by allowing the endophyte to switch the focus of its metabolic activity from extension to the production of secondary metabolites.
Tan, Yong Y.; Spiering, Martin J.; Scott, Vicki; Lane, Geoffrey A.; Christensen, Michael J.; Schmid, Jan
The fungus Neotyphodium lolii is an endophytic symbiont. It grows in the intercellular spaces of the perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne, producing secondary metabolites which enhance the fitness of the association over that of uninfected L. perenne. We report that the average number of hyphal strands in a given section of a leaf remains constant during the life of a leaf, indicating synchrony of leaf and hyphal extension, including cessation of hyphal extension when leaf extension ceases. We used a constitutively expressed reporter gene as an indicator of the mycelium's metabolic activity during and after hyphal extension. Reporter gene activity decreased when the mycelium stopped extending in liquid culture but not in planta. This indicates that in planta endophyte hyphae remain metabolically highly active when extension has ceased and throughout the life of the leaf they are colonizing. The behavior of the fungus in planta indicates the existence of signaling pathways which (i) synchronize the extension of leaf and hypha by regulating hyphal extension, (ii) suppress hyphal branching, and (iii) stop apical extension of fungal hyphae, without reducing the mycelium's metabolic activity. These signals may be crucial for the symbiosis, by allowing the endophyte to switch the focus of its metabolic activity from extension to the production of secondary metabolites. PMID:11722882
Tan, Y Y; Spiering, M J; Scott, V; Lane, G A; Christensen, M J; Schmid, J
Hemileia vastatrix is a biotrophic fungus, causing coffee leaf rust in all coffee growing countries, leading to serious social and economic problems. Gene expression studies may have a key role unravelling the transcriptomics of this pathogen during interaction with the plant host. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is currently the golden standard for gene expression analysis, although an accurate normalisation is essential for adequate conclusions. Reference genes are often used for this purpose, but the stability of their expression levels requires validation under experimental conditions. Moreover, pathogenic fungi undergo important biomass variations along their infection process in planta, which raises the need for an adequate method to further normalise the proportion of fungal cDNA in the total plant and fungus cDNA pool. In this work, the expression profiles of seven reference genes [glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), elongation factor (EF-1), Beta tubulin (?-tubulin), cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (Cyt III), cytochrome b (Cyt b), Hv00099, and 40S ribosomal protein (40S_Rib)] were analysed across 28 samples, obtained in vitro (germinated uredospores and appressoria) and in planta (post-penetration fungal growth phases). Gene stability was assessed using the statistical algorithms incorporated in geNorm and NormFinder tools. Cyt b, 40S_Rib, and Hv00099 were the most stable genes for the in vitro dataset, while 40S_Rib, GADPH, and Cyt III were the most stable in planta. For the combined datasets (in vitro and in planta), 40S_Rib, GADPH, and Hv00099 were selected as the most stable. Subsequent expression analysis for a gene encoding an alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein showed that the reference genes selected for the combined dataset do not differ significantly from those selected specifically for the in vitro and in planta datasets. Our study provides tools for correct validation of reference genes in obligate biotrophic plant pathogens, as well as the basis for RT-qPCR studies in H. vastatrix. PMID:21872186
Vieira, Ana; Talhinhas, Pedro; Loureiro, Andreia; Duplessis, Sébastien; Fernandez, Diana; Silva, Maria do Céu; Paulo, Octávio S; Azinheira, Helena Gil
The genetic information of potato leafroll virus (PLRV), a typical member of the subgroup 2 luteoviruses, is contained in a single-stranded (+) sense RNA of approximately 5.9 kb. A single subgenomic RNA (sgRNA1) of approximately 2.3 kb has been characterized as the mRNA for the 3' clustered viral open reading frames ORF3, ORF3/5 and ORF4. Here we demonstrate by Northern blot analyses of polysomal RNAs from PLRV-infected Solanum tuberosum and Physalis floridana plants that, as with luteoviruses belonging to subgroup 1, in planta synthesis of a second 0.8 kb subgenomic RNA (sgRNA2) increases the complexity of subgroup 2 luteoviral genomes significantly. PLRV-specific hybridization probes as well as primer extension experiments map sgRNA2 to the 3'-end of the PLRV RNA genome (positions 5190-5987). Similarly, for the closely related cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) a sgRNA2 of similar size and position (positions 4888-5669) was identified. PLRV sgRNA2 may code for two viral proteins of 7.1 (ORF6) and 14 kDa (ORF7) respectively, while the CABYV proteins are 8.7 (ORF6) and 8.3 kDa (ORF7) in size, with PLRV ORF7 displaying nucleic acid binding activity. In vivo experiments by transient expression of chimeric GUS fusions in potato protoplasts demonstrated that sgRNA2 functions as a bicistronic mRNA with high expression of ORF6 and low translational efficiency for synthesis of ORF7.
The phytohormone cytokinin plays a key role in regulating plant growth and development, and is involved in numerous physiological responses to environmental changes. The type-B response regulators, which regulate the transcription of cytokinin response genes, are a part of the cytokinin signaling system. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 11 type-B response regulators (type-B ARRs), and some of them were shown to bind in vitro to the core cytokinin response motif (CRM) 5'-(A/G)GAT(T/C)-3' or, in the case of ARR1, to an extended motif (ECRM), 5'-AAGAT(T/C)TT-3'. Here we obtained in planta proof for the functionality of the latter motif. Promoter deletion analysis of the primary cytokinin response gene ARR6 showed that a combination of two extended motifs within the promoter is required to mediate the full transcriptional activation by ARR1 and other type-B ARRs. CRMs were found to be over-represented in the vicinity of ECRMs in the promoters of cytokinin-regulated genes, suggesting their functional relevance. Moreover, an evolutionarily conserved 27 bp long T-rich region between -220 and -193 bp was identified and shown to be required for the full activation by type-B ARRs and the response to cytokinin. This novel enhancer is not bound by the DNA-binding domain of ARR1, indicating that additional proteins might be involved in mediating the transcriptional cytokinin response. Furthermore, genome-wide expression profiling identified genes, among them ARR16, whose induction by cytokinin depends on both ARR1 and other specific type-B ARRs. This together with the ECRM/CRM sequence clustering indicates cooperative action of different type-B ARRs for the activation of particular target genes. PMID:23620480
\\u000a Sunto Viene descritto un andamento anomalo del gradiente di Potenziale al Col d’Olen sul Monte Rosa durante una giornata che, dalle\\u000a condizioni atmosferiche, si poteva giudicare del tutto normale.\\u000a \\u000a Del fenomeno si dà una spiegazione plausibile dimostrando corne sia possibile la formazione di cariche spaziali solo che a\\u000a una certa distanza dalla stazione si trovino nubi o semplici strati di nebbia
En este artículo se reproducen doce cartas y una tarjeta de visita que Joaquim Xirau remitió a Manuel Bartolomé Cossío entre 1920 y 1931. Se trata de una parte fragmentaria de la correspondencia que mantuvieron estos dos intelectuales de la España liberal, que porfiaron por la introducción de la pedagogía en la universidad durante el primer tercio del siglo XX.
Este documento analizó la importancia de la restricción presupuestaria intertemporal y la relevancia que cobra en medio de una coyuntura de incertidumbre y volatilidad como herramienta de diagnostico de la sostenibilidad internacional de los países; fue elaborado como una reflexión de investigación sobre los patrones de endeudamiento aplicando al caso de nuestro país. Para el análisis de los conceptos sobre
Es indudable que la preocupación por el medio ambiente es una nueva seña de identidad de la sociedad al comienzo del siglo XXI. Pero ésta preocupación no siempre lleva aparejada los conocimientos, las actitudes y, sobre todo, la competencia necesaria para su protección. En este contexto, cobra sentido una educación superior orientada hacia la sostenibilidad que involucre a la comunidad
En Cuba, la preservación del patrimonio intangible, es decir, de la cultura popular y tradicional, las tradiciones orales, musicales, danzarías, etc., tienen una gran importancia en la vida de nuestras comunidades, particularmente en las zonas rurales. Para una mejor comprensión de la problemática los estudios se centran en la labor de la institución cultural y sus influencias en el desarrollo
La cuantificación de los beneficios de cualquier política dirigida a reducir la contaminación puede hacerse de distintas maneras. Una de ellas es a través de métodos indirectos, uno de los cuales es el de la valuación hedónica. La idea básica es que en el precio de los inmuebles se encuentra implícito el precio de sus características. Una de dichas características
RESUMEN La sociedad española se ha transformado en un corto período de tiempo en una sociedad de inmigración, cuando hasta hace pocos años era más bien una sociedad de emigración. Los flujos migratorios internacionales y el hecho de ser nuestro país una sociedad de receptora de los mismos, han modificado sustancialmente el contexto de intervención del trabajador social que, inevitablemente,
Geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the precursor of many monoterpene end products, is synthesized in plastids by a condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) in a reaction catalyzed by homodimeric or heterodimeric GPP synthase (GPPS). In the heterodimeric enzymes, a noncatalytic small subunit (GPPS.SSU) determines the product specificity of the catalytic large subunit, which may be either an active geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) or an inactive GGPPS-like protein. Here, we show that expression of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) GPPS.SSU in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants increased the total GPPS activity and monoterpene emission from leaves and flowers, indicating that the introduced catalytically inactive GPPS.SSU found endogenous large subunit partner(s) and formed an active snapdragon/tobacco GPPS in planta. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and in vitro enzyme analysis of individual and hybrid proteins revealed that two of four GGPPS-like candidates from tobacco EST databases encode bona fide GGPPS that can interact with snapdragon GPPS.SSU and form a functional GPPS enzyme in plastids. The formation of chimeric GPPS in transgenic plants also resulted in leaf chlorosis, increased light sensitivity, and dwarfism due to decreased levels of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and gibberellins. In addition, these transgenic plants had reduced levels of sesquiterpene emission, suggesting that the export of isoprenoid intermediates from the plastids into the cytosol was decreased. These results provide genetic evidence that GPPS.SSU modifies the chain length specificity of phylogenetically distant GGPPS and can modulate IPP flux distribution between GPP and GGPP synthesis in planta.
A grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa Vog. Macbride) é uma espécie florestal nativa de grande interesse madeireiro, encontrando-se, atualmente, bastante dizimada. Em trabalhos anteriores, foi observado que as folhas novas de plantas jovens de grápia apresentaram sintomas visuais indicativos de deficiência de Fe na presença de doses crescentes de P. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar os efeitos da interação da
Usando técnicas de espectroscopía bidimensional en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre, se obtuvo el campo de velocidades de la región nuclear de NGC 1672, galaxia LINER con un anillo circumnuclear de regiones HII. La curva de rotación media para los 2 kpc centrales sugiere la presencia de una gran concentración de masa (?c~ 1011Msolar /kpc3). Este resultado es respaldado por la presencia de ciertos caracteres morfológicos detectados en imágenes obtenidas con el mencionado telescopio. Según recientes simulaciones hidrodinámicas de galaxias barreadas, estos caracteres sugieren la presencia de altas densidades en las regiones nucleares. El análisis espectrofotométrico indicaría, además, la presencia de dos componentes en la emisión nuclear, con una diferencia de velocidades de ~ 200 km/s. La velocidad circular del gas ionizado a 125 pc del centro señalaría la existencia de una masa interior de ~ 7× 108Msolar .
Dermaseptin B1 is a potent cationic antimicrobial peptide found in skin secretions of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. A synthetic derivative of dermaseptin B1, MsrA2 (N-Met-dermaseptin B1), elicited strong antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria in vitro. To assess its potential for plant protection, MsrA2 was expressed at low levels (1-5 microg/g of fresh tissue) in the transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Desiree. Stringent challenges of these transgenic potato plants with a variety of highly virulent fungal phytopathogens--Alternaria, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Verticillium species--and with the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora demonstrated that the plants had an unusually broad-spectrum and powerful resistance to infection. MsrA2 profoundly protected both plants and tubers from diseases such as late blight, dry rot and pink rot and markedly extended the storage life of tubers. Due to these properties in planta, MsrA2 is proposed as an ideal antimicrobial peptide candidate to significantly increase resistance to phytopathogens and improve quality in a variety of crops worldwide with the potential to obviate fungicides and facilitate storage under difficult conditions. PMID:15947906
This work investigates the role of cytosolic Na+ exclusion in roots as a means of salinity tolerance in wheat, and offers in planta methods for the functional assessment of major transporters contributing to this trait. An electrophysiological protocol was developed to quantify the activity of plasma membrane Na+ efflux systems in roots, using the microelectrode ion flux estimation (MIFE) technique. We show that active efflux of Na+ from wheat root epidermal cells is mediated by a SOS1-like homolog, energized by the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. SOS1-like efflux activity was highest in Kharchia 65, a salt-tolerant bread wheat cultivar. Kharchia 65 also had an enhanced ability to sequester large quantities of Na+ into the vacuoles of root cells, as revealed by confocal microscopy using Sodium Green. These findings were consistent with the highest level of expression of both SOS1 and NHX1 transcripts in plant roots in this variety. In the sensitive wheat varieties, a greater proportion of Na+ was located in the root cell cytosol. Overall, our findings suggest a critical role of cytosolic Na+ exclusion for salinity tolerance in wheat and offer convenient protocols to quantify the contribution of the major transporters conferring this trait, to screen plants for salinity tolerance. PMID:21342209
Breeding lettuce (Lactuca sativa) for resistance to the downy mildew pathogen Bremia lactucae is mainly achieved by introgression of dominant downy mildew resistance (Dm) genes. New Bremia races quickly render Dm genes ineffective, possibly by mutation of recognized host-translocated effectors or by suppression of effector-triggered immunity. We have previously identified 34 potential RXLR(-like) effector proteins of B. lactucae that were here tested for specific recognition within a collection of 129 B. lactucae-resistant Lactuca lines. Two effectors triggered a hypersensitive response: BLG01 in 52 lines, predominantly L. saligna, and BLG03 in two L. sativa lines containing Dm2 resistance. The N-terminal sequences of BLG01 and BLG03, containing the signal peptide and GKLR variant of the RXLR translocation motif, are not required for in planta recognition but function in effector delivery. The locus responsible for BLG01 recognition maps to the bottom of lettuce chromosome 9, whereas recognition of BLG03 maps in the RGC2 cluster on chromosome 2. Lactuca lines that recognize the BLG effectors are not resistant to Bremia isolate Bl:24 that expresses both BLG genes, suggesting that Bl:24 can suppress the triggered immune responses. In contrast, lettuce segregants displaying Dm2-mediated resistance to Bremia isolate Bl:5 are responsive to BLG03, suggesting that BLG03 is a candidate Avr2 protein. PMID:23883357
Stassen, Joost H M; Boer, Erik den; Vergeer, Pim W J; Andel, Annemiek; Ellendorff, Ursula; Pelgrom, Koen; Pel, Mathieu; Schut, Johan; Zonneveld, Olaf; Jeuken, Marieke J W; Van den Ackerveken, Guido
We demonstrate the use of laser photoacoustic detection (LPAD) as a highly sensitive method to detect in planta nitric oxide ((*)NO) production from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). LPAD calibration against (*)NO gas demonstrated a linear relationship over 2 orders of magnitude with a detection threshold of <20 pmol h(-1) (1 part per billion volume [ppbv]). The specificity of the photoacoustic signal for (*)NO when adding gas or the (*)NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, on injection into plant leaves, was demonstrated by its abolition with O(3) ((*)NO + O(3) --> NO(2) + O(2)). The utility of the LPAD method was shown by examination of a nonhost hypersensitive response and a disease induced by Pseudomonas syringae (P. s.) pv phaseolicola and P. s. pv tabaci in tobacco. (*)NO was detected within 40 min of challenge with P. s. pv phaseolicola, some 5 h before the initiation of visible tissue collapse. The wildfire tobacco pathogen P. s. pv tabaci initiated (*)NO generation at 2 h postinfection. The use of (*)NO donors, the scavenger CPTIO ([4-carboxyphenyl]-4,5-dihydro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-3-oxide), and the mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NMMA (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine) indicated that (*)NO influenced the kinetics of cell death and resistance to both avirulent and virulent bacteria in tobacco. These observations suggest that (*)NO is integral to the elicitation of cell death associated with these two bacterial pathogens in tobacco. PMID:16009999
Mur, Luis A J; Santosa, I Edi; Laarhoven, Lucas J J; Holton, Nicholas J; Harren, Frans J M; Smith, Aileen R
We demonstrate the use of laser photoacoustic detection (LPAD) as a highly sensitive method to detect in planta nitric oxide (.NO) production from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). LPAD calibration against .NO gas demonstrated a linear relationship over 2 orders of magnitude with a detection threshold of <20 pmol h?1 (1 part per billion volume [ppbv]). The specificity of the photoacoustic signal for .NO when adding gas or the .NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, on injection into plant leaves, was demonstrated by its abolition with O3 (.NO + O3 ? NO2 + O2). The utility of the LPAD method was shown by examination of a nonhost hypersensitive response and a disease induced by Pseudomonas syringae (P. s.) pv phaseolicola and P. s. pv tabaci in tobacco. .NO was detected within 40 min of challenge with P. s. pv phaseolicola, some 5 h before the initiation of visible tissue collapse. The wildfire tobacco pathogen P. s. pv tabaci initiated .NO generation at 2 h postinfection. The use of .NO donors, the scavenger CPTIO ([4-carboxyphenyl]-4,5-dihydro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-3-oxide), and the mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NMMA (NG-monomethyl-l-arginine) indicated that .NO influenced the kinetics of cell death and resistance to both avirulent and virulent bacteria in tobacco. These observations suggest that .NO is integral to the elicitation of cell death associated with these two bacterial pathogens in tobacco.
Mur, Luis A.J.; Santosa, I. Edi; Laarhoven, Lucas J.J.; Holton, Nicholas J.; Harren, Frans J.M.; Smith, Aileen R.
Replication initiation of nanoviruses, plant viruses with a multipartite circular single-stranded DNA genome, is triggered by the master Rep (M-Rep) protein. To enable the study of interactions between M-Rep and viral or host factors involved in replication, we designed oligohistidine-tagged variants of the nanovirus Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV) M-Rep protein that allow affinity purification of enzymatically active M-Rep from plant tissue. The tagged M-Rep protein was able to initiate replication of its cognate and other FBNYV DNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf disks and plants. The replicon encoding the tagged M-Rep protein multiplied and moved systemically in FBNYV-infected Vicia faba plants and was transmitted by the aphid vector of the virus. Using the tagged M-Rep protein, we demonstrated the in planta interaction between wild-type M-Rep and its tagged counterpart. Such a tagged and fully functional replication initiator protein will have bearings on the isolation of protein complexes from plants.
Vega-Arreguin, Julio C.; Timchenko, Tatiana; Gronenborn, Bruno; Ramirez, Bertha Cecilia
The ascomycete Fusarium graminearum is a destructive fungal pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum). To better understand how this pathogen proliferates within the host plant, we tracked pathogen growth inside wheat coleoptiles and then examined pathogen gene expression inside wheat coleoptiles at 16, 40, and 64 h after inoculation (HAI) using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis. We identified 344 genes that were preferentially expressed during invasive growth in planta. Gene expression profiles for 134 putative plant cell wall–degrading enzyme genes suggest that there was limited cell wall degradation at 16 HAI and extensive degradation at 64 HAI. Expression profiles for genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS)–related enzymes suggest that F. graminearum primarily scavenges extracellular ROS before a later burst of extracellular ROS is produced by F. graminearum enzymes. Expression patterns of genes involved in primary metabolic pathways suggest that F. graminearum relies on the glyoxylate cycle at an early stage of plant infection. A secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene cluster was specifically induced at 64 HAI and was required for virulence. Our results indicate that F. graminearum initiates infection of coleoptiles using covert penetration strategies and switches to overt cellular destruction of tissues at an advanced stage of infection.
En el mundo empresarial actual cobra una gran importancia el análisis de la competitividad en las organizaciones, incluso a nivel sectorial y de país. Los impactos que traen consigo la globalización, el desarrollo vertiginoso de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones hacen que las formas de competir hoy en día se redefinan.
|This essay focuses on the need to educate the new "persona educada", a dignified, honorable person with a good measure of social and personal responsibility who also possesses the habits of the mind and heart. To cultivate "una persona educada" requires a newly formed vision of education and pedagogy. Examples of three entrenched agreements that…
Las diferentes lenguas en el mundo han influido notablemente en los pueblos que las hablan, no sólo en su forma de pensar la realidad sino además en su manera de vincularse con otros pueblos. El turismo hoy día, se he configurado como una industria masiva donde el uso de un lenguaje único que permita la comunicación entre personas con diferente
|After a brief introduction to the topic the paper first gives an overview of Kilivila landscape terms and then presents the inventory of names for villages, wells, island points, reef-channels and gardens on Kaile'una Island, one of the Trobriand Islands in the Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea. The data on the meaning of the place names…
Aprende a aprendre ha estat un dels lemes més freqüents quan es parlava del nou sistema educatiu. Ara ha de deixar de ser només un lema per convertir-se en una realitat quotidiana a les escoles i instituts. L'accés al coneixement i a la informació ha canviat: les fonts documentals a les que es pot accedir superen les barreres geogràfiques de
Ma. Teresa Guiu i Viaplana; Santiago Llorens Calvet
Los bosques cubanos han sido objeto de un explotación indiscriminada durante muchos años, lo que ha provocado que se estén realizando grandes esfuerzos por el restablecimiento de los mismos y que se tienda a posiciones conservacionistas que provocan el envejecimiento de las masas. Como consecuencia de esta situación, tales bosques presentan una composición por edades desequilibrada. Así, en este trabajo
El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en realizar un cálculo de las necesidades de gasto relativas de las Comunidades Autónomas. El método propuesto en el trabajo se basa en la descomposición del índice de necesidades de gasto en una suma de los índices de necesidades de las distintas funciones de gasto, ponderados según su peso en un “presupuesto de gasto
El uso repetido del mismo herbicida, puede provocar poblaciones de malezas que consisten de biotipos susceptibles (S) que son controlados y biotipos resistentes (R), que escapan al control para producir y retornar semilla con la caracterÃÂstica de resistencia, al banco de semillas del suelo. Esta lecciÃÂ³n se enfocarÃÂ¡ en la dinÃÂ¡mica poblacional de una poblaciÃÂ³n de malezas mezclada con biotipos S y R. Se compararÃÂ¡ y contrastarÃÂ¡ la tasa a la que aparecen malezas resistentes en una poblaciÃÂ³n bajo diversas presiones de selecciÃÂ³n. ****** Esta lecciÃÂ³n se enfocarÃÂ¡ en la dinÃÂ¡mica poblacional de una poblaciÃÂ³n mezclada (biotipos susceptibles y resistentes a un herbicida), y comparar y contrastar la tasa a la cual aparece resistencia al herbicida, en una poblaciÃÂ³n de malezas mezclada, bajo diversas presiones de selecciÃÂ³n.
En el presente documento se analizan algunas variables de la configuración estructural de la empresa gallega y su relación con la dimensión (medido por el número de empleados), el sector de actividad y el grado de satisfacción con los resultados. Para ello construimos una tipología de las empresas en función del tramo de control y el número de niveles jerárquicos
P. FIGUEROA DORREGO; H. LORENZO SANTAMARÍA; R. SEGADE PÉREZ
Abstract. Dados los esfuerzos que el personal sanitario hace para la definición de guías de práctica clínica (CPG) por su elevado impacto en la calidad de los cuidados y la dificultad de su implantación, hemos considerado necesario desarrollar una,solución efectivade cara a laimplantación de CPGsmediante Sistemas de Ayuda a la Toma de Decisiones (DSS). Por la importancia de lo antedicho,
Las instituciones universitarias están llamadas a formar profesionales que darán continuidad a la obra social que construimos. La imagen del mismo lleva implícita el dominio de una serie de cualidades que le permitan expresarse correctamente. Un reciente estudio realizado a futuros graduados de quinto año en la especialidad Contabilidad y Finanzas del Centro Universitario Municipal de Lajas acerca del desarrollo
BORBA, H.R.; AMORIM, A. de (Anthelmintic action of plants XIV. Evaluation of the activity of aqueous extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides l. (Erva-de-Santa-Maria) in mice naturally infected with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera.) Ação anti-helmíntica de plantas XIV. Avaliação da atividade de extratos aquosos de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Erva-de-Santa-Maria) em camundongos naturalmente infectados com Syphacia obvelata e Aspiculuris tetraptera. Revista Brasileira
During the period 1808-1936, the liberal state dismantled the old system of religious charity belonging to the Ancien Régime, replacing it with public charity, conceived as a welfare instrument given the social risks represented by poverty, and as a means of controlling and converting the poor into useful citizens. In parallel, from civil society there arose different organisational models as
Riassunto Con la somministrazione orale di propranololo ad una paziente affetta da insulinoma si è notato un miglioramento delle condizioni cliniche e una minor frequenza delle crisi ipoglicemiche. I valori di glicemia e di IRI si sono portati nella norma. Vengono riportati e brevemente discussi i risultati delle prove del digiuno, del glucagone e della leucina praticate prima e durante
Vittorio Neri; Alberto Bartorelli; Giovanni Faglia
ABSTRACT Selected isolates of Cladosporium tenuissimum were tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro aeciospore germination of the two-needle pine stem rusts Cronartium flaccidum and Peridermium pini and to suppress disease development in planta. The antagonistic fungus displayed a number of disease-suppressive mechanisms. Aeciospore germination on water agar slides was reduced at 12, 18, and 24 h when a conidial suspension (1.5 x 10(7) conidia per ml) of the Cladosporium tenuissimum isolates was added. When the aeciospores were incubated in same-strength conidial suspensions for 1, 11, 21, and 31 days, viability was reduced at 20 and 4 degrees C. Light and scanning electron microscopy showed that rust spores were directly parasitized by Cladosporium tenuissimum and that the antagonist had evolved several strategies to breach the spore wall and gain access to the underlying tissues. Penetration occurred with or without appressoria. The hyperparasite exerted a mechanical force to destroy the spore structures (spinules, cell wall) by direct contact, penetrated the aeciospores and subsequently proliferated within them. However, an enzymatic action could also be involved. This was shown by the dissolution of the host cell wall that comes in contact with the mycelium of the mycoparasite, by the lack of indentation in the host wall at the contact site, and by the minimal swelling at the infecting hyphal tip. Culture filtrates of the hyperparasite inhibited germination of rust propagules. A compound purified from the filtrates was characterized by chemical and spectroscopic analysis as cladosporol, a known beta-1,3-glucan biosynthesis inhibitor. Conidia of Cladosporium tenuissimum reduced rust development on new infected pine seedlings over 2 years under greenhouse conditions. Because the fungus is an aggressive mycoparasite, produces fungicidal metabolites, and can survive and multiply in forest ecosystems without rusts, it seems a promising agent for the biological control of pine stem rusts in Europe. PMID:18943590
Moricca, S; Ragazzi, A; Mitchelson, K R; Assante, G
Background and Aims Seed quality may be compromised if seeds are harvested before natural dispersal (shedding). It has been shown previously that slow or delayed drying can increase potential quality compared with immediate rapid drying. This study set out to investigate whether or not there is a critical moisture content, below which drying terminates maturation events for seeds harvested after mass maturity but before dispersal. Methods Seeds of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) in the post-abscission pre-dispersal phase were held at between 15 and 95 % RH for 4 or 8 d, with or without re-hydration to 95 % RH for a further 4 d, before drying to equilibrium at 15 % RH. In addition, dry seeds were primed for 48 h at ?1 MPa. Subsequent seed longevity was assessed at 60 % RH and 45 °C. Key Results Rate of germination and longevity were improved by holding seeds at a wide range of humidities after harvest. Longevity was further improved by re-hydration at 95 % RH. Priming improved the longevity of the seeds dried immediately after harvest, but not of those first held at 95 % RH for 8 d prior to drying. Conclusions Maturation continued ex planta in these post-abscission, pre-dispersal seeds of D. purpurea dried at 15–80 % RH at a rate correlated positively with RH (cf. ageing of mature seeds). Subsequent re-hydration at 95 % RH enabled a further improvement in quality. Priming seeds initially stored air-dry for 3 months also allowed maturation events to resume. However, once individual seeds within the population had reached maximum longevity, priming had a negative impact on their subsequent survival.
Butler, L. H.; Hay, F. R.; Ellis, R. H.; Smith, R. D.
Rust fungi are destructive plant pathogens. The draft genomes of several wheat-infecting species have been released and potential pathogenicity genes identified through comparative analyses to fungal pathogens that are amenable to genetic manipulation. Functional gene analysis tools are needed to understand the infection process of these obligate parasites and to confirm whether predicted pathogenicity genes could become targets for disease control. We have modified an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated in planta-induced transient gene silencing (PITGS) assay for use in Triticum spp. (wheat), and used this assay to target predicted wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina (Pt) pathogenicity genes, a MAP kinase (PtMAPK1), a cyclophilin (PtCYC1) and calcineurin B (PtCNB), to analyze their roles in disease. Agroinfiltration effectively delivered hairpin silencing constructs in wheat, leading to the generation of fungal gene-specific siRNA molecules in infiltrated leaves, and resulting in up to 70% reduction in transcription of the endogenous target genes in superinfected Pt. In vivo silencing caused severe disease suppression, compromising fungal growth and sporulation, as viewed by confocal microscopy and measured by reductions in fungal biomass and emergence of uredinia. Interestingly, using the same gene constructs, suppression of infection by Puccinia graminis and Puccinia striiformis was also achieved. Our results show that A. tumefaciens-mediated PITGS can be used as a reverse-genetics tool to discover gene function in rust fungi. This proof-of-concept study indicates that the targeted fungal transcripts might be important in pathogenesis, and could potentially be used as promising targets for developing RNA interference-based resistance against rust fungi. PMID:23110316
Observaciones del disco solar y de una protuberancia quiescente en el rango de longitudes de onda ultravioleta fueron obtenidas con el instrumento CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrograph) y SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of emitted radiation) a bordo de la sonda SOHO. El propósito es investigar las velocidades macroscópicas de varias especies metálicas que se observan tanto en el disco solar como en el plasma de las protuberancias. Para calcular las velocidades del disco solar aplicamos una técnica mixta para modelar la distribución de estructuras en UV en el Sol quieto. Las velocidades macroscópicas en las protuberancias se calcularon a partir de los corrimientos Doppler en cada línea espectral y luego se tomaron las del disco solar como referencia. Obtuvimos valores absolutos para las velocidades macroscópicas entre 5 y 40 km/seg. También detectamos comportamientos diferentes en las velocidades de las protuberancias en el centro con respecto a los bordes.
Nel periodo compreso tra la morte di Basilio II il Macedone (1025) e l'ascesa al trono di Alessio Comneno (1081), l'impero bizantino attraverso una delle fasi più travagliate della sua esistenza (1). Il Bulgaroctono era stato l'ultimo rappresentante di quella serie di imperatori energici che, utilizzando accortamente le forze disponibili, avevano saputo trovare al momento opportuno la maniera di risollevare
Negli Stati Uniti, il lungo dibattito sulla politica energetica si è concluso con l’approvazione di una legge che ha l’obiettivo dichiarato di garantire un’offerta di energia sicura, accessibile ed affidabile. La legge interviene sul processo di ristrutturazione in corso nel settore elettrico e sull’offerta delle fonti di energia. In questo articolo si rileva che le norme destinate ad influenzare direttamente
El present article desenvolupa els eixos de pensament que s’estan elaborant des de diferents angles sobre el patrimoni educatiu. Una revisió sobre la importància de les aportacions de les investigacions a l’entorn del patrimoni educatiu permet assenyalar els punts d’inflexió dels museus pedagògics en l’actualitat. Entre aquests destaca la influència que els museus pedagògics, a través de les seves activitats
Isabel Carrillo; Eulàlia Collelldemont Pujadas; Pedro Luís Moreno
Canciones para después de una guerra (Martín\\u000aPatino, 1971) comprises an ironic archive documentary\\u000aabout Spain during the forties. Using different editing\\u000astrategies —such as re-location of materials, fusion between sound and image, figures of speech and montage effects—, the film proposes an alternative view to thedominant one offered by Franco’s official media. The movie provides a re-reading of the
The study, conducted by Babcock and Wilcox, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development agency on behalf of Enelven. In order to maximize generated power output and minimize operating costs at Planta Ramon Laguna, tests were done to evaluate the conditio...
Una medida que capta la frecuencia e intensidad de comportamientos disfuncionales experimentados, así como el uso de los servicios de salud mental, se desarrollaron y probaron como parte de un ensayo de tratamiento controlado de pacientes con trastorno de personalidad borderline. El índice de comportamiento objetivo (ICO) se realizó con 136 individuos diagnosti- cados de trastorno de personalidad borderline antes
En este artículo se analiza desde una perspectiva fundamentalmente prosopográfica la dinámica musical en la corte de Enrique IV de Castilla (1454-1474) haciendo, a su vez, especial hincapié en el papel social, artístico e institucional que los músicos desempeñaron dentro del complejo entramado de los servidores áulicos. Aquellos años, tan inestables en lo político, asistieron, sin embargo, a un desarrollo
En este trabajo se presenta una visión preliminar y descriptiva de los cambios en los arreglos residenciales en la población de 60 años y más en siete ciudades latinoamerica- nas. Se exploran la intensidad del cambio, sus razones, la estructura familiar inicial, y el cambio de vivienda física. Los datos utilizados en este estudio provienen de las encues- tas de
El precio medio del metro cuadrado de la vivienda libre y su evolución en los últimos años es una de las cuestiones que más preocupan a la ciudadanía de nuestro país y, en consecuencia, a las autoridades políticas y económicas con competencias en materia de política de vivienda. La única referencia oficial sobre la cuestión es la publicación trimestral de
RESUMEN Producto del más reciente brote de dengue en el municipio Santiago de Cuba, se estudió una cepa de este vector para determinar sus niveles de susceptibilidad y\\/o resistencia a insecticidas organofosforados y piretroides. Los resultados de los bioensayos mostraron bajos niveles de resistencia a fentión, malatión y deltametrina, se obtuvieron moderados para temefos, metil- pirimifos y cipermetrina, y altos
Resumen: Este trabajo analiza las webs de promoción oficial de destinos turísticos de interior de Andalucía. En el mismo se confirma la existencia de una relación entre el desarrollo turístico y el nivel de desarrollo de las webs. El estudio aporta una metodología basada en la contabilización de elemento (“counting methods”), obteniendo como resultado un estudio descriptivo de las webs
Sommario Nel presente lavoro viene illustrata una procedura di accettazione di ruote ferroviarie trattate, nelle quali la ridotta emissione acustica è ottenuta mediante l'applicazione di uno smorzamento a strato vincolato mediante l'interposizione di un polimero viscoelastico fra il centro ruota ed un pannello di lamiera opportunamente sagomato. La procedura proposta è basata esclusivamente sull'analisi delle ampiezze di vibrazione in condizioni
La presente ricerca è indirizzata all'individuazione di una possibile area di intersezione fra il curricolo della P4C e il mondo delle scienze motorie. Il percorso è tracciato sostanzialmente su due filoni. Quello principale è rivolto all'analisi della persona intesa come corpo vivente, come corpo proprio che si estrinseca attraverso movimenti caratterizzati da razionalità e intenzionalità. In particolar modo ci si
R Reessuummeenn:: En la primera parte del artículo introducimos algunas nociones funda- mentales de la Teoría Antropológica de lo Didáctico, que nos suministrarán las he- rramientas de análisis didáctico necesarias para reconstruir una posible evolución del dominio de investigación \\
Marianna Bosch; Francisco Javier García; Josep Gascón; Luisa Ruiz Higueras
A neutralizing antibody (NTAb) survey on UNA and Mayaro viruses in black howler monkeys (Aloutta caraya) from subtropical regions of Argentina and Paraguay was carried out. Risk factors for infection in monkeys were analyzed. No positive sera for Mayaro virus were detected. A prevalence of 73% (61/84) of NTAb against UNAV was detected with titers ranging from 20 to 1280. According to the statistical analysis performed, the monkey's age was a significant risk factor, but not the origin or sex. This is the first report of Alouatta caraya infection by UNAV and the first record of its activity in Paraguay. PMID:17658571
Díaz, Luis Adrián; Díaz, María del Pilar; Almirón, Walter Ricardo; Contigiani, Marta Silvia
An armed society is a free society Guns are mere objects. Preventing people from owning them, or limiting their availability, is an infringement of the natural right to property. Guns are also a peculiar good, since they are the key for the protection of liberty and property. In this perspective, gun control is not about guns: it is about control.
... is known to substantially increase blood pressure and/or pulse rate in some ... of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias or ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers
Se describe la noción de la resistencia y se mencionan diferentes clases de este fenómeno, es decir, los tipos de morfológico, comportamental, y fisiológico o metabólico. Se destaca la historia y evolución de la resistencia en los artrópodos. Se marcan los casos de resistencia en artrópodos y también la resistencia de éstos organismos a diferentes clases de plaguicidas. Se explica
Background Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases on citrus and is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter spp.. The pathogens are phloem limited and have not been cultured in vitro. The current management strategy of HLB is to remove infected citrus trees and reduce psyllid populations with insecticides to prevent the spreading. This strategy requires sensitive and reliable diagnostic methods for early detection. Results We investigated the copy numbers of the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA of the HLB pathogen and the implication of improving the diagnosis of HLB for early detection using Quantitative PCR. We compared the detection of HLB with different Quantitative PCR based methods with primers/probe targeting either 16S rDNA, beta-operon DNA, 16S rRNA, or beta-operon RNA. The 16S rDNA copy number of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus was estimated to be three times of that of the beta-operon region, thus allowing detection of lower titer of Ca. L. asiaticus. Quantitative reverse transcriptional PCR (QRT-PCR) indicated that the 16S rRNA averaged 7.83 times more than that of 16S rDNA for the same samples. Dilution analysis also indicates that QRT-PCR targeting 16S rRNA is 10 time more sensitive than QPCR targeting 16S rDNA. Thus QRT-PCR was able to increase the sensitivity of detection by targeting 16S rRNA. Conclusion Our result indicates that Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus contains three copies of 16S rDNA. The copy number of 16S rRNA of Ca. L. asiaticus in planta averaged about 7.8 times of 16S rDNA for the same set of samples tested in this study. Detection sensitivity of HLB could be improved through the following approaches: using 16S rDNA based primers/probe in the QPCR assays; and using QRT-PCR assays targeting 16S rRNA.
2 Resumen. La mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci es una de las plagas más ampliamente distribuidas en regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo donde afecta más de 600 especies de plantas cultiva- das y silvestres. Los daños que causa se deben a diversos efectos del insecto en las plantas atacadas, como el debilitamiento de la planta por la extracción de nutrientes;
En este articulo se presenta una aplicación de dos de las metodologías desarrolladas para medir los beneficios que se derivan del uso recreativo de los bienes ambientales en ausencia de mercado, el método del coste del viaje (MCV) y el de valoración contingente (MVC). La zona objeto de estudio ha sido el Parque Nacional de “Aigüestortes y Estany de Sant
El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el comportamiento estratégico de las empresas agroalimentarias españolas en relación a los mercados exteriores. Para llevar a cabo este objetivo se ha definido un modelo de competencia imperfecta en el que unas empresas compiten a la Cournot y otras de manera competitiva. Además, se ha supuesto que las empresas toman simultáneamente tres decisiones
El artículo presenta y desarrolla el concepto de lealtad como instrumento para mejorar las relaciones entre usuarios y empresas de servicios públicos domiciliarios. Se divide en tres partes, además de la introducción y las conclusiones: la primera presenta el modelo Salida, voz y lealtad de Albert Hirschman, enfatizando en el tercer componente; la segunda hace una aplicación del modelo a
OLGA ROCÍO BUITRAGO BETANCUR; GERMÁN DARÍO VALENCIA AGUDELO
The World Federation of Hemophilia held its 21st international meeting in Mexico City in April 1995. The crisis in current hemophilia care in developing countries is described as pathetic. One study reveals that countries not importing blood products or concentrates from the U.S. had little or no HIV transmission to persons with hemophilia, but many people were condemned to painful joint destruction. Numerous pharmaceutical, agricultural, and other companies have been caught dumping their substandard products overseas to avoid waste. The author suggests that if the fractitioners were to increase their production rate (which they could easily do), there would be enough recombinant factor concentrates to fully supply everyone in the U.S., as well as the rest of the world, at an even lower price than the intermediate-purity concentrates. Dumping inferior medical products into developing countries is viewed as irresponsible behavior. Further, the author contends that trust in the good intentions of the pharmaceutical industry, and the ability of the Federal regulatory structure, led to the ongoing death toll that the hemophilia community is now experiencing. PMID:11362352
Lipozyme(®) TL IM (Theremomyces lanuginosus lipase immobilized on silica) in toluene catalyzes the acylation of the 2'-OH over the 3'-OH group in 5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)-2',3'-secouridine (5'-O-DMT-2',3'-secouridine) in a highly selective fashion in moderate to almost quantitative yields. The turn over during benzoyl transfer reactions mediated by vinyl benzoate or benzoic anhydride was faster than in acyl transfer reactions with vinyl acetate or C(1) to C(5) acid anhydrides; except in the case of butanoic anhydride. The 2'-O-benzoyl-5'-O-DMT-2',3'-secouridine obtained by Lipozyme(®) TL IM catalyzed benzoylation of 5'-O-DMT-2',3'-secouridine was successfully converted into its 3'-O-phosphoramidite derivative in satisfactory yield, which is a building block for the preparation of oligonucleotides containing the uracil monomer of UNA (unlocked nucleic acid). PMID:23215547
Singh, Sunil K; Reddy, L Chandrashekhar; Srivastava, Smriti; Olsen, Carl E; Sanghvi, Yogesh S; Langkjær, Niels; Wengel, Jesper; Parmar, Virinder S; Prasad, Ashok K
La detección de viroides mediante RT-PCR en México es de uso común en los laboratorios de acreditación para determinar la calidad sanitaria de plantas de cítricos, cuando se van a utilizar árboles madre para propagar plantas de vivero. En el presente trabajo se describe una metodología simple para la detección múltiple de los viroides Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), CVd II,
Isidro H. Almeyda-León; Mario A. Rocha-Peña; M. Magdalena Iracheta-Cárdenas; Fermín Orona-Castro; Craig J. Kahlke
Resumen Se reprodujo Mamillaria carmenae por cultivo in vitro a partir de areolas de unaplanta etiolada in vivo. Se obtuvieron plantas a partir de callos, las cuales se aclimatizaron bajo diferentes tratamientos de irradiación luminosa (50, 150 y 970 µmol m -2 s -1 ) bajo condiciones de invernadero. Durante la acli- matación se registraron la variación en el
Coca Soriano; Ortiz Montiel; Juan Gerardo; Sánchez Correa; Pérez Crisanto Joel
El proposito de esta investigacion fue identificar los componentes de la preparacion en ciencia que deben recibir los estudiantes del Bachillerato en Artes en Educacion Elemental, Nivel Primario, de acuerdo a los documentos que dirigen la reforma de la educacion cientifica en Puerto Rico. Tambien, se identificaron los componentes de los cursos que forman parte de la preparacion en ciencia de estos estudiantes. Se compararon los componentes de la preparacion en ciencia y los componentes de los cursos para determinar congruencias y discrepancias. Con los datos recopilados se identificaron los componentes de los cursos de una secuencia curricular para la preparacion en ciencia de los candidatos a maestros del nivel elemental primario. La secuencia curricular que se propone en esta investigacion incluye cursos de contenido cientifico y de metodologia en la ensenanza de la ciencia disenados para satisfacer las necesidades de los candidatos. Se recomienda que en los procesos para el diseno, la implantacion y la evaluacion de estos cursos participen profesores de ciencia, profesores de educacion y maestros del nivel elemental primario. Todos los cursos de la secuencia curricular deben tener un enfoque constructivista. Las experiencias educativas que se incluyan en los cursos deben aspirar a desarrollar en los candidatos los atributos de la cultura cientifica y actitudes positivas hacia la ciencia y hacia la ensenanza de esta disciplina. El modelaje por parte de los profesores que ensenen los cursos de la secuencia curricular es fundamental en el desarrollo profesional de los candidatos. Se recomienda que en los cursos de contenido cientifico se estudien los conceptos y los conocimientos cientificos que forman parte del curriculo de Kindergarten a tercer grado de forma integrada y con una profundidad universitaria. Estos cursos deben tener un enfoque interdisciplinario e incluir el estudio de la naturaleza de la ciencia y un componente de laboratorio para desarrollar los procesos de la ciencia y las destrezas de la investigacion cientifica. En los cursos de metodologia en la ensenanza de la ciencia se deben estudiar los modelos, los metodos, las estrategias y las tecnicas mas efectivas para la ensenanza y el aprendizaje de la ciencia, asi como las tecnicas de avaluacion.
RESUMEN El proyecto de Inventario y Monitoreo de los Recursos Naturales de Jalisco, México (IMRENAT), es un proceso innovador que propone una aplicación práctica de las herramientas de modelado esta- dístico geoespacial para reportar creíblemente la condición del territorio. Aprovechando las intercone- xiones que existen entre atributos del terreno, la vegetación, las actividades humanas y lo detectable con sensores remotos
José Germán Flores Garnica; Martín Alfonso; Celedonio Aguirre Bravo
La dinámica social es uno de los campos más estudiados de la familia Canidae en condiciones de cautividad. En este estudio se pretende determinar cómo la muerte del macho dominante de una manada de lobos alojados en el Parque Zoológico de Barcelona afecta al patrón de actividad diario y al uso del espacio del resto de coespecíficos. Los individuos objeto
Ana Isabel Soriano Giménez; Susana Serrat Navarro; Conrad Ensenyat; Carles Riba; Carmen Maté García
Resumen: En éste trabajo analizamos el lugar que deben ocupar las Actividades Físicas Cooperativas (AFC) en el currículum de Educación Física (EF) en el momento actual. En un primer apartado defendemos que la corriente que más nos puede ayudar a dotar a nuestra área de un mayor rigor y una lógica de funcionamiento a la hora de secuenciar los aprendizajes
The plants and us: past and present). Green areas in cities and trees growing on streets and squares of urban sites are features that only recently acquired relevance in the western world. It seems that formerly urban inhabitants did not value a close proximity with plants. In the present paper it is suggested that this is a consequence of a
Medicinal plants of popular use in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. Boa Vista is located in the North of Amazonia, Brazil. The population of Boa Vista is heterogeneous, composed of Northeastern, Southern and Amazonian people. It has a strong tradition of using plants in popular medicine. This work aims to identify medicinal plants of popular use in Boa Vista, through information
El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el que presenta mas deficiencias en el desarrollo de las competencias. El investigador recomienda disenar e implantar un curriculo basado en competencias y proveer formacion en didactica y procesos de aprendizaje a los profesores.
Mating systems in reptiles: a review. - Among vertebrates, reptiles are known to manifest a substan- tial variation of mating systems based on relatively complex social systems and different spatial organizations. The most frequent mating system is that situation where individuals of both sexes mated with more than one individual of the opposite sex. Monogamy (i.e. exclusive and long term
Created for the 100 years of the Deutsches Museum, the 100 classi are a 'diffuse' editorial office - a team of classes geographically distributed but connected online - that promotes science and technology education on a European dimension. Aiming at fighting against the decline of scientific vocations and the digital divide, the 100 classi Project experiments new ways of integrating
In Out of Context. Historical Reference and the Representation of Reality in Borges, Daniel Balderston claims that the interpretative practice of Jorge Luis Borges’s short stories has tended to focus on the\\u000a ‘unreal’, that is, on its autoreferential, fictional and fantastic elements, and that, on the other hand, allusions and references\\u000a to the concrete, historical reality in the work of
The interpretive reading of the antibiogram is routinely performed in the microbiology laboratory as a complement of the clinical categorization of antimicrobial susceptibility testing results. This process consists in the phenotypic recognition of resistance mechanisms allowing the inference of the initial resistance phenotype. Moreover, it assists in the modification of clinical categories and in the deduction of susceptibility of antimicrobials
SUMMARY Although there is a controversy about the definition of schizo-obssesive phenomena, we propound as seen the revision of many medical and historical reports and the evaluation of patients who presents this phenomena, the next definition: \\
Cristina Lóyzaga; Humberto Nicolini; Rogelio Apiquian; Ana Fresán
Text Version... el caso de estudio ejemplo es de VIH vinculado con RhoD cuando se administró a pacientes con púrpura trombocitopénica idiopática o PTI. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities
This paper is a reflection on the mind-brain relationship. The author approaches mental functions beginning with some considerations based on chemistry, biology and quantum physics. With the aid of complex thought (the science of complexity), questions such as how the brain carries out information programming are tackled. It shows how all these phenomena require an explanation to begin with, and
Video game addiction seems to be a widely accepted disorder. This work reviews in a critical manner the literature and the state of the art about this topic. The scarcity of works focused specifically on video game addiction, as well as the weakness of many of the investigations are commented as main conclusions. None of the studies makes explicit the
This paper proposes a new methodological approach for local development. It is divided in three parts. The first part analyzes the critical points of local development in the framework of EU policies; the main critical point seems to be the lack of leadership competences to manage complex situations and the governance process. The second part underlines the main concepts and
In the last few years it is taking place an important increment of the number of people who travel all over the world, including exotic countries. In this way, about 10 million people, including both immigrants and tourist and diplomatic and businessmen, move annually among Europe and the so-called countries of the third world. Due to these populations movements it
The consumption of foods that in addition to providing basic nutrition may help cure and prevent some diseases is one of the most innovative aspects that the 21st century offers. Foods that reduce cholesterol intake, help weight loss, avoid osteoporosis, regulate blood pressure and even candy that prevents dental cavities can habitually be found in many supermarkets around the world.
Questo numero della Rivista di Storia Economica coincide con il compiersi del venticinquesimo anno della sua Seconda serie. La Prima serie, curata da Luigi Einaudi, era apparsa fra il 1936 e il 1943. Il numero si apre con un editoriale, dovuto a Pierluigi Ciocca e Gianni Toniolo, che riconsidera sinteticamente l'indirizzo di metodo e di contenuto seguito dalla Rivista nei
El artículo consta de dos apartados. Al primero le hemos dado un enfoque cronològico, distinguiendo tres etapas: a) las obras publicadas por ambos bandos con finalidad propagandistica durante la Guerra Civil; b) de los anos cuarenta hasta los ochenta, en que observamos que se camina desde la vision mítica hasta los primeros estúdios críticos; c) a partir de 1996, con
En este trabajo se propone un conjunto de elementos básicos que deben ser considerados para el diseño de cualquier estrategia de reforma del sector público en el Perú, abordando cuestiones de carácter económico, social, político y de organización institucional.
Mechanized forest harvest operations induce changes in soil physical properties, which have the potefitial to impzct soil sustai~ability and forest productivity. The assessment of soil compaction and its spatial variability has been determined previously through the identification and tabulation of visual soil disturbance classes and soil physical changes associated with each disturbailce class. This is a time consuming and inaccurate
The major objective in protein kinase research is the identification of the biological process, in which an individual enzyme\\u000a is integrated. Protein kinase-mediated signalling is thereby often addressed by single knock-out mutation- or co-suppression-based\\u000a reverse genetics approaches. If a protein kinase of interest is a member of a multi gene family, however, no obvious phenotypic\\u000a alteration in the morphology or
Starch is composed of amylose and amylopectin and it is deposited in amyloplasts\\/choloroplasts as semi-crystalline granules. Many biosynthetic enzymes are involved in starch degradation and biosynthesis. Some microbial starch degrading enzymes have a Starch Binding Domain (SBD) which has affinity for the starch granules on its own. In our laboratory, expression of SBD alone or fused to other effector proteins
The bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is associated with huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus in many countries. Despite the fact that many\\u000a characteristics of the disease are known, the rate of multiplication of the bacterium within an infected tree is still poorly\\u000a understood. To study this feature, we used the quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) assay to follow and\\u000a to
H. D. Coletta-Filho; E. F. Carlos; K. C. S. Alves; M. A. R. Pereira; R. L. Boscariol-Camargo; A. A. de Souza; M. A. Machado
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide and is threatening the survival of the Floridian citrus industry. Currently, there is no established cure for this century-old and emerging disease. As a possible control strategy for citrus HLB, therapeutic compounds were screened using a propagation test system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'-infected periwinkle and citrus plants. The results demonstrated that the combination of penicillin and streptomycin (PS) was effective in eliminating or suppressing the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium and provided a therapeutically effective level of control for a much longer period of time than when administering either antibiotic separately. When treated with the PS, 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected periwinkle cuttings achieved 70% of regeneration rates versus <50% by other treatments. The 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterial titers in the infected periwinkle plants, as measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, decreased significantly following root soaking or foliar spraying with PS. Application of the PS via trunk injection or root soaking also eliminated or suppressed the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium in the HLB-affected citrus plants. This may provide a useful tool for the management of citrus HLB and other Liberibacter-associated diseases. PMID:21834727
Potassium (K(+) ) flux into plant cells is a well-characterized ion transport phenomenon. By contrast, little is known about the mechanisms and regulation of K(+) flux from the cell. Here, we present a radioisotopic analysis of K(+) fluxes from roots of intact barley (Hordeum vulgare), in the context of recent discoveries in the molecular biology and electrophysiology of this process. Plants were labelled with (42)K(+), and kinetics of its release from roots were monitored at low (0.1 mM) or high (1.0 mM) external K concentration, [K(+)](ext), and with the application of channel modulators and nutrient shifts. At 0.1 (but not 1.0) mM [K(+)], where K(+) efflux is thought to be mediated by K(+)-outward-rectifying channels, (42)K(+) efflux was inhibited by the channel blockers barium (Ba(2+)), caesium (Cs(+)), tetraethylammonium (TEA(+)), and lanthanum (La(3+)). Ammonium and nitrate (10 mM) stimulated and inhibited (42)K(+) efflux, respectively, while 10 mM [K(+)](ext) or [Rb(+) ](ext) decreased it. No evidence for the involvement of ATP-binding cassettes, nonselective cation channels, or active K(+)-efflux pumps was found. Our study provides new evidence for the thermodynamic transition between high- and low-affinity transport, from the efflux perspective, identifying the operation of channels at low [K(+)], and the cessation of transmembrane efflux at high [K(+)]. PMID:20731780
Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T; Kronzucker, Herbert J
Glycosyltransferase complexes are known to be involved in plant cell wall biosynthesis, as for example in cellulose. It is not known to what extent such complexes are involved in biosynthesis of pectin as well. To address this question, work was initiated on ARAD1 (ARABINAN DEFICIENT 1) and its close homolog ARAD2 of glycosyltransferase family GT47. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, Förster resonance energy transfer and non-reducing gel electrophoresis, we show that ARAD1 and ARAD2 are localized in the same Golgi compartment and form homo-and heterodimeric intermolecular dimers when expressed transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana. Biochemical analysis of arad2 cell wall or fractions hereof showed no difference in the monosaccharide composition, when compared with wild type. The double mutant arad1 arad2 had an arad1 cell wall phenotype and overexpression of ARAD2 did not complement the arad1 phenotype, indicating that ARAD1 and ARAD2 are not redundant enzymes. To investigate the cell wall structure of the mutants in detail, immunohistochemical analyses were carried out on arad1, arad2 and arad1 arad2 using the arabinan-specific monoclonal antibody LM13. In roots, the labeling pattern of arad2 was distinct from both that of wild type, arad1 and arad1 arad2. Likewise, in epidermal cell walls of inflorescence stems, LM13 binding differed between arad2 and WILD TYPE, arad1 or arad1 arad2. Altogether, these data show that ARAD2 is associated with arabinan biosynthesis, not redundant with ARAD1, and that the two glycosyltransferases may function in complexes held together by disulfide bridges. PMID:22270560
Harholt, Jesper; Jensen, Jacob Krüger; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Søgaard, Casper; Bernard, Sophie; Nafisi, Majse; Poulsen, Christian Peter; Geshi, Naomi; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Driouich, Azeddine; Knox, J Paul; Scheller, Henrik Vibe
Due to autoinfection and alloinfection, maize is susceptible to infection by Fusarium verticillioides resulting in diseases and contamination of maize kernels with the fumonisin mycotoxins. Attempts at controlling this fungus are currently being done with biocontrol agents such as bacteria and this...
The direct determination of elemental concentrations in plants is laborious. To overcome this, a novel monitoring system for magnesium (Mg) in plants was established. Mg deficiency-induced genes were identified by microarray analysis and transgenic lines that expressed luciferase (LUC) under the control of the Mg deficiency-inducible CAX3 promoter were established. The transgenic lines showed a clear response under low Mg conditions, and the degree of luminescence reflected the accumulation of endogenous CAX3 mRNA. The CAX3 expression pattern was also examined in a previously characterized low Mg-sensitive mutant, mrs2-7. In mrs2-7 mutant plants, CAX3 expression was more than three times higher than in the wild-type. In addition, CAX3 expression was negatively correlated with the shoot Mg concentration. Together, these results indicate that CAX3 transcription is a quantitative marker of the Mg status in Arabidopsis.
Economic botany considers may valuable species under different parameters. One of these less considerate-parameters is the scientific value of many species, useful to wide-biologic research and their variety of disciplines. Arabidopsis thaliana is the most representative example of this matter, although this plant can't be used as food, drug or as industrial source, has been widely used for a kind
Benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases synthesize methyl esters (e.g., methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate), which are constituents of aromas and scents of many plant species and play important roles in plant communication with the surrounding environment. Within the past five years, eleven such carboxyl methyltransferases were isolated and most of them were comprehensively investigated at the biochemical, molecular and structural level. Two types of enzymes can be distinguished according to their substrate preferences: the SAMT-type enzymes isolated from Clarkia breweri, Stephanotis floribunda, Antirrhinum majus, Hoya carnosa, and Petunia hybrida, which have a higher catalytic efficiency and preference for salicylic acid, while BAMT-type enzymes from A. majus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Nicotiana suaveolens prefer benzoic acid. The elucidation of C. breweri SAMT's three-dimensional structure allowed a detailed modelling of the active sites of the carboxyl methyltransferases and revealed that the SAM binding pocket is highly conserved among these enzymes while the methyl acceptor binding site exhibits some variability, allowing a classification into SAMT-type and BAMT-type enzymes. The analysis of expression patterns coupled with biochemical characterization showed that these carboxyl methyltransferases are involved either in floral scent biosynthesis or in plant defense responses. While the latter can be induced by biotic or abiotic stress, the genes responsible for floral scent synthesis exhibit developmental and rhythmic expression pattern. The nature of the product and efficiency of its formation in plants depend on the availability of substrates, the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward benzoic acid and/or salicylic acid, and the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation at the enzyme level. The biochemical properties of benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases suggest that the genes involved in plant defenses might represent the ancestor for the presently existing floral genes which during evolution gained different expression profiles and encoded enzymes with the ability to accept structurally similar substrates.
Caffeic acid is a phenylpropanoid playing an important role in the pathways leading to lignin synthesis and the production of a wide variety of secondary metabolites. The compound is also an antioxidant and has potential utility as a general protectant against free radicals. Three glucosylated forms of caffeic acid are known to exist: the 3- O - and 4- O -glucosides and the glucose ester. This study describes for the first time a glucosyltransferase [UDP-glucose:glucosyltransferase (UGT)] that is specific for the 3-hydroxyl, and not the 4-hydroxyl, position of caffeic acid. The UGT sequence of Arabidopsis, UGT71C1, has been expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli, purified and assayed against a range of substrates in vitro. The assay confirmed that caffeic acid as the preferred substrate when compared with other hydroxycinnamates, although UGT71C1 also exhibited substantial activity towards flavonoid substrates, known to have structural features that can be recognized by many different UGTs. The expression of UGT71C1 in transgenic Arabidopsis was driven by the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35 S (CaMV35S) promoter. Nine independent transgenic lines were taken to homozygosity and characterized by Northern-blot analysis, assay of enzyme activity in leaf extracts and HPLC analysis of the glucosides. The level of expression of UGT71C1 was enhanced considerably in several lines, leading to a higher level of the corresponding enzyme activity and a higher level of caffeoyl-3- O -glucoside. The data are discussed in the context of the utility of UGTs for natural product biotransformations.
Plum pox potyvirus (PPV) exists as several distinct strains: Dideron (D), Marcus (M), El Amar (EA), and Cherry (C). The M strain is considered the most easily aphid transmissible and epidemic form in peach. The D strain is the oldest recognized strain, most widely distributed worldwide, and the on...
Air temperature is one of the most important meteorological elements in the conditioning of infection caused by pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the variation of air temperature in the canopy of potato plants, cv. Macaca. Two experiments were carried out, one in the spring in a rural farm in the county of Silveira Martins, RS, from
Ivonete F. Tazzo; Arno B. Heldwein; Luciano Streck; Gustavo Trentin; Edenir L. Grimm; Guilherme F. Maass; Ivan C. Maldaner
Over the last several decades, increased agricultural production has been driven by improved agronomic practices and a dramatic increase in the use of nitrogen-containing fertilizers to maximize the yield potential of crops. To reduce input costs and to minimize the potential environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilizer that has been used to optimize yield, an increased understanding of the molecular responses to nitrogen under field conditions is critical for our ability to further improve agricultural sustainability. Using maize (Zea mays) as a model, we have characterized the transcriptional response of plants grown under limiting and sufficient nitrogen conditions and during the recovery of nitrogen-starved plants. We show that a large percentage (approximately 7%) of the maize transcriptome is nitrogen responsive, similar to previous observations in other plant species. Furthermore, we have used statistical approaches to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the response of plants to varying nitrogen conditions. Using a composite gene expression scoring system, this single set of biomarker genes can accurately assess nitrogen responses independently of genotype, developmental stage, tissue type, or environment, including in plants grown under controlled environments or in the field. Importantly, the biomarker composite expression response is much more rapid and quantitative than phenotypic observations. Consequently, we have successfully used these biomarkers to monitor nitrogen status in real-time assays of field-grown maize plants under typical production conditions. Our results suggest that biomarkers have the potential to be used as agronomic tools to monitor and optimize nitrogen fertilizer usage to help achieve maximal crop yields. PMID:21980173
Yang, Xiaofeng S; Wu, Jingrui; Ziegler, Todd E; Yang, Xiao; Zayed, Adel; Rajani, M S; Zhou, Dafeng; Basra, Amarjit S; Schachtman, Daniel P; Peng, Mingsheng; Armstrong, Charles L; Caldo, Rico A; Morrell, James A; Lacy, Michelle; Staub, Jeffrey M
Neonicotinoids not only control insect pests but also sometimes independently alter plant growth and response to stress. We find that imidacloprid, thiacloprid, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin but not nitenpyram and dinotefuran induce foliar lesions and peroxidative damage in soybean ( Glycine max ) seedlings assayed with the 3,3'-diaminobenzidine stain. The chloropyridinyl-carboxylic acid (COOH) but not the -carboxaldehyde (CHO) metabolites induce peroxidative damage but in a different pattern. Surprisingly, the chlorothiazolyl -CHO and -COOH metabolites induce chlorosis but no clear superimposable peroxidative damage or cell death. Four metallo-oxidases known to modulate reactive oxygen species were not sensitive in vitro to the parent neonicotinoid itself but were to several CHO and COOH metabolites and related compounds, with a sensitivity order of CHO > COOH and tyrosinase > xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase > catalase. Although metallo-oxidase inhibition does not correlate overall with lesion formation, it may play an as yet unknown role in plant response to neonicotinoids. PMID:21476569
Ford, Kevin A; Gulevich, Alexander G; Swenson, Tami L; Casida, John E
In the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis, the dikaryotic state dominates the period of growth occurring during the infectious phase. Dikaryons are cells in which two nuclei, one from each parent cell, share a single cytoplasm for a period of time without undergoing nuclear fusion. In fungal cells, maintenance of the dikaryotic state requires an intricate cell division process that often involves the formation of a structure known as the clamp connection as well as the sorting of one of the nuclei to this structure to ensure that each daughter dikaryon inherits a balance of each parental genome. Here, we describe an atypical role of the DNA damage checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Atr1 during pathogenic growth of U. maydis. We found that Chk1 and Atr1 collaborate to control cell cycle arrest during the induction of the virulence program in U. maydis and that Chk1 and Atr1 work together to control the dikaryon formation. These findings uncover a link between a widely conserved signaling cascade and the virulence program in a phytopathogen. We propose a model in which adjustment of the cell cycle by the Atr1-Chk1 axis controls fidelity in dikaryon formation. Therefore, Chk1 and Atr1 emerge as critical cell type regulators in addition to their roles in the DNA damage response. PMID:21478441
de Sena-Tomás, Carmen; Fernández-Álvarez, Alfonso; Holloman, William K; Pérez-Martín, José
Water conservation and water reuse concepts in food industry are presented in this paper. The developed study was in poultry processing plant, which focused water reuse evaluation for only non-potable applications. Although potable water reuse is allowed in some countries and there are international regulations about this practice [Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Guidelines for Water Reuse; 2004. http:\\/\\/www.epa.gov\\/nrmrl\\/pubs\\/625r04108\\/625r04108.htm], this issue
In the present research, the effect of spectral control of light was evaluated on anatomical characteristics of Ocimum gratissimum L. leaves. The plants were cultivated during four months under black, red and blue nets with 50% of shade, and full sunlight. Plants grown under full sunlight showed higher leaf thickness, higher stomatal density and higher density of no-glandular and glandular
Ana Paula; Oliveira da Silva II; Cynthia Oliveira II; Eduardo Alves II
This research work was conducted in the agricultural crop of 2005\\/2006; on the José do Rosário Vellano University farm in Alfenas\\/MG, with the purpose of evaluating the effect of the percentage of the DM for ensiling corn upon the loss of effluents, CP and pH of silages. The cultivars evaluated were: GNZ 2004, AG1051, P30S40 and P30F90, ensiled in the
Adauton Vilela de Rezende; Hélio Henrique Vilela; Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara; Gustavo Augusto; Geraldo Benedito de Souza Almeida; Simone Silvia Senedese
BACKGROUND: Mg chelatase is a multi-subunit enzyme that catalyses the first committed step of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Studies in higher plants and algae indicate that the Mg chelatase reaction product, Mg-protoporphyrin IX plays an essential role in nuclear-plastid interactions. A number of Mg chelatase mutants have been isolated from higher plants, including semi-dominant alleles of ChlI, the gene encoding the I
Ruairidh JH Sawers; Phyllis R Farmer; Peter Moffett; Thomas P Brutnell
As a consequence of new European legal regulations for treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), recycling plants have to be installed in Spain. In this context, this contribution provides the decision maker with a ranking of Spanish municipalities according to their appropriateness for the installation of these plants. In order to rank the alternatives, the discrete multi-criteria decision
The concept of expressing non-plant glycosyl hydrolase genes in plant tissue is less than two decades old, and yet little work in this field has been reported. However, the resurgent interest in technologies aimed at enabling biomass to sugars/fuels processes have again pointed to this intuitive solution. Research challenges in this regard include developing better and more specifically targeted delivery systems for hydrolytic genes, achieving successful folding and post-translational modification of heterologous proteins, and developing cost effective process strategies utilizing these transformed plants. Integration of these concepts, from the improvement of biomass production and conversion characteristics to heterologous production of glycosyl hydrolases in a high yielding bioenergy crop, holds considerable promise for improving the lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol/fuels process.
Taylor, Larry E.; Dai, Ziyu; Decker, Stephen R.; Brunecky, Roman; Adney, William S.; Ding, Shi-You; Himmel, Michael E.
The concept of expressing non-plant glycosyl hydrolase genes in plant tissue is nearly two decades old, yet relatively little work in this field has been reported. However, resurgent interest in technologies aimed at enabling processes that convert biomass to sugars and fuels has turned attention toward this intuitive solution. There are several challenges facing researchers in this field, including the development of better and more specifically targeted delivery systems for hydrolytic genes, the successful folding and post-translational modification of heterologous proteins and the development of cost-effective process strategies utilizing these transformed plants. The integration of these concepts, from the improvement of biomass production and conversion characteristics to the heterologous production of glycosyl hydrolases in a high yielding bioenergy crop, holds considerable promise for improving the lignocellulosic conversion of biomass to ethanol and subsequently to fuels.
Taylor II, L. E.; Dai, Z.; Decker, S. R.; Brunecky, R.; Adney, W. S.; Ding, S. Y.; Himmel M. E.
Screening cDNA libraries for genes encoding proteins that interact with a bait protein is usually performed in yeast. However, subcellular compartmentation and protein modification may differ in yeast and plant cells, resulting in misidentification of protein partners. We used bimolecular fluorescence complementation technology to screen a plant cDNA library against a bait protein directly in plants. As proof of concept, we used the N-terminal fragment of yellow fluorescent protein– or nVenus-tagged Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirE2 and VirD2 proteins and the C-terminal extension (CTE) domain of Arabidopsis thaliana telomerase reverse transcriptase as baits to screen an Arabidopsis cDNA library encoding proteins tagged with the C-terminal fragment of yellow fluorescent protein. A library of colonies representing ?2 × 105 cDNAs was arrayed in 384-well plates. DNA was isolated from pools of 10 plates, individual plates, and individual rows and columns of the plates. Sequential screening of subsets of cDNAs in Arabidopsis leaf or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 protoplasts identified single cDNA clones encoding proteins that interact with either, or both, of the Agrobacterium bait proteins, or with CTE. T-DNA insertions in the genes represented by some cDNAs revealed five novel Arabidopsis proteins important for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. We also used this cDNA library to confirm VirE2-interacting proteins in orchid (Phalaenopsis amabilis) flowers. Thus, this technology can be applied to several plant species.
The otomies (the hñähñü) of the Nicolás Flores municipality, Hidalgo, have maintained their knowledge of medicinal plants over generations. Allopathic medicine is limited mostly to prevention of diseases such as poliomyelitis, measles, smallpox, and malaria. It is considered that traditional medicine is more viable for this group of people because of the socioeconomic, cultural and physiographic conditions prevalent in the
The resource is useful for teacher's professional development by alerting educators to many plant misconceptions in teaching literature. In the thought provoking, peer reviewed resource fifty misconceptions are identified. Some misconceptions are easier to identify because they are oversimplifications, overgeneralizations, or misidentifications. Others are more difficult to identify because they are obsolete concepts and terms or flawed research.
Plant diseases constitute an emerging threat to global food security. Many of the currently available antimicrobial agents for agriculture are highly toxic and nonbiodegradable and cause extended environ- mental pollution. Moreover, an increasing number of phytopathogens develop resistance to them. Re- cently, we have reported on a new family of ultrashort antimicrobial lipopeptides which are composed of only four amino
Arik Makovitzki; Ada Viterbo; Yariv Brotman; Ilan Chet; Yechiel Shai
The use of bioluminescence was evaluated as a tool to study Pseudomonas syringae population dynamics in susceptible and resistant plant environments. Plasmid pGLITE, containing the luxCDABE genes from Photorhabdus luminescens, was introduced into Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola race 7 strain 1449B, a Gram-negative pathogen of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Bacteria recovered from plant tissue over a five-day period were enumerated by
Christopher D. Paynter; Vyvyan C. Salisbury; Dawn L. Arnold; Robert W. Jackson
The current challenge, now that two plant genomes have been sequenced, is to assign a function to the increasing number of predicted genes. In Arabidopsis, approximately 55% of genes can be assigned a putative function, however, less than 8% of these have been assigned a function by direct experimental evidence. To identify these functions, many genes will have to undergo comprehensive analyses, which will include the production of chimeric transgenes for constitutive or inducible ectopic expression, for antisense or dominant negative expression, for subcellular localization studies, for promoter analysis, and for gene complementation studies. The production of such transgenes is often hampered by laborious conventional cloning technology that relies on restriction digestion and ligation. With the aim of providing tools for high throughput gene analysis, we have produced a Gateway-compatible Agrobacterium sp. binary vector system that facilitates fast and reliable DNA cloning. This collection of vectors is freely available, for noncommercial purposes, and can be used for the ectopic expression of genes either constitutively or inducibly. The vectors can be used for the expression of protein fusions to the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein and to the beta-glucuronidase protein so that the subcellular localization of a protein can be identified. They can also be used to generate promoter-reporter constructs and to facilitate efficient cloning of genomic DNA fragments for complementation experiments. All vectors were derived from pCambia T-DNA cloning vectors, with the exception of a chemically inducible vector, for Agrobacterium sp.-mediated transformation of a wide range of plant species. PMID:14555774
Fenology and phytochemistry analysis of the medicinal plants of occurrence in the Amazon. The determination of the fenology of the medicinal plants is of fundamental importance for the obtaining of extracts. The work had as objective evaluates the and to characterize phytochemistryment coming medicinal species of collections and banks of germoplasma of East Amazon Embrapa, seeking the use and correct
Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns and virulence effectors are recognized by plants as a first step to mount a defence response against potential pathogens. This recognition involves a large family of extracellular membrane receptors and other immune proteins located in different sub-cellular compartments. We have used phage-display technology to express and select for Arabidopsis proteins able to bind bacterial pathogens. To rapidly identify microbe-bound phage, we developed a monitoring method based on microarrays. This combined strategy allowed for a genome-wide screening of plant proteins involved in pathogen perception. Two phage libraries for high-throughput selection were constructed from cDNA of plants infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, or from combined samples of the virulent isolate DC3000 of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and its avirulent variant avrRpt2. These three pathosystems represent different degrees in the specificity of plant-microbe interactions. Libraries cover up to 2×107 different plant transcripts that can be displayed as functional proteins on the surface of T7 bacteriophage. A number of these were selected in a bio-panning assay for binding to Pseudomonas cells. Among the selected clones we isolated the ethylene response factor ATERF-1, which was able to bind the three bacterial strains in competition assays. ATERF-1 was rapidly exported from the nucleus upon infiltration of either alive or heat-killed Pseudomonas. Moreover, aterf-1 mutants exhibited enhanced susceptibility to infection. These findings suggest that ATERF-1 contains a microbe-recognition domain with a role in plant defence. To identify other putative pathogen-binding proteins on a genome-wide scale, the copy number of selected-vs.-total clones was compared by hybridizing phage cDNAs with Arabidopsis microarrays. Microarray analysis revealed a set of 472 candidates with significant fold change. Within this set defence-related genes, including well-known targets of bacterial effectors, are over-represented. Other genes non-previously related to defence can be associated through this study with general or strain-specific recognition of Pseudomonas.
Rioja, Cristina; Van Wees, Saskia C.; Charlton, Keith A.; Pieterse, Corne M. J.; Lorenzo, Oscar; Garcia-Sanchez, Susana
BACKGROUND: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight disease, is a serious pathogen of rice. Here we describe a fluorescent marker system to study virulence and pathogenicity of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. RESULTS: A fluorescent X. oryzae pv. oryzae Philippine race 6 strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) (PXO99GFP) was generated using the gfp gene under the
Sang-Wook Han; Chang-Jin Park; Sang-Won Lee; Pamela C Ronald
Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe infection of the subcutaneous tissue, with a higher mortality if treatment is not adequate. Nursing care can be fundamental in obtaining a good outcome of the healing process. We present a case of an 80 year-old diabetic patient admitted to our orthopaedic surgery unit as consequence of a screw displacement in her hip. She was
Ana Craviotto Vallejo; Raquel Guzmán Carrasco; María Antonia Martín Fernández
It is difficult for the common sense to admit that an object dropped from the top of the mast of a ship moving at a constant velocity falls down at the bottom of the mast because it keeps inside the horizontal movement of the ship. This difficulty is similar to the one faced by early scientists from the pre-classical science
It is difficult for the common sense to admit that an object dropped from the\\u000atop of the mast of a ship moving at a constant velocity falls down at the\\u000abottom of the mast because it keeps inside the horizontal movement of the ship.\\u000aThis difficulty is similar to the one faced by early scientists from the\\u000apre-classical science
La traducció catalana a l’exili no ha estat gaire estudiada, atès que la producció no és gaire abundosa i queda dispersa enmig d’un munt de tipologies i plataformes (quan no es presenta com a obra «original»): traduccions anònimes, dobles versions, autotraduccions, versions i adaptacions teatrals inèdites, traduccions «visibles» i «invisibles» a la premsa, traduccions premiades als Jocs Florals… Aquest article
These pages aim to give a global vision of the current situation of the so called “Economics of language” literature. They start over with a description of main characteristics and a first definition of what it is correctly understood as “Economics of language”. Later on, we thoroughly analyse some of the key research lines through with the economic analysis has
El desarrollo es un término que ha despertado un extenso debate dentro de las filas de la antropología. Dos tendencias, van a surgir en los abordajes teóricos sobre el desarrollo. Por un lado, la liberal la cual presupone que existen sociedades ubicadas en estadios diferentes de desarrollo cuya carrera es en forma lineal y se lleva a cabo por el
El siguiente trabajo (a diferencia de otros) intenta ser un abordaje innovador sobre el tema que denota la etno-psicología del gasto (erogación). Asimismo, su presentación (en forma de comentarios etnográficos o cuaderno de notas) es combinada con datos estadísticos de gran relevancia y comentarios personales del observador durante el trabajo de campo. En este caso, se ha combinado prácticas propias
We analyze households’ economic freedom to determine their standard of living, characterized by their capacity to spend on housing, utilities, food, and transport: economic poverty is a lack of freedom due to budgetary constraints. We propose three new measures. The first is the classical notion of “freedom to choose”, distinguishing however between the categories of high, medium and low frequency
Pulmonary aspergillosis is a mycotic infection caused by the aspergillus fumigatus, saprophyte of the normal human sputum. Five patients with non invasive aspergillosis were studied, of whom 4 were adults (3 women, 1 man) and one, pediatric, with invasive aspergillosis. All of them were studied by conventional X-ray, spiral CT, multislice CT and video capsule endoscopy. The presentation is predominant
Héctor G. Oxilia; Rodrigo G. Oxilia; Fernando Falco; J. R. Villavicencio Rosario
In the present paper the structural behavior of a riveted lap joint connection was investigated experimentally and numerically using a new rivet element. The rivet element, based on a closed-form solution of a theoretical model of the rivet joint, is able to precisely evaluate, in FE analysis, both local and overall stiffness of riveted joints with a very low contribution
|Fifty-five citations pertaining to the scientific and mathematic development of ancient Mexicans, particularly the Mayas, are given in this select bibliography. The introduction and descriptions of resource libraries in 8 States are in Spanish. (NQ)|
By one-stop surgery is meant the performing of both the pre-surgery assessment and the surgical procedure on the same day. We report our experience with a pilot study on one-stop surgery in the province of Bizkaia, with a population of 124,494 children aged 1 to 14 years old. Under the new scheme, the patient average of four visits to the
P. López Álvarez-Buhilla; I. Astigarraga Aguirre; C. Torres Piedra; M. I. Azcona Zorrilla; A. Olaizola Mendibil; M. Latorre Guisasola
In this work we analize the compact flare of May 9, 2012, at 12:21 UT using data in different wavelenghts, including images obtained with the H-Alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina (HASTA). We identify the brightenings, their location with respect to the photospheric magnetic field, and the presence of a surge after the flare impulsive phase. We interprete the observations and the presence of cold loops after the flare in terms of the location of the energy release site. We estimate the height and length of the loops through which the surge material flows. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH
Resumen\\u000a Introducción El linfoma primario de testículo (LPT) representa un 1% de todos los linfomas no Hodgkin y aproximadamente un 2% de los linfomas\\u000a no Hodgkin extranodales. Un 25%–50% de los casos se diagnostican en pacientes mayores de 50 años. A pesar de ser la neoplasia\\u000a testicular más frecuente por encima de los 60 años, supone solamente un 9% de todos
Carlos Salvador-Osuna; Juan Carlos García-Zueco; Nuria Fernández-Mosteirín; Pilar Mayayo Artal; Ramiro Álvarez Alegret; L. Bengoechea Martínez; C. Larumbe Zazu
|Discusses the fifth volume of the "Etimologia Vortaro de Esperanto" (Etymological Dictionary of Esperanto). The dictionary provides not only the etynom of each Esperanto term, but also the etymology of the ethnic language words from which the editor derived the terms in question. (Author/VWL)|
In this paper, we propose to analyze the case of a textile productive chain, framed in fair trade, it takes place in the town of Capilla del Monte, Cordoba, Argentina. This iniciative brings together a large number of workers in the context of domestic and handmade work processes. Under the guidelines of local economic development, the textile productive chain was
Iron homeostasis and a hormone: hepcidin Hepcidin is a cystein-rich peptide from the HAMP gene. It is produced in the liver and is considered as a key element in the regulation, absorption and kinetics of iron in the organism. For this reason, it has been recently given preferential value in iron homeostasis. This has permitted to defi ne iron overcharge
Yubire Barrios; Edgar Acosta; Milagros Espinoza; Andreína Meléndez; Daliana Méndez
In the present study, we describe the phenomenon of the activity anorexia in rats. The procedures that have been used for in this experimental study in the laboratory are revised, as well as the main factors that influence its development. The most relevant theories that have tried to explain the origin of this behaviour are also presented. Lastly, we propose
|Evolving from a general commitment to the goals of cultural pluralism and bicultural education, this portfolio of 24 full color and halftone photographs aims to reinforce those curricular objectives which emphasize a respect for the value and individuality of different cultures and groups, affirm the right of an individual to maintain a…
Els títols de films en llengua anglesa són, avui dia, textos (o paratextos) de gran importància cultural en les societats occidentals. En aquest article ens ocupem de dues qüestions: (1) del fenomen —força popular— de la traducció dels títols de pel·lícules en llengua anglesa que arriben al nostres cinemes; repassem les variades tipologies emprades per analitzar les traduccions dels títols
El propósito del ensayo es analizar los factores que explican la violencia en Colombia; para ello, el autor, retoma elementos fundamentalmente en el neoinstitucionalismo, en el narcotráfico y en la desigualdad. González, después de explorara los tres elementos antes enunciados, plantea la hipótesis de que la desigualdad es, a su juicio, el factor que más se aproxima para interpretar la
Text Version... En colaboración con la National Alliance for Hispanic Health (Alianza Nacional para la Salud de los Hispanos) www.hispanichealth.org 1-866-SU ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/resourcesforyou
La obra del filósofo y escritor bético Lucio Anneo Séneca ha sido ampliamente estudiada por diversas disciplinas. Causa sorpresa que se haya ignorado la presencia que pudiera tener la música en los trabajos de tan prolífico autor. Es difícil encontrar referencias a su obra incluso entre los historiadores musicales de la Edad Antigua. Este artículo registra, a la vez que
Felines: an alternative in genetic toxicology studies? The micronuclei (MN) test carry out in peripheral blood is fast, simple, economic and it is used to detect genotoxic environmental agents. MN are frag- ments of chromosomes or complete chromosomes remaining in the cytoplasm after cell division, which increase when organisms are exposed to genotoxic agents. Therefore, species with the highest values
Ana Zamora-Perez; Belinda C. Gómez-Meda; María L. Ramos-Ibarra; Cecilia M. Batista; Jaime Luna-Aguirre; Andrés González-Rodríguez; José L. Rodríguez-Ávila; Guillermo M. Zúñiga-González; Medio Ambiente
LOCALIZA software is a tool that increases GIS applications possibilities to analyze and solve optimal facility location problems. This system, that it is being migrated from Delphi to Python, allows to evaluate how existing facility supply covers the demand. On the other hand, it includes the resolution of an elevated number of classic location-allocation models and, in some cases, includes
Experimentation on non human animals is a widespread practice in our society and a main topic for animal ethics normative theories. In the last forty years the humanisation of such practice has been deeply influenced by the so called \\
... Aunque la FDA ha intentado hacer esta traducción tan exacta como razonablemente sea posible, reconocemos que esta traducción puede incluir ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/foodfacilityregistration
Introduction: Migraine and bipolar disorder (BD) are prevalent conditions and of great relevance for the general population. Some studies have informed of their association but until now we don't know if it is real. Objective: To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the known evidence of the association between migraine and BD. Methods: A search was placed in Medline, Proquest
Germán Eduardo; Rueda Jaimes; Iván Augusto; Gaona Barbosa; Yuli Andrea Martínez Ladino
The seminumeric method by Herrera, Jimenez and Ruggeri, which allows to find dynamic solutions of the equations of Einstein with spherical symmetry starting from well-known statics solutions, are used to treat the collapse of a strange star in the "free streaming radiation limit". Fixed a profile of pulsating luminosity and for a previously studied state equation, it can be demostrated that the frequency of the profile coincides with the frequency of oscillation of the star`s surface. It is proven also that the collapse of a strange star is slower a hundred times that the corresponding to a star of normal matter.
Serologic investigation on a wildboar population in the western Alps. Sera from 201 wild boars were collected in the High Susa Valley (Turin) during two consecutive hunting seasons (1996\\/97 and 1997\\/98). Fast seroagglutination (RBT) and the complement fixation test (CFT) were used to detect antibodies against Brucella abortus (178 samples). ELISA tests were carried out to detect antibodies against the
|The history of the journal "Esercitazioni Matematiche" (1921-43) edited by the "Circolo Matematico di Catania" for university students is described. A selection of proposed problems with some of their solutions is reported. (Author)|
Psoriasis is a chronic disease that has a very negative impact on the quality of life of those suffering it. Therefore, treatments that make it possible to satisfactorily control the disease in the long term and maintain a good safety profile are needed. Efalizumab fulfills both requirements. In this article, the potential risks involved in treatment with efalizumab, specifically the
OBJECTIVES: A bad death is always a medical emergency, and the care of the terminally ill is an unavoidable clinical obligation. Our aim was to empirically demonstrate that this is an attainable goal in a general hospital. METHOD: Observational and prospective clinical investigation describing the effects of terminal sedation in a series of patients receiving healthcare in real time. RESULTS:
N. Marín; H. Kessel; M. Rodríguez; A. C. Barnosi; A. Lazo; E. Amat
The presence of an abdominal mass may be symptomatic or it could be found in a routine physical examination. Before this is diagnosed some further tests should be done for the differential diagnosis of the mass, whether it is of gynaecological origin and if the pathology is benign or malignant. The mass may be accompanied by acute or chronic pain.
Eva María Vicedo Madrazo; Maria Luisa Monje Beltrán; Montserrat Llobet Roma; Anabel Martín-Urda Diez-Canseco; José Manuel Marqueta Sánchez
Insulin pumps are devices that inject insulin continuously into the body in a similar way to the pancreatic secretion, and with endless possibilities to adjust schedules, meals and physical activities, giving diabetics the chance to lead a life with many less restraints due to their illness.Besides giving them this freedom, the therapy allows more precise control of blood glucose, significantly
Elena Gutiérrez-Torre; Ana Rosa Alconero-Camarero; Blanca Torres-Manrique; Elías Rodríguez-Martín
Mangroves constitutes an irreplaceable ecosystem, from which human communities extract diverse resources to survive. It is fundamental to inform the public about the importance of this ecos- ystem as a refuge of many species of the flora and fauna as well as its rational use. The environmental education is necessary to help in the awareness on the problematic that mangrove
Reyna Marisol; Linares Mazariegos; Cristian Tovilla Hernández
Four pamphlets explain co-ops in general, co-ops as businesses, how co-ops succeed and how to form a co-op. Co-ops in the American Private Enterprise System compares co-ops with other businesses. The Business Co-op explains how a co-op can function as a p...
Cardiometabolic prevention; Cardiometabolic risk; Cardiovascular risk. On the basis of a critical literature review, this article deals with the concepts of global cardiovascu- lar risk and cardiometabolic risk, pointing out their links but also their unresolved issues and dis- cussing their usefulness in clinical practice. The global cardiovascular risk is the probability of suffering from a coronary event or stroke
Diego Vanuzzo; Lorenza Pilotto; Renata Mirolo; Salvatore Pirelli
... hacer si tengo síntomas de enfermedades transmitidas por los alimentos?” Consulte de inmediato a su médico o proveedor de servicios de salud. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk
Human rights outlined a better scenario for public policies in health. For it requires intersectoral and interdisciplinary approach. This article emphasizes the perspective of public health policies based on human rights, clarifies the relationship of public policies with the exercise of human rights, beyond the right to health. It recognizes the need to implement genuinely democratic and participatory mechanisms.It considers
Patients’ rights first arose as a question of quality from the perspective of users themselves in the United States, a cultural environment that differs from our own. This contextual difference led to difficulties in implementing and understanding patients’ rights in Spain.Patients’ rights are the specification of human rights in the management of the patient's own body and are one more
\\u000a Abstract Carmen Fischer who died on 29th April 1991, was an eminent member of OMEP. She served as Regional Vice President for Southern\\u000a America from 1980–1986. During this time, those of us who attended the World Council and Seminar in Santiago, Chile, became\\u000a aware of her great strength of character. Despite the many difficulties presented by life in Chile, she went
onicos; micromaquinado en microelectronica; espejos ´ opticos. A fabrication design of a conic surface (k = ¡6:5), in monocrystalline silicon substrate and based on anisotropic etching with KOH, is presented. The conical surface is approximated by means of spherical windows; comparisons between diameter and separation of the spherical windows, as well as the parameters that govern the selection are discussed.
A 33-year-old woman with a previous history of systemic lupus erythematosus complained of exerptional dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain accompanied by polyarthritis. Chest-X-rays revealed an elevation of the right hemidiaphragm. We discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic approach.
Psychological variables are the most consistent findings which associate depressión and oncologic illness. Objective: To analyze the relationship between personality dimensions and coping style in a sample of oncologic patients. Method: 40 patients with diagnosis of breast, colon or lung cancer, no metastasic, and a depressive disorder (DSM IV) were compared with a 39 patients with the same oncologic diagnosis
Beatriz Rodríguez; Carmen Bayón; Pablo Orgaz; Guadalupe Torres; Fernando Mora; Beatriz Castelo
Argentina has more than twice the total debt of India whilst the latter has twenty-eight times more population in roughly equivalent territories. It was once a prosperous haven for poor Europeans, with one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, but now half its population is underneath the poverty line. It has perpetrated the greatest default in world
Riassunto La teoria diHeitler, che prevede la creazione di mesoni nell'urto protone-protone, conduce per le sezioni d'urto relative a tale processo a valori\\u000a eccessivamente elevati. Questo è sostanzialmente dovuto al fatto che nella sua teoria la probabilità di emissione di un mesone,\\u000a quando il parametro d'urto è molto piccolo, risulta maggiore di uno. Interpretando invece, secondo un suggerimento diBethe, questa probabilità
The issue-focused reprint explains how natural ecosystems produce services upon which we are dependent. For example, they: provide us with clean water and air, pollinate our crops and disperse seeds, protect us from extreme weather and ultraviolet light, and control pests and disease-carrying organisms.
Sociedad Americana de EcologÃÂÃÂa (Ecological Society of America, ESA) (la Sociedad Americana de EcologÃÂÃÂa;)
Evolving from a general commitment to the goals of cultural pluralism and bicultural education, this portfolio of 24 full color and halftone photographs aims to reinforce those curricular objectives which emphasize a respect for the value and individuality of different cultures and groups, affirm the right of an individual to maintain a bicultural…
The new educative reality of our centers needs to become aware from the presence different cultures and requires to take care of special form the social-affective dimension of the students pertaining to minority groups. The objective of this work is to study and to analyze thorough the educative necessities that they present and they demand the students magrebíes immigrants of
Apuntes de Psicología; Benito LEÓN DEL BARCO; Elena FELIPE CASTAÑO; Teresa GÓMEZ CARROZA; Margarita GOZALO DELGADO; Carlos LATAS PÉREZ
The purpose of this paper is to obtain the motion of the Earth's axis of rotation in an Earth's fixed frame. The authors consider only the effect of the perturbations due to the external torque and also the elastic deformations produced by the lunisolar tidal force.
|Hispanic Americans are diverse, but researchers are often limited by available data that do not highlight their diversity. This report presents information about the total Hispanic American population, along with data on the largest subgroups that make up that total. Good and bad news about Hispanics is presented using data from the U.S. Bureau…
Plant defensins, exhibiting various levels of inhibitory activity against fungal pathogens, are potent candidates for pharmaceutical or agricultural antimycotics. Study of the plant defensins from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana requires the purification of these peptides. However, heterologous production of defensins for large-scale in vitro bioactivity assays is often experienced as a major problem. In this study we describe the transgenic expression of a previously identified seed-specific and a so far uncharacterized plant defensin gene in their host A. thaliana using a formerly developed plant expression system. Therefore, both genes were cloned in a matrix attachment region (MAR) based plant transformation vector and expressed in post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) impaired A. thaliana plants. The peptides were purified to homogeneity and were correctly processed, as confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Finally, they were assessed for their in vitro antifungal activity and mode of antifungal action. Our results indicate that the PTGS-MAR expression system can be applied to obtain significant amounts of bioactive, rightly processed plant peptides from leaves of first generation transgenic plants. PMID:17180735
Sels, Jan; Delauré, Stijn L; Aerts, An M; Proost, Paul; Cammue, Bruno P A; De Bolle, Miguel F C
BACKGROUND: Self-complementary RNA transcripts form a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that triggers a sequence-specific mRNA degradation, in a process known as RNA interference (RNAi), leading to gene silencing. In vascular plants, RNAi molecules trafficking occur between cells and systemically throughout the plant. RNAi signals can spread systemically throughout a plant, even across graft junctions from transgenic to non-transgenic stocks. There is
Maria Laine P Tinoco; Bárbara BA Dias; Rebeca C Dall'Astta; João A Pamphile; Francisco JL Aragão
A hairpin RNA (hpRNA) vector, pKNOCKOUT (pKO) has been constructed to facilitate the analysis of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in an agrobacteria-mediated transient expression system developed for tobacco. The pKO binary vector was tested by cloning a firefly luciferase (Photinus pyrali...
PCR amplification of two CHS gene fragments of the obligate biotroph Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew of grapevine, is described. While one fragment shows homology to fungal class IV chitin synthases, the other fragment groups with other oomycete chitin synthases to form a novel class of chitin synthases most closely related to class I–III. RT-PCR experiments indicate
Stefan Werner; Ulrike Steiner; Rayko Becher; Andreas Kortekamp; Eva Zyprian; Holger B Deising
We report 61 new records of alien plants for Torres del Paine National Park. The park is located in the Magellan Region (49°21'-51°08'S y 73°07'-74°52'O), with an area of 181.414 ha. The study area has 21 families, 65 genera and 85 alien species. The families with the largest number of species are Poaceae (22 spp.), Asteraceae (11 spp.) and Caryophyllaceae
\\u000a Microbial endophytes are able to colonize internal tissues of plant without causing harm to the host. Historically, microbial\\u000a endophytes have been thought to be weakly virulent plant pathogens, but now they have been recently discovered to have several\\u000a beneficial effects on the host plants, such as plant growth promotion by producing phyto-hormone, and increasing resistance\\u000a against the plant pathogens and
Resveratrol and related stilbenes are thought to play important roles in defence responses in several plant species and have also generated considerable interest as nutraceuticals owing to their diverse health-promoting properties. Pterostilbene, a 3,5-dimethylether derivative of resveratrol, possesses properties similar to its parent compound and, additionally, exhibits significantly higher fungicidal activity in vitro and superior pharmacokinetic properties in vivo. Recombinant enzyme studies carried out using a previously characterized O-methyltransferase sequence from Sorghum bicolor (SbOMT3) demonstrated its ability to catalyse the A ring-specific 3,5-bis-O-methylation of resveratrol, yielding pterostilbene. A binary vector was constructed for the constitutive co-expression of SbOMT3 with a stilbene synthase sequence from peanut (AhSTS3) and used for the generation of stably transformed tobacco and Arabidopsis plants, resulting in the accumulation of pterostilbene in both species. A reduced floral pigmentation phenotype observed in multiple tobacco transformants was further investigated by reversed-phase HPLC analysis, revealing substantial decreases in both dihydroquercetin-derived flavonoids and phenylpropanoid-conjugated polyamines in pterostilbene-producing SbOMT3/AhSTS3 events. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this strategy for the generation of pterostilbene-producing crops and also underscore the need for the development of additional approaches for minimizing concomitant reductions in key phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites.
Rimando A. M.; Liu C.; Pan, Z.; Polashock, J. J.; Dayan, F. E., Mizuno, C. S.; Snook, M. E.; Baerson, S. R.
The heterologous expression of glycosyl hydrolases in bioenergy crops can improve the lignocellulosic conversion process for ethanol production. We attempted to obtain high-level expression of an intact Thermotoga maritima endoglucanase, Cel5A, and CBM6-engineered Cel5A in transgenic tobacco plants for the mass production and autohydrolysis of endoglucanase. Cel5A expression was targeted to different subcellular compartments, namely, the cytosol, apoplast, and chloroplast, using the native form of the pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR1a) and Rubisco activase (RA) transit peptides. Cel5A transgenic tobacco plants with the chloroplast transit peptide showed the highest average endoglucanase activity and protein accumulation up to 4.5% total soluble protein. Cel5A-CBM6 was targeted to the chloroplast and accumulated up to 5.2% total soluble protein. In terms of the direct conversion of plant tissue into free sugar, the Cel5A-CBM6 transgenic plant was 33% more efficient than the Cel5A transgenic plant. The protein stability of Cel5A and Cel5A-CBM6 in lyophilized leaf material is an additional advantage in the bioconversion process. PMID:21152978
Purpose Industrial wastewater flow caused operational difficulties in the wastewater treatment plant in Debrecen, Hungary. Bioaugmentation\\u000a was successfully applied to maintain effluent quality in the periods when wastewater of high starch content was accepted,\\u000a but, at the end of 2008, the nitrification capacity of the plant decreased considerably due to improperly pre-treated pharmaceutical\\u000a wastewater.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and material Dynamic simulations were carried out
Ákos Rédey; Viola Somogyi; József Ányos; Endre Domokos; Péter Thury; Tatiana Yuzhakova
A recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET) approach with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) revealed that lipA, annotated as putative secreted lipase, is expressed during the interaction between this pathogen and tomato. Here, the tnpR and uidA reporter genes were used to show that lipA is strongly induced in XVM2 minimal medium and during the early stages of tomato infection by Xcv. A mutant strain impaired in lipA was generated by insertional mutagenesis. This mutant grew in a similar manner to the wild-type in rich medium, but its growth was significantly compromised in a medium containing olive oil as a single carbon source. The lipolytic activity of the extracellular fraction of the lipA mutant was reduced significantly relative to that of the wild-type strain, thus confirming that lipA indeed encodes a functional secreted enzyme with lipolytic activity. A plasmid carrying a wild-type copy of lipA complemented the lipA mutant for extracellular lipolytic activity. Dip inoculation experiments with tomato lines Hawaii 7998 (H7998) and Micro Tom showed that the lipA mutant grew to a lesser extent than the wild-type in tomato leaves. Following leaf syringe infiltrations, the mutant strain induced disease symptoms that were less severe than those induced by the wild-type strain, supporting a significant role of lipA in the pathogenicity of Xcv. PMID:22176521
Conclusion It has been suggested by Mangelsdorf and his co-workers (1964) that the two subdivisions (according to toxicity) into which\\u000a cultivated manioc falls “had a separate and local history of cultivation,” and an examination of the evidence presented above\\u000a makes it possible to elaborate on this suggestion.\\u000a \\u000a It may be proposed that sweet manioc was first domesticated in Mesoamerica as one
Techniques to obtain cytological preparations with high frequency of mitotic metaphases in plants: Passiflora (Passifloraceae) and Crotalaria (Leguminosae)). Experiments were carried out aiming to optimize procedures for cytological preparations of root tips with high frequency of metaphase cells showing clear features of chromosome morphology, in species belonging to two genera of plants, Passiflora (Passifloraceae) and Crotalaria
Silvia Marina Cuco; Mateus Mondin; Maria Lúcia Carneiro Vieira; Margarida L. R. Aguiar-Perecin
The precision agriculture technology has been motivated by cost minimization, labor optimization and environmental pollution reduction. The Lesser Cornstalk Borer damages the corn plants on initial stage affecting the production because of stand reduction. Therefore, algorithms have been proposed for classifying damaged corn plants by that pest. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of image block
R. S. ZANDONADI; F. A. C. PINTO; D. G. SENA JÚNIOR; D. M. QUEIROZ
Carotenoids are converted by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases that catalyze oxidative cleavage reactions leading to apocarotenoids.\\u000a However, apocarotenoids can also be further truncated by some members of this enzyme family. The plant carotenoid cleavage\\u000a dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) subfamily is known to degrade both carotenoids and apocarotenoids in vitro, leading to different volatile\\u000a compounds. In this study, we investigated the impact of
Andrea Ilg; Qiuju Yu; Patrick Schaub; Peter Beyer; Salim Al-Babili
Claviceps purpurea has been shown to secrete catalases in axenic and parasitic culture. In order to determine the importance of these enzymes in the host-parasite interaction, especially their role in overcoming oxidative stress imposed on the pathogen by the plant's defense system, the catR gene from A. niger was used to isolate a putative catalase gene from a genomic library of C. purpurea, cpcat1 consists of an open reading frame of 2,148 bp that is interrupted by five introns. Its derived gene product shows significant homology to fungal catalases and contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids and three putative N-glycosylation sites, which indicates that CPCAT1 is a secreted catalase. Disruption of the gene by a gene replacement approach resulted in the loss of two catalase isoforms, CATC and CATD, strongly suggesting that they are both encoded by cpcat1. CATD is the major secreted catalase of C. purpurea and is furthermore the only catalase present in the honeydew of infected rye ears. Deletion mutants of cpcat1 were inoculated on rye plants and showed no significant reduction in virulence. Ovarian tissue and honeydew of plants inoculated with the mutants lacked CATD, confirming that this catalase is not essential for colonization of the host tissue by C. purpurea. PMID:9675893
COMATOSE (CTS), the Arabidopsis homologue of human Adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), is required for import of substrates for peroxisomal ?-oxidation. A new allelic series and a homology model based on the bacterial ABC transporter, Sav1866, provide novel insights into structure-function relations of ABC subfamily D proteins. In contrast to ALDP, where the majority of mutations result in protein absence from the peroxisomal membrane, all CTS mutants produced stable protein. Mutation of conserved residues in the Walker A and B motifs in CTS nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) 1 resulted in a null phenotype but had little effect in NBD2, indicating that the NBDs are functionally distinct in vivo. Two alleles containing mutations in NBD1 outside the Walker motifs (E617K and C631Y) exhibited resistance to auxin precursors 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid (2,4-DB) and indole butyric acid (IBA) but were wild type in all other tests. The homology model predicted that the transmission interfaces are domain-swapped in CTS, and the differential effects of mutations in the conserved “EAA motif” of coupling helix 2 supported this prediction, consistent with distinct roles for each NBD. Our findings demonstrate that CTS functions can be separated by mutagenesis and the structural model provides a framework for interpretation of phenotypic data.
Dietrich, Daniela; Schmuths, Heike; Lousa, Carine De Marcos; Baldwin, Jocelyn M.; Baldwin, Stephen A.; Baker, Alison; Holdsworth, Michael J.
Transient expression is an easy, rapid and powerful technique for producing proteins of interest in plants. Recombinational\\u000a cloning is highly efficient but has disadvantages, including complicated, time consuming cloning procedures and expensive\\u000a enzymes for large-scale gene cloning. To overcome these limitations, we developed new ligationindependent cloning (LIC) vectors\\u000a derived from binary vectors including tobacco mosaic virus (pJL-TRBO), potato virus X
Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The most characteristic symptoms of the disease are green-spotted leaf chlorosis or, commonly since about 2004, necrotic blotches, followed by senescence of leaves beginning on the second or third flush behind the shoot apex, and blackening of infected xylem in the vascular traces at the leaf scars resulting from the abscission of infected leaves. Eventually the shoot apex is killed and infected branches die. In susceptible cacao the fungus may grow through the xylem down into the main stem and kill a mature cacao tree. Infections in the stem of young plants prior to the formation of the first 3-4 lateral branches usually kill the plant. Basidiospores released from corticioid basidiomata developed on leaf scars or along cracks in the main vein of infected leaves infect young leaves. The pathogen commonly infects cacao but there are rare reports from avocado. As both crops are introduced to the region, the pathogen is suspected to occur asymptomatically in native vegetation. The pathogen is readily isolated but cultures cannot be maintained. In this study, DNA was extracted from pure cultures of O. theobromae obtained from infected cacao plants sampled from Indonesia. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), consisting of ITS1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA and ITS2, and a portion of nuclear large subunit (LSU) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences placed O. theobromae sister to Ceratobasidium anastomosis groups AG-A, AG-Bo, and AG-K with high posterior probability. Therefore the new combination Ceratobasidium theobromae is proposed. A PCR-based protocol was developed to detect and identify C. theobromae in plant tissue of cacao enabling early detection of the pathogen in plants. A second species of Ceratobasidium, Ceratobasidium ramicola, identified through ITS sequence analysis, was isolated from VSD-affected cacao plants in Java, and is widespread in diseased cacao collected from Indonesia. PMID:22208598
Samuels, Gary J; Ismaiel, Adnan; Rosmana, Ade; Junaid, Muhammad; Guest, David; McMahon, Peter; Keane, Philip; Purwantara, Agus; Lambert, Smilja; Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Cubeta, Marc A
The resource is useful for teacher's professional development by alerting educators to many plant misconceptions in teaching literature. In the thought provoking, peer reviewed resource fifty misconceptions are identified. Some misconceptions are easier to identify because they are oversimplifications, overgeneralizations, or misidentifications. Others are more difficult to identify because they are obsolete concepts and terms or flawed research.
The Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) RNA 2 mutant p1-5b was previously isolated from Bemisia tabaci-transmitted virus maintained in Chenopodium murale plants. p1-5b RNA 2 contains a single-nucleotide deletion in the minor coat protein (CPm) open reading frame (ORF) that is predicted to result in a frameshift and premature termination of the protein. Using the recently developed agroinoculation system for LIYV, we tested RNA 2 containing the p1-5b CPm mutant genotype (agro-pR6-5b) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We showed that plant infection triggered by agro-pR6-5b spread systemically and resulted in the formation of virions similar to those produced in p1-5b-inoculated protoplasts. However, virions derived from these mutant CPm genotypes were not transmitted by whiteflies, even though virion concentrations were above the typical transmission thresholds. In contrast, and as demonstrated for the first time, an engineered restoration mutant (agro-pR6-5bM1) was capable of both systemic movement in plants and whitefly transmission. These results provide strong molecular evidence that the full-length LIYV-encoded CPm is dispensable for systemic plant movement but is required for whitefly transmission. PMID:20861267
Stewart, Lucy R; Medina, Vicente; Tian, Tongyan; Turina, Massimo; Falk, Bryce W; Ng, James C K
The Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) RNA 2 mutant p1-5b was previously isolated from Bemisia tabaci-transmitted virus maintained in Chenopodium murale plants. p1-5b RNA 2 contains a single-nucleotide deletion in the minor coat protein (CPm) open reading frame (ORF) that is predicted to result in a frameshift and premature termination of the protein. Using the recently developed agroinoculation system for LIYV, we tested RNA 2 containing the p1-5b CPm mutant genotype (agro-pR6-5b) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We showed that plant infection triggered by agro-pR6-5b spread systemically and resulted in the formation of virions similar to those produced in p1-5b-inoculated protoplasts. However, virions derived from these mutant CPm genotypes were not transmitted by whiteflies, even though virion concentrations were above the typical transmission thresholds. In contrast, and as demonstrated for the first time, an engineered restoration mutant (agro-pR6-5bM1) was capable of both systemic movement in plants and whitefly transmission. These results provide strong molecular evidence that the full-length LIYV-encoded CPm is dispensable for systemic plant movement but is required for whitefly transmission.
Stewart, Lucy R.; Medina, Vicente; Tian, Tongyan; Turina, Massimo; Falk, Bryce W.; Ng, James C. K.
A new extrachromosomal DNA, EcOYW1, was cloned from the onion yellows phytoplasma (OY-W). Southern blot and PCR analysis showed that EcOYW1 is not present in the OY-M, a mild symptom line derived from OY-W. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of EcOYW1; it is a circular dsDNA of 7<0 kbp in length, which contains seven ORFs. ORF1 encoded a homologue
Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important economic crop in Brazil but its yield can be significantly reduced by white mold, a disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, a necrotrophic, highly destructive, and non-host-specific fungus. This fungus secretes numerous cell wall-degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases, exo-?-1,3-glucanases, xylanases, and cellulases that have been detected during the early stages of infection. In this study, the activities of these enzymes were detected in all carbon sources tested (citrus pectin, cell wall extract from P. vulgaris, carboxymethyl cellulose, and glucose), but the highest levels were found when using citrus pectin and cell wall extract from P. vulgaris. Regardless of the carbon source, pH decreased throughout the culture time. During pathogenesis in dry bean stems, increased enzyme activities were also observed. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiments showed that the induction of polygalacturonases (sspg1, sspg3, sspg5, sspg6, and sspg7), exo-?-1,3-glucanases, and endo-?-1-4-glucanase in S. sclerotiorum occurred during the early stages of colonization. PMID:23913372
Transgenic tobacco plants producing chloroperoxidase (CPO-P), encoded by a novel gene from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia, were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation was shown by PCR, Southern, northern and western blot analyses, and assays\\u000a of CPO-P enzyme activity. Extracts from plants transformed with the CPO-P gene significantly reduced Aspergillus flavus colonies by up to 100% compared with extracts from control plants
K. Rajasekaran; J. W. Cary; T. J. Jacks; K. D. Stromberg; T. E. Cleveland
Summary: Plants associated to fishing and to their resources by Chorote indians from Chaco Semiarido (Argentine). Chorote indians belong to the Mataco-mataguayo linguistic family, they live in Argentina's Semiarid Chaco along the riverbanks of the Pilcomayo river in Salta province. Traditionally, they obtained their own living from hunting, gathering and fishing; being the latter of high cultural and economic value
INDUCED RESISTANCE EFFECT TO THE GIANT CONIFER APHID (HEMIPTERA:APHIDIDAE) IN SILICON FERTILIZED PLANTS OF PINUS TAEDA This research aimed to study the effect of silicon as a resistance inducer in P. taeda L. to C. atlantica (Wilson). Preference and reproductive rate tests were performed in plants of P. taeda with and without silicon application. The experiment was carried out in
Morphophysiological aspects and essential oil content in Brazilian-lavender as affected by shadowing Changes in the anatomical and physiologic characteristics and in the production of essential oil of medicinal plants under influence of different radiation conditions have been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to characterize the variation in the anatomical and physiologic characteristics, and in the essential oil content
José Eduardo BP Pinto; Júlio César W Cardoso; Evaristo M de Castro; Suzan Kelly V Bertolucci; Lucas A de Melo; Sara Dousseau
Background Self-complementary RNA transcripts form a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that triggers a sequence-specific mRNA degradation, in a process known as RNA interference (RNAi), leading to gene silencing. In vascular plants, RNAi molecules trafficking occur between cells and systemically throughout the plant. RNAi signals can spread systemically throughout a plant, even across graft junctions from transgenic to non-transgenic stocks. There is also a great interest in applying RNAi to pathogenic fungi. Specific inhibition of gene expression by RNAi has been shown to be suitable for a multitude of phytopathogenic filamentous fungi. However, double-stranded (ds)RNA/small interfering (si)RNA silencing effect has not been observed in vivo. Results This study demonstrates for the first time the in vivo interference phenomenon in the pathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides, in which expression of an individual fungal transgene was specifically abolished by inoculating mycelial cells in transgenic tobacco plants engineered to express siRNAs from a dsRNA corresponding to the particular transgene. Conclusion The results provide a powerful tool for further studies on molecular plant-microbe and symbiotic interactions. From a biotechnological perspective, silencing of fungal genes by generating siRNAs in the host provides a novel strategy for the development of broad fungi-resistance strategies in plants and other organisms.
Resveratrol and related stilbenes are thought to play important roles in defence responses in several plant species and have also generated considerable interest as nutraceuticals owing to their diverse health-promoting properties. Pterostilbene, a 3,5-dimethylether derivative of resveratrol, possesses properties similar to its parent compound and, additionally, exhibits significantly higher fungicidal activity in vitro and superior pharmacokinetic properties in vivo. Recombinant enzyme studies carried out using a previously characterized O-methyltransferase sequence from Sorghum bicolor (SbOMT3) demonstrated its ability to catalyse the A ring-specific 3,5-bis-O-methylation of resveratrol, yielding pterostilbene. A binary vector was constructed for the constitutive co-expression of SbOMT3 with a stilbene synthase sequence from peanut (AhSTS3) and used for the generation of stably transformed tobacco and Arabidopsis plants, resulting in the accumulation of pterostilbene in both species. A reduced floral pigmentation phenotype observed in multiple tobacco transformants was further investigated by reversed-phase HPLC analysis, revealing substantial decreases in both dihydroquercetin-derived flavonoids and phenylpropanoid-conjugated polyamines in pterostilbene-producing SbOMT3/AhSTS3 events. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this strategy for the generation of pterostilbene-producing crops and also underscore the need for the development of additional approaches for minimizing concomitant reductions in key phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites. PMID:21902799
Rimando, Agnes M; Pan, Zhiqiang; Polashock, James J; Dayan, Franck E; Mizuno, Cassia S; Snook, Maurice E; Liu, Chang-Jun; Baerson, Scott R
Development of transgenics in pigeon pea remains dogged by poor plant regeneration in vitro from transformed tissues and low frequency transformation protocols. This article presents a non-tissue culture-based method\\u000a of generating transgenic pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millisp.) plants using Agrobacterium-Ti plasmid-mediated transformation system. The protocol involves raising of whole plant transformants (T0 plants) directly from Agrobacterium-infected young seedlings. The
K. Sankara Rao; Rohini Sreevathsa; Pinakee D. Sharma; E. Keshamma; M. Udaya Kumar
Cytokinins are classic plant hormones that orchestrate plant growth, development, and physiology. They affect gene expression in target cells by activating a multistep phosphorelay network. Type-B response regulators, acting as transcriptional activators, mediate the final step in the signaling cascade. Previously, we have introduced a synthetic reporter, Two Component signaling Sensor (TCS)::green fluorescent protein (GFP), which reflects the transcriptional activity of type-B response regulators. TCS::GFP was instrumental in uncovering roles of cytokinin and deepening our understanding of existing functions. However, TCS-mediated expression of reporters is weak in some developmental contexts where cytokinin signaling has a documented role, such as in the shoot apical meristem or in the vasculature of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We also observed that GFP expression becomes rapidly silenced in TCS::GFP transgenic plants. Here, we present an improved version of the reporter, TCS new (TCSn), which, compared with TCS, is more sensitive to phosphorelay signaling in Arabidopsis and maize (Zea mays) cellular assays while retaining its specificity. Transgenic Arabidopsis TCSn::GFP plants exhibit strong and dynamic GFP expression patterns consistent with known cytokinin functions. In addition, GFP expression has been stable over generations, allowing for crosses with different genetic backgrounds. Thus, TCSn represents a significant improvement to report the transcriptional output profile of phosphorelay signaling networks in Arabidopsis, maize, and likely other plants that display common response regulator DNA-binding specificities. PMID:23355633
Zürcher, Evelyne; Tavor-Deslex, Deborah; Lituiev, Dmytro; Enkerli, Katalin; Tarr, Paul T; Müller, Bruno
Slow and unreliable infection in the greenhouse has been a barrier to research on Armillaria root disease. The existing infection assay takes 7-18 months for detectable infection, during which time the inoculum often dies, resulting in unequal challenge among plants. Because symptom expression and mortality are rare, presence or absence of infection, determined by culturing, is the only datum derived from the existing infection assay. This limits both routine comparisons of strain virulence and complex investigations of pathogenesis, neither of which have been done for Armillaria mellea. We tested a new infection assay, in which grape rootstocks growing in tissue culture medium are inoculated, and compared to rootstocks previously characterized from the existing infection assay as tolerant (Freedom) or susceptible (3309C). Culture media of 25 plants per rootstock was inoculated and five plants per rootstock were harvested 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postinoculation; the experiment was completed twice. Confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) were used to quantify infection. Roots were treated with WGA-AlexaFluor488, hyphae and roots were scanned on green and red channels on a confocal microscope, and percent root colonization was quantified. A fungal gene (EF1?) was determined to have a single copy in A. mellea, and both EF1? and a single-copy grape gene (UFGT) were amplified by Q-PCR; fungal DNA: plant DNA served as a measure of fungal biomass. Armillaria was detected by culture, microscopy, and Q-PCR starting 2 weeks postinoculation from all inoculated plants, demonstrating that the new infection assay is rapid and plants do not escape infection. Our findings of higher percent root colonization (as measured by microscopy) of 3309C than Freedom at all harvests (P<0.0001), consistently higher fungal biomass (as measured by Q-PCR) of 3309 than Freedom, and a significant positive correlation between percent root colonization and fungal biomass (P=0.01) suggests that the quantitative methods of our new assay give similar results to the qualitative method of the existing infection assay. PMID:20965067
Japanese yew is a widely used ornamental plant. However, most people are unaware that it is also a poisonous plant. It has potent cardiac toxicities that can lead to sudden cardiac death. A 37-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with altered mental status and sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). Electrocardiogram (ECG) after cardioversion showed profound QRS prolongation and ST-segment elevation suggestive of either hyperkalaemia, acute myocardial ischaemia, or Brugada syndrome. Her electrolytes and coronary angiography were normal. After improvement of the patient's mental status, she admitted that she has been consuming Japanese yew from her yard for several months. Few hours later, QRS duration normalised, but mild ST-segment elevation persisted in the right pre-cordial leads, making it more suspicious for Brugada syndrome. However, a procainamide challenge test and electrophysiology study failed to induce typical Brugada pattern ECG and VT. The absence of coronary artery disease and electrolytes disturbances points toward the fact that her arrhythmia and ECG changes are secondary to yew intoxication. The patient was monitored for a few days. She was haemodynamically stable and has not had any arrhythmia. This case highlights the importance of public awareness of severe toxicity from Japanese yew or other yew plants. Yews contain taxines that are responsible for the ECG abnormalities due to its inhibitory effect on the cardiac sodium and calcium channels. They cause conduction abnormalities, VT, and ST-segment elevation that can resemble acute myocardial infarction, hyperkalaemia, and Brugada syndrome. PMID:22572505
Background Although ethnomedically and taxonomically guided searches for new medicinal plants can improve the percentage of plants found containing active compounds when compared to random sampling, ethnobotany has fulfilled little of its promise in the last few decades to deliver a bounty of new, laboratory-proven medicinal plants and compounds. It is quite difficult to test, isolate, and elucidate the structure and mechanism of compounds from the plethora of new medicinal plant uses described each year with limited laboratory time and resources and the high cost of clinical trials of new drug candidates. Methods A new quantitative theoretical framework of mathematical formulas called "relational efficacy" is proposed that should narrow down this search for new plant-derived medicines based on the hypothesis that closely related plants used to treat closely related diseases in distantly related cultures have a higher probability of being effective because they are more likely to be independent discoveries of similar plant compounds and disease mechanisms. A prerequisite to this hypothesis, the idea that empirical testing in traditional medicine will lead to choosing similar medicinal plants and therefore the medicinal flora of two distant cultures will prove to be more similar than their general flora, is tested using resampling statistics on cross-cultural field data of the plants used by the Malinké of Mali and the Asháninka of Peru to treat the diseases malaria, African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis, diabetes, eczema, asthma, and uterine fibroids. Results In this case, the similarity of the medicinal floras is found to be significantly greater than the similarity of the general floras, but only when the diseases in question are grouped into the categories of parasitic and autoimmune diseases. Conclusion If the central theoretical framework of this hypothesis is shown to be true, it will allow the synthesis of medicinal plant information from around the world to pinpoint the species with the highest potential efficacy to take into the laboratory and analyze further, ultimately saving much field and laboratory time and resources. Spanish abstract Las búsquedas que utilizan la etnomedicina y la taxonomía para descubrir nuevas plantas medicinales, pueden aumentar la probabilidad de éxito de encontrar compuestos químicos activos en plantas, en comparación con las búsquedas aleatorias. A pesar de lo anterior, en las últimas décadas, la etnobotánica no ha cumplido con las expectativas de proveer numerosas plantas medicinales y químicos nuevos una vez examinados en el laboratorio. Cada año se describen una plétora de plantas medicinales y sus usos, sin embargo las limitaciones de tiempo y recursos en los laboratorios, unidos al alto coste de los ensayos clínicos de las drogas potenciales, hacen muy difícil probar, aislar, y elucidar la estructura y el mecanismo de los compuestos de estas plantas. Se propone un nuevo marco teórico cuantitativo cuyo fin es focalizar la búsqueda de nueva plantas medicinales. Este marco teórico está basado en la hipótesis que las plantas cercanamente relacionadas, usadas para tratar enfermedades cercanamente relacionadas en culturas distantemente relacionadas, tienen una eficacia potencial más alta, debido a que es más probable que estos hallazgos sean descubrimientos independientes de compuestos químicos similares. Parte de esta hipótesis, que las escogencias racionales se hacen para elegir plantas medicinales similares y que la flora medicinal de dos culturas distantes es más similar que su flora general, se probó usando métodos estadísticos de remuestreo con datos de campo de la comunidad Malinké de Malí y de la Asháninka de Perú, y las enfermedades de paludismo, enfermedad africana del sueño, enfermedad de Chagas, leishmania, diabetes, eczema, asma, y fibromas uterinos. Se encontró, en este caso, que
Abstract This paper makes a clear analysis about the role played by the ethnography like an anthropologic al approach to the consumer behavior. For this, first, it makes a review of the basic paradigms of science, -positivism and relativism— and their use in the market research, for later introduce the characteristics of the ethnography as a scientific discipline of investigation.
Free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to be associated with a number of human neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, diabetes, viral infections, autoimmune pathologies and digestive system disorders. In the present work twenty three ethanolic extracts of 20 medicinal plants, commonly used in Sudanese folk medicines against infectious diseases were investigated for their potential scavenging of superoxide free radicals. 14
Volatile fractions were isolated by simultaneous distillation- solvent extraction (SDE) from leaves of four Piperaceae species: Piper marginatum Jacq, P. aduncum L., P. hispidum Sw. and Pothomorphe peltata L. Components were separated and identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC - MS).
EDWIN J. BOTTIA; Estudiante de Química; OLGA L. DÍAZ; DEYNY L. MENDIVELSO; JAIRO RENÉ MARTÍNEZ; ELENA E. STASHENKO
A hairpin RNA (hpRNA) vector, pKNOCKOUT (pKO) has been constructed to facilitate the analysis of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in an Agrobacterium- mediated transient expression system developed for tobacco. The pKO binary vector was tested by cloning a firefly luciferase (Photinus pyralis) gene segment in sense (sFLUC), antisense (aFLUC), and inverted repeat (ihpFLUC) orientations. The inverted repeats of the target
A hairpin RNA (hpRNA) vector, pKNOCKOUT (pKO) has been constructed to facilitate the analysis of posttranscriptional gene\\u000a silencing (PTGS) in anAgrobacterium-mediated transient expression system developed for tobacco. The pKO binary vector was tested by cloning a firefly luciferase\\u000a (Photinus pyralis) gene segment in sense (sFLUC), antisense (aFLUC), and inverted repeat (ihpFLUC) orientations. The inverted repeats of the\\u000a target gene are
This work reports the adsorption isotherms for the herbicide Atrazine, evaluated in circular sections of dead roots of three wetland plants, Typha domingensis Sagittaria lancifolia y Echinochloa pyramidalis. The adsorptive capacity (mg Atrazina \\/g of biomass) of each species was S. lancifolia (qm= 2.035), followed by T. domingensis (qm= 1.797), and E. pyramidalis (qm= 1.107). The highest adsorptive capacity of
E. Cejudo-Espinosa; A. Velázquez-Zepeda; R. Rodríguez-Vázquez; Carretera Antigua
Potential epidemics of infectious diseases and the constant threat of bioterrorism demand rapid, scalable, and cost-efficient manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming of tobacco plants provides an alternative for the recombinant production of therapeutics. We have developed a transient production platform that uses Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to express a novel anthrax receptor decoy protein (immunoadhesin), CMG2-Fc. This chimeric fusion protein, designed to protect against the deadly anthrax toxins, is composed of the von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of human capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2), an effective anthrax toxin receptor, and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). We evaluated, in N. benthamiana intact plants and detached leaves, the expression of CMG2-Fc under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, and the co-expression of CMG2-Fc with nine different viral suppressors of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): p1, p10, p19, p21, p24, p25, p38, 2b, and HCPro. Overall, transient CMG2-Fc expression was higher on intact plants than detached leaves. Maximum expression was observed with p1 co-expression at 3.5 days post-infiltration (DPI), with a level of 0.56 g CMG2-Fc per kg of leaf fresh weight and 1.5% of the total soluble protein, a ten-fold increase in expression when compared to absence of suppression. Co-expression with the p25 PTGS suppressor also significantly increased the CMG2-Fc expression level after just 3.5 DPI.
Arzola, Lucas; Chen, Junxing; Rattanaporn, Kittipong; Maclean, James M.; McDonald, Karen A.
The aim of the study was the identification of the most frequently used plants by patients with DM2 with access to public health services in Morelos, Mexico. A questionnaire was employed with 259 patients with DM2 who regularly utilize medicinal plants as a complementary therapy, and another 259 patients who only use the pharmaceutical prescription in primary-care clinics from two
This work interprets spectra measured with directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR) using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) to observe what kind of information from transmission spectra can be retained in emissivity spectra. A small amount of a component in a sample, as a thin layer of a mineral with small particle size exhibits emissivity features similar to transmission features; but, when the
An in vivo plant screen that allows for the analysis of exogenously applied substrates against transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing individual cytochrome P450s has been developed. By deploying this screen with a subset of 91 P450s, we have identified an original substrate for members of the CYP82C subfamily. The therapeutic compound 8-methoxypsoralen was hydroxylated by plants overexpressing CYP82C2 or CYP82C4, forming 5-hydroxy-8-methoxypsoralen. Additionally, plants further modified this product to create a glycosylated compound, likely the compound 5-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-8-methoxypsoralen. The discovery of adducts of therapeutic compounds demonstrates the potential of this biocatalysis screening approach to create compounds that may be of pharmacological value. Additionally, this platform provides a means to expand the general knowledge base of P450 enzyme/substrate combinations and may provide valuable tools for a vast array of biocatalytic and bioremediation processes. PMID:18291319
Kruse, Tanya; Ho, Kwongling; Yoo, Hye-Dong; Johnson, Thomas; Hippely, Matt; Park, Joon-Hyun; Flavell, Richard; Bobzin, Steve
Thirty six isolates of Phoma tracheiphila from Italy, the causal agent of the mal secco disease on Citrus species, were characterised by different molecular tools in comparison with representative isolates of other phytopathogenic Phoma species. These included analysis of the distribution of RAPD and microsatellite markers and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rRNA genes.
Virgilio Balmas; Barbara Scherm; Stefano Ghignone; Ali Ould Mohamed Salem; Santa Olga Cacciola; Quirico Migheli
A instrumental method by neutron activation in multielementary analysis was applied. Samples of Centelha asiatica (Cairucu) and Paulinia cupana (Guarana) were used. The elements Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc, and Zn were determined. The results li...
M. S. Vaz M. Saiki M. B. A. Vasconcellos J. A. A. Sertie
BACKGROUND: Classical Swine Fever (CSFV) is one of the most important viral infectious diseases affecting wild boars and domestic pigs. The etiological agent of the disease is the CSF virus, a single stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae. All preventive measures in domestic pigs have been focused in interrupting the chain of infection and in avoiding the spread
Gianpiero Marconi; Emidio Albertini; Pierluigi Barone; Francesca De Marchis; Chiara Lico; Carla Marusic; Domenico Rutili; Fabio Veronesi; Andrea Porceddu
In plants, the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in protein degradation and is involved in many steps of defence mechanisms, regardless of the types of pathogen targeted. In addition to its proteolytic activities, the UPS ribonuclease (RNase) activity, previously detected in 20S proteasome preparations from cauliflower and sunflower (Helianthus annuus), has been shown to specifically target plant viral RNAs in vitro. In this study, we show that recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana proteasomal ?(5) subunit expressed in Escherichia coli harbours an RNase activity that degrades Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tobamovirus)- and Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV, Potyvirus)-derived RNAs in vitro. The analysis of mutated forms of the ?(5) subunit demonstrated that mutation of a glutamic acid at position 110 affects RNase activity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated, using a bimolecular fluorescence complement assay, that the multifunctional helper component proteinase (HcPro) of LMV, already known to interfere with the 20S proteasome RNase activity in vitro, can interact in vivo with the recombinant ?(5) subunit. Further experiments demonstrated that, in LMV-infected lettuce cells, ?(5) is partially relocalized to HcPro-containing infection-specific inclusions. Susceptibility analyses of Arabidopsis mutants, knocked out for each At-PAE gene encoding ?(5) , showed that one (KO-pae1) of the two mutants exhibited a significantly increased susceptibility to LMV infection. Taken together, these results extend to A. thaliana ?(5) the range of HcPro-interacting proteasomal subunits, and suggest that HcPro may modulate its associated RNase activity which may contribute to an antiviral response. PMID:21199564
Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Sassaki, Flavio Tetsuo; Walter, Jocelyne; Michon, Thierry; Ménard, Guillaume; Pagny, Gaëlle; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Maia, Ivan De Godoy; Badaoui, Saloua; Le Gall, Olivier; Candresse, Thierry; German-Retana, Sylvie
Artemisia annua L. produces the sesquiterpene lactone, artemisinin, a potent antimalarial drug that is also effective in treating other parasitic diseases, some viral infections and various neoplasms. Artemisinin is also an allelopathic herbicide that can inhibit the growth of other plants. Unfortunately, the compound is in short supply and thus, studies on its production in the plant are of interest as are low cost methods for drug delivery. Here we review our recent studies on artemisinin production in A. annua during development of the plant as it moves from the vegetative to reproductive stage (flower budding and full flower formation), in response to sugars, and in concert with the production of the ROS, hydrogen peroxide. We also provide new data from animal experiments that measured the potential of using the dried plant directly as a therapeutic. Together these results provide a synopsis of a more global view of regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua than previously available. We further suggest an alternative low cost method of drug delivery to treat malaria and other neglected tropical diseases.
Arsenault, Patrick R.; Covello, Patrick S.; McMickle, Anthony; Teoh, Keat H.; Reed, Darwin W.
Plant-infecting viruses of the genera Alpha- and Betacryptovirus within the family Partitiviridae cause no visible effects on their hosts and are only transmitted by cell division and through gametes. The bipartite dsRNA genome is encoding a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a coat protein (CP). Aside from sequence and structural analysis, the investigation of protein interactions is another step towards virus characterization. Therefore, ORFs of two type members White Clover Cryptic Virus 1 and 2 (WCCV-1 and WCCV-2), as well as the related viruses from Red Clover and Dill were introduced into a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. We showed CP-CP dimerization for all tested viruses with localization for alphacryptoviruses at the nuclear membrane and for betacryptoviruses close to cell walls within the cytoplasm. For CPs of WCCV-1 and WCCV-2, deletion mutants were created to determine internal interaction sites. Moreover, RdRp self-interaction was found for all viruses, whereas CP-RdRp interactions were only detectable for the alphacryptoviruses. An intra-genus test of CPs was successful in various virus combinations, whereas an inter-genus interaction of WCCV-1CP and WCCV-2CP was absent. This is the first report of in vivo protein interactions of members in the family Partitiviridae, indicating distinct features of the alpha- and betacryptoviruses.
Hemileia vastatrix is a biotrophic fungus, causing coffee leaf rust in all coffee growing countries, leading to serious social and economic problems. Gene expression studies may have a key role unravelling the transcriptomics of this pathogen during interaction with the plant host. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is currently the golden standard for gene expression analysis, although
Ana Vieira; Pedro Talhinhas; Andreia Loureiro; Sébastien Duplessis; Diana Fernandez; Maria do Céu Silva; Octávio S. Paulo; Helena Gil Azinheira
We report the genetic and biochemical analysis of Rhizobium meliloti mutants defective in symbiotic nitrogen fixation (Fix-) and “respiratory” nitrate reduction (Rnr-). The mutations were mapped close to the ade-1 and cys-46 chromosomal markers and the mutated locus proved to be identical to the previously described fix-14 locus. By directed Tn5 mutagenesis, a 4.5 kb segment of the chromosome was
Attila KeresztKrystyna; Krystyna Slaska-Kiss; Peter Putnoky; Zsofia Banfalvi; Adam Kondorosi
The effect of an atmosphere enriched with carbon dioxide (CO 2) was studied on some physiological and growth parameters of plants of Zea mays L. cv. H-30 and Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Cacahuate-72 grown in the field in open-top chambers. Two CO2 concentrations were established, normal (360 m m m m mmoles mol-1) and the enriched one (600- - -
Patricia Sánchez-Espino; Alfonso Larqué-Saavedra; Tomás Nava-Sánchez; Carlos Trejo
The root diazotroph bacteria population associated to the irrigated rice crop has been studied. However, there are little studies in the population of these bacteria in plant leaves and stems. The objective of this work was to study the bacteria population in leaves and stems of flooded rice plants, in two varieties: a modern (IRGA- 419), and a traditional (EEA-406),
Danni Maisa da Silva; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Márcio Voss
Recovery of quiescent filamentous fungi from non-symptomatic grape berries and dormant buds demonstrated dominance of Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Ulocladium and other dematiaceous hyphomycetes. Up to 78% of berries contained fungi prior to harvest. Botrytis cinerea was recovered from 0...
A growth assay was established for the barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune with EGFP-tagged fungal mutants. This assay was used to study the effect of four antibiotics (hygromycin B, nourseothricin, kanamycin, phleomycin) and a herbicide (phosphinothricin) on fungal development. Fitting the growth curves to the modified Gompertz model allowed calculating growth parameters, such as lag periods of fungal colony formation and mycelial growth rates as well as EC(50) values. Except kanamycin all compounds were efficient inhibitors so that the corresponding resistance-conferring genes can be used as markers for selection of fungal transformation-based mutants. In addition the assay was used to quantify the inhibitory activity of a barley secondary metabolite, the indole alkaloid gramine. PMID:21498556
Residual effect of acidulated or burnt Riecito phosphoric rock on maize grown in soils with variable levels of calcium With the purpose of evaluating the residual effect of phosphoric rock from Riecito (Venezuela) treated with vinaza or high temperatures, three successive crops of corn, used as indicative plant, were grown in an acid soil (pH 3.7) whitewashed up to pH
Soil and foliar analysis laboratories in Costa Rica: a report of the Committee for Laboratories of Analysis of Soils, Plants and Waters. The characteristics and methodologies of each laboratory are described, as well as the results of the National Exchange Programs, which have been implemented among all of them for the last 6 years, and which are denominated as PINAS
Marco Corrales; Floria Bertsch; José Antonio Bejarano
Desert truffles, hypogeous Pezizales (Ascomycota), are difficult to identify due to evolutionary convergence of morphological characters among taxa that share a similar habitat and mode of spore dispersal. Also, during their symbiotic phase, these are barely distinguishable morphologically, and molecular probes are needed for their identification. We have developed a PCR-based method for the identification of Picoa juniperi and Picoa lefebvrei based on internal transcribed spacers of rDNA. Two PCR primers specific for P. lefebvrei (FLE/RLE) and two specific for P. juniperi (FJU/RJU) were designed. A collection of samples from different geographical areas representing diversity of these species were examined for unique regions of internal transcribed spacers 1, 2 and 5.8S gene of rDNA (ITS) compared to other closely related species. Annealing temperatures and extension times were optimized for each set of primers for maximum specificity and efficiency. They proved to be efficient to specifically detect the presence of P. juniperi and P. lefebvrei by PCR and neither set amplified purified DNA from other truffle species as well as some ascomycetous fungi. The partial small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes of P. juniperi were amplified with the genomic DNA extracted from Helianthemum ledifolium var. ledifolium roots by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the universal fungal primer pair ITS1/ITS4 and specific primer pair FTC/RTC, which was designed based on internal transcribed spacer 1, 2 and 5.8S gene of rDNA sequences of P juniperi. The nested-PCR was sensitive enough to re-amplify the direct-PCR product, resulting in a DNA fragment of 426 bp. The efficacy of nested-PCR showed that it could re-amplify the direct-PCR product and detect 200 fg genomic DNA. PMID:24065525
Stigma colonization by Erwinia amylovora is the crucial first step in the development of most fire blight infections in apple and pear trees. Suppression at this point of the disease process by antagonists of E. amylovora, such as Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola) strain Eh1087, is a rational approach to control fire blight. We tested the hypothesis that the ability of E. amylovora to compete with Eh1087 for colonization of a stigma is reduced by the potential for Eh1087 to produce the phenazine antibiotic, d-alanylgriseoluteic acid (AGA). In competition experiments on the stigmas of apple flowers, E. amylovora was significantly less successful against Eh1087 (AGA+) than against EhDeltaAGA (AGA-). Further experiments to test the importance of pre-emptive colonization of the stigma by either the pathogen or the antagonist suggested that AGA production significantly enhanced the competitiveness of Eh1087 when it was applied at the same time or 24 h before the pathogen. We also found that pre-emptive stigma colonization by either the pathogen or the antagonist resulted in a population that was resilient to subsequent invasion by a second species suggesting that niche exclusion has a dominant influence on the dynamics of bacterial populations on stigmas. PMID:14510856
Giddens, Stephen R; Houliston, Gary J; Mahanty, H Khris
The characters observed in a experimental areas has phenotypic nature and their correlations are estimated with the purpose to verify alterations in one character when is altered another. The objectives of this work were to quantify the relationships among characters development and yield attributes in flowering and harvesting periods of 13 banana (Musa spp.) genotypes (varieties and hybrids), in Guanambi
Sérgio Luiz Rodrigues Donato; Sebastião de Oliveira; Orlando Antônio; Lucca Filho; Marcelo Bezerra Lima; Juliana da Silva Alves
The polyphagous obligate parasites Meloidogyne spp. devastate a wide range of crop plants including bananas and plantains. Their infestations impact agriculture worldwide. Therefore,\\u000a an effective combating regime against this nematode species and an in-depth understanding of plant-nematode interaction are\\u000a essential. Early detection of infection by visual inspection is not possible. This hampers early control strategy efforts\\u000a and makes in-depth research
Syarifah Aisyafaznim Sayed Abdul Rahman; Zulqarnain Mohamed; Rofina Yasmin Othman; Rony Swennen; Bart Panis; Dirk De Waele; Serge Remy; Sebastien Christian Carpentier
Background and Aims Seeds of the moist temperate woodland species Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus, dispersed during spring or early summer, germinated poorly in laboratory tests. Seed development and maturation were studied to better understand the progression from developmental to germinable mode in order to improve seed collection and germination practices in these and similar species. Methods Phenology, seed mass, moisture content and ability to germinate and tolerate desiccation were monitored during seed development until shedding. Embryo elongation within seeds was investigated during seed development and under several temperature regimes after shedding. Key Results Seeds were shed at high moisture content (>59 %) with little evidence that dry mass accumulation or embryo elongation were complete. Ability to germinate developed prior to the ability of some seeds to tolerate enforced desiccation. Germination was sporadic and slow. Embryo elongation occurred post-shedding in moist environments, most rapidly at 20 °C in G. nivalis and 15 °C in N. pseudonarcissus. The greatest germination also occurred in these regimes, 78 and 48 %, respectively, after 700 d. Conclusions Seeds of G. nivalis and N. pseudonarcissus were comparatively immature at shedding and substantial embryo elongation occurred post-shedding. Seeds showed limited desiccation tolerance at dispersal.
Newton, Rosemary J.; Hay, Fiona R.; Ellis, Richard H.
Objective. To identify the terms used by mothers to refer to diseases, signs and symptoms related to acute respi- ratory illnesses (ARI), alarming signs which should moti- vate them to seek medical attention, and to describe common home practices of disease care and treatment. Material and methods. An ethnographic study was per- formed in six rural communities of the Mexican
HOMERO MARTÍNEZ; KIMBERLY SURIANO; GERY W. RYAN; GRETEL H. PELTO
Centrant-nos específicament en les evidències procedents de la Península Ibèrica,\\u000aen aquest article s'hi traça la història de la partícula disjuntiva llatina 'uel';, del\\u000aseu ús en llatí clàssic a la seva eventual desaparició en romanç. S'hi estudien\\u000ales semblances entre el llatí i el romanç, i s'hi prova que tot i que encara es pot\\u000aaprendre molt concentrant-nos només
Ante todo quiero agradecer al Dr. Escalona por su lectura crítica de mi trabajo Algunas Indefiniciones pero por la abundante descarga recibida creo que al menos el Sr. Escalona debería haber citado mi trabajo en las referencias bibliográficas, cosa que no ha hecho, tal vez por su apasionada crítica, lo cual de por sí ya habla de un grado de
|Reviews the history of La Cabana kindergarten, which provides preschool education and meals for 100 children and sewing classes for mothers in a working class neighborhood in Bogota, Colombia. Describes the implementation of a new curriculum which develops child creativity through free choice of activities around a common project. (AC)|
Introduction: The length of hospital stay in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) varies considerably, even though this factor has a great impact on the cost of care for this condition. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with prolonged hospitalization in these patients (48 days). Methods: Observational analysis of a prospective cohort of nonimmunosuppressed adults with CAP
This article is centered in a positive perspective of psychology, to analyze subjective well-being during the adulthood and the old age. It reviews diverse conceptions, indicators, sociodemographic and sociocultural correlations of subjective well-being; it presents alternatives in arder to evaluate this aspect, as well as international, and mainly Brazilian investigations about this topic. It places emphasis on psychological processes associated
A fast digital procedure to compare observed and computed spectral distributions is described. The observational data consist of the UV spectra obtained by the S2/68 experiment on board the TD-1A satellite; the theoretical data consist of a grid of suitable models. The comparison between the two data sets permits to derive the stellar parameters Te and log g. The results obtained for a sample of 48 A and F stars illustrate the efficiency of the procedure.
obtained higher scores when compared to 23% of students (p<0.001) with a prevalence ratio of 1,79 (CI: 1.4 - 2.3). We also found that most of the students referring needlestick injuries (57%) had higher scores when compared with those who did not refer needlestick injuries (28%), however, no relationship was found between the higher score in our questionnaire with the
The aims of this paper are to present, compare and discuss the growing bioarchaeological database available for the late human populations from the southeastern Pampean Region in Argentina. These data are related to the regional structure of the bioarchaeological record, the sample distribution of bone and dental indicators of health status, nutrition and diet, and cranial and postcranial morphological diversity.
The current products consumer does not uniquely put in valour its functionality, usability, safety and appropriate prix, but also the feelings they give him\\/her. The emotional design\\/engineering is oriented to produce new products that satisfy those feelings. Semantic deferential (SD) is an emotional design approach that gives information about the emotions generated by the object, obtaining the connotative value and
Necrotizing fasciitis is an infrequent infectious complication in gynecology and obstetrics but is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt aggressive treatment are essential to improve survival. Many risk factors have been identified. However, obstetric patients do not seem to have predisposing factors apart from pregnancy itself.
M. Lure; L. Barinagarrementeria; M. Belar; N. Marín; F. Ugalde
El objetivo del siguiente trabajo es describir casos análogos de fobia o miedo a los viajes en otras culturas y tiempos diferente a los modernos. En este sentido, consideramos que tanto la cultura aymará como la vida en la antigua roma nos proveen de ejemplos suficientes para considerar a la fobia a los viajes como un problema en extensión. Por
This paper presents the results of a CSCL (Computer Supported Collaborative Learning) experience, which was performed to Software Engineering courses in three countries. Co mputer Science undergraduate students from three Latin American universities performed theoretical and practical jo int sessions on software estimations in order to determine the deve lopment effort of a particular software project. During the experi ence
Maria I. Lund; Laura Aballay; Sergio F. Ochoa; Andres Neyem; Faber Giraldo
\\u000a Summary In this paper we study the phenomenon of the change of phase from a mathematical-physics point of view.\\u000a \\u000a We consider a medium bounded by two parallel planes and suppose that the thermal properties (e g. the mass density) are different\\u000a in the two phases and that the critical temperature is depending on the particle. This study has been done upon
Este estudio examina la capacidad del modelo de in versión propuesto por Rusbult para diferenciar en - tre individuos en relaciones estables e individuos en relaciones inestables, así como la capacidad de las variables del modelo (satisfacción matrimonial, in versión y relaciones alternati vas) para predecir el compromiso y la estabilidad de las relaciones matrimoniales. Los datos sobre las varia
Title: Assessment of Body Dissatisfaction in adolescents: effect of the way of administration a scale. Abstract: The aim of this paper is to discover if the way of administration a subscale of evaluation Body Dissatisfac- tion (BD), coming from a wider questionnaire, affects to the tendency of answer. In the investigation participated 147 students of sec- ondary school, age between
José Ignacio Baile; Rosa María Raich; Emilio Garrido; Ayuntamiento de Pamplona
|This collection of 83 clip sheets, or classroom handouts, was created to help U.S. migrants learn more about health, careers, and general "opportunities" including education programs. They are written in both English and Spanish and are presented in an easily understandable format. Health clip-sheet topics include the following: Abuse; AIDS;…
State Univ. of New York, Geneseo. Coll. at Geneseo. Migrant Center.
This study analyzed a lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender sample in Puerto Rico that experience domestic violence. The sample consists of 201 lesbian and gay subjects selected by availability that have been living together for sixth or more months. Findings suggest that psychological and physical abuse was statistically significant in the lesbian subjects. Sexual abuse was statistically significant in the
Felipe Reyes Mena; José R. Rodríguez; Sarah Malavé; San Juan
Written by students for students, the purpose of the book, one of four components of the Model UN Survival kit, is to help prepare secondary and college student delegates for participation in Model United Nations (UN) Conferences. Model UN programs help students discover the difficulties of world political processes and understand other nations…
In the present paper a 7xxx aluminum alloy is investigated. This alloy is used in Drill Pipe production for Oil drilling exploration due to its excellent trade-off between high strength and low density. After static and cyclic behaviour characterization, fatigue strength is experimentally investigated, through a wide test sequence on small scale specimens. In particular, Mean Stress Effect and Notch
ObjectivesDental retention in healthy patients is caused by local factors such as supernumerary teeth, tumors, cysts or odontomas. The authors report a case of dental impaction due to a dentigerous cyst and a mesiodens.
RESUMEN El rechazo por parte de los Testigos de Jehová de recibir transfusiones sanguíneas siempre ha representado para los médicos un conflicto ético y un problema en la relación médico paciente. Las razones de este grupo para rechazar las transfusiones se basan en motivos religiosos por un mandato explícito de Dios que se encontraría en la Biblia. Para ellos el
|Designed to orient Hispanic refugees to the services that are available in Central Florida, this bilingual guide consists of a section of general information on living and working in the United States and a section devoted to various public and private agencies. Provided first are addresses and phone numbers of various government agencies:…
In his dialogue "De Facie quae in Orbe Lunae apparet", Plutarch includes a discussion on a non-Aristotelian theory of gravity. I describe how this theory could be developed during the Hellenistic period and its influence on the cosmological debate along the centuries until the beginning of modern science. (Text in Italian)
In Spain, cancer is the leading cause of death in absolute terms. Statistically, the most frequent type of cancer in women in developed countries is breast cancer, which is becoming the leading cause of death from cancer among women.The breast cancer is statistically the most frequent in women and it is getting the first reason of death by cancer between
M. del Carmen Peinado-Barraso; M. del Rosario Cabrerizo-Cordero; Ana Eva Granados-Matute; Raquel Contreras-Fariñas
ObjetiveSystematic immunization programmes mostly depend on the correct maintenance and manipulation of the vaccines to be used, i.e. perfect maintenance of the cold chain. Therefore, we decided to carry out a systematic review of the literature on the cold chain and vaccines, to identify daily practices in vaccine sites.
Paloma Ortega Molina; Paloma Astasio Arbiza; Romana Albaladejo Vicente; Pilar Arrazola Martínez; Rosa Villanueva Orbáiz; José Ramón de Juanes Pardo
The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Bever- age Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Secretary of Health for the purpose of developing evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The preva- lence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans.
Juan A Rivera; Onofre Muñoz-Hernández; Martín Rosas-Peralta; Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas; Barry M Popkin; Walter C Willett
Spontaneous pneumothorax rarely occurs during pregnancy. The most common cause is almost always related to the presence of apical blebs or bullae. The most frequent symptoms are chest pain and dyspnea and chest radiography usually confirms the diagnosis. The treatment of choice is insertion of a chest drain and surgery should be considered in recurrent pneumothorax or persistent air leaks.
Pedro Rodríguez Suárez; Margarita Medina Castellano; Elena Cortes Cros; Miguel A. Barber Marrero; Jorge Freixinet Gilart; José A. García Hernández
The Mindfullness Based Cognitive Therapy (Segal, Williams and Teasdale, 2002) is a treatment of eight weeks of duration developed initially for the prevention of relap- ses in depression. In this article are presented the qualitative aspects of the application of a program in TCAP in users of two Units of Mental Health in the island of Tenerife with anxious and
A. Cebolla; M. T. Miró; María Teresa; MIRÓ BARRACHINA
Resumen El idiotipo de la inmunoglobulina (Ig) de superficie de los linfomas B puede ser reconocido como antigénico por el sistema\\u000a inmune. Presentamos el resultado del primer ensayo de inmunización idiotípica en pacientes con linfoma folicular de bajo grado\\u000a que se ha llevado a cabo en Europa.\\u000a \\u000a Hemos vacunado a 7 pacientes, la mayoría tratados previamente con quimioterapia y trasplante autólogo.
José Rafael Cabrera; Yvelise Barrios; Rosa Yáñez; Manuel N. Fernández; Fernando Díaz de Espada
The article summarizes the performances that the Franco government in relation to the policy of archives impelled during almost the forty years of military dictatorship. As a result of the lack of interest which showed their political people in charge and the lack of public investment towards the archivist centers during so many decades, meant that the government of the
SUMMARY A classical problem in Love-Kirchhoff shell theory stays in statical boundary conditions definition. Following some papers mainly dedicated to the construction of complete shell the~ries~~'~~, the authors show how to obtain boundary conditions consistent with an uncomplete shell theory, as the Love-Kirchhoff theory, by an energy approach compatible with previous work.
There are many reasons for integrating industry's software technology into the university system at the graduate level. This paper discusses efforts by TRW, Rational Software Corporation, and the University of Southern California's Software Engineering department to integrate software architecture technology into USC's software engineering curriculum. University and industry goals and strategies are first addressed followed by a purpose for using
Objective. To perform the molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from pediatric patients and health care workers at the intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Material and Methods. Fif- teen Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected during an out- break in June 1996 were analyzed; eight were from patients and seven from health care workers of Mexico's
The use of culturally sensitive intervention could improve mental health care for the eating disorder (ED) treatment in the Latino population. The aim of this report is to describe the rationale, design, and methods of the ongoing study entitled "Engaging Latino families in eating disorders treatment." The primary aim of the study is to compare (a) the combined effect of individual cognitive behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) that has been previously adapted for the Latino population plus Family Enhanced (FE) modules, with (b) the standard adapted individual CBT-BN in a proof-of-principle study with 40 Latina adults with eating disorders and one relative or significant other per patient. We hypothesize that 1) the feasibility, acceptability, and adherence of participants in CBT-BN+FE will be superior to individual CBT-BN only; 2) relatives in CBT-BN+FE will report greater treatment satisfaction, greater reduction in family conflict, and greater decreases in caregiver burden than relatives in the individual CBT-BN only condition; and 3) patients who participate in CBT-BN+FE will show trends towards greater decreases in ED symptoms compared with patients in CBT-BN only; although power will be limited to detect this difference. However, we predict that they will show greater retention in treatment, greater treatment satisfaction, and greater decreases in family conflict than patients in CBT-BN only. The completion of this investigation will yield important information regarding the acceptability and feasibility of a culturally sensitive evidence-based treatment model for Latinos with eating disorders. PMID:23376815
Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M; Hamer, Robert M; Baucom, Donald H
MATERNAL EFFECTS AND IMMUNE RESPONSE. STUDIES IN THE ENDEMIC CHAGAS' DISEASE Pregnancy in mammals results from the coexistence during gestation of two organisms that constantly interact through various stimuli, namely, the antigenic ones. The young are submitted to the influences of the maternal environment, notably nutritional and immunological, during gestation and in the first stages of intrauterine life. For this
Este artículo tiene como objetivo principal explorar las características demográficas y el efecto de la desigual distribución de efectivos por sexos en las pautas matrimoniales de los inmigrantes y segunda generación de españoles en Ybor City (Tampa, Florida, Estados Unidos) a principios de siglo XX. Ybor City, además de proporcionarnos detalles de la poco estudiada emigración a Estados Unidos, es
Albert Esteve Palós; Àngels Torrents i Rosés; Clara Cortina Trilla
IntroductionClinical pathways are standard health care methods to coordinate clinical work, reduce inter-clinician variability, improve patient care and increase staff and patient satisfaction. The aim of this study is to develop a clinical pathway capable of organising and developing standard procedures for diagnosis, treatment and care in patients with multiple sclerosis and to coordinate all medical specialists involved in this
C. Oreja-Guevara; A. Miralles; J. García-Caballero; S. Noval; L. Gabaldón; M. D. Esteban-Vasallo; M. J. García-Matres; C. Bayón-Pérez; A. Royo; A. González; A. Hernanz; M. R. López-Pajares; J. L. Morante; E. Díez-Tejedor
Many of the human behavior trends break our own principles and essential values in social praxis, therefore generating confrontation among groups, breaking institutional rules created by the man for itself in order to regulate and arrangement of our acting conducts. Thus, important sector remain marginal to individual aspirations, being collectivized while increasing rule, principles and values breaking. Social co-existence being
This article seeks to trace some demarcations around the generic statute of the short short stories in the contemporary Spanish American narrative. Starting from an extracted corpus of a canonical anthology, the Brevísíma relación del microcuento hispanoamericano, of Juan Armando Epple, we guide ourselves to give bill of some constant characteristic of this narrative format, which emerge of the structural
Population expansion of an exotic mammal in Argentina: the Red-Bellied Squirrel Callosciurus erythraeus. Biological invasions are one of the major threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and they provoke economic losses to productive systems. A wild population of the Red-Bellied Squirrel Callosciurus erythraeus, native to South-east Asia, has established in the province a Buenos Aires (Argentina) since 1973. The objective
Parallel in time though always tending towards esthetic convergence and narrative hybridization, the history of the cinema and the history of advertising continue, against all predictions, to mutually exclude each other. Absurdly embarked upon a sterile and already over-long debate on their respective specificities, both disciplines compete to achieve within the convulsed and ever more intermediatic contemporary iconosphere that position
Los ministros de Hacienda del reinado de Alfonso XII asumieron muchas decisiones adoptadas en el Sexenio democrático en los ámbitos de la política monetaria, fiscal y arancelaria. Entre ellas la instauración de la peseta como moneda nacional, la concesión del monopolio de emisión de billetes al Banco de España, la rectificación de la Hacienda revolucionaría llevada a cabo entre 1872
This article analyses the results of a survey among Spanish exporters, and the experiences of four organisations implementing a formal competitive intelligence programme. The research confirms that a formal approach to competitive intelligence, rather than informal or discontinuous approaches, gives businesses of all sizes competitive advantage, and justifies the value of its implementation by Spanish exporters. However, competitive intelligence as
The recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a painfull ulceration of the oral mucose that appeared in children in school age and in adults and it is observed between 10 and 60% of the population. It has been classified according to the shape of appearance, size and number of lessions and duration. It is a broadly observed pathology in the world population
This research derives from a collection of Jewish lunar calendars, accurately conserved by the Voghera family since the end of the eighteenth Century. With the aid of comparisons with Community Archives and State Archives, a reconstruction of the Voghera Jewish family is performed. It is a family of poor tradesmen, connected with Jewish families of nearby Emilia. Moreover, by the
An automatic system is described for aiding photographic surveys of the solar photospheric granulation which significantly influence the conditions for viewing. The emitted signals from a telecamera, and characteristics of a suitable optical system are an...
A survey of anomalous\\/paranormal experiences was carried out in two groups: readers of paranormal issues (RPT) ( n= 432) and psychology undergraduate students (n=392). A questionnaire was devised in order to measure type and frequency of experiences and the degree of disturbance they generated. Over two thirds of the RPT respondents and half of the student respondents reported to have
On June 12, 2004 during the UAI Board Meeting held in Napoli, among other subjects, the members discussed the possibility to create a new UAI section. It would be identified as "Instruments Section". Basically, it would be a group of individuals interested in observative technology, who would dedicate themselves to the right utilization of astronomy instruments and accessories, particularly hardware and software, to the creation of a special database which amateur astronomers would consult and download, get information from, tips, files, applications schemes, charts, figures, instrument tests and so on. The "Astronomia UAI" monograph 6/2004 represents the first file of the above mentioned database, since it deals essentially with the remote and/or automatic control of astronomical observing and imaging by means of personal experiments developed by Mario Dho and Salvatore Massaro. Future perspectives and ideas to launch the new Section are presented.
We can say, without fear of being wrong, that at least in the first times and up to the coming into effect of a real Legal Code already in late periods, the ancient Egyptians were governing his relations based on an Unwritten law. This approach that we present is the base of the theory that will be developed soon, by
Through an analysis of the urban contamination of the city of Chillán in Chile, it is demonstrated that the increase in atmospheric pollution during autumn and winter in the city of Chillán must be considered as a problem of anthropogenic origin. This is explained mainly due to the massive use of wood for residential heating in urban areas of the
José E. Celis; José R. Morales; Claudio A. Zaror; Omar F. Carvacho
In this article, I discuss, according to the theoretical-analytical framework of Menendez (1994), how women and their midwives fo- llow a plural therapeutical itinerary during pregnancy and labor in the region of Antigua, Guatemala. I look foward to present and analyze an example of a delivery that happened during my research, first, as
The obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is being reported now with increased prevalence in pediatric population than in the past, associated with the development of more specific assessment methods. This evolution has opened the possibility to characterize OCD presentation in children and adolescents. OCD in childhood is a chronic and distressing disorder that can lead to severe impairments in social, academic and
Luis Alberto Vargas Álvarez; Lino Palacios Cruz; Guillermo González Thompson
A diagnosis of the situation of teachers in Spain from a comparative perspective This article examines the situation of teachers in Spain and takes into account comparable aspects from an international teaching perspective:training,recruitment,working conditions and salaries.The author begins with a description of the current teacher population which depicts in particular the increasing age of teaching staff and the feminization of
This paper is an approach to the different ways in which a narrative material can be reused in the cultural industries through the case study of the United States. Starting from the present situation of the investigations on literary
Non-alcoholic fatty liver is a common disease closely related to the increasing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in the general population. The eSS rats display a non obese type 2 diabetic syndrome with an insulin resistant state characterized by hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia. In 12 month-old eSS males glycaemia, fructosamine, triglyceridemia and reactive species to oxygen were evaluated,
Stella Maris Daniele; Juan Carlos Picena; Silvana Marisa Montenegro; María Cristina Tarrés; Stella Maris Martínez
Part of the series "Coleccion Mini-Libros" (Mini-Book Collection), the booklet is a factual account of the life of a bee. Designed to provide a tool for education of the Spanish-speaking child, as well as to stimulate an interest in Spanish among the youth of our country, the publication is a compilation of photographs with a description of bees…
A natural zeolite Cuban was used enriched for the cultivation of the marine microalgae Tetraselmis suecica and Chaetoceros ceratosporum, species used in the feeding of shrimp larvae in cultivation. Different zeolite concentrations were proven (5, 10 and 25 mg\\/L) adding it to the culture media Guillard \\
RESUMEN En este trabajo se construye un indicador sintético, denominado Índice de Carencias para la Niñez Colombiana (ICNC). El ICNC resume el acceso a un conjunto de bienes y servicios en áreas clave para el bienestar y cumplimiento de los derechos del niño. En particular, las carencias que mide el ICNC tienen el objeto de dar a conocer si los
Luis Fernando Aguado Quintero; Ana María Osorio Mejía; Carlos Alberto García González
|The article gives a brief overview of the Mexicano experience in East Chicago, Indiana during the 1920s and characterizes it within the context of the Mexicano unskilled laborer experience in a region where productive increases were of tantamount importance. (AUTHOR/NQ)|
Palabras-clave: Sistemas de prescripción electrónica, Prescripción de drogas, Dosificación de drogas Abstract - Dosage error is one of the most important problems during drug prescription. Electronic prescribing systems supported by medical decision making schedules is a useful tool in order to avoid these mistakes. This article describe the methodological and practical aspects related to the development of a knowledge base.
Daniel Luna; Carlos Musso; Cecilia Marini; Pablo Figueroa; Alejandro Lopez Osornio; Marcela Martinez; Fernando Gassino; Fernán Gonzalez; Bernaldo de Quirós
Riassunto Viene descritto un caso di grave poliradicoloneurite diabetica che non aveva tratto alcun miglioramento da un lungo trattamento con vitamina B1 e B12 ad alti dosaggi. Esso giunse a guarigione somministrando insulina direttamente nello speco vertebrale.
In this paper one considers the problem about small oscillations of an ideal heavy liquid contained in an unbounded elastic container produced by initial perturbations of the bottom and of the own free surface. Our aim is to use the known results about differential equations on Banach spaces for the study of the solubillity in general sense of the system
Resumen La violencia en las parejas jóvenes es un precursor de la violencia en las pare- jas adultas. En las parejas jóvenes la violencia suele ser psicológica, plantearse de forma sutil y ser menos grave que en las parejas en la vida adulta. Por lo que se refiere a los agresores, la violencia es más frecuente cuando hay ciertas variables
Itxaso González-Ortega; Enrique Echeburúa; Paz de Corral
The Letter of Aristeas tells about the Greek translation on the Torah made by seventy-two Jewish scholars from Jerusalem at the court of Ptolemy Philadelphus. The author uses regular forms and motives from the Greek literature. The aim of this article is to show how the descriptions (ekphráseis) of Ptolemys gifts and the Eleazars priestly garments have the purpose to
In recent years, a noticeable increase in the use of non-con- ventional TV advertising has taken place. However, hardly any studies have been carried out to understand how these for- mats influence young viewers. This article presents the find- ings from an experimental study on the influence of product placement on children (aged 8, 10 and 12 years). The con-
MÒNIKA JIMÉNEZ; ASSUMPCIÓ HUERTAS; JOSÉ FERNÀNDEZ CAVIA
The history of education is both a discipline in itself or the subject of a number academic disciplines as well as a field of research. In this paper we analyse its development through the 20th century from its origins to its establishment as an academic discipline for the training of university staff and teachers in a number of different countries
The day the Spanish writer Carmen Martn Gaite (1925–2000) turned 36, her daughter Marta gave her a notebook, which she called\\u000a Cuaderno de todo – notebook for everything. It was the first notebook of many, and in them Martn Gaite wrote of personal events, her thoughts\\u000a and reflections, literary notes, observations and drafts for her novels, and other intellectual works.
The pres ent en ergy pol icy causes a high risk in the econ omy of Mex ico when not pro mot ing the ex pan - sion of the ca pac ity on the gen er a tion of elec tric ity by means of alternative power plants such as geo - ther mal, ae olian, so lar, bio
A phytochemical study was carried out with the botanical species Pernettya parvifolia, an erycaceae known in Ecuador as 'taclli' or 'taglli' and whose fruits when erroneously ingested by children confusing with an edible berry produce acule intoxication w...
Positron emission tomographycomputed tomography in thoracic surgery. A revision. The introduction of positron emission tomography (PET) into the management of neoplastic disease in thoracic surgery signified an important change from classic algorithms based exclusively on anatomic information obtained through computed tomography (CT). Non-small cell lung cancer and solitary pulmonary nodule were the two diseases in which metabolic PET imaging offered
Quality of life is increasingly becoming a concept researched empirically and theoretically in the field of economics. In urban economics in particular, this increasing interest stems mainly from the fact that quality of life affects urban competitiveness and urban growth, research shows that when households and businesses decide where to locate, quality of life considerations can play a very important
En el archivo diocesano de Burgos se encuentra un fragmento de mediados del siglo XIV, escrito, a lo que parece, en San Esteban de Gormaz que contiene el tenor de un Agnus Dei y un motete a 3 voces, que lleva al final la rúbrica \\
ObjectiveThe Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) is one of the most widely used and evaluated generic health-related quality of life (HRQL) questionnaires. After almost a decade of use in Spain, the present article critically reviews the content and metric properties of the Spanish version, as well as its new developments.
Gemma Vilagut; Montse Ferrer; Luis Rajmil; Pablo Rebollo; Gaietà Permanyer-Miralda; José M. Quintana; Rosalía Santed; José M. Valderas; Aida Ribera; Antonia Domingo-Salvany; Jordi Alonso
Objective. To estimate the frequency of different forms of sexual violence and its association with mental health problems, such as depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempt, and alcohol and drug use. Material and meth- ods. From February to March 1998, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 345 women attending a healthcare center in Mexico City. All women were living with
Luciana Ramos-Lira; María Teresa Saltijeral-Méndez; Martha Romero-Mendoza; Miguel Angel Caballero-Gutiérrez; Nora Angélica Martínez-Vélez
SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To characterize a hemorrhagic protein from Bothrops brazili snake venom and to determi- ne if the polyvalent antibotropic serum is able to neutralize it. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A hemorrhagic protein from Bothrops brazili snake venom was purified through two chromatographical steps: Sephadex G-100 and CM Sephadex C-50, respectively, using 0,05M ammonium acetate buffer pH 7. In the last
Traces the career of Carmen Fischer Ramirez, focusing on her work in improving early childhood education in Chile. Reviews her university career, work with the World Organization for Early Childhood Education, and major publications. (AC)
En los últimos años en nuestro país, ha venido cobrando especial relevancia el sector de los micros, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MIPyMES); las estrategias principales del gobierno, están enfocadas precisamente en el apoyo a este sector, que sustenta las cifras actuales de empleo. Sin embargo las condiciones económicas y financieras del entorno han generado un alto grado de incertidumbre, los
Nicolás Barajas-Andrade; Eugenio Guzmán-Soria; Juvencio Hernández-Martínez; Samuel Rebollar-Rebollar
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the retail marketing strategies of one fashion retailer as they are applied in two national markets, and to identify means by which international retailer success may be assured. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is a qualitative case study. Findings – To be a successful international fashion retailer, the ability to apply
|Part of the series "Coleccion Mini-Libros" (Mini-Book Collection), the booklet is a factual account of the life of a bee. Designed to provide a tool for education of the Spanish-speaking child, as well as to stimulate an interest in Spanish among the youth of our country, the publication is a compilation of photographs with a description of bees…
RESUMEN El principal objetivo es el análisis de las medidas que las diferentes administraciones pusieron en marcha para reducir las altas tasas de desempleo en la población andaluza afectada por la paralización de la actividad pesquera como consecuencia de la finalización del Acuerdo de Pesca entre la Unión Europea y Marruecos desde el 30 de noviembre de 1999. Mediante la
A flowering phenology study was carried out in a plant community close to the Gulf of California coast in the southern part of Baja California Sur, Mexico. The area is located on the border between two phytographical provinces: the Cape Region of arid-tropical features and the Sonoran Desert. Among several characteristics, the site presents a bimodal rain pattern, the maxima
JOSE LUIS LEON DE LA LUZ; ROCIO CORIA BENET; MINERVA CRUZ ESTRADA
The arrival of a large number of immigrants at Spanish schools has turned classrooms into multicultural spaces. This is the reason why prospective teachers must receive appropriate training in cultural diversity. This paper presents a detailed study of the concept of racism as perceived by a group of prospective teachers who took the course on \\
Se presentan los resultados de un estudio cualitativo de revisión de la eficacia de los tratamientos psicológicos utilizados en la fobia social en niños y adolescentes. Se localizaron 26 investigaciones: 5 artículos son diseños de caso único, 6 presentan los datos de un solo grupo tratado y aportan medidas pretest-postest y 16 informes son grupos de comparación entre tratamientos psicológicos
Ana Isabel Rosa Alcázar; Pablo J. Olivares-Olivares; Marina Iniesta
The present investigation consists describes the social skills (codes as HHSS) in students of Psychology of an institution of higher education.The measurement of the same ones was made with the Escalas Multidimensionales de la Expresión Social, motor part (EMES-M) and cognitive part (EMES-C) (Caballo, 1987, 1999) in its version adapted for Colombian college students population developed by Gutiérrez (2000). The
Regional variables associated with high blood pressure in Argentina. We conducted a study in a random sample of 1523 inhabitants (15-75 years old) of Rauch city to determine risk factors prevalence to development hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. We measured blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference, cholesterol and glucose levels, sodium excretion, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. We found a high
HORACIO A. CARBAJAL; MARTIN R. SALAZAR; BEATRIZ RIONDET; HORACIO F. RODRIGO; SUSANA M. QUAINI; VALENTIN RECHIFORT; MARCELO AIZPURUA; RAUL F. ECHEVERRIA
Suicide is undoubtedly a fact of great interest to mass media because of its social impact. However, there is great concern among the academic community and the critical mass about how this type of news are presented, the language used and the stylistic manage- ment of the fact, especially if we realize that teenagers and young people are vulnerable to
Henry Rubiano Daza; Tatiana Quintero Cabrera; Clara Inés; Bonilla Londoño
In the development of an experimental tests bank, for a civil engineering application, it is necessary the design of a load measurement instrument capable of measure forces up to 30 tons. The later is the motive of the present work; in what follow it is present the design, construction and tuning of a load cell capable of measure load up
MIGUEL ÁNGEL DÍAZ; Ingeniero Mecánico; NUNZIO SCARCCELA; CARLOS MARMOLEJO; RUBÉN CHACÓN
We present a critical review on the paper "Densities, Potentials and related functions for a spherical reduced galaxy" by A. Poveda, R. Iturriaga, and I. Orozco published in 1960 in the Boletín de los Observatorios de Tonantzintla y Tacubaya (BOTT), 2, 20, 3.
En este trabajo se realiza un análisis de los fundamentos teóricos de la CEPAL, haciendo énfasis en las ideas que sobre la industrialización diseñó la institución. Se estudia la forma en que se integran las economías latinoamericanas con el resto del mundo y la manera en que las han afectado las crisis de los años treinta y luego la de
En este trabajo se presentan diversas consideraciones sobre la importancia de legitimar la operación social y la gestión institucional en las organizaciones educativas, considerando que uno de los elementos estriba en el derecho a opinar de los alumnos sobre el desempeño docente de sus profesores. En el trabajo se reporta el análisis de 26 010 cuestionarios contestados por los alumnos
FELIPE TIRADO SEGURA; ALEJANDRO MIRANDA DÍAZ; Y ANDRÉS SÁNCHEZ MOGUEL
For the present study we asked 74 schizophrenic patients to fill in a questionnaire. The purpose of this work was to find out their perception and satisfaction with the following aspects: measures of the treatments' efficacy, human and material resources of our service, quality of the relationship. In our conclusions we reflect on the utility of this type of studies.
Carlos CUEVAS YUST; Remedios DORADO GARCÍA; Agustina HERVÁS DE LA TORRE; Margarita LAVIANA CUETOS; Manuel Jesús; MARTÍNEZ LÓPEZ; Emilia NAVARRÓN CUEVAS; Salvador PERONA GARCELÁN; José Manuel; RAMOS LEÓN; Servicio Andaluz de Salud
A bibliographical journey through female migration in Spain This article refers to the key points arised from more than 100 works (published or unpub- lished) on female immigration that have came out in Spain during the last decade. What we propose here is to look over these materials in order to identify the most important characteristics. This essay will allow
Résumé En écologie végétale, le site est un concept central. Un site, c'est l'endroit où une espèce végétale ou une communauté de plantes se développe le site assure un ensemble de conditions dans lesquelles elles vivent. Dans un matériau homogène à l'origine, l'écoulement gravitaire d'une nappe influence les conditions du site par l'intermédiaire de la distribution spatiale des nutriments et d'autres composés chimiques associés. Les remontées d'eau peuvent tout spécialement produire et maintenir les conditions du site essentielles pour différentes espèces et communautés de plantes relativement rares. Les écologues ont porté une attention accrue à ces remontées d'eau, en sorte qu'une coopération avec les hydrologues en a résulté, avec l'émergence d'une discipline propre, l'éco-hydrologie, à la limite des deux domaines scientifiques et liée au concept de site. Aux Pays-Bas, une classification des types d'eau, basée sur l'histoire de l'eau souterraine à proximité de la surface, a été mise en oeuvre pour constituer une base nationale de données géographiques sur les remontées d'eau d'intérêt écologique. Des analyses des correspondances des données de cette base, portant sur l'existence de certaines espèces de plantes, montrent que dans les sols sableux pauvres du Pléistocène la remontée d'eau explique très bien la présence de certaines espèces et communautés, alors que, dans les plaines fluviales et les régions de polders à sols argileux riches, l'influence de la remontée d'eau est masquée par l'importance des caractéristiques des sols. En conclusion donc, certaines espèces de plantes peuvent être utilisées comme des indicateurs de la remontée d'eau dans des diagnostiques et des levés de terrain rapides, mais à condition de prendre en permanence des précautions sur les limites de l'approche. Resumen En ecología botánica un concepto de gran importancia es el de emplazamiento, definido como el lugar que proporciona unas condiciones de vida adecuadas que permiten el crecimiento de una especie o una comunidad botánica. En un material inicialmente homogéneo, el flujo subterráneo gravífico influencia las condiciones del emplazamiento variando la distribución espacial de los nutrientes y de otros agentes químicos relevantes. En especial, el flujo ascendente puede producir y mantener una serie de condiciones que son esenciales para algunas especies y comunidades de plantas relativamente raras. La especial atención hacia este fenómeno ha dado lugar a una cooperación entre ecologistas e hidrogeólogos y a la aparición de una nueva disciplina - eco-hidrología -, en la frontera de los dos campos científicos. En Holanda, se ha usado una clasificación sencilla de tipos de agua para crear una base de datos, a nivel nacional, de lugares donde la presencia de flujos ascendentes pueda ser de interés ecológico. El análisis de correspondencias entre esta base de datos y los tipos de plantas existentes muestra que en los suelos arenosos pobres del Pleistoceno los flujos ascendentes explican la presencia de algunas especies y comunidades de plantas. Por el contrario, en las llanuras fluviales y pólders, con suelos más arcillosos, la influencia de estos flujos es despreciable frente a la relativa a las propias características de los suelos. Se concluye que las especies botánicas se pueden usar como indicadores de la presencia de flujo ascendente sólo en campañas preliminares, pero que el método presenta grandes limitaciones para su extensión a casos generales.
An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [Spanish] Una prueba de campo fue conducida para evaluar la especificidad del escarabajo suramericano defoliador Gratiana boliviana Spaeth para control biologico de Solanum viarum Dunal en los Estados Unidos. La prueba con berenjena se realizo en el campo experimental de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y una parcela control con S. viarum fue establecida a 40 km. Cien escarabajos adultos fueron liberados en cada parcela al inicio del experimento durante la fase vegetativa, y cuarenta escarabajos adicionales fueron liberados en la parcela de berenjena durante la floracion. Todas las plantas en cada parcela fueron inspeccionadas dos veces a la semana y el numero de adultos, larvas, y posturas fueron registrados. Resultados indicaron un casi completo rechazo de la berenjena por G. boliviana. Ningun dano visible de defoliacion en la berenjena fue detectado. Las pruebas concluyeron cuando las plantas de berenjena alcazaron su madurez o fueron severamente danadas por mosca blanca y acaros. Resultados corroboran previas pruebas de especificidad en laboratorio/cuarentena que indican que la berenjena no es un hospedero de G. boliviana y que la posibilidad de llegar a ser una plaga de este cultivo es muy remota. Gratiana boliviana fue aprobado para ser liberado en el campo en mayo del 2003. Ningun dano ha sido observado hasta la fecha a plantas no blanco. (author)
Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F. [USDA-ARS South American Biological Control Laboratory, Hurlingham (Argentina); Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P. [University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nematology, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)
Influenza is a highly contagious disease. There are some historical descriptions of this condition by ancient Greek physicians, and the etiological agents have been known only for the last eight decades. The causative agent is the influenza virus, which has three main types: A, B, and C. Type A is capable of circulating within many different biological reservoirs, including humans,
Fernando Osores Plenge; Jorge Gómez Benavides; Luis Suarez Ognio; César Cabezas Sánchez; Jorge Alave Rosas
This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the stereotyped work roles assigned to men and women. The guide examines educational materials that perpetuate these roles and presents teaching alternatives which reinforce students' self esteem and confidence. A pre-test and post-test are included to measure the user's awareness of…
This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which…
A water balance has been set up in a thermophilous oak grove in the Italian Alps. In the experimental site, belonging to the European network of integrated monitoring (ICP IM), a meteorological station is operated since 1993, which provided data series for models. The calculation approach has been adapted from a protocol developed for a European pilot study. A Penman
El interés de este papel reside en el estudio de la orientación al mercado en un sector en el que la búsqueda del beneficio económico no es un factor prioritario: el sector cooperativista español. Como señala la legislación española, su objetivo es fundamentalmente la satisfacción de las necesidades de los socios cooperativistas, justificando de esta forma su pertenencia al sector
Academic Culture of the University of Colima Professors: a Revision from the Interview of Oral History This article presents a reflection on the experience with the methodological approach in the process of analysis, exploration and configuration of the academic culture in a small and young Mexican university as is the University of Colima. The study of the culture and institutionalization
Build and install the media agenda in the public opinion is well know routine exercise in the written press. This article works its relationship with immigration and how it represents and is marking its footprint in the chilean press. Peruvian immigration and a look at the press coverage are chosen to reflect a relationship that comes to stress the concept
El argumento central de los zapatistas como práctica de lucha es la apropiación de la exclusión. La exclusión es un proceso histórico de dominio hacia los indígenas. A lo largo de 16 años de existencia pública han hecho evidente tal cuestión. El primero de enero de 1994 le dijeron al mundo que a partir de ese momento la exclusión ha
Within the context of a research aimed to obtain clues about the dispersal of populations from northern Patagonia after the paleoclimatic event called the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) (ca. 800-1350 AD), in this paper we explore three different lines of evidence (craniofacial, postcranial and dental morphology) using bioarchaeological samples from southern Mendoza. Previous work based on the morphometric analysis of
Marien Béguelin; Valeria Bernal; Mariano Del Papa; Paula Novellino; Gustavo Barrientos
Entre los gerentes modernos existen inquietudes sobre la forma de motivar a los empleados. En anteriores artículos nos hemos expedido sobre la posibilidad de que la motivación se torne algo negativo cuando es excesiva; en efecto los empleados quienes se comprometen en demasía con la estima de sus supervisores y jefes como también con su propia elaboración al respecto de
Titanosaurus was named in 1877 for two caudal vertebrae and an isolated femur from Cretaceous rocks of central India. Titanosauridae was coined soon afterwards to encompass numerous taxa, despite their often tenuous associations and limited morphological overlap. Long recognized as wastebasket taxa, \\
Most existing full-range soil-water retention functions extend standard capillary pressure curves into the dry region to zero water content at a finite matric potential. A description of dryness is commonly taken as oven-dry conditions given by a matric suction of 107 cm at zero liquid saturation. However, no finite pressure can be exerted by a zero amount of water, so
The Mexican Gray Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) is one of the most distinctive groups of wild canids.It has been erradicated from most of its original range and there is no solid evidence of wild populations. All known individuals of this species are kept in zoos or special enclosures. Recently a great deal of efforts have been done in oder to
María A. SOTO; Arturo SALAME-MÉNDEZ; José RAMÍREZ-PULIDO; Lourdes YAÑEZ; Miguel Ángel ARMELLA
Toxicological Evaluation in Mice of an Initial Safe Single Dose for Vax-SPIRAL, a Cuban Vaccine against Leptospirosis. Toxicological tests on vaccines are increasingly exigent, and specific and non-specific safety tests are not considered sufficient any longer. Vax-SPIRAL is an inactivated whole-cell leptospiral vaccine adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The toxicity test by single dose in at least one animal species is
Juan F Infante; Sergio Sifontes; Enrique Muñoz; Martha González; Viviana Pérez; Carmen Baldor; Mildrey Fariñas
The inclusion of the quadrivalent human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine in the schedule of the Spanish National Health System sparked the debate over Gardasil®, which was presented to the public as a “vaccine against cervical cancer”. In this context, Sanofi Pasteur MSD was sued for misleading advertising in the campaign “cuentaselo.org”. Although the complaint was not admitted, the lawsuit triggered
This paper reports on the design and construction of a 20 cm long optical cell whose temperature can be changed continuously between 50 and 350 degrees K. The cell is cooled by a single stage cryogenerator and thermo-regulated with an electrical feedback ...
G. Baldacchini A. Bellatreccia P. Cardoni I. Cenciarelli F. D'Amato
|This listing of unusual Spanish proverbs contains words of wisdom on money, doctors, agriculture, students, procrastination, pessimism, war, good and evil, religion, God, and a host of other topics. The topic of each proverb is given in English. (CHK)|
This article points out the main lexical and morpho-syntactic errors Spanish speakers have when they learn English. These errors have been observed in a group of Mexican students in USA. The paper will illustrate with examples problems such as Spanglish, generalization, mother tongue influence, etc. so that lecturers see these errors as a natural part of students' learning process. Some
This research study evaluated the relationship between scoliosis and a set of variables related to age, motor skills (left-handed or right-handed) and the method of transporting school supplies (backpack or trolley) among a school-aged male population. The final selection of the sample - comprising 682 participants between 6 and 12 years old and residents in Granada (Spain) - was conducted
Manuel Fernández Sánchez; Félix Zurita Ortega; Carmen Fernández Sánchez; Rubén Fernández García; Miguel Muñoz-Cruzado y Barba; María Teresa Labajos Manzanares
SUMMARY Objective: In order to evaluate influences of beliefs, attitudes, and subjective norms related to the exercise of sexual and reproductive rights in adolescent students from Jamundí, Departamento (= State) del Valle del Cauca, Colombia an investigation was carried out. Methods: Design included time series with paired samples. A psychometric scale was applied to 128 adolescent students before an educative
Martha Lucía Vásquez; Luz Ángela Argote; Edelmira Castillo; María José Cabrera; Danilo Gonzalez; María Elena Mejía; María Eugenia Villaquirán
Cholera: An updated review. Part 3. Cholera complications. Treatment. Genetics of cholera. Mechanisms for the control of the epidaemia. References. This review gives a complete, precise and update information on the cholera disease, from its beginning in the world up to the current seventh pandaemia, which already is present in South America, including Peru, Colombia and Venezuela. Information is given
Airport service quality and customer satisfaction: a methodology that supports the traditional one (by Valerio Gatta). Objectives In this paper we consider the problem of service quality measurement. In marketing literature the study of service quality has focused on customer evaluation. Often, the global service quality index is simply computed as the average of the clients’ responses on the overall
Development from an ethical and humanistic point of view can be likened to satisfaction with life and happiness. In turn, goals of life are ways of understanding the ultimate aims of human existence. In people' s subjective view , development can be seen as maximum fulfillment and personal happiness. Zen and other authors of the nineties and the start of
Extrusion cooking technology is the most used technique for the production of snack foods. In such foods, texture is of major importance, with crispness being often a desirable attribute. Due to the high costs involved in sensory analysis, instrumental assessment of end-product texture, by fundamental and empirical techniques, has been a useful tool for food researchers and manufactures as it
Objective. To discuss the risks for Mexican young women who engage in sexual relations in exchange for social or economic benefits, also known as compensated sex (CS), with the objective of exploring its possible public health implications. Material and Methods. This is a qualitative study conducted in youths 15 to 25 years of age in Cuerna- vaca, Morelos, Mexico, between
Florence Lise Théodore; Juan Pablo Gutiérrez; Pilar Torres; Gabriela Luna
Colour indexes derived by aperture photometry on cometary comae in VRI Johnson/Cousins bands give a way to understand the mechanism dominating the brightness of a comet: reflected sunlight or fluorescence. Considering that V band is dominated by C2 gas emission and that R and I on the contrary have few gas contamination, the colour index determined as a function of the coma diameter is a key parameter. In an hypothetical purely dusty coma we expect a constant colour index close to the solar one and nearly constant with aperture. If gas is present we can have a differentiation within the coma and a non constant colour index, in this case the colour index is "bluer" in the external halo. The effect was clearly observed in C/2001 A2 and C/2000 WM1.
This study estimates pollution generation intensity indexes for six air pollutants: total sus- pended particles (TSP), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), and lead (Pb) for the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. These indexes link up total pollution (direct, indirect, and induced) per every product million of pesos in all economic sectors in
Summary Tinea capitis is very rare in adults. We report a new case of tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis in a healthy postmenopausal woman. We argue the predisposing factors of the dermatophytoses in adult patients and discuss about the use of terbinafine like first line of treatment in this entity, because of the apparition of resistances.
María López-Escobar García-Prendes; Cristina Raya Aguado; Cayetana Maldonado Seral; Narciso Pérez Oliva
Sugar cane wastes and reuse strategies are a prior subject in sugar cane areas because of the new environmental standards and modern production systems. The overall goal of the present review is to analyze the environmental impact from sugar cane agroindustry and its recycling processes on the bases of a sustainable development planning. Literature review results consider that there are
R. Basanta; M. A. García Delgado; J. E. Cervantes Martínez; H. Mata Vázquez; G. Bustos Vázquez
AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE DEMAND- CONTROL-SOCIAL SUPPORT MODEL: EFFECTS ON BURNOUT AND ON SOMATIC COMPLAINTS AMONG NURSING STAFF. The present study investigated the relationship between job characteristics and well-being dimensions (burnout and somatic complaints) in a group of 271 nurses. The study, based on Karasek and Theorell's theoretic model of demand-control-social support, aimed to test the following hypotheses: a)
In nuclear power plants, the fatigue in vessels and their associated components is caused by transients that occur at normal operating temperatures. Fatigue analysis validity must be continuously reviewed during the design period of the components. Fatigue accumulation due to in plant events produces the degradation of the vessel components. This is the cause that everyday is more under consideration
Female sexuality has commonly been viewed as the passive counterpart of male sexuality. Building upon Adrienne Rich's theory of compulsive heterosexuality, I would suggest that the fundamental location of this problem lies within the subconscious. Cristina Escofet's stance on this issue is to argue in favor of a deconstruction of Jungian archetypes, revealing their constructed rather than intrinsic character. In
|Being a family day care provider is work that requires professional responsibilities and attention to the physical, emotional, and educational well-being of children; listening and responding to parents; and running a business. This videotape, in English- and Spanish-language versions, explores the elements involved in starting up a family day…
Background and objectiveObesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation. The expression of adhesion molecules may be influenced by a high glucose load. The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin concentrations in obese women, and to evaluate the role of high-glucose load on postload circulating levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin in
María Matilde Ramírez Alvarado; Maria Isabel García de Seijo; Evelyn Bahri Hernández; Tibisay Pelayo Jordán
The rich expressive language of the archpriest of Hita in his writings has motivated the elucidation of the origin and meaning\\u000a of the names of his characters. The Libro de buen amor, transcending all the Spanish literature of its epoch, broadens the restricted linguistic limits and opens up the possibilities\\u000a of a literary analysis. Regarding the episode of “Don Melon
|Although, reviews and outcome research supports empirical evidence for Early Intensive Behavior Intervention in pre-scholars, intensive behavioral service provision for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less subject to research studies. In order to provide effective behavioral interventions for school-aged children it…
Baby walkers are a potential cause of accidents in infants from 6 months to 1 year of age. We conducted a study to determine the patterns of walker use, the different points of view of the parents and the baby walker-related injuries in our health district. For this purpose, between November 1, 1992 and January 31, 1993, a questionnaire was
L. Santos Serrano; J. M. Paricio Talayero; A. Salom Pérez; M. Grieco Burucúa; J. Martín Ruano; M. J. Benlloch Muncharaz; T. Llobat Estellés; B. Beseler Soto
Appointment reminders help parents deal with complex immunization schedules. Preferred content of text-message reminders has been identified for English-speakers. Spanish-speaking parents of children under three years old were recruited to develop Spanish text-message immunization reminders. Structured interviews included questions about demographic characteristics, use of technology, and willingness to receive text reminders. Each participant was assigned to one user-centered design (UCD) test: card sort, needs analysis or comprehension testing. Respondents (N=54) were female (70%) and averaged 27 years of age (SD=7). A card sort of 20 immunization-related statements resulted in identification of seven pieces of critical information, which were compiled into eight example texts. These texts were ranked in the needs assessment and the top two were assessed for comprehension. All participants were able to understand the content and describe intention to act. Utilizing UCD testing, Spanish-speakers identified short, specific text content that differed from preferred content of English-speaking parents. PMID:23974378
SUMMARY Clinical and epidemiologic analysis of intestinal tract colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci in an intensive care unit. Intestinal tract colonization with vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) was studied during five months and 25 days. Out of 171 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit, 124 (73%) were included in this study. Thirty five of them (28%) were recognized as colonized with
A. M. TOGNERI; J. GONZÁLEZ; H. LOPARDO; L. B. PODESTÁ; P. GAGETTI; M. PÉREZ; V. RODRÍGUEZ; M. RODRÍGUEZ; L. RÍOS; E. DINERSTEIN
Knowledge is a conscious, intentional and individual act to learn object's qualities and is firstly referred to who knows but also to the object thing what is known. Its development has been close to human thought evolution. Epistemology, the science that studies knowledge, is based in scientific research that begins with a hypothesis exposition and develops afterwards with mathematical models
El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en analizar los efectos que tendría un incremento en la tarifa del agua del sector agrario sobre la conservación del recurso, la eficiencia en el consumo y la posible relocalización del mismo entre los diferentes sectores productivos. La política tarifaria se aplicará sobre el sector agrario debido, por un lado, al excesivo consumo de
M. Alejandro Cardenete; G. J. D. Hewings; E. Velázquez
Objective. To evaluate the use of the illicit drugs and its in- teraction with smoking in young students in a state of Central Mexico, 2005-2007. Material and Methods. A population cohort study with 4 625 students was carried out in differ- ent public schools in Morelos State. Baseline measurement analysis was carried out describing tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs consumption.
Luisa María Sánchez-Zamorano; Angélica Ángeles Llerenas; Rafael Anaya-Ocampo; Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce
Summary A 43-year-old man with ulcerative colitis was sched- uled for pancolectomy owing to adenomatous transfor- mation of polyps. The patient had right ventricular arrhythmogenic dysplasia, with deteriorating ventricu- lar function, and carried an automatic implantable de- fibrillator. We discuss the general features of arrhyth- mogenic right ventricular dysplasia and its implications for management and monitoring during major abdomi- nal
F. Martínez Torrente; A. Orts Castro; F. García-Montoto; F. Pérez-Cerdá
Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting
Kathy Newman; Lynda Harrison; Carol Dashiff; Susan Davies
Sommario Nel presente lavoro viene illustrata l'analisi termo-meccanica agli elementi finiti effettuata sui collimatori per il Large Hadron Collider, il potente acceleratore progettato al CERN di Ginevra; verranno esposte le scelte effettuate per i materiali e le soluzioni impiegate per il design dei collimatori di LHC. Verranno poi descritti il modello agli elementi finiti sviluppato, la metodologia di analisi adottata
La reforma del sistema de financiación aprobada en julio del año 2009 es esencialmente diferente de las reformas de los sistemas de financiación anteriores. Por un lado, no ha venido exigida por el tradicional plazo de caducidad de los sistemas de financiación cada cinco años, sino por circunstancias esencialmente políticas. Por otro lado, se ha dicho que el nuevo sistema
The Glutathion S-transferase genes play an important role in the metabolism of genotoxic compounds. Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene belongs to this family and has a polymorphic variant at codon 105 has been identified the mutant causes a substitution from Isoleucine to Valine and consequently it produced changes in the enzymatic function. In this research we standardized a PCR-RFLP technique
Aleyda Maritza Acosta; Silvio Marino Carvajal; Luz Stella Hoyos; Carlos Hernán Sierra
An intervention program against bullying is presented in this article. The intervention program is integrated in two European research projects - the TMR Project about nature and prevention of bullying and the Sócrates Project - and it is developed through out pupils and teachers' training. The intervention program persecutes the improvement of social skills in order to develop positive interpersonal
En este estudio se analiza la relación entre la exposición a los mercados internacionales (medida por medio de las exportaciones a los países desarrollados) y la innovación (en procesos, productos, diseño, empaque, organización y nuevas tecnologías). Básicamente, se busca estudiar la hipótesis de que las empresas realizan un mayor esfuerzo innovador en la medida en que enfrentan la competencia en
Las propuestas contenidas en el documento del Nuevo Acuerdo de Capital de Basilea, para medir el riesgo de crédito, sirven de base para medir también el riesgo de quiebra de las empresas con base en la utilización de ratios financieros internos. En la práctica se presentan situaciones en la que es necesario tomar decisiones de acuerdo con el comportamiento de
In a society, characterized by sudden innovative processes, studying social controversies of technological order assumes a specific meaning. Within these limits, the present case study - named Rete 2 - is representative in order to compile a first analysi...
|This publication is intended as a resource guide for teachers, students, and librarians interested in Mexican American culture, and for groups wishing to conduct local community research using oral histories. The Mexican American Traditions in Nebraska project was designed to document and preserve the richness of Nebraska's Mexican culture. The…
The cover, morphology and aerial production of dry matter (DM) of the specie Pithececellebium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. was evaluated in a xerophyte area. The population density per hectare of trees higher and smaller than 1.5 m was 264 and 1935, equivalent to 22.6 and 2.1% of total botanical community, respectively. Ten adult trees higher than 1.5 m with similar dimension,
At the end of last year, the Italian incumbent on vocal (fixed) telephony raised private and business monthly connection bills. Due to a complex and controversial regulatory framework, the significant increase obtained by Telecom Italia gave to consumers and observers the impression that nobody was playing its role: why did the incumbent insist in a strategy apparently inconsistent with the
SUMMARY The term extranasopharyngeal angiofi broma has been applied to vascular, fi brous nodules occurring outside the nasopharynx. The maxillary sinus is the most common site involved, while the nasal septum represents an extremely rare localization. Com- puterized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging are used to determine the tumour site and its extension. Surgical excision of the mass is
Each year, nearly 1.3 million children are reported missing. Although the unforeseen absence of a child is always upsetting, fortunately most missing children are returned home in a short period of time. This fact, however, provides little consolation for...
In order to gather some information about the importance of medicinal plants in the primary health care, the use of plants in three small villages of the Santa Ana county, Pampán municipality at Trujillo State, Venezuela, was quantitatively analyzed. To do this, a local epidemiology diagnosis was carried out and the etnopharmacological information obtained was recorded using the TRAMIL survey.
The promoter region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-cyt gene was fused to a ß-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter gene and introduced into tobacco plants. Detection of gusA expression in transgenic F1 progeny revealed that the T-cyt promoter is active in many, if not all, cell types in leaves, stems and roots of fully developed plants. Developmental stage-dependent promoter activity was observed in
Saskia T. C. Neuteboom; Esther Hulleman; Rob A. Schilperoort; J. Harry C. Hoge
SUMMARY This study was carried out with the goal of determining the effects of different doses of slow-release fertilizer (Osmocote®) in the development of aerial and root biomass of the native species Nothofagus dombeyi, Nothofagus nervosa, and Eucryphia cordi- folia. Seedlings were raised in containers of 130 cm3 filled with discomposed bark of Pinus radiata calibrated to particles ? 10
Fernando Bustos; Pablo Donoso; Víctor Gerding; Claudio Donoso; Bernardo Escobar
The temperate forest of southern South America (TFSSA) has a highly endemic biota with a flora that exhibits one of the highest incidences of biotic pollination (particularly ornithophily) and animal dispersal (particularly endozoochory) found in any temperate biome worldwide. Much knowledge has been gained in the last few years on the nature of these mutualisms. In this study, we review
MARCELO A. AIZEN; DIEGO P. VÁZQUEZ; CECILIA SMITH-RAMÍREZ
The alteration of a habitat such as that caused by the introduction of exotic animal species that displace the native ones, reducing their populations or leading them to extinction, can result in the disruption of species interactions which may have evolved during millions of years. The insular ecosystems are especially vulnerable to such disturbances, as they are usually less complex
BACKGROUND: Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases on citrus and is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter spp.. The pathogens are phloem limited and have not been cultured in vitro. The current management strategy of HLB is to remove infected citrus trees and reduce psyllid populations with insecticides to prevent the spreading. This strategy requires sensitive and reliable
Quality of products made from medicinal plants commercialized in Brazil: horsechestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf), and gotu kola (Centella asiatica (L.) Urban). Aiming to evaluate the quality of products made from medicinal plants, there were analyzed ten samples of horsechestnut, eleven samples of lemongrass, and six samples of gotu kola commercialized in pharmacies from the city
Joabe Gomes de Melo; Járisson Diógenes Guilherme da Roch Martins; Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti de Amorim; Ulysses Paulino de Albuquerque
Forage quality for whole plant, stover, and ear was investigated in five corn population Groups consisting of highland, tropical and subtropical germplasm, F1 hybrids and F2 hybrid generations. The experimental material was evaluated in Aguascalientes, Mexico, in a split plot experiment with three replications, in which plots were Groups and subplots populations within Groups. The earliest group of highland populations
Resumen El tipo de cosecha y manejo de residuos inciden en el contenido de nutrientes del suelo y la productividad forestal. Estos residuos contienen la mayoría del retorno de N. La velocidad de provisión de nutrientes por la descomposición\\/mineralización puede verse afectada por la calidad química y física como por la localización y contacto de los residuos con el suelo.
The interactive effects of light and temperature on C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) were examined both in vivo and in situ using the leaves of Amaranthus hypochondriacus collected at different times during a day and in each month during the year. The maximum activity of PEPC, least inhibition by malate, and highest activation by glucose-6-phosphate were at 15.00?h during a typical day, in all the months. This peak was preceded by maximum ambient light but coincided with high temperature in the field. The highest magnitude in such responses was in the summer (e.g. May) and least in the winter (e.g. December). Light appeared to dominate in modulating the PEPC catalytic activity, whereas temperature had a strong influence on the regulatory properties, suggesting interesting molecular interactions. The molecular mechanisms involved in such interactive effects were determined by examining the PEPC protein/phosphorylation/mRNA levels. A marked diurnal rhythm could be seen in the PEPC protein levels and phosphorylation status during May (summer month). In contrast, only the phosphorylation status increased during the day in December (winter month). The mRNA peaks were not as strong as those of phosphorylation. Thus, the phosphorylation status and the protein levels of PEPC were crucial in modulating the daily and seasonal patterns in C4 leaves in situ. This is the first detailed study on the diurnal as well as seasonal patterns in PEPC activity, its regulatory properties, protein levels, phosphorylation status, and mRNA levels, in relation to light and temperature intensities in the field.
Avasthi, Uday K.; Izui, Katsura; Raghavendra, Agepati S.
Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip obtained from larvae of the opium poppy stem gall Iraella luteipes endophytically colonizes opium poppy plants and protect it against this pest. Development of a specific, rapid and sensitive technique that allows accurately determining the process and factors leading to the establishment of this strain in opium poppy plants would be essential to achieve its efficient control in a large field scale. For that purpose in the present study, species-specific primers that can be used in conventional or quantitative PCR protocols were developed for specifically identification and detection of B. bassiana in plant tissues. The combination of the designed BB.fw/BB.rv primer set with the universal ITS1-F/ITS4 primer set in a two-step nested-PCR approach, has allowed the amplification of up to 10fg of B. bassiana. This represented an increase in sensitivity of 10000- and 1000-fold of detection than when using the BB.fw/BB.rv primers in a single or single-tube semi-nested PCR approaches, respectively. The BB.fw and BB.rv primer set were subsequently optimized to be used in real time quantitative PCR assays and allowed to accurately quantify B. bassiana DNA in different plant DNA backgrounds (leaves and seeds) without losing accuracy and efficiency. The qPCR protocol was used to monitor the endophytic colonization of opium poppy leaves byB. bassiana after inoculation with the strain EABb 04/01-Tip, detecting as low as 26fg of target DNA in leaves and a decrease in fungal biomass over time. PCR quantification data were supported in parallel with CLMS by the monitoring of spatial and temporal patterns of leaf and stem colonization using a GFP-tagged transformant of the B. bassiana EABb 04/01-Tip strain, which enabled to demonstrate that B. bassiana effectively colonizes aerial tissues of opium poppy plants mainly through intercellular spaces and even leaf trichomes. A decline in endophytic colonization was also observed by the last sampling times, i.e. from 10 to 15days after inoculation, although fungal structures still remained present in the leaf tissues. These newly developed molecular protocols should facilitate the detection, quantification and monitoring of endophytic B. bassiana strains in different tissues and host plants and would help to unravel the factors and process governing the specific endophytic association between opium poppy and strain EABb 04/01-Tip providing key insights to formulate a sustainable strategy for I. luteipes management in the host. PMID:23851123
Landa, B B; López-Díaz, C; Jiménez-Fernández, D; Montes-Borrego, M; Muñoz-Ledesma, F J; Ortiz-Urquiza, A; Quesada-Moraga, E
Coffee (Coffea arabica L.), one of the key export and cash crops in tropical and subtropical countries, suffers severe losses from the rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. The transcriptome of H. vastatrix was analysed during a compatible interaction with coffee to obtain an exhaustive repertoire of the genes expressed during infection and to identify potential effector genes. Large-scale sequencing (454-GS-FLEX Titanium) of mixed coffee and rust cDNAs obtained from 21-day rust-infected leaves generated 352 146 sequences which assembled into 22 774 contigs. In the absence of any reference genomic sequences for Coffea or Hemileia, specific trinucleotide frequencies within expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and blast homology against a set of dicots and basidiomycete genomes were used to distinguish pathogen from plant sequences. About 30% (6763) of the contigs were assigned to H. vastatrix and 61% (13 951) to C. arabica. The majority (60%) of the rust sequences did not show homology to any genomic database, indicating that they were potential novel fungal genes. In silico analyses of the 6763 H. vastatrix contigs predicted 382 secreted proteins and identified homologues of the flax rust haustorially expressed secreted proteins (HESPs) and bean rust transferred protein 1 (RTP1). These rust candidate effectors showed conserved amino-acid domains and conserved patterns of cysteine positions suggestive of conserved functions during infection of host plants. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction profiling of selected rust genes revealed dynamic expression patterns during the time course of infection of coffee leaves. This study provides the first valuable genomic resource for the agriculturally important plant pathogen H. vastatrix and the first comprehensive C. arabica EST dataset. PMID:21726390
Fernandez, Diana; Tisserant, Emilie; Talhinhas, Pedro; Azinheira, Helena; Vieira, Ana; Petitot, Anne-Sophie; Loureiro, Andreia; Poulain, Julie; Da Silva, Corinne; Silva, Maria Do Céu; Duplessis, Sébastien
SUMMARY The change in the sowing date of maize modifies the response in grain yield to the plant density. The objective of this work was to study in the central region of Córdoba, Argentina, the effect of sowing date and plant density on the determi- nation of the yield and its components. The experiments were conducted in the field in
-benciladenina (BA) (5.9 µM a 29.3 µM), ácido indol-3-acético (AIA) (0.28 µM a 5.71 µM), ácido ?- naftalenacético (ANA) (0.16 µM a 0.53 µM) y ácido giberélico (AG3) (0.86 µM). Todas las combinaciones de reguladores de crecimiento probadas promovieron la formación de brotes adventicios tanto en los explantes de hipocotilo como en los de cotiledón. Fue posible obtener hasta 5.1
The present investigation was carried out in the laboratory of Phytopathology of the Biotechnological Research Centre of Ecuador (CIBE), belong to the Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL) in the Campus Gustavo Galindo. The ESPOL is located in km 30,5 of the vía Perimetral to 80 m.s.n.m within a tropical dry climate in the city of Guayaquil. During the period
Byron Edison; Moyano Del Pezo; María Isabel Jiménez Feijoo
Lipolexis oregmae Gahan was introduced into Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), on citrus. Prior to evaluating distribution, host range, and potential nontarget effects of L. oregmae in Florida, we evaluated the role of other potential host aphids and host plants on mummy production and location. Under laboratory conditions, this parasitoid produced the most progeny on the target pest, the brown citrus aphid on citrus. This parasitoid, unlike the majority of aphidiids, did not produce mummies on any of the host plants tested when reared in black citrus aphid T. aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) on grapefruit, spirea aphid Aphis spiraecola Patch on grapefruit and pittosporum, cowpea aphid A. craccivora Koch on grapefruit and cowpeas, or melon aphid A. gossypii Glover on grapefruit and cucumber. Thus, sampling for L. oregmae mummies of these host aphids and host plants must involve holding foliage in the laboratory until mummies are produced. This parasitoid requires high relative humidity to produce adults because no adults emerged when mummies were held in gelatin capsules, but high rates of emergence were observed when mummies were held on 1.5% agar plates. In addition, we compared the color of 6 aphid hosts and the color of mummies produced by L. oregmae when reared in them to determine if color of mummies could be used to identify L. oregmae . Mummy color varied between aphid hosts and tested host plants, and is not a useful tool for identifying L. oregmae for nontarget effects. (author) [Spanish] Lipolexis oregmae Gahan fue introducida en Florida por medio de un programa de control biologico clasico dirigido contra el afido pardo de los citricos, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), sobre Citrus. Prioritario a la evaluacion de la distribucion, el rango de los hospederos y los efectos potenciales de L. oregmae sobre los organismos que no son el enfoque de control en la Florida, nosotros evaluamos el papel de otras especies de afidos y plantas hospederas potenciales sobre la produccion y ubicacion de las momias. Bajo condiciones de laboratorio, este parasitoide produjo el mayor numero de progenies sobre la especie de plaga enfocada, el afido pardo de los citricos sobre Citrus . Este parasitoide, no como la mayoria de los afidiidos (Hymenoptera), no produjo momias sobre cualquiera de las plantas hospederas probadas cuando fue criado sobre el afido negro de los citricos, ( T. aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe)) en toronja, el afido spirea (Aphis spiraecola Patch) en toronja y pittosporum, el afido del caupi (A. craccivora Koch) en toronja y caupi o el afido del melon (A. gossypii Glover) en toronja y pepino. Asi, el muestreo para momias de L. oregmae de estas especies de afidos hospederos y plantas hospederas tiene que incluir el mantenimiento de follaje en el laboratorio hasta que se produzcan las momias. Este parasitoide requiere una alta humedad relativa para producir los adultos por que ningun adulto emergio cuando las momias fueron mantenidas en capsulas de gelatina, pero una tasa alta de emergencia de adultos fue observada cuando se mantuvo las momias en platos con agar al 1.5%. Ademas de esto, nosotros comparamos el color de 6 especies de afidos hospederos, asi como el color de las momias producidos por L. oregmae cuando fue criado sobre ellos para determinar si se puede usar el color de las momias para la identificacion de L. oregmae . El color de las momias varia entre las especies de afidos hospederos y las plantas hospederas probadas, por lo que no es una herramienta util para la identificacion de L. oregmae o para la evaluacion de su efecto sobre los organismos que no son el enfoque del control. (author)
Singh, R.; Hoy, M.A. [Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
RESUMO Considerando-se que uma forma de prover fosfato disponível para as plantas é através da atividade mineralizadora microbiana do fósforo orgânico, avaliou-se a influência da planta (braquiária, guandu e sem planta), dos fertilizantes (superfosfato simples, fosfato de rocha e sem adubo) e da calagem (com e sem calcário) nas populações de microrganismos produtores de fosfatases ácida e alcalina. Do total
Two types of data-collectlng systems, field diarles and time sampling of behavíor, were used to study a juvenile gang in a marginal com- munity of Mexico City. These two ways of gathering data give us ím- portant Information conceming the gang. wlth regards lo social functio- níng, víolence, delinquency and dmg usage. Field diaries offer us a panoramlc, global vision
Impact of an immunostimulant diet and constant temperature on liver carbohydrate metabolism in the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 The impact of an immunostimulant diet -frequently used to avoid winter syndrome in aquaculture- on liver carbohydrate metabolism was assessed over a period of 230 days in the gilthead sea bream Sparus aura- ta L., 1758. An enhancement of liver
R. Laiz-Carrión; M. P. Martín del Río; J. L. Soengas; J. M. Mancera
|Intended for Spanish-speaking farmworkers with children, this publication in comic book format tells these parents how they can protect their children from pesticide risks. On returning home from work, one farmworker couple does not hug their young children. When their behavior is questioned by neighbors, the mother explains that the fields were…
|This document presents an overview, analysis, and historical assessment of the Major Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Conferences, regional meetings, and outcomes from the inception of the project in 1979 are described. This project stresses the establishment of a regional network for exchange of information, experiences,…
El cambio cualitativo y cuantitativo generado en el seno de las organizaciones no gubernamentales, ha suscitado la aplicaci¢n de modelos conceptuales de comportamiento del consumidor encaminados a la b£squeda de la eficiencia en las pol¡ticas de captaci¢n de voluntarios. En este contexto, el segmento de j¢venes cobra especial relevancia, pues es fundamental en el desarrollo futuro de estas entidades. El
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy of an early cognitive behavioral intervention in the functional recovery of the low back pain. Patients and methods: Subjects with an episode of Temporary Work Disability (TWD) of 4 weeks of duration due to low back pain were selected. Efficacy variables included duration of TWD episodes, duration of TWD
|This document discusses the teaching of problem solving in environmental education. From an interdisciplinary viewpoint, this study describes some strategies for teaching that can favor the practice of educational activities oriented toward solving the concrete problems of the surrounding environment. The volume is divided into seven chapters.…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Immobilization of a peroxidase from chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw) using an adequately functionalized and previously activated support which allows to preserve enzymatic activity is here presented. Studies were also carried out to show its potential for decontamination of artificial waste waters containing phenolic compounds. The peroxidase was successfully immo- bilized onto the organic support polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer functionalized with triglycine
María Lioba; Osnelda VILLEGAS-ROSAS; Gunther GEISSLER; Anabella HANDAL-SILVA; Enrique GONZÁLEZ-VERGARA; Centro de Química
|These two comic books are part of the "Very Special Family" series, created by and for Hispanic parents of children with special needs. The materials are designed to help parents deal with the emotional difficulties of raising a child with disabilities. The booklets are printed in both English and Spanish. In Part 1, "Mario and Clara Hernandez,"…
Helping students understand the magnitude of geologic time strengthens student understanding of biological concepts; illustrates not just when things happened but also how they are interconnected; and identifies and addresses common misperceptions.
Susan Lewis (Carroll University;); Kristen Lampe (Carroll University;); Andrew Lloyd (Carroll University;)
To investigate the spread of a pandemic strain of influenza virus through Italy and the impact of control measures, we introduce a SEIR deterministic model, with a stochastic simulation component. We assume for the pandemic an R0 (the basic reproductive n...
A. Bella C. Rizzo M. Iannelli M. Massari M. L. Ciofi degli Atti
A new species of euglena isolated from a hot and acid mud pool located in Las Pailas de Barro, Volcán Rincón de la Vieja, Costa Rica is described. This species inhabits hot and acid environments. Euglena pailasen- sis sp. nov. main features are: the absence of flagella, the presence filaments like \\
Ana Sittenfeld; Maribelle Vargas; Ethel Sánchez; Marielos Mora; Aurelio Serrano
The aim of this work was to analyze the changes in the increase of body weight, meat-bone-fat relation, carcass weight, fat infi l- tration in the muscular mass and blood levels of triiodothyroxine induced by ovariectomy. Two different experiments were done in different fi elds of Argentina, A) young cows, B) old cows. Each experimental group was randomly divided into
Guillermo Edgardo Ashworth; Luis Alberto Poloni; Héctor Fernando Gauna
Writing an essay based on a literary work is a common practice in foreign language courses. The task is assigned when students have achieved a certain mastery of the target language, and it may be assumed that they are capable of writing a text of some length. Through contact with a literary text, students can interpret the author's vision, the
Francisco Roberto Rojas Caldelas; Vida Valero Borrás
Venezuelan thermophilic microorganisms identified as Anoxybacillus sp. (DSMZ ID-05-1132) were used to degrade oil mixtures emulsified with different surfactants. An olive oil, triolein and motor oil (1:1:1) mixture, as well as the ingredients separately, emulsified with sodium dodecylsulfate, sodium dodecyl benezenesulfonate, Triton X-100 or Marlox FK-69, were added to mineral liquid medium. Growth rates were faster when the oil mixture
JEFF WILKESMAN; FLORIAN BAIER; LILIANA KURZ; PETER M. KUNZ
|This guide is designed for individuals who want to deepen their knowledge of computer assisted language learning (CALL) but do not know where to look. The guide is divided into five sections. The first section gives the names, addresses, and a brief description of public and private organizations that are concerned with research in CALL. The…
El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar la dinámica de los recursos humanos en investigación y su producción científica al interior de las comunidades de salud pública y ciencias básicas biomédicas del país. El enfoque de este estudio articula la evaluación del comportamiento de los recursos humanos y el tránsito hacia comunidades científicas, vistos desde la teoría del capital conocimiento
This pamphlet contains important information regarding employer rights and responsibilities following a Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspection under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH Act), as amended. Und...
Sediment quality was analyzed for total organic matter (TOM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), trace metals (Cd, Pb, and Cu), and non-specific toxicity at four Chilean ports with different cabotage activities. TOM was analyzed by ignition, metals by polarography, PAHs by GC- MS, and non-specific toxicity with the fecundation technique (USEPA 1988). The ports at Iquique, San Vicente, and Talcahuano had
Gabriela Aguirre-Martínez; Anny Rudolph; Ramón Ahumada; Rodrigo Loyola; Valentina Medina
As part of its world employment project, the Economic Policy Council of the United Nations Association of the United States formed the family policy panel to further examine the extent of ongoing changes affecting the family, the workplace, and the economy. In its work, the family policy panel concentrated on five issues considered central to the…
United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.
The survey being presented, conducted between May 2003 and May 2004, relates the characteristics and activities of the Italian Smoking Cessation Services. A national standard form - with structural, organizational, procedural aspects and activities of the...