Sample records for una planta procesadora

  1. DISEÑO DE UNA PLANTA PILOTO PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DEL RESIDUAL DE UNA SALINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Estela Colombat Rodríguez; Amada Lissett Colombat Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    En el proceso de extracción de cloruro de sodio a partir de agua de mar queda una salmuera residual rica en sales de sodio y magnesio que al ser tratadas químicamente y al ser evaporada permite recuperar aproximadamente el 75% del cloruro de sodio que queda en dicho residual, lo que puede reducir la contaminación ambiental del litoral y generar

  2. Plantas crucíferas y la prevención del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que resume los resultados de estudios sobre las plantas crucíferas y el cáncer. Incluye una lista de plantas crucíferas y las guías alimenticias recomendadas para el consumo de verduras.

  3. Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

  4. PSC 424: Kingdom Plantae

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Webb

    2011-10-12

    A 12th grade lesson on the characteristics of Kingdom Plantae, photosynthesis and cellular respiration Kingdom Plantae Plantae Unit PowerPoint Use these fun songs to review plant processes! Cell Respiration - Cellular Respiration Song Photosynthesis Rap

    Método de Prueba GAED: Tiempo Óptimo para el Reemplazo de CAG en Plantas de Tratamiento de Agua Potable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Por Henry Nowicki; H. George Nowicki; Wayne Schuliger; Barbara Sherman

    l carbón activado granular (CAG) no dura para siempre en una planta de tratamiento de agua (PTA), su rendimiento no necesita ser monitoreado periódicamente, y deberá ser reemplazado con CAG fresco, no usado o reactivado. El CAG usado, que se remueve, puede ser reactivado en plantas dedicadas a carbones de agua potable para ser retornado a la planta. Los reactivadores

  5. In planta gene targeting

    PubMed Central

    Fauser, Friedrich; Roth, Nadine; Pacher, Michael; Ilg, Gabriele; Sánchez-Fernández, Rocío; Biesgen, Christian; Puchta, Holger

    2012-01-01

    The development of designed site-specific endonucleases boosted the establishment of gene targeting (GT) techniques in a row of different species. However, the methods described in plants require a highly efficient transformation and regeneration procedure and, therefore, can be applied to very few species. Here, we describe a highly efficient GT system that is suitable for all transformable plants regardless of transformation efficiency. Efficient in planta GT was achieved in Arabidopsis thaliana by expression of a site-specific endonuclease that not only cuts within the target but also the chromosomal transgenic donor, leading to an excised targeting vector. Progeny clonal for the targeted allele could be obtained directly by harvesting seeds. Targeted events could be identified up to approximately once per 100 seeds depending on the target donor combination. Molecular analysis demonstrated that, in almost all events, homologous recombination occurred at both ends of the break. No ectopic integration of the GT vector was found. PMID:22529367

  6. CRYOPRESERVATION OF SYNCHYTRIUM SOLSTITIALE IN PLANTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Synchytrium solstitiale is a candidate for use as a biocontrol agent against Centaurea solstitialis. Although this obligate parasite can be propagated in planta under laboratory conditions, a method was needed to preserve cultures for longer periods of time for routine biological studies...

  7. ( IRD / B. Le Ru) Campos de maz en Kenia cerca de Kilimanjaro (en el fondo). Al igual que muchas otras plantas transgnicas, el maz denominado Bt sintetiza su propio

    E-print Network

    otras plantas transgénicas, el maíz denominado «Bt» sintetiza su propio pesticida: una proteína tóxica contra la toxina Bt en Sudáfrica. Una resistencia genéticamente dominante, contrario al mecanismo clásico fue introducido el maíz Bt , estas pérdidas regresaron a su nivel inicial desde el inicio del siglo

  8. MONITOREO DE UNA PLANTA SOLAR A PARTIR DE SISTEMAS DE ADQUISICIÓN DESARROLLADOS CON INSTRUMENTACIÓN VIRTUAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. L. Forero; L. M. Caicedo; J. Hernández

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of a system that allows monitoring, using Virtual Instrumentation, electricity generating Plants formed by photovoltaic modules. The acquisition and statistical processing of the collected data are made through Virtual Instruments developed based on I\\/O modular high precision Field Point type electronic systems and special programs developed with LabVIEW graphic programming software. The system has facilities

  9. Non-random sharing of Plantae genes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cheong Xin

    2011-01-01

    The power of eukaryote genomics relies strongly on taxon sampling. This point was underlined in a recent analysis of red algal genome evolution in which we tested the Plantae hypothesis that posits the monophyly of red, green (including plants) and glaucophyte algae. The inclusion of novel genome data from two mesophilic red algae enabled us to robustly demonstrate the sisterhood of red and green algae in the tree of life. Perhaps more exciting was the finding that >1,800 putative genes in the unicellular red alga Porphyridium cruentum showed evidence of gene-sharing with diverse lineages of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here we assessed the correlation between the putative functions of these shared genes and their susceptibility to transfer. It turns out that genes involved in complex interactive networks such as biological regulation and transcription/translation are less susceptible to endosymbiotic or horizontal gene transfer, when compared to genes with metabolic and transporter functions. PMID:21980581

  10. Non-random sharing of Plantae genes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2011-05-01

    The power of eukaryote genomics relies strongly on taxon sampling. This point was underlined in a recent analysis of red algal genome evolution in which we tested the Plantae hypothesis that posits the monophyly of red, green (including plants) and glaucophyte algae. The inclusion of novel genome data from two mesophilic red algae enabled us to robustly demonstrate the sisterhood of red and green algae in the tree of life. Perhaps more exciting was the finding that >1,800 putative genes in the unicellular red alga Porphyridium cruentum showed evidence of gene-sharing with diverse lineages of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here we assessed the correlation between the putative functions of these shared genes and their susceptibility to transfer. It turns out that genes involved in complex interactive networks such as biological regulation and transcription/translation are less susceptible to endosymbiotic or horizontal gene transfer, when compared to genes with metabolic and transporter functions. PMID:21980581

  11. Una Arquitectura para una Herramienta de Patrones de Diseo

    E-print Network

    Molina, Jesús García

    Una Arquitectura para una Herramienta de Patrones de Diseño José Sáez Martínez1 , Jesús García herramientas es necesario disponer de una arquitectura flexible que permita manipularlos eficientemente. Este trabajo presenta una arquitectura, basada a su vez en patrones, diseñada con este fin y describe una

  12. Hyperthermophilic endoglucanase for in planta lignocellulose conversion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a crucial step in the sustainable and environmentally friendly production of biofuels. However, a major drawback of enzymes from mesophilic sources is their suboptimal activity under established pretreatment conditions, e.g. high temperatures, extreme pH values and high salt concentrations. Enzymes from extremophiles are better adapted to these conditions and could be produced by heterologous expression in microbes, or even directly in the plant biomass. Results Here we show that a cellulase gene (sso1354) isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus can be expressed in plants, and that the recombinant enzyme is biologically active and exhibits the same properties as the wild type form. Since the enzyme is inactive under normal plant growth conditions, this potentially allows its expression in plants without negative effects on growth and development, and subsequent heat-inducible activation. Furthermore we demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme acts in high concentrations of ionic liquids and can therefore degrade ?-cellulose or even complex cell wall preparations under those pretreatment conditions. Conclusion The hyperthermophilic endoglucanase SSO1354 with its unique features is an excellent tool for advanced biomass conversion. Here we demonstrate its expression in planta and the possibility for post harvest activation. Moreover the enzyme is suitable for combined pretreatment and hydrolysis applications. PMID:22928996

  13. Una cierta rareza

    E-print Network

    Carballido, Emilio

    1992-10-01

    letal, hace un juego de estratos en corte vertical: de la salsa y el barrio hasta la pudrición de una dudosa aristocracia, y en sus oscuras fantasías podemos reconocer también al Salvador, y a Chile y Uruguay, y a zonas de México, y seguramente que...

  14. In planta passive sampling devices for assessing subsurface chlorinated solvents.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Mikhil K; Limmer, Matt A; Waltermire, Kendra; Morrison, Glenn C; Burken, Joel G

    2014-06-01

    Contaminant concentrations in trees have been used to delineate groundwater contaminant plumes (i.e., phytoscreening); however, variability in tree composition hinders accurate measurement of contaminant concentrations in planta, particularly for long-term monitoring. This study investigated in planta passive sampling devices (PSDs), termed solid phase samplers (SPSs) to be used as a surrogate tree core. Characteristics studied for five materials included material-air partitioning coefficients (Kma) for chlorinated solvents, sampler equilibration time and field suitability. The materials investigated were polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM) and plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Both PDMS and LLDPE samplers demonstrated high partitioning coefficients and diffusivities and were further tested in greenhouse experiments and field trials. While most of the materials could be used for passive sampling, the PDMS SPSs performed best as an in planta sampler. Such a sampler was able to accurately measure trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentrations while simultaneously incorporating simple operation and minimal impact to the surrounding property and environment. PMID:24268175

  15. Infección\\/colonización nosocomial de las vías respiratorias por Acinetobacter baumannii en una planta de Medicina Interna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Salas Coronas; T. Cabezas Fernández; R. Álvarez-Ossorio García de Soria; M. C. Rogado González; M. Delgado Fernández; F. Díez García

    2002-01-01

    Background: To present the epidemiology of the outbreak and the description of patients with infection or colonization of the respiratory tract caused by A. baumannii in an Internal Medicine ward. Methods: 20 consecutively patients hospitalized in the Internal Medicine ward were studied during 18 months with isolation of multire- sistant A. baumanni in respiratory tract specimens with or without clini-

  16. Real-time PCR for the quantification of fungi in planta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods enabling quantification of fungi in planta can be useful for a variety of applications. In combination with information on plant disease severity, indirect quantification of fungi in planta offers an additional tool in the screening of plants that are resistant to fungal diseases. In this ch...

  17. Bases morfofisiológicas para maior tolerância dos híbridos modernos de milho a altas densidades de plantas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luís Sangoi; Milton Luiz de Almeida; Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva; Gilber Argenta

    2002-01-01

    RESUMO O lançamento de híbridos de milho tolerantes ao aumento da densidade de plantas contribuiu para o incremento do potencial produtivo da cultura na segunda metade do século XX. Objetiva-se com esta revisão de literatura discutir características morfológicas, fisiológicas, fenológicas e alométricas que contribuíram para maior adaptação do milho a elevadas densidades de plantas. Os processos de seleção utilizados pelos

  18. INTERNET: ¿REALMENTE UNA HERRAMIENTA EDUCATIVA?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSÉ GÓMEZ GALÁN

    Con el paso del tiempo podemos ir comprobando cómo Internet va adquiriendo mayor relevancia y presencia en nuestra sociedad. Lo que hace apenas diez años era todavía una embrionaria red universal de comunicación de acceso aún muy restringido, es hoy el mayor desarrollo telemático jamás creado -con un índice de empleo y consumo, en continuo crecimiento, de cientos de millones

  19. Physiology of ex planta nitrogenase activity in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.K.; Keister, D.L.

    1983-05-01

    Thirty-nine wild-type strains of Rhizobium japonicum have been studied for their ability to synthesize nitrogenase ex planta in defined liquid media under microaerobic conditions. Twenty-one produced more than trace amounts of acetylene reduction activity, but only a few of these yielded high activity. The oxygen response curves were similar for most of the nitrogenase-positive strains. The strains derepressible for activity had several phenotypic characteristics different from non-derepressible strains. These included slower growth and lower oxygen consumption under microaerobic conditions and lower extracellular polysaccharide production. Extracellular polysaccharide production during growth on gluconate in every nitrogenase-positive strain assayed was lower under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions than the non-depressible strains. These phenotypic characteristics may be representative of a genotype of a subspecies of R. japonicum. These studies were done in part to enlarge the base number of strains available for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of nitrogen fixation. (35 Refs.)

  1. La Transpiración - Movimiento del Agua a Través de las Plantas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    La transpiración es la pérdida de agua en forma de vapor por las plantas. El agua es absorbida del suelo por las raíces y transportada en forma líquida por el xilema hacia las hojas. En las hojas, unos pequeños poros permiten que el agua (H2O) escape a la atmósfera en forma de vapor, al tiempo que se permite la entrada de bióxido de carbono (CO2) para la fotosíntesis. De toda el agua absorbida por las plantas, menos del 5% es retenida y utilizada para crecimiento y almacenamiento. En esta lección se explicará porque las plantas pierden tanta agua, la ruta que ésta sigue dentro de la planta, como pudieran las plantas controlar la pérdida excesiva de agua y como las condiciones ambientales influyen en la pérdida de agua por las plantas.

  2. Una nota a las Historias de Dragún

    E-print Network

    Ortega, Julio

    1980-04-01

    irrupción, en el argumento central, de una acción paralela: una representación dentro del teatro de otra pieza de teatro. Se ha dicho que este mecanismo de "la obra dentro de la obra," sugiere desde la literatura una contaminación de la realidad por la...

  3. In Planta Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    PubMed Central

    Maor, Rudy; Haskin, Sefi; Levi-Kedmi, Hagit; Sharon, Amir

    2004-01-01

    The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene utilizes external tryptophan to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) through the intermediate indole-3-acetamide (IAM). We studied the effects of tryptophan, IAA, and IAM on IAA biosynthesis in fungal axenic cultures and on in planta IAA production by the fungus. IAA biosynthesis was strictly dependent on external tryptophan and was enhanced by tryptophan and IAM. The fungus produced IAM and IAA in planta during the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection. The amounts of IAA produced per fungal biomass were highest during the biotrophic phase. IAA production by this plant pathogen might be important during early stages of plant colonization. PMID:15006816

  4. Dr. Luis Pineda, IIMAS, 20102 Si una gramtica genera ms de una

    E-print Network

    Pineda, Luis

    estructura a partir de la misma raiz y con la misma cosecha (más de una estructura para la misma cadena * para la cual hay más de una árbol de parseo o estructura sintáctica, cada una de éstas con raiz S y

  5. UNA EXPERIENCIA DE TRABAJO PARA EL DESARROLLO LOCAL EN UNA COMUNIDAD URBANA DE CUBA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milena Gómez Navarro

    2008-01-01

    La presente monografía titulada: Una experiencia de trabajo para el desarrollo local en una comunidad urbana de Cuba es fruto de una investigación realizada hace algún tiempo ya, en el cual se ha contado con el apoyo del CITMA por ser el órgano rector en cuestión del medio ambiente en Cuba, específicamente en este caso se obtuvo la ayuda de

  6. Captulo 1 Redes complejas de interacciones mutualistas planta-animal 17

    E-print Network

    Jordano, Pedro

    #12;Capítulo 1 Redes complejas de interacciones mutualistas planta-animal 17 CAPÍTULO 1 Redes aproximación transdisciplinaria de redes complejas ( Jordano, 1987; Müller et al., 1999; Memmott y Waser, 2002; Montoya et al., 2006; Bascompte y Jordano, 2007). El enfoque de redes complejas al estudio de

  7. REGENERAÇÃO IN VITRO DE PLANTAS DE TOMATEIROS 'SANTA CLARA' E SEU MUTANTE NATURAL 'FIRME'1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FÁBIO TEBALDI; SILVEIRA NOGUEIRA; MARCIO GILBERTO COSTA; MAÍRA LIMA FIGUEIRA; WAGNER CAMPOS OTONI; FERNANDO LUIZ FINGER

    RESUMO - Visando à otimização de um protocolo de regeneração para plantas de tomateiro 'Santa Clara' e mutante 'Firme', foram realizados experimentos de morfogênese in vitro , avaliando -se cinco diferentes meios de indução de gemas e a posição (proximal e distal) dos cotilédones. Os cotilédone s foram seccionados transversalmente e inoculados com a face abaxial em meio de cultivo

  8. Planta (2008) 228:989998 DOI 10.1007/s00425-008-0798-x

    E-print Network

    Holbrook, N. Michele

    expression and nitrate uptake levels, precluding us from suggesting that nitrate acts on root hydraulicPlanta (2008) 228:989­998 DOI 10.1007/s00425-008-0798-x 123 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nitrate induction of water from the soil to the root surface in response to the appearance of nitrate in the rhizosphere

  9. Planta (2007) 226:9891005 DOI 10.1007/s00425-007-0545-8

    E-print Network

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    pathways. Keywords Citrus sinensis · Juice sac cell · LC-MS/MS · Sugar metabolism · Vesicle traPlanta (2007) 226:989­1005 DOI 10.1007/s00425-007-0545-8 123 ORIGINAL ARTICLE The citrus fruit proteome: insights into citrus fruit metabolism E. Katz · M. Fon · Y. J. Lee · B. S. Phinney · A. Sadka · E

  10. IN PLANTA AGRIONFECTION BY CANADIAN AND GERMAN POTATO LEAFROLL VIRUS FULL-LENGTH CDNAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Full-length infectious cDNA clones of Canadain (PLRV-flc)and German (PLRV-flg) Potato leafroll virus isolates were constructed and their biological activities examined in planta. For both constructs, agroinfection by PLRV cDNA resulted in virus mulitplication in the primary leaf followed by systemi...

  11. Ion-mediated changes of xylem hydraulic resistance in planta: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    van Ieperen, Wim

    2007-04-01

    Although xylem provides an efficient transport pathway for water in plants, the hydraulic conductivity of xylem (K(h)) can still influence plant water status. For decades, the K(h) of functional xylem has been assumed to be constant in the short term because xylem consists of a network of dead interconnected capillary elements (conduits). Recent research has shown that K(h) can change in response to the cation content of the xylem fluid. Volume changes of pectin gel in nanometer-sized pores at inter-conduit connections are hypothesized to be the cause, and implications for xylem transport in planta are suggested. However, it seems too early to be conclusive about this phenomenon because the phenomenon has not been measured in planta with xylem fluids that realistically mimic natural xylem sap and the applied methods used to measure ion-mediated changes in K(h) have drawbacks. PMID:17368079

  12. Expression of pathogenicity-related genes of Xylella fastidiosa in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Alessandra A; Takita, Marco A; Pereira, Eridan O; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Machado, Marcos A

    2005-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is responsible for several economically important plant diseases. It is currently assumed that the symptoms are caused by vascular occlusion due to biofilm formation. Microarray technology was previously used to examine the global gene expression profile of X. fastidiosa freshly isolated from symptomatic plants or after several passages by axenic culture medium, and different pathogenicity profiles have been obtained. In the present study the expression of some pathogenicity-related genes was evaluated in vitro and in planta by RT-PCR. The results suggest that adhesion is important at the beginning of biofilm formation, while the genes related to adaptation are essential for the organism's maintenance in planta. Similar results were observed in vitro mainly for the adhesion genes. The pattern of expression observed suggests that adhesion modulates biofilm formation whereas the expression of some adaptation genes may be related to the environment in which the organism is living. PMID:15902471

  13. In planta anthocyanin degradation by a vacuolar class III peroxidase in Brunfelsia calycina flowers.

    PubMed

    Zipor, Gadi; Duarte, Patrícia; Carqueijeiro, Inês; Shahar, Liat; Ovadia, Rinat; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Eshel, Dani; Levin, Yishai; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Sottomayor, Mariana; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to detailed knowledge regarding the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, the largest group of plant pigments, little is known about their in planta degradation. It has been suggested that anthocyanin degradation is enzymatically controlled and induced when beneficial to the plant. Here we investigated the enzymatic process in Brunfelsia calycina flowers, as they changed color from purple to white. We characterized the enzymatic process by which B. calycina protein extracts degrade anthocyanins. A candidate peroxidase was partially purified and characterized and its intracellular localization was determined. The transcript sequence of this peroxidase was fully identified. A basic peroxidase, BcPrx01, is responsible for the in planta degradation of anthocyanins in B. calycina flowers. BcPrx01 has the ability to degrade complex anthocyanins, it co-localizes with these pigments in the vacuoles of petals, and both the mRNA and protein levels of BcPrx01 are greatly induced parallel to the degradation of anthocyanins. Both isoelectric focusing (IEF) gel analysis and 3D structure prediction indicated that BcPrx01 is cationic. Identification of BcPrx01 is a significant breakthrough both in the understanding of anthocyanin catabolism in plants and in the field of peroxidases, where such a consistent relationship between expression levels, in planta subcellular localization and activity has seldom been demonstrated. PMID:25256351

  14. Discovery of Phytophthora infestans Genes Expressed in Planta through Mining of cDNA Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Diego; Pinzón, Andrés; Grajales, Alejandro; Rojas, Alejandro; Mutis, Gabriel; Cárdenas, Martha; Burbano, Daniel; Jiménez, Pedro; Bernal, Adriana; Restrepo, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary causes late blight of potato and tomato, and has a broad host range within the Solanaceae family. Most studies of the Phytophthora – Solanum pathosystem have focused on gene expression in the host and have not analyzed pathogen gene expression in planta. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe in detail an in silico approach to mine ESTs from inoculated host plants deposited in a database in order to identify particular pathogen sequences associated with disease. We identified candidate effector genes through mining of 22,795 ESTs corresponding to P. infestans cDNA libraries in compatible and incompatible interactions with hosts from the Solanaceae family. Conclusions/Significance We annotated genes of P. infestans expressed in planta associated with late blight using different approaches and assigned putative functions to 373 out of the 501 sequences found in the P. infestans genome draft, including putative secreted proteins, domains associated with pathogenicity and poorly characterized proteins ideal for further experimental studies. Our study provides a methodology for analyzing cDNA libraries and provides an understanding of the plant – oomycete pathosystems that is independent of the host, condition, or type of sample by identifying genes of the pathogen expressed in planta. PMID:20352100

  15. Screening for in planta protein-protein interactions combining bimolecular fluorescence complementation with flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Berendzen, Kenneth Wayne; Böhmer, Maik; Wallmeroth, Niklas; Peter, Sébastien; Vesi?, Marko; Zhou, Ying; Tiesler, Franziska Katharina Elisabeth; Schleifenbaum, Frank; Harter, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Understanding protein and gene function requires identifying interaction partners using biochemical, molecular or genetic tools. In plants, searching for novel protein-protein interactions is limited to protein purification assays, heterologous in vivo systems such as the yeast-two-hybrid or mutant screens. Ideally one would be able to search for novel protein partners in living plant cells. We demonstrate that it is possible to screen for novel protein-protein interactions from a random library in protoplasted Arabidopsis plant cells and recover some of the interacting partners. Our screen is based on capturing the bi-molecular complementation of mYFP between an YN-bait fusion partner and a completely random prey YC-cDNA library with FACS. The candidate interactions were confirmed using in planta BiFC assays and in planta FRET-FLIM assays. From this work, we show that the well characterized protein Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase 3 (CPK3) interacts with APX3, HMGB5, ORP2A and a ricin B-related lectin domain containing protein At2g39050. This is one of the first randomin planta screens to be successfully employed. PMID:22789293

  16. Efeito do tamanho das sementes de trigo no desenvolvimento inicial das plantas e no rendimento de grãos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Bredemeier; Claudio Mario Mundstock; Daniel Büttenbender

    2001-01-01

    . Os†tratamentos constaram de diferentes tamanhos de semente, classificadas confor- me o di‚metro (menor que 3,0†mm a maior que 3,75†mm). Sob condiÁies controladas, as plantas origi- nadas de sementes maiores apresentaram maior taxa de emissªo de folhas; as primeiras folhas do colmo principal apresentaram maior massa seca e maior comprimento. Estas plantas tambØm foram superio- res na freq¸Œncia de emissªo

  17. INFLUÊNCIA DO ÁCIDO INDOL-3-BUTÍRICO NO CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE PLANTAS DE CONFREI (Symphytum officinale L.)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FONSÊCA CASTRO; AMAURI ALVES DE ALVARENGA

    RESUMO - Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB) no crescimento inicial de plantas de confrei ( Symphytum officinale L.), uma espécie medicinal, um experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação. Segmentos de rizomas, obtidos de plantas com 90 dias de idade, foram submetidos a cinco concentrações (0, 0,246, 0,492, 0,738, 0,984 mM) e três tempos de exposição

  18. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Una Introduccin a

    E-print Network

    Cabalar, Pedro

    Mountain Goat Software, LLC Una Introducción a Scrum Mike Cohen Traducido: Ernesto Grafeuille Revisado y modificado: Pedro Cabalar Noviembre 2013 #12;Mountain Goat Software, LLC Estamos perdiendo la hacia atrás -pueden servir mejor a los actuales requisitos competitivos". #12;Mountain Goat Software

  19. Highly Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Wheat Via In Planta Inoculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risacher, Thierry; Craze, Melanie; Bowden, Sarah; Paul, Wyatt; Barsby, Tina

    This chapter details a reproducible method for the transformation of spring wheat using Agrobacterium tumefaciens via the direct inoculation of bacteria into immature seeds in planta as described in patent WO 00/63398(1. Transformation efficiencies from 1 to 30% have been obtained and average efficiencies of at least 5% are routinely achieved. Regenerated plants are phenotypically normal with 30-50% of transformation events carrying introduced genes at single insertion sites, a higher rate than is typically reported for transgenic plants produced using biolistic transformation methods.

  20. Dynamic root exudation of sorgoleone and its in planta mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Franck E.; Howell, J'Lynn; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    The oily droplets exuded from the root hairs of sorghum are composed of a 1:1 ratio of sorgoleone and its lipid resorcinol analogue. The production of these droplets appears to be suppressed when c. 20 ?g of exudate mg?1 root dry weight accumulates at the tip of the root hairs. However, more exudate is produced following gentle washing of the roots with water, suggesting that the biosynthesis of lipid benzoquinones and resorcinols is a dynamic process. Sorgoleone interferes with several molecular target sites, including photosynthetic electron transport, in in vitro assays. However, the in planta mechanism of action of sorgoleone remains controversial because it is not clear whether this lipid benzoquinone exuding from the roots of sorghum is taken up by roots of the receiving plants and translocated to their foliage where it must enter the chloroplast and inhibit PSII in the thylakoid membrane. Experiments designed to test the in planta mode of action of sorgoleone demonstrated that it has no effect on the photosynthesis of older plants, but inhibits photosynthesis in germinating seedlings. Sorgoleone is not translocated acropetally in older plants, but can be absorbed through the hypocotyl and cotyledonary tissues. Therefore, the mode of action of sorgoleone may be the result of inhibition of photosynthesis in young seedlings in concert with inhibition of its other molecular target sites in older plants. PMID:19357432

  1. Transformacion raiz cuadrada versus logaritmica de una distribucion Gamma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús Basulto

    1978-01-01

    Resumen  Utilizando la divergencia de Kullback-Leibler, hemos comparado las transformaciones raíz cuadrada y logarítmica de una distribución\\u000a Gamma, sugeridas para conseguir una aproximación a la distribución normal.

  2. Fragmentos de Sombra: Una Biografía Intelectual de Fernando González

    E-print Network

    Palacios Perez, Jose

    2014-07-01

    de malditos, visionarios, alucinados y desilusionados. Hay una constante pesimista en la filosofía que pasa por Nietzsche, Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard y Spencer; y que Freud completa con una visión lapidaria de las fuerzas que gobiernan la psiquis...

  3. Linking ex planta fungi with their endophytic stages: Perisporiopsis, a common leaf litter and soil fungus, is a frequent endophyte of Hevea spp. and other plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priscila Chaverri; Romina O. Gazis

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that endophytic fungi originate from local environmental sources, and endophyte identity and composition can be predicted based on surrounding ex planta fungi. As part of a pilot study to characterize endophytes and ex planta fungi (e.g. saprotrophs) of wild Hevea trees, endophytes were isolated with almost identical ITS sequences, but these were unidentifiable using GenBank database.

  4. An efficient method for visualization and growth of fluorescent Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in planta

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Wook; Park, Chang-Jin; Lee, Sang-Won; Ronald, Pamela C

    2008-01-01

    Background Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight disease, is a serious pathogen of rice. Here we describe a fluorescent marker system to study virulence and pathogenicity of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Results A fluorescent X. oryzae pv. oryzae Philippine race 6 strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) (PXO99GFP) was generated using the gfp gene under the control of the neomycin promoter in the vector, pPneo-gfp. The PXO99GFPstrain displayed identical virulence and avirulence properties as the wild type control strain, PXO99. Using fluorescent microscopy, bacterial multiplication and colonization were directly observed in rice xylem vessels. Accurate and rapid determination of bacterial growth was assessed using fluoremetry and an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbant Assay (ELISA). Conclusion Our results indicate that the fluorescent marker system is useful for assessing bacterial infection and monitoring bacterial multiplication in planta. PMID:18826644

  5. G. Leubner-Metzger et al.: -1,3-Glucanase and tobacco seed germination Planta (1996) 199: 282-288

    E-print Network

    Leubner, Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    G. Leubner-Metzger et al.: ß-1,3-Glucanase and tobacco seed germination - 1 - Planta (1996) 199,3-glucanase induction in tobacco seed germination Gerhard Leubner-Metzger, Corinne Fründt, Frederick Meins, Jr I ß-1,3- glucanases are induced by GA4 in the dark in association with germination. As in the light

  6. Abono para la planta medicinal Cobra fuerza en la Isla el estudio del valor teraputico de la flora tropical.

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    que "muchas plantas americanas (como el tabaco, que se preparaba de diferentes maneras), eran de a otros colegas e investigadores de la Escuela de Farmacia. Entre ellos, figuran Ana Vélez, Ricardo pasos para que este logre la acreditación de la Asociación Americana de Museos. Jardín con historia A su

  7. Biologia floral, microsporogênese e número cromossômico em cinco espécies de plantas utilizadas na medicina popular no Rio Grande do Sul

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. PEREIRA; DA SILVA

    2006-01-01

    RESUMO: Onze populações de cinco espécies de plantas medicinais utilizadas no Rio Grande do Sul, foram observadas quanto ao período de floração, durante três anos e estudadas citogeneticamente. Discaria americana e Matricharia chamomilla, florescem preferencialmente no inverno, Foeniculun vulgare e Symphytum officinale, nas estações mais quentes e Plectranthus barbatus floresce em estações mais amenas. Na meiose da microsporogênese, formaram-se 11

  8. Mexican papita viroid and tomato planta macho viroid belong to a single species in the genus Pospiviroid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) and Mexican papita viroid (MPVd) are two closely-related (>90% sequence identity) members of the genus Pospiviroid. Their current status as separate species is based upon the reported ability of TPMVd to replicate in Gomphrena globosa and the inability of this viro...

  9. AVALIAÇÕES BIOFÍSICAS E BIOQUÍMICAS EM PLANTAS DE MOGNO (SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA KING) SOB DOIS PERIODOS, SECO E CHUVOSO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manoel Tavares de Paula; Benedito Gomes dos Santos Filho; Yvens Ely Martins Cordeiro; Orlando Shigueo Ohashi; Raimundo Amaro Conde; Heriberto Wagner Amanajás Pena

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o desenvolvimento do mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King), sob arranjo de sistemas agroflorestais (SAFs), através de análises ecofisiológicas no município de Santa Bárbara-PA. As avaliações ecofisiológicas (biofísicas e bioquímicas) nas plantas de mogno foram realizadas às 13:00 h, em dois períodos: chuvoso (maio) e seco (novembro), no ano de 2007. Durante o período seco

  10. Intron distribution in Plantae: 500 million years of stasis during land plant evolution.

    PubMed

    Teich, René; Grauvogel, Carina; Petersen, Jörn

    2007-06-01

    Little is known about the evolution of the intron-exon organization in the more primitive groups of land plants, and the intron distribution among Plantae (glauco-, rhodo-, chloro- and streptophytes) has not been investigated so far. The present study is focused on some key species such as the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, representing the most ancient lineage of land plants, and the streptophycean green alga Mesostigma viride, branching prior to charophycean green algae and terrestrial plants. The intron distribution of six genes for sugar phosphate metabolism was analyzed including four different glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDH), the sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBP) and the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI). We established 15 new sequences including three cDNA and twelve genomic clones with up to 24 introns per gene, which were identified in the GPI of Marchantia. The intron patterns of all six genes are completely conserved among seed plants, lycopods, mosses and even liverworts. This intron stasis without any gain of novel introns seem to last for nearly 500 million years and may be characteristic for land plants in general. Some unique intron positions in Mesostigma document that a uniform distribution is no common trait of all streptophytes, but it may correlate with the transition to terrestrial habitats. However, the respective genes of chlorophycean green algae display largely different patterns, thus indicating at least one phase of massive intron rearrangement in the green lineage. We moreover included rhodophyte and glaucophyte reference sequences in our analyses and, even if the well documented monophyly of Plantae is not reflected by a uniform intron distribution, at least one GPI intron is strictly conserved for 1.5 billion years. PMID:17400407

  11. In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko

    2014-03-01

    Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro?PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1?2 pro?GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.

  12. Invito stampa Tumori: una donazione d vita a una borsa per la ricerca

    E-print Network

    rischio da esposizione a benzene l'attività di ricerca che si svolgerà presso il Laboratorio di Ingegneria lavorerà presso il Laboratorio di Ingegneria sanitaria-ambientale dell'Università di Trento (Dipartimento Facoltà di Ingegneria sarà consegnata una borsa di ricerca ad un giovane laureato da parte della famiglia

  13. Large-scale gene discovery in the septoria tritici blotch fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola with a focus on in planta expression.

    PubMed

    Kema, Gert H J; van der Lee, Theo A J; Mendes, Odette; Verstappen, Els C P; Lankhorst, René Klein; Sandbrink, Hans; van der Burgt, Ate; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Csukai, Michael; Waalwijk, Cees

    2008-09-01

    The foliar disease septoria tritici blotch, caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola, is currently the most important wheat disease in Europe. Gene expression was examined under highly different conditions, using 10 expressed sequence tag libraries generated from M. graminicola isolate IPO323 using seven in vitro and three in planta growth conditions. To identify fungal clones in the interaction libraries, we developed a selection method based on hybridization with the entire genomic DNA of M. graminicola, to selectively enrich these libraries for fungal genes. Assembly of the 27,007 expressed sequence tags resulted in 9,190 unigenes, representing 5.2 Mb of the estimated 39-Mb genome size of M. graminicola. All libraries contributed significantly to the number of unigenes, especially the in planta libraries representing different stages of pathogenesis, which covered 15% of the library-specific unigenes. Even under presymptomatic conditions (5 days postinoculation), when fungal biomass is less than 5%, this method enabled us to efficiently capture fungal genes expressed during pathogenesis. Many of these genes were uniquely expressed in planta, indicating that in planta gene expression significantly differed from in vitro expression. Examples of gene discovery included a number of cell wall-degrading enzymes, a broad set of genes involved in signal transduction (n=11) and a range of ATP-binding cassette (n=20) and major facilitator superfamily transporter genes (n=12) potentially involved in protection against antifungal compounds or the secretion of pathogenicity factors. In addition, evidence is provided for a mycovirus in M. graminicola that is highly expressed under various stress conditions, in particular, under nitrogen starvation. Our analyses provide a unique window on in vitro and in planta gene expression of M. graminicola. PMID:18700829

  14. Per una comprensió històrica de les activitats aquàtiques: una mirada educativa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gil Pla i Campàs

    2004-01-01

    Una atenta observació de les activitats aquàtiques de caire educatiu mostra que aquestes pràctiques es fonamenten, principalment, en constructes que no són propis de la pedagogia, ans provenen de l?antropologia i\\/o de les cultures establertes a l?entorn de l?aigua. Així, el present article es pregunta pels sentits que acompanyen aquests imaginaris que sorgeixen de la relació que s?estableix entre l?home

  15. Analysis of in planta Expressed Orphan Genes in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Sadat, Abu; Jeon, Junhyun; Mir, Albely Afifa; Kim, Seongbeom; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Genomes contain a large number of unique genes which have not been found in other species. Although the origin of such “orphan” genes remains unclear, they are thought to be involved in species-specific adaptive processes. Here, we analyzed seven orphan genes (MoSPC1 to MoSPC7) prioritized based on in planta expressed sequence tag data in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. Expression analysis using qRT-PCR confirmed the expression of four genes (MoSPC1, MoSPC2, MoSPC3 and MoSPC7) during plant infection. However, individual deletion mutants of these four genes did not differ from the wild-type strain for all phenotypes examined, including pathogenicity. The length, GC contents, codon adaptation index and expression during mycelial growth of the four genes suggest that these genes formed during the evolutionary history of M. oryzae. Synteny analyses using closely related fungal species corroborated the notion that these genes evolved de novo in the M. oryzae genome. In this report, we discuss our inability to detect phenotypic changes in the four deletion mutants. Based on these results, the four orphan genes may be products of de novo gene birth processes, and their adaptive potential is in the course of being tested for retention or extinction through natural selection. PMID:25506301

  16. Advances in alfalfa mosaic virus-mediated expression of anthrax antigen in planta

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzik, R. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Bandurska, K. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Deka, D. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Golovkin, M. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Koprowski, H. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)]. E-mail: h_koprowski@jefferson.edu

    2005-12-16

    Plant viruses show great potential for production of pharmaceuticals in plants. Such viruses can harbor a small antigenic peptide(s) as a part of their coat proteins (CP) and elicit an antigen-specific immune response. Here, we report the high yield and consistency in production of recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) particles for specific presentation of the small loop 15 amino acid epitope from domain-4 of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA-D4s). The epitope was inserted immediately after the first 25 N-terminal amino acids of AlMV CP to retain genome activation and binding of CP to viral RNAs. Recombinant AlMV particles were efficiently produced in tobacco, easily purified for immunological analysis, and exhibited extended stability and systemic proliferation in planta. Intraperitional injections of mice with recombinant plant virus particles harboring the PA-D4s epitope elicited a distinct immune response. Western blotting and ELISA analysis showed that sera from immunized mice recognized both native PA antigen and the AlMV CP.

  17. The production of synthetic chemodisruptive peptides in planta disrupts the establishment of cyst nematodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Hibbard, Jennifer K; Urwin, Peter Edward; Atkinson, Howard J

    2005-09-01

    Root exudates from transgenic potato plants expressing a chemoreception-disruptive peptide inhibit acetylcholinesterase by up to 63 +/- 3%. This inhibition correlates strongly with the efficacy of the exudates as a presoak solution for infective juveniles of Heterodera glycines that leads to reduced root invasion. The establishment of developing Globodera pallida at 21 days post-infection in these transgenic plants was also suppressed in containment trials. Relative to controls, the best line showed a 47 +/- 5% reduction in developing females and had 188 +/- 25% more undeveloped infective juveniles. This suggests that disorientation of chemoreception occurs after initial root invasion. Line (e) showed the highest level of resistance with 61 +/- 4% in glasshouse trials conducted over a 9-week period. This result represents the combined effect on the number of cysts produced and the number of eggs each cyst contains. The level of control shown to saccate females was consistent in both the 21-day and 9-week post-infection studies. Another chemoreception-disruptive peptide, that binds to nematode nicotinic receptors in cholinergic neurones, provided a 52.6 +/- 1% reduction in the number of nematodes able to establish in transgenic hairy roots that expressed the peptide. This confirms that both chemoreception-disruptive peptides have efficacy in suppressing parasitism by cyst nematodes when expressed in planta at low concentrations. PMID:17173635

  18. Rad54 is not essential for any geminiviral replication mode in planta.

    PubMed

    Richter, Kathrin S; Ende, Lukas; Jeske, Holger

    2015-01-01

    The circular single-stranded DNA of phytopathogenic geminiviruses is propagated by three modes: complementary strand replication (CSR), rolling circle replication (RCR) and recombination-dependent replication (RDR), which need host plant factors to be carried out. In addition to necessary host polymerases, proteins of the homologous recombination repair pathway may be considered essential, since geminiviruses are particularly prone to recombination. Among several others, Rad54 was suggested to be necessary for the RCR of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus. This enzyme is a double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase and chromatin remodeller and was found to bind and modulate the viral replication-initiator protein in vitro and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to the previous report, we scrutinized the requirement of Rad54 in planta for two distinct fully infectious geminiviruses with respect to the three replication modes. Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus and Cleome leaf crumple virus were inoculated into Rad54-deficient and wildtype Arabidopsis thaliana plant lines to compare the occurrence of viral DNA forms. Replication intermediates were displayed in the time course of infection by one and two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization. The experiments showed that Rad54 was neither essential for CSR, RCR nor RDR, and it had no significant influence on virus titers during systemic infection. PMID:25492528

  19. Phytomonitoring of chlorinated ethenes in trees: a four-year study of seasonal chemodynamics in planta.

    PubMed

    Limmer, Matt A; Holmes, Amanda J; Burken, Joel G

    2014-09-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) of groundwater remedial projects is costly and time-consuming, particularly when using phytoremediation, a long-term remedial approach. The use of trees as sensors of groundwater contamination (i.e., phytoscreening) has been widely described, although the use of trees to provide long-term monitoring of such plumes (phytomonitoring) has been more limited due to unexplained variability of contaminant concentrations in trees. To assess this variability, we developed an in planta sampling method to obtain high-frequency measurements of chlorinated ethenes in oak (Quercus rubra) and baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) trees growing above a contaminated plume during a 4-year trial. The data set revealed that contaminant concentrations increased rapidly with transpiration in the spring and decreased in the fall, resulting in perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) sapwood concentrations an order of magnitude higher in late summer as compared to winter. Heartwood PCE and TCE concentrations were more buffered against seasonal effects. Rainfall events caused negligible dilution of contaminant concentrations in trees after precipitation events. Modeling evapotranspiration potential from meteorological data and comparing the modeled uptake and transport with the 4 years of high frequency data provides a foundation to advance the implementation of phytomonitoring and improved understanding of plant contaminant interactions. PMID:25140854

  20. Detection and visualization of an exopolysaccharide produced by Xylella fastidiosa in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Roper, M Caroline; Greve, L Carl; Labavitch, John M; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2007-11-01

    Many phytopathogenic bacteria, such as Ralstonia solanacearum, Pantoea stewartii, and Xanthomonas campestris, produce exopolysaccharides (EPSs) that aid in virulence, colonization, and survival. EPS can also contribute to host xylem vessel blockage. The genome of Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, contains an operon that is strikingly similar to the X. campestris gum operon, which is responsible for the production of xanthan gum. Based on this information, it has been hypothesized that X. fastidiosa is capable of producing an EPS similar in structure and composition to xanthan gum but lacking the terminal mannose residue. In this study, we raised polyclonal antibodies against a modified xanthan gum polymer similar to the predicted X. fastidiosa EPS polymer. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify production of EPS from X. fastidiosa cells grown in vitro and immunolocalization microscopy to examine the distribution of X. fastidiosa EPS in biofilms formed in vitro and in planta and assessed the contribution of X. fastidiosa EPS to the vascular occlusions seen in PD-infected grapevines. PMID:17827325

  1. In planta Production of Flock House Virus Transencapsidated RNA and Its Potential Use as a Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiyang; Maharaj, Payal D; Mallajosyula, Jyothi K; McCormick, Alison A; Kearney, Christopher M

    2014-11-29

    We have developed a transencapsidated vaccine delivery system based on the insect virus, Flock House virus (FHV). FHV is attractive due to its small genome size, simple organization, and nonpathogenic characteristics. With the insertion of a Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) origin of assembly (Oa), the independently replicating FHV RNA1 can be transencapsidated by TMV coat protein. In this study, we demonstrated that the Oa-adapted FHV RNA1 transencapsidation process can take place in planta, by using a bipartite plant expression vector system, where TMV coat protein is expressed by another plant virus vector, Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV). Dual infection in the same cell by both FHV and FoMV was observed. Though an apparent classical coat protein-mediated resistance repressed FHV expression, this was overcome by delaying inoculation of the TMV coat protein vector by 3 days after FHV vector inoculation. Expression of the transgene marker in animals by these in vivo-generated transencapsidated nanoparticles was confirmed by mouse vaccination, which also showed an improved vaccine response compared to similar in vitro-produced vaccines. PMID:25432792

  2. Detection and Visualization of an Exopolysaccharide Produced by Xylella fastidiosa In Vitro and In Planta ?

    E-print Network

    M. Caroline Roper; L. Carl Greve; John M. Labavitch; Bruce C. Kirkpatrick

    2007-01-01

    Many phytopathogenic bacteria, such as Ralstonia solanacearum, Pantoea stewartii, and Xanthomonas campestris, produce exopolysaccharides (EPSs) that aid in virulence, colonization, and survival. EPS can also contribute to host xylem vessel blockage. The genome of Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevine, contains an operon that is strikingly similar to the X. campestris gum operon, which is responsible for the production of xanthan gum. Based on this information, it has been hypothesized that X. fastidiosa is capable of producing an EPS similar in structure and composition to xanthan gum but lacking the terminal mannose residue. In this study, we raised polyclonal antibodies against a modified xanthan gum polymer similar to the predicted X. fastidiosa EPS polymer. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify production of EPS from X. fastidiosa cells grown in vitro and immunolocalization microscopy to examine the distribution of X. fastidiosa EPS in biofilms formed in vitro and in planta and assessed the contribution of X. fastidiosa EPS to the vascular occlusions seen in PD-infected grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevine and many other economically important diseases (21). This gram-negative bacterium lives in plant xylem vessels as well as the foregut and mouthparts of its xylem-feeding

  3. EFEITOS DE HERBICIDAS NO CONTROLE DE PLANTAS DANINHAS NA CULTURA DO FEIJÃO-MUNGO-VERDE (Vigna radiata (L.) WILCZEK)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSÉ ROBERTO ANTONIOL FONTES; GERALDO ANTÔNIO DE ANDRADE ARAÚJO; ANTÔNIO ALBERTO DA SILVA; ANTÔNIO AMÉRICO CARDOSO

    RESUMO - Foram conduzidos dois experimentos de campo com o feijão -mungo-verde (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), variedade Ouro Verde: um no verão-outono e outro na primavera-verão, em Coimbra -MG, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes herbicidas sobre o control e de plantas daninhas e sobre a cultura. Foi usado o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com

  4. LA FOTOGRAFÍA COMO DOCUMENTO HISTÓRICO- ARTÍSTICO Y ETNOGRÁFICO: UNA EPISTEMOLOGÍA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilio Luis Lara López

    Las fotografías son unos excelentes documentos visuales para la Historia del Arte, la Historia Contemporánea y la Antropología. Sin embargo, hasta ahora, son muy pocos los estudios que tienen a la fotografía como principal fuente histórica y antropológica. Por eso, es indispensable construir una teoría y una metodología útiles para que los investigadores puedan realizar unos trabajos basados en la

  5. Gua rpida para la solicitud de una accin Marie Curie

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Guía rápida para la solicitud de una acción Marie Curie Fellowship Subdirección General de ser considerado elegible para la solicitud de una Marie Curie Fellowship existen tres tipos de el proyecto Marie Curie a iniciar el doctorado. #12;¿Existen requisitos según mi nacionalidad? Las

  6. ITS (Infecciones de Transmisin Sexual) Qu es una ITS?

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    masajes, roce corporal, sexo oral a un hombre usando condón o sexo oral a una mujer usando una barrera de de riesgo Muestras algún signo o síntoma de ITS Has practicado sexo oral, anal o vaginal sin usar

  7. NEUROFILOSOFIA. VERSO UNA SCIENZA UNIFICATA DELLA MENTE E DEL CERVELLO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Churchland

    1986-01-01

    Possono le conoscenze biologiche rivelarsi ininfluenti rispetto alla costruzione di una teoria delle proprietà mentali? Può una scienza della coscienza affermarsi indipendentemente dagli sviluppi delle neuroscienze cognitive? Queste le domande alle quali Patricia Churchland tenta di rispondere all'interno dei lavori scritti a partire dalla prima metà degli anni Ottanta 1 . Tra questi, Neurophilosophy (1986) rappresenta il primo tentativo di

  8. ORIENTACIÓN SOBRE LA AGRICULTURA URBANA: UNA VÍA PARA LA SOSTENIBILIDAD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yamila Santana Esponda; Ramiro Renol Ortega Vera

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo es de gran importancia por los efectos de la crisis económica mundial que ha traído como consecuencia que los países enfrentan una situación de emergencia alimentaria y necesitan ayuda exterior, nos proponemos brindar una orientación acerca de en qué consiste el proyecto de la Agricultura Urbana en nuestro país como opción muy provechosa en las actuales circunstancias

  9. Assessment of factors influencing the Agrobacterium-mediated in planta seed transformation of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Rajesh, Manoharan; Jaganath, Balusamy; Vasuki, Amirthalingam; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Elayaraja, Dhandapani; Karthik, Sivabalan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2013-09-01

    An efficient and reproducible in planta transformation method was developed for brinjal using seed as an explant. The brinjal seeds were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 harbouring pCAMBIA 1301-bar plasmid, and the transformants were selected against BASTA®. Several parameters influencing the in planta seed transformation such as pre-culture duration, acetosyringone concentration, surfactants, duration of sonication, vacuum pressure and vacuum duration have been evaluated. The putatively transformed (T 0) brinjal plants were screened by GUS histochemical analysis. Among the different combinations and concentrations tested, when the 18-h pre-cultured brinjal seeds were sonicated for 20 min and vacuum infiltered for 3 min at 500 mm of Hg in Agrobacterium suspension containing 100 ?M acetosyringone, 0.2 % Silwett L-77 favoured the Agrobacterium infection and showed maximum transformation efficiency. Among the five brinjal varieties evaluated, Arka Samhitha showed maximum transformation efficiency at 45.66 %. The transgene was successfully transmitted to progeny plants (T 1) which was evidenced by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridisation. The in planta protocol developed in the present study would be beneficial to transfer the economically and nutritionally important genes into different varieties of brinjal, and the transgenic brinjal plants can be produced in less time (approximately 27 days). PMID:23852797

  10. An efficient in planta transformation of Jatropha curcas (L.) and multiplication of transformed plants through in vivo grafting.

    PubMed

    Jaganath, Balusamy; Subramanyam, Kondeti; Mayavan, Subramanian; Karthik, Sivabalan; Elayaraja, Dhandapani; Udayakumar, Rajangam; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2014-05-01

    An efficient and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transformation was developed in Jatropha curcas. The various factors affecting J. curcas in planta transformation were optimized, including decapitation, Agrobacterium strain, pin-pricking, vacuum infiltration duration and vacuum pressure. Simple vegetative in vivo cleft grafting method was adopted in the multiplication of transformants without the aid of tissue culture. Among the various parameters evaluated, decapitated plants on pin-pricking and vacuum infiltrated at 250 mmHg for 3 min with the Agrobacterium strain EHA 105 harbouring the binary vector pGA 492 was proved to be efficient in all terms with a transformation efficiency of 62.66%. Transgene integration was evinced by the GUS histochemical analysis, and the GUS positive plants were subjected to grafting. Putatively transformed J. curcas served as "Scion" and the wild type J. curcas plant severed as "Stock". There was no occurrence of graft rejection and the plants were then confirmed by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern hybridization. Genetic stability of the grafted plants was evaluated by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), marker which showed 100% genetic stability between mother and grafted plants. Thus, an efficient in planta transformation and grafting based multiplication of J. curcas was established. PMID:24150424

  11. Nodularin, a cyanobacterial toxin, is synthesized in planta by symbiotic Nostoc sp.

    PubMed Central

    Gehringer, Michelle M; Adler, Lewis; Roberts, Alexandra A; Moffitt, Michelle C; Mihali, Troco K; Mills, Toby J T; Fieker, Claus; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Nostoc, is a commonly occurring cyanobacterium often found in symbiotic associations. We investigated the potential of cycad cyanobacterial endosymbionts to synthesize microcystin/nodularin. Endosymbiont DNA was screened for the aminotransferase domain of the toxin biosynthesis gene clusters. Five endosymbionts carrying the gene were screened for bioactivity. Extracts of two isolates inhibited protein phosphatase 2A and were further analyzed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS. Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' both contained nodularin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) HESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of nodularin at 9.55±2.4?ng??g?1 chlorophyll a in Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and 12.5±8.4?ng??g?1 Chl a in Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' extracts. Further scans indicated the presence of the rare isoform [L-Har2] nodularin, which contains ?-homoarginine instead of ?-arginine. Nodularin was also present at 1.34±0.74?ng?ml?1 (approximately 3?pmol per g plant ww) in the methanol root extracts of M. riedlei MZ65, while the presence of [L-Har2] nodularin in the roots of M. serpentina MZ73 was suggested by HPLC HESI-MS/MS analysis. The ndaA-B and ndaF genomic regions were sequenced to confirm the presence of the hybrid polyketide/non-ribosomal gene cluster. A seven amino-acid insertion into the NdaA-C1 domain of N. spumigena NSOR10 protein was observed in all endosymbiont-derived sequences, suggesting the transfer of the nda cluster from N. spumigena to terrestrial Nostoc species. This study demonstrates the synthesis of nodularin and [L-Har2] nodularin in a non-Nodularia species and the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin by a symbiont in planta. PMID:22456448

  12. Floral benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases: From in vitro to in planta function

    PubMed Central

    Effmert, Uta; Saschenbrecker, Sandra; Ross, Jeannine; Negre, Florence; Fraser, Chris M.; Noel, Joseph P.; Dudareva, Natalia; Piechulla, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases synthesize methyl esters (e.g., methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate), which are constituents of aromas and scents of many plant species and play important roles in plant communication with the surrounding environment. Within the past five years, eleven such carboxyl methyltransferases were isolated and most of them were comprehensively investigated at the biochemical, molecular and structural level. Two types of enzymes can be distinguished according to their substrate preferences: the SAMT-type enzymes isolated from Clarkia breweri, Stephanotis floribunda, Antirrhinum majus, Hoya carnosa, and Petunia hybrida, which have a higher catalytic efficiency and preference for salicylic acid, while BAMT-type enzymes from A. majus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Nicotiana suaveolens prefer benzoic acid. The elucidation of C. breweri SAMT’s three-dimensional structure allowed a detailed modelling of the active sites of the carboxyl methyltransferases and revealed that the SAM binding pocket is highly conserved among these enzymes while the methyl acceptor binding site exhibits some variability, allowing a classification into SAMT-type and BAMT-type enzymes. The analysis of expression patterns coupled with biochemical characterization showed that these carboxyl methyltransferases are involved either in floral scent biosynthesis or in plant defense responses. While the latter can be induced by biotic or abiotic stress, the genes responsible for floral scent synthesis exhibit developmental and rhythmic expression pattern. The nature of the product and efficiency of its formation in planta depend on the availability of substrates, the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward benzoic acid and/or salicylic acid, and the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation at the enzyme level. The biochemical properties of benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases suggest that the genes involved in plant defenses might represent the ancestor for the presently existing floral genes which during evolution gained different expression profiles and encoded enzymes with the ability to accept structurally similar substrates. PMID:15946712

  13. Bioinspired engineering study of Plantae vascules for self-healing composite structures.

    PubMed

    Trask, R S; Bond, I P

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the first conceptual study into creating a Plantae-inspired vascular network within a fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminate, which provides an ongoing self-healing functionality without incurring a mass penalty. Through the application of a 'lost-wax' technique, orthogonal hollow vascules, inspired by the 'ray cell' structures found in ring porous hardwoods, were successfully introduced within a carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite laminate. The influence on fibre architecture and mechanical behaviour of single vascules (located on the laminate centreline) when aligned parallel and transverse to the local host ply was characterized experimentally using a compression-after-impact test methodology. Ultrasonic C-scanning and high-resolution micro-CT X-ray was undertaken to identify the influence of and interaction between the internal vasculature and impact damage. The results clearly show that damage morphology is influenced by vascule orientation and that a 10 J low-velocity impact damage event is sufficient to breach the vasculature; a prerequisite for any subsequent self-healing function. The residual compressive strength after a 10 J impact was found to be dependent upon vascule orientation. In general, residual compressive strength decreased to 70 per cent of undamaged strength when vasculature was aligned parallel to the local host ply and a value of 63 per cent when aligned transverse. This bioinspired engineering study has illustrated the potential that a vasculature concept has to offer in terms of providing a self-healing function with minimum mass penalty, without initiating premature failure within a composite structure. PMID:19955122

  14. Nodularin, a cyanobacterial toxin, is synthesized in planta by symbiotic Nostoc sp.

    PubMed

    Gehringer, Michelle M; Adler, Lewis; Roberts, Alexandra A; Moffitt, Michelle C; Mihali, Troco K; Mills, Toby J T; Fieker, Claus; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    The nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Nostoc, is a commonly occurring cyanobacterium often found in symbiotic associations. We investigated the potential of cycad cyanobacterial endosymbionts to synthesize microcystin/nodularin. Endosymbiont DNA was screened for the aminotransferase domain of the toxin biosynthesis gene clusters. Five endosymbionts carrying the gene were screened for bioactivity. Extracts of two isolates inhibited protein phosphatase 2A and were further analyzed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS. Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' both contained nodularin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) HESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of nodularin at 9.55±2.4?ng ?g-1 chlorophyll a in Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and 12.5±8.4?ng??g-1 Chl a in Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' extracts. Further scans indicated the presence of the rare isoform [L-Har(2)] nodularin, which contains L-homoarginine instead of L-arginine. Nodularin was also present at 1.34±0.74?ng?ml(-1) (approximately 3?pmol per g plant ww) in the methanol root extracts of M. riedlei MZ65, while the presence of [L-Har(2)] nodularin in the roots of M. serpentina MZ73 was suggested by HPLC HESI-MS/MS analysis. The ndaA-B and ndaF genomic regions were sequenced to confirm the presence of the hybrid polyketide/non-ribosomal gene cluster. A seven amino-acid insertion into the NdaA-C1 domain of N. spumigena NSOR10 protein was observed in all endosymbiont-derived sequences, suggesting the transfer of the nda cluster from N. spumigena to terrestrial Nostoc species. This study demonstrates the synthesis of nodularin and [L-Har(2)] nodularin in a non-Nodularia species and the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin by a symbiont in planta. PMID:22456448

  15. Bioinspired engineering study of Plantae vascules for self-healing composite structures

    PubMed Central

    Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first conceptual study into creating a Plantae-inspired vascular network within a fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminate, which provides an ongoing self-healing functionality without incurring a mass penalty. Through the application of a ‘lost-wax’ technique, orthogonal hollow vascules, inspired by the ‘ray cell’ structures found in ring porous hardwoods, were successfully introduced within a carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite laminate. The influence on fibre architecture and mechanical behaviour of single vascules (located on the laminate centreline) when aligned parallel and transverse to the local host ply was characterized experimentally using a compression-after-impact test methodology. Ultrasonic C-scanning and high-resolution micro-CT X-ray was undertaken to identify the influence of and interaction between the internal vasculature and impact damage. The results clearly show that damage morphology is influenced by vascule orientation and that a 10 J low-velocity impact damage event is sufficient to breach the vasculature; a prerequisite for any subsequent self-healing function. The residual compressive strength after a 10 J impact was found to be dependent upon vascule orientation. In general, residual compressive strength decreased to 70 per cent of undamaged strength when vasculature was aligned parallel to the local host ply and a value of 63 per cent when aligned transverse. This bioinspired engineering study has illustrated the potential that a vasculature concept has to offer in terms of providing a self-healing function with minimum mass penalty, without initiating premature failure within a composite structure. PMID:19955122

  16. A real-time fluorogenic assay for the visualization of glycoside hydrolase activity in planta.

    PubMed

    Ibatullin, Farid M; Banasiak, Alicja; Baumann, Martin J; Greffe, Lionel; Takahashi, Junko; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Brumer, Harry

    2009-12-01

    There currently exists a diverse array of molecular probes for the in situ localization of polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins in plant cells, including reporter enzyme strategies (e.g. protein-glucuronidase fusions). In contrast, however, there is a paucity of methods for the direct analysis of endogenous glycoside hydrolases and transglycosidases responsible for cell wall remodeling. To exemplify the potential of fluorogenic resorufin glycosides to address this issue, a resorufin beta-glycoside of a xylogluco-oligosaccharide (XXXG-beta-Res) was synthesized as a specific substrate for in planta analysis of XEH activity. The resorufin aglycone is particularly distinguished for high sensitivity in muro assays due to a low pK(a) (5.8) and large extinction coefficient (epsilon 62,000 M(-1) cm(-1)), long-wavelength fluorescence (excitation 571 nm/emission 585 nm), and high quantum yield (0.74) of the corresponding anion. In vitro analyses demonstrated that XXXG-beta-Res is hydrolyzed by the archetypal plant XEH, nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) NXG1, with classical Michaelis-Menten substrate saturation kinetics and a linear dependence on both enzyme concentration and incubation time. Further, XEH activity could be visualized in real time by observing the localized increase in fluorescence in germinating nasturtium seeds and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescent stems by confocal microscopy. Importantly, this new in situ XEH assay provides an essential complement to the in situ xyloglucan endotransglycosylase assay, thus allowing delineation of the disparate activities encoded by xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase genes directly in plant tissues. The observation that XXXG-beta-Res is also hydrolyzed by diverse microbial XEHs indicates that this substrate, and resorufin glycosides in general, may find broad applicability for the analysis of wall restructuring by polysaccharide hydrolases during morphogenesis and plant-microbe interactions. PMID:19783642

  17. Abscisic acid metabolizing rhizobacteria decrease ABA concentrations in planta and alter plant growth.

    PubMed

    Belimov, Andrey A; Dodd, Ian C; Safronova, Vera I; Dumova, Valentina A; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Ladatko, Alexander G; Davies, William J

    2014-01-01

    Although endogenous phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) regulate root growth, and many rhizobacteria can modulate root phytohormone status, hitherto there have been no reports of rhizobacteria mediating root ABA concentrations and growth by metabolising ABA. Using a selective ABA-supplemented medium, two bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings grown in sod-podzolic soil and assigned to Rhodococcus sp. P1Y and Novosphingobium sp. P6W using partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic patterns by the GEN III MicroPlate test. Although strain P6W had more rapid growth in ABA-supplemented media than strain P1Y, both could utilize ABA as a sole carbon source in batch culture. When rice seeds were germinated on filter paper in association with bacteria, root ABA concentration was not affected, but shoot ABA concentration of inoculated plants decreased by 14% (strain P6W) and 22% (strain P1Y). When tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genotypes differing in ABA biosynthesis (ABA deficient mutants flacca - flc, and notabilis - not and the wild-type cv. Ailsa Craig, WT) were grown in gnotobiotic cultures on nutrient solution agar, rhizobacterial inoculation decreased root and/or leaf ABA concentrations, depending on plant and bacteria genotypes. Strain P6W inhibited primary root elongation of all genotypes, but increased leaf biomass of WT plants. In WT plants treated with silver ions that inhibit ethylene perception, both ABA-metabolising strains significantly decreased root ABA concentration, and strain P6W decreased leaf ABA concentration. Since these changes in ABA status also occurred in plants that were not treated with silver, it suggests that ethylene was probably not involved in regulating bacteria-mediated changes in ABA concentration. Correlations between plant growth and ABA concentrations in planta suggest that ABA-metabolising rhizobacteria may stimulate growth via an ABA-dependent mechanism. PMID:24270514

  18. In planta xylanase activity and pathogenicity on wheat-Mycosphaerella graminicola pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Siah; Deweer, C; Duyme, F; Sanssené, J; Durand, R; Reignault, Ph; Halama, P

    2009-01-01

    A total of twenty four French strains and two reference strains IPO323 and IPO94269 of the hemibiotrophic fungus Mycosphoerella graminicola were investigated in planta to examine the association of the cell-wall degrading enzyme endo-beta-1,4-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) with pathogenicity. The French strains were selected from a collection of 363 strains previously genotyped using microsatellites, actine and beta-tubutine markers. Disease level assessments as well as enzyme quantifications were carried out at 20 days post inoculation from the third leaves of inoculated whole plants of the susceptible wheat cv. Scorpion. Great variability of both pathogenicity levels and endo-beta-1,4-xylanase activity patterns was obtained among strains. Only 15 out of the 26 assessed strains including the reference strain IPO323 were able to induce lesions bearing pycnidia. The percentages of diseased leaf areas bearing pycnidia ranged from 6.2% to 77%, while amounts of endo-beta-1,4-xylanase activity ranged from 0 to 399.15 mU/microg of total proteins. A Pearson correlation test revealed very high linkage between endo-beta-1,4-xylanase activity level and lesions bearing pycnidia production within strains (r = 0.94). Additional cytological and enzymatic investigations on two strains exhibiting different pathogenicity levels highlighted that successful disease induction by M. graminicola is not explained by either spore germination or direct and stomatal penetration rates of the host, but by the ability of the fungus to colonize the mesophyll and to secrete the endo-beta-1,4-xylanase activity during necrotrophic phase. This study strongly suggests the importance of both mesophyll colonisation and endo-beta-1,4-xylanase activity during the infection process of M. graminicola. PMID:20222552

  19. Doble o Más: Doblar o Triplicar Una Receta

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC

    2010-01-01

    Escoja una receta para doblarla (o triplicarla, cuadruplicarla, o partirla). Enseñe la receta a todo el grupo y pregúnteles: Cuánto vamos a necesitar para incrementar la receta para que todos puedan comer? Cómo lo saben? Una vez el grupo ha decidido cómo modificar la receta, asigne un ingrediente para incrementar y medir. A medida que los chicos deciden cómo hacerlo, exploran fracciones, multiplicación, y suma. Pruebe esta actividad con comida, una “receta” para combinar pinturas para conseguir determinados colores, o para hacer masilla para modelar. Disponible en formato web, en formato pdf, y en inglés.

  20. El teatro de los '70: Una dramaturgia sitiada

    E-print Network

    Cosentino, Olga

    1991-04-01

    intentaba documentar, a través de la escritura teatral, las circunstancias complejas de una realidad sociopolítica que desembocaría, a partir de 1976, en uno de los períodos más tenebrosos y perversamente letales de la vida del país. SPRING 1991 33 La...

  1. Consentimiento informado: una praxis dialogica para la investigacion

    PubMed Central

    Mondragon-Barrios, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    El consentimiento informado es un proceso, en el que una persona acepta participar en una investigation, conociendo los riesgos, beneficios, consecuencias o problemas que se puedan presenter durante el desarrollo de la misma. El objetivo de este trabajo es reunir las caracteristicas del proceso de consentimiento informado (PCI) pare que su discernimiento y cumplimiento posibilite el ejercicio etc° dialogico, reflexivo y responsable del investigador. Se presentan los resultados de una extensa revision de les elementos del PCI, desde sus cornponentes hasta su fundamento etico y legal, incluyendo los mites y realidades que existen sobre el formato de consentimiento informado come recurso legal de protection. El consentimiento informado no es un formato establecido que los investigadores repliquen, se trata de que la praxis del PCI sea una tarea cotidiana dentro de la investigation con seres humanos, como comunicaciOn deliberative y critica, responsable y comprometida entre dos agentes morales, investigador-investigado. PMID:19507477

  2. La reconstrucción del seno después de una mastectomía

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe la reconstrucción del seno (mama) después de una mastectomía. Contiene información sobre las opciones quirúrgicas, los cuidados de seguimiento y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de seno después de la reconstrucción.

  3. Lichens from the Una National Park (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter OBERMAYER; Josef HAFELLNER; Peter O. BILOVITZ; Roman TÜRK; Helmut MAYRHOFER

    BILOVITZ P.O., Türk R. & MAYRHOFER H. 2009: Lichens from the Una National Park (Bosnia and Herzegovina). - Fritschiana (Graz) 65: 47-51. - ISSN 1024-0306 Abstract: A list of 57 taxa of lichens (56 species) from the Una National Park in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina is presented. Bacidia subincompta, Buellia griseovirens, Candelariella reflexa, Cetrelia monachorum, Fulgensia subbracteata,

  4. Significant reduction of BiFC non-specific assembly facilitates in planta assessment of heterotrimeric G-protein interactors.

    PubMed

    Gookin, Timothy E; Assmann, Sarah M

    2014-11-01

    Protein networks and signaling cascades are key mechanisms for intra- and intercellular signal transduction. Identifying the interacting partners of a protein can provide vital clues regarding its physiological role. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay has become a routine tool for in vivo analysis of protein-protein interactions and their subcellular location. Although the BiFC system has improved since its inception, the available options for in planta analysis are still subject to very low signal-to-noise ratios, and a systematic comparison of BiFC confounding background signals has been lacking. Background signals can obscure weak interactions, provide false positives, and decrease confidence in true positives. To overcome these problems, we performed an extensive in planta analysis of published BiFC fragments used in metazoa and plants, and then developed an optimized single vector BiFC system which utilizes monomeric Venus (mVenus) split at residue 210, and contains an integrated mTurquoise2 marker to precisely identify transformed cells in order to distinguish true negatives. Here we provide our streamlined double ORF expression (pDOE) BiFC system, and show that our advance in BiFC methodology functions even with an internally fused mVenus210 fragment. We illustrate the efficacy of the system by providing direct visualization of Arabidopsis MLO1 interacting with a calmodulin-like (CML) protein, and by showing that heterotrimeric G-protein subunits G? (GPA1) and G? (AGB1) interact in plant cells. We further demonstrate that GPA1 and AGB1 each physically interact with PLD?1 in planta, and that mutation of the so-called PLD?1 'DRY' motif abolishes both of these interactions. PMID:25187041

  5. The In Planta Transcriptome of Ralstonia solanacearum: Conserved Physiological and Virulence Strategies during Bacterial Wilt of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Babujee, Lavanya; Meng, Fanhong; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plant xylem fluid is considered a nutrient-poor environment, but the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to 108 to 109 CFU/g tomato stem. To better understand how R. solanacearum succeeds in this habitat, we analyzed the transcriptomes of two phylogenetically distinct R. solanacearum strains that both wilt tomato, strains UW551 (phylotype II) and GMI1000 (phylotype I). We profiled bacterial gene expression at ~6 × 108 CFU/ml in culture or in plant xylem during early tomato bacterial wilt pathogenesis. Despite phylogenetic differences, these two strains expressed their 3,477 common orthologous genes in generally similar patterns, with about 12% of their transcriptomes significantly altered in planta versus in rich medium. Several primary metabolic pathways were highly expressed during pathogenesis. These pathways included sucrose uptake and catabolism, and components of these pathways were encoded by genes in the scrABY cluster. A UW551 scrA mutant was significantly reduced in virulence on resistant and susceptible tomato as well as on potato and the epidemiologically important weed host Solanum dulcamara. Functional scrA contributed to pathogen competitive fitness during colonization of tomato xylem, which contained ~300 µM sucrose. scrA expression was induced by sucrose, but to a much greater degree by growth in planta. Unexpectedly, 45% of the genes directly regulated by HrpB, the transcriptional activator of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), were upregulated in planta at high cell densities. This result modifies a regulatory model based on bacterial behavior in culture, where this key virulence factor is repressed at high cell densities. The active transcription of these genes in wilting plants suggests that T3SS has a biological role throughout the disease cycle. PMID:22807564

  6. Significant reduction of BiFC non-specific assembly facilitates in planta assessment of heterotrimeric G-protein interactors

    PubMed Central

    Gookin, Timothy E; Assmann, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Protein networks and signaling cascades are key mechanisms for intra- and intercellular signal transduction. Identifying the interacting partners of a protein can provide vital clues regarding its physiological role. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay has become a routine tool for in vivo analysis of protein–protein interactions and their subcellular location. Although the BiFC system has improved since its inception, the available options for in planta analysis are still subject to very low signal-to-noise ratios, and a systematic comparison of BiFC confounding background signals has been lacking. Background signals can obscure weak interactions, provide false positives, and decrease confidence in true positives. To overcome these problems, we performed an extensive in planta analysis of published BiFC fragments used in metazoa and plants, and then developed an optimized single vector BiFC system which utilizes monomeric Venus (mVenus) split at residue 210, and contains an integrated mTurquoise2 marker to precisely identify transformed cells in order to distinguish true negatives. Here we provide our streamlined double ORF expression (pDOE) BiFC system, and show that our advance in BiFC methodology functions even with an internally fused mVenus210 fragment. We illustrate the efficacy of the system by providing direct visualization of Arabidopsis MLO1 interacting with a calmodulin-like (CML) protein, and by showing that heterotrimeric G-protein subunits G? (GPA1) and G? (AGB1) interact in plant cells. We further demonstrate that GPA1 and AGB1 each physically interact with PLD?1 in planta, and that mutation of the so-called PLD?1 ‘DRY’ motif abolishes both of these interactions. PMID:25187041

  7. Identification and characterization of in planta-expressed secreted effector proteins from Magnaporthe oryzae that induce cell death in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songbiao; Songkumarn, Pattavipha; Venu, R C; Gowda, Malali; Bellizzi, Maria; Hu, Jinnan; Liu, Wende; Ebbole, Daniel; Meyers, Blake; Mitchell, Thomas; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2013-02-01

    Interactions between rice and Magnaporthe oryzae involve the recognition of cellular components and the exchange of complex molecular signals from both partners. How these interactions occur in rice cells is still elusive. We employed robust-long serial analysis of gene expression, massively parallel signature sequencing, and sequencing by synthesis to examine transcriptome profiles of infected rice leaves. A total of 6,413 in planta-expressed fungal genes, including 851 genes encoding predicted effector proteins, were identified. We used a protoplast transient expression system to assess 42 of the predicted effector proteins for the ability to induce plant cell death. Ectopic expression assays identified five novel effectors that induced host cell death only when they contained the signal peptide for secretion to the extracellular space. Four of them induced cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. Although the five effectors are highly diverse in their sequences, the physiological basis of cell death induced by each was similar. This study demonstrates that our integrative genomic approach is effective for the identification of in planta-expressed cell death-inducing effectors from M. oryzae that may play an important role facilitating colonization and fungal growth during infection. PMID:23035914

  8. El proyecto InterAct: Una arquitectura de pizarra para la implementacin de Entornos Activos*

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    El proyecto InterAct: Una arquitectura de pizarra para la implementación de Entornos Activos en una arquitectura en la que se distinguen tres capas: la capa de contexto, la capa de interacción columna vertebral de la arquitectura de InterAct. Se ha optado por una arquitectura basada en una

  9. Elementos para una estrategia de desarrollo industrial en el Perú

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodolfo Cermeño

    1989-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir las propuestas de desarrollo industrial existentes para el caso peruano. Esta discusión se ha1la a la luz de las experiencias de industrialización seguidas por los países en desarrollo, a fin de identificar los elementos cruciales para el diseño de una estrategia de desarrollo industrial de largo plazo.

  10. EL COLEGIO PILOTO DE FUTURO DE MEDELLÍN: UNA INNOVACIÓN EDUCATIVA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    El Colegio Piloto de Futuro de Medellín, CPF, es una innovación educativa con visión prospectiva que utiliza recursos científicos y entornos de aprendizaje que se valen de avanzadas tecnologías informáticas. Los estudiantes se forman mediante el uso creativo de tales tecnologías con la intención expresa de desarrollar su capacidad de abstracción, la creatividad, el cambio dinámico, el respeto por la

  11. Aprendizaje de las matemáticas utilizando una herramienta distribuida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Everth Rocha; Gabriel Gerónimo; Francisco Hernández

    2005-01-01

    Este proyecto busca apoyar el proceso de aprendizaje de las matemáticas en escuelas de educación primaria, proponiendo una práctica educativa que utiliza modelos mentales usuales para el niño, el uso de la informática, y de tecnología distribuida de información. A lo largo de este documento se expone la forma en que se han empleado metodologías de usabilidad para implementar la

  12. JOS ROSAS VERA La Ilusin de una Nueva Arquitectura en

    E-print Network

    Entekhabi, Dara

    Venezuela JOSé ROSAS VERA La Ilusión de una Nueva Arquitectura en Venezuela 15 los noventas. mismo arquitectura internacional del en el Concierto Internacional de valorización global. Azier Calvo, in his arquitectura o materiales, sino que en relación al encargo audience is greater. Juan Manuel Pelaez

  13. DISEÑO EN VERILOG DE UNA ARQUITECTURA SEGMENTADA DE MICROPROCESADOR RISC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Carlos Rosales Alpízar; Johan Bermúdez; Ruddy Céspedes; Morales Rodríguez; Roberto Pereira Arroyo; Alfonso Chacón Rodríguez

    Se propone una arquitectura segmentada de microprocesador RISC de 32 bits, implementada el nivel de RTL en un lenguaje de descripción de hardware, y de código compatible con un microprocesador MIPS®. Se han usado las herramientas de desarrollo de la empresa Xilinx®. El código ha sido testeado en un sistema de desarrollo de dispositivos programables de Digilent Inc., mediante la

  14. Mercados base de pirámide: una revisión de literatura

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Paula Castaño Villamil; María Vanessa Rodríguez Tovar

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una revisión de la literatura internacional sobre los mercados base de pirámide, un concepto relativamente reciente en la administración de empresas pero de gran interés y especial importancia. El estudio aborda las diferentes perspectivas desde las cuales se estudia y las variables con las que se relaciona. De igual forma, presenta las opiniones de dos expertos, doctor

  15. Diseo e Implementacin de un Beamformer Transmisor en una FPGA

    E-print Network

    Gao, Guang R.

    descripción VHDL se realizó por medio de la herramienta Xilinx System Generator. El estudio se centra en la--Beamformer, Arreglo de Antenas, Woodward- Lawson, Direccionalidad, FPGA, Xilinx System Generator. I. INTRODUCCI�N UNA la descripción VHDL se utilizó la herramienta Xilinx System Generator 9.1 R (XSG) en conjunto con los

  16. CREENCIAS RELATIVAS AL APRENDIZAJE DE UNA LENGUA EXTRANJERA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUAN DE DIOS; MARTÍNEZ AGUDO

    2005-01-01

    RESUMEN Este artículo pretende analizar las creencias de los maestros en formación respecto al aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera. Resulta interesante explorar tales creencias ya que probablemente tales percepciones e impresiones iniciales respecto a lo que implica el proceso de aprendizaje lingüístico incidirán signi- ficativamente en la forma de enseñar la lengua extranjera, guiando consecuen- temente el proceso de enseñanza

  17. Lichens from the Una National Park (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    PubMed

    Bilovitz, Peter O; Türk, Roman; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2009-08-31

    A list of 57 taxa of lichens (56 species) from the Una National Park in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina is presented. Bacidia subincompta, Buellia griseovirens, Candelariella reflexa, Cetrelia monachorum, Fulgensia subbacteata, Lecanora subcarpinea, L. subrugosa, and Trapeliopsis viridescens are new for Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:22318913

  18. Lichens from the Una National Park (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Türk, Roman; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A list of 57 taxa of lichens (56 species) from the Una National Park in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina is presented. Bacidia subincompta, Buellia griseovirens, Candelariella reflexa, Cetrelia monachorum, Fulgensia subbacteata, Lecanora subcarpinea, L. subrugosa, and Trapeliopsis viridescens are new for Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:22318913

  19. Estadística y objetos de aprendizaje. Una experiencia in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier Organista Sandoval; Graciela Cordero Arroyo

    Este texto es la presentación de los resultados preliminares de una investigación-desa- rrollo que tuvo el propósito de realizar lecciones de estadística en línea con inserción de objetos de aprendizaje y estimar el efecto sobre el aprendizaje de los alumnos par- ticipantes en un ambiente natural universitario. Se utilizaron señalamientos teóricos constructivistas para el desarrollo de las lecciones, para conformarle

  20. "Come scrivere una proposta Marie Sklodowska-Curie individuale"

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    "Come scrivere una proposta Marie Sklodowska-Curie individuale" (con particolare riferimento al billion #12;KEY FEATURES of Marie Sklodowska-Curie ACTIONS #12; Encourage new, creative types of training in detail: Marie Sklodowska-Curie ACTIONS #12;Marie Sklodowska-Curie actions Marie Curie actions Marie

  1. El comercio internacional en Colombia: una perspectiva diferente del TLC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Ter Wengel; Luz Karine Ardila; Beatriz Ferreira Villegas; Luís Miguel Suárez Cruz

    2007-01-01

    La nueva teoría del comercio internacional deja de lado las diferencias entre los países en cuanto a recursos y se enfoca en las decisiones de los empresarios para presentar una visión alternativa de las implicaciones de la firma del Tratado de libre Comercio. La nueva teoría pone énfasis en la heterogeneidad de las empresas, en la relevancia de la productividad

  2. JOS ROSAS VERA La Ilusin de una Nueva Arquitectura en

    E-print Network

    Entekhabi, Dara

    Venezuela JOSé ROSAS VERA La Ilusión de una Nueva Arquitectura en Venezuela 15 los noventas. mismo arquitectura internacional del en el Concierto Internacional de valorización global. Azier Calvo, in his arquitectura o materiales, sino que en relación al encargo audience is greater. Juan Manuel Pelaez

  3. Intersticios de sociabilidad : una autoetnografía del consumo de TIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horacio Espinosa Zepeda

    2007-01-01

    La perspectiva autoetnográfica es una metodología relativamente novedosa en las Ciencias Sociales, deudora de nociones como la de “Conocimiento Situado” (Haraway, 1991). Para los estudios sociales sobre ciencia y tecnología, representa la oportunidad de un acercamiento al contexto socio-histórico de apropiación de los artefactos tecnológicos, desde la mirada subjetivada de los propios actores que interactúan con las TIC. En este

  4. Homoserine and asparagine are host signals that trigger in planta expression of a pathogenesis gene in Nectria haematococca

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhennai; Rogers, Linda M.; Song, Yuanda; Guo, Wenjin; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    2005-01-01

    Some pathogenesis-related genes are expressed in fungi only when the pathogen is in the host, but the host signals that trigger these gene expressions have not been identified. Virulent Nectria haematococca infects pea plants and requires either pelA, which is induced by pectin, or pelD, which is induced only in planta. However, the host signal(s) that trigger pelD expression was unknown. Here we report the isolation of the host signals and identify homoserine and asparagine, two free amino acids found in uniquely high levels in pea seedlings, as the pelD-inducing signals. N. haematococca has evolved a mechanism to sense the host tissue environment by using the high levels of two free amino acids in this plant, thereby triggering the expression of pelD to assist the pathogenic process. PMID:15753300

  5. Homoserine and asparagine are host signals that trigger in planta expression of a pathogenesis gene in Nectria haematococca.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhennai; Rogers, Linda M; Song, Yuanda; Guo, Wenjin; Kolattukudy, P E

    2005-03-15

    Some pathogenesis-related genes are expressed in fungi only when the pathogen is in the host, but the host signals that trigger these gene expressions have not been identified. Virulent Nectria haematococca infects pea plants and requires either pelA, which is induced by pectin, or pelD, which is induced only in planta. However, the host signal(s) that trigger pelD expression was unknown. Here we report the isolation of the host signals and identify homoserine and asparagine, two free amino acids found in uniquely high levels in pea seedlings, as the pelD-inducing signals. N. haematococca has evolved a mechanism to sense the host tissue environment by using the high levels of two free amino acids in this plant, thereby triggering the expression of pelD to assist the pathogenic process. PMID:15753300

  6. Development of fiber optic spectroscopy for in-vitro and in-planta detection of fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Oi Wah; Chen, Jun-Wei; Asundi, Anand K.

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this project is to apply photonics technology to bio-safety management of genetically modified (GM) plants. The conventional method for screening GM plants is through selection using antibiotic resistance markers. There is public concern with such approaches and these are associated with food safety issues, escape of antibiotic resistance genes to pathogenic microorganisms and interference with antibiotic therapy. Thus, the strategy taken in this project is to replace antibiotic resistance markers with fluorescent protein markers that allow for rapid and non-invasive optical screening of genetically modified plants. In this paper, fibre optic spectroscopy was developed to detect and quantify recombinant green (EGFP) and red (DsRED) fluorescent proteins in vitro and in planta. In vitro detection was first carried out to optimize the sensitivity of the optical system. The bacterial expression vectors carrying the coding regions of EGFP and DsRED were introduced into Escherichia coli host cells and fluorescent proteins were produced following induction with IPTG. Soluble EGFP and DsRED proteins were isolated from lysed bacterial cells and serially diluted for quantitative analysis by fibre optic spectroscopy using different light sources, namely, blue LED (475 nm), tungsten halogen (350 - 1000 nm) and double frequency Nd:YAG green laser (532 nm). Fluorescence near the expected emission wavelengths could be detected up to 320X dilution for EGFP and DsRED with blue LED and 532 nm green laser, respectively, as the excitation source. Tungsten halogen was found to be unsuitable for excitation of both EGFP and DsRED. EGFP was successfully purified by size separation under non-denaturing electrophoretic conditions and quantified. The minimum concentration of EGFP detectable with blue LED excitation was 5 mg/ml. To determine the capability of spectroscopy detection in planta, transgenic potato hairy roots and whole modified plant lines expressing the fluorescent markers were regenerated. T

  7. Roquefortine/oxaline biosynthesis pathway metabolites in Penicillium ser. Corymbifera: in planta production and implications for competitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Overy, D P; Nielsen, K F; Smedsgaard, J

    2005-10-01

    Three strains of each of the seven taxa comprising the Penicillium series Corymbifera were surveyed by direct injection mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography-MS for the production of terrestric acid and roquefortine/oxaline biosynthesis pathway metabolites when cultured upon macerated tissue agars prepared from Allium cepa, Zingiber officinale, and Tulipa gesneriana, and on the defined medium Czapek yeast autolysate agar (CYA). A novel solid-phase extraction methodology was applied for the rapid purification of roquefortine metabolites from a complex matrix. Penicillium hordei and P. venetum produced roquefortine D and C, whereas P. hirsutum produced roquefortine D and C and glandicolines A and B. P. albocoremium, P. allii, and P. radicicola carried the pathway through to meleagrin, producing roquefortine D and C, glandicolines A and B, and meleagrin. P. tulipae produced all previously mentioned metabolites yet carried the pathway through to an end product recognized as epi-neoxaline, prompting the proposal of a roquefortine/epi-neoxaline biogenesis pathway. Terrestric acid production was stimulated by all Corymbifera strains on plant-derived media compared to CYA controls. In planta, production of terrestric acid, roquefortine C, glandicolines A and B, meleagrin, epi-neoxaline, and several other species-related secondary metabolites were confirmed from A. cepa bulbs infected with Corymbifera strains. The deposition of roquefortine/oxaline pathway metabolites as an extracellular nitrogen reserve for uptake and metabolism into growing mycelia and the synergistic role of terrestric acid and other Corymbifera secondary metabolites in enhancing the competitive fitness of Corymbifera species in planta are proposed. PMID:16195849

  8. Comparacin de la dinmica de sedimentos suspendidos entre una baha tropical abierta y una baha tropical cerrada

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    explorado completamente. Su estudio es esencial para definir la calidad del agua, lo que conlleva una gran de sedimentos suspendidos (TSS) constituye uno de los parámetros de calidad de agua más importantes arcilla, el limo y la arena (Miller et al. 2004). Además de afectar la calidad del agua, el TSS es

  9. Methodology for producing 100 tons of fuel peat for a cement plant test burn. Metodologia para producir 100 toneladas de turba combustible para una prueba de quema en uns planta de cemento

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, A.B.; Malavassi, L.; Ramirez, O.; Thayer, G. (Allen (Andrew), Plymouth, NC (USA); RECOPE, San Jose (Costa Rica); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1989-05-01

    As a part of the Agency for International Development-funded cooperative project between Los Alamos and Costa Rica, the burning characteristics of Costa Rican peat were to be tested in an application. The cement plant owned by Industria National de Cemento in Cartago has a capability to handle solid fuel and was chosen for the burn demonstration. The Jungle No. 1 Peat Deposit near El Cairo was chosen as the site of the peat excavation. This peat production methodology study covers project site selection, installation of an access road and clearing of the jungle vegetation, removal of an upper layer of organic peat, excavation of fuel-grade peat, transport of the peat to the drying site, and drying and stockpiling of the finished product. As of this date the peat removal for the demonstration project has been started, and a description of the operation is included as an appendix to this paper. 10 figs.

  10. One cell test para el estudio in vitro de citotoxicidad del extracto de una planta de la flora colombiana Cytotoxicity in vitro study of the extract of a Colombian flora plant using One cell test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Saúl; Afife Mrad de Osorio; Constanza Martínez; Carmen Alicia; Cardozo de Martínez

    2004-01-01

    Palabras clave: Palabras clave: Palabras clave: Palabras clave: Palabras clave: One cell test, citotoxicidad, alternativas, embrión. ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT This study was aimed at evaluating Abuta grandifolia plant extract toxicity using the One cell test. The ethanol extract was prepared by drying and grinding up A. grandifolia stems. Extraction was done with 96% ethanol, followed by further acid-base

  11. LA ECUACION DE HAMILTONJACOBI: UNA PERSPECTIVA DESDE LA MECANICA GEOMETRICA

    E-print Network

    Tradacete, Pedro

    LA ECUACI´ON DE HAMILTON­JACOBI: UNA PERSPECTIVA DESDE LA MEC´ANICA GEOM´ETRICA XAVIER GR`ACIA Dep`acia (UPC, Barcelona) Ecuaci´on de Hamilton­Jacobi y mec´anica geom´etrica 1 / 29 #12;La perspectiva de la mec´anica geom´etrica Mec´anica anal´itica y geometr´ia diferencial est´an estrechamente relacionadas

  12. José Antonio Ramos: Una línea ascendente de rebeldía

    E-print Network

    Garzó n Cé spedes, Francisco

    1981-04-01

    SPRING 1981 5 José Antonio Ramos: Una línea ascendente de rebeldía Francisco Garzón Céspedes Dentro de la producción dramática de la república mediatizada, y entre los dramaturgos que no alcanzaron a ver cómo triunfaba el proceso revolu... cionario cubano iniciado hace más de un siglo, la figura de mayor tras cendencia, por los valores éticos y estéticos de su teatro y por la consecuente identidad de su vida con su literatura, es José Antonio Ramos y Aguirre (1885-1946). Testigo de un...

  13. The in planta transcriptome of Ralstonia solanacearum: conserved physiological and virulence strategies during bacterial wilt of tomato.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jonathan M; Babujee, Lavanya; Meng, Fanhong; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

    2012-01-01

    Plant xylem fluid is considered a nutrient-poor environment, but the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to 10(8) to 10(9) CFU/g tomato stem. To better understand how R. solanacearum succeeds in this habitat, we analyzed the transcriptomes of two phylogenetically distinct R. solanacearum strains that both wilt tomato, strains UW551 (phylotype II) and GMI1000 (phylotype I). We profiled bacterial gene expression at ~6 × 10(8) CFU/ml in culture or in plant xylem during early tomato bacterial wilt pathogenesis. Despite phylogenetic differences, these two strains expressed their 3,477 common orthologous genes in generally similar patterns, with about 12% of their transcriptomes significantly altered in planta versus in rich medium. Several primary metabolic pathways were highly expressed during pathogenesis. These pathways included sucrose uptake and catabolism, and components of these pathways were encoded by genes in the scrABY cluster. A UW551 scrA mutant was significantly reduced in virulence on resistant and susceptible tomato as well as on potato and the epidemiologically important weed host Solanum dulcamara. Functional scrA contributed to pathogen competitive fitness during colonization of tomato xylem, which contained ~300 µM sucrose. scrA expression was induced by sucrose, but to a much greater degree by growth in planta. Unexpectedly, 45% of the genes directly regulated by HrpB, the transcriptional activator of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), were upregulated in planta at high cell densities. This result modifies a regulatory model based on bacterial behavior in culture, where this key virulence factor is repressed at high cell densities. The active transcription of these genes in wilting plants suggests that T3SS has a biological role throughout the disease cycle. IMPORTANCE Ralstonia solanacearum is a widespread plant pathogen that causes bacterial wilt disease. It inflicts serious crop losses on tropical farmers, with major economic and human consequences. It is also a model for the many destructive microbes that colonize the water-conducting plant xylem tissue, which is low in nutrients and oxygen. We extracted bacteria from infected tomato plants and globally identified the biological functions that R. solanacearum expresses during plant pathogenesis. This revealed the unexpected presence of sucrose in tomato xylem fluid and the pathogen's dependence on host sucrose for virulence on tomato, potato, and the common weed bittersweet nightshade. Further, R. solanacearum was highly responsive to the plant environment, expressing several metabolic and virulence functions quite differently in the plant than in pure culture. These results reinforce the utility of studying pathogens in interaction with hosts and suggest that selecting for reduced sucrose levels could generate wilt-resistant crops. PMID:22807564

  14. Una Comunidad Virtual como herramienta de Difusión de la Educación a Distancia en una Institución de Educación Superior tradicional venezolana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gertrudis López

    Abstract Índice , 1 Introducción,Investigación experimental con preprueba- postprueba ,y grupo ,control que se ,propuso estudiar los efectos de una,Comunidad Virtual de Aprendizaje (CVA) sobre EaD con el uso de las TICs como estrategia de ,difusión de ,esta innovación en profesores, de ,la institución ,en estudio,así como para propiciar actitudes positivas hacia esta. Los resultados obtenidos comprenden la obtención ,de

  15. BIBLIOTECA GRAPHICALSPRITEKERNEL (GSK): IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE UNA ARQUITECTURA DE TRES MODELOS PARA CREAR MULTIMEDIA EDUCATIVA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicente Arturo Romero Zaldivar

    Resumen En este trabajo se presenta una arquitectura de tres modelos para desarrollar multimedia educativa, a través de una implementación particular de ésta, la biblioteca GraphicalSpriteKernel. Esta arquitectura está constituida por tres modelos diferentes, a emplear en tres fases fundamentales del desarrollo de una aplicación multimedia: diseño, implementación y prueba. Esta especialización permite que cada modelo incluya sólo la lógica

  16. Escalamiento en la Densidad de Im agenes para una Reconstrucci on Tridimensional

    E-print Network

    Fraga, Luis Gerardo de la

    Escalamiento en la Densidad de Im#19;agenes para una Reconstrucci#19;on Tridimensional Luis Gerardo microscopio electr#19;onico de transmisi#19;on. El escalamiento en la densidad es un paso previo para usar semejante, a una densidad cero y una varianza arbitraria de valor 100. Roseman et al [6] simplemente

  17. Claire Connolly, Four Nations Feminism: Una Troy and Menna Gallie UCDscholarcast

    E-print Network

    Claire Connolly, Four Nations Feminism: Una Troy and Menna Gallie 1 UCDscholarcast Series 4 Brannigan General Editor: P.J. Mathews © UCDscholarcast #12;Claire Connolly, Four Nations Feminism: Una Troy and Menna Gallie 2 Claire Connolly Four Nations Feminism: Una Troy and Menna Gallie This paper considers

  18. I1 piano regolatore di iina citt di circa 50.000 abitanti, in una zona pianeggiante di nuova espansione che fronteggia il mare e confina con una zona a verde pubblico, prevista una

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    I1 piano regolatore di iina città di circa 50.000 abitanti, in una zona pianeggiante di nuova piano di recupero di un ambito urbano ricadente in un centro storico, con una rilevante presenza di candidato illustrerà la normativa di riferimento per la redazione del piano di recupero con particolare

  19. Agrobacterium tumefaciens Deploys a Superfamily of Type VI Secretion DNase Effectors as Weapons for Interbacterial Competition In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lay-Sun; Hachani, Abderrahman; Lin, Jer-Sheng; Filloux, Alain; Lai, Erh-Min

    2014-01-01

    Summary The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread molecular weapon deployed by many Proteobacteria to target effectors/toxins into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. We report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil bacterium that triggers tumorigenesis in plants, produces a family of type VI DNase effectors (Tde) that are distinct from previously known polymorphic toxins and nucleases. Tde exhibits an antibacterial DNase activity that relies on a conserved HxxD motif and can be counteracted by a cognate immunity protein, Tdi. In vitro, A. tumefaciens T6SS could kill Escherichia coli but triggered a lethal counterattack by Pseudomonas aeruginosa upon injection of the Tde toxins. However, in an in planta coinfection assay, A. tumefaciens used Tde effectors to attack both siblings cells and P. aeruginosa to ultimately gain a competitive advantage. Such acquired T6SS-dependent fitness in vivo and conservation of Tde-Tdi couples in bacteria highlights a widespread antibacterial weapon beneficial for niche colonization. PMID:24981331

  20. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  1. A Rapid, Highly Efficient and Economical Method of Agrobacterium-Mediated In planta Transient Transformation in Living Onion Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  2. An optimized mRFP-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation system for the detection of protein-protein interactions in planta.

    PubMed

    Zilian, Eva; Maiss, Edgar

    2011-06-01

    An existing bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) system, based on a monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP), has been optimized for the investigation of protein-protein interactions in planta. The expression plasmids, encoding the N-terminal amino acids (aa) 1-168 and the C-terminal aa 169-225 of the mRFP, allow N- or C-terminal fusion of a split mRFP, with the genes of interest. Two major improvements over the original vectors have been made. Firstly, the coding sequence of a GGGSGGG-linker has been integrated between mRFP sequences and the genes of interest. Secondly, a modified mini binary vector (?3.5 kb) was introduced as the backbone for the plant expression plasmids. Based on the results of yeast two-hybrid studies with plant viral proteins, interaction of viral proteins was tested in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Plum pox virus coat protein and mutants thereof served as controls. The system was validated using the N-protein of Capsicum chlorosis virus for which a self-interaction was shown for the first time, the Tobacco mosaic virus coat protein and BC1 and BV1 of the Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus. This optimized BiFC system provides a convenient alternative to other BiFC, as well as yeast two-hybrid assays, for detecting protein-protein interactions. PMID:21473882

  3. Functional characterisation of metal(loid) processes in planta through the integration of synchrotron techniques and plant molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Donner, Erica; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lombi, Enzo

    2012-04-01

    Functional characterisation of the genes regulating metal(loid) homeostasis in plants is a major focus for phytoremediation, crop biofortification and food security research. Recent advances in X-ray focussing optics and fluorescence detection have greatly improved the potential to use synchrotron techniques in plant science research. With use of methods such as micro X-ray fluorescence mapping, micro computed tomography and micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, metal(loids) can be imaged in vivo in hydrated plant tissues at submicron resolution, and laterally resolved metal(loid) speciation can also be determined under physiologically relevant conditions. This article focuses on the benefits of combining molecular biology and synchrotron-based techniques. By using molecular techniques to probe the location of gene expression and protein production in combination with laterally resolved synchrotron techniques, one can effectively and efficiently assign functional information to specific genes. A review of the state of the art in this field is presented, together with examples as to how synchrotron-based methods can be combined with molecular techniques to facilitate functional characterisation of genes in planta. The article concludes with a summary of the technical challenges still remaining for synchrotron-based hard X-ray plant science research, particularly those relating to subcellular level research. PMID:22200921

  4. Cloning and characterization of pl1 encoding an in planta-secreted pectate lyase of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Huertas-González, M D; Ruiz-Roldán, M C; García Maceira, F I; Roncero, M I; Di Pietro, A

    1999-02-01

    A pectate lyase (PL1) from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici was previously characterized, and evidence was obtained for its production in planta. The gene encoding PL1 was isolated from a genomic library of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Pl1 encodes a 240 amino-acid polypeptide with one putative N-glycosylation site and a 15 amino-acid N-terminal signal peptide. PL1 showed 89%, 67%, 55% and 56% identity with the products of the Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi pelA, pelB, pelC and pelD genes, respectively. A single copy of the gene was detected in different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. The pl1 transcript was observed during growth on polygalacturonic acid sodium salt and tomato vascular tissue, but not on pectin or glucose. RT-PCR showed pl1 expression in roots and stems of tomato plants infected by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. PMID:10022947

  5. The maternal chromosome set is the target of the T-DNA in the in planta transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, N; Jaudeau, B; Jolivet, S; Maba, B; Vezon, D; Voisin, R; Pelletier, G

    2000-01-01

    In planta transformation methods are now commonly used to transform Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The origin of transformants obtained by these methods has been studied by inoculating different floral stages and examining gametophytic expression of an introduced beta-glucuronidase marker gene encoding GUS. We observed that transformation can still occur after treating flowers where embryo sacs have reached the stage of the third division. No GUS expression was observed in embryo sacs or pollen of plants infiltrated with an Agrobacterium strain bearing a GUS gene under the control of a gametophyte-specific promoter. To identify the genetic target we used an insertion mutant in which a gene essential for male gametophytic development has been disrupted by a T-DNA bearing a Basta resistance gene (B(R)). In this mutant the B(R) marker is transferred to the progeny only by the female gametes. This mutant was retransformed with a hygromycin resistance marker and doubly resistant plants were selected. The study of 193 progeny of these transformants revealed 25 plants in which the two resistance markers were linked in coupling and only one plant where they were linked in repulsion. These results point to the chromosome set of the female gametophyte as the main target for the T-DNA. PMID:10924482

  6. Functional characterisation of metal(loid) processes in planta through the integration of synchrotron techniques and plant molecular biology

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Erica; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lombi, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    Functional characterisation of the genes regulating metal(loid) homeostasis in plants is a major focus of crop biofortification, phytoremediation, and food security research. This paper focuses on the potential for advancing plant metal(loid) research by combining molecular biology and synchrotron-based techniques. Recent advances in x-ray focussing optics and fluorescence detection have greatly improved the potential of synchrotron techniques for plant science research, allowing metal(loids) to be imaged in vivo in hydrated plant tissues at sub-micron resolution. Laterally resolved metal(loid) speciation can also be determined. By using molecular techniques to probe the location of gene expression and protein localisation and combining it with this synchrotron-derived data, functional information can be effectively and efficiently assigned to specific genes. This paper provides a review of the state of the art in this field, and provides examples as to how synchrotron-based methods can be combined with molecular techniques to facilitate functional characterisation of genes in planta. PMID:22200921

  7. Detection of plum pox potyviral protein-protein interactions in planta using an optimized mRFP-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation system.

    PubMed

    Zilian, Eva; Maiss, Edgar

    2011-12-01

    In previous studies, protein interaction maps of different potyviruses have been generated using yeast two-hybrid (YTH) systems, and these maps have demonstrated a high diversity of interactions of potyviral proteins. Using an optimized bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) system, a complete interaction matrix for proteins of a potyvirus was developed for the first time under in planta conditions with ten proteins from plum pox virus (PPV). In total, 52 of 100 possible interactions were detected, including the self-interactions of CI, 6K2, VPg, NIa-Pro, NIb and CP, which is more interactions than have ever been detected for any other potyvirus in a YTH approach. Moreover, the BiFC system was shown to be able to localize the protein interactions, which was typified for the protein self-interactions indicated above. Additionally, experiments were carried out with the P3N-PIPO protein, revealing an interaction with CI but not with CP and supporting the involvement of P3N-PIPO in the cell-to-cell movement of potyviruses. No self-interaction of the PPV helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) was detected using BiFC in planta. Therefore, additional experiments with turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) HC-Pro, PPV_HC-Pro and their mutants were conducted. The self-interaction of TuMV_HCpro, as recently demonstrated, and the self-interaction of the TuMV_ and PPV_HC-Pro mutants were shown by BiFC in planta, indicating that HC-Pro self-interactions may be species-specific. BiFC is a very useful and reliable method for the detection and localization of protein interactions in planta, thus enabling investigations under more natural conditions than studies in yeast cells. PMID:21880839

  8. In Planta Regulation of Extension of an Endophytic Fungus and Maintenance of High Metabolic Rates in Its Mycelium in the Absence of Apical Extension

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yong Y.; Spiering, Martin J.; Scott, Vicki; Lane, Geoffrey A.; Christensen, Michael J.; Schmid, Jan

    2001-01-01

    The fungus Neotyphodium lolii is an endophytic symbiont. It grows in the intercellular spaces of the perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne, producing secondary metabolites which enhance the fitness of the association over that of uninfected L. perenne. We report that the average number of hyphal strands in a given section of a leaf remains constant during the life of a leaf, indicating synchrony of leaf and hyphal extension, including cessation of hyphal extension when leaf extension ceases. We used a constitutively expressed reporter gene as an indicator of the mycelium's metabolic activity during and after hyphal extension. Reporter gene activity decreased when the mycelium stopped extending in liquid culture but not in planta. This indicates that in planta endophyte hyphae remain metabolically highly active when extension has ceased and throughout the life of the leaf they are colonizing. The behavior of the fungus in planta indicates the existence of signaling pathways which (i) synchronize the extension of leaf and hypha by regulating hyphal extension, (ii) suppress hyphal branching, and (iii) stop apical extension of fungal hyphae, without reducing the mycelium's metabolic activity. These signals may be crucial for the symbiosis, by allowing the endophyte to switch the focus of its metabolic activity from extension to the production of secondary metabolites. PMID:11722882

  9. Una recapitulación de la renovación teatral en Hispanoamerica.

    E-print Network

    Neglia, Erminio G.

    1974-10-01

    no podía quedar igual. Un índice del conocimiento argentino de los nuevos avances mundiales en este campo es un escrito anónimo en Anuario Teatral Argentino de 1926, en que se registran los más importantes experimentos en la arquitectura y en la mecánica... años más tarde vuelve a preocuparse por el mismo tema escribiendo una continuación a la obra de 1940, con el título Vaca ciones II. De hecho, son "comedietas" de tono risueño, que no pasan de ser meros experimentos teatrales. Con todo, son índice de...

  10. Expandiendo los límites del teatro: Una entrevista con Astrid Hadad

    E-print Network

    Alzate, Gastó n

    1997-04-01

    género de difícil catalogación: el teatro cabaret. Género que desde hace una década se ha ido abriendo paso en la capital mexicana no sin cierta reticencia por parte de la comunidad teatral. Pese a ello, es posible afirmar que hoy en día ya ha... Guadalupe), bigotes postizos, y otros accesorios de los que se vale para subvertir los símbolos nacionales mexicanos. Aunque en un principio se le criticó duramente por el uso de los símbolos religiosos, esta actitud ha ido cambiando en la medida en que...

  11. TRACCIA N 1 BLOCCO 2 Su un lotto pianeggiante di forma rettangolare, progettare una palestra annessa ad una scuola di istruzione

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    TRACCIA N° 1 BLOCCO 2 PALESTRA Su un lotto pianeggiante di forma rettangolare, progettare una palestra annessa ad una scuola di istruzione secondaria superiore. La superficie del lotto è di circa mq Progettare un edificio ad uso casa dello studente per n° 100 posti letto su un lotto di mq. 9.000 Il progetto

  12. Identification of Epichloë Endophytes In Planta by a Microsatellite-Based PCR Fingerprinting Assay with Automated Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Christina D.; Tapper, Brian A.; Scott, Barry

    1999-01-01

    Epichloë endophytes are a group of filamentous fungi that include both sexual (Epichloë) and asexual (Neotyphodium) species. As a group they are genetically diverse and form both antagonistic and mutualistic associations with temperate grasses. We report here on the development of a microsatellite-based PCR system for fingerprinting this group of fungi with template isolated from either culture or infected plant material. M13mp19 partial genomic libraries were constructed for size-fractionated genomic DNA from two endophyte strains. These libraries were screened with a mixture of DIG-labeled dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeat probes. Positive clones were sequenced, and nine unique microsatellite loci were identified. An additional microsatellite was serendipitously identified in the 3? untranscribed region of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase gene from N. lolii Lp19. Primers were designed for each locus and a panel of endophytes, from different taxonomic groupings, was screened to determine the degree of polymorphism. On the basis of these results a multiplex assay was developed for strain identification with fluorescently labeled primers for five of these loci. Using this system the size of the products amplified can be precisely determined by automated analysis, and an allele profile for each strain can be readily generated. The assay was shown to resolve endophyte groupings to the level of known isozyme phenotype groupings. In a blind test the assay was used successfully to identify a set of endophytes in planta. A reference database of allele sizes has been established for the panel of endophytes examined, and this will be expanded as new strains are analyzed. PMID:10049893

  13. GEOMETRIA DE CURVAS Y SUPERFICIES Ejercicio 1 Calcula una curva parametrizada, : I R R2

    E-print Network

    Milán, Francisco

    R2 , cuya traza sea una circunferencia de radio uno y tal que (t) recorra dicha circunferencia en parametrizada. Si (to) es el punto de la traza de mas pr´oximo al origen, prueba que (to) y (to) son´on por el arco de una circunferencia de radio r. Ejercicio 7 Calcula una parametrizaci´on por el arco de

  14. Bikinin-like inhibitors targeting GSK3/Shaggy-like kinases: characterisation of novel compounds and elucidation of their catabolism in planta

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant GSK-3/Shaggy-like kinases are key players in brassinosteroid (BR) signalling which impact on plant development and participate in response to wounding, pathogens and salt stress. Bikinin was previously identified in a chemical genetics screen as an inhibitor targeting these kinases. To dissect the structural elements crucial for inhibition of GSK-3/Shaggy-like kinases by bikinin and to isolate more potent compounds we synthesised a number of related substances and tested their inhibitory activity in vitro and in vivo using Arabidopsis thaliana. Results A pyridine ring with an amido succinic acid residue in position 2 and a halogen in position 5 were crucial for inhibitory activity. The compound with an iodine substituent in position 5, denoted iodobikinin, was most active in inhibiting BIN2 activity in vitro and efficiently induced brassinosteroid-like responses in vivo. Its methyl ester, methyliodobikinin, showed improved cell permeability, making it highly potent in vivo although it had lower activity in vitro. HPLC analysis revealed that the methyl residue was rapidly cleaved off in planta liberating active iodobikinin. In addition, we provide evidence that iodobikinin and bikinin are inactivated in planta by conjugation with glutamic acid or malic acid and that the latter process is catalysed by the malate transferase SNG1. Conclusion Brassinosteroids participate in regulation of many aspects of plant development and in responses to environmental cues. Thus compounds modulating their action are valuable tools to study such processes and may be an interesting opportunity to modify plant growth and performance in horticulture and agronomy. Here we report the development of bikinin derivatives with increased potency that can activate BR signalling and mimic BR action. Methyliodobikinin was 3.4 times more active in vivo than bikinin. The main reason for the superior activity of methyliodobikinin, the most potent compound, is its enhanced plant tissue permeability. Inactivation of bikinin and its derivatives in planta involves SNG1, which constitutes a novel pathway for modification of xenobiotic compounds. PMID:24947596

  15. Dos médicos y una causa: Len Crome y Reginald Saxton en las Brigadas Internacionales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Preston

    2004-01-01

    Una de las dimensiones más impresionantes, más duraderas y menos conocidas de las Brigadas Internacionales era la aportación de sus servidos médicos. Las aportaciones de los distintos médicos, españoles e internacionales, fueron de una importancia colosal en el desarrollo posterior de la medicina traumatològica, en guerra y en paz. Menos conocida fue la labor abnegada de conductores de ambulancias, enfermeras

  16. Adaptacin de un driver WLAN Linux a una arquitectura NIOS-Avalon

    E-print Network

    Autònoma de Barcelona, Universitat

    Adaptación de un driver WLAN Linux a una arquitectura NIOS-Avalon B. Martínez , I. Tarruella, D de un driver Linux se realiza un mapeo sobre una arquitectura basada en un procesador integrado dentro de un SoC. La elección de la partición Hw/Sw y de ciertos parámetros de la arquitectura se

  17. De l'antropologia a l'educació. Una lectura des de Margaret Mead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eulàlia Collelldemont Pujadas; Anna M. Gómez Foix

    2006-01-01

    En el presente artículo se ensaya una aproximación a la obra de la antropóloga Margaret Mead en clave pedagógica. Siendo así que se muestra una interpretación sobre sus pensamientos alrededor de la educación a partir de los estudios, comentarios y opiniones sobre los sistemas educativos, relaciones educativas y procesos de enseñanza aprendizaje que se explicitan, reiteradamente, a lo largo de

  18. La Inversión en Tecnología: Una modelización del proceso de toma de decisiones de consumo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregorio Giménez Esteban

    2004-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende desarrollar un modelo que permita estudiar cuáles son los mecanismos económicos que determinan que los consumidores decidan adquirir una nueva tecnología que reemplace a una tecnología anterior que ya estaba siendo utilizada. La decisión de inversión obedecerá a un análisis coste-beneficio en el que influirán diversos factores analizados en el modelo expuesto. Estos son: el tiempo

  19. Cambie su cabeza por una importante: La ironía metafórica en Benito Fernández de Elena Garro

    E-print Network

    Rosas Lopá tegui, Patricia; Reed, James Casey

    1998-10-01

    se indigna cuando Julián le recuerda su mestizaje: BENITO: (Se levanta la manga y enseña una parte del brazo). Soy rubio como mi madre y queremos una cabeza de gente blanca. JULIAN: Bien dice el dicho que los mestizos o son de mala cabeza o que...

  20. Una arquitectura indoor-LBS basada en SIG con servidores de mapas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Eduardo Córcoles

    Los sistemas basados en localización en exteriores se han convertido en una herramienta de uso cotidiano, para una gran mayoría de usuarios. Entre estos sistemas cabe destacar el sistema de posicionamiento global (GPS) que permite determinar la posición de un objeto en un determinado momento. Dentro de los sistemas de localización un campo que ha evolucionado mucho en los últimos

  1. IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE UNA FORMULACIÓN RAPIDA DE MULTIPOLOS APLICADOS AL MÉTODO DE LOS ELEMENTOS DE CONTORNO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Dondero; Adrián P. Cisilino; Georgios Stavroulakis

    Resumen. Se presenta en este trabajo una descripción completa del algoritmo de Multipolos Rápidos combinado con el Método de los Elementos de Contorno (FMBEM, en inglés) y su implementación para un problema de potencial estacionario. Se usa la alternativa de una formulación usando variable compleja. El algoritmo implementado es luego validado y calibrado para resolver problemas que consisten en el

  2. Una revolución (no tan) silenciosa. Claves para repensar el agro en Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Bisang; Guillermo Anlló; Mercedes Campi

    Introducción La relación entre las producciones agropecuarias y el desarrollo de la economía argentina tiene una larga y compleja historia. En sus orígenes, este sector -en base a una mezcla de expansión de la frontera territorial, la calidad de suelos y climas y la importación\\/adaptación de tecnología, sumado a los recursos humanos- fue el motor del crecimiento aunque con deudas

  3. Biocombustibles Densificados: Análisis de su Posible Producción en una Empresa Maderera en Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Almonacid Sánchez; Andrés Fernando

    En este artículo se presentan los resultados de un estudio hecho para la ejecución de un proyecto de biocombustibles sólidos en Colombia. Se centra en buscar una solución, dentro del marco de las energías renovables, a una problemática ambiental generada por el almacenamiento de residuos sólidos al aire libre. Usando dichos residuos se plantea la fabricación de biocombustibles sólidos como

  4. Characterization of a highly repeated DNA sequence (SC1) from the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Scutellospora castanea and its detection in planta.

    PubMed Central

    Zeze, A; Hosny, M; Gianinazzi-Pearson, V; Dulieu, H

    1996-01-01

    A highly repeated DNA sequence from the genome of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus has been isolated and characterized. This 1,202-bp sequence (SC1) represents about 0.24% of the Scutellospora castanea genome, estimated to be 1 pg by flow cytometry. The sequence was shown to be a Scutellospora-specific probe in Southern blots and dot blot hybridizations. After complete sequencing of SC1, PCR primers were generated and used to amplify a 907-bp fragment from spores of S. castanea or from colonized Allium porrum roots. No amplification products were obtained with DNA from either spores or mycorrhizal root of other species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. These primers were sufficiently specific for unequivocal detection of S. castanea in planta. PMID:8779584

  5. De un aula virtual plurilingüe a un aula multicultural. Una aproximación desde la perspectiva de la Ciencia Jurídica Europea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lourdes Salomón; Ana María Delgado García; Rafael Oliver Cuello

    2008-01-01

    Europa constituye, sin duda, una sociedad multicultural. Por este motivo, es preciso que la universidad europea inicie su reflexión sobre la formación multicultural de sus estudiantes y ciudadanos europeos. A una nueva sociedad, debe corresponderle una nueva universidad. La universidad del siglo XXI debe servir a la nueva sociedad del conocimiento en que se ha transformado la sociedad europea. El

  6. ¿Son las políticas locales una buena estrategia para dinamizar el mercado de trabajo? Algunos elementos para el caso colombiano

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Galvis G; Mauricio López Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Resumen: En períodos de bajo crecimiento económico, tiempos de recesión o crisis económica, implementar una política fiscal contra-cíclica puede ser una herramienta fundamental para crear empleo y dinamizar la economía. En Colombia, específicamente en las principales ciudades del país existe una posibilidad concreta para que los gobiernos locales, a través de incrementos del gasto de inversión, impacten positivamente en la

  7. DISTÚRBIOS NUTRICIONAIS INDUZIDOS PELA ADUBAÇÃO DE FÓSFORO E FERRO EM PLANTAS JOVENS DE GRÁPIA (Apuleia leiocarpa) NUTRITIONAL DISTURBANCE INDUCED BY PHOSPHORUS AND IRON FERTILIZATION ON YOUNG PLANTS OF GRÁPIA (Apuleia leiocarpa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evandro Luiz Missio; Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso

    2005-01-01

    A grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa Vog. Macbride) é uma espécie florestal nativa de grande interesse madeireiro, encontrando-se, atualmente, bastante dizimada. Em trabalhos anteriores, foi observado que as folhas novas de plantas jovens de grápia apresentaram sintomas visuais indicativos de deficiência de Fe na presença de doses crescentes de P. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar os efeitos da interação da

  8. Forward genetic in planta screen for identification of plant-protective traits of Sphingomonas sp. strain Fr1 against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christine; Innerebner, Gerd; Zingg, Judith; Guder, Jan; Vorholt, Julia A

    2012-08-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain Fr1 has recently been shown to protect Arabidopsis thaliana against the bacterial leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Here, we describe a forward genetic in planta screen to identify genes in Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 necessary for this effect. About 5,000 Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mini-Tn5 mutants were assayed for a defect in plant protection against a luxCDABE-tagged P. syringae DC3000 derivative in a space-saving 24-well plate system. The bioluminescence of the pathogen was used as the indicator of pathogen proliferation and allowed for the identification of Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mutants that had lost the ability to restrict pathogen growth before disease symptoms were visible. Potential candidates were validated using the same miniaturized experimental system. Of these mutants, 10 were confirmed as plant protection defective yet colonization competent. The mutants were subsequently evaluated in a previously described standard microbox system, and plants showed enhanced disease phenotypes after pathogen infection relative to those inoculated with the parental strain as a control. However, the disease severities were lower than those observed for control plants that were grown axenically prior to pathogen challenge, which suggests that several traits may contribute to plant protection. Transposon insertion sites of validated mutants with defects in plant protection were determined and mapped to 7 distinct genomic regions. In conclusion, the established screening protocol allowed us to identify mutations that affect plant protection, and it opens the possibility to uncover traits important for in planta microbe-microbe interactions. PMID:22660707

  9. Propuesta de Proyecto Fin de Carrera o Grado Implementacin de una aplicacin web con

    E-print Network

    Fraguela, Basilio B.

    Propuesta de Proyecto Fin de Carrera o Grado Implementación de una aplicación web con soporte WPS Service (WPS) del Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), en el que se publicarán distintos algoritmos que

  10. El euro, una moneda incompleta1 Amenazas pendientes y posibles soluciones

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    contrario ha acentuado sus diferencias. Bajo la ausencia de un presupuesto europeo, una política industrial. La falta de coordinación de las políticas fiscales (impuestos), de salarios (costos unitarios de mano

  11. Jos Antonio de Alzate y Ramrez: Una empresa periodstica sabia en el Nuevo Mundo

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez: Una empresa periodística sabia en el Nuevo Mundo Sara Hébert) de Sara Hébert sobre una de las figuras máximas del periodismo colonial, José Antonio de Alzate", République des Lettres, presse ancienne José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez (1737-1799) est reconnu aujourd

  12. EL CASO DE LA ADMINISTRACIÓN DEL TIEMPO EN LOS ESTUDIANTES DE LA UNIVERSIDAD ICESI: UNA GUÍA A TRAVÉS DE UNA INVESTIGACIÓN CUALITATIVA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANA MARÍA ARBOLEDA ARANGO; DIEGO GABRIEL ENRIQUEZ RODRÍGUEZ; ALEXANDRA GONZÁLEZ DELGADO

    2010-01-01

    A través de la problemática de la administración del tiempo, este caso ilustra la estructura de la investigación cualitativa. La introducción ejemplifi ca un confl icto de administración del tiempo para luego, en el brief, plantear la inquietud institucional por comprender esta problemática y ofrecer a los estudiantes un taller relacionado. A continuación, la propuesta metodológica sugiere una exploración cualitativa

  13. NA analticamente, es una ecuacin de segundo grado con dos varia-bles. Ahora bien, no toda ecuacin de este tipo representa siempre una circunferencia; solo

    E-print Network

    Bor, Gil

    centro (h, y radio r es - ( y- = r2. Si el centro es el origen de coordenadas, ecuación toma la forma. Una circunferencia queda completamente determinada si se conocen su centro y su radio. ECUACION de +(. + ;) 4. - . y el radio r = 4 d\\/o"+ - Si D2 +E2- > O, la circunferencia es real. Si D2+E2-

  14. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  15. Una dulce bondad que atempera las crueldades: El campo de Griselda Gambaro

    E-print Network

    Picó n Garfield, Evelyn

    1980-07-01

    SUMMER 1980 95 Una dulce bondad que atempera las crueldades: El campo de Griselda Gámbaro EVELYN PICON GARFIELD "The opposite of cruelty is freedom." El teatro de Griselda Gámbaro (Argentina, 1928) ha sido calificado de absurdo y cruel1 por... cuando la nombra "(como si soñara) Una dulce bondad que atempera las crueldades. . . " (p. 71). Ase gura que Franco la cuida "como a la niña de sus ojos" (p. 70). "Es mi guardián" (p.37). De los resultados del "dulce daño" que ejerce Franco, la...

  16. La paradoja de los 80's: Una visión particular del teatro en México

    E-print Network

    de Ita, Fernando

    1992-04-01

    SPRING 1992 113 La paradoja de los 80's: Una visión particular del teatro en México Fernando de Ita La revisión puntual de lo que ocurrió con el teatro mexicano entre 1980 y 1990 es labor de todo un equipo de investigación, porque en esos diez... investigación, la crítica, la creación y la producción teatral se cruzan por tantas partes que un par de manos tardaría demasiado tiempo en separar y analizar el grueso de aquel enredo. A lo que puede aspirar este solitario analista es a ofrecer una visión de...

  17. Regiones de formación de la línea de He II ? 1640 en una atmósfera en expansión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venero, R.; Cidale, L.; Ringuelet, A.

    Se calculan perfiles de la línea del He II ?1640 empleando un modelo de atmósfera en expansión con una estructura cromosférica para determinar la región de formación de la línea. El problema se trata en geometría esférica, fuera de equilibrio termodinámico. La ecuación de transporte radiativo se resuelve rigurosamente en el marco de referencia del fluído para distintas leyes de velocidad, monótonamente crecientes, y diferentes leyes de temperatura. Se buscan relaciones globales entre las características del perfil y los parámetros físicos atribuídos a la atmósfera estelar, con la finalidad de definir una herramienta de diagnóstico de las propiedades del medio.

  18. Genetic modification of potato against microbial diseases: in vitro and in planta activity of a dermaseptin B1 derivative, MsrA2.

    PubMed

    Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Kay, William; Misra, Santosh

    2005-08-01

    Dermaseptin B1 is a potent cationic antimicrobial peptide found in skin secretions of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. A synthetic derivative of dermaseptin B1, MsrA2 (N-Met-dermaseptin B1), elicited strong antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria in vitro. To assess its potential for plant protection, MsrA2 was expressed at low levels (1-5 microg/g of fresh tissue) in the transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Desiree. Stringent challenges of these transgenic potato plants with a variety of highly virulent fungal phytopathogens--Alternaria, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Verticillium species--and with the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora demonstrated that the plants had an unusually broad-spectrum and powerful resistance to infection. MsrA2 profoundly protected both plants and tubers from diseases such as late blight, dry rot and pink rot and markedly extended the storage life of tubers. Due to these properties in planta, MsrA2 is proposed as an ideal antimicrobial peptide candidate to significantly increase resistance to phytopathogens and improve quality in a variety of crops worldwide with the potential to obviate fungicides and facilitate storage under difficult conditions. PMID:15947906

  19. Involvement of Pinus taeda MYB1 and MYB8 in phenylpropanoid metabolism and secondary cell wall biogenesis: a comparative in planta analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bomal, Claude; Bedon, Frank; Caron, Sébastien; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Levasseur, Caroline; Cooke, Janice E. K.; Blais, Sylvie; Tremblay, Laurence; Morency, Marie-Josée; Pavy, Nathalie; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Séguin, Armand; MacKay, John

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of two R2R3-MYB genes from Pinus taeda L., PtMYB1 and PtMYB8, in phenylpropanoid metabolism and secondary cell wall biogenesis was investigated in planta. These pine MYBs were constitutively overexpressed (OE) in Picea glauca (Moench) Voss, used as a heterologous conifer expression system. Morphological, histological, chemical (lignin and soluble phenols), and transcriptional analyses, i.e. microarray and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) were used for extensive phenotyping of MYB-overexpressing spruce plantlets. Upon germination of somatic embryos, root growth was reduced in both transgenics. Enhanced lignin deposition was also a common feature but ectopic secondary cell wall deposition was more strongly associated with PtMYB8-OE. Microarray and RT-qPCR data showed that overexpression of each MYB led to an overlapping up-regulation of many genes encoding phenylpropanoid enzymes involved in lignin monomer synthesis, while misregulation of several cell wall-related genes and other MYB transcription factors was specifically associated with PtMYB8-OE. Together, the results suggest that MYB1 and MYB8 may be part of a conserved transcriptional network involved in secondary cell wall deposition in conifers. PMID:18805909

  20. In planta expression screens of Phytophthora infestans RXLR effectors reveal diverse phenotypes, including activation of the Solanum bulbocastanum disease resistance protein Rpi-blb2.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Young, Carolyn; Lee, Minkyoung; Oliva, Ricardo; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Cano, Liliana M; Win, Joe; Bos, Jorunn I B; Liu, Hsin-Yin; van Damme, Mireille; Morgan, William; Choi, Doil; Van der Vossen, Edwin A G; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Kamoun, Sophien

    2009-09-01

    The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans is predicted to secrete hundreds of effector proteins. To address the challenge of assigning biological functions to computationally predicted effector genes, we combined allele mining with high-throughput in planta expression. We developed a library of 62 infection-ready P. infestans RXLR effector clones, obtained using primer pairs corresponding to 32 genes and assigned activities to several of these genes. This approach revealed that 16 of the 62 examined effectors cause phenotypes when expressed inside plant cells. Besides the well-studied AVR3a effector, two additional effectors, PexRD8 and PexRD36(45-1), suppressed the hypersensitive cell death triggered by the elicitin INF1, another secreted protein of P. infestans. One effector, PexRD2, promoted cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana and other solanaceous plants. Finally, two families of effectors induced hypersensitive cell death specifically in the presence of the Solanum bulbocastanum late blight resistance genes Rpi-blb1 and Rpi-blb2, thereby exhibiting the activities expected for Avrblb1 and Avrblb2. The AVRblb2 family was then studied in more detail and found to be highly variable and under diversifying selection in P. infestans. Structure-function experiments indicated that a 34-amino acid region in the C-terminal half of AVRblb2 is sufficient for triggering Rpi-blb2 hypersensitivity and that a single positively selected AVRblb2 residue is critical for recognition by Rpi-blb2. PMID:19794118

  1. Activation of an Arabidopsis Resistance Protein Is Specified by the in Planta Association of Its Leucine-Rich Repeat Domain with the Cognate Oomycete Effector[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Krasileva, Ksenia V.; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of plant immunity relies on recognition of pathogen effectors by several classes of plant resistance proteins. To discover the underlying molecular mechanisms of effector recognition by the Arabidopsis thaliana RECOGNITION OF PERONOSPORA PARASITICA1 (RPP1) resistance protein, we adopted an Agrobacterium tumefaciens–mediated transient protein expression system in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which allowed us to perform coimmunoprecipitation experiments and mutational analyses. Herein, we demonstrate that RPP1 associates with its cognate effector ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA RECOGNIZED1 (ATR1) in a recognition-specific manner and that this association is a prerequisite step in the induction of the hypersensitive cell death response of host tissue. The leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of RPP1 mediates the interaction with ATR1, while the Toll/Interleukin1 Receptor (TIR) domain facilitates the induction of the hypersensitive cell death response. Additionally, we demonstrate that mutations in the TIR and nucleotide binding site domains, which exhibit loss of function for the induction of the hypersensitive response, are still able to associate with the effector in planta. Thus, our data suggest molecular epistasis between signaling activity of the TIR domain and the recognition function of the LRR and allow us to propose a model for ATR1 recognition by RPP1. PMID:20601497

  2. In Planta Stage-Specific Fungal Gene Profiling Elucidates the Molecular Strategies of Fusarium graminearum Growing inside Wheat Coleoptiles[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Jia, Lei-Jie; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Gang; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The ascomycete Fusarium graminearum is a destructive fungal pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum). To better understand how this pathogen proliferates within the host plant, we tracked pathogen growth inside wheat coleoptiles and then examined pathogen gene expression inside wheat coleoptiles at 16, 40, and 64 h after inoculation (HAI) using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis. We identified 344 genes that were preferentially expressed during invasive growth in planta. Gene expression profiles for 134 putative plant cell wall–degrading enzyme genes suggest that there was limited cell wall degradation at 16 HAI and extensive degradation at 64 HAI. Expression profiles for genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS)–related enzymes suggest that F. graminearum primarily scavenges extracellular ROS before a later burst of extracellular ROS is produced by F. graminearum enzymes. Expression patterns of genes involved in primary metabolic pathways suggest that F. graminearum relies on the glyoxylate cycle at an early stage of plant infection. A secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene cluster was specifically induced at 64 HAI and was required for virulence. Our results indicate that F. graminearum initiates infection of coleoptiles using covert penetration strategies and switches to overt cellular destruction of tissues at an advanced stage of infection. PMID:23266949

  3. Desarrollo de Recursos para el Analisis Sintactico Automatico del Espa~nol: AVALON, una gramatica formal y CSA, un corpus

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Desarrollo de Recursos para el An´alisis Sint´actico Autom´atico del Espa~nol: AVALON, una gram, Desarrollo de Re- cursos para el An´alisis Sint´actico del Es- pa~nol: AVALON, una gram´atica formal, y CSA por una secci´on del grupo de investigaci´on Gram´atica del espa~nol perteneciente a la Universidad de

  4. Reflexos das deficiŒncias de macronutrientes e boro no crescimento de plantas, produÁªo e qualidade de Ûleo essencial em Eucalyptus citriodora Macronutrients and boron deficiencies reflexes on plant growth, production and essential oil in Eucalyptus citriodora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renata Maffeis; Ronaldo Luiz; Vaz de Arruda Silveira

    RESUMO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influŒncia das deficiŒncias nutricionais sobre a biomassa de folhas e a produÁªo e qualidade do Ûleo essencial de Eucalyptus citriodora. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos de 10 L contendo sÌlica moÌda, em condiÁªo de casa de vegetaÁªo. Nos trŒs primeiros meses apÛs plantio, as mudas cresceram em solu- Áªo nutritiva

  5. ANALISI FOTOELASTICA DELL'EFFETTO DI UN SOVRACCARICO SULLA PROPAGAZIONE DI UNA CRICCA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Colombo

    Sommario In un precedente lavoro (1) si erano descritte le p rove sperimentali di fatica su due cricche, propaga tesi a seguito dell'applicazione di carichi ciclici, ad ampiezza costante e con l'applicazione di un sovraccarico. In particolare, si erano mostrate le immagini, ottenute attraverso la tecnica della fotoelasticità, delle cricche analizzate. Nel prese nte contributo si propone una quantificazione delle

  6. Preparado como una iniciativa de NARSTO, esta evaluacin de Ozono (O3

    E-print Network

    modelos matemáticos de calidad del aire. Por otro lado, los funcionarios públicos establecieron normas y estrategias de control basadas en evidencias científicas y otros conductos. Por lo tanto, ambas comunidades relacionadas, es una herramienta para aplicar el actual conocimiento científico a la gestión de la calidad del

  7. Preprint of the paper "Una formulacin en elementos finitos para la resolucin del flujo viscoso

    E-print Network

    Colominas, Ignasi

    , Navier-Stokes, SUPG. Resumen. Se expone en este trabajo el resultado de la elaboración de un código, que de tipo SUPG (Streamline Upwinding/Petrov- Galerkin), en lugar de una formulación de Bubnov

  8. Contact: DR. UNA ROMAN D'ELIA Graduate Coordinator, deliau@queensu.ca

    E-print Network

    Graham, Nick

    , and the relationships among art, literature, and science. Faculty Supervision: GAUVIN ALEXANDER BAILEY, 16th -18th century Arts in Southern and Central Europe and their Diffusion in Latin America and Asia UNA ROMAN D'ELIA, Italian Renaissance Painting and Sculpture STEPHANIE DICKEY, Dutch and Flemish Art of the 17th century

  9. Una aplicacion de conjuntos rugosos difusos en seleccion de caracteristicas para la mejora de metodos de

    E-print Network

    Granada, Universidad de

    empleado. De esta manera, es posible mejorar los resultados de muchas aplicaciones de miner´ia de datos´on de Caracter´isticas, Clasificador del Vecino M´as Cercano 1. Introducci´on La reducci´on de datos es un proceso que puede aplicarse en situaciones en las que haya que analizar una gran cantidad de datos

  10. AMRICA LATINA. PORTAL EUROPEO Una herramienta colectiva al servicio del americanismo europeo

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Consejo Europeo de Investigaciones Sociales de América Latina (CEISAL). Este seminario científico titulado continente y todas las asignaturas en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales estaban representadas. Este seminario, a disposición de la comunidad científica a través una página Web común a las dos redes involucradas en este

  11. Una evaluación del Plan de Consolidación Integral de la Macarena (PCIM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Mejía; María José Uribe; Ana María Ibáñez

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una descripción de la nueva estrategia de la lucha contra las drogas implementada en Colombia desde el año 2007. El Salto Estratégico, como ha llamado el gobierno colombiano a este programa, o la Iniciativa de Desarrollo Estratégico, como lo llama USAID (la agencia del gobierno de Estados Unidos para la ayuda a los países en desarrollo) es

  12. IMS Learning Design desde dentro. Una especificación para crear escenarios de aprendizaje online (parte I)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Burgos; Nidia Berbegal; David Griffiths; Colin Tattersall; Rob Koper

    2005-01-01

    IMS Learning Design, IMS LD de ahora en adelante (IMS, 2003), es una especificación centrada en formación online o e-learning y que permite modelar programaciones curriculares o lecciones presenciales de forma que puedan ser seguidas online, construyendo lo que se denomina Unidades de Aprendizaje (Units of Learning, UoL). También permite crear itinerarios de aprendizaje online ex profeso. IMS LD puede

  13. APLICACIÓN DE MÉTODOS MULTIVARIADOS: UNA RESPUESTA A LAS LIMITACIONES DE LOS RATIOS FINANCIEROS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiomara Vázquez Carrazana; Ailín Guerra Fonseca; Ibrahin Ahmed Tellez

    2011-01-01

    Es inconveniente emplear una gran cantidad de ratios o razones financieras, no solamente por un hecho de magnitud, sino debido a que en varios casos se encuentran interrelacionados, duplicando la información que en ocasiones incluso es irrelevante; además el hecho de que al ampliar el detalle es posible perder la visión integral del conjunto estudiado.

  14. Y si el universo fuera un gran Si la luz es una onda,

    E-print Network

    Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos

    la densidad de energía del vacío. Esta especial ec. representa una nueva forma de densidad de energía absurdamente grandes de la densidad de energía del vacío. Debe existir un mecanismo que cancele o relaje la

  15. El crimen como oficio: una interpretación del aprendizaje del delito en Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaac De León Beltrán; Eduardo S. Albarán

    2003-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer un marco de análisis que permita entender el aprendizaje del delito en Colombia. El articulo supone que el delito puede ser entendido como un actividad que requiere cierta experticia. En esta medida, el crimen requiere una compleja y extensa preparación, lo cual va en contra de la creencia de que cualquier persona, en

  16. La Drosophila de las alas manchadas Una nueva plaga invasora en los frutales de Michigan

    E-print Network

    La Drosophila de las alas manchadas Una nueva plaga invasora en los frutales de Michigan Rufus Bulletin E-3140SP New · November 2010 Introducción La mosca Drosophila de alas manchadas (Drosophila mayoría de las moscas del vinagre atacan cuando la fruta esta dañada. A diferencia de estas, la Drosophila

  17. Tratamiento Quirúrgico de los Meningiomas del Foramen Óptico, Técnicay Resultados de una Serie de 18 Pacientes

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Ajler, Pablo; Campero, Álvaro; Landriel, Federico; Sposito, Maximiliano; Carrizo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: los meningiomas del foramen óptico producen un rápido deterioro de la función visual aún cuando su tamaño es pequeño, por eso su diagnóstico y manejo difiere del resto de los meningiomas clinoideos. El propósito de este estudio es presentar la técnica y los resultados de nuestro manejo quirúrgico de meningiomas foraminales (MF). Pacientes y Métodos: se llevó a cabo una revisión de las historias clínicas de 47 pacientes con meningiomas primarios intraorbitarios. Se realizaron 52 cirugías en los pacientes con MF. Se empleó una craneotomía fronto-orbitaria, seguida de una descompresión extradural del canal óptico, resección del componente intraorbitario y exploración intradural del nervio óptico. Resultados: de los 12 pacientes con MF que presentaban la visión conservada, la agudeza visual fue preservada en 7 casos, mejoró en 2, y empeoró en 3. En 18 pacientes, el principal síntoma fue exoftalmos y en 35 pacientes ceguera unilateral. Ocurrieron 6 recurrencias, 2 a 10 años después de la resección quirúrgica. Cinco de ellos fueron reoperados. Se indicó radioterapia después de la recurrencia en 3 pacientes. Conclusión: el manejo de los MF continúa siendo controvertido y frecuentemente se propone un tratamiento conservador. Basados en nuestros hallazgos de frecuente extensión intracraneal, proponemos realizar una resección total o subtotal del tumor, preservando el nervio óptico en pacientes con visión prequirúrgica conservada. PMID:25165616

  18. Medidas no financieras del rendimiento en la empresa: fundamentos, métodos y una aplicación

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Yacuzzi

    2006-01-01

    Describimos y fundamentamos la tendencia creciente a utilizar medidas no financieras para la medición del rendimiento empresarial (business performance measurement), así como una axonomía de estas medidas y el impacto del movimiento de la calidad total en las prácticas de medición. Las medidas que presentamos se caracterizan por (1) medir la productividad y la calidad desde la perspectiva del cliente;

  19. BASES CONCURSO / DESAFO PRO BONO Una Iniciativa de Fundacin Pro Bono Chile

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Felipe

    Chile dirigido a estudiantes de Derecho. Quienes deseen participar deberán presentar un proyecto socialBASES CONCURSO / DESAFÍO PRO BONO Una Iniciativa de Fundación Pro Bono Chile QUIENES DESEEN PARTICIPAR DEBERÁN PRESENTAR UN PROYECTO SOCIAL. El Desafío Pro Bono es un concurso de Fundación Pro Bono

  20. LOTTIZZAZIONE CONVENZIONATA Si richiede al candidato di redigere una '"lottizzazione convenzionata" di edilizia

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    destinare alla lottizzazione è pari a circa mq 25.000 Una strada comunale costeggia un lato del lotto. Lungo giardino dove siano collocate alberature d'alto fusto. Con parcheggi privati all'interno del lotto in base libero e ogni 50 mq di terreno privato La forma del lotto sarà proposta a scelta dal candidato Prova

  1. NUOVO DISEGNO DI UNA PROTESI TRANS-TIBIALE IN MATERIALE COMPOSITO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Colombo; B. Mangiante; F. Ricotti

    Sommario In questo lavoro è descritta la procedura speriment ale utilizzata per verificare la tenuta strutturale di protesi di arti inferiori in materiale composito a fibra di carbonio secondo la norma ISO 10328. Due tipi di protesi sono state sperimentalmente verific ate attraverso attrezzature appositamente progettat e per prove sperimentali statiche e di fatica: una pe r camminare costituita da

  2. Una reflexión sobre la economía del desarrollo y el desarrollo económico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Bernardo Flórez

    1984-01-01

    El objetivo del presente ensayo es efectuar una discusión, ciertamente en forma breve, sobre los principales paradigmas del desarrollo, contraponer sus tesis centrales y evaluar sus alcances frente a los hechos que pretenden explicar e interpretar. Originalmente este trabajo se presentó como ponencia en el 11 Congreso de Economistas de la Universidad Nacional, a finales de 1981. A partir de

  3. Ineficiencia en la Distribución de Energía Eléctrica: Una Aplicación de las Funciones de Distancia Estocástica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ligia Melo B; Nestor Espinosa

    Este documento evalúa el desempeño de las empresas distribuidoras de energía durante el periodo 1999-2003, utilizando la metodología de funciones de distancia estocástica, la cual a través de la estimación de las desviaciones de una función ideal de producción, permite medir los niveles de eficiencia técnica de las diferentes empresas. Los resultados indican que existen diferencias significativas en el desempeño

  4. Ineficiencia en la distribución de energía eléctrica: una aplicación de las funciones de distancia estocástica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ligia Melo; Néstor Espinosa

    2005-01-01

    En este documento se evalúa el desempeño de las empresas distribuidoras de energía durante el período 1999-2003, utilizando la metodología de funciones de distancia estocástica, la cual, a través de la estimación de las desviaciones de una función ideal de producción, permite medir los niveles de eficiencia técnica de las diferentes empresas. Los resultados indican que existen diferencias significativas en

  5. Medellín: una evaluación del comportamiento de las finanzas públicas municipales, 2000-2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenifer González H; Amalia Rodríguez V

    2009-01-01

    Resumen: desde el año 2000, el comportamiento de las finanzas públicas de Medellín ha venido mostrando una tendencia positiva escalando en la posición del ranking realizado por el Departamento Nacional de Planeación (DNP), lo que le ha permitido localizarse en el primer lugar dentro de las ciudades capitales del país en 2005 y 2006. El objetivo de este trabajo es

  6. PROCEDIMIENTO PARA EL DIAGNÓSTICO DE LA LOGÍSTICA INTERNA APLICADO EN UNA EMPRESA DE SERVICIOS EXTRAHOTELEROS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damaris Valdés Ferrer

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta un procedimiento para realizar el diagnóstico de la logística interna, el cual fue aplicado en una empresa de servicios extrahoteleros. A partir de su aplicación se determinó un banco de problemas teniendo en cuenta las principales dificultades encontradas, así como un conjunto de acciones que le permitieron a la entidad mejorar los niveles de eficiencia

  7. Factores determinantes de la estrategia de diversificación relacionada: una aplicación a las empresas industriales españolas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Emilio Navas López; Patricia Huerta Riveros

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es analizar los factores determinantes de la estrategia de diversificación relacionada. Para ello, se ha realizado una revisión de la literatura especializada descubriendo que son dos las teorías que con mayor potencial justifican dicha estrategia: la Economía Industrial y la Teoría de Recursos y Capacidades. A partir de estas teorías se diseña el modelo teórico

  8. Optimización del proceso logístico en una empresa importadora de productos químicos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Castro; G. Mejía

    RESUMEN: El presente trabajo fue realizado en una compañía colombiana dedicada a la distribución de pro- ductos químicos de diversos tipos. El objetivo principal fue el de proporcionar a la empresa herramientas ana- líticas para la toma de decisiones logísticas. En este proyecto se desarrollaron un modelo de optimización pa- ra traslados intersucursales y un modelo de manejo de inventarios

  9. AOWE : una Metodolog¶‡a Orientada a Aspectos para Desarrollo de Aplicaciones Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hernan Casalanguida; Juan Eduardo Duran

    Un enfoque para la separacion de intereses que ha cobrado cada vez mas importancia en la ¶ ultima decada es la orientacion a aspec- tos, debido a que permite evitar que un mismo interes este re?ejado en el dise~no en varios modulos o clases y que un mismo modulo o clase con- temple distintos intereses. Existe una carencia de metodos

  10. Landscape Terms and Place Names in the Trobriand Islands--The Kaile'una Subset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senft, Gunter

    2008-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the topic the paper first gives an overview of Kilivila landscape terms and then presents the inventory of names for villages, wells, island points, reef-channels and gardens on Kaile'una Island, one of the Trobriand Islands in the Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea. The data on the meaning of the place names…

  11. Una investigacin de la UA avanza en el diagnstico precoz del Alzheimer mediante marcadores biolgicos

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Una investigación de la UA avanza en el diagnóstico precoz del Alzheimer mediante marcadores enfermedad de Alzheimer. Este es uno de los resultados obtenidos por la doctoranda Natividad López Riquelme y Traza en la Enfermedad de Alzheimer y su asociación con los agentes del Estrés Oxidativo sistémico

  12. Estilos de personalidad, afrontamiento e inteligencia como predictores de las trayectorias académicas de cadetes en una institución militar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Castro Solano; María Martina Casullo

    2005-01-01

    Se presentan datos correspondientes a una muestra de 137 estudiantes de una academia militar evaluados durante su periodo de formación. El estudio tiene como objetivo establecer si las variables de personalidad (estilos de personalidad y afrontamiento) y cognitivas (inteligencia) permiten predecir las trayectorias de los estudiantes exitosos y no exitosos que habían recibido entrenamiento militar y académico durante un periodo

  13. Aplicación de una heurística de búsqueda tabú en un problema de programación de tareas en línea flexible de manufactura

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B Acero; J. F Torres

    Una de las preocupaciones claves en el proceso de toma de decisiones para la solución de problemas de programación de tareas, consiste en lograr el adecuado balance entre calidad de la solución y complejidad o costo de la técnica usada. En este trabajo se propone una metodología basada en búsqueda tabú que permite obtener soluciones aceptables a un problema de

  14. Post-abscission, pre-dispersal seeds of Digitalis purpurea remain in a developmental state that is not terminated by desiccation ex planta

    PubMed Central

    Butler, L. H.; Hay, F. R.; Ellis, R. H.; Smith, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Seed quality may be compromised if seeds are harvested before natural dispersal (shedding). It has been shown previously that slow or delayed drying can increase potential quality compared with immediate rapid drying. This study set out to investigate whether or not there is a critical moisture content, below which drying terminates maturation events for seeds harvested after mass maturity but before dispersal. Methods Seeds of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) in the post-abscission pre-dispersal phase were held at between 15 and 95 % RH for 4 or 8 d, with or without re-hydration to 95 % RH for a further 4 d, before drying to equilibrium at 15 % RH. In addition, dry seeds were primed for 48 h at ?1 MPa. Subsequent seed longevity was assessed at 60 % RH and 45 °C. Key Results Rate of germination and longevity were improved by holding seeds at a wide range of humidities after harvest. Longevity was further improved by re-hydration at 95 % RH. Priming improved the longevity of the seeds dried immediately after harvest, but not of those first held at 95 % RH for 8 d prior to drying. Conclusions Maturation continued ex planta in these post-abscission, pre-dispersal seeds of D. purpurea dried at 15–80 % RH at a rate correlated positively with RH (cf. ageing of mature seeds). Subsequent re-hydration at 95 % RH enabled a further improvement in quality. Priming seeds initially stored air-dry for 3 months also allowed maturation events to resume. However, once individual seeds within the population had reached maximum longevity, priming had a negative impact on their subsequent survival. PMID:19136494

  15. Boosting In Planta Production of Antigens Derived from the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Subsequent Evaluation of Their Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Piron, Robin; De Koker, Stefaan; De Paepe, Annelies; Goossens, Julie; Grooten, Johan; Nauwynck, Hans; Depicker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of swine, caused by an arterivirus, the PRRS virus (PRRSV). This virus infects pigs worldwide and causes huge economic losses. Due to genetic drift, current vaccines are losing their power. Adaptable vaccines could provide a solution to this problem. This study aims at producing in planta a set of antigens derived from the PRRSV glycoproteins (GPs) to be included in a subunit vaccine. We selected the GP3, GP4 and GP5 and optimized these for production in an Arabidopsis seed platform by removing transmembrane domains (Tm) and/or adding stabilizing protein domains, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and immunoglobulin (IgG) ‘Fragment crystallizable’ (Fc) chains. Accumulation of the GPs with and without Tm was low, reaching no more than 0.10% of total soluble protein (TSP) in homozygous seed. However, addition of stabilizing domains boosted accumulation up to a maximum of 2.74% of TSP when GFP was used, and albeit less effectively, also the Fc chains of the porcine IgG3 and murine IgG2a increased antigen accumulation, to 0.96% and 1.81% of TSP respectively, while the murine IgG3 Fc chain did not. Antigens with Tm were less susceptible to these manipulations to increase yield. All antigens were produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and accordingly, they carried high-mannose N-glycans. The immunogenicity of several of those antigens was assessed and we show that vaccination with purified antigens did elicit the production of antibodies with virus neutralizing activity in mice but not in pigs. PMID:24614617

  16. In planta assessment of the role of thioredoxin h proteins in the regulation of S-locus receptor kinase signaling in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Nasrallah, June B

    2013-11-01

    The self-incompatibility (SI) response of the Brassicaceae is mediated by allele-specific interaction between the stigma-localized S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and its ligand, the pollen coat-localized S-locus cysteine-rich protein (SCR). Based on work in Brassica spp., the thioredoxin h-like proteins THL1 and THL2, which interact with SRK, have been proposed to function as oxidoreductases that negatively regulate SRK catalytic activity. By preventing the spontaneous activation of SRK in the absence of SCR ligand, these thioredoxins are thought to be essential for the success of cross pollinations in self-incompatible plants. However, the in planta role of thioredoxins in the regulation of SI signaling has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we addressed this issue using Arabidopsis thaliana plants transformed with the SRKb-SCRb gene pair isolated from self-incompatible Arabidopsis lyrata. These plants express an intense SI response, allowing us to exploit the extensive tools and resources available in A. thaliana for analysis of SI signaling. To test the hypothesis that SRK is redox regulated by thioredoxin h, we expressed a mutant form of SRKb lacking a transmembrane-localized cysteine residue thought to be essential for the SRK-thioredoxin h interaction. We also analyzed transfer DNA insertion mutants in the A. thaliana orthologs of THL1 and THL2. In neither case did we observe an effect on the pollination responses of SRKb-expressing stigmas toward incompatible or compatible pollen. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that, contrary to their proposed role, thioredoxin h proteins are not required to prevent the spontaneous activation of SRK in the A. thaliana stigma. PMID:24077073

  17. Assessing channel migration on decadal scales at Una inlet (Peruíbe, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, F. M.; Ribeiro, J.; Italiani, D. M.; Siegle, E.; Coastal Dynamics Laboratory

    2013-05-01

    Inlets are often cited as ecologically important areas, been frequent subject of study in marine sciences and engineering. Controlling forces of these complex systems are the tidal variation, waves, sediment budget, river outflow and local morphology. Over years, migration can occur alongshore or crosshore as dynamic equilibrium occurs or one of dominant forces varies. The goal of this study is to analyze decadal migration of Una inlet over 1962 to 2006, by means of aerial photographs comparison and computational measurements of coastline variation, indicating physical controlling patterns that act over southern coastal area of Sao Paulo state. Una River (also locally named as Una do Prelado) is part of the main drainage basin of Juréia Ecological Reserve at Peruíbe, southern coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil. It is 57 km long surrounding almost completely the Juréia Massif, reaching the sea through the Barra do Una inlet. Morphologically, Una beach at Barra do Una can be classified as intermediate or dissipative, composed mainly by very fine sand, well selected due to waves and microtidal currents. Available aerial photographs range from 1962 to 2006. These images have been analyzed and three mosaics were selected to represent the decadal evolution. Images were georeferenced through the ENVI software by RST method using nearest neighbor interpolation. Both inlet margins were digitalized considering the vegetation line as limit border of water-land. For migration calculations, a hand-picked longitudinal transect was established over the inlet, in which 10 parallel segments automatic calculate the horizontal variations over digitalized data at ArgGIS 9.3 system. Through this method, the main direction of channel migration (lateral movement southwest-northeast) was obtained. Upstream transects showed small variations of line margins, typically under 40 m, indicating a relative lateral stability area on the inlet. From transect #4 downstream direction, margin movement values increased greatly reaching -256 m at transect #6 and 602 m at transect #9. Migration values show significant lateral movement from 1962 to 1981 to the northeast, 132 m at the northern margin and 123 m at the southern margin. From 1981 to 2006 an overall southwestern migration has been observed, 51 m at the northern and 113 m at the southern margin, respectively. Net channel migration is to the northwest, with 81 m at the northern margin and 10 m at the southern margin. From 1962 to 2006, channel stabilization can be observed, resulting in a wider channel of the Una river mouth, which may have changed its exchanges with the adjacent ocean. Channel movements may be related to Furado Channel opening in 1958, a new stream that reduced in 10 km the river path to the mouth. This observed behavior complements the hypothesis cited by previous studies which pointed this upstream anthropogenic intervention as responsible for changes in downstream dominant forcings at Una inlet, modifying the original wave-tidal prism equilibrium state of the system.

  18. EL PROGRAMA CITI: UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA LA CAPACITACIÓN EN ÉTICA DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, y Paul

    2011-01-01

    El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami. Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina PMID:21687817

  19. Cooperaci amb ONGs, una manera til de fer Projectes de fi de Carrera

    E-print Network

    Alonso, Javier

    1 Cooperació amb ONGs, una manera útil de fer Projectes de fi de Carrera Javier Alonso1, Javier: Viatjar i contactar Parlar amb ONG's que ja hi treballin Via ONG's amb seu a la UPC: Tecnologia per Tothom projectistes #12;JoDoDAC 07 10 Com trobar l'estudiant? Posant un anunci a la web de la FIB Contactant amb ONGs

  20. Congreso Internacional 1810-2010: 200 aos de Iberoamrica -2757 UNA MIRADA AL ENFOQUE DE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    control de calidad está prevista solo para 153 países, además del Programa Regional Centroamericano. Este Cooperación Española en lo últimos años, que busca garantizar una mayor calidad de la ayuda acorde con los y la calidad de la ayuda, durante el año 2010, la Cooperación Española se encuentra inmersa en un

  1. INCORPORA CION DE LAS TIC¥s EN EDUCACION SUPERIOR: SOCIALIZACION DE UNA EXPERIENCIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTHA LUCIA

    2009-01-01

    Se pretende describir y comprender los comportamientos y din·micas grupales de los estudiantes al incorporar actividades de una asignatura en un ambiente de aprendizaje virtual. Es un estudio cualitativo de caso y las categorÌas emergentes de an·lisis descriptivo son: la gestiÛn del tiempo de los estudiantes, la utilizaciÛn de recursos y herramientas, significados particulares hacia los entornos virtuales y caracterÌsticas

  2. Del e-gobierno a la e-universidad: una visión desde América Latina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaim D. Royero

    2007-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como propósito fundamental establecer la relación teórica práctica entre el e-gobierno y la e-universidad como categorías de la sociedad de la información y el uso extensivo de las tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC) en la educación superior.\\u000a\\u000aEn este contexto, la e-universidad se origina a partir de una visión de servicio público dentro del sistema

  3. Una alternativa terapéutica para micosis superficiales An alternative therapy to superficial mycosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RESUMEN: se realizaron ensayos in-vivo e in-vitro de una solución saturada de sacarosa, eugenol (0.4%v\\/v) y polietilenglicol 400 (0.4%v\\/v) para determinar su acción fungicida sobre cepas productoras de micosis superficiales y su genotoxicidad. A suspensiones de Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes y Epidermophyton flocosum, se les agregó la solución de ensayo y se hicieron cultivos en agar Sabouraud para

  4. Additional lichens and some lichenicolous fungi from the Una National Park (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Türk, Roman; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A list of 62 taxa (61 species) of lichens and 7 species of lichenicolous fungi from the Una National Park in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina is presented. The lichens Caloplaca crenulatella, Dimerella pineti, Lecanora expallens, Lopadium disciforme, Placynthiella icmalea, Toninia athallina and the lichenicolous fungi Abrothallus bertianus, A. parmeliarum, Cornutispora lichenicola, Endococcus rugulosus, and Sphaerellothecium parmeliae are new to Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:22102780

  5. Additional lichens and some lichenicolous fungi from the Una National Park (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    PubMed

    Bilovitz, Peter O; Türk, Roman; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2010-09-15

    A list of 62 taxa (61 species) of lichens and 7 species of lichenicolous fungi from the Una National Park in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina is presented. The lichens Caloplaca crenulatella, Dimerella pineti, Lecanora expallens, Lopadium disciforme, Placynthiella icmalea, Toninia athallina and the lichenicolous fungi Abrothallus bertianus, A. parmeliarum, Cornutispora lichenicola, Endococcus rugulosus, and Sphaerellothecium parmeliae are new to Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:22102780

  6. Population divergence and peculiar karyoevolutionary trends in the loricariid fish Hypostomus aff. unae from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, J A; Affonso, P R A M; Giuliano-Caetano, L; Carneiro, P L S; Dias, A L

    2012-01-01

    Loricariidae (Siluriformes, Hypostominae) is one of the most diverse catfish families. In spite of the wide distribution of loricariids in South America, cytogenetic reports are available for only a few species, mostly from southern and southeastern Brazil. We made the first chromosomal analysis of Hypostomus aff. unae from the Contas River basin in northeastern Brazil. Four populations isolated by short distances but from distinct landscapes were studied based on conventional staining, C-banding, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NOR), CMA(3)/DAPI fluorochrome staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA probes. Although sharing the same diploid number (2n = 76) and NOR locations, each population presented exclusive karyotype formulae and specific patterns of heterochromatic and AT-rich regions. The derived karyotypes of H. aff. unae (2n >54; high number of acrocentrics bearing AT-rich interstitial heterochromatin) indicated a divergent karyoevolution, mostly driven by centric fissions, pericentric inversions and particular heterochromatin dispersion models. This finding of distinct evolutionary units in H. aff. unae will be useful for understanding the natural history of loricariids from relatively unexplored coastal basins in South America. PMID:22576920

  7. La binaria LSS 3074 y su entorno: ?`una nueva asociación OB?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemela, V.; Morrell, N.; Corti, M.

    En este trabajo presentamos un nuevo análisis orbital de LSS~3074, junto con tipos espectrales y velocidades radiales de estrellas que podrían constituir con ella una nueva asociación OB. La estrella O4f LSS3074 fue descubierta como binaria espectroscópica de corto período y líneas dobles por Morrell & Niemela (1990, ASP Conf. Ser. 7, 57). Posteriormente, Haefner et~al.(1994, IBVS 3969) encontraron variaciones fotométricas, estimando una inclinación orbital entre 50o y 55o. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia de obtener valores empíricos para las masas de estrellas O tempranas, y considerando la gran dispersión existente entre los valores observados y su discrepancia con los predichos por los modelos teóricos, hemos obtenido nuevas observaciones espectroscópicas de este sistema, con el propósito de mejorar los elementos orbitales derivados en la solución preliminar. Además, como las estrellas O tempranas suelen formar parte de cúmulos y asociaciones OB, hemos llevado a cabo una investigación espectroscópica de varias estrellas tempranas que podrían estar físicamente relacionadas con LSS~3074.

  8. Kingdom Plantae Douglas firs (left);

    E-print Network

    Brown, Christopher A.

    -living and photosynthetic #12;5 Clockwise from upper left: a fern; a club moss; a whisk fern; a horsetail Fern Life Cycle major groups... True mosses (~14,000 species) Liverworts (~8500 species) Hornworts (~200 species) Group I: Non-Vascular Plants Examples of Mosses #12;4 Liverworts and Hornworts Sporophytes of a moss Group

  9. New insights on the barrel medic MtOGG1 and MtFPG functions in relation to oxidative stress response in planta and during seed imbibition.

    PubMed

    Macovei, Anca; Balestrazzi, Alma; Confalonieri, Massimo; Faé, Matteo; Carbonera, Daniela

    2011-09-01

    In plants, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase/lyase (OGG1) and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FPG) play similar roles within the base excision repair (BER) pathway involved in the removal of oxidized bases, e.g. 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-dG) and formamidopyrimidine (FAPy) lesions. To date, it is not clear why plants have retained both the OGG1 and FPG functions. In the present work, we have investigated the possible roles played in planta by MtOGG1 and MtFPG genes from Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (barrel medic). Bioinformatic investigation revealed the presence of putative mitochondrial and nuclear localization signals in the MtOGG1 and MtFPG amino acid sequences, respectively, thus suggesting for different subcellular fates. The expression profiles of both genes were evaluated by Quantitative Real-Time PCR (QRT-PCR) in barrel medic plantlets grown in vitro under oxidative stress conditions induced by copper (CuCl(2), 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mM) and polyethylene glycol (PEG6000, 50, 100 and 150 g L(-1)). The MtOGG1 and MtFPG genes were up-regulated in response to stress agents, at different levels, depending on treatment and tissue. As for copper, MtOGG1 showed significant up-regulation (up to 1.2- and 1.7-fold) only in roots while the MtFPG mRNA significantly increased (up to 1.3- and 2.8-fold, respectively) in roots and aerial parts. In response to PEG, the MtOGG1 expression was significantly enhanced in aerial parts (up to 1.3-fold) while the MtFPG showed significant (1.2-fold) up-regulation in roots. The expression profiles of MtOGG1 and MtFPG genes were also evaluated during seed imbibition, a physiological process which is characterized by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) accumulation and requires active DNA repair. PMID:21696973

  10. Investigadors de la Universitat d'Alacant dissenyen una nova famlia de molcules potencialment capaces de frenar el desenvolupament de

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Investigadors de la Universitat d'Alacant dissenyen una nova família de molècules potencialment nova família de molècules que es poden usar en l'elaboració de medicaments potencialment actius en el compostos anàlegs de nucleòsids (denominats azanucleòsids) i creant una nova variant de fàrmacs que, a part

  11. Una demostracion de Onoma, el conjugador en linea de verbos y neologismos verbales en espa~nol

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Una demostraci´on de Onoma, el conjugador en l´inea de verbos y neologismos verbales en espa~nol como los neologismos verbales en espa~nol. Su desarrollo es el resultado de un importante trabajo ling¨u´istico sobre el sistema verbal espa~nol a trav´es de una metodolog´ia innovadora. Tanto las evaluaciones

  12. Ciclo térmico para la obtención de una ferrita de Ni-Zn: (I) Diseño de la etapa de sinterización

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. BARBA; C. CLAUSELL; M. MONZÓ; J. C JARQUE

    Las piezas cerámicas obtenidas a partir de polvos de ferritas de composición (Cu 0.12Ni0.23Zn0.65)Fe2O4 destacan como absorbentes de radiación electromagnética entre las ferritas de Ni-Zn dopadas con Cu, impidiendo interferencias entre dispositivos electrónicos. En este trabajo se ha establecido una metodología para diseñar la etapa de sinterización de un ciclo térmico, que permite obtener las piezas cerámicas mencionadas con una

  13. [Agrobacterium-mediated sunflower transformation (Helianthus annuus L.) in vitro and in Planta using strain of LBA4404 harboring binary vector pBi2E with dsRNA-suppressor proline dehydrogenase gene].

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, E N; Komisarenko, A G; Mikhal'skaia, S I; Sergeeva, L E; Adamenko, N I; Morgun, B V; Kochetov, A V

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the efficiency of proline dehydrogenase gene suppression towards increasing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tolerance level to water deficit and salinity, we employed strain LBA4404 harboring pBi2E with double-stranded RNA-suppressor, which were prepared on basis arabidopsis ProDH1 gene. The techniques of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in vitro and in planta during fertilization sunflower have been proposed. There was shown the genotype-depended integration of T-DNA in sunflower genome. PCR-analysis showed that ProDH1 presents in genome of inbred lines transformed in planta, as well as in T1- and T2-generations. In trans-genic regenerants the essential accumulation of free L-proline during early stages of in vitro cultivation under normal conditions was shown. There was established the essential accumulation of free proline in transgenic regenerants during cultivation under lethal stress pressure (0.4 M mannitol and 2.0% sea water salts) and its decline upon the recovery period. These data are declared about effectiveness of suppression of sunflower ProDH and gene participation in processes connected with osmotolerance. PMID:25184200

  14. La Casa Verde de Mario Vargas Llosa: una imagen del hombre

    E-print Network

    Frick, Magdalena Capurro

    1976-01-01

    los per sonajes de la novels; en ambos casos, es nuevamente un traslado violento e inevitable que no depende de la volun tad del personaje afectado Adrian Nieves, Fushfa y, tal vez, Anselmo, son personajes que inician su vida liters ria corno... fugitivos, en el caso de Jum, hay una experiencia 15 inicial de aprisionamiento, luego de la cual el se expa tria en la isla de Fushfa, Adrian Nieves inicia su vtda de fugitivo luego de haber sido reclutado por la fuerza para ser llevado corno aoldado...

  15. Sor Juana as Feminist Playwright: The Gracioso's Satiric Function in Los empeños de una casa

    E-print Network

    Weimer, Christopher Brian

    1992-10-01

    de una casa revolves around a manipulative brother and sister, Don Pedro and Doña Ana de Arellano, and their respective efforts to trap Doña Leonor de Castro and Don Carlos de Olmedo in their matrimonial snares. It would be difficult to say which.... The gracioso'* first step is to discard the most overt symbols of his masculinity: hat, cloak, and above all the very phallic sword. Once "neutered," he proceeds to transform himself physically into a woman and mirror the physical change in his words...

  16. La guerra del fin del mundo: historia e invencion en una novela historica

    E-print Network

    Loeffler, Lisa Bowe

    1984-01-01

    , sino mediante una amplia plasmacion del ser, mediante la presentaci6n de c6mo las ideas, los sentimientos y los modos de actuar nacen de cate terreno historico" (Lukacs, 54). Este concepto de la autenticidad y la fidelidad historicas supone que... vision no menos real, pese a no ser "documentable" en el sentido estricto. La novels historica ha sufrido ataques de parte de los historiadores con respecto a los errores y el desconocimiento de la epoca que los novelistas pretendian recrear, mientras...

  17. Heterochromatin heterogeneity in Hypostomus prope unae (Steindachner, 1878) (Siluriformes, Loricariidae)from Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, J.A.; Affonso, P.R.A.M.; Giuliano-Caetano, L.; Dias, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetic analyses using C-banding and chromosomal digestion by several restriction enzymes were carried out in four populations (named A, B, C and D) of Hypostomus prope unae (Loricariidae, Hypostominae) from Contas river basin, northeastern Brazil. These populations share 2n=76 and single NORs on the second metacentric pair but exclusive karyotype forms for each locality. Populations A and B presented conspicuous terminal and interstitial heterochromatic blocks on most of acrocentric chromosomes and equivalent to NORs with differences in both position and bearing pair. Population D showed evident marks at interstitial regions and interspersed with nucleolar region while population C presented interstitial and terminal heterochromatin segments, non-coincident with NORs. The banding pattern after digestion with the endonucleases Alu I, Bam HI, Hae III and Dde I revealed a remarkable heterogeneity within heterochromatin, allowing the identification of distinctive clusters of repeated DNA in the studied populations, besides specific patterns along euchromatic regions. The analysis using restriction enzymes has proved to be highly informative, characterizing population differences and peculiarities in the genome organization of Hypostomus prope unae. PMID:24260639

  18. Heterochromatin heterogeneity in Hypostomus prope unae (Steindachner, 1878) (Siluriformes, Loricariidae)from Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, J A; Affonso, P R A M; Giuliano-Caetano, L; Dias, A L

    2011-01-01

    Cytogenetic analyses using C-banding and chromosomal digestion by several restriction enzymes were carried out in four populations (named A, B, C and D) of Hypostomus prope unae (Loricariidae, Hypostominae) from Contas river basin, northeastern Brazil. These populations share 2n=76 and single NORs on the second metacentric pair but exclusive karyotype forms for each locality. Populations A and B presented conspicuous terminal and interstitial heterochromatic blocks on most of acrocentric chromosomes and equivalent to NORs with differences in both position and bearing pair. Population D showed evident marks at interstitial regions and interspersed with nucleolar region while population C presented interstitial and terminal heterochromatin segments, non-coincident with NORs. The banding pattern after digestion with the endonucleases Alu I, Bam HI, Hae III and Dde I revealed a remarkable heterogeneity within heterochromatin, allowing the identification of distinctive clusters of repeated DNA in the studied populations, besides specific patterns along euchromatic regions. The analysis using restriction enzymes has proved to be highly informative, characterizing population differences and peculiarities in the genome organization of Hypostomus prope unae. PMID:24260639

  19. Dinámica y frecuencias características de una protuberancia solar observada con los instrumentos SUMER y CDS/SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira, M.; Costa, A.; Bocchialini, K.

    La estructura de la protuberancia estudiada puede dividirse en cuatro regiones. A partir del análisis de las imágenes del CDS y los espectros del SUMER utilizando técnicas de multiresolución con Wavelets se obtuvieron las frecuencias y velocidades relativas de cada una de las regiones. Se observan frecuencias características del orden de los 5 min y otras de largo período. Se obtuvo una fuerte anticorrelación entre las intensidades y las velocidades Doppler. La presencia de las oscilaciones de 5 min en todas las regiones sugieren el acoplamiento entre la estructura cromosférica y la protuberancia.

  20. Estimación de una función de demanda de bienes de consumo duradero en América Latina 1890-1913

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Román Ramos

    En este trabajo se realiza una estimación de la demanda por importación de bienes de consumo duradero en América Latina en el período 1890-1913. Por un lado, se presenta la construcción del consumo de bienes duraderos a través de las estadísticas de importaciones para seis países de la región: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Cuba, México y Uruguay. En segundo lugar, partiendo

  1. Piano complesso e teorema di Morley Abbiamo visto che le operazioni tra numeri complessi hanno una notevole interpretazione geometri-

    E-print Network

    Candilera, Maurizio

    Piano complesso e teorema di Morley Abbiamo visto che le operazioni tra numeri complessi hanno una/contrazione di fattore c e, infine, il coniugio f(z) = ¯z `e la simmetria rispetto all'asse orizzontale del piano(z) = az + b, con a, b C, sono tutte e sole le similitudini del piano di Gauss che conservano l

  2. MAPAS CONCEPTUALES PARA LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA BOTÁNICA. UNA PROPUESTA ORGANIZATIVA EN UN ENTORNO EDUCATIVO A DISTANCIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel José Linares Alvaro; Mateo Lezcano Brito

    Resumen . En cursos anteriores, quedó establecido en varias carreras universitarias, como la de Ingeniero Agrónomo, la aplicación del plan de estudios D, caracterizado por una marcada disposición a la educación constructivista, a distancia y significativa; también fueron creadas las sedes universitarias, donde la modalidad del proceso docente, posee características similares. Algunas carreras tienen en su plan de estudio asignaturas

  3. FUNDAMENTOS PARA UNA PROPUESTA INFORMÁTICA DEL PROCESO DE ENSEÑANZA APRENDIZAJE DE ECOLOGÍA EN CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS DE LAS SUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Sueiro Garra

    2010-01-01

    La pedagogía contemporánea considera que una buena manera de optimizar la enseñanza es la activación del proceso cognoscitivo de los estudiantes mediante la utilización de métodos activos y las potencialidades que brinda la tecnología educativa y dentro de ella, la informática. La presente investigación se desarrolló en la Sede Universitaria Municipal “Mario Rodríguez Alemán” de Sagua la Grande, donde se

  4. Enero de 1939: Mussolini, Chamberlain, una batalla olvidada en Extremadura y la liquidacin de la Guerra Civil Espaola

    E-print Network

    Campanario, Juan Miguel

    Enero de 1939: Mussolini, Chamberlain, una batalla olvidada en Extremadura y la liquidación de la primer ministro británico, Chamberlain y el Duce, Benito Mussolini. Entre el 11 y el 14 de enero, Chamberlain y Halifax estuvieron en Roma negociando con Mussolini y Ciano. Mussolini había amenazado con

  5. EVALUACIÓN DE UNA PRUEBA DE AGLUTINACIÓN DE LÁTEX PARA EL DIAGNÓSTICO SEROLÓGICO DE LA EQUINOCOCOSIS QUíSTICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Miranda; Elizabeth Sánchez; César Náquira; José Somocursio; Eduardo Ayala; Gilberto Miranda

    RESUMEN Se evaluó una prueba de aglutinación de látex estandarizada para el diagnóstico serológico de la echinococosis quística. Se utilizó partículas de látex de 0,25 um de diámetro, las cuales fueron sensibilizadas con antígeno total de líquido liofilizado de quiste hidatídico de ovino. Se usaron 80 sueros, 40 de pacientes operados por enfermedad hidatídica confirmada patología, 20 de pacientes con

  6. 1981-82 Project Evaluation for Encendiendo Una Llama: A Program for Bilingual Gifted and Talented Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Wallace

    The operation of "Encendiendo Una Llama," Hartford, Connecticut's program for bilingual gifted students, was evaluated for the 1981-82 school year. A total of 173 gifted children of limited English proficiency in grades 3 through 6 were served by the program at four locations. The program, staff, objectives, and target population are described.…

  7. ¿Qué determina la eficiencia de las entidades microfinancieras en Colombia? Una mirada a las ONG asociadas a Bancoldex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Perdomo N

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo busca demostrar empíricamente si para Colombia se cumple la misma lógica presente en la evidencia internacional sobre si las Entidades de Microfinanzas (EMF) son costo-efectivas y si sus costos son decrecientes a través del tiempo, independientemente a que sean o no auto-sostenibles y a que dependan mucho de donaciones. Se realiza una estimación por el algoritmo de la

  8. Globalisation and Tax Policies in Latin America: an Empirical Assessment \\/ Globalización y política tributaria en América Latina: una evaluation empírica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Camargo Brito

    2007-01-01

    Siguiendo los resultados teóricos y empíricos analizados en un artículo publicado en un número previo de Estudios Internacíonales sobre el impacto de la globalización en las políticas fiscales de los países de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico (OCDE), este artículo presenta una investigación empírica sobre el impacto de la globalización y la democracia en las políticas

  9. El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de EE. UU. y la República del Perú firman una Declaración de Intención

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer y la República del Perú firmaron una declaración de intención para compartir el interés en fomentar la investigación biomédica de oncología, basándose en la colaboración mutua de ambas entidades, así como el objetivo común de educar y capacitar la futura generación de científicos y clínicos en investigación oncológica.

  10. Glen Biotech SL, empresa del Parque Cientfico de Alicante, obtiene una ayuda CDTI para su proyecto de I+D

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Glen Biotech SL, empresa del Parque Científico de Alicante, obtiene una ayuda CDTI para su proyecto de I+D Alicante, 6 de julio de 2011 GLEN BIOTECH SL, empresa de base tecnológica (EBT) del Parque a 400.000 . Glen Biotech SL es la primera EBT de la Universidad de Alicante (UA) y ha sido creada

  11. El método Delphi: cuando dos cabezas piensan más que una en el desarrollo de guías de práctica clínica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marisol Carreño Jaimes

    2009-01-01

    Introducción: Las guías de práctica clínica deben basarse en la mejor evidencia disponible para formular recomendaciones aplicables y específi cas a la práctica clínica. Objetivos: Revisar la técnica Delfos para lograr consenso entre los expertos y presentar recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia a fi n de mejorar el desarrollo de una guía clínica. Método: Este artículo revisa la estructuración necesaria

  12. DISTRIBUZIONE DELLE FORZE DI CONTATTO NELL'ACCOPPIAMENTO CON INTERFERENZA TRA UNA MOLLA ELICOIDALE ED UN PERNO CILINDRICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Spinella; E. Dragonia Castagnetti

    Sommario Il lavoro è incentrato sulla distribuzione delle forze di contatto scambiate nell'accoppiamento con interferenza tra una molla elicoidale ed un perno cilindrico. Tale accoppiamento è utilizzato per realizzare dispositivi di fissaggio efficaci, reversibili, rapidi ed economici. Lo studio è articolato in tre passi. Nel primo passo si sviluppa un modello analitico di previsione della distribuzione delle forze di contatto

  13. ARCHITETTO NUOVO ORDINAMENTO Su una strada suburbana di larghezza ml.7, fronteggia un lotto d terreno intercluso di dimensioni

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    ARCHITETTO NUOVO ORDINAMENTO TEMA 2 Su una strada suburbana di larghezza ml.7, fronteggia un lotto dì terreno intercluso di dimensioni mi.30x50 (lato prospiciente la strada) in tale lotto l'indice di situata lungo la strada principale che attraversa l'abitato per tutta la sua lunghezza. Il lotto misura 15

  14. Evaluación del desempeño del sector de distribución de electricidad en Colombia: una aplicación del análisis de frontera estocástica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeinni Andrea Patiño Moya; Gustavo Adolfo Gómez Flórez; Emma Osorio Medina

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el desempeño en la eficiencia técnica de las empresas que distribuyen energía en Colombia durante el período 2004-2007, usando el análisis de frontera estocástica (SFA). Se emplea una función de distancia translogorientada a los insumos, lo que permite considerar a los productos como dados y a los insumos como variables de control. Los resultados

  15. Evaluación de la facilitación del comercio y el transporte: Una herramienta práctica para su implementación en los países

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo

    2010-01-01

    En este documento se presenta una herramienta para evaluar los obstáculos en las cadenas de abastecimiento internacional y las medidas necesarias para superarlos. Esta herramienta se ha diseñado para los grupos interesados en la facilitación del comercio y la logística en los países en vías de desarrollo, tales como los oficiales de los gobiernos responsables de formular políticas, los especialistas

  16. La promoción turística oficial en Internet y su relación con el desarrollo turístico de los destinos: Una aplicación a las Ciudades medias de Andalucía

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Díaz Luque; Blanca López Catalán

    2012-01-01

    Resumen: Este trabajo analiza las webs de promoción oficial de destinos turísticos de interior de Andalucía. En el mismo se confirma la existencia de una relación entre el desarrollo turístico y el nivel de desarrollo de las webs. El estudio aporta una metodología basada en la contabilización de elemento (“counting methods”), obteniendo como resultado un estudio descriptivo de las webs

  17. 4. Proiezioni del piano e dello spazio La visualizzazione di oggetti tridimensionali richiede di ottenere una vista piana dell'oggetto.

    E-print Network

    Perotti, Alessandro

    4. Proiezioni del piano e dello spazio La visualizzazione di oggetti tridimensionali richiede di, viene applicata una proiezione che trasforma l'oggetto in una sua rappresentazione su un piano dello spazio, il piano di vista. Poi, sul piano di vista viene introdotto un sistema di coordinate cartesiane e

  18. El impacto de Internet móvil en el trabajo en grupo distribuido: una aproximación conceptual y metodológica de diseño centrado en el usuario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navarro Prieto

    En el presente texto pretendemos esbozar una aproximación conceptual y metodológica para el estudio de los requisitos de usuario de aplicaciones móviles para trabajo en grupo distribuido, desde una perspectiva de diseño centrado en el usuario. Sostenemos que el impacto de internet móvil en las organizaciones en general y en el trabajo en grupo en particular es de tal magnitud

  19. Hoffmann, Odile, "Las narrativas de la diferencia tnico-racial en la Costa chica, Mxico. Una perspectiva geogrfica", pp 363-397, dans Odile Hoffmann et Mara

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hoffmann, Odile, "Las narrativas de la diferencia étnico-racial en la Costa chica, México. Una narrativas de la diferencia étnico-racial en la Costa Chica, México. Una perspectiva geográfica Odile las diferencias y las categorías "étnicas" y "raciales" en la vida cotidiana de dos pueblos vecinos

  20. Algunas palabras para una celebracin en la ocasin de la entrega del Premio Anual a la Labor Docente 2012-2013

    E-print Network

    Vásquez, Carlos

    este premio; Estimados profesores, estudiantes, trabajadores, amigos todos: Cuando con suma gentileza convicción de vida, en una creencia cierta y su consecuente valor; es un asentimiento que se potencia aún más delante de todos su saber y su creencia, una elección libre que a la vez determina esa misma forma de

  1. ASP en biblioteques i centres de documentació: publicació d'una base de dades Microsoft Access al web = ASP en bibliotecas y centros de documentación: publicación de una base de datos Microsoft Access en el web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josep Manuel Rodríguez Gairín

    2000-01-01

    Es descriuen els passos necessaris per publicar a Internet una base de dades creada amb Microsoft Access utilitzant la tecnologia ASP. Es parteix d'un exemple de base de dades creada per a controlar el procés d'adquisicions i es van resseguint, en forma de tutorial, els diferents passos que seran necessaris per a la seva consulta des del web. Finalment, s'indiquen

  2. Hay una nueva ley1 en Tennessee sobre el uso de detencin y aislamiento en escuelas pblicas, la cual tomo

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    hijo(a) tiene problemas con su conducta, el equipo de IEP debe de escribir un plan individualizado de apoyo a conducta (BIP), basado en una evaluación de conducta funcional (FBA). Restricción o reclusión el uso de Restricción y Reclusión en la Educación Especial y Apoyos Positivos de Conducta (http://www

  3. Facebook i tuits en bon valenci: una iniciativa nascuda al si de la UA Alacant, 6 de juny de 2012

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Facebook i tuits en bon valencià: una iniciativa nascuda al si de la UA Alacant, 6 de juny de 2012 universitària de la Universitat d'Alacant en Facebook i Twitter. En Bon Valencià ens proporciona cada dia, directament en el nostre compte de Twitter o Facebook, xicotetes dosis de correcció lingüística, en el format

  4. Com es treballa en una aula virtual multilingüe? Un entorn d'aprenentatge multilingüe amb Moodle i Apertium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoni Oliver; Cristina Borrell

    2008-01-01

    La UOC, en el marc de la càtedra de multilingüisme UOC-Linguamón, ha desenvolupat un entorn virtual d'aprenentatge amb un sistema de traducció automàtica integrat. Gràcies a aquest projecte, que funciona amb les aplicacions de programari lliure Moodle i Apertium, es pot disposar d'un entorn d'aprenentatge multilingüe en català, castellà, anglès i francès. Aquest entorn s'alliberarà amb una llicència de programari

  5. Aplicacion de un metodo aleatorio de simulacion a la optimizacion de una flota de vehiculos de transporte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gonzalo Alvarez Lastra; Miguel-Angel Pesquera González

    1979-01-01

    Resumen  Para resolver un problema concreto de optimización de una flota de camiones-cisterna, destinados a distribuir productos petrolíferos,\\u000a fue necesario diseñar un método de cálculo que tuviera en cuenta algunos aspectos específicos del problema tratado, como eran\\u000a la dispersión y escasa dimensión de los clientes, la aleatoriedad de la demanda y las necesidades comerciales de dar un servicio\\u000a inmediato, sin posibilitar

  6. Ral Zurita (Santiago de Chile, 1950) es una figura mayor de la poesa chilena. La imagen de fragilidad que

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Raúl Zurita (Santiago de Chile, 1950) es una figura mayor de la poesía chilena. La imagen de. José Carlos Rovira Colaboran: EMBAJADA DE CHILE #12;Un Creador nos introdUCe en sU mUndo segUnda sesión/Facultad de Le- tras/ Aula Magna. Interviene: D. Alejandro San Francisco, Agregado Cultural de Chile en España

  7. CICLO DE COLLOQUIA EN EL INSTITUTO DE CIENCIA DE MATERIALES DE MADRID El objetivo de este ciclo de conferencias es aportar una visin actual de diversos temas

    E-print Network

    colloquia tengan una periodicidad mensual (10 colloquia al año), preferentemente los martes a las conflictos con otras actividades del centro. Deben tener en cuenta que para fijar un seminario los martes y

  8. Glen Biotech SL, empresa del Parc Cientfic d'Alacant, obt una ajuda CDTI per al seu projecte de R+D

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Glen Biotech SL, empresa del Parc Científic d'Alacant, obté una ajuda CDTI per al seu projecte de R+D Alacant, 6 de juliol de 2011 GLEN BIOTECH SL, empresa de base tecnològica (EBT) del Parc Científic d Desenvolupament Tecnològic Industrial (CDTI), una ajuda de 400.000 . Glen Biotech SL és la primera EBT de la

  9. In Planta Processing and Glycosylation of a Nematode CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-Like Effector and Its Interaction with a Host CLAVATA2-Like Receptor to Promote Parasitism1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shiyan; Lang, Ping; Chronis, Demosthenis; Zhang, Sheng; De Jong, Walter S.; Mitchum, Melissa G.

    2015-01-01

    Like other biotrophic plant pathogens, plant-parasitic nematodes secrete effector proteins into host cells to facilitate infection. Effector proteins that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-related (CLE) proteins have been identified in several cyst nematodes, including the potato cyst nematode (PCN); however, the mechanistic details of this cross-kingdom mimicry are poorly understood. Plant CLEs are posttranslationally modified and proteolytically processed to function as bioactive ligands critical to various aspects of plant development. Using ectopic expression coupled with nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we show that the in planta mature form of proGrCLE1, a multidomain CLE effector secreted by PCN during infection, is a 12-amino acid arabinosylated glycopeptide (named GrCLE1-1Hyp4,7g) with striking structural similarity to mature plant CLE peptides. This glycopeptide is more resistant to hydrolytic degradation and binds with higher affinity to a CLAVATA2-like receptor (StCLV2) from potato (Solanum tuberosum) than its nonglycosylated forms. We further show that StCLV2 is highly up-regulated at nematode infection sites and that transgenic potatoes with reduced StCLV2 expression are less susceptible to PCN infection, indicating that interference of the CLV2-mediated signaling pathway confers nematode resistance in crop plants. These results strongly suggest that phytonematodes have evolved to utilize host cellular posttranslational modification and processing machinery for the activation of CLE effectors following secretion into plant cells and highlight the significance of arabinosylation in regulating nematode CLE effector activity. Our finding also provides evidence that multidomain CLEs are modified and processed similarly to single-domain CLEs, adding new insight into CLE maturation in plants. PMID:25416475

  10. Identification of a novel pelD gene expressed uniquely in planta by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Nectria haematococca, mating type VI) and characterization of its protein product as an endo-pectate lyase.

    PubMed

    Guo, W; González-Candelas, L; Kolattukudy, P E

    1996-08-15

    Antibodies prepared against a pectin-inducible pectate lyase (PLA) produced by a phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Nectria haematococca, mating type VI) were previously found to protect the host from infection. The gene (pelA) and two of its homologs were cloned and sequenced. Here we report the isolation of a new pectate lyase gene, pelD, from a genomic library of F. solani pisi. A 1.5-kb DNA fragment containing pelD and its flanking regions was sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of pelD would encode a protein of 24.5 kDa which shares 49, 44, and 65% amino acid sequence identity with PLA, PLB, and PLC, respectively, from the same fungus. Because the first 19 amino acid residues appeared to be a signal peptide, the mature enzyme could be a 22.7-kDa protein. pelD transcripts and PLD protein could not be detected in fungus cultured in glucose, pectin, pea epicotyl extract, or a pea cell wall preparation. However, pelD transcripts were readily found by RT-PCR with RNA isolated from infected pea tissues. The cDNA of pelD, thus obtained, was expressed in Pichia pastoris with the putative pelD signal sequence. The secreted PLD was purified and characterized to be an endopectate lyase, and its lyase activity could be inhibited by anti-PLA IgG. Thus, protection of the host observed with the anti-PLA antibodies could reflect inhibition of immunologically related pectate lyases including PLD which is expressed uniquely in planta. PMID:8806739

  11. In planta processing and glycosylation of a nematode CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-like effector and its interaction with a host CLAVATA2-like receptor to promote parasitism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiyan; Lang, Ping; Chronis, Demosthenis; Zhang, Sheng; De Jong, Walter S; Mitchum, Melissa G; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Like other biotrophic plant pathogens, plant-parasitic nematodes secrete effector proteins into host cells to facilitate infection. Effector proteins that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-related (CLE) proteins have been identified in several cyst nematodes, including the potato cyst nematode (PCN); however, the mechanistic details of this cross-kingdom mimicry are poorly understood. Plant CLEs are posttranslationally modified and proteolytically processed to function as bioactive ligands critical to various aspects of plant development. Using ectopic expression coupled with nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we show that the in planta mature form of proGrCLE1, a multidomain CLE effector secreted by PCN during infection, is a 12-amino acid arabinosylated glycopeptide (named GrCLE1-1Hyp4,7g) with striking structural similarity to mature plant CLE peptides. This glycopeptide is more resistant to hydrolytic degradation and binds with higher affinity to a CLAVATA2-like receptor (StCLV2) from potato (Solanum tuberosum) than its nonglycosylated forms. We further show that StCLV2 is highly up-regulated at nematode infection sites and that transgenic potatoes with reduced StCLV2 expression are less susceptible to PCN infection, indicating that interference of the CLV2-mediated signaling pathway confers nematode resistance in crop plants. These results strongly suggest that phytonematodes have evolved to utilize host cellular posttranslational modification and processing machinery for the activation of CLE effectors following secretion into plant cells and highlight the significance of arabinosylation in regulating nematode CLE effector activity. Our finding also provides evidence that multidomain CLEs are modified and processed similarly to single-domain CLEs, adding new insight into CLE maturation in plants. PMID:25416475

  12. Una investigaci de la UA avana en el diagnstic preco de l'Alzheimer mitjanant marcadors biolgics

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Una investigació de la UA avança en el diagnòstic precoç de l'Alzheimer mitjançant marcadors biològics Alacant, 3 de juny de 2011 Els nivells d'estrès oxidatiu són superiors en persones amb malaltia d'Alzheimer de Alzheimer y su asociación con los agentes del estrés oxidativo sistémico", investigació conjunta

  13. Una società armata è una società libera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Stagnaro

    2003-01-01

    An armed society is a free society Guns are mere objects. Preventing people from owning them, or limiting their availability, is an infringement of the natural right to property. Guns are also a peculiar good, since they are the key for the protection of liberty and property. In this perspective, gun control is not about guns: it is about control.

  14. Bancos de Genes de Plantas: Seguridad Alimenticia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Geoffrey C. Hawtin and Jeremy Cherfas (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute; )

    2003-04-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article shows how genebanks are like an insurance policy for the future of agriculture, for they: conserve the diversity of plant species, offer resources for breeding of hardier crop varieties, provide food solutions in times of disaster, and safeguard food supplies for future generations.

  15. Plantae: Fossil Record and First Appearances

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Speer Brian

    This University of California Berkeley Museum of Paleontology site provides an interactive geologic timescale that illustrates the temporal distribution of several important plant groups. First appearances of major plant groups are plotted on a colorful timescale and each group is linked to references, text, images, and further information. Key Cretaceous plant groups featured include Anthocerotophyta, Anthophyta and Gnetales. The site might be a useful resource for constructing introductory level lectures concerned with paleobotany and paleoecology of the Cretaceous Period.

  16. Simple quantification of in planta fungal biomass.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, Michael; Periyannan, Sambasivam K; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian; Schumann, Ulrike; Lagudah, Evans; Pryor, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    An accurate assessment of the disease resistance status of plants to fungal pathogens is an essential requirement for the development of resistant crop plants. Many disease resistance phenotypes are partial rather than obvious immunity and are frequently scored using subjective qualitative estimates of pathogen development or plant disease symptoms. Here we report a method for the accurate comparison of total fungal biomass in plant tissues. This method, called the WAC assay, is based upon the specific binding of the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin to fungal chitin. The assay is simple, high-throughput, and sensitive enough to discriminate between single Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici infection sites on a wheat leaf segment. It greatly lends itself to replication as large volumes of tissue can be pooled from independent experiments and assayed to provide truly representative quantification, or, alternatively, fungal growth on a single, small leaf segment can be quantified. In addition, as the assay is based upon a microscopic technique, pathogen infection sites can also be examined at high magnification prior to quantification if desired and average infection site areas are determined. Previously, we have demonstrated the application of the WAC assay for quantifying the growth of several different pathogen species in both glasshouse grown material and large-scale field plots. Details of this method are provided within. PMID:24643560

  17. Characterization of copy numbers of 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and the implication in detection in planta using quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-soon; Wang, Nian

    2009-01-01

    Background Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases on citrus and is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter spp.. The pathogens are phloem limited and have not been cultured in vitro. The current management strategy of HLB is to remove infected citrus trees and reduce psyllid populations with insecticides to prevent the spreading. This strategy requires sensitive and reliable diagnostic methods for early detection. Results We investigated the copy numbers of the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA of the HLB pathogen and the implication of improving the diagnosis of HLB for early detection using Quantitative PCR. We compared the detection of HLB with different Quantitative PCR based methods with primers/probe targeting either 16S rDNA, beta-operon DNA, 16S rRNA, or beta-operon RNA. The 16S rDNA copy number of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus was estimated to be three times of that of the beta-operon region, thus allowing detection of lower titer of Ca. L. asiaticus. Quantitative reverse transcriptional PCR (QRT-PCR) indicated that the 16S rRNA averaged 7.83 times more than that of 16S rDNA for the same samples. Dilution analysis also indicates that QRT-PCR targeting 16S rRNA is 10 time more sensitive than QPCR targeting 16S rDNA. Thus QRT-PCR was able to increase the sensitivity of detection by targeting 16S rRNA. Conclusion Our result indicates that Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus contains three copies of 16S rDNA. The copy number of 16S rRNA of Ca. L. asiaticus in planta averaged about 7.8 times of 16S rDNA for the same set of samples tested in this study. Detection sensitivity of HLB could be improved through the following approaches: using 16S rDNA based primers/probe in the QPCR assays; and using QRT-PCR assays targeting 16S rRNA. PMID:19284534

  18. -REDES Y TELECOMUNICACIONES PARA PASES EN DESARROLLO No es previsible que sea necesaria una adaptacin de alumnos del Mster Oficial en

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    - REDES Y TELECOMUNICACIONES PARA PAÍSES EN DESARROLLO No es previsible que sea necesaria una adaptación de alumnos del Máster Oficial en Redes de Telecomunicación para Países en Desarrollo hacia el nuevo título de Máster Universitario en Redes de Telecomunicación para Países en Desarrollo. Las razones

  19. DESCRIPCIÓN Y RESULTADOS DE VARIOS MÉTODOS DE MUESTREO PARA LA DETECCIÓN Y CENSO DE LOBO IBÉRICO ( Canis lupus signatus) EN UNA ZONA DE MONTAÑA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. LLANEZA; M. RICO; Y J. IGLESIAS

    RESUMEN Se describen y valoran varios métodos de muestreo en una zona de montaña ubicada en el Parque Nacional Picos de Europa. Los muestreos están basados en métodos indirectos para la localización de indicios, con el objetivo de determinar presencia-ausencia y cuantificar la abundancia relativa, y en métodos directos para confirmar presencia de grupos familiares, éxito reproductivo y estimar el

  20. La grande passione di Pierre de Fermat -nato nel 1601 in una cittadina della Linguadoca non lontano da Tolosa, di professione magistrato, stimato

    E-print Network

    Bartocci, Claudio

    La grande passione di Pierre de Fermat - nato nel 1601 in una cittadina della Linguadoca non'Arithmetica del grande matematico di Alessandria ­ Fermat asserì che non è possibile «scomporre un cubo in due problema di teoria dei numeri ­ noto come ultimo teorema di Fermat - che il «tolosano» ha lasciato

  1. Creación de una carga impositiva por contaminación ambiental para el sector vehicular de servicio público colectivo en la ciudad de Bogotá

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier Andrés Soto Duque; Alexander Sellamén Garzón

    2011-01-01

    resumeN El documento trata una de las problemáticas más latentes en la era contemporánea de Bogotá, la que representa la contaminación ambiental producida por la emisión de gases con efecto invernadero que es provocada por los vehículos automotores, especialmente de servicio público. Éste parte del hecho de que desde la perspectiva y el objeto de estudio de la contaduría pública,

  2. Un sistema casi ideal de demanda para el gasto en Colombia: Una estimación utilizando el método generalizado de los momentos en el período 1968-2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Londoño Cano; Edwar Londoño Zapata; Andrés Ramirez Hassan

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo utiliza una Aproximación Lineal del Modelo Casi Ideal de Demanda (Linear Approximation\\/Almost Ideal Demand System) para examinar los gastos de los colombianos en la canasta básica, y estimar sus respectivas elasticidades precio y gasto, a partir de datos de series de tiempo para Colombia en el período de 1968-2007. Las elasticidades gasto y precio, compensadas y no

  3. Una primera parte (terica), sobre la Optimizacin, desde la perspectiva psicopedaggica y clnica,de la intervencin psicoeducativa en el Trastorno

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    en ejercicio especialista enTDAH: Seminario sobre conocimientos prácticos de la intervención clínica una bolsa de trabajo como profesional formado de manera específica en TDAH. OBJETIVOS DEL CURSO: · AnalizarlarealidaddelossujetosconTDAH,desdesuprimera infancia hasta la entrada en la edad adulta

  4. Modelos teóricos que nos ayudan a comprender el gobierno de las sociedades cooperativas, una apuesta por el enfoque de los stakeholders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Pedrosa Ortega

    2009-01-01

    En la actualidad, el entorno competitivo es cada vez más incierto y complejo. Las características de los mercados actuales hacen que sea cada vez más difícil conseguir una ventaja competitiva sostenible en el tiempo para la empresa, por lo que hay que innovar en formas de gestión y de gobierno para ser competitivo. De esta manera, se está produciendo un

  5. Una propuesta para el dise~no de m'etodos de Jacobi unilaterales por bloques para el Problema Sim'etrico de Valores Propios \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Giménez, Domingo

    los tiempos de ejecuci'on te'oricos con los de un m'etodo bilateral por bloques. Palabras clave: m'etodosUna propuesta para el dise~no de m'etodos de Jacobi unilaterales por bloques para el Problema Sim'etrico de Valores Propios. Se estudian dos m'etodos secuenciales y sus versiones paralelas, y se comparan

  6. Estudio de los NIH señala una relación de la tomografía computarizada (TC) en la infancia con leucemia y con cáncer de cerebro más tarde

    Cancer.gov

    Niños y adultos jóvenes a quienes se les hicieron exploraciones muchas veces con tomografía computarizada (TC), una herramienta de diagnóstico de uso frecuente, tienen un riesgo ligeramente mayor de padecer leucemia y tumores cerebrales en la década posterior a su primera tomografía.

  7. Ld Perca (PtTCi jliaiiiiis), una especie europea imroiiiiida els daen anys a CIII/IJIVI. La introucci de peixos

    E-print Network

    García-Berthou, Emili

    u Ld Perca (PtTCíi jliaiíiiiíis), una especie europea imroiiiiida els dañen anys a CÍIIÍI Ilac Victoria o Ukerewe, la introducció d'un peix gran depredador, la perca del Nil (Lütes nííotícus

  8. LA CAPTACIÓN DE RECURSOS PRIVADOS ENTRE LAS ONGD ESPAÑOLAS: UNA APROXIMACIÓN PROBABILÍSTICA \\/ PRIVATE RESOURCES CAPTATION AMONG SPANISH ONGD: A PROBABILÍSTIC APPROXIMATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Gutiérrez Villar; R. A. Araque Padilla; M. J Montero Simó

    2009-01-01

    La necesidad de recursos privados entre las ENL, tanto para su sostenimiento como para la realización de su labor requiere de estrategias organizativas cada vez más eficaces, por lo que el estudio del fundraising y su eficacia suscita un gran interés. En este trabajo, y basándonos en las conclusiones de estudios previos, pretendemos analizar la relación e influencia de una

  9. Estudio de los NIH revela que un resultado negativo de la prueba del VPH es un mejor predictor de un riesgo bajo de cáncer de cuello uterino que una prueba de Pap negativa

    Cancer.gov

    De acuerdo con un estudio en el que participaron más de un millón de mujeres, los investigadores del NCI han determinado que el resultado negativo de una prueba para la detección del VPH proporciona mayor certeza o seguridad frente a riesgos futuros de cáncer de cuello uterino que una prueba de Pap.

  10. PRODUCCIN DE PLANTAS EN VIVEROS FORESTALES Produccin de plantas grandes usando

    E-print Network

    luego trasplantaban en primavera, a canteros de raíz desnuda para un año adicional de crecimiento bajo trasplantados a canteros de raíz desnuda. Un cultivo sembrado en primavera era trasplantado a canteros al aire

  11. L’herbassar de felandri fistulós i baldèl·lia (Baldellio ranunculoidis-Oenanthetum fistulosae), una nova associació herbàcia higròfila dels Països Catalans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Mercadal i Corominas; Josep Gesti Perich; Lluís Vilar

    2008-01-01

    Fem la tipificació ecològica i fitosociològica dels herbassars d’Eleocharis palustris s.l. descrits als Països Catalans i proposem una nova associació herbàcia caracteritzada per Eleocharis palustris subsp. palustris, Baldellia ranunculoides, Oenanthe fistulosa, Gratiola officinalis, Mentha pulegium i Eleocharis palustris subsp. uniglumis. Aquesta comunitat s’estableix en diverses àrees palustres (aiguamolls, basses temporànies i prats dalladors) de la Catalunya nord-oriental (territoris catalanídic septentrional

  12. Trabajo Practico 2 Ecuaciones en Derivadas Parciales (1) Sea f una funcion de clase C1 en R3. Demostrar que

    E-print Network

    Morin, Pedro

    a trav´es de una superficie cerrada suave a trozos que no deja encerrado al origen de coordenadas? (Nos´es de la superficie esf´erica centrada en 0 = (0, 0, 0) y radio unitario. (c) Calcular el flujo de V a trav´es de la superficie esf´erica centrada en 0 = (0, 0, 0) y radio R (R > 0). (d) Calcular el flujo

  13. Escribir y publicar un artículo científico es difícil. Sin embargo, la investigación es una actividad social y se debe considerar como un deber la comunicación de lo que se investiga. Entregamos una serie de sugerencias, para facilitar la tarea de redacción

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Si se desea escribir un artículo, debemos preguntarnos cuál es el mensaje a entregar, a qué audiencia va dirigido y en qué revista se obtendrá la mayor visibilidad. Una vez respondidas estas interrogantes, recomendamos decidir la autoría de los miembros del equipo de investigación, incluyendo a todos los que han hecho contribuciones significativas al trabajo. Los autores deben ser capaces

  14. Beneficios en la reducción de costos por la implementación de una Sucursal Virtual de una empresa Mexicana dedicada a la fabricación y distribución de acumuladores automotrices (Benefits in the reduction of costs by implementation of a virtual branch of a Mexican firm dedicated to the manufacture and distribution of car batteries)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suástegui Nava; J. L. Abreu

    2008-01-01

    Resumen. En este trabajo de investigación se presenta la experiencia de una empresa mexicana dedicada a la fabricación y distribución de acumuladores automotrices (Enertec México, S. de R. L. de C. V.), esta experiencia enfocada al uso de un portal de internet denominado Sucursal Virtual a través del cual se han orientado gran parte de sus operaciones de ventas y

  15. Actas del Congreso Internacional "Amrica Latina: La autonoma de una regin", organizado por el Consejo Espaol de Estudios Iberoamericanos (CEEIB) y la Facultad de Ciencias Polticas y Sociologa de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM),

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ascenso en las encuestas fue atribuido al internet y en particular al uso de redes sociales, las cuales se Manizales. Se trata de una investigación enmarcada en el planteamiento de los sistemas sociales de Niklas

  16. Prctica de Marketing Internacional para Espaa Busca una prctica en donde cada da se puede encontrar con nuevos retos? Desea colaborar

    E-print Network

    Rostock, Universität

    altos conocimientos del idioma alemán (B2- C1) e interés por el Marketing Online. Cualquier otro idiomaPráctica de Marketing Internacional para España en Múnich ¿Busca una práctica en donde cada día seWorlds? ¿Le interesa el Marketing, el Diseño Gráfico y la tecnología WEB 2.0? Entonces Usted es a quién

  17. In planta mutagenesis of Src homology 3 domain-like fold of NdhS, a ferredoxin-binding subunit of the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex in Arabidopsis: a conserved Arg-193 plays a critical role in ferredoxin binding.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Shikanai, Toshiharu

    2013-12-20

    Chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex mediates cyclic electron transport around photosystem I and chlororespiration in angiosperms. The Src homology 3 domain (SH3)-like fold protein NdhS/CRR31 is an NDH subunit that is necessary for high affinity binding of ferredoxin, indicating that chloroplast NDH functions as a ferredoxin:plastoquinone oxidoreductase. However, the mechanism of the interaction between NdhS and ferredoxin is unclear. In this study, we analyzed their interaction in planta by using site-directed mutagenesis of NdhS. In general, binding of ferredoxin to its target proteins depends on electrostatic interaction. In silico analysis predicted the presence of a positively charged pocket in the SH3-like domain of NdhS, where nine charged residues are highly conserved among plants. Systematic alteration of these sites with neutral glutamine revealed that only arginine 193 was required for high NDH activity in vivo. Further replacement of arginine 193 with negatively charged aspartate or glutamate or hydrophobic alanine significantly decreased the efficiency of ferredoxin-dependent plastoquinone reduction by NDH in ruptured chloroplasts. Similar results were obtained in in vivo analyses of NDH activity and electron transport. From these results, we propose that the positive charge of arginine 193 in the SH3-like domain of NdhS is critical for electrostatic interaction with ferredoxin in vivo. PMID:24225949

  18. Codificación de los Genes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Esta animación muestra como un gen está construido para eventualmente producir una proteína en una planta de maíz Bt (Bt corn). Esta es la quinta de una serie de siete animaciones que detallan el proceso de ingeniería genética de cultivos.

  19. Estudio epidemiológico de sucesos traumáticos, trastorno de estrés post-traumático y otros trastornos psiquiátricos en una muestra representativa de Chile

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Benítez, Carlos I.; Vicente, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Caron; Kohn, Robert; Johnson, Jennifer; Valdivia, Sandra; Rioseco, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN Durante la década de 1990 en los Estados Unidos (EU), el conocimiento sobre el trastorno de estrés post-traumático (TEPT) evolucionó de estudios específicos en un principio, sobre veteranos de guerra y sobre víctimas de desastres, a estudios epidemiológicos más tarde, sin embargo, la epidemiología del TEPT en países en desarrollo ha sido un área poco estudiada hasta ahora. Los expertos en el área de trauma han propuesto que los sucesos traumáticos que ocurren en la niñez son más perjudiciales para la salud mental que aquellos que ocurren más tarde en la vida. Este trabajo revisa los resultados de un estudio epidemiológico llevado a cabo en Chile. Específicamente, se revisan los resultados sobre las tasas de prevalencia del TEPT, traumas asociados más frecuentemente con él, así como la comorbilidad de este trastorno con otros trastornos psiquiátricos a lo largo de la vida. Igualmente se analizaron las diferencias del TEPT en cada sexo, así como la exposición a traumas en una muestra representativa de chilenos. Además se comparó la prevalencia de trastornos psiquiátricos en personas que sufrieron su primer trauma durante la niñez, durante la edad adulta, o que no reportaron traumas durante su vida. En estos estudios epidemiológicos se usaron módulos del TEPT y trastorno de personalidad antisocial (TPA) de la entrevista diagnóstica siguiendo los criterios del DSM-III-R (DIS–III-R). Para evaluar el resto de los trastornos psiquiátricos se usó la Entrevista Diagnóstica Internacional Compuesta (CIDI). Estos instrumentos fueron administrados en tres ciudades chilenas a 2390 personas mayores de 15 años. Para estimar los errores estándares (EE) debido al diseño de la muestra y a la necesidad de ajuste se usó el método Taylor de linearización seriada. También se usó un análisis de regresión logística para examinar la relación entre el TEPT, los factores demográficos de riesgo y el tipo de trauma. Además se utilizó la regresión logística multivariada para evaluar si la relación entre el TEPT y el sexo pudiera ser explicada por medio de otros factores de riesgo, así como para calcular las tasas y la oportunidad relativa (razón de productos cruzados) de trastornos psiquiátricos a lo largo de la vida. El primer análisis arrojó que la prevalencia de TEPT a lo largo de la vida fue de 4.4% (2.5% para hombres y 6.2% para mujeres). De los hechos traumáticos reportados, la violación sexual tuvo una correlación más alta con el TEPT que los demás hechos traumáticos. Las mujeres tuvieron más probabilidades de experimentar TEPT que los hombres, después de controlar la variable asalto violento. El segundo análisis evidenció que los que habían sufrido traumas a lo largo de la vida tuvieron mayor probabilidad de tener un trastorno psiquiátrico en comparación con aquellos que no reportaron traumas. También se encontró que los que sufrieron su primer trauma durante la infancia tuvieron más probabilidad de desarrollar trastornos de pánico a lo largo de la vida que aquellos que sufrieron su primer trauma en la edad adulta, independientemente del número de traumas que sufrieron y de las diferencias demográficas. Aunque Chile tiene un contexto histórico-cultural y una economía diferente a otros países en los que se ha estudiado anteriormente la epidemiología del TEPT, el presente estudio reflejó tendencias similares a las reportadas en estudios previos. Los hallazgos expuestos enfatizan la importancia de investigar la prevalencia del TEPT, los patrones de comorbilidad del TEPT y las diferencias de sexo en la prevalencia del TEPT en diferentes países. También estos resultados sugieren que los sucesos traumáticos en la infancia

  20. Utilización de métodos cuantitativos para el estudio de la dinámica de los pastos marinos: Una revisión crítica About the use of quantitative methods for the study of the dynamics of seagrasses: A critical review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Solana-Arellano

    Resumen.- Se presenta una revisión sobre el tema: aplicación de métodos cuantitativos al estudio de aspectos dinámicos en poblaciones de pastos marinos. Se incluyen los modelos más importantes utilizados para describir crecimiento, edad, demografía y densidad. En algunos casos se proponen modificaciones a los modelos existentes o bien se sugieren ideas para la realización de futuras investigaciones. Palabras clave: modelos

  1. Actas del Congreso Internacional "Amrica Latina: La autonoma de una regin", organizado por el Consejo Espaol de Estudios Iberoamericanos (CEEIB) y la Facultad de Ciencias Polticas y Sociologa de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM),

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ; #12; #12; #12; #12;Actas del Congreso Internacional "América Latina: La autonomía de una región desarrollaban la Asociación Latinoamericana de Libre Comercio (ALALC) y en Centroamérica el Mercado Común esquema de cooperación, solidaridad y comercio justo. El objetivo General de la presente investigación, se

  2. Actas del Congreso Internacional "Amrica Latina: La autonoma de una regin", organizado por el Consejo Espaol de Estudios Iberoamericanos (CEEIB) y la Facultad de Ciencias Polticas y Sociologa de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM),

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Este análisis, que involucra el comercio de biocarburantes en el mercado internacional, tiene como; #12; #12; #12; #12;Actas del Congreso Internacional "América Latina: La autonomía de una región producción de biocarburantes, podrían suponer barreras no arancelarias al comercio del bioetanol brasileño

  3. Actas del Congreso Internacional "Amrica Latina: La autonoma de una regin", organizado por el Consejo Espaol de Estudios Iberoamericanos (CEEIB) y la Facultad de Ciencias Polticas y Sociologa de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM),

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ; #12; #12; #12; #12;Actas del Congreso Internacional "América Latina: La autonomía de una región prometedor para desarrollar el comercio y la inversión. Esta búsqueda de inserción en el escenario internacional a través de su desarrollo económico llevó a la región a realizar reformas económicas propias del

  4. Elucidation and in planta reconstitution of the parthenolide biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Manzano, David; Tani?, Nikola; Pesic, Milica; Bankovic, Jasna; Pateraki, Irini; Ricard, Lea; Ferrer, Albert; de Vos, Ric; van de Krol, Sander; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2014-05-01

    Parthenolide, the main bioactive compound of the medicinal plant feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), is a promising anti-cancer drug. However, the biosynthetic pathway of parthenolide has not been elucidated yet. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of all the genes from feverfew that are required for the biosynthesis of parthenolide, using a combination of 454 sequencing of a feverfew glandular trichome cDNA library, co-expression analysis and metabolomics. When parthenolide biosynthesis was reconstituted by transient co-expression of all pathway genes in Nicotiana benthamiana, up to 1.4?gg(-1) parthenolide was produced, mostly present as cysteine and glutathione conjugates. These relatively polar conjugates were highly active against colon cancer cells, with only slightly lower activity than free parthenolide. In addition to these biosynthetic genes, another gene encoding a costunolide and parthenolide 3?-hydroxylase was identified opening up further options to improve the water solubility of parthenolide and therefore its potential as a drug. PMID:24704560

  5. se: Rostliny Plantae (= Archaeplastida) spolecn znaky rostlinnch skupin

    E-print Network

    ;Nozaki et al., 2009, 53: 872­880. vztah ,,super-autotrofní supeíse" a excavát jsou ale ,,rostliny kokální stélka, ale zbytky bicík a pulsující vakuola tradicn ­ 6 druh, ale pouze ikonotypy... dále pak. tetracyanea (z pdy, kmen v NIESu) ale opravdu dobrý druh? #12;Cyanophora biloba (vs. C. paradoxa) Kugrens et

  6. In Planta mutagenesis determines the functional regions of puroindoline proteins.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PINA and PINB functionally comprise the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Ha locus which controls grain texture and many wheat end-use properties. PINs in their functional forms impart soft texture and a mutation in either PIN is found in all hard wheats. Studies of the PINs mode of action is limited ...

  7. In planta modification of the potato tuber cell wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. F. J. Oomen

    2003-01-01

    Apart from its well known uses in the human diet a large amount of the grown potatoes (about one third in the Netherlands) is used for the isolation of starch which is used in several food and non-food applications. The cell wall fibres comprise a large portion of the waste material remaining after the starch isolation process. While cell wall

  8. Structure and Expression In planta of Botrytis cinerea Ubiquitin Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theo W. Prins; Lia Wagemakers; Jan A. L. van Kan

    2000-01-01

    To identify genes of the necrotrophic pathogenic fungus Botrytiscinerea that are expressed during infection of tomato leaves, a differential screening of a genomic library with radioactively labelled cDNA was performed. This resulted in the identification of a B. cinerea gene, denominated Bcubi4, which encodes a precursor protein consisting of four identical head-to-tail repeats of a 76?aa ubiquitin unit. Subsequently a

  9. Structure and expression in planta of Botrytis cinerea ubiquitin genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theo W. Prins; Lia Wagemakers; Kan van J. A. L

    2000-01-01

    To identify genes of the necrotrophic pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinereathat are expressed during infection of tomato leaves, a differential screening of a genomic library with radioactively labelled cDNA was performed. This resulted in the identification of a B. cinerea gene, denominated Bcubi4, which encodes a precursor protein consisting of four identical head-to-tail repeats of a 76 aa ubiquitin unit. Subsequently

  10. Nós e as plantas: ontem e hoje1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTONIO SALATINO

    The plants and us: past and present). Green areas in cities and trees growing on streets and squares of urban sites are features that only recently acquired relevance in the western world. It seems that formerly urban inhabitants did not value a close proximity with plants. In the present paper it is suggested that this is a consequence of a

  11. PS-GRADUAO EM BIOLOGIA DE FUNGOS, ALGAS E PLANTAS

    E-print Network

    Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

    Pereira Dias UFSC ­ Florianópolis Anatomia vegetal 6. Genivaldo Alves da Silva UNIC ­ Primavera do Leste ­ Primavera do Leste Micologia 12. Luis Adriano Funez UFSC ­ Florianópolis Sistemática vegetal 13. Maria Luiza ­ Primavera do Leste Micologia 21. Thais Favero Massocato UFSC ­ Florianópolis Ficologia 22. Thais Silva Costa

  12. Short communication Phylogeny of Calvin cycle enzymes supports Plantae monophyly

    E-print Network

    Bhattacharya, Debashish

    phylogenetic analyses suggest that land plants (Martin and Schnarrenberger, 1997) and red algae acquired the captured cyano- bacterium prior to the divergence of green and red algae (Matsuzaki et al., 2004). However, it is well known that some CC enzymes in land plants and red algae have a non-cyanobacterial origin (Martin

  13. UNA HISTORIA DE LA CIENCIA

    E-print Network

    Rosas-Ortiz, Jose Oscar

    personajes. Por ejemplo, además de discutir la muy conocida persecución de la In- quisición a Galileo Galilei apellido original por el de Galilei (los Galileo). El Galileo que conocemos heredó tanto el nombre de pila como un pariente de Galileo Galilei. Gribbin muestra que el desarrollo de la ciencia no estuvo libre de

  14. A'Una ("Let's Go!")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brescia, Bill

    The guide, intended to aid students (grades four and above) in making their bodies a good home for their spirit, provides a variety of athletic activities and traditional Indian recipes for use in the classroom or in cultural programs. Apart from running (the major American Indian means of maintaining physical fitness), instructions are given for…

  15. TEMAS PARA UNA BIOETICA LATINOAMERICANA

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodriguez

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo reflexiona sobre el fundamento filosófico de la bioética como disciplina, método y movimiento desde su contexto histórico y en relación con el contexto social y cultural de la vivencia latinoamericana. PMID:20209030

  16. Practica: Conicas 1. Clasifica las siguientes conicas. Hay una elipse, una circumferencia una parabola, una hiperbola y

    E-print Network

    ) Determina su centro y su radio. b) Calcula la ecuaci´on de la circumferencia de radio 7 conc´entrica a la, radio de la) delimitado por la circumferencia (x + 2)2 + (y - 4)2 = 3 7. Necesitamos conocer su centro (a, b) y su radio r

  17. HERRAMIENTAS PARA REALIZAR UNA INVESTIGACION

    E-print Network

    Rossiter, D G "David"

    , Bolivia Universidad Mayor de San Simón #12;TABLA DE CONTENIDOS 1 EL METODO CIENTÍFICO.2.10 Recomendaciones ....................................................................14 2.3 Manejo del tiempo

  18. BiotecnologBiotecnologaa dede PlantasPlantas DesafDesafosos para lapara la expresiexpresinn de genesde genes introducidosintroducidos

    E-print Network

    Málaga, Universidad de

    tejidostejidos GENGEN GENGEN DesarrollosBiotecnológicos GMOs - Organismos Geneticamente modificados · GMO - Un Roundup El gen viene de Bacteria Wheat Rye Triticale X Cruce interespecífico Nueva especie, pero NO un

  19. A screen of chemical modifications identifies position-specific modification by UNA to most potently reduce siRNA off-target effects

    PubMed Central

    Bramsen, Jesper B.; Pakula, Malgorzata M.; Hansen, Thomas B.; Bus, Claus; Langkjær, Niels; Odadzic, Dalibor; Smicius, Romualdas; Wengel, Suzy L.; Chattopadhyaya, Jyoti; Engels, Joachim W.; Herdewijn, Piet; Wengel, Jesper; Kjems, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are now established as the preferred tool to inhibit gene function in mammalian cells yet trigger unintended gene silencing due to their inherent miRNA-like behavior. Such off-target effects are primarily mediated by the sequence-specific interaction between the siRNA seed regions (position 2–8 of either siRNA strand counting from the 5?-end) and complementary sequences in the 3?UTR of (off-) targets. It was previously shown that chemical modification of siRNAs can reduce off-targeting but only very few modifications have been tested leaving more to be identified. Here we developed a luciferase reporter-based assay suitable to monitor siRNA off-targeting in a high throughput manner using stable cell lines. We investigated the impact of chemically modifying single nucleotide positions within the siRNA seed on siRNA function and off-targeting using 10 different types of chemical modifications, three different target sequences and three siRNA concentrations. We found several differently modified siRNAs to exercise reduced off-targeting yet incorporation of the strongly destabilizing unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) modification into position 7 of the siRNA most potently reduced off-targeting for all tested sequences. Notably, such position-specific destabilization of siRNA–target interactions did not significantly reduce siRNA potency and is therefore well suited for future siRNA designs especially for applications in vivo where siRNA concentrations, expectedly, will be low. PMID:20453030

  20. Actas del Congreso Internacional "Amrica Latina: La autonoma de una regin", organizado por el Consejo Espaol de Estudios Iberoamericanos (CEEIB) y la Facultad de Ciencias Polticas y Sociologa de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM),

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    existe la creencia de que algunas personas pueden causar el mal a otros individuos a través de la mirada mal de ojo.1 El presente artículo se centra en analizar esta creencia en relación con la ganadería, ya perspectivas metodológicas, el hecho de que no se trate de una creencia sistematizada2 y el cambio, tanto en

  1. El envejecimiento de las poblaciones en Europa o el invierno demogrfico La expresin "vieja Europa" es antigua. Se inscribe en la idea de una antigedad de la civilizacin europea actual en rel

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    al 22% de la población mundial en 1950, sólo repre el 11% en 2005, y se verá reducido a un 8% en una%. Sin embargo -segunda enseñanza- el envejecimiento dio paso, entre 1975 y 1980, a un rejuvenecimiento. Esto se explica los efectos de la guerra de 1914-1918, que implicó un fuerte déficit de los nacimientos

  2. Un nuevo análisis de los subtipos de cáncer de seno podría llevar a una mejor estratificación del riesgo; Informe Anual a la Nación indica que la mortalidad y la incidencia de la mayoría de los cánceres continúan disminuyendo

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de cáncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo étnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe mostró una continua reducción en las muertes por cáncer tanto en hombres, mujeres y niños, y para los cánceres que afectan a casi todos los lugares principales del cuerpo.

  3. Introduccin a la programacin en iOS y Objective-C iPhone se ha convertido en poco tiempo en una de las plataformas ms populares y con

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Introducción a la programación en iOS y Objective-C iPhone se ha convertido en poco tiempo en una. Fechas y horarios Todos los sábados (en total 6 sesiones) desde el día 22 de Septiembre hasta el 27 de programador de iPhone / iPad haciendo aplicaciones para importantes firmas dentro del territorio nacional

  4. L'Obra Social de CatalunyaCaixa, a travs de la seva Fundaci, ofereix la possibilitat d'optar a una beca per a la realitzaci del Mster en Filosofia Poltica a la Universitat Pompeu Fabra per al curs

    E-print Network

    Geffner, Hector

    'optar a una beca per a la realització del Màster en Filosofia Política a la Universitat Pompeu Fabra per al/06/2012 Requisits per sol·licitar la beca: - Tenir la nacionalitat espanyola. - Estar admès al Màster en Filosofia EN FILOSOFIA POLÍTICA (CURS 2012-2013) DADES PERSONALS: Nom: Primer cognom: Segon cognom: DNI: Adreça

  5. Oferta de Proyectos Fin de Carrera Ingeniera de Telecomunicacin Escuela Politcnica Superior

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    ........................................................................................................ 2 1.4. Desarrollo de un sistema para la gestión de alarmas y transmisión de alertas a dispositivos. .................................................................................................... 2 1.5. Desarrollo de un sistema de adquisición de datos de una estación meteorológica para el control de una planta fotovoltaica............................................. 3 1.6. Desarrollo de un

  6. Learning Astronomy by Playing in a Park. (Spanish Title: Aprender AstronoMía Jugando en Una Plaza.) Aprender Astronomia Brincando em Uma Praça

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camino, Néstor

    2012-12-01

    Some public-square games are presented in this paper, considered as didactic modules to help children imagine astronomical processes, based on the concept that learning in Astronomy should be developed to strengthen the relationship of our body with three-dimensional space and time, much in the same way we experience when observing the actual sky, holding a permanent "dialogue" between the actual world and what is to be learned. The games presented (merry-go-rounds and slides) were designed to work on the astronomical concepts related to the translation of the Earth around the Sun, the phases of the Moon and gravity, and on what is perceived by an observer about those phenomena. The description of each game, their physical and astronomical foundations, and a critical comment about their didactical importance are the key parts of the paper. Finally, a recommendation is given about the role teachers should play to be essential partners in the process of learning Astronomy by means of the interaction with these games. Se presentan en este trabajo algunos juegos de plaza, considerados como módulos didácticos para imaginar procesos astronómicos, a partir de la concepción de que el aprendizaje en Astronomía debe desarrollarse fortaleciendo la relación del propio cuerpo con el espacio tridimensional y con el tiempo, tal como se vive al observar el cielo, construyendo un "diálogo" entre el mundo real y los aprendizajes a construir. Los juegos presentados (calesitas y toboganes) fueron diseñados para trabajar sobre la traslación de la Tierra en torno al Sol, las fases de la Luna y la gravedad, y sobre lo que un observador percibe de los mismos. Se da la descripción de cada juego, se discuten sus fundamentos físicos y astronómicos, y se desarrolla una crítica didáctica de los mismos. Finalmente, se comenta el rol que deberían tener los docentes en el acompañamiento a los aprendices en el proceso de interacción con los juegos presentados. Apresentam-se neste trabalho alguns jogos de praça, considerados como módulos didáticos para imaginar processos astronômicos, a partir da concepção de que a aprendizagem em Astronomia deve-se desenvolver fortalecendo a relação do próprio corpo com o espaço tridimensional e com o tempo, tal como se vive ao observar o céu, construindo um "diálogo" entre o mundo real e as aprendizagens a construir. Os jogos apresentados (carrosséis e tobogãs) foram desenhados para trabalhar sobre a translação da Terra em torno do Sol, as fases da Lua e a gravidade, e sobre o que um observador percebe dos mesmos. Dá-se a descrição de cada jogo, discutem-se seus fundamentos físicos e astronômicos, e desenvolve-se uma crítica didática dos mesmos. Finalmente, comenta-se o papel que deveriam ter os docentes no apoio aos aprendizes no processo de interação com os jogos apresentados.

  7. Weed Identification: Using Plant Structures as a Key (Spanish)

    E-print Network

    Baumann, Paul A.

    1999-08-30

    para el ?xito de cualquier programa de manejo de malezas. Frecuentemente, claves simples para identificar plantas o gu?as para identificar malezas basadas en fotograf?as o dibujos se usan para identificar malezas. Sin embargo, algunas claves taxon...?micas para plantas pueden ser complejas y requerir un conocimiento avanzado de las estructuras de las plantas y la terminolog?a taxon?mica. Aunque sea m?s dif?cil usarla, una gu?a o clave detallada permite la precisa identificaci?n de malezas. La intenci...

  8. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conteúdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino médio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste nível de ensino. Dentre as concepções alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino médio carregam consigo, mesmo após o término dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fenômeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estratégias diferenciadas em relação ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participação ativa dos alunos na execução de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades didáticas, que visam sua contínua avaliação durante o processo, culmina com a elaboração de uma história em quadrinhos envolvendo as fases da Lua. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma proposta de atividade didática diferenciada sustentada pelos princípios teóricos da aprendizagem significativa aplicada ao ensino das fases da Lua durante as aulas de Física no ensino médio. En este trabajo se presenta uno de los contenidos de la Astronomía y el evidente fracaso en la enseñanza del tema en la escuela secundaria, a pesar del hecho que los documentos oficiales apuntan para la necesidad de trabajar contenidos de Astronomía en este nivel. Entre los conceptos alternativos en Astronomía que los alumnos secundarios llevan consigo, aún después de terminados los estudios, destacamos aquí el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna. El desarrollo de diferentes estrategias en relación con los métodos tradicionales, dirigidas al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en este tema fue considerado en este trabajo como uno de los resultados obtenidos a la luz de los referenciales del aprendizaje significativo, tal como fueron fundamentados por Ausubel. Según la propuesta que aquí se presenta, la participación activa de los estudiantes en la ejecución de una actividad experimental y otras actividades educativas destinadas a la evaluación continua durante el proceso culminó en la elaboración de una historieta respecto de las fases de la Luna. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de actividad de enseñanza diferenciada con el apoyo de los principios teóricos del aprendizaje significativo aplicado a la enseñanza de las fases de la luna durante las clases de física del ciclo secundario.

  9. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2010, con una sección especial sobre la prevalencia de comorbilidad y su efecto en la supervivencia de personas con cáncer de pulmón, seno, próstata o colorrectal: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos que tienen otras enfermedades en la supervivencia de pacientes con cáncer.

  10. Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen bajando y contribuyen a reducción de índices generales de muertes por cáncer; Informe Anual a la Nación tiene una sección especial de los efectos de otras enfermedades en la supervivencia de pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos que tienen otras enfermedades en la supervivencia de pacientes con cáncer.

  11. LA CONDUCTA PROSOCIAL: UNA VISION DE CONJUNTO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. MOLERO; C. CANDELA; M. T. CORTÉS

    This paper presents a review of the historical evolution of the prosocial behavior concept, in order to offer a current perspective regarding this topic. This study describes the most relevant viewpoints which exist today on prosocial behavior, using the research carried out by González Portal el al. (1989, 1992) as a starting point. This paper is based on the information

  12. La adicción a los videojuegos. Una revisión

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. TEJEIRO

    Video game addiction seems to be a widely accepted disorder. This work reviews in a critical manner the literature and the state of the art about this topic. The scarcity of works focused specifically on video game addiction, as well as the weakness of many of the investigations are commented as main conclusions. None of the studies makes explicit the

  13. LA INVESTIGACIÓN CUALITATIVA, UNA DISCUSIÓN PRESENTE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenio Saavedra Guajardo

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a discussion around the differences between the qualitative and quantitative approaches of investigation, which does not try to revive the old dispute on the greater validity of a method in despite of the other. Rather the utility of both methods, applied to different areas from the knowledge is emphasized. Some epistemologist elements are emphasized that distance both

  14. Telmaco Talavera Siles Presidente CNU / Rector UNA

    E-print Network

    the competitiveness Better use and management of the Natural Resources Improve the production · Quantity · Quality%) - Gold (11%) - Lobster (2%) - Sugar (7%) - Molasses (1%) - Cheese (4%) - Cattle (1%) - Milk (4%) - Rum (1

  15. EL SENTIDO DE UNA EDUCACIÓN EN MEDIOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roxana Morduchowicz

    2003-01-01

    SÍNTESIS: La educación en medios es un campo en torno al cual existen no pocas coincidencias en todo el mundo, basadas en la necesidad de acercar los medios de comunicación a la escuela como objeto de estudio y de análisis en la clase. Sin embargo, esta expresión también suele definir distintas concepcio- nes y enfoques. No todos los países coinciden

  16. Triplicidad ureteral: Una inusual presentación aislada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Villanueva Peña; E. de Diego Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    URETERAL TRIPLICATION, AN UNUSUAL ISOLATED PRESENTATION We report the case of a 26 years old female who presented, as a casual finding, a right complete ureteral triplicity ( probably Campbell's tipe I) with no other associated abnormalities. Despite ureteral duplication is a frequent urological anomaly, the presence of three ureters occur- ring in the same side, in a complete or

  17. La escritura escénica: Una alternativa metodológica

    E-print Network

    Bonilla, Marí a

    1984-10-01

    escritura escénica tropieza con obstáculos técnicos inherentes al hecho teatral como tal, pero constituye un elemento de vital importancia para aprehender su esencia, pues significa, de alguna manera, "fijar la imagen teatral." Es decir, ampliar el... amigos que llegan, invitados esa noche a la celebración de los setenta años y jubilación de Félix, son anunciados y vistos por el monitor del circuito cerrado de televisión. Rodrigo, interpretado por Miguel Callacci, fue representado como un hombre...

  18. Cmo presentar una queja por discriminacin

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Universitarios de Salud (University Health Services) proporcionan información y recursos sobre el acoso sexual la discriminación sexual y el acoso sexual. Estas prohibiciones son parte de las políticas y requisitos del título IX incluyen la discriminación sexual, el acoso sexual, la conducta sexual inapropiada y

  19. Poblacin y cambio climtico: una propuesta

    E-print Network

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    visión del grupo Tiempo-Caos. Brian Hunt, Kayo Ide,Takemasa Miyoshi, Ed Ott son mis maravillosos colegas, Noviembre del 2008. Mostró que ambos metodos son comparables, siendo el híbrido un poco mejor. · Fue

  20. Ciencia, Sociedad, Soluciones: Una Introduccion al USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    El USGS sirve a la nacion de los Estados Unidos proveyendo informacion fidedigna para ? Describir y comprender la Tierra; ? Minimizar la perdida de vidas y propiedades por desastres naturales; ? Manejar los recursos hidrologicos, biologicos, energeticos y minerales; y ? Mejorar y proteger nuestra calidad de vida.

  1. L'idea: una redazione diffusa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaella Morichetti

    2007-01-01

    Created for the 100 years of the Deutsches Museum, the 100 classi are a 'diffuse' editorial office - a team of classes geographically distributed but connected online - that promotes science and technology education on a European dimension. Aiming at fighting against the decline of scientific vocations and the digital divide, the 100 classi Project experiments new ways of integrating

  2. UNA PRESENTAZIONE DIDATTICA DELLE GEOMETRIE NON EUCLIDEE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Di Foggia; T. Olivello; R. Prosperi; A. Rotunno

    Sunto: Si affronta il problema dell'insegnamento delle Geometrie non Euclidee nel triennio della scuola media superiore; si propone un per- corso che si sviluppa a partire da un approccio di tipo assiomatico, proseguendo con uno studio comparativo delle geometrie, euclidea, assoluta, iperbolica ed ellittica, e con la presentazione del modello di Poincaré per la dimostrazione della non contraddittorietà della geo-

  3. NEED HELP WITH YOUR APPLICATION? Visit HealthCare.gov or call us at 1-800-XXX-XXXX. Para obtener una copia de este formulario en Espaol, llame 1-800-XXX-XXXX. If you need help in a language other than English, call 1-800-XXX-XXXX and tell the

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    NEED HELP WITH YOUR APPLICATION? Visit HealthCare.gov or call us at 1-800-XXX-XXXX. Para obtener una copia de este formulario en Español, llame 1-800-XXX-XXXX. If you need help in a language other than English, call 1-800-XXX-XXXX and tell the customer service representative the language you need

  4. Using Niche-Based Models to Improve the Sampling of Rare Species

    E-print Network

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    estudio de caso de una especie de planta rara y en peligro en Suiza y un experimento de simulaci´on., Nuestro trabajo de campo confirm´o que el m´etodo ayuda al descubrimiento de nuevas poblaciones de la´etodo puede ahorrar hasta 70% del tiempo de trabajo de campo. Palabras Clave: descubrimiento de poblaci

  5. EFECTO DE APLICACIONES FOLIARES DE METANOL SOBRE EL RENDIMIENTO DE LECHUGA (Lactuca sativa L.) EFFECTS OF METHANOL FOLIAR APPLICATIONS ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF LETTUCE (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Solari; Alfredo Rodríguez-Delfín; Sven E. Jacobsen; Hugo Soplín; Juan Guerrero; Salomón Helfgott

    Resumen Anteriores investigaciones, sugieren una incorporación por las plantas del carbono proveniente del metanol; por ello se diseñaron experimentos para determinar si su aplicación foliar afectaría el rendimiento y crecimiento en un cultivo hidropónico de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.). Se utilizó metanol a los porcentajes de 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 y 80, con un testigo sin tratamiento.

  6. Revue de presse hebdomadaire 21-27 mai 2012

    E-print Network

    Rennes, Université de

    presencia en redes sociales. El País Semanal ­ Domingo 27 de Mayo de 2012 Internet Twitter, una mina sociológica (por Tom C. Avendaño) : Toda la información en apariencia inane vertida en las redes sociales ha dado la espalda a la plantas atómicas. Estrategias ­ Emprendedores Las redes sociales también

  7. Generaciòn distribuida: democratizaciòn de la energia electrica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Paul Valencia Quintero

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN El concepto conocido como “generación distribuida” (GD) ha cambiado considerablemente las nuevas concepciones de transmisión y distribución de electricidad al acercar las plantas de generación al usuario final, reduciendo la inversión inicial y la infraestructura necesaria para la entrega de la energía además de disminuir las perdidas en las redes. La generación distribuida, es una manera de producir energía

  8. EL USO DEL CASE MIX COMO UN MÉTODO DE REDUCCIÓN DE PROGRAMAS DE PRODUCCIÓN HOSPITALARIA Y HERRAMIENTA DE APOYO A LA GESTIÓN Y MEJORA DE PROCESOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arialys Hernández Nariño; Alberto Medina Leon; Dianelys Nogueira Rivera; Maylin Marques León

    2010-01-01

    La reducción de programas de producción es una herramienta de amplia utilización para la disminución de los tiempos de proyección y organización de plantas de producción, para amplios programas de producción. En el caso de los servicios hospitalarios se han diseñado un grupo de métodos para la agrupación de pacientes en diversas categorías, de acuerdo a distintas variables y a

  9. El cultivo del fique en el Departamento de Santander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amilcar Mojica Pimiento; Joaquín Paredes Vega

    2006-01-01

    El fique es una planta originaria de la América Tropical, su cultivo se da de manera particular en las zonas andinas de Colombia, Venezuela y Ecuador, en nuestro país su siembra se realiza en la parte alta de la sierra templada y fría. El proceso de desfibración de la hoja se realizaba de forma manual y su hilado de igual

  10. Rexol. (Caso de estudio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvaro Gutiérrez; Carolina María Reyes R; Carolina López R

    2002-01-01

    Refrescante S.A. es una empresa multinacional con productos en más de ochenta países y aproximadamente 160 plantas de producción. En algunos países de Europa como España, Francia y Portugal y de Suramérica como Argentina y Chile, es líder del mercado de las bebidas no alcohólicas. El gran reconocimiento con que cuenta su marca mundialmente le ha permitido lanzar al mercado

  11. La Eleccin de unaLa Eleccin de una ProfesinProfesin

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    años 49.9% CSUF esta en primer lugar en California y en quinto lugar en la nación por la cantidad de licenciaturas que otorga a estudiantes Hispanos. q g p Reporta The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education requieren mas unidades Source: EdTrust, and CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH

  12. Ipertrofia prostatica benigna: una patologia in progressione. Ipotesi per una terapia preventiva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. SCIARRA; C. CRISTINI; A. GENTILUCCI; L. IANNOTTA; U. PARENTE; G. B. DI PIERRO; F. ANTONINI; A. ALFARONE; F. DI SILVERIO

    The purpose of this review is to enhance prevention as a new key aspect in the treatment of BPH. The concept of BPH as a progressive disease helps to adopt new ap- proaches to patient evaluation and treatment. The disease progression, with respect to the risk of bladder function complications and alterations, to the progression of symptoms, and to the

  13. QU ES UNA BEBIDA ESTNDAR? En los Estados Unidos, una bebida estndar es cualquier

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    información sobre pacientes visite el sitio de Internet http://medlineplus.gov. Naltrexone (Depade®, Re profunda; erupción o infección en el lugar de la inyección. Insuficiencia renal grave (CrCl 30ml/min). Uso

  14. Una novedosa herramienta estadística para desentrañar las características intrínsecas de una distribución de datos astrofísicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, I.; Piatti, A. E.

    The statistical analysis of a sample of data includes the collection; the analysis and the interpretation of them. For example; the construction of histograms has proven to be a powerful tool in statistics; from which it is possible to obtain an overview of the distribution of the data sample considered. In some circumstances; however; the results often depend on the way they are constructed (e.g. size of the bins used; etc.) leading to a variety of possible interpretations. Specifically; this paper presents a statistical method that allows to unravel the intrinsic distribution of a n-dimensional data distribution from "adaptive bins" and the consideration of the errors of the data used. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  15. El proyecto Cajal4EU inicia desde Zaragoza su trabajo en Europa Alrededor de medio centenar de representantes de las empresas participantes en el Proyecto Cajal4EU se han reunido en Zaragoza en una jornada que servirá de arranque de los trabajos de este grupo. El objetivo de este proyecto es la producción de un chip de diagnóstico médico que permita conocer el estado del paciente en tiempo real

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Royo Zaragozano

    2010-01-01

    Zaragoza.- Más de medio centenar de investigadores procedentes de toda Europa se han reunido este lunes en Zaragoza en unas jornadas que suponen el punto de arranque de los trabajos del proyecto Cajal4EU. Este proyecto nanobiotecnológico, que recibe este nombre en honor al científico aragonés Santiago Ramón y Cajal y en el que trabajan de forma paralela 30 empresas, tiene

  16. Glycine clock: Eubacteria first, Archaea next, Protoctista, Fungi, Planta and Animalia at last

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward N. Trifonov

    1999-01-01

    One may expect that in the composition of the ancient proteins the earliest amino acids would dominate. Indeed, when homologous prokaryotic and eukaryotic protein sequences are aligned, the most frequent residue amongst matching amino acids (presumably, what remains of the common ancestor sequence) is glycine that makes about 14% vs. glycine content of 6-7% in modern proteins. The glycine content

  17. An open-source system for in planta gene stacking by Bxb1 and Cre recombinases.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lili; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Wei, Junjie; Han, Zhiguo; Dong, Zhicheng; Ow, David W

    2014-12-01

    The rapid development of crops with multiple transgenic traits arouses the need for an efficient system for creating stacked cultivars. Most major crops rely on classical breeding to introgress the transgene from a laboratory variety to the numerous cultivars adapted to different growing regions. Even with vegetative propagated crops, genetic crosses are conducted during varietal improvement prior to vegetative cloning. The probability to assort the 'x' number of transgenic loci into a single genome may seem trivial, (¼) (x) for a diploid species, but given the 'y' number of other nontransgenic traits that breeders also need to assemble into the same genome, the (¼) (x+y) probability for a 'breeding stack' could quickly make the line conversion process unmanageable. Adding new transgenes onto existing transgenic varieties without creating a new segregating locus would require site-specific integration of new DNA at the existing transgenic locus. Here, we tested a recombinase-mediated gene-stacking scheme in tobacco. Sequential site-specific integration was mediated by the mycobacteriophage Bxb1 integrase-catalyzed recombination between attP and attB sites. Transgenic DNA no longer needed after integration was excised by Cre recombinase-mediated recombination of lox sites. Site-specific integration occurred in ~10% of the integration events, with half of those events usable as substrates for a next round of gene stacking. Among the site-specific integrants, however, a third experienced gene silencing. Overall, precise structure and reproducible expression of the sequentially added triple traits were obtained at an overall rate of ~3% of the transformed clones--a workable frequency for the development of commercial cultivars. Moreover, since neither the Bxb1-att nor the Cre-lox system is under patent, there is freedom to operate. PMID:25281665

  18. Auxin transport sites are visualized in planta using fluorescent auxin analogs

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura, Shouichi; Fukunaga, Shiho; Nishimura, Takeshi; Jenness, Mark K.; Murphy, Angus S.; Motose, Hiroyasu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Furutani, Masahiko; Aoyama, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is a key morphogenetic signal that controls many aspects of plant growth and development. Cellular auxin levels are coordinately regulated by multiple processes, including auxin biosynthesis and the polar transport and metabolic pathways. The auxin concentration gradient determines plant organ positioning and growth responses to environmental cues. Auxin transport systems play crucial roles in the spatiotemporal regulation of the auxin gradient. This auxin gradient has been analyzed using SCF-type E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex-based auxin biosensors in synthetic auxin-responsive reporter lines. However, the contributions of auxin biosynthesis and metabolism to the auxin gradient have been largely elusive. Additionally, the available information on subcellular auxin localization is still limited. Here we designed fluorescently labeled auxin analogs that remain active for auxin transport but are inactive for auxin signaling and metabolism. Fluorescent auxin analogs enable the selective visualization of the distribution of auxin by the auxin transport system. Together with auxin biosynthesis inhibitors and an auxin biosensor, these analogs indicated a substantial contribution of local auxin biosynthesis to the formation of auxin maxima at the root apex. Moreover, fluorescent auxin analogs mainly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in cultured cells and roots, implying the presence of a subcellular auxin gradient in the cells. Our work not only provides a useful tool for the plant chemical biology field but also demonstrates a new strategy for imaging the distribution of small-molecule hormones. PMID:25049419

  19. POPULAÇÃO DE PLANTAS NO CONSORCIO MAMONEIRA\\/MILHO. I. PRODUÇÃO E COMPONENTES DA PRODUÇÃO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEMÓSTENES MARCOS PEDROSA DE AZEVED; DOS SANTOS; NAPOLEÃO ESBERARD DE MACÊDO; FERNANDO ANTÔNIO; SOUTO BATISTA; LAUDEMIRO BALDOfNO DA NÓBREGA; DIRCEU JUSTINIANO VIEIRA; JOSÉ RODRIGUES

    RESUMO: Um experimento de campo foi conduzido em Monteiro, Paraíba, Brasil, nos anos agrícola de 1994 e 1995, com o objetivo de se investigar o efeito de população de mamoneira (Ricinus communis L.) e de milho (Zea mays L.) no rendimento e nos componentes da produção dessas culturas em consórcio. Os resultados mais expressivos foram: 1) o rendimento das culturas

  20. EFEITO DE POPULAÇÃO DE PLANTAS NO CONSÓRCIO MAMONEIRA\\/MILHO. II. EFICIÊNCIA AGRONÔMICA1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FERNANDO ANTÔNIO; SOUTO BATISTA; DIRCEU JUSTINIANO VIEIRA; RODRIGUES PEREIRA; LAUDEMIRO BALDOíNO DA NÓBREGA

    4 RESUMO- Um experimento de campo foi conduzido no município de Monteiro, Paraíba, nos anos agrícolas de 1994 e 1995, com o objetivo de se investigar o efeito de população na eficiência agronômica do consórcio da mamoneira (Riccinus communis L.) e do milho (Zea mays L.) Os resultados mais expressivos, foram: i) os índices de UET proporcional da mamoneira e

  1. Carotenoid In Planta Development, Storage, and Bioaccessibility: A Comprehensive Approach to Nutrient Analysis

    E-print Network

    Jeffery, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-14

    ........................................................................... 58 Results and Discussion ................................................................... 59 Butternut Squash (Cucurbita moschata Poir) ......................... 59 Carrot (Daucus carota subsp. Sativus... micrographs of butternut squash and yogurt meal fractions. ....... 63 Figure 16. TEM micrographs of butternut squash digesta fraction. ....................... 63 Figure 17. Light micrographs of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. Sativus) parenchyma cells...

  2. Planta (2007) 226:839851 DOI 10.1007/s00425-007-0530-2

    E-print Network

    Paré, Paul W.

    or other known plant hormones reg- ulate auxin homeostasis and cell expansion provides a new paradigm-growth promotion by PGPR include bacterial synthe- sis of plant hormones (Loper and Schroth 1986; Timmusk et al / Published online: 12 May 2007 © Springer-Verlag 2007 Abstract Certain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

  3. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase operates in planta as a bifunctional enzyme with chrysanthemol synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Liping; Hu, Hao; Stoopen, Geert; Wang, Caiyun; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2014-12-26

    Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS) is the first pathway-specific enzyme in the biosynthesis of pyrethrins, the most widely used plant-derived pesticide. CDS catalyzes c1'-2-3 cyclopropanation reactions of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to yield chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP). Three proteins are known to catalyze this cyclopropanation reaction of terpene precursors. Two of them, phytoene and squalene synthase, are bifunctional enzymes with both prenyltransferase and terpene synthase activity. CDS, the other member, has been reported to perform only the prenyltransferase step. Here we show that the NDXXD catalytic motif of CDS, under the lower substrate conditions prevalent in plants, also catalyzes the next step, converting CPP into chrysanthemol by hydrolyzing the diphosphate moiety. The enzymatic hydrolysis reaction followed conventional Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km value for CPP of 196 ?m. For the chrysanthemol synthase activity, DMAPP competed with CPP as substrate. The DMAPP concentration required for half-maximal activity to produce chrysanthemol was ?100 ?m, and significant substrate inhibition was observed at elevated DMAPP concentrations. The N-terminal peptide of CDS was identified as a plastid-targeting peptide. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing CDS emitted chrysanthemol at a rate of 0.12-0.16 ?g h(-1) g(-1) fresh weight. We propose that CDS should be renamed a chrysanthemol synthase utilizing DMAPP as substrate. PMID:25378387

  4. CRECIMIENTO DE PLANTAS INJERTADAS JÓVENES DE DOS CULTIVARES DE NÍSPERO DESPUÉS DEL PRENDIMIENTO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norkys Mez; Dámaso Bautista

    Growth of young grafted plants of two cultivars of sapodilla after the healing The grafting, growth and branching of the main axis of sapodilla (Manilkara zapota van Royen) was studied in the cvs. Santiago and Delfina. The trial was carried out in the experimental field of the Graduate School of Horticulture, in Tarabana, Lara State (10º 01' N, 500 masl),

  5. Planta (1995)196:674-682 P l m a t ~ 9 Springer-Verlag1995

    E-print Network

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    - in intact non-mycor- rhizal roots of Picea glauca (Moench) Voss. seedlings. Three compartments were defined) - Nitrogen-13 - Picea Abbreviations and symbols: [NO3]cyt = cytoplasmicNO3 concen- tration; [NO3]freespace

  6. Planta (1995)196:691-698 P l a n t ~ 9 Springer-Verlag 1995

    E-print Network

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    -mycorrhizal roots of intact Picea glauca (Moench) Voss. seedlings at four different concentration regimes - Compartmental analysis - Ni- trogen-13 - Picea Abbreviations and symbol: [NH+]cyt = cytoplasmic NH,~ concen

  7. Chemical compounds effective against the citrus huanglongbing bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in planta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide, and is threatening the survival of the Floridian citrus industry. Currently, there is no established cure for this century-old and emerging disease. The new antibiotic combination of penicillin and streptomycin (...

  8. Planta (1994)192:372-378 P l ~ n t ~ 9 Springer-Verlag1994

    E-print Network

    Jacobsen, Steve

    1994-01-01

    with GA3, we consistently detected increases and decreases in the abundance of 14 and 20 in-vitro. In vegetative gibl shoots, the abundance of 13 in-vitro translation products decreased within 6-24 h after GA 3 treatment. However, no in-vitro translation products that increased in abundance after GA 3treatment were

  9. Complete Genome Sequence and In Planta Subcellular Localization of Maize Fine Streak Virus Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Wei Tsai; Margaret G. Redinbaugh; Kristen J. Willie; Sharon Reed; Michael Goodin; Saskia A. Hogenhout

    2005-01-01

    The genome of the nucleorhabdovirus maize fine streak virus (MFSV) consists of 13,782 nucleotides of nonsegmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA. The antigenomic strand consisted of seven open reading frames (ORFs), and transcripts of all ORFs were detected in infected plants. ORF1, ORF6, and ORF7 had significant similarities to the nucleocapsid protein (N), glycoprotein (G), and polymerase (L) genes of other rhabdoviruses,

  10. SCIENTIFIC NOTE Plantas Hospedantes de Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon (Acari: Tarsonemidae) en Cuba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PEDRO DE LA TORRE; LÉRIDA ALMAGUEL; ELEAZAR BOTTA; E IDALIA CÁCERES

    Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon is a well-known phytophagous tarsonemid mite commonly found on coconut. Little is known about its host range. This note brings a list of plants from which the mite was collected in Cuba. Brachiaria plantaginea (L.) Hitch, Digitaria decumbens Stewt., Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop, Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link., Echinochloa crusgalli (L.), Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Panicum fasciculatum

  11. Patrones en el conocimiento, uso y manejo de plantas en pueblos indígenas de México

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAVIER CABALLERO; ALEJANDRO CASAS; LAURA CORTÉS; Y CRISTINA MAPES

    1998-01-01

    An overview of ethnobiological information obtained among Indian peoples of Mexico is presented, analyzing patterns and tendencies in the forms of perceiving, using, and manipulating plant resources. The plant classification folk systems studied are highly complex. Although in general they follow the general principles formulated by Brent Berlin and other scholars, some significant variations are observed. Subsistence has been based

  12. Identification of Alternaria brassicicola genes expressed in planta during pathogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert A; Lawrence, Christopher B

    2004-02-01

    Alternaria brassicicola is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes black spot disease on cruciferous plants including economically important Brassica species. The purpose of this study was to identify fungal genes expressed during infection of Arabidopsis. In order to identify candidate genes involved in pathogenicity, we employed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) between RNA isolated from A. brassicicola spores incubated in water and on the leaf surface of the Arabidopsis ecotype Landsberg. Two populations of cDNA were created from total RNA extracted after 24h when approximately 80% of the spores had germinated either on the leaf surface or in water. Following SSH, expression of clones was examined using dot-blot macro-arrays and virtual Northern blots. 47 cDNA clones differentially expressed between Alternaria infected Arabidopsis leaves and spore germination in water were selected for sequencing. Seventy-seven percent (36) of the cDNAs had significant homology to fungal sequences from databases examined, including available fungal genomes, while 13% (11) had no homology to sequences in the databases. All 36 genes had significant matches with genes of fungal origin, while 11 genes did not have significant hits in the databases examined. Five sequences were expressed on the plant leaf surface but not during spore germination in water according to virtual Northern blots. These five cDNAs were predicted to encode a cyanide hydratase, arsenic ATPase, formate dehydrogenase, major Alternaria allergen, and one unknown. RT-PCR was used to examine the expression of these five genes during infection of Brassica oleraceae var. capitata (cabbage), in vitro growth in nutrient rich media, and infection of Arabidopsis thaliana. Four of these genes are expressed in the nutrient rich medium, while the unknown gene P3F2 was only expressed during plant infection. The results of this study provide the first insight into genes expressed during A. brassicicola infection of Brassica species that may be involved in fungal pathogenesis. PMID:14732258

  13. ISOLATION, IN PLANTA DETECTION, AND USES OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA FOR PLANT PROTECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endophytic bacteria are defined as those that dwell intercellularly in association with plants for most, if not all of their life cycles. These organisms are therefore symbiotic and are further distinguished in that the bacterium lives within the plant or portions of it as a nonpathogen although sl...

  14. IN PLANTA INTERACTIONS OF FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES WITH CORN AND MECHANISMS OF FUMONISIN PYHTOTOXICITY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticilliodes, the causative agent of ear rot in corn, can produce the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1). FB1 inhibits a key eukaryotic enzyme necessary for sphingolipid metabolism, ceramide synthase. Such inhibition causes a number of species-specific animal diseases and may contribute to ca...

  15. Centro de Biotecnologa y Genmica de Plantas Departamentos de Biotecnologa UPM-INIA

    E-print Network

    Cardeñosa, Jesús

    seminarios 2014/15 - Primer cuatrimestre 19 de septiembre Evolution of dominant and recessive virus resistance genes in wild plant populations Nils Poulicard - CBGP, Madrid, España 3 de octubre Sequence and molybdate transport genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus Bernd Masepohl - Ruhr-Universität, Bochum, Germany 19 de

  16. Transfer of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens TI Plasmid to Avirulent Agrobacteria and to Rhizobium ex planta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. J. Hooykaas; P. M. Klapwijk; M. P. Nuti; R. A. Schiliperoort

    1977-01-01

    SUMMARY A mutant of A. tumefaciens strain ~6~3, carrying the R factor RP4, was able to transfer its TI plasmid to various avirulent Agrobacterium strains and to a strain of Rhizobium. Strains carrying the TI(~6s3) plasmid were selected by their ability to utilize octopine. The isolates were able to induce tumours and exclude phage API . The tumours induced on

  17. Origin and evolution of metal P-type ATPases in Plantae (Archaeplastida)

    PubMed Central

    Hanikenne, Marc; Baurain, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two and are found in prokaryotes as well as in a variety of Eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, eight metal P-type ATPases have been described, four being specific to copper transport and four displaying a broader metal specificity, including zinc, cadmium, and possibly copper and calcium. So far, few efforts have been devoted to elucidating the origin and evolution of these proteins in Eukaryotes. In this work, we use large-scale phylogenetics to show that metal P-type ATPases form a homogenous group among P-type ATPases and that their specialization into either monovalent (Cu) or divalent (Zn, Cd…) metal transport stems from a gene duplication that took place early in the evolution of Life. Then, we demonstrate that the four subgroups of plant metal ATPases all have a different evolutionary origin and a specific taxonomic distribution, only one tracing back to the cyanobacterial progenitor of the chloroplast. Finally, we examine the subsequent evolution of these proteins in green plants and conclude that the genes thoroughly characterized in model organisms are often the result of lineage-specific gene duplications, which calls for caution when attempting to infer function from sequence similarity alone in non-model organisms. PMID:24575101

  18. Quantification of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa overwintering in planta and detection in commercial seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dollar spot is the most economically important disease of amenity turf grasses in the United States, yet little is known about the source of primary inoculum for this disease. With the exception of a few isolates from the United Kingdom, Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the causal agent of dollar spot, does...

  19. EFEITO DE EXTRATOS AQUOSOS DE PLANTAS NA OVIPOSIÇÃO DA TRAÇA-DAS-CRUCÍFERAS, EM COUVE (1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CESAR AUGUSTO; MANFRÉ MEDEIROS; ARLINDO LEAL

    2005-01-01

    RESUMO Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de Achillea millefolium L. (folhas), Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas), Bidens pilosa L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (folhas), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (folhas), Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell.) Morong (frutos), Mentha crispa L. (folhas e ramos), Nicotiana tabacum L. (folhas), Piper nigrum

  20. Ecologa y Evolucin dE intEraccionEs planta-animal

    E-print Network

    Traveset, Anna

    of Charles Darwin Online (http:/darwin-online.org.uk/) Fotografía interacción. Bomarea salsilla nacimiento de chArles dArwin. w w w. u n i v e r s i t a r i a . c l ImprESO EN CHILE / prINtED IN CHILE 577,5 x 27 cm. -­ (Bicentenario Charles Darwin) Incluye glosario e índice de términos. Bibliografía: p.343

  1. Efeito da homeopatia Arnica montana, nas potências centesimais, sobre plantas de artemísia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Carvalho; S. P. Lisboa; M. A. Souza

    Effect of homeopathy Arnica montana, centesimal potencies, on plants of artemísia. Forty five days after the transplant to pots, plants of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz- Bip. gotten from seeds, received homeopathics solutions of Arnica montana, centesimal potencies (CH1, CH2, CH3, CH4 and CH5). The applications, weekly, were done in the same schedule, in the soil, after dilutions in deionized water.

  2. "In planta" regulation of the "Arabidopsis" Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter CAX1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vacuolar localized Ca(2+)/H(+) exchangers such as "Arabidopsis thaliana" cation exchanger 1 (CAX1) play important roles in Ca(2+) homeostasis. When expressed in yeast, CAX1 is regulated via an N-terminal autoinhibitory domain. In yeast expression assays, a 36 amino acid N-terminal truncation of CAX1...

  3. Planta (2009) 230:795805 DOI 10.1007/s00425-009-0985-4

    E-print Network

    Holbrook, N. Michele

    -Verlag 2009 Abstract It has been suggested that LeFRK2, the major fructose-phosphorylating enzyme in tomato · Fructokinase · Fructose · Phloem · Sucrose · Xylem Abbreviations FRK Fructokinase HXK Hexokinase SuSy Sucrose, into UDP-glucose and fructose, or by invertase into glucose and fructose (Koch 2004). Consequently

  4. Planta (2014) 239:591603 DOI 10.1007/s00425-013-1998-6

    E-print Network

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    of nitrogen removal in the rhizosphere of aquatic duckweed by root exudate components Yufang Lu · Yingru Zhou/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that duckweed released fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid amides, specifi methyl esters · Nitrogen-removal stimulants · Non-nutrient compounds · Duckweed · Root exudates

  5. NOTA TÉCNICA PREVENCIÓN DEL CÓLERA AVIAR, CON EXTRACTOS ACUOSOS DE PLANTAS, EN POLLOS DE ENGORDE1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Toledo

    The prevention of fowl cholerra with the aqueous ex- tract of epacine (Petiveria alliacea), stinkwood (Centrum lanatum), Quina (Coutarea hexandra), and tempate (Jatropha curcas) in poultry production. This research was conducted from October to De.cember, 1992, based upon the aqueous extracts from plants, at the Chemical, Agricultural and Pharmacy laboratories, by producing anphitochemicals and rnicrobiological tests on the bacterium Pasteurella

  6. Soil bacteria augment Arabidopsis photosynthesis by decreasing glucose sensing and abscisic acid levels in planta

    E-print Network

    Paré, Paul W.

    , including hypocotyl elongation and seed germination, with exposure to GB03. Compared with wild-type plants the phloem, and subsequently sub- stantially reduces soil respiration (Hogberg et al., 2001; Johnsen et al

  7. Planta (2008) 228:411425 DOI 10.1007/s00425-008-0746-9

    E-print Network

    Sheen, Jen

    and evolutionary features of the hexokinase gene family in Arabidopsis Abhijit Karve · Bradley L. Rauh · Xiaoxia Arabidopsis hexokinase1 (HXK1) is a moon- lighting protein that has separable functions in glucose signaling of numerous existing changes. Sliding windows analyses of coding sequences in A. thaliana and A. lyrata ssp

  8. Floral Benzenoid Carboxyl Methyltransferases: From in Vitro to in Planta Function

    SciTech Connect

    Effmert,U.; Saschenbrecker, S.; Ross, J.; Negre, F.; Fraser, C.; Noel, J.; Dudareva, N.; Piechulla, B.

    2005-01-01

    Benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases synthesize methyl esters (e.g., methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate), which are constituents of aromas and scents of many plant species and play important roles in plant communication with the surrounding environment. Within the past five years, eleven such carboxyl methyltransferases were isolated and most of them were comprehensively investigated at the biochemical, molecular and structural level. Two types of enzymes can be distinguished according to their substrate preferences: the SAMT-type enzymes isolated from Clarkia breweri, Stephanotis floribunda, Antirrhinum majus, Hoya carnosa, and Petunia hybrida, which have a higher catalytic efficiency and preference for salicylic acid, while BAMT-type enzymes from A. majus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Nicotiana suaveolens prefer benzoic acid. The elucidation of C. breweri SAMT's three-dimensional structure allowed a detailed modelling of the active sites of the carboxyl methyltransferases and revealed that the SAM binding pocket is highly conserved among these enzymes while the methyl acceptor binding site exhibits some variability, allowing a classification into SAMT-type and BAMT-type enzymes. The analysis of expression patterns coupled with biochemical characterization showed that these carboxyl methyltransferases are involved either in floral scent biosynthesis or in plant defense responses. While the latter can be induced by biotic or abiotic stress, the genes responsible for floral scent synthesis exhibit developmental and rhythmic expression pattern. The nature of the product and efficiency of its formation in plants depend on the availability of substrates, the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward benzoic acid and/or salicylic acid, and the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation at the enzyme level. The biochemical properties of benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases suggest that the genes involved in plant defenses might represent the ancestor for the presently existing floral genes which during evolution gained different expression profiles and encoded enzymes with the ability to accept structurally similar substrates.

  9. Planta (2009) 230:111 DOI 10.1007/s00425-009-0921-7

    E-print Network

    Tholl, Dorothea

    -induced volatile formation in Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea, a perennial, outcrossing relative of A. thaliana AlCarS Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea (E)- -caryophyllene synthase AtTPS21 A. thaliana terpene. The self-pollinating annual, Arabidopsis thaliana, and its relative, the outcrossing perennial, Arabidopsis

  10. Pharma-Planta: road testing the developing regulatory guidelines for plant-made pharmaceuticals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penelope Amelia Claire Sparrow; Judith A. Irwin; Phil J. Dale; Richard M. Twyman; Julian K. C. Ma

    2007-01-01

    Significant advances over the last few years have seen plant-made pharmaceuticals (PMPs) move from the exploratory research\\u000a phase towards clinical trials, with the first commercial products for human use expected to reach the market by 2009. Europe\\u000a has yet to witness the commercial application of PMP technology, although at least one product has begun phase II clinical\\u000a trials with others

  11. Why Range Forage Quality Changes (Spanish)

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Robert K.; Machen, Richard V.; Forbes, T. D. A.

    2001-09-10

    a las frutas e inflorescencias de las herb?ceas como fuente de prote?na y energ?a debido a su tama?o peque?o. Los animales son selectivos en cuanto a las partes de las plantas que comen. Por ejemplo, los herb?voros normalmente prefieren hojas... no aumente. Finalmente, esta redistribuci?n disminuye los nutrientes disponibles para los herb?voros. Cuando las c?lulas de las plantas se congelan, se rompen, liber?ndose el contenido celular. Una vez que este contenido queda expusto al medio ambiente, la...

  12. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    Research developed with 95 students of the 6th year of elementary education in a public school of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. It was a continuous work from February to December 2013, which led the students to participate in activities of observation of the environment, specifically the sky, analyzing the changes occurred. We focused on the study of variations in temperature, rainfall, day length, variations in the size of the shadows and changes in the aspect of the Moon. Our focus of analysis targeted the discussion of the knowledge that these students had about the topics indicated and as they entered the stage during the implementation of the proposal. The results showed a limited perception that students have of their environment, however, lately expanded due to the undertaken activities, especially in relation to the Moon. Working with systematic measure procedures reveals the careful handling of data so that they become understandable to students, and working with the shadows points towards the students first understand how shadows are formed, and then apply this knowledge to Astronomy. Finally, we conclude that the lived process consisted of an initial step of a work that should be encouraged for the subsequent years of training of these students. Proyecto de investigación desarrollado con 95 alumnos del sexto año de primaria en una escuela pública de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Fue un trabajo continuo, de febrero a diciembre de 2013, que llevó a los estudiantes a participar en actividades de observación de su entorno, entre ellas, el cielo, analizando los cambios ocurridos. Nos centramos en el estudio de las variaciones en la temperatura, las precipitaciones, la duración del día, las variaciones en el tamaño de las sombras y los cambios en los aspectos de la Luna. Nuestro foco de análisis se centró en discutir el conocimiento que estos estudiantes tenían sobre los temas indicados al inicio y término de la propuesta. Los resultados mostraron una percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  13. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educa&wcedil;ão Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el movimiento de la Luna, el movimiento aparente del Sol sobre la esfera celeste, los eclipses, las dimensiones y las distancias en el Universo, el brillo de las estrellas y su observación de la Tierra. Si bien ha habido un pequeño progreso en la proporción de respuestas aceptables científicamente cuando se cotejó el octavo grado de la enseñanza primaria con el quinto, y el último año de la enseñanza secundaria con el primero, se observó un predominio de las concepciones alternativas en relación a la mayoría de los temas explorados, que continuó hasta los últimos años de la educación básica. Una comparación con los datos encontrados en investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos socioculturales revelaron, en muchos aspectos, conceptos y dificultades similares expresadas por los estudiantes. Apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação sobre a compreensão de conceitos astronômicos básicos, da qual participaram 561 estudantes da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Um teste com 20 questões de múltipla escolha foi aplicado para identificar as concepções mais comuns expressadas pelos alunos. Esse instrumento de coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na literatura sobre concepções alternativas e abordou os seguintes temas: o ciclo dia-noite; os fusos horários; as estações do ano; as fases da Lua; o movimento da Lua; o movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste; os eclipses; as dimensões e distâncias no Universo; o brilho das estrelas e sua observação da Terra. Embora se tenha verificado um pequeno progresso na proporção de respostas cientificamente aceitáveis ao se cotejar a oitava série do Ensino Fundamental com a quinta, e a terceira série do Ensino Médio com a primeira, houve o predomínio de concepções alternativas em relação à maior parte dos temas explorados, as quais persistiram até o último ano da Educação Básica. A comparação com dados encontrados em investigações realizadas em outros contextos socioculturais revelaram, em m

  14. Depuración de las aguas residuales procedentes de la tintura con transportadores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martí Crespi Rosell; José Cegarra Sánchez

    1970-01-01

    En este trabajo, se describe la técnica de extracción-cromatografía de gases utilizada para la valoración cuantitativa de los carriers (transportadores de tintura) en las aguas residuales.\\u000aA continuación se determinan las cinéticas de biodegradación de seis transportadores de tintura. Utilizando dos de estos carriers se han preparado unos efluentes sintéticos, estudiándose su depuración en una planta piloto de fangos activados

  15. EL ENTRENAMIENTO ESPECÍFICO DEL PORTERO DE FÚTBOL: UNA PROPUESTA PRÁCTICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo José; Ramos Verde; D. Miguel; Guerra Cabrera; José A. Ruiz

    En muchas ocasiones empleamos los siguientes términos para referirnos a un sistema de juego determinado: 4-4-2; 4-2-3-1; 4-3-2-1; 4-4-1-1; y así cuanto sistemas queramos. Sin embargo, si sumamos solamente llegaremos hasta 10. Evidentemente, esto es un contrasentido; los equipos Fútbol deben empezar con 11 jugadores. Si nos atenemos a la Regla Nº 3 de la Federación Internacional de Fútbol Asociación

  16. Se Busca una Raíz Unitaria: Evidencia para Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rómulo Chumacero

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents compelling evidence against the null hypothesis of a unit root in series such IMACEC, consumption or GDP for the Chilean economy. This evidence builds on results derived by Chumacero (2000) that show that when the scale variable is difference stationary, the returns on assets should present a behavior that is not supported by the data. Thus, care

  17. ELCONCEPTO DE PERSONALIDAD MULTICULTURAL: UNA PERSPECTIVA DE ORIGEN ETNICOMESTIZO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MANUEL RAMIREZ

    The Mestizo (rnixed ethnic heritage) Civil RightsMovernent in the United States can be divided into five phases: Pre-Civil Rights, Civil Rights, Bilingual-Multicultural Education, Political Conservatisrn, and the current period, an Assault on Civil Rights. The author's research career has been influenced by the different stages ofthe Movernent, and his work on the concept ofthe multiculturalpersonahty has closely reflected its various

  18. Una decada de teatro guatemalteco, 1962-1973.

    E-print Network

    Acuñ a, René

    1975-04-01

    : La Compañía Nacional de Teatro se organizó en agosto de 1964, como un intento serio para la formación de un equipo profesional de artistas y téc nicos teatrales que estuviera en condiciones de presentar, dentro de un repertorio cuidadosamente... las temporadas (falta de local, equipos y téc nicos). . .8 SPRING 1975 61 El Departamento de Teatro de Bellas Artes fue creado, también, en 1964, habiendo sido nombrada para fungir como Jefe la actriz Norma P. de Carrillo, quien lo es todavía en...

  19. Mirando el Desarrollo Económico de Chile: Una Comparación Internacional

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Fuentes

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relative position of Chile in time and compared with other emerging and industrial economies, through various economic development indicators, particularly over the past two decades. It provides a descriptive analysis, without exploring causalities or testing hypotheses on the economic growth of the country. This analysis reveals the strengths and weaknesses that serve as the base for

  20. Per una nuova Fincantieri. competenza per uscire dalla crisi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Trincas

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to develop potential strategies for achievable and sustainable growth of the Italian shipbuilding industry by understanding the characteristics of this industry as well as the current market situation and future trends. The decrease in new orders in the niche market of cruise ships has become a serious risk for Fincantieri to manage. In the past two decades,

  1. En pos de una QuimEra Vicente Talanquer Artigas

    E-print Network

    Talanquer, Vicente A.

    Francisco, o el Museo de Ciencia e Industria, en la ciudad de Chicago. El problema en gran medida radica en de la vieja Escuela de Química de la UNAM en Tacuba, en la que se ubicará el Centro Nacional de

  2. Trasgo Frontend: hacia una generacion automatica de codigo paralelo eficiente

    E-print Network

    Llanos, Diego R.

    ´aquinas pa- ralelas (clusters, multicores, many-cores, etc.). A´un no se ha impuesto un modelo de programaci´on ´unico para paralelismo. En la ´ultima d´ecada han surgido nuevos lenguajes y modelos de programaci´on de manejo de threads (p.e. pThreads) facilitan la programaci´on ocultando los detalles de la m

  3. Educacion y crecimiento: una perspectiva mundial 1960-90

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Neira

    1997-01-01

    En este trabajo estudiamos el papel del capital humano como uno de los factores determinantes del crecimiento economico de un pais, para ello consideramos dos variables fundamentales, el nivel educativo alcanzado por la poblacion activa y el gasto en educacion como medida de la calidad de la enseñanza. Se realiza un estudio comparativo, para 118 paises, de ambas variables en

  4. EL TURISMO ELECTRÓNICO, UNA NECESIDAD PARA LAS EMPRESAS DEL SECTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernesto Manuel Conde Pérez; Nel Enrique Cristian Schmidt Cornejo; Ileana Ochoa Llamas

    2011-01-01

    La importancia y la necesidad de la utilización del Comercio Electrónico en la industria turística ayuda a mejorar las operaciones tradicionales practicadas en los negocios, tanto en la estrategia empresarial como en la reingeniería del negocio turístico. El hecho de que predominen las pequeñas y medianas empresas en el sector implica que la utilización del e-Commerce no se ha extendido

  5. COMERCIO ELECTRÓNICO EN UNA LOCALIDAD DEL NORTE DE MEXICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Bocanegra Gastelum; Miguel Angel Vázquez Ruiz

    2008-01-01

    ¿Está desplazando el comercio electrónico al comercio minorista tradicional? La respuesta tiene relación con el país, región o localidad donde se lleve a cabo; la capacidad de acceso a la red; así como con prácticas culturales asociadas a la seguridad en el uso del dinero electrónico y la confianza en los procedimientos de entrega de la mercancía adquirida.

  6. cyberPRINT: Hacia una Arquitectura del Ser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio Bermudez; Jim Agutter; Brent Lilly; Noah Syroid; Dwayne Westenskow; Debra Gondeck-Becker; Stefano Foresti; Yacov Sharir

    This project involves the design, construction and performance of an ìarchitecture of beingî that expresses selfhood in virtual space and real time using: (1) physiological data as its building material, (2) architectural design as its expressive intent, (3) digital space as its medium, (4) screen projection as its enveloping and viewing technique, (5) user interactivity and performance as its partner,

  7. Recuerdos de una revolucion cultural (Memories of a Cultural Revolution)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho-Neto, Paulo de

    1973-01-01

    Describes elements of the modernism movement in Brazil; paper read at a symposium commemorating the fiftieth anniversay of the Week of Modern Art of Sao Paulo'' held February 11-12, 1972, at the University of California, Los Angeles, California. (DS)

  8. La proteína verde fluorescente - una herramienta valiosa en la biomedicina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kira Welter; Alemania Wiley-VCH

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008 has been awarded to Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). The use of fluorescent proteins to study chemical processes in living cells has become a very important method in biomedicine. The discovery of GFP has also allowed the development of powerful

  9. La web: una herramienta útil en el aula de \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amalia M. De Uña

    2007-01-01

    En un momento en el que lo virtual se está acercando a las aulas, el uso de Internet se amplía día a día y las clases de lenguas extranjeras se acercan a metodologías que aúnan enfoques comunicativos y recursos multimedia hemos de aprovechar los recursos gratuitos de gran utilidad que ofrece la red para la enseñanza y el aprendizaje del

  10. Esercitazioni Matematiche: Una Rivista Ad uso Degli Studenti Universitari.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micale, Biagio

    1992-01-01

    The history of the journal "Esercitazioni Matematiche" (1921-43) edited by the "Circolo Matematico di Catania" for university students is described. A selection of proposed problems with some of their solutions is reported. (Author)

  11. REMEDIOS CORDERO Hace ya casi una dcada que el inves-

    E-print Network

    Díaz-Báñez, José Miguel

    esta publicación y donde trabajan analizando los ritmos y me- lodías del flamenco y las posibles res el profesor Díaz-Bá- ñez el flamenco «es nuestra cultura, pero ha estado postergado y no se ha trabajo se pueda em- plear en la docencia «para explicar las matemáticas a través del flamenco en todos

  12. ¿Es posible y deseable una dramaturgia específicamente femenina?

    E-print Network

    Gambaro, Griselda

    1980-07-01

    . La revolución que en la interpretación produjo Rachel tuvo seguidores y se la imitó, pero sobre todo por moda, no porque ella hubiera fundamentado racional mente sus descubrimientos y los hubiera enseñado. No estaban preparadas para el pensamiento... abstracto, para racionalizar sobre los logros del propio talento. LA HERMANA DE SHAKESPEARE Vamos a volver sobre el papel que desempeñaron las mujeres, como actrices, en el teatro, pero interroguémonos antes si hubo algún papel que desempeñaron como...

  13. Cómo escribir un artículo original para una revista biomédica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. García Santos

    2011-01-01

    Writing a scientific article is difficult, but skillful writing does not depend only on talent. This skill can be learned, and writing requires discipline and dedication. This article discusses the basic characteristics of the IMRaD (Introduction, Material and methods, Results, and Discussion) format and the contents of each section, as well as the characteristics of the title, abstract, and bibliographical

  14. E B UNA-TRAP FISHERY E E ITERRANEAN SEA

    E-print Network

    . Areas of blue.. fin spawning stippled. . . . . . · . . . i · · 2 2 Diagrammatic sketch of a typical of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director THE BLUEFIN TUNA-TRAP FISHERY OF THE - WESTERN .. Placement . bluefin tuna . . ·. . . . Description and construetion details. . . Trap operation

  15. Experiencias y repercusión de una formación en ética de investigación

    PubMed Central

    Rupaya, Carmen Rosa García

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como propósito describir los logros y repercusiones de la capacitación en ética de la investigación que brinda el Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile, sirviendo de estímulo, motivación y orientación a profesionales que requieren conocer y aplicar las normas y el raciocinio conducente a la deliberación de los problemas en esta disciplina. Asimismo, describe cómo este conocimiento genera un efecto multiplicador en aspectos tales como la participación en un comité de ética de la investigación (CEI), organización de cursos y creación y desarrollo de líneas de investigación, que repercuten en publicaciones realizadas con estudiantes de posgrado. Relata además los contenidos y estrategias didácticas que pueden ser empleados en cursos de ética y bioética para estudiantes de estomatología y concluye mencionando la aplicación práctica de esta capacitación en los ámbitos docente, institucional y de investigación. PMID:24482556

  16. CURSO DE INSTRUMENTACIÓN ELECTRÓNICA INTEGRADO EN UNA EXPERIENCIA DOCENTE INTERDISCIPLINAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. VALLEDOR; M. GONZALEZ; C. BLANCO; J. C. VIERA; J. C. ALVAREZ-ANTON

    El presente documento versa sobre la asignatura de Instrumentación Electrónica impartida durante el último curso de Ingeniería Industrial. Esta asignatura se enmarca dentro de un proyecto multidisciplinar basado en la colaboración entre varias asignaturas del último año de dicha titulación, concretamente con las asignaturas de Computadores, Regulación Automática y Administración de Empresas. El objetivo global consiste en la propuesta por

  17. Una Mirada al Cáncer Infantil y Los Hispanos

    Cancer.gov

    El cáncer infantil es poco común—los niños con cáncer representan menos de 1% de todos los casos nuevos de cáncer en Estados Unidos. Pero, ¿sabía usted que el cáncer es la segunda causa principal de muerte (después de accidentes) en los niños de 1 a 14 años de edad? Se calculó que en 2012, en Estados Unidos, más de 12 000 niños (de recién nacidos¬ a 14 años de edad) serían diagnosticados con cáncer y más de 1300 niños morirían por esta enfermedad.

  18. ¿Desatentos? ¿Desatendidos?: una mirada psicopedagógica del TDAH en estudiantes universitarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeria Cerutti

    2008-01-01

    This work is a revision of the main investigation lines and the contributions of the most recent publications in Attention Deficit Disor- der. The investigation has as purpose to give mark to a study of prevalence of the symptoms of this dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of students a National University Argentina, with the objective of establishing relationships, after knowing

  19. UnaWare: supporting tacit design knowledge exchange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Heylighen; Mathias Casaer; Herman Neuckermans

    2006-01-01

    DYNAMO (Dynamic Architectural Memory Online) is an interactive platform to share ideas, knowledge and insights in the form of concrete building projects among designers in different contexts and at different levels of expertise. Interaction with various user groups revealed two major thresholds: submitting project material to the platform takes time, effort, and specific skills; in addition, designers tend to sense

  20. Diseño Hardware en Uruguay: Una alternativa económica y técnicamente viable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio Pérez Acle; Juan P. Oliver; Fernando Silveira; Facultad de Ingeniería

    The main goal of this paper is to show that electronic hardware design is a valid alternative to be taken into account when deciding on the implementation of a certain development or the technical - economical possibility of a certain product in our context.

  1. Una Perspectiva de Mexico: Its People, Places and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Gary; Bianchi, Maria Eugenia Matute

    Evolving from a general commitment to the goals of cultural pluralism and bicultural education, this portfolio of 24 full color and halftone photographs aims to reinforce those curricular objectives which emphasize a respect for the value and individuality of different cultures and groups, affirm the right of an individual to maintain a bicultural…

  2. Collomia linearis Nutt. Una Polemoniacea nordamericana avventizia nel Bellunese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika Pignatti Wikus

    1973-01-01

    Collomia linearis Nutt. (Polemoniaceae) naturalized near Belluno, Northern Italy. – Collomia linearis Nutt., a North American Poleomoniacea, has been found naturalized in the gravelly stream-bed of the Pettorina, near Rocca Pietore (province of Belluno), at about 1200 m on s.l. The Pettorina is a seasonal stream and quite without water during the main part of the year. Most of its

  3. Eficiencia productiva sectorial en las regiones españolas: una aproximación frontera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mercedes Gumbau Albert; Joaquín Maudos Villarroya

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the technical efficiency of the productive sectors of the Spanish regions over the period 1980-91. We estimate a production function using an stochastic frontier approach for the productive sectors under three different distributional assumptions for the inefficiency term. The results obtained show the existence of important inefficiency levels in the production, being

  4. Manejo de la lesión medular debida a una malformación arteriovenosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Anciano-Campo; O. Fagundo-González; C. López-García; M. Alcobendas-Maestro

    2007-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in the spinal cord are uncommon. Depending on the type of AVM, different types of damage to the spinal cord are caused.In this clinical case, a 34-year-old man with paresthesia and progressive paraparesis was diagnosed with acute thoracic myelopathy using magnetic resonance imaging; angiography of the spinal cord revealed an arteriovenous fistula.Treatment of AVM aims to reestablish

  5. Experiments with UNA for solving linear constraints in real variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neelam Gupta; YongJun Cho; Mohammad Z. Hossain

    2004-01-01

    Linear constraints arise in formulation of several computationally challenging problems such as weather modeling, underground water modeling, air pollution modeling etc. The constraints may correspond to multiple observations that place upper or lower bounds on linear combinations of variables. Computing a feasible solution or solving these inequalities in least squares sense is a fundamental problem in many applications.In this paper,

  6. Programación de una unidad didáctica: Perfeccionamiento en baloncesto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Fernández Fraga; Concepción García Rivero

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to design a didactic unit in the context of the students and characteristics of the educational curriculum that can serve to improve the methodology of teaching-learning process in perfecting sports in basketball, a sport of great collective invasion complexity. This unit is done with high school students first. The development of it is based

  7. ctualmente se afronta una im-portante prdida de biodiversi-

    E-print Network

    Figuerola, Jordi

    . Origen y causas Un aspecto clave en la emergencia de la mayoría de nuevas EIE es el cam- Jordi Figuerola y Ramón Soriguer Departamento de Biología Aplicada, Estación Biológica de Doñana, Consejo Superior

  8. Ultraperiferia, economía y finanzas públicas de Canarias: Una panorámica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Fernández Llera; Santiago Lago Peñas

    2011-01-01

    RESUMEN: El trabajo analiza las particularidades del sistema de financiación canario, justificado sobre la condición de región ultraperiférica de la Unión Europea. Se examina el marco general de las finanzas públicas, poniéndolo en relación con la dinámica macroeconómica de Canarias. Se concluye que las estimaciones disponibles no parecen ser suficientes para precisar el importe global de las compensaciones que debería

  9. La Ciencia de los Antiguos Mexicanos: Una Bibliografia Selecta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz-Franco, Luis; Magana, Maria

    1973-01-01

    Fifty-five citations pertaining to the scientific and mathematic development of ancient Mexicans, particularly the Mayas, are given in this select bibliography. The introduction and descriptions of resource libraries in 8 States are in Spanish. (NQ)

  10. Somos los sobrevivientes de una utopía': Entrevista a Adhemar Bianchi

    E-print Network

    Pellarolo, Silvia; Proañ o-Gó mez, Lola

    2001-10-01

    oponemos a esa visión, la de la antropología social, con un concepto de cultura colectiva, con todos los elementos de transformación y de contaminación que esas culturas tienen. No nos parece que el tema pase por reproducir el rito de las tijeras o... entre sí e incluso que tengan "hinchadas" como los equipos de fútbol. Es decir, red solidaria de teatro y cultura popular comunitaria. Creemos que el modelo actual de concentración de los teatros en las zonas céntricas o en grandes centros culturales...

  11. Realismo periférico. Una filosofía de política exterior para Estados débiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Escudé

    2009-01-01

    Durante la mayor parte del siglo XX la Argentina mantuvo la neutralidad durante los grandes conflictos mundiales, sosteniendo frecuentes confrontaciones políticas con los Estados Unidos que iban más allá de lo retórico. La culminación de esta actitud confrontativa, que abarcó a otras potencias occidentales, llegó con la guerra de Malvinas. Posteriormente, durante la presidencia de Raúl Alfonsín, la Argentina rehusaba

  12. Mtricas de Funcionalidad: una taxonoma para sistemas Web

    E-print Network

    Guerrero, Luis

    Muy poco de lo aprendido en ingeniería de software, se aplica en el desarrollo de sistemas Web. Esto, métricas para aplicaciones Web, aplicaciones/sitios Web. 1. Introducción El desarrollo y crecimiento del desarrollo de sitios y aplicaciones Web está caracterizado por cuatro importantes factores: (1) las

  13. Edukalibre: una herramienta para la creacion colaborativa de material didactico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Chaparro; Teofllo Romera

    El Software Libre, con sus caracter¶‡sticas y su particular modelo de desarrollo, ha permitido la creacion de un conjunto de metodolog¶‡as de trabajo en grupo que han resultado satisfactorias en gran cantidad diferentesambitos. En este sentido, el proyecto Edukalibre importa y adapta estas metodolog¶‡as para ser aplicadas en la creacion y man- tenimiento de documentacion en elambito de la educacion.

  14. DARWINISMO Y CIENCIAS SOCIALES: UNA INTERPRETACIÓN EVOLUCIONISTA DE LA CULTURA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAUREANO CASTRO NOGUEIRA; LUIS CASTRO NOGUEIRA; MIGUEL ÁNGEL; CASTRO NOGUEIRA; MIGUEL ÁNGEL TORO

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's attempt to analyze human culture and behavior from a naturalistic point of view was not well received by most of the thinkers responsible for the foundations of the standard model in social sciences. However, in the last years the Darwinian proposal has been taking again seriously in several disciplines trying to examine culture from an evolutionary perspective. From these

  15. Una realizzazione attesa: il catalogo generale delle meridiane in Italia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frosina, Angelo

    2002-01-01

    The Sundial Section of the UAI has compiled the first catalog of 12643 sundials in 3109 municipalities of Italy. Sundials are instruments that measure the passage of time through the movements of the Sun and the shadows it casts. The volume comprises four chapters with introductoring sections regarding how to approach a reading of volume and an appendix containing additional documentary material.

  16. Il cilindro di Este: testimonianza di una tradizione perduta.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaldi, M.

    1998-04-01

    In the Museum of Este, near Padua in Italy, lies the missing ring of an ancient gnomonic tradition. A small portable roman sundial is on display behind the glasses of a casket, without knowing its real importance. It's in fact the tangible witness of a much more ancient tradition than what believed in the past.

  17. Localizacion de una Autoimagen en el Efecto Talbot para una Rejilla Luis Gerardo de la Fraga1

    E-print Network

    Fraga, Luis Gerardo de la

    patr´on de difracci´on en el campo cercano que genera la autoimagen. Hemos evaluado el contras- te por de onda se propaga en el campo cercano de tal ma- nera que se forman m´ultiples r´eplicas de esta contraste medido directamente con la Ec. (1) no ofrece un criterio claro. 2. Experimento En la Fig. 1 se

  18. El seminario consta de dos partes: Una primera parte (terica) sobre la Optimizacin delTDA-H desde una

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    manera práctica,tutorizada por un profesional en ejercicio especialista enTDAH.III Seminario sobre realización de ambos, llevará a la inclusión en un grupo de colaboradores con formación específica enTDAH: · AnalizarlarealidaddelossujetosconTDAH,desdesuprimera infancia hasta la entrada en la edad adulta

  19. Characterization of a Strong, Constitutive Mung Bean ( Vigna radiata L.) Promoter with a Complex Mode of Regulation in planta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher I. Cazzonelli; Emily J. McCallum; Rebecca Lee; José Ramón Botella

    2005-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterization in tobacco and Arabidopsis of a Vigna radiata L. (mung bean) promoter that controls the expression of VR-ACS1, an auxin-inducible ACC synthase gene. The VR-ACS1 promoter exhibits a very unusual behavior when studied in plants different from its original host, mung bean. GUS and luciferase in situ assays of transgenic plants containing VR-ACS1 promoter

  20. In planta AKT2 subunits constitute a pH and Ca 2+ -sensitive inward rectifying K + channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Latz; Natalya Ivashikina; Susanne Fischer; Peter Ache; Toshio Sano; Dirk Becker; Rosalia Deeken; Rainer Hedrich

    2007-01-01

    Heterologous expression of plant genes in yeast and animal cells represents a common approach to study plant ion channels.\\u000a When expressed in Xenopus oocytes and COS cells the Arabidopsis Shaker-like K+ channel, AKT2 forms a weakly voltage-dependent channel, blocked by Ca2+ and protons. Channels with these characteristics, however, were not found in AKT2-expressing Arabidopsis cell types. To understand this phenomenon,

  1. A report on a comprehensive series of experiments, both in vitro and in planta, to develop treatments for Phytophthora

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    in the U.S. since Dutch Elm Disease. Although it was first observed around the San Francisco Bay Area the cambium of main stems, while on a wide range of other hosts it simply causes leaf spots , leaf blight

  2. Exploiting plant virus-derived components to achieve in planta expression and for templates for synthetic biology applications.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Keith; Lomonossoff, George P

    2013-10-01

    This review discusses the varying roles that have been played by many plant-viral regulatory sequences and proteins in the creation of plant-based expression systems and virus particles for use in nanotechnology. Essentially, there are two ways of expressing an exogenous protein: the creation of transgenic plants possessing a stably integrated gene construction, or the transient expression of the desired gene following the infiltration of the gene construct. Both depend on disarmed strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to deliver the created gene construction into cell nuclei, usually through the deployment of virus-derived components. The importance of efficient mRNA translation in the latter process is highlighted. Plant viruses replicate to sustain an infection to promote their survival. The major product of this, the virus particle, is finding increasing roles in the emerging field of bionanotechnology. One of the major products of plant-viral expression is the virus-like particle (VLP). These are increasingly playing a role in vaccine development. Similarly, many VLPs are suitable for the investigation of the many facets of the emerging field of synthetic biology, which encompasses the design and construction of new biological functions and systems not found in nature. Genetic and chemical modifications to plant-generated VLPs serve as ideal starter templates for many downstream synthetic biology applications. PMID:23452220

  3. In planta production of the highly potent resveratrol analogue pterostilbene via stilbene synthase and O-methyltransferase co-expression

    SciTech Connect

    Rimando A. M.; Liu C.; Pan, Z.; Polashock, J. J.; Dayan, F. E., Mizuno, C. S.; Snook, M. E.; Baerson, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Resveratrol and related stilbenes are thought to play important roles in defence responses in several plant species and have also generated considerable interest as nutraceuticals owing to their diverse health-promoting properties. Pterostilbene, a 3,5-dimethylether derivative of resveratrol, possesses properties similar to its parent compound and, additionally, exhibits significantly higher fungicidal activity in vitro and superior pharmacokinetic properties in vivo. Recombinant enzyme studies carried out using a previously characterized O-methyltransferase sequence from Sorghum bicolor (SbOMT3) demonstrated its ability to catalyse the A ring-specific 3,5-bis-O-methylation of resveratrol, yielding pterostilbene. A binary vector was constructed for the constitutive co-expression of SbOMT3 with a stilbene synthase sequence from peanut (AhSTS3) and used for the generation of stably transformed tobacco and Arabidopsis plants, resulting in the accumulation of pterostilbene in both species. A reduced floral pigmentation phenotype observed in multiple tobacco transformants was further investigated by reversed-phase HPLC analysis, revealing substantial decreases in both dihydroquercetin-derived flavonoids and phenylpropanoid-conjugated polyamines in pterostilbene-producing SbOMT3/AhSTS3 events. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this strategy for the generation of pterostilbene-producing crops and also underscore the need for the development of additional approaches for minimizing concomitant reductions in key phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites.

  4. ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR EN PLANTAS JÓVENES DE NÍSPERO (Manilkara achras (Miller) Fosberg) SOMETIDAS A DOS AMBIENTES DE LUZ1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norkys Meza

    Leaf area determination on sapodilla (Manilkara achras (Miller) Fosberg) young seedlings at two light environments Leaf area was determined for two groups of 15 young seedlings of sapodilla (Manilkara achras (Miller) Fosberg). The first group was located under a lath-house and the second one under a rain-shelter with transparent roof. The length width and leaf area were measured in each

  5. Planta (1995)196:683-690 P l a n t a (62)Springer-Verlag1995

    E-print Network

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    by externally supplied nitrate was moni- tored in roots of intact Picea glauca (Moench) Voss. seedlings over a 5 - Nitrate (induction of uptake) - Nitrate reductase - Nitrogen-13 - Picea Abbreviations and symbol: [NO3 ]cy

  6. Health risk assessment of air emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant--a case study.

    PubMed

    Cangialosi, Federico; Intini, Gianluca; Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Stellacci, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    A health risk assessment of long-term emissions of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air pollutants has been carried out for the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) of the city of Taranto, Italy. Ground level air concentrations and soil deposition of carcinogenic (Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins/Furans and Cd) and non-carcinogenic (Pb and Hg) pollutants have been estimated using a well documented atmospheric dispersion model. Health risk values for air inhalation, dermal contact, soil and food ingestion have been calculated based on a combination of these concentrations and a matrix of environmental exposure factors. Exposure of the surrounding population has been addressed for different release scenarios based on four pollutants, four exposure pathways and two receptor groups (children and adults). Spatial risk distribution and cancer excess cases projected from plant emissions have been compared with background mortality records. Estimated results based on the MSWI emissions show: (1) individual risks well below maximum acceptable levels, (2) very small incremental cancer risk compared with background level. PMID:17611096

  7. A visual identification key utilizing both gestalt and analytic approaches to identification of Carices present in North America (Plantae, Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Timothy Mark

    2013-01-01

    Images are a critical part of the identification process because they enable direct, immediate and relatively unmediated comparisons between a specimen being identified and one or more reference specimens. The Carices Interactive Visual Identification Key (CIVIK) is a novel tool for identification of North American Carex species, the largest vascular plant genus in North America, and two less numerous closely-related genera, Cymophyllus and Kobresia. CIVIK incorporates 1288 high-resolution tiled image sets that allow users to zoom in to view minute structures that are crucial at times for identification in these genera. Morphological data are derived from the earlier Carex Interactive Identification Key (CIIK) which in turn used data from the Flora of North America treatments. In this new iteration, images can be viewed in a grid or histogram format, allowing multiple representations of data. In both formats the images are fully zoomable. PMID:24723777

  8. A RAPID INFECTION ASSAY FOR ARMILLARIA AND REAL-TIME PCR QUANTITATION OF THE FUNGAL BIOMASS IN PLANTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slow and unreliable infection in the greenhouse has been a barrier to research on Armillaria root disease. The existing infection assay takes 7-18 months for detectable infection, during which time the inoculum often dies, resulting in unequal challenge among plants. As symptom expression and mort...

  9. Rendimento de grãos de aveia branca (Avena sativa l.) em densidades de plantas e doses de nitrogênio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gessi Ceccon; Hélio Grassi Filho; Sílvio José Bicudo

    2004-01-01

    This work had the aim to evaluate white oat grain yield as influenced by different plant densities and nitrogen levels. The experiment was carried out in the Lageado experimental farm at UNESP in the county of Botucatu in São Paulo state, Brazil. White oat was sown directly over corn residues in a Rhodic kanhapludalf soil. The experimental design was a

  10. VARIACIÓN EN EL ÍNDICE Y DENSIDAD ESTOMÁTICA EN PLANTAS DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) SOMETIDAS A TRATAMIENTOS SALINOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José A. Salas; María E. Sanabria; Reinaldo Pire

    2001-01-01

    Modification of stomatal index and density in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) submitted to saline treatments Field grown tomato plants cv. Missouri were irrigated with water containing four different levels of NaCl (EC of approximately 0.5, 2.3, 3.1 and 5.0 dS\\/m). At harvest, stomatal index (SI) and stomatal density (SD) were determined on the middle portions of randomly selected leaflets.

  11. Inhibitory effect of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB on plant pathogens Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in planta

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiangling; Zhang, Manrang; Tang, Qian; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. produce secondary metabolites with potential antimicrobial activity for use in agricultural productions. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of X. nematophila TB culture on plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora capsici. The cell-free filtrate of TB culture showed strong inhibitory effects (>90%) on mycelial growth of both pathogens. The methanol-extracted bioactive compounds (methanol extract) of TB culture also had strong inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and spore germinations of both pathogens. The methanol extract (1000??g/mL) and cell-free filtrate both showed strong therapeutic and protective effects (>70%) on grey mold both in detached tomato fruits and plants, and leaf scorch in pepper plants. This study demonstrates X. nematophila TB produces antimicrobial metabolites of strong activity on plant pathogens, with great potential for controlling tomato grey mold and pepper leaf scorch and being used in integrated disease control to reduce chemical application. PMID:24599183

  12. An in planta-expressed polyketide synthase produces (R)-mellein in the wheat pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum.

    PubMed

    Chooi, Yit-Heng; Krill, Christian; Barrow, Russell A; Chen, Shasha; Trengove, Robert; Oliver, Richard P; Solomon, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Parastagonospora nodorum is a pathogen of wheat that affects yields globally. Previous transcriptional analysis identified a partially reducing polyketide synthase (PR-PKS) gene, SNOG_00477 (SN477), in P. nodorum that is highly upregulated during infection of wheat leaves. Disruption of the corresponding SN477 gene resulted in the loss of production of two compounds, which we identified as (R)-mellein and (R)-O-methylmellein. Using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast heterologous expression system, we successfully demonstrated that SN477 is the only enzyme required for the production of (R)-mellein. This is the first identification of a fungal PKS that is responsible for the synthesis of (R)-mellein. The P. nodorum ?SN477 mutant did not show any significant difference from the wild-type strain in its virulence against wheat. However, (R)-mellein at 200 ?g/ml inhibited the germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) seeds. Comparative sequence analysis identified the presence of mellein synthase (MLNS) homologues in several Dothideomycetes and two sodariomycete genera. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the MLNSs in fungi and bacteria evolved convergently from fungal and bacterial 6-methylsalicylic acid synthases. PMID:25326302

  13. In planta expression of a protein encoded by the extrachromosomal DNA of a phytoplasma and related to geminivirus replication proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisashi Nishigawa; Shin-ichi Miyata; Kenro Oshima; Toshimi Sawayanagi; Akihiro Komoto; Tsutomu Kuboyama; Izumi Matsuda; Tsuneo Tsuchizaki; Shigetou Namba

    A new extrachromosomal DNA, EcOYW1, was cloned from the onion yellows phytoplasma (OY-W). Southern blot and PCR analysis showed that EcOYW1 is not present in the OY-M, a mild symptom line derived from OY-W. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of EcOYW1; it is a circular dsDNA of 7<0 kbp in length, which contains seven ORFs. ORF1 encoded a homologue

  14. Remote sensing of gene expression in Planta: transgenic plants as monitors of exogenous stress perception in extraterrestrial environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manak, Michael S.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Sehnke, Paul C.; Ferl, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic arabidopsis plants containing the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene were developed as biological sensors for monitoring physiological responses to unique environments. Plants were monitored in vivo during exposure to hypoxia, high salt, cold, and abcissic acid in experiments designed to characterize the utility and responses of the Adh/GFP biosensors. Plants in the presence of environmental stimuli that induced the Adh promoter responded by expressing GFP, which in turn generated a detectable fluorescent signal. The GFP signal degraded when the inducing stimulus was removed. Digital imaging of the Adh/GFP plants exposed to each of the exogenous stresses demonstrated that the stress-induced gene expression could be followed in real time. The experimental results established the feasibility of using a digital monitoring system for collecting gene expression data in real time from Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) biosensor plants during space exploration experiments.

  15. SÍNTESIS Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE MATERIALES ZEOLÍTICOS A PARTIR DE EXTRACTOS ETANÓLICOS DEL TALLO DE LA PLANTA EQUISETUM GIGANTEUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. López; S. Márquez; O. González; A. Mora; J. G. Lanza

    Zeolite-type microporous materials have been synthesized using structure directing agents (SDA) present in the ethanolic extracts of the stem as well as the stem itself of the plant Equisetum giganteum. Materials crystallized in the interstices of the stem of the plant were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Si\\/Al ratio of the synthesized solids was determined

  16. Production and characterization of in planta transiently produced polygalacturanase from Aspergillus niger and its fusions with hydrophobin or ELP tags

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pectinases play an important role in plant cell wall deconstruction and have potential in diverse industries such as food, wine, animal feed, textile, paper, fuel, and others. The demand for such enzymes is increasing exponentially, as are the efforts to improve their production and to implement their use in several industrial processes. The goal of this study was to examine the potential of producing polygalacturonase I from Aspergillus niger in plants and to investigate the effects of subcellular compartmentalization and protein fusions on its accumulation and activity. Results Polygalacturonase I from Aspergillus niger (AnPGI) was transiently produced in Nicotiana benthamiana by targeting it to five different cellular compartments: apoplast, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), vacuole, chloroplast and cytosol. Accumulation levels of 2.5%, 3.0%, and 1.9% of total soluble protein (TSP) were observed in the apoplast, ER, and vacuole, respectively, and specific activity was significantly higher in vacuole-targeted AnPGI compared to the same enzyme targeted to the ER or apoplast. No accumulation was found for AnPGI when targeted to the chloroplast or cytosol. Analysis of AnPGI fused with elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) revealed a significant increase in the protein accumulation level, especially when targeted to the vacuole where the protein doubles its accumulation to 3.6% of TSP, while the hydrophobin (HFBI) fusion impaired AnPGI accumulation and both tags impaired activity, albeit to different extents. The recombinant protein showed activity against polygalacturonic acid with optimum conditions at pH 5.0 and temperature from 30 to 50°C, depending on its fusion. In vivo analysis of reducing sugar content revealed a higher release of reducing sugars in plant tissue expressing recombinant AnPGI compared to wild type N. benthamiana leaves. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that subcellular compartmentalization of enzymes has an impact on both the target protein accumulation and its activity, especially in the case of proteins that undergo post-translational modifications, and should be taken into consideration when protein production strategies are designed. Using plants to produce heterologous enzymes for the degradation of a key component of the plant cell wall could reduce the cost of biomass pretreatment for the production of cellulosic biofuels. PMID:24970673

  17. Cdigos UNESCO: 241712 241714 2407 Frecuencia del curso: Anual BIOLOGA DE LA REPRODUCCIN EN PLANTAS SUPERIORES. IMPLICACIONES AGRONMICAS Y

    E-print Network

    meristemo: genes homeóticos. Mutantes de la inducción floral. Determinación del sexo. Flores hermafroditas, monoicas y dioicas. Mecanismos para evitar la endogamia. Mecanismos genéticos de determinación del sexo. II

  18. Plantas asociadas a la pesca y a sus recursos por los Indígenas Chorote del Chaco Semiarido (Argentina)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUSTAVO F. SCARPA

    Summary: Plants associated to fishing and to their resources by Chorote indians from Chaco Semiarido (Argentine). Chorote indians belong to the Mataco-mataguayo linguistic family, they live in Argentina's Semiarid Chaco along the riverbanks of the Pilcomayo river in Salta province. Traditionally, they obtained their own living from hunting, gathering and fishing; being the latter of high cultural and economic value

  19. Plantas con Flores: Claves para la Evolución de la Tierra y Para el Bienestar Humano

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela Soltis (University of Florida, Gainesville; )

    2006-03-01

    The issue-focused interview discusses how angiosperms, or flowering plants, are important because they hold clues to the evolutionary history of our planet, provide sources of food, medicine, and shelter to humans, and serve as food and habitat for many other organisms.

  20. In planta production of the highly potent resveratrol analogue pterostilbene via stilbene synthase and O-methyltransferase co-expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stilbenoid phytoalexins such as resveratrol, play an important defense role in several plant species against pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea. In addition to their antimicrobial properties, resveratrol and related stilbenes have also generated considerable interest as nutraceuticals, due to their...

  1. Development of a Fusarium graminearum Affymetrix Genechip for Profiling Fungal Gene Expression in Vitro and in Planta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi have become available, providing the opportunity for large-scale functional analysis including genome wide expression analysis. We report the design and validation of the first Affymetrix GeneChip microarray based on the entire genome of a f...

  2. PATHOGENICITY AND IN PLANTA MYCOTOXIN ACCUMULATION AMONG MEMBERS OF THE FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM SPECIES COMPLEX ON WHEAT AND RICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, is a destructive disease of small grains caused by members of the Fusarium graminearum (Fg) species complex, comprised of at least nine distinct, cryptic species. Members of this complex are known to produce mycotoxins including the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol ...

  3. The DNA Damage Response Signaling Cascade Regulates Proliferation of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Ustilago maydis in Planta[W

    PubMed Central

    de Sena-Tomás, Carmen; Fernández-Álvarez, Alfonso; Holloman, William K.; Pérez-Martín, José

    2011-01-01

    In the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis, the dikaryotic state dominates the period of growth occurring during the infectious phase. Dikaryons are cells in which two nuclei, one from each parent cell, share a single cytoplasm for a period of time without undergoing nuclear fusion. In fungal cells, maintenance of the dikaryotic state requires an intricate cell division process that often involves the formation of a structure known as the clamp connection as well as the sorting of one of the nuclei to this structure to ensure that each daughter dikaryon inherits a balance of each parental genome. Here, we describe an atypical role of the DNA damage checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Atr1 during pathogenic growth of U. maydis. We found that Chk1 and Atr1 collaborate to control cell cycle arrest during the induction of the virulence program in U. maydis and that Chk1 and Atr1 work together to control the dikaryon formation. These findings uncover a link between a widely conserved signaling cascade and the virulence program in a phytopathogen. We propose a model in which adjustment of the cell cycle by the Atr1-Chk1 axis controls fidelity in dikaryon formation. Therefore, Chk1 and Atr1 emerge as critical cell type regulators in addition to their roles in the DNA damage response. PMID:21478441

  4. A visual identification key utilizing both gestalt and analytic approaches to identification of Carices present in North America (Plantae, Cyperaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Images are a critical part of the identification process because they enable direct, immediate and relatively unmediated comparisons between a specimen being identified and one or more reference specimens. The Carices Interactive Visual Identification Key (CIVIK) is a novel tool for identification of North American Carex species, the largest vascular plant genus in North America, and two less numerous closely-related genera, Cymophyllus and Kobresia. CIVIK incorporates 1288 high-resolution tiled image sets that allow users to zoom in to view minute structures that are crucial at times for identification in these genera. Morphological data are derived from the earlier Carex Interactive Identification Key (CIIK) which in turn used data from the Flora of North America treatments. In this new iteration, images can be viewed in a grid or histogram format, allowing multiple representations of data. In both formats the images are fully zoomable. PMID:24723777

  5. A straightforward and reliable method for bacterial in planta transcriptomics: application to the Dickeya dadantii/Arabidopsis thaliana pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Emilie; Alunni, Benoît; Malfatti, Pierrette; Solier, Lucie; Pédron, Jacques; Kraepiel, Yvan; Van Gijsegem, Frédérique

    2015-04-01

    Transcriptome analysis of bacterial pathogens is a powerful approach to identify and study the expression patterns of genes during host infection. However, analysis of the early stages of bacterial virulence at the genome scale is lacking with respect to understanding of plant-pathogen interactions and diseases, especially during foliar infection. This is mainly due to both the low ratio of bacterial cells to plant material at the beginning of infection, and the high contamination by chloroplastic material. Here we describe a reliable and straightforward method for bacterial cell purification from infected leaf tissues, effective even if only a small amount of bacteria is present relative to plant material. The efficiency of this method for transcriptomic analysis was validated by analysing the expression profiles of the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Dickeya dadantii, a soft rot disease-causing agent, during the first hours of infection of the model host plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Transcriptome profiles of epiphytic bacteria and bacteria colonizing host tissues were compared, allowing identification of approximately 100 differentially expressed genes. Requiring no specific equipment, cost-friendly and easily transferable to other pathosystems, this method should be of great interest for many other plant-bacteria interaction studies. PMID:25740271

  6. MORFOLOGÍA DE PLANTA Y FENOLOGÍA DE GENOTIPOS DE CHILE HABANERO (CAPSICUM CHINENSE JACQ.) COLECTADOS EN YUCATÁN, MÉXICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Jorge Gerardo Trujillo-Aguirre; Omar Gutiérrez-Alonso; Capullo del Rocio Perez-Llanes

    RESUMEN El cultivo de Chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) en el estado de Yucatán ocupa el segundo lugar de importancia en cuanto a la superficie de siembra de hortalizas, después del tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), debido a que en la actualidad se establecen entre 800 y 1000 has. Esta ha propiciado la introducción de semilla de regiones ajenas al estado

  7. PLANTAS CULTIVADAS Y SILVESTRES HOSPEDERAS DE Thrips tabaci Y Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera:Thripidae) EN QUÍBOR, ESTADO LARA, VENEZUELA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Salas

    2003-01-01

    Cultivated and wild plants hosting Thrips tabaci and Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera:Thripidae) in Quíbor valley, Lara State, Venezuela The presence of the bean yellow trips Thrips palmi Karny, and the onion thrips Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on different cultivated and wild plants in rainy and dry seasons was recorded in several places of Quíbor valley, Lara State, Venezuela. Adults of

  8. Expression of Pisum sativum SAD polypeptides in production hosts and in planta: tetrameric organization of the protein.

    PubMed

    Scherbak, Nikolai; Brosché, Mikael; Ala-Häivälä, Anneli; Strid, Hilja; Ohrfelt, Annika; Nilsson, Fredrik; Strid, Ake

    2009-01-01

    In Pisum sativum, the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein (SAD) gene family consists of at least three members (SAD-A, -B, and -C). Expression of two of these genes (SAD-A and -C) in Escherichia coli or Pichia pastoris resulted in full-length soluble proteins. Purified SAD-A was used as antigen for antibody production in rabbits. With these antibodies the recombinant SAD-C protein (which was most highly expressed of the two isoforms) was shown to be a tetramer consisting of a dimer of dimers. The SAD genes are transiently expressed in plants by short exposures to ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B), as judged by northern blotting. In turn, mRNA accumulation leads to formation of SAD protein in leaf and stem tissue upon prolonged UV-B irradiation. PMID:18814850

  9. Allelic differences in Medicago truncatula NIP/LATD mutants correlate with their encoded proteins’ transport activities in planta

    PubMed Central

    Salehin, Mohammad; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Bagchi, Rammyani; Sherrier, D. Janine; Dickstein, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Medicago truncatula NIP/LATD gene, required for symbiotic nitrogen fixing nodule and root architecture development, encodes a member of the NRT1(PTR) family that demonstrates high-affinity nitrate transport in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Of three Mtnip/latd mutant proteins, one retains high-affinity nitrate transport in oocytes, while the other two are nitrate-transport defective. To further examine the mutant proteins’ transport properties, the missense Mtnip/latd alleles were expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana chl1-5, resistant to the herbicide chlorate because of a deletion spanning the nitrate transporter AtNRT1.1(CHL1) gene. Mtnip-3 expression restored chlorate sensitivity in the Atchl1-5 mutant, similar to wild type MtNIP/LATD, while Mtnip-1 expression did not. The high-affinity nitrate transporter AtNRT2.1 gene was expressed in Mtnip-1 mutant roots; it did not complement, which could be caused by several factors. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that MtNIP/LATD may have another biochemical activity. PMID:23154505

  10. Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary J. Samuels; Adnan Ismaiel; Ade Rosmana; Muhammad Junaid; David Guest; Peter Mcmahon; Philip Keane; Agus Purwantara; Smilja Lambert; Marianela Rodriguez-Carres; Marc A. Cubeta

    Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The most characteristic symptoms of the disease are green-spotted leaf chlorosis or, commonly since about 2004, necrotic blotches, followed by senescence of leaves beginning on the second or third flush behind the shoot apex,

  11. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de normalizadas, en el desempeño de los estudiantes en estos dos asuntos foram pequenas, 0.26 e 0.13 respectivamente. El razonamiento espacial de los estudiantes fue medido utilizando un instrumento específico desarrollado para este trabaljo. Las correlaciones entre los resultados de los tests astronómicos y este instrumento específico, antes y después del curso mostraron una relación entre moderada y fuerte, sugiriendo que la relación entre el razonamiento espacial y el conocimiento astronómico puede explicar hasta un 25% de la variación em el desempeño de los estudiantes. A comunidade da educação em astronomia tem suposto de forma implícita que o aprendizado da astronomia consiste em um domínio conceitual fundamentado no raciocínio espacial. Como um primeiro passo para identificar formalmente uma relação empírica entre estas duas coisas, utilizamos como amostra os estudantes de graduação de carreiras não científicas de um curso exploratório em uma universidade norte-americana do meio-oeste de médio porte com programa de Doutorado em andamento, onde estes estudantes foram submetidos a um diagnóstico de raciocino espacial e conceitos astronômicos antes e depois do mesmo. As ferramentas utilizadas foram o Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) e o questionário What do you know? Utilizando somente dados completamente consistentes para esta análise, nossa amostra consistiu de 86 estudantes de graduação. As melhoras, depois de normalizadas, do desempenho dos estudantes nos dois quesitos foram pequenas, 0.26 e 0.13 respectivamente. O raciocínio espacial dos estudantes foi medido utilizando um instrumento específico desenhado para este trabalho. As correlações entre os resultados dos testes astronômicos e este instrumento específico antes e depois do curso mostraram uma relação entre moderada e forte, sugerindo que a relação entre o raciocínio espacial e o conhecimento astronômico pode explicar até um 25% na variação no desempenho dos estudantes.

  12. A quantitative synthesis of the medicinal ethnobotany of the Malinké of Mali and the Asháninka of Peru, with a new theoretical framework

    PubMed Central

    Bletter, Nathaniel

    2007-01-01

    Background Although ethnomedically and taxonomically guided searches for new medicinal plants can improve the percentage of plants found containing active compounds when compared to random sampling, ethnobotany has fulfilled little of its promise in the last few decades to deliver a bounty of new, laboratory-proven medicinal plants and compounds. It is quite difficult to test, isolate, and elucidate the structure and mechanism of compounds from the plethora of new medicinal plant uses described each year with limited laboratory time and resources and the high cost of clinical trials of new drug candidates. Methods A new quantitative theoretical framework of mathematical formulas called "relational efficacy" is proposed that should narrow down this search for new plant-derived medicines based on the hypothesis that closely related plants used to treat closely related diseases in distantly related cultures have a higher probability of being effective because they are more likely to be independent discoveries of similar plant compounds and disease mechanisms. A prerequisite to this hypothesis, the idea that empirical testing in traditional medicine will lead to choosing similar medicinal plants and therefore the medicinal flora of two distant cultures will prove to be more similar than their general flora, is tested using resampling statistics on cross-cultural field data of the plants used by the Malinké of Mali and the Asháninka of Peru to treat the diseases malaria, African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis, diabetes, eczema, asthma, and uterine fibroids. Results In this case, the similarity of the medicinal floras is found to be significantly greater than the similarity of the general floras, but only when the diseases in question are grouped into the categories of parasitic and autoimmune diseases. Conclusion If the central theoretical framework of this hypothesis is shown to be true, it will allow the synthesis of medicinal plant information from around the world to pinpoint the species with the highest potential efficacy to take into the laboratory and analyze further, ultimately saving much field and laboratory time and resources. Spanish abstract Las búsquedas que utilizan la etnomedicina y la taxonomía para descubrir nuevas plantas medicinales, pueden aumentar la probabilidad de éxito de encontrar compuestos químicos activos en plantas, en comparación con las búsquedas aleatorias. A pesar de lo anterior, en las últimas décadas, la etnobotánica no ha cumplido con las expectativas de proveer numerosas plantas medicinales y químicos nuevos una vez examinados en el laboratorio. Cada año se describen una plétora de plantas medicinales y sus usos, sin embargo las limitaciones de tiempo y recursos en los laboratorios, unidos al alto coste de los ensayos clínicos de las drogas potenciales, hacen muy difícil probar, aislar, y elucidar la estructura y el mecanismo de los compuestos de estas plantas. Se propone un nuevo marco teórico cuantitativo cuyo fin es focalizar la búsqueda de nueva plantas medicinales. Este marco teórico está basado en la hipótesis que las plantas cercanamente relacionadas, usadas para tratar enfermedades cercanamente relacionadas en culturas distantemente relacionadas, tienen una eficacia potencial más alta, debido a que es más probable que estos hallazgos sean descubrimientos independientes de compuestos químicos similares. Parte de esta hipótesis, que las escogencias racionales se hacen para elegir plantas medicinales similares y que la flora medicinal de dos culturas distantes es más similar que su flora general, se probó usando métodos estadísticos de remuestreo con datos de campo de la comunidad Malinké de Malí y de la Asháninka de Perú, y las enfermedades de paludismo, enfermedad africana del sueño, enfermedad de Chagas, leishmania, diabetes, eczema, asma, y fibromas uterinos. Se encontró, en este caso, que

  13. Una mejora del mtodo de Steffensen en espacios En este artculo se presenta una generalizacin del mtodo de Steffensen para la

    E-print Network

    Amat, Sergio

    ) + xk) - f(xk) k(f(xk) - xk) (3) donde k (0, 1] sirve de control de la calidad de la aproximación método original de Steffensen que permite controlar la calidad de la aproximación de la derivada y así

  14. Incidental Vocabulary Learning in Second Language Acquisition: A Literature Review (Aprendizaje incidental de vocabulario en la adquisición de una segunda lengua: una revisión de literatura)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restrepo Ramos, Falcon Dario

    2015-01-01

    This literature review aims to analyze previous studies that address the incidental learning of vocabulary in second language acquisition. The articles included in this literature review look into the understanding of vocabulary learning through incidental means, the relationship of reading and incidental vocabulary learning, and the strategies…

  15. Se identifica una relación entre la falta de exámenes de detección y una gran parte de los casos de cáncer de seno en la etapa avanzada

    Cancer.gov

    Los autores de un estudio publicado el 20 de octubre de 2004 en la revista Journal of the National Cancer Institute1? declaran que las dos prioridades principales del sistema de salud deben ser aumentar el porcentaje de exámenes de mamografía e invertir en investigaciones que mejoren la tecnología para detectar el cáncer de seno.

  16. El seminario consta de dos partes independientes: Una primera parte o Seminario terico con el ttulo Comprendiendo elTDA-H y una segunda

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    realizará de manera práctica, tutorizada por un profesional en ejercicio especialista en TDAH con el título.La realización de ambos,llevará a la inclu- sión en un grupo de colaboradores con formación específica enTDAH: · AnalizarlarealidaddelossujetosconTDAH,desdesuprimera infancia hasta la entrada en la edad adulta

  17. Proyecto Piloto de Producción de una Compota de Zapallo como una opción para mejorar la nutrición infantil de los niños de la ciudad de Guayaquil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny Guananga; Adriana Guerrero; Marco Tulio Mejia; Económicas ICHE

    The World Program of Foods indicates that the hunger and the nutrition bad cause infantile mortality, in the Ecuador, the rate of infantile mortality in the County of the Guayas is of 21.5%, while in the country this value increases dramatically to 27,7%. To eradicate the poverty it is necessary to take a short cut the hunger and the nutrition

  18. Artemisinin production in Artemisia annua: studies in planta and results of a novel delivery method for treating malaria and other neglected diseases

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Patrick R.; Covello, Patrick S.; McMickle, Anthony; Teoh, Keat H.; Reed, Darwin W.

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. produces the sesquiterpene lactone, artemisinin, a potent antimalarial drug that is also effective in treating other parasitic diseases, some viral infections and various neoplasms. Artemisinin is also an allelopathic herbicide that can inhibit the growth of other plants. Unfortunately, the compound is in short supply and thus, studies on its production in the plant are of interest as are low cost methods for drug delivery. Here we review our recent studies on artemisinin production in A. annua during development of the plant as it moves from the vegetative to reproductive stage (flower budding and full flower formation), in response to sugars, and in concert with the production of the ROS, hydrogen peroxide. We also provide new data from animal experiments that measured the potential of using the dried plant directly as a therapeutic. Together these results provide a synopsis of a more global view of regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua than previously available. We further suggest an alternative low cost method of drug delivery to treat malaria and other neglected tropical diseases. PMID:21643453

  19. INCIDENCE, AGRESSIVENESS AND IN PLANTA INTERACTIONS OF BOTRYTIS CINEREA ANDOTHER FILAMENTOUS FUNGI QUIESCENT IN GRAPE BERRIES AND DORMANT BUDS IN CENTRAL WASHINGTON STATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recovery of quiescent filamentous fungi from non-symptomatic grape berries and dormant buds demonstrated dominance of Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Ulocladium and other dematiaceous hyphomycetes. Up to 78% of berries contained fungi prior to harvest. Botrytis cinerea was recovered from 0...

  20. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Imaging Reveals Differential Interactions of N-Glycan Processing Enzymes across the Golgi Stack in Planta1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Schoberer, Jennifer; Liebminger, Eva; Botchway, Stanley W.; Strasser, Richard; Hawes, Chris

    2013-01-01

    N-Glycan processing is one of the most important cellular protein modifications in plants and as such is essential for plant development and defense mechanisms. The accuracy of Golgi-located processing steps is governed by the strict intra-Golgi localization of sequentially acting glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. Their differential distribution goes hand in hand with the compartmentalization of the Golgi stack into cis-, medial-, and trans-cisternae, which separate early from late processing steps. The mechanisms that direct differential enzyme concentration are still unknown, but the formation of multienzyme complexes is considered a feasible Golgi protein localization strategy. In this study, we used two-photon excitation-Förster resonance energy transfer-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy to determine the interaction of N-glycan processing enzymes with differential intra-Golgi locations. Following the coexpression of fluorescent protein-tagged amino-terminal Golgi-targeting sequences (cytoplasmic-transmembrane-stem [CTS] region) of enzyme pairs in leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana spp.), we observed that all tested cis- and medial-Golgi enzymes, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Golgi ?-mannosidase I, Nicotiana tabacum ?1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I, Arabidopsis Golgi ?-mannosidase II (GMII), and Arabidopsis ?1,2-xylosyltransferase, form homodimers and heterodimers, whereas among the late-acting enzymes Arabidopsis ?1,3-galactosyltransferase1 (GALT1), Arabidopsis ?1,4-fucosyltransferase, and Rattus norvegicus ?2,6-sialyltransferase (a nonplant Golgi marker), only GALT1 and medial-Golgi GMII were found to form a heterodimer. Furthermore, the efficiency of energy transfer indicating the formation of interactions decreased considerably in a cis-to-trans fashion. The comparative fluorescence lifetime imaging of several full-length cis- and medial-Golgi enzymes and their respective catalytic domain-deleted CTS clones further suggested that the formation of protein-protein interactions can occur through their amino-terminal CTS region. PMID:23400704

  1. Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia detection and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus described in a monotypic genus as Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The symptoms of the disease include green-spotted chloro...

  2. Proteins with High Turnover Rate in Barley Leaves Estimated by Proteome Analysis Combined with in Planta Isotope Labeling1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Clark J.; Alexova, Ralitza; Jacoby, Richard P.; Millar, A. Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Protein turnover is a key component in cellular homeostasis; however, there is little quantitative information on degradation kinetics for individual plant proteins. We have used 15N labeling of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of free amino acids and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of proteins to track the enrichment of 15N into the amino acid pools in barley leaves and then into tryptic peptides derived from newly synthesized proteins. Using information on the rate of growth of barley leaves combined with the rate of degradation of 14N-labeled proteins, we calculate the turnover rates of 508 different proteins in barley and show that they vary by more than 100-fold. There was approximately a 9-h lag from label application until 15N incorporation could be reliably quantified in extracted peptides. Using this information and assuming constant translation rates for proteins during the time course, we were able to quantify degradation rates for several proteins that exhibit half-lives on the order of hours. Our workflow, involving a stringent series of mass spectrometry filtering steps, demonstrates that 15N labeling can be used for large-scale liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry studies of protein turnover in plants. We identify a series of abundant proteins in photosynthesis, photorespiration, and specific subunits of chlorophyll biosynthesis that turn over significantly more rapidly than the average protein involved in these processes. We also highlight a series of proteins that turn over as rapidly as the well-known D1 subunit of photosystem II. While these proteins need further verification for rapid degradation in vivo, they cluster in chlorophyll and thiamine biosynthesis. PMID:25082890

  3. LOS LABORATORIOS DE ANÁLISIS DE SUELOS Y FOLIARES EN COSTA RICA: INFORME DEL COMITÉ DE LABORATORIOS DE ANÁLISIS DE SUELOS, PLANTAS Y AGUAS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Corrales; Floria Bertsch; José Antonio Bejarano

    Soil and foliar analysis laboratories in Costa Rica: a report of the Committee for Laboratories of Analysis of Soils, Plants and Waters. The characteristics and methodologies of each laboratory are described, as well as the results of the National Exchange Programs, which have been implemented among all of them for the last 6 years, and which are denominated as PINAS

  4. Seed development and maturation in early spring-flowering Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus continues post-shedding with little evidence of maturation in planta

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Rosemary J.; Hay, Fiona R.; Ellis, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Seeds of the moist temperate woodland species Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus, dispersed during spring or early summer, germinated poorly in laboratory tests. Seed development and maturation were studied to better understand the progression from developmental to germinable mode in order to improve seed collection and germination practices in these and similar species. Methods Phenology, seed mass, moisture content and ability to germinate and tolerate desiccation were monitored during seed development until shedding. Embryo elongation within seeds was investigated during seed development and under several temperature regimes after shedding. Key Results Seeds were shed at high moisture content (>59 %) with little evidence that dry mass accumulation or embryo elongation were complete. Ability to germinate developed prior to the ability of some seeds to tolerate enforced desiccation. Germination was sporadic and slow. Embryo elongation occurred post-shedding in moist environments, most rapidly at 20 °C in G. nivalis and 15 °C in N. pseudonarcissus. The greatest germination also occurred in these regimes, 78 and 48 %, respectively, after 700 d. Conclusions Seeds of G. nivalis and N. pseudonarcissus were comparatively immature at shedding and substantial embryo elongation occurred post-shedding. Seeds showed limited desiccation tolerance at dispersal. PMID:23478943

  5. Influência da quebra do fruto e tempo de imersão em água na porcentagem de emergência de plantas de coentro (coriandrum sativum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Rodrigues Leal; Eduardo Riller

    Influence of the fruit in addition and time of immersion in water in the percentage of emergency of plants of cilantro (coriandrum sativum L.) The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of the time and fruit in addition of immersion in water in the percentage of emergency of plants of cilantro. The experiment was lead in the

  6. In planta protein interactions of three alphacryptoviruses and three betacryptoviruses from White Clover, Red Clover and Dill by bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis.

    PubMed

    Lesker, Till; Maiss, Edgar

    2013-10-01

    Plant-infecting viruses of the genera Alpha- and Betacryptovirus within the family Partitiviridae cause no visible effects on their hosts and are only transmitted by cell division and through gametes. The bipartite dsRNA genome is encoding a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a coat protein (CP). Aside from sequence and structural analysis, the investigation of protein interactions is another step towards virus characterization. Therefore, ORFs of two type members White Clover Cryptic Virus 1 and 2 (WCCV-1 and WCCV-2), as well as the related viruses from Red Clover and Dill were introduced into a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. We showed CP-CP dimerization for all tested viruses with localization for alphacryptoviruses at the nuclear membrane and for betacryptoviruses close to cell walls within the cytoplasm. For CPs of WCCV-1 and WCCV-2, deletion mutants were created to determine internal interaction sites. Moreover, RdRp self-interaction was found for all viruses, whereas CP-RdRp interactions were only detectable for the alphacryptoviruses. An intra-genus test of CPs was successful in various virus combinations, whereas an inter-genus interaction of WCCV-1CP and WCCV-2CP was absent. This is the first report of in vivo protein interactions of members in the family Partitiviridae, indicating distinct features of the alpha- and betacryptoviruses. PMID:24113719

  7. In planta Protein Interactions of Three Alphacryptoviruses and Three Betacryptoviruses from White Clover, Red Clover and Dill by Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lesker, Till; Maiss, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Plant-infecting viruses of the genera Alpha- and Betacryptovirus within the family Partitiviridae cause no visible effects on their hosts and are only transmitted by cell division and through gametes. The bipartite dsRNA genome is encoding a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a coat protein (CP). Aside from sequence and structural analysis, the investigation of protein interactions is another step towards virus characterization. Therefore, ORFs of two type members White Clover Cryptic Virus 1 and 2 (WCCV-1 and WCCV-2), as well as the related viruses from Red Clover and Dill were introduced into a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. We showed CP-CP dimerization for all tested viruses with localization for alphacryptoviruses at the nuclear membrane and for betacryptoviruses close to cell walls within the cytoplasm. For CPs of WCCV-1 and WCCV-2, deletion mutants were created to determine internal interaction sites. Moreover, RdRp self-interaction was found for all viruses, whereas CP-RdRp interactions were only detectable for the alphacryptoviruses. An intra-genus test of CPs was successful in various virus combinations, whereas an inter-genus interaction of WCCV-1CP and WCCV-2CP was absent. This is the first report of in vivo protein interactions of members in the family Partitiviridae, indicating distinct features of the alpha- and betacryptoviruses. PMID:24113719

  8. Use of medicinal plants among patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in Morelos, Mexico (Uso de plantas medicinales por pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en Morelos, México)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ofelia ROMERO-CERECERO; Hortensia REYES-MORALES; Lucía AGUILAR-SANTAMARÍA; Maira HUERTA-REYES; Jaime TORTORIELLO-GARCIA

    The aim of the study was the identification of the most frequently used plants by patients with DM2 with access to public health services in Morelos, Mexico. A questionnaire was employed with 259 patients with DM2 who regularly utilize medicinal plants as a complementary therapy, and another 259 patients who only use the pharmaceutical prescription in primary-care clinics from two

  9. Tissue culture-independent In Planta Transformation s trategy: an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated gene Transfer Method to o vercome recalcitrance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Keshamma; S. Rohini; K. S. Rao; B. Madhusudhan; M. Udaya Kumar

    The major constraint in cotton improvement has been the recalcitrance of cotton varieties to tissue culture. alternate methods that avoid\\/ minimize tissue culture would be beneficial for the improvement of cotton. in this report, trans- genic cotton plants have been produced by a tissue-culture independent Agrobacterium tume- faciens - mediated transformation procedure. Agrobacterium strain lBa4404 harboring the binary vector pKiWi105

  10. Interaction of VPg-Pro of Turnip mosaic virus with the translation initiation factor 4E and the poly(A)-binding protein in planta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Leonard; Catherine Viel; Chantal Beauchemin; Nicole Daigneault; Marc G. Fortin; Jean-Francois Laliberte

    2004-01-01

    The viral protein linked to the genome (VPg) of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) interacts in vitro with the translation eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E. In the present study, we investigated the consequence of TuMV infection on eIF4E expression. Two isomers are present in plants, namely eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E. Expression of the latter was detected in both TuMV-infected and mock-inoculated Brassica

  11. Modular Domain Structure of Arabidopsis COP1. Reconstitution of Activity by Fragment Complementation and Mutational Analysis of a Nuclear Localization Signal in Planta1

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Minviluz G.; Kopp, Olga R.; Kim, Tae-Houn; von Arnim, Albrecht G.

    2000-01-01

    The Arabidopsis COP1 protein functions as a developmental regulator, in part by repressing photomorphogenesis in darkness. Using complementation of a cop1 loss-of-function allele with transgenes expressing fusions of cop1 mutant proteins and ?-glucuronidase, it was confirmed that COP1 consists of two modules, an amino terminal module conferring a basal function during development and a carboxyl terminal module conferring repression of photomorphogenesis. The amino-terminal zinc-binding domain of COP1 was indispensable for COP1 function. In contrast, the debilitating effects of site-directed mutations in the single nuclear localization signal of COP1 were partially compensated by high-level transgene expression. The carboxyl-terminal module of COP1, though unable to substantially ameliorate a cop1 loss-of-function allele on its own, was sufficient for conferring a light-quality-dependent hyperetiolation phenotype in the presence of wild-type COP1. Moreover, partial COP1 activity could be reconstituted in vivo from two non-covalently linked, complementary polypeptides that represent the two functional modules of COP1. Evidence is presented for efficient association of the two sub-fragments of the split COP1 protein in Arabidopsis and in a yeast two-hybrid assay. PMID:11080276

  12. Transient Co-Expression of Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Suppressors for Increased in Planta Expression of a Recombinant Anthrax Receptor Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Arzola, Lucas; Chen, Junxing; Rattanaporn, Kittipong; Maclean, James M.; McDonald, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Potential epidemics of infectious diseases and the constant threat of bioterrorism demand rapid, scalable, and cost-efficient manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming of tobacco plants provides an alternative for the recombinant production of therapeutics. We have developed a transient production platform that uses Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to express a novel anthrax receptor decoy protein (immunoadhesin), CMG2-Fc. This chimeric fusion protein, designed to protect against the deadly anthrax toxins, is composed of the von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of human capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2), an effective anthrax toxin receptor, and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). We evaluated, in N. benthamiana intact plants and detached leaves, the expression of CMG2-Fc under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, and the co-expression of CMG2-Fc with nine different viral suppressors of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): p1, p10, p19, p21, p24, p25, p38, 2b, and HCPro. Overall, transient CMG2-Fc expression was higher on intact plants than detached leaves. Maximum expression was observed with p1 co-expression at 3.5 days post-infiltration (DPI), with a level of 0.56 g CMG2-Fc per kg of leaf fresh weight and 1.5% of the total soluble protein, a ten-fold increase in expression when compared to absence of suppression. Co-expression with the p25 PTGS suppressor also significantly increased the CMG2-Fc expression level after just 3.5 DPI. PMID:21954339

  13. PLANTAS MEDICINAIS DE USO CASEIRO - CONHECIMENTO POPULAR E INTERESSE POR CULTIVO COMUNITÁRIO MEDICINAL PLANTS OF DOMESTIC USE - POPULAR KNOWLEDGE AND INTEREST IN A COMMUNITY GARDEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Hussein Arnous; Antonio Sousa Santos; Rosana Passos Cambraia Beinner

    With the development of technology and interest in confirming knowledge about popular medicine, medicinal plants are having its researched therapeutic value considered by the science. The evaluation of the degree of knowledge of this alternative therapeutics in a typical town of the Brazilian southeast area, shows the interest of the local population to the health promotion with the use of

  14. Species-specific ITS primers for the identification of Picoa juniperi and Picoa lefebvrei and using nested-PCR for detection of P. juniperi in planta.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Samad; Banihashemi, Zia

    2013-10-01

    Desert truffles, hypogeous Pezizales (Ascomycota), are difficult to identify due to evolutionary convergence of morphological characters among taxa that share a similar habitat and mode of spore dispersal. Also, during their symbiotic phase, these are barely distinguishable morphologically, and molecular probes are needed for their identification. We have developed a PCR-based method for the identification of Picoa juniperi and Picoa lefebvrei based on internal transcribed spacers of rDNA. Two PCR primers specific for P. lefebvrei (FLE/RLE) and two specific for P. juniperi (FJU/RJU) were designed. A collection of samples from different geographical areas representing diversity of these species were examined for unique regions of internal transcribed spacers 1, 2 and 5.8S gene of rDNA (ITS) compared to other closely related species. Annealing temperatures and extension times were optimized for each set of primers for maximum specificity and efficiency. They proved to be efficient to specifically detect the presence of P. juniperi and P. lefebvrei by PCR and neither set amplified purified DNA from other truffle species as well as some ascomycetous fungi. The partial small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes of P. juniperi were amplified with the genomic DNA extracted from Helianthemum ledifolium var. ledifolium roots by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the universal fungal primer pair ITS1/ITS4 and specific primer pair FTC/RTC, which was designed based on internal transcribed spacer 1, 2 and 5.8S gene of rDNA sequences of P juniperi. The nested-PCR was sensitive enough to re-amplify the direct-PCR product, resulting in a DNA fragment of 426 bp. The efficacy of nested-PCR showed that it could re-amplify the direct-PCR product and detect 200 fg genomic DNA. PMID:24065525

  15. Genetic modification of potato against microbial diseases: in vitro and in planta activity of a dermaseptin B1 derivative, MsrA2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Osusky; Lubica Osuska; William Kay; Santosh Misra

    2005-01-01

    Dermaseptin B1 is a potent cationic antimicrobial peptide found in skin secretions of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. A synthetic derivative of dermaseptin B1, MsrA2 (N-Met-dermaseptin B1), elicited strong antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria in vitro. To assess its potential for plant protection, MsrA2 was expressed at low levels (1–5 ?g\\/g of fresh tissue) in the transgenic potato

  16. In planta production of two peptides of the Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) E2 glycoprotein fused to the coat protein of potato virus X

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianpiero Marconi; Emidio Albertini; Pierluigi Barone; Francesca De Marchis; Chiara Lico; Carla Marusic; Domenico Rutili; Fabio Veronesi; Andrea Porceddu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classical Swine Fever (CSFV) is one of the most important viral infectious diseases affecting wild boars and domestic pigs. The etiological agent of the disease is the CSF virus, a single stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae. All preventive measures in domestic pigs have been focused in interrupting the chain of infection and in avoiding the spread

  17. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  18. Comparison of the development in planta of a pyrrolnitrin-resistant mutant of Botrytis cinerea and its sensitive wild-type parent isolate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sakhr Ajouz; Marc Bardin; Philippe C. Nicot; Mohamed El Maâtaoui

    2011-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is able to build-up resistance to pyrrolnitrin, an antibiotic produced by diverse biocontrol agents, possibly compromising\\u000a the durability of this method of disease control. The development of two near-isogenic lines of B. cinerea differing in their level of resistance to pyrrolnitrin was compared in tomato plants and on PDA medium. In tomato plants,\\u000a significant differences in the percentage

  19. EFECTO DE LA INOCULACIÓN CON Azospirillum sp. EN PLANTAS DE CHILE HABANERO (Capsicum chinense Jacquin) (EFFECT OF Azospirillum sp. INOCULATION IN HABANERO CHILE PLANTS (Capsicum chinense Jacquin))

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Morales Avelino

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY An Azospirillum strain from Cenchrus echinatus roots was isolated, and a pure culture of the strain was used as inoculum to induce root growth in Capsicum chinense seedlings. The inoculum concentration effects were evaluated on seeds germination rate, radicular system, and shoots growth. The inoculated seeds germination occurred a day before non inoculated seeds. An increase (P<0.001) in terciary,

  20. ERGONOMIA INFORMACIONAL APLICADA EM MAPA DE RISCOS E SINALIZAÇÕES EXISTENTES EM UMA PLANTA DE PROCESSAMENTO 1 INFORMATIONAL ERGONOMICS APPLIED ON RISK MAPS AND SIGNS IN A PROCESS PLANT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cássia Vanessa; Albuquerque de Melo; Raul Magalhães Cursino; Vilma Villarouco

    RESUMO: Uma situação de emergência exige um espírito de iniciativa e capacidade de ação rápida do indivíduo. Para que ele possa ter condições de tomar decisões mais rápidas e seguras, é necessário que as sinalizações transmitam mensagens de maneira que não exijam um tempo maior para compreendê-las. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a importância da ergonomia informacional no uso

  1. CHARACTERIZATION, PHYLOGENY AND IN PLANTA EXPRESSION OF A PUTATIVE LIPASE GENE FROM MALAYSIAN PERIWINKLE YELLOWS (MPY) PHYTOPLASMA, A MEMBER OF SUBGROUP 16SRI-B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work revealed gene clusters occurring as multiple, sequence-variable mosaics in the genomes of several phytoplasmas (Jomantiene and Davis. 2006. FEMS Microbiol Letters 255:59-65.) Analysis of such a region, termed genomic sequence-variable mosaic (GSVM), in the genome of MPY phytoplasma reve...

  2. Phylogenetic Analysis of Downy Mildew Pathogens of Opium Poppy and PCR-Based In Planta and Seed Detection of Peronospora arborescens.

    PubMed

    Landa, Blanca B; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Muñoz-Ledesma, Francisco J; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M

    2007-11-01

    ABSTRACT Severe downy mildew diseases of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) can be caused by Peronospora arborescens and P. cristata, but differentiating between the two pathogens is difficult because they share morphological features and a similar host range. In Spain, where severe epidemics of downy mildew of opium poppy have occurred recently, the pathogen was identified as P. arborescens on the basis of morphological traits. In this current study, sequence homology and phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were carried out with DNA from P. arborescens and P. cristata from diverse geographic origins, which suggested that only P. arborescens occurs in cultivated Papaver somniferum in Spain. Moreover, analyses of the rDNA ITS region from 27 samples of downy-mildew-affected tissues from all opium-poppy-growing regions in Spain showed that genetic diversity exists within P. arborescens populations in Spain and that these are phylogenetically distinct from P. cristata. P. cristata instead shares a more recent, common ancestor with a range of Peronospora species that includes those found on host plants that are not members of the Papaveraceae. Species-specific primers and a PCR assay protocol were developed that differentiated P. arborescens and P. cristata and proved useful for the detection of P. arborescens in symptomatic and asymptomatic opium poppy plant parts. Use of these primers demonstrated that P. arborescens can be transmitted in seeds and that commercial seed stocks collected from crops with high incidence of the disease were frequently infected. Field experiments conducted in microplots free from P. arborescens using seed stocks harvested from infected capsules further demonstrated that transmission from seedborne P. arborescens to opium poppy plants can occur. Therefore, the specific-PCR detection protocol developed in this study can be of use for epidemiological studies and diagnosing the pathogen in commercial seed stocks; thus facilitating the sanitary control of the disease and avoidance of the pathogen distribution in seeds. PMID:18943506

  3. Ultrastructural evidence of differential changes in transcription, translation, and cortical microtubules during in planta penetration of cells resistant or susceptible to rust infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. R MOULD; M. C HEATH

    1999-01-01

    Resistance to race 1 of the cowpea rust fungus (Uromyces vignae) in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants results from a resistance gene-dependent cell death process (the hypersensitive response), which involves the execution of a defined progression of cytological events. To reveal the cellular changes which occur prior to the commitment to hypersensitive cell death in resistant plants, we performed a stereological

  4. Analysis of two in planta expressed LysM effector homologs from the fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals novel functional properties and varying contributions to virulence on wheat.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Rosalind; Kombrink, Anja; Motteram, Juliet; Loza-Reyes, Elisa; Lucas, John; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Thomma, Bart P H J; Rudd, Jason J

    2011-06-01

    Secreted effector proteins enable plant pathogenic fungi to manipulate host defenses for successful infection. Mycosphaerella graminicola causes Septoria tritici blotch disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves. Leaf infection involves a long (approximately 7 d) period of symptomless intercellular colonization prior to the appearance of necrotic disease lesions. Therefore, M. graminicola is considered as a hemibiotrophic (or necrotrophic) pathogen. Here, we describe the molecular and functional characterization of M. graminicola homologs of Ecp6 (for extracellular protein 6), the Lysin (LysM) domain-containing effector from the biotrophic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaf mold fungus Cladosporium fulvum, which interferes with chitin-triggered immunity in plants. Three LysM effector homologs are present in the M. graminicola genome, referred to as Mg3LysM, Mg1LysM, and MgxLysM. Mg3LysM and Mg1LysM genes were strongly transcriptionally up-regulated specifically during symptomless leaf infection. Both proteins bind chitin; however, only Mg3LysM blocked the elicitation of chitin-induced plant defenses. In contrast to C. fulvum Ecp6, both Mg1LysM and Mg3LysM also protected fungal hyphae against plant-derived hydrolytic enzymes, and both genes show significantly more nucleotide polymorphism giving rise to nonsynonymous amino acid changes. While Mg1LysM deletion mutant strains of M. graminicola were fully pathogenic toward wheat leaves, Mg3LysM mutant strains were severely impaired in leaf colonization, did not trigger lesion formation, and were unable to undergo asexual sporulation. This virulence defect correlated with more rapid and pronounced expression of wheat defense genes during the symptomless phase of leaf colonization. These data highlight different functions for MgLysM effector homologs during plant infection, including novel activities that distinguish these proteins from C. fulvum Ecp6. PMID:21467214

  5. Investigacin Vil M., Bacher S., Hulme P., Kenis M., Kobelt M., Nentwig W., Sol D., Solarz W. 2006. Impactos ecolgicos de las invasiones de plantas y

    E-print Network

    Espigares, Tíscar

    , University of Bern, Baltzerstr. 6, CH 3012 Berna (Suiza). (sven.bacher@zos.unibe.ch) (3) NERC Centre, University of Bern, Baltzerstr. 6, CH 3012 Berna (Suiza). (manuel.kobelt@zos.unibe.ch) (6) Centre De Recerca

  6. La energía nuclear, una alternativa de sustentabilidad para resolver la demanda eléctrica en México. (Segunda parte)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Bazán-Perkins

    The pres ent en ergy pol icy causes a high risk in the econ omy of Mex ico when not pro mot ing the ex pan - sion of the ca pac ity on the gen er a tion of elec tric ity by means of alternative power plants such as geo - ther mal, ae olian, so lar, bio

  7. Per una pedagogia della comprensione interculturale (A Method for Teaching Intercultural Understanding).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Renzo

    1986-01-01

    Defines true bilingualism as biculturalism, explains what "understanding" another culture means, and describes how to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching methods for students from different cultures. Ideally, individuals learning a second language will acquire a "metacultural" consciousness that permits them to be comfortable in any cultural…

  8. [Clip Sheets from BOCES. Opportunities. Health. Careers. = Oportunidades. Salud. Una Camera En...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Geneseo. Coll. at Geneseo. Migrant Center.

    This collection of 83 clip sheets, or classroom handouts, was created to help U.S. migrants learn more about health, careers, and general "opportunities" including education programs. They are written in both English and Spanish and are presented in an easily understandable format. Health clip-sheet topics include the following: Abuse; AIDS;…

  9. INTERVENCIÓN CLÍNICA EN DEPORTE DE ALTO RENDIMIENTO: UNA EXPERIENCIA EN FÚTBOL SALA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Facultad de Psicología; Juan Carlos; López María

    2005-01-01

    After making a brief introduction reflecting about the limits between specialities inside Psychology and, specifically, between Sport Psychology and Clinical Psychology, it is exposed the clinical intervention carried out with a high-performance indoor football player with panic disorder. Next, a global description about professional indoor football in Spain is provided as the context where players must manage themselves. Finally, the

  10. Un programma per processare comandi: smallsh Il programma smallsh `e una versione semplificata della shell Unix.

    E-print Network

    Lenisa, Marina

    ; /* typo del token */ int narg; /* numero di argomenti correnti */ int type; /* FOREGROUND o BACKGROUND */ narg = 0; for(;;) /* ciclo infinito */ { switch(toktype = gettok(&arg[narg])){ case ARG: if(narg narg++; break; #12;. . . codice di procline case EOL: case SEMICOLON: case AMPERSAND: if

  11. Análisis de causas raíz. Una herramienta útil para la prevención de errores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Ruiz-López; Carmen González Rodríguez-Salinas; Juan Alcalde-Escribano

    2005-01-01

    Tools for causal analysis began to be used in industry in the 1970s in order to develop safer systems. These methods had a particular impact on the nuclear and aviation industries, among others. In the health sector, based on techniques already used in other fields, several associations have instigated well-structured methodologies for root cause analysis, inspired by the concepts developed

  12. IMPLEMENTAZIONE E VALUTAZIONE DI UNA FACCIA PARLANTE ESPRESSIVA IN UN SISTEMA DI E-TUTORING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EMANUELA MAGNO CALDOGNETTO; FEDERICA CAVICCHIO; PIERO COSI

    2005-01-01

    The role of tutoring systems and the user modelling interface are central issues on in e-learning community studies (Bevacqua et al., in press ; Berry et al., 2005; De Carolis et al., 2005). In this paper we propose a system based on a text-to-speech 3D synthesised animated face incorporating cognitive, linguistic and phonetics features (and the consequent multimodal integration of

  13. Modelación del fenómeno de vibración forzada formulando una analogía eléctrica con el programa de elementos finitos \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myriam Rocío; Pallares Muñoz; Wilson Rodríguez Calderón

    2009-01-01

    Designing mechanical systems which are submitted to vibration requires calculation methods which are very different to those u- sed in other disciplines because, when this occurs, the magnitude of the forces becomes secondary and the frequency with which the force is repeated becomes the most important aspect. It must be taken care of, given that smaller periodic forces can prompt

  14. Areas Nacionales de Estudio Ambiental: Una Guia. (National Environmental Study Area: A Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet, the Spanish version of SE 014 817, is a guide for teachers and resource managers who are interested in establishing National Environmental Study Areas (NESA) or interested in receiving NESA recognition for their on-going environmental study area programs. It outlines the characteristics and procedures of the program; the nature,…

  15. ¿Competencia o colusión en el mercado de gasolina? Una aproximación a través del parámetro de conducta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordi Perdiguero; Juan Luis Jiménez

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza la competencia en el mercado minorista de gasolinas. Para ello nos centramos en el mercado de las Islas Canarias porque ofrece dos ventajas inéditas respecto de otros mercados: la facilidad en la definición del mercado relevante (insular) y la existencia de mercados en monopolio y en oligopolio simultáneamente. Este último hecho permite estimar un modelo de variaciones

  16. Conductas alimentarias de riesgo en una muestra de 2.142 adolescentes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lidia Pamies-Aubalat; Yolanda Quiles Marcos; Miguel Bernabé Castaño

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectivesThe aim of this study was to estimate the percentage of adolescents with risk eating behaviours for developing an eating disorder (ED), analyzing the differences in gender, age and body mass index (BMI).

  17. Una nina adoptada su conducta en el jardin de infantes (An Adopted Girl's Conduct in Preschool).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscello de Mason, Marile

    1994-01-01

    Reports observations made by a preschool teacher in Argentina about a four-year-old adopted girl in her preschool. The teacher noticed problems between the girl and her adoptive mother, who tried to prevent the girl from remembering her past. The teacher particularly noticed changes in the girl's drawings. (AA)

  18. Bolivia y una preocupación constante: El indianismo, sus orígenes y limitaciones en el siglo XXI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Gamboa Rocabado

    Abstract The main objective of this essay is to track all the arguments that con- struct the doctrine called Indian thinking (indianismo). Therefore, the analysis will also be concentrated on the political implications the Indian ideology had inside the Constituent Assembly, where this doctrine denied any pos- sibility to reach a national reconciliation in Bolivia, hindering at the same time

  19. Migracions i polítiques públiques a Catalunya: una aproximació al paper dels actors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Aragall

    2007-01-01

    La presència de persones procedents d'altres països i cultures que entren a formar part de la nostra societat esdevé un dels trets característics de l'actual realitat catalana. Igual com ha succeït en altres societats de l'Europa mediterrània, aquesta nova situació de manifesta pluriculturalitat planteja nous reptes i noves demandes socials i institucionals. Un dels més interessants és, precisament, la incorporació

  20. Economía política neoclásica y la América Latina. Una mirada a la bibliografía

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio A Bonilla; Leonardo A. Gatica

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginning of the economic science, politics and economics have been closely related. The study of the interaction between these two fields has originated what we know today as political economy. However, political economy is a broad field that includes a wide range of school of thought that it would be impossible to discuss in one article. The present